Sample records for river channel modifications

  1. Summary of studies supporting cumulative effects analysis of upper Yellowstone River channel modifications (United States)

    Auble, Gregor T.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Bovee, Ken D.; Farmer, Adrian H.; Sexton, Natalie R.; Waddle, Terry J.


    During the last several decades, portions of the upper Yellowstone River have been modified for flood control and erosion prevention. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for administration of a permit program for evaluating construction activities affecting rivers, streams, and wetlands. The Corps regulates activities under the authority of Section 10 of the Rivers and Harbors Act and Section 404 of the Clean Water Act. Since assumption of jurisdiction in the mid-1970’s, the Corps has processed a total of 156 permit actions for the upper Yellowstone River. Over two-thirds of the permit actions occurred during or after two consecutive large floods during 1996 and 1997. In response to concern regarding the potential environmental and ecological consequences of channel modification, the Corps, in conjunction with State and local government agencies, initiated a series of scientific studies to better understand the effects of channel modification in the upper Yellowstone River (Figure 1). These included preparation of wetland and riparian inventory maps (Bon, 2001); hydraulic modeling and flood-plain delineation; watershed land-cover assessment (Pick and Potter, 2003); historic bottomland use analysis (Brelsford and others, 2003); analysis of channel modification effects on fish habitat (Bowen and others, 2003); comparison of juvenile salmonid use of modified and unmodified habitats (Zale and Rider, 2003); analysis of riparian vegetation and flood-plain turnover (Merigliano and Polzin, 2003); study of the relations between riparian habitat and bird communities (Hansen and others, 2003); analyses of geomorphology and historical channel changes (Dalby and Robinson, 2003); socioeconomic assessment (BBC Research and Consulting, 2002); and sediment transport investigations and modeling (Holnbeck, 2003).

  2. Posttranslational Modification of Sodium Channels. (United States)

    Pei, Zifan; Pan, Yanling; Cummins, Theodore R


    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are critical determinants of excitability. The properties of VGSCs are thought to be tightly controlled. However, VGSCs are also subjected to extensive modifications. Multiple posttranslational modifications that covalently modify VGSCs in neurons and muscle have been identified. These include, but are not limited to, phosphorylation, ubiquitination, palmitoylation, nitrosylation, glycosylation, and SUMOylation. Posttranslational modifications of VGSCs can have profound impact on cellular excitability, contributing to normal and abnormal physiology. Despite four decades of research, the complexity of VGSC modulation is still being determined. While some modifications have similar effects on the various VGSC isoforms, others have isoform-specific interactions. In addition, while much has been learned about how individual modifications can impact VGSC function, there is still more to be learned about how different modifications can interact. Here we review what is known about VGSC posttranslational modifications with a focus on the breadth and complexity of the regulatory mechanisms that impact VGSC properties.

  3. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Modeling and Analysis of the Proposed Channel Modifications and Grade Control Structure on the Blue River near Byram's Ford Industrial Park, Kansas City, Missouri (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.


    The Blue River Channel Modification project being implemented by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is intended to provide flood protection within the Blue River valley in the Kansas City, Mo., metropolitan area. In the latest phase of the project, concerns have arisen about preserving the Civil War historic area of Byram's Ford and the associated Big Blue Battlefield while providing flood protection for the Byram's Ford Industrial Park. In 1996, the USACE used a physical model built at the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) in Vicksburg, Miss., to examine the feasibility of a proposed grade control structure (GCS) that would be placed downstream from the historic river crossing of Byram's Ford to provide a subtle transition of flow from the natural channel to the modified channel. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USACE, modified an existing two-dimensional finite element surface-water model of the river between 63d Street and Blue Parkway (the 'original model'), used the modified model to simulate the existing (as of 2006) unimproved channel and the proposed channel modifications and GCS, and analyzed the results from the simulations and those from the WES physical model. Modifications were made to the original model to create a model that represents existing (2006) conditions between the north end of Swope Park immediately upstream from 63d Street and the upstream limit of channel improvement on the Blue River (the 'model of existing conditions'). The model of existing conditions was calibrated to two measured floods. The model of existing conditions also was modified to create a model that represents conditions along the same reach of the Blue River with proposed channel modifications and the proposed GCS (the 'model of proposed conditions'). The models of existing conditions and proposed conditions were used to simulate the 30-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence floods. The discharge from the calibration flood of May 15, 1990, also

  4. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels (United States)

    Voolstra, Olaf; Huber, Armin


    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role. PMID:24717323

  5. Post-Translational Modifications of TRP Channels

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    Olaf Voolstra


    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential (TRP channels constitute an ancient family of cation channels that have been found in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to human. TRP channels exert a multitude of physiological functions ranging from Ca2+ homeostasis in the kidney to pain reception and vision. These channels are activated by a wide range of stimuli and undergo covalent post-translational modifications that affect and modulate their subcellular targeting, their biophysical properties, or channel gating. These modifications include N-linked glycosylation, protein phosphorylation, and covalent attachment of chemicals that reversibly bind to specific cysteine residues. The latter modification represents an unusual activation mechanism of ligand-gated ion channels that is in contrast to the lock-and-key paradigm of receptor activation by its agonists. In this review, we summarize the post-translational modifications identified on TRP channels and, when available, explain their physiological role.

  6. Similarities between rivers and submarine channels (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    Scientists have long known that the width and depth of rivers follows a power law relationship with discharge. They have also noticed that submarine channels appear to be similar to terrestrial rivers, but there have not been many systematic comparisons of the relationships between submarine channel morphology and discharge. Konsoer et al. compared the width, depth, and slope of 177 submarine channels to those of 231 river cross sections. They found that submarine channels are up to an order of magnitude wider and deeper than the largest terrestrial rivers, but they exhibit a similar power law relationship between width and depth. For submarine channels that were similar in size to rivers, the authors found that submarine channels tend to be 1 to 2 orders of magnitude steeper than rivers. The authors also inferred values for sediment concentration in the turbidity currents in the channels and combined this with estimated mean flow velocities to look for a relationship between discharge and morphology in the channels. They found that like rivers, the width and depth of the submarine channels follow a power law scaling with discharge. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface, doi:10.1029/2012JF002422, 2013)

  7. Quantifying habitat benefits of channel reconfigurations on a highly regulated river system, Lower Missouri River, USA (United States)

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.


    We present a quantitative analysis of habitat availability in a highly regulated lowland river, comparing a restored reach with two reference reaches: an un-restored, channelized reach, and a least-altered reach. We evaluate the effects of channel modifications in terms of distributions of depth and velocity as well as distributions and availability of habitats thought to be supportive of an endangered fish, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). It has been hypothesized that hydraulic conditions that support food production and foraging may limit growth and survival of juvenile pallid sturgeon. To evaluate conditions that support these habitats, we constructed two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the three study reaches, two located in the Lower Missouri River (channelized and restored reaches) and one in the Yellowstone River (least-altered reach). Comparability among the reaches was improved by scaling by bankfull discharge and bankfull channel area. The analysis shows that construction of side-channel chutes and increased floodplain connectivity increase the availability of foraging habitat, resulting in a system that is more similar to the reference reach on the Yellowstone River. The availability of food-producing habitat is low in all reaches at flows less than bankfull, but the two reaches in the Lower Missouri Riverchannelized and restored – display a threshold-like response as flows overtop channel banks, reflecting the persistent effects of channelization on hydraulics in the main channel. These high lateral gradients result in punctuated ecological events corresponding to flows in excess of bankfull discharge. This threshold effect in the restored reach remains distinct from that of the least-altered reference reach, where hydraulic changes are less abrupt and overbank flows more gradually inundate the adjacent floodplain. The habitat curves observed in the reference reach on the Yellowstone River may not be attainable within the

  8. The human role in changing river channels (United States)

    Gregory, K. J.


    Direct consequences of the human role, where human activity affects river channels through engineering works including channelization, dam construction, diversion and culverting, have been long recognised [Marsh, G.P., 1864. Man and Nature or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action. Charles Scribner, New York; Thomas Jr., W.L., (ed.) 1956. Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.]. The less obvious indirect effects of point and reach changes occurring downstream and throughout the basin, however, are much more recently appreciated, dating from key contributions by Strahler [Strahler, A.N., 1956. The nature of induced erosion and aggradation. In W. L. Thomas (Ed.), Man's Role in Changing the Face of the Earth. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 621-638.], Wolman [Wolman, M.G., 1967. A cycle of sedimentation and erosion in urban river channels. Geografiska Annaler 49A, 385-95.], Schumm [Schumm, S.A., 1969. River metamorphosis. Proceedings American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal Hydraulics Division 95, 255-73.], and Graf [Graf, W.L., 1977. The rate law in fluvial geomorphology. American Journal of Science, 277, 178-191.]. These are complemented by effects of alterations of land use, such as deforestation, intensive agriculture and incidence of fire, with the most extreme effects produced by building activity and urbanisation. Changing river channels are most evident in the channel cross-section where changes of size, shape and composition are now well-established, with up to tenfold increases or decreases illustrated by results from more than 200 world studies. In addition the overall channel planform, the network and the ecology have changed. Specific terms have become associated with changing river channels including enlargement, shrinkage and metamorphosis. Although the scope of adjustment has been established, it has not always been possible to predict what will happen in a particular location

  9. River channel patterns: Braided, meandering, and straight (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Wolman, M. Gordon


    Channel pattern is used to describe the plan view of a reach of river as seen from an airplane, and includes meandering, braiding, or relatively straight channels.Natural channels characteristically exhibit alternating pools or deep reaches and riffles or shallow reaches, regardless of the type of pattern. The length of the pool or distance between riffles in a straight channel equals the straight line distance between successive points of inflection in the wave pattern of a meandering river of the same width. The points of inflection are also shallow points and correspond to riffles in the straight channel. This distance, which is half the wavelength of the meander, varies approximately as a linear function of channel width. In the data we analysed the meander wavelength, or twice the distance between successive riffles, is from 7 to 12 times the channel width. It is concluded that the mechanics which may lead to meandering operate in straight channels.River braiding is characterized by channel division around alluvial islands. The growth of an island begins as the deposition of a central bar which results from sorting and deposition of the coarser fractions of the load which locally cannot be transported. The bar grows downstream and in height by continued deposition on its surface, forcing the water into the flanking channels, which, to carry the flow, deepen and cut laterally into the original banks. Such deepening locally lowers the water surface and the central bar emerges as an island which becomes stabilized by vegetation. Braiding was observed in a small river in a laboratory. Measurements of the adjustments of velocity, depth, width, and slope associated with island development lead to the conclusion that braiding is one of the many patterns which can maintain quasi-equilibrium among discharge, load, and transporting ability. Braiding does not necessarily indicate an excess of total load.Channel cross section and pattern are ultimately controlled by the

  10. Channel Planform Dynamics Monitoring and Channel Stability Assessment in Two Sediment-Rich Rivers in Taiwan

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    Cheng-Wei Kuo


    Full Text Available Recurrent flood events induced by typhoons are powerful agents to modify channel morphology in Taiwan’s rivers. Frequent channel migrations reflect highly sensitive valley floors and increase the risk to infrastructure and residents along rivers. Therefore, monitoring channel planforms is essential for analyzing channel stability as well as improving river management. This study analyzed annual channel changes along two sediment-rich rivers, the Zhuoshui River and the Gaoping River, from 2008 to 2015 based on satellite images of FORMOSAT-2. Channel areas were digitized from mid-catchment to river mouth (~90 km. Channel stability for reaches was assessed through analyzing the changes of river indices including braid index, active channel width, and channel activity. In general, the valley width plays a key role in braided degree, active channel width, and channel activity. These indices increase as the valley width expands whereas the braid index decreases slightly close to the river mouth due to the change of river types. This downstream pattern in the Zhuoshui River was interrupted by hydraulic construction which resulted in limited changes downstream from the weir, due to the lack of water and sediment supply. A 200-year flood, Typhoon Morakot in 2009, induced significant changes in the two rivers. The highly active landscape in Taiwan results in very sensitive channels compared to other regions. An integrated Sensitivity Index was proposed for identifying unstable reaches, which could be a useful reference for river authorities when making priorities in river regulation strategy. This study shows that satellite image monitoring coupled with river indices analysis could be an effective tool to evaluate spatial and temporal changes in channel stability in highly dynamic river systems.

  11. Activation of Drosophila Sodium Channels Promotes Modification by Deltamethrin (United States)

    Vais, Horia; Williamson, Martin S.; Goodson, Susannah J.; Devonshire, Alan L.; Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Usherwood, Peter N.R.; Cohen, Charles J.


    kdr and super-kdr are mutations in houseflies and other insects that confer 30- and 500-fold resistance to the pyrethroid deltamethrin. They correspond to single (L1014F) and double (L1014F+M918T) mutations in segment IIS6 and linker II(S4–S5) of Na channels. We expressed Drosophila para Na channels with and without these mutations and characterized their modification by deltamethrin. All wild-type channels can be modified by Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation. The mutations reduce channel opening by enhancing closed-state inactivation. In addition, these mutations reduce the affinity for open channels by 20- and 100-fold, respectively. Deltamethrin inhibits channel closing and the mutations reduce the time that channels remain open once drug has bound. The super-kdr mutations effectively reduce the number of deltamethrin binding sites per channel from two to one. Thus, the mutations reduce both the potency and efficacy of insecticide action. PMID:10694259

  12. Comparative use of side and main channels by small-bodied fish in a large, unimpounded river (United States)

    Reinhold, Ann Marie; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.; Roberts, David W.; Poole, Geoffrey C.


    Ecological theory and field studies suggest that lateral floodplain connectivity and habitat heterogeneity provided by side channels impart favourable habitat conditions for lotic fishes, especially fluvial fishes dependent on large patches of shallow, slow velocity habitats for some portion of their life cycle. However, anthropogenic modification of large, temperate floodplain rivers has led to extensive channel simplification and side-channel loss. Highly modified rivers consist of simplified channels in contracted, less dynamic floodplains.Most research examining the seasonal importance of side channels for fish assemblages in large rivers has been carried out in heavily modified rivers, where side-channel extents are substantially reduced from pre-settlement times, and has often overlooked small-bodied fishes. Inferences about the ecological importance of side channels for small-bodied fishes in large rivers can be ascertained only from investigations of large rivers with largely intact floodplains. The Yellowstone River, our study area, is a rare example of one such river.We targeted small-bodied fishes and compared their habitat use in side and main channels in two geomorphically distinct types of river bends during early and late snowmelt runoff, and autumn base flow. Species compositions of side and main channels differed throughout hydroperiods concurrent with the seasonal redistribution of the availability of shallow, slow current-velocity habitats. More species of fish used side channels than main channels during runoff. Additionally, catch rates of small fishes were generally greater in side channels than in main channels and quantitative assemblage compositions differed between channel types during runoff, but not during base flow. Presence of and access to diverse habitats facilitated the development and persistence of diverse fish assemblages in our study area.Physical dissimilarities between side and main channels may have differentially structured

  13. Laboratory rivers: Lacey's law, threshold theory, and channel stability


    Métivier, F.; Lajeunesse, E.; Devauchelle, O.


    International audience; More than a century of experiments have demonstrated that many features of natural rivers can be reproduced in the laboratory. Here, we revisit some of these experiments to cast their results into the framework of the threshold-channel theory developed by Glover and Florey (1951). In all the experiments we analyze, the typical size of the channel conforms to this theory, regardless of the river's planform (single-thread or braiding). In that respect, laboratory rivers ...

  14. The equilibrium theory of channel morphodynamics and its application to assessing the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (United States)

    Nanson, G.; Huang, H. Q.


    Alluvial channel form-adjustment can be explained with the basic flow relationships of continuity, resistance and sediment transport. In the case where a river has excess energy leading to instability, dynamic equilibrium is achieved by changes in channel pattern and the achievement of two possible forms of channel geometry; one wide and shallow and the other narrow and deep. When the energy of a river is the minimum required to transport an imposed sediment load, a special equilibrium condition is reached within a single channel and this is termed stationary (or stable) equilibrium. This can be determined by the condition of either maximum sediment transport capacity or minimum energy slope (Huang, Nanson and co-workers). Stationary equilibrium theory of alluvial river-channel form adjustment has a sound physical basis within the context of the least action principle, however, its application to a large natural river system has not yet been assessed. The Yangtze (Changjiang) River is the longest in China and its middle and lower reaches are alluvial so are capable of adjusting their channel morphology to achieve equilibrium. Observations have shown that although the river periodically deposits and scours its bed, there has been no significant long term sediment deposition or channel incision; so it is essentially in dynamic equilibrium. To examine if the stationary equilibrium theory of river channel-form adjustment can be applied to these reaches of the river, we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the downstream variation of equilibrium channel geometry. Because there has been no universally accepted bedload transport formula, four different expressions of the Meyer-Peter and Müller formula are deployed, including the original developed by Meyer-Peter and Müller in 1948, and three recent modifications by Wong and Parker and by Huang. A comparison of the theoretically derived equilibrium channel geometry with the measurements of bankfull channel geometry

  15. Relationships between recent channel adjustments, present morphological state and river corridor vegetation in the Fortore River (southern Italy) (United States)

    Rosskopf, Carmen Maria; Scorpio, Vittoria; Calabrese, Valentina; Frate, Ludovico; Loy, Anna; Stanisci, Angela


    The Fortore River, as many other rivers in Italy, has experienced huge channel adjustments during the last 60 years that were mainly caused by anthropic interventions, especially in-channel mining and the closure of the Occhito dam in 1966. Such changes deeply modified extension and morphological characteristics of the river corridor and, consequently, also its ecological features. The present study aims to better understand the relationships between channel adjustments and river corridor vegetation changes and those between morphological features and environmental quality of the present-day river corridor. The study has been carried out by means of a multi-temporal GIS analysis of topographic maps and aerial photographs integrated with topographic, geomorphological and ecological field surveys. Results highlight that channel adjustments occurred through two distinct phases. Most of the channel changes occurred from the 1950s until the end of the 1990s (phase 1) and led to an overall channel narrowing (from 81 to 96%) and channel bed lowering (1-4 m). These changes were accompanied by pattern shifts from multithread to single-thread configurations. The reaches located downstream of the Occhito dam were affected by more intense modifications, especially channel narrowing, with respect to upstream reaches. From 2000 to 2016 (phase 2), a trend inversion occurred. Downstream reaches remained essentially stable, while upstream reaches were affected even by some channel widening and bed aggradation and slight increase of the extension of floodplain areas giving more space to the potential development of the riparian vegetation. The evolution and the present geomorphological conditions of the river corridor are also reflected by the state of the riparian vegetation. Upstream reaches are characterized by a higher richness in riparian vegetation types and vegetation cover with respect to downstream reaches. Best conditions occur especially in the upper Fortore valley. In

  16. 33 CFR 117.751 - Shark River (South Channel). (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shark River (South Channel). 117.751 Section 117.751 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.751 Shark River (South...

  17. Analysis of Sedimentation Rates in the Densu River Channel: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment is important in determining the morphology of river systems. The Densu basin has come under intense anthropogenic activities such as farming, sand winning, bushfires, among others, which are impacting on the fluvial processes, forms and channel morphology of the river. The study investigated sedimentation of ...

  18. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project Rock Removal Blasting: Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.


    This document provides a monitoring plan to evaluate take as outlined in the National Marine Fisheries Service 2002 Biological Opinion for underwater blasting to remove rock from the navigation channel for the Columbia River Channel Improvement Project. The plan was prepared by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), Portland District.

  19. 33 CFR 117.631 - Detroit River (Trenton Channel). (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detroit River (Trenton Channel). 117.631 Section 117.631 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Channel). (a) The draw of the Grosse Ile Toll bridge (Bridge Road), mile 8.8, at Grosse Ile, shall operate...

  20. 33 CFR 117.953 - Brazos River (Diversion Channel). (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brazos River (Diversion Channel). 117.953 Section 117.953 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Channel). (a) The draw of the S36 highway bridge, mile 4.4 at Freeport, shall open on signal if at least...

  1. Functional modifications of acid-sensing ion channels by ligand-gated chloride channels.

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    Xuanmao Chen

    Full Text Available Together, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs and epithelial sodium channels (ENaC constitute the majority of voltage-independent sodium channels in mammals. ENaC is regulated by a chloride channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. Here we show that ASICs were reversibly inhibited by activation of GABA(A receptors in murine hippocampal neurons. This inhibition of ASICs required opening of the chloride channels but occurred with both outward and inward GABA(A receptor-mediated currents. Moreover, activation of the GABA(A receptors modified the pharmacological features and kinetic properties of the ASIC currents, including the time course of activation, desensitization and deactivation. Modification of ASICs by open GABA(A receptors was also observed in both nucleated patches and outside-out patches excised from hippocampal neurons. Interestingly, ASICs and GABA(A receptors interacted to regulate synaptic plasticity in CA1 hippocampal slices. The activation of glycine receptors, which are similar to GABA(A receptors, also modified ASICs in spinal neurons. We conclude that GABA(A receptors and glycine receptors modify ASICs in neurons through mechanisms that require the opening of chloride channels.

  2. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2000 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  3. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2009 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  4. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2005 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  5. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1994 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  6. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1939 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  7. Predictive techniques for river channel evolution and maintenance (United States)

    Nelson, J.M.


    Predicting changes in alluvial channel morphology associated with anthropogenic and natural changes in flow and/or sediment supply is a critical part of the management of riverine systems. Over the past few years, advances in the understanding of the physics of sediment transport in conjunction with rapidly increasing capabilities in computational fluid dynamics have yielded now approaches to problems in river mechanics. Techniques appropriate for length scales ranging from reaches to bars and bedforms are described here. Examples of the use of these computational approaches are discussed for three cases: (1) the design of diversion scenarios that maintain channel morphology in steep cobble-bedded channels in Colorado, (2) determination of channel maintenance flows for the preservation of channel islands in the Snake River in Idaho, and (3) prediction of the temporal evolution of deposits in lateral separation zones for future assessment of the impacts of various dam release scenarios on lateral separation deposits in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. With continued development of their scientific and technical components, the methodologies described here can provide powerful tools for the management of river environments in the future.

  8. Record of recent river channel instability, Cheakamus Valley, British Columbia (United States)

    Clague, John J.; Turner, Robert J. W.; Reyes, Alberto V.


    Rivers flowing from glacier-clad Quaternary volcanoes in southwestern British Columbia have high sediment loads and anabranching and braided planforms. Their floodplains aggrade in response to recurrent large landslides on the volcanoes and to advance of glaciers during periods of climate cooling. In this paper, we document channel instability and aggradation during the last 200 years in lower Cheakamus River valley. Cheakamus River derives much of its flow and nearly all of its sediment from the Mount Garibaldi massif, which includes a number of volcanic centres dominated by Mount Garibaldi volcano. Stratigraphic analysis and radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating of recent floodplain sediments at North Vancouver Outdoor School in Cheakamus Valley show that Cheakamus River aggraded its floodplain about 1-2 m and buried a valley-floor forest in the early or mid 1800s. The aggradation was probably caused by a large (ca. 15-25×10 6 m 3) landslide from the flank of Mount Garibaldi, 15 km north of our study site, in 1855 or 1856. Examination of historical aerial photographs dating back to 1947 indicates that channel instability triggered by this event persisted until the river was dyked in the late 1950s. Our observations are consistent with data from many other mountain areas that suggest rivers with large, but highly variable sediment loads may rapidly aggrade their floodplains following a large spike in sediment supply. Channel instability may persist for decades to centuries after the triggering event.

  9. Documenting Temporal Changes in Channel Geometry of the Buffalo RiverResulting from a Large-Scale Environmental Dredging Project (United States)

    Singer, J.; Bajo, J. V.; Pfender, K.; Luther, B.


    The Buffalo River is classified as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to loss of habitat, poor water quality, and contaminated bottom sediments. Much attention is being paid to restoring the environmental health of the river with the goal to address the environmental impairments and de-list the river. In support of this effort, an environmental dredging project taking place between 2011 and 2015 removed over 1 million cubic yards of highly contaminated sediment. To support this project, sounding surveys were conducted before, during, and after removal of sediment to determine the amount of sediment to be removed from different 'dredge cells' in the river. These digital data, available upon request from the United States Army Corps of Engineers and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, are being used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) using ArcGIS 10.3.1. The DEMs are compared to show channel topography and generate cross sectional profiles. Findings show channel deepening of several meters along with channel widening >10m in some dredged portions of the river. Other areas show decrease in depth and suggest local slumping and redeposition of dredged sediment. The sounding data available throughout the stages of the environmental dredging project support an improved understanding of the temporal changes to Buffalo River's channel resulting from the dredging project. The findings also advance our fundamental understanding about the response by rivers to channel modifications.

  10. Anabranching Channel Patterns: the Kingdom of Large Alluvial Rivers (United States)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo


    For a long time anabranching patterns were primarily restricted to "exotic and remote" zones in arid systems such as Australia. For that reason, they were not accepted as a major topic of discussion in our discipline, which was based on concepts principally derived from case studies in braided and meandering rivers of the Northern Hemisphere. However, anabranching alluvial patterns are widespread in a variety of environments and scales, from arid small rivers to alluvial reaches of giant rivers such as the Amazon, Congo, and Negro. The largest rivers of the world in water discharge are anabranching, and the majority of the forty-five largest rivers (water discharges >5000m3s-1) are dominantly anabranching systems. Only a small number of rivers with meandering patterns, or sinuous with branches (meandering-tendency to anabranch) are part of the largest rivers group. The present large anabranching rivers flowing on lowlands and well developed floodplains have in common a characteristic very slow slopes, specific stream power of styles are not specifically related to a single explanatory "physically based theory" but to a variety of morphological processes, complex-channel floodplain interactions and the geologic characteristics of the valleys. Once considered a kind of oddity, anabranching rivers must be considered major and fundamental representatives of the fluvial world.

  11. Channel degradation and restoration of an Alpine river and related morphological changes (United States)

    Campana, Daniela; Marchese, Enrico; Theule, Joshua I.; Comiti, Francesco


    River degradation and thus necessity for restoration are major issues worldwide. However, adequate methodologies to assess morphological variations linked to these actions and the morphological success of restoration interventions are still to be determined. The Ahr River (South Tyrol, Italian Alps) was characterized until the mid-twentieth century by an anabranching and meandering pattern, but starting from the 1960s it underwent intense channel degradation in terms of narrowing, incision, and floodplain disconnection. In the period 2003-2011, several reaches of the Ahr River were restored by widening and raising the channel bed. The planimetric changes that occurred historically in the Ahr River were determined by the interpretation of 10 maps and aerial photos covering the period 1820-2011. The estimation of the incision that occurred during the degradation phase was assessed by the difference in elevation between gravel surfaces, whereas the changes introduced by restoration interventions in two reaches were evaluated through the comparison of topographic cross sections surveyed in year 2000 and a high-resolution bathymetric LiDAR survey flown in late 2012. The MQI (Morphological Quality Index) was applied to different reaches in order to test how assessment methodologies respond to degradation and restoration actions. The combined analysis of planform and vertical changes indicates that gravel mining has been the largest pressure for the river, but a change in sediment/flow regimes probably led to the channel adjustments that occurred during the early twentieth century. The restoration measures have locally increased channel width, elevation, and morphometrical diversity compared to the unrestored reaches, as well as the morphological quality assessed by MQI. However, the extent of the modifications brought about by restoration works differs between the two restored reaches, pointing out the need for a quantitative analysis of the historical evolution of each

  12. Human activities impact on mountain river channels (case study of Kamchatka peninsula rivers) (United States)

    Ermakova, Aleksandra S.


    Human-induced driving factors along with natural environmental changes greatly impact on fluvial regime of rivers. On mountain and semi-mountain territories these processes are developed in the most complicated manner due to man-made activities diversity throughout river basins. Besides these processes are significantly enhanced because of the disastrous natural processes (like volcanic and mud-flow activity) frequent occurrences in mountainous regions. On of the most striking example on the matter is Kamchatka peninsula which is located at the North-West part of Russian Federation. This paper contributes to the study of human activities impact on fluvial systems in this volcanic mountain region. Human effects on rivers directly alter channel morphology and deformations, dynamics of water and sediment movement, aquatic communities or indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water and sediment into the channel. In case study of Kamchatka peninsula human activities affect fluvial systems through engineering works including construction of bridges, dams and channel diversions and placer mining. These processes are characterized by spatial heterogeneity because of irregular population distribution. Due to specific natural conditions of the peninsula the most populated areas are the valleys of big rivers (rivers Kamchatka, Avacha, Bistraya (Bolshaya), etc) within piedmont and plain regions. These rivers are characterized by very unstable channels. Both with man-made activities this determines wide range of fluvial system changes. Firstly bridges construction leads to island and logjam formation directly near their piers and intensification of channels patterns shifts. Furthermore rivers of the peninsula are distinguished for high water flow velocities and water rate. Incorrect bridge constructions both with significant channel deformations lead to the destructions of the bridges themselves due to intensive bank erosion. Secondly, intensive water flow

  13. The Planform Mobility of Large River Channel Confluences (United States)

    Sambrook Smith, Greg; Dixon, Simon; Nicholas, Andrew; Bull, Jon; Vardy, Mark; Best, James; Goodbred, Steven; Sarker, Maminul


    Large river confluences are widely acknowledged as exerting a controlling influence upon both upstream and downstream morphology and thus channel planform evolution. Despite their importance, little is known concerning their longer-term evolution and planform morphodynamics, with much of the literature focusing on confluences as representing fixed, nodal points in the fluvial network. In contrast, some studies of large sand bed rivers in India and Bangladesh have shown large river confluences can be highly mobile, although the extent to which this is representative of large confluences around the world is unknown. Confluences have also been shown to generate substantial bed scours, and if the confluence location is mobile these scours could 'comb' across wide areas. This paper presents field data of large confluences morphologies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river basin, illustrating the spatial extent of large river bed scours and showing scour depth can extend below base level, enhancing long term preservation potential. Based on a global review of the planform of large river confluences using Landsat imagery from 1972 to 2014 this study demonstrates such scour features can be highly mobile and there is an array of confluence morphodynamic types: from freely migrating confluences, through confluences migrating on decadal timescales to fixed confluences. Based on this analysis, a conceptual model of large river confluence types is proposed, which shows large river confluences can be sites of extensive bank erosion and avulsion, creating substantial management challenges. We quantify the abundance of mobile confluence types by classifying all large confluences in both the Amazon and Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basins, showing these two large rivers have contrasting confluence morphodynamics. We show large river confluences have multiple scales of planform adjustment with important implications for river management, infrastructure and interpretation of the rock

  14. 76 FR 11679 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Belmar, NJ (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Belmar... operation of the S71 Bridge across Shark River (South Channel), mile 0.8, at Belmar, NJ. The deviation is... INFORMATION: The S71 Bridge, a bascule lift drawbridge, across Shark River (South Channel), at mile 0.8, in...

  15. River channel's predisposition to ice jams: a geospatial model (United States)

    De Munck, S.; Gauthier, Y.; Bernier, M.; Légaré, S.


    When dynamic breakup occurs on rivers, ice moving downstream may eventually stop at an obstacle when the volume of moving ice exceeds the transport capacity of the river, resulting into an ice jam. The suddenness and unpredictability of these ice jams are a constant danger to local population. Therefore forecasting methods are necessary to provide an early warning to these population. Nonetheless the morphological and hydrological factors controlling where and how the ice will jam are numerous and complex. Existing studies which exist on this topic are highly site specific. Therefore, the goal of this work is to develop a simplified geospatial model that would estimate the predisposition of any river channel to ice jams. The question here is not to predict when the ice will break up but rather to know where the released ice would be susceptible to jam. This paper presents the developments and preliminary results of the proposed approach. The initial step was to document the main factors identified in the literature, as potential cause for an ice jam. First, several main factors identified in the literature as potential cause for an ice jam have been selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, sinuosity, presence of a bridge, confluence of rivers and slope break. The second step was to spatially represent, in 2D, the physical characteristics of the channel and to translate these characteristics into potential ice jamming factors. The Chaudiere River, south of Quebec City (Canada), was chosen as a test site. Tools from the GIS-based FRAZIL system have been used to generate these factors from readily available geospatial data and calcutate an "ice jam predisposition index" over regular-spaced segments along the entire channel. The resulting map was validated upon historical observations and local knowledge, collected in relationship with the Minister of Public Security.

  16. Sediment supply controls equilibrium channel geometry in gravel rivers. (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Allison M; Finnegan, Noah J; Willenbring, Jane K


    In many gravel-bedded rivers, floods that fill the channel banks create just enough shear stress to move the median-sized gravel particles on the bed surface (D50). Because this observation is common and is supported by theory, the coincidence of bankfull flow and the incipient motion of D50 has become a commonly used assumption. However, not all natural gravel channels actually conform to this simple relationship; some channels maintain bankfull stresses far in excess of the critical stress required to initiate sediment transport. We use a database of >300 gravel-bedded rivers and >600 10Be-derived erosion rates from across North America to explore the hypothesis that sediment supply drives the magnitude of bankfull shear stress relative to the critical stress required to mobilize the median bed surface grain size ([Formula: see text]). We find that [Formula: see text] is significantly higher in West Coast river reaches (2.35, n = 96) than in river reaches elsewhere on the continent (1.03, n = 245). This pattern parallels patterns in erosion rates (and hence sediment supplies). Supporting our hypothesis, we find a significant correlation between upstream erosion rate and local [Formula: see text] at sites where this comparison is possible. Our analysis reveals a decrease in bed surface armoring with increasing [Formula: see text], suggesting channels accommodate changes in sediment supply through adjustments in bed surface grain size, as also shown through numerical modeling. Our findings demonstrate that sediment supply is encoded in the bankfull hydraulic geometry of gravel bedded channels through its control on bed surface grain size.

  17. 75 FR 18755 - Security Zone; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, LA (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, LA..., LA. The Coast Guard is also disestablishing the Calcasieu River ship channel moving safety zone and replacing it with a moving security zone. The revised moving security zone extends channel edge to channel...

  18. 78 FR 20849 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events, Potomac River; National Harbor Access Channel, MD (United States)


    ...; National Harbor Access Channel, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY... Potomac River federal navigation channel and the National Harbor Access Channel. C. Discussion of Proposed... Harbor Access Channel and includes the waters of the Potomac River, from shoreline to shoreline, bounded...

  19. Effects of slope smoothing in river channel modeling (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmin; Liu, Frank; Hodges, Ben R.


    In extending dynamic river modeling with the 1D Saint-Venant equations from a single reach to a large watershed there are critical questions as to how much bathymetric knowledge is necessary and how it should be represented parsimoniously. The ideal model will include the detail necessary to provide realism, but not include extraneous detail that should not exert a control on a 1D (cross-section averaged) solution. In a Saint-Venant model, the overall complexity of the river channel morphometry is typically abstracted into metrics for the channel slope, cross-sectional area, hydraulic radius, and roughness. In stream segments where cross-section surveys are closely spaced, it is not uncommon to have sharp changes in slope or even negative values (where a positive slope is the downstream direction). However, solving river flow with the Saint-Venant equations requires a degree of smoothness in the equation parameters or the equation set with the directly measured channel slopes may not be Lipschitz continuous. The results of non-smoothness are typically extended computational time to converge solutions (or complete failure to converge) and/or numerical instabilities under transient conditions. We have investigated using cubic splines to smooth the bottom slope and ensure always positive reference slopes within a 1D model. This method has been implemented in the Simulation Program for River Networks (SPRNT) and is compared to the standard HEC-RAS river solver. It is shown that the reformulation of the reference slope is both in keeping with the underlying derivation of the Saint-Venant equations and provides practical numerical stability without altering the realism of the simulation. This research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation under grant number CCF-1331610.

  20. Field intercomparison of channel master ADCP with RiverSonde Radar for measuring river discharge (United States)

    Spain, P.; Marsden, R.; Barrick, D.; Teague, C.; Ruhl, C.


    The RiverSonde radar makes non-contact measurement of a horizontal swath of surface velocity across a river section. This radar, which has worked successfully at several rivers in the Western USA, has shown encouraging correlation with simultaneous measurements of average currents at one level recorded by an acoustic travel-time system. This work reports a field study intercomparing data sets from a 600 kHz Channel Master ADCP with the RiverSonde radar. The primary goal was to begin to explore the robustness of the radar data as a reliable index of discharge. This site Is at Three Mile Slough in Northern California, USA. The larger intent of the work is to examine variability in space and time of the radar's surface currents compared with subsurface flows across the river section. Here we examine data from a couple of periods with strong winds. ?? 2005 IEEE.

  1. BTX modification of Na channels in squid axons. I. State dependence of BTX action (United States)


    The state dependence of Na channel modification by batrachotoxin (BTX) was investigated in voltage-clamped and internally perfused squid giant axons before (control axons) and after the pharmacological removal of the fast inactivation by pronase, chloramine-T, or NBA (pretreated axons). In control axons, in the presence of 2-5 microM BTX, a repetitive depolarization to open the channels was required to achieve a complete BTX modification, characterized by the suppression of the fast inactivation and a simultaneous 50-mV shift of the activation voltage dependence in the hyperpolarizing direction, whereas a single long-lasting (10 min) depolarization to +50 mV could promote the modification of only a small fraction of the channels, the noninactivating ones. In pretreated axons, such a single sustained depolarization as well as the repetitive depolarization could induce a complete modification, as evidenced by a similar shift of the activation voltage dependence. Therefore, the fast inactivated channels were not modified by BTX. We compared the rate of BTX modification of the open and slow inactivated channels in control and pretreated axons using different protocols: (a) During a repetitive depolarization with either 4- or 100-ms conditioning pulses to +80 mV, all the channels were modified in the open state in control axons as well as in pretreated axons, with a similar time constant of approximately 1.2 s. (b) In pronase-treated axons, when all the channels were in the slow inactivated state before BTX application, BTX could modify all the channels, but at a very slow rate, with a time constant of approximately 9.5 min. We conclude that at the macroscopic level BTX modification can occur through two different pathways: (a) via the open state, and (b) via the slow inactivated state of the channels that lack the fast inactivation, spontaneously or pharmacologically, but at a rate approximately 500-fold slower than through the main open channel pathway. PMID:1645393

  2. Impact investigations of access channel modifications of Cochin harbour, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    Though the modernization projects over the decades for harbour development also brought about several severe environmental modifications in Cochin harbour, along the west coast of India, so far, the physical processes involved are seldom...

  3. Effects of large floods on channel width: recent insights from Italian rivers (United States)

    Scorpio, Vittoria; Righini, Margherita; Amponsah, William; Crema, Stefano; Ciccarese, Giuseppe; Nardi, Laura; Zoccatelli, Davide; Borga, Marco; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Corsini, Alessandro; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Massimo; Surian, Nicola


    Variations of channel morphology occurring during large flood events (recurrence interval > 50-100 years.) are very often the cause of damages to buildings and infrastructures, as well as of casualties. However, our knowledge of such processes remains poor, as is our capability to predict them. Post-event campaigns documenting channel changes and linking them to hydrological and morphological factors thus bear an enormous value for both the scientific community and river management agencies. We present the results of an analysis on the geomorphic response associated to 4 large floods that occurred between October 2011 and September 2015, affecting several catchments in Northern Italy (Magra-Vara, Trebbia, Nure rivers) and Sardinia (Posada and Mannu di Bitti rivers), characterized by different climatic, lithological and geomorphological settings. The analysis considered more than 400 channel reaches characterized by a drainage area ranging from 39 to 1,100 km2 and featuring a wide range of lateral confinement, mostly within the partly- and unconfined conditions. The approach to flood analysis encompassed: (i) hydrological and hydraulic analysis; (ii) analysis of sediment delivery by landslides to the channel network; (iii) GIS-based and field assessment of morphological channel modifications. For the Nure River flood event (September 2015) a quantitative assessment on average bed level variations was also carried out. Return period for maximum hourly rainfall intensities and peak water discharges exceeded in all basins 100 yr, in some cases even 300 yr. Very high unit peak discharges were estimated, reaching 8.8 m3 s-1km-2 in the Nure River (205 km2) and up to 30 m3 s-1km-2in few Magra River tributaries (5-10 km2). Notable channel widening (post-flood width / pre-flood width > 1.1) occurred in 83% of studied reaches, and it was found more relevant in the channels with narrower initial width, i.e. along the relatively steep tributaries. For these tributaries, the

  4. 33 CFR 165.805 - Security Zones; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, Louisiana. (United States)


    ... and Ship Channel, Louisiana. 165.805 Section 165.805 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.805 Security Zones; Calcasieu River and Ship Channel, Louisiana. (a) Location. (1) The following... waters and extending channel edge to channel edge on the Calcasieu Channel and shoreline to shoreline on...

  5. Effects of river restoration on riparian biodiversity in secondary channels of the Pite River, Sweden. (United States)

    Helfield, James M; Engström, Johanna; Michel, James T; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland


    Between 1850 and 1970, rivers throughout Sweden were channelized to facilitate timber floating. Floatway structures were installed to streamline banks and disconnect flow to secondary channels, resulting in simplified channel morphologies and more homogenous flow regimes. In recent years, local authorities have begun to restore channelized rivers. In this study, we examined the effects of restoration on riparian plant communities at previously disconnected secondary channels of the Pite River. We detected no increase in riparian diversity at restored sites relative to unrestored (i.e., disconnected) sites, but we did observe significant differences in species composition of both vascular plant and bryophyte communities. Disconnected sites featured greater zonation, with mesic-hydric floodplain species represented in plots closest to the stream and mesic-xeric upland species represented in plots farthest from the stream. In contrast, restored sites were most strongly represented by upland species at all distances relative to the stream. These patterns likely result from the increased water levels in reconnected channels where, prior to restoration, upland plants had expanded toward the stream. Nonetheless, the restored fluvial regime has not brought about the development of characteristic flood-adapted plant communities, probably due to the short time interval (ca. 5 years) since restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated relatively quick responses to similar restoration in single-channel tributaries, but secondary channels may respond differently due to the more buffered hydrologic regimes typically seen in anabranching systems. These findings illustrate how restoration outcomes can vary according to hydrologic, climatic and ecological factors, reinforcing the need for site-specific restoration strategies.

  6. 77 FR 70372 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South Channel), Avon Township, NJ (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River (South..., across Shark River (South Channel) at Avon Township, NJ. The existing regulation contains a drawbridge... Transportation (NJDOT) to replace the existing bascule bridge, which carries S35 over Shark River (South Channel...

  7. Channel Bottom Morphology in the Deltaic Reach of the Song Hau (mekong) River Channel in Vietnam (United States)

    Allison, M. A.; Weathers, H. D., III; Meselhe, E. A.


    Boat-based, channel bathymetry and bankline elevation studies were conducted in the tidal and estuarine Mekong River channel using multibeam bathymetry and LIDAR corrected for elevation by RTK satellite positioning. Two mapping campaigns, one at high discharge in October 2014 and one at low discharge in March 2015, were conducted in the lower 100 km reach of the Song Hau distributary channel to (1) examine bottom morphology and its relationship to sediment transport, and (2) to provide information to setup the grid for a multi-dimensional and reduced complexity models of channel hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics. Sand fields were identified in multibeam data by the presence of dunes that were as large as 2-4 m high and 40-80 m wavelength and by clean sands in bottom grabs. Extensive areas of sand at the head and toe of mid-channel islands displayed 10-25 m diameter circular pits that could be correlated with bucket dredge, sand mining activities observed at some of the sites. Large areas of the channel floor were relict (containing little or no modern sediment) in the high discharge campaign, identifiable by the presence of along channel erosional furrows and terraced outcrops along the channel floor and margins. Laterally extensive flat areas were also observed in the channel thalweg. Both these and the relict areas were sampled by bottom grab as stiff silty clays. Complex cross-channel combinations of these morphologies were observed in some transects, suggesting strong bottom steering of tidal and riverine currents. Relative to high discharge, transects above and below the salt penetration limit showed evidence of shallowing in the thalweg and adjacent sloping areas at low discharge in March 2015. This shallowing, combined with the reduced extent of sand fields and furrowed areas, and soft muds in grabs, suggests seasonal trapping of fine grained sediment is occurring by estuarine and tidal circulation.

  8. 77 FR 42464 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD (United States)


    ... River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal... ``Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD'' in the... Channel, in Prince George's County, MD, effective from 5 a.m. until 11 a.m. on August 5, 2012. The...

  9. 77 FR 20750 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD (United States)


    ... River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... temporarily restrict vessel traffic in a portion of the Potomac River and National Harbor Access Channel... Access Channel from 6 a.m. to 10 a.m. The sponsor has stated that this marine event is not expected to be...

  10. 78 FR 33219 - Special Local Regulations; Swim Across the Potomac, Potomac River; National Harbor Access Channel... (United States)


    ..., Potomac River; National Harbor Access Channel, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Access Channel, MD'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 67). We received no comments on the proposed rule. No... the Potomac River and National Harbor Access Channel during the event, the effect of this regulation...

  11. Life in the fast lane: fish and foodweb structure in the main channel of large rivers (United States)

    Dettmers, J.M.; Wahl, David H.; Soluk, D.A.; Gutreuter, S.


    We studied the main channel of the lower Illinois River and of the Mississippi River just upstream and downstream of its confluence with the Illinois River to describe the abundance, composition, and/or seasonal appearance of components of the main-channel community. Abundance of fishes in the main channel was high, especially adults. Most adult fishes were present in the main channel for either 3 or 4 seasons/y, indicating that fishes regularly reside in the main channel. We documented abundant zooplankton and benthic invertebrates in the main channel, and the presence of these food types in the diets of channel catfish and freshwater drum. All trophic levels were well represented in the main channel, indicating that the main channel supports a unique food web. The main channel also serves as an important energetic link with other riverine habitats (e.g., floodplains, secondary channels, backwater lakes) because of the mobility of resident fishes and because of the varied energy sources supplying this food web. It may be more realistic to view energy flow in large-river systems as a combination of 3 existing concepts, the river continuum concept (downstream transport), the flood pulse concept (lateral transport to the floodplain), and the riverine productivity model (autochthonous production). We urge additional research to quantify the links between the main channel and other habitat types in large rivers because of the apparent importance of main-channel processes in the overall structure and function of large-river ecosystems.

  12. Observations of the Behavior and Distribution of Fish in Relation to the Columbia River Navigation Channel and Channel Maintenance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Johnson, R. L.; Mueller, Robert P.; Weiland, Mark A.; Johnson, P. N.


    This report is a compilation of 7 studies conducted for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1995 and 1998 which used hydroacoustic methods to study the behavior of migrating salmon in response to navigation channel maintenance activities in the lower Columbia River near river mile 45. Differences between daytime and nighttime behavior and fish densities were noted. Comparisons were made of fish distribution across the river (in the channel, channel margin or near shore) and fish depth upstream and downstream of dikes, dredges, and pile driving areas.

  13. Early stages of island development in a mountain river recovering from channelization and channel incision (United States)

    Mikuś, Paweł; Walusiak, Edward; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Liro, Maciej; Zawiejska, Joanna


    Development of islands in the Raba River, Polish Carpathians was investigated to document its early stages in a mountain river recovering from channelization and channel incision and verify whether islands can significantly contribute to the overall plant diversity of the river corridor. In the 20th century the heavily channelized Raba incised deeply in its mountain course, but a few years ago an erodible river corridor was established in its 3 km-long reach. Resignation from the maintenance of channelization structures in the reach about 10 years ago and the passage of two large floods in 2010 and 2014 resulted in up to a threefold increase in channel width, re-establishment of a multi-thread channel pattern and development of islands in the widened channel. Similar to other European mountain rivers, in the Raba islands originate as a result of deposition and sprouting of living driftwood of Salicaceae. Monitoring of islands in the study reach performed each year between 2011 and 2016 documented an increase in the number of islands from 28 to 42, in average island age from 2.8 to 5.0 years, in total island area from 0,39 ha to 1,75 ha and in average island area from 139 m2 to 418 m2. However, the increase in these parameters was not steady, but moderated by processes of island erosion by flood flows, island establishment shortly after major floods (increasing the number and reducing the average age and area of islands) and island coalescence in the years without major floods (with the opposite effects on the island parameters). The total number of vascular plant species fluctuated between 142 and 202 in particular years. An inventory of plant species on islands and plots of riparian forest performed in 2012 indicated that islands supported a greater total number of species than the adjacent riparian forest and that particular islands supported a significantly greater number of biennial and annual plants than riparian forest plots. An inventory performed in 2015

  14. 77 FR 25106 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD (United States)


    ... River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... navigation channel and the National Harbor Access Channel. Due to the need for vessel control during the... through the regulated area, including the National Harbor Access Channel, will only be allowed to safely...

  15. 78 FR 8018 - Establishment of the Indiana Uplands Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio River Valley... (United States)


    ... Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio River Valley Viticultural Area AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax... mile Ohio River Valley viticultural area to eliminate a potential overlap with the Indiana Uplands viticultural area. The modification decreases the size of the Ohio River Valley viticultural area by...

  16. River channel sensitivity to change in the context of human activities and natural factors: an 80-year record of channel morphodynamics on the lower Santa Clara River, Ventura County, California (United States)

    Downs, P. W.; Dusterhoff, S. R.; Sears, W. A.


    River channel adjustments arise from the application of numerous catchment-based stressors operating at different space and time scales. Natural stressors include the impact of climatic phenomena and their inheritance; human stressors include both direct and indirect factors whose impacts have grown in magnitude and intensity during the Anthropocene, especially since about 1945. Consequently, the sensitivity of river channel morphodynamics is likely to have changed also, with implications for landform understanding and river management. Reconstructing channel morphodynamics during the Anthropocene requires interpreting multiple historical and secondary data sources to document changes at sufficient (i.e., reach-scale) resolution: for the 60-km lower Santa Clara River (LSCR), Ventura County, California, we used flow, sediment and precipitation records, repeat aerial photographs, LiDAR data, repeat topographic surveys, in-channel vegetation data, field observations, numerical modeling of high flow events, and narrative accounts. The catchment historical context since European-American settlement includes periods dominated by ranching and colonization (ca.1820-1890), irrigations and diversions (ca.1890-1955), dams and river modifications (1955-1990), and urban population growth (1990-present). Natural stressors were investigated based on the correlation of instantaneous flood peaks with annual rainfall records in this semi-arid setting. Successful prediction of the majority of gauged floods since about 1950 allows a flood sequence to be reconstructed back to 1873. Floods are clustered and of considerably greater magnitude in El Nino years of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. The great majority of sediment transport thus occurs in El Nino years so that the dominant discharge is the largest discharge on record, in contrast to humid-region alluvial rivers. Responding to these stressors, the average width of the active channel bed has become narrower by almost 50% (1938

  17. 77 FR 3118 - Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD (United States)


    ... No. USCG-2011-1164] RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Choptank River and Cambridge Channel, Cambridge, MD... temporary security zone encompassing certain waters of the Choptank River and Cambridge Channel in order to... will be held at the Hyatt Regency Chesapeake Bay Golf Resort, Spa and Marina in Cambridge, Maryland...

  18. Geomorphic context of channel locational probabilities along the Lower Mississippi River, USA (United States)

    Wasklewicz, Thad A.; Anderson, Shawn; Liu, Pin-Shou


    Channel change is an important aspect of geomorphological evolution and habitat dynamics in large alluvial rivers. Planimetric maps of channel locations were used to investigate spatio-temporal alluvial channel changes in a geomorphic context along the Lower Mississippi River (LMR). Analyses were conducted with the aid of a time-weighted locational probability map. The locational probability map was constructed in ArcGIS and covered a period of 205 years. An examination of the pixel data from the probability maps indicates a high occurrence of low probability pixels along the Lower Mississippi River, which is in accordance with the dynamism of alluvial rivers. The northern section of the Lower Mississippi River (Columbus, KY to Memphis, TN) has been much more stable than the southern river segments (Helena, AR to Natchez, MS). Areas of high channel probability (channel stability) were often associated with alluvial channel confinement from a combination of flood-plain deposits, geologic structures and large stable islands. Low channel probability locations were found along sections exhibiting the following geomorphic characteristics: changes in meander amplitude, meander neck and chute cutoffs, meander extensional processes and islands lost in channel migrational processes. The results provide a strong foundation for understanding channel change on the Lower Mississippi River and serves as a valuable instrument for future management and restoration schemes.

  19. Influence of channel morphology and flow regime on larval drift of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River (United States)

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.


    The transition from drifting free embryo to exogenously feeding larvae has been identified as a potential life-stage bottleneck for the endangered Missouri River pallid sturgeon. Previous studies have indicated that river regulation and fragmentation may contribute to the mortality of larval pallid sturgeon by reducing the extent of free-flowing river available to free embryos to complete ontogenetic development. Calculations of total drift distance based on mean velocity, however, do not address the potential for complex channels and flow patterns to increase retention or longitudinal dispersion of free embryos. We use a one-dimensional advection–dispersion model to estimate total drift distance and employ the longitudinal dispersion coefficient as a metric to quantify the tendency towards dispersion or retention of passively drifting larvae. We describe the effects of different styles of channel morphology on larval dispersion and consider the implications of flow regime modifications on retention of free embryos within the Lower Missouri River. The results illustrate the complex interactions of local morphology, engineered structures, and hydraulics that determine patterns of dispersion in riverine environments and inform how changes to channel morphology and flow regime may alter dispersion of drifting organisms.

  20. Dynamic aspects of large woody debris in river channels (United States)

    Vergaro, Alexandra; Caporali, Enrica; Becchi, Ignazio


    Large Woody Debris (LWD) are an integral component of the fluvial environment. They represent an environmental resource, but without doubt they represent also a risk factor for the amplification that could give to the destructive power of a flood event. While countless intervention in river channels have reintroduced wood in rivers with restoration and banks protection aims, during several flash flood events LWD have had a great part in catastrophic consequences, pointing out the urgency of an adequate risk assessment procedure. At present wood dynamics in rivers is not systematically considered within the procedures for the elaboration of hazard maps resulting in loss of prediction accuracy and underestimation of hazard impacts. The assessment inconsistency comes from the complexity of the question: several aspects in wood processes are not yet well known and the superposition of different physical phenomena results in great difficulty to predict critical scenarios. The presented research activity has been aimed to improve management skills for the assessment of the hydrologic risk associated to the presence of large woody debris in rivers, improving knowledge about LWD dynamic processes and proposing effective tools for monitoring and mapping river catchments vulnerability. Utilizing critical review of the published works, field surveys and experimental investigations LWD damaging potential has been analysed to support the identification of the exposed sites and the redaction of hazard maps, taking into account that a comprehensive procedure has to involve: a) Identification of the critical cross sections; b) Evaluation of wood availability in the river catchment; c) Prediction of hazard scenarios through the estimation of water discharge, wood recruitment and entrainment, wood transport and destination. Particularly, a survey sheets form for direct measurements has been implemented and tested in field to provide an investigation instruments for wood and river

  1. Scanning MscL Channels with Targeted Post-Translational Modifications for Functional Alterations (United States)

    Eaton, Christina; Blount, Paul


    Mechanosensitive channels are present in all living organisms and are thought to underlie the senses of touch and hearing as well as various important physiological functions like osmoregulation and vasoregulation. The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) from Escherichia coli was the first protein shown to encode mechanosensitive channel activity and serves as a paradigm for how a channel senses and responds to mechanical stimuli. MscL plays a role in osmoprotection in E. coli, acting as an emergency release valve that is activated by membrane tension due to cell swelling after an osmotic down-shock. Using an osmotically fragile strain in an osmotic down-shock assay, channel functionality can be directly determined in vivo. In addition, using thiol reagents and expressed MscL proteins with a single cysteine substitution, we have shown that targeted post-translational modifications can be performed, and that any alterations that lead to dysfunctional proteins can be identified by this in vivo assay. Here, we present the results of such a scan performed on 113 MscL cysteine mutants using five different sulfhydryl-reacting probes to confer different charges or hydrophobicity to each site. We assessed which of these targeted modifications affected channel function and the top candidates were further studied using patch clamp to directly determine how channel activity was affected. This comprehensive screen has identified many residues that are critical for channel function as well as highlighted MscL domains and residues that undergo the most drastic environmental changes upon gating. PMID:26368283

  2. Ecosystem metabolism and nutrient dynamics in the main channel and backwaters of the Upper Mississippi River (United States)

    Houser, Jeff N.; Bartsch, Lynn; Richardson, William B.; Rogala, James T.; Sullivan, John F.


    Photosynthesis and respiration are primary drivers of dissolved oxygen dynamics in rivers. We measured dissolved oxygen dynamics, aquatic ecosystem metabolism, algal abundance and nutrient concentrations at main channel and backwater sites on a reach of the Upper Mississippi River that borders the states of Wisconsin and Minnesota (U.S.A.). We asked (i) how ecosystem metabolism rates, dissolved oxygen dynamics and nutrient concentrations differed in the main channel and in backwaters, (ii) whether ecosystem metabolism relates to solar irradiance, nutrient concentration, algal abundance, temperature and river discharge and (iii) whether the relationships between ecosystem metabolism and these environmental factors differs between the main channel and backwaters.

  3. Legacy Sediments and Channel Morphology in the Feather and Yuba Rivers, California (United States)

    James, A.; Ghoshal, S.; Megison, M. E.; Singer, M. B.; Aalto, R.


    Channel aggradation and morphologic change following 19th century hydraulic gold-mining in the Sierra Nevada, California, differed substantially between the lower Feather and Yuba Rivers. These differences can be explained in part by topographic position in the Sacramento Valley but also by differences in early 20th century engineering structures and management policies. Both rivers experienced extreme aggradation by mining sediment and substantial avulsions but the timing and mechanics of channel adjustments were dissimilar, in part due to varying strategies in river-training and flood control. River engineering and management in the late 19th century identified the lower Yuba River as a repository zone where mining sediment could be sequestered to reduce deliveries to navigable rivers downstream. Levees were set back up to 4 km allowing formation of a multi-thread channel system across a broad floodplain that is now deeply buried by mining sediment. In contrast, levees along the lower Feather were given narrow spacings to encourage self-scouring of channels and promote navigability of channels. The lower Feather River drains a larger basin and has a lower gradient than the Yuba River. Construction of Fremont Weir across the mouth of the Yolo Basin raised flood levels in the lower Feather River and may have reduced transport of bed sediment. This could explain the persistence of large sand sheets at and below the Bear River confluence. Data from historical maps, topographic surveys, aerial photographs, and 1999 LiDAR swath mapping are used to document and contrast channel changes and floodplain evolution between these two rivers. Topographic changes derived by differencing detailed 1906-1909 topographic maps and 1999 LiDAR data indicate substantial channel morphologic changes including channel filling, lateral migration, and evolution towards single-thread channel systems. Modern streambank stratigraphy reflects the differences in channel responses. Sites where

  4. Numerical modelling of channel processes and analysis of possible channel improvement measures on the Lena River near city Yakutsk (United States)

    Krylenko, Inna; Belikov, Vitaly; Zavadskii, Aleksander; Borisova, Natalya; Golovlyov, Pavel; Rumyantsev, Alexey


    City Yakutsk (administrative, culture and industrial center of the North East of Russia) situated on the left bank of large Russian river Lena last decades has faced with many problems, concerning intensive channel processes. Most dramatic among them are sediment accumulation near main water intake structure, supplying city Yakutsk by the drinking water, and deterioration in conditions of the navigation roots to the main city ports. Hydrodynamic modelling has been chosen as the main tool for analyses of the modern tendencies in channel processes and for the evaluation of possible channel improvement measures efficiency. STREAM_2D program complex (authors V. Belikov et al.), which is based on the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh and take into account sediment transport, was used for the simulations. Detailed field data about water regime of the Lena river, bathymetry of the channels and topography of the floodplains was collected for model developing. Model area has covered 75 km of the Lena river valley including branched channels and wide floodplain from Tabaga to Kangalassy gauge cites. Data of these stations were used for model boundary conditions assigning. Data of gauge station city Yakutsk as well as measured during field campaign water levels and flow velocities was taken into account for model calibration and validation. Results of modelling has demonstrated close correspondence with observed water levels and discharges distribution between channel branches for different hydrological situations. Different combinations of hydrographs of 1, 10, 50% exceedance probability was used as input for modelling of channel deformations. Simulation results has shown that in future 10 years aligning of water discharges distribution between main Lena river branches near Yakutsk is possible, that is a positive tendency from the point of view of water supply of the city. More than 15

  5. Dam Influenced Channel Incision: The Lower Trinity River in Texas, USA (United States)

    Smith, V. B.; Mohrig, D. C.


    Reservoirs behind dams act as deposition sites for much of the bed-material load being transported by rivers. As a result, the water exiting dams is relatively free of sediment and the river flow is well below the transport capacity for bed-material. Because of this, rivers flowing downstream from dams tend to erode into their beds. This occurrence is well documented in gravel-bed rivers, but has not been as completely studied in sand-bed channels, such as the lower Trinity River, Texas. Sediment mining from the bed of a gravel river acts to coarsen the surface layer until the armoring shuts off any further bed erosion. This armoring control on the sediment discharge is not effective in a sand bed river. The abundant supply of sediment in a sand bed alluvial river results in a unique response: the river bed is scoured until sediment transport capacity is reached. In the lower Trinity River the consequences of this scouring and bed-sediment mining are channel bed lowering, channel wall steepening, and reduced rates of lateral migration, as well as bed-sediment coarsening and deflation in the total volume of sediment constituting bars. The process of bed incision produces a convex long profile for the river segment influenced by the dam. After 40 years of impoundment the channel immediately downstream of the dam has incised five to seven meters and dam-influenced adjustments to the geomorphology of the river are observed for 50 to 60 river kilometers downstream. The channel downstream of this zone appears unaffected by the dam. Over time the river bed continues to erode and the zone of dam influence expands downstream. In this paper we present a one-dimensional morphodynamic model that estimates the adjustment in channel profile elevation through time due to the dam's retention of sediment. Model output matches the field measurements of physical changes to the river channel. Results of the model and physical observations explain the sediment transport dynamics

  6. Dynamics of 30 large channel bars in the Lower Mississippi River in response to river engineering from 1985 to 2015 (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Xu, Y. Jun


    Channel bars are a major depositional feature in alluvial rivers and their morphodynamics has been investigated intensively in the past several decades. However, relatively less is known about how channel bars in alluvial rivers respond to river engineering and regulations. In this study, we assessed 30-yr morphologic changes of 30 large emerged bars located in a 223 km reach of the highly regulated Lower Mississippi River from Vicksburg, Mississippi, to the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River diversion. Landsat imagery and river stage data between 1985 and 2015 were utilized to characterize bar morphologic features and quantify decadal changes. Based on bar surface areas estimated with the satellite images at different river stages, a rating curve was developed for each of the 30 bars to determine their volumes. Results from this study show that the highly regulated river reach favored the growth of mid-channel and attached bars, while more than half of the point bars showed degradation. Currently, the mid-channel and attached bars accounted for 38% and 34% of the total volume of the 30 bars. The average volume of a single mid-channel bar is over two times that of an attached bar and over four times that of a point bar. Overall, in the past three decades, the total volume of the studied 30 bars increased by 110,118,000 m3 (41%). Total dike length in a dike field was found mostly contributing to the bar volume increase. Currently, the emerged volume of the 30 bars was estimated approximately 378,183,000 m3. The total bar volume is equivalent to 530 million metric tons of coarse sand, based on an average measured bulk density of 1.4 t/m3 for the bar sediment. The findings show that these bars are large sediment reservoirs.

  7. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2005 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  8. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2009 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  9. Channel-planform evolution in four rivers of Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A.: The roles of physical drivers and trophic cascades (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Mastin, Mark C.; Sankey, Joel B.; Randle, Timothy J.


    Identifying the relative contributions of physical and ecological processes to channel evolution remains a substantial challenge in fluvial geomorphology. We use a 74-year aerial photographic record of the Hoh, Queets, Quinault, and Elwha Rivers, Olympic National Park, Washington, U.S.A., to investigate whether physical or trophic-cascade-driven ecological factors—excessive elk impacts after wolves were extirpated a century ago—are the dominant controls on channel planform of these gravel-bed rivers. We find that channel width and braiding show strong relationships with recent flood history. All four rivers have widened significantly in recent decades, consistent with increased flood activity since the 1970s. Channel planform also reflects sediment-supply changes, evident from landslide response on the Elwha River. We surmise that the Hoh River, which shows a multi-decadal trend toward greater braiding, is adjusting to increased sediment supply associated with rapid glacial retreat. In this sediment-routing system with high connectivity, such climate-driven signals appear to propagate downstream without being buffered substantially by sediment storage. Legacy effects of anthropogenic modification likely also affect the Quinault River planform. We infer no correspondence between channel geomorphic evolution and elk abundance, suggesting that trophic-cascade effects in this setting are subsidiary to physical controls on channel morphology. Our findings differ from previous interpretations of Olympic National Park fluvial dynamics and contrast with the classic example of Yellowstone National Park, where legacy effects of elk overuse are apparent in channel morphology; we attribute these differences to hydrologic regime and large-wood availability.

  10. Spatially dependent responses of a large-river fish assemblage to bank stabilization and side channels (United States)

    Reinhold, Ann Marie; Bramblett, Robert G.; Zale, Alexander V.; Poole, Geoffrey C.; Roberts, David W.


    The alteration of rivers by anthropogenic bank stabilization to prevent the erosion of economically valuable lands and structures has become commonplace. However, such alteration has ambiguous consequences for fish assemblages, especially in large rivers. Because most large, temperate rivers have impoundments, it can be difficult to separate the influences of bank stabilization structures from those of main-stem impoundments, especially because both stabilization structures and impoundments can cause side-channel loss. Few large rivers are free flowing and retain extensive side channels, but the Yellowstone River (our study area) is one such river. We hypothesized that in this river (1) bank stabilization has changed fish assemblage structure by altering habitats, (2) side-channel availability has influenced fish assemblage structure by providing habitat heterogeneity, and (3) the influences of bank stabilization and side channels on fish assemblages were spatially scale dependent. We developed a spatially explicit framework to test these hypotheses. Fish assemblage structure varied with the extent of bank stabilization and the availability of side channels; however, not all assemblage subsets were influenced. Nevertheless, bank stabilization and side channels had different and sometimes opposite influences on the fish assemblage. The effects of side channels on fish were more consistent and widespread than those of bank stabilization; the catches of more fishes were positively correlated with side-channel availability than with the extent of bank stabilization. The influences of bank stabilization and side channels on the relative abundances of fish also varied, depending on species and river bend geomorphology. The variation in river morphology probably contributed to the assemblage differences between stabilized and reference river bends; stabilized alluvial pools were deeper than reference alluvial pools, but the depths of stabilized and reference bluff pools

  11. Spatial and temporal variability in sedimentation rates associated with cutoff channel infill deposits: Ain River, France (United States)

    Piegay, H.; Hupp, C.R.; Citterio, A.; Dufour, S.; Moulin, B.; Walling, D.E.


    Floodplain development is associated with lateral accretion along stable channel geometry. Along shifting rivers, the floodplain sedimentation is more complex because of changes in channel position but also cutoff channel presence, which exhibit specific overflow patterns. In this contribution, the spatial and temporal variability of sedimentation rates in cutoff channel infill deposits is related to channel changes of a shifting gravel bed river (Ain River, France). The sedimentation rates estimated from dendrogeomorphic analysis are compared between and within 14 cutoff channel infills. Detailed analyses along a single channel infill are performed to assess changes in the sedimentation rates through time by analyzing activity profiles of the fallout radionuclides 137Cs and unsupported 210Pb. Sedimentation rates are also compared within the channel infills with rates in other plots located in the adjacent floodplain. Sedimentation rates range between 0.65 and 2.4 cm a -1 over a period of 10 to 40 years. The data provide additional information on the role of distance from the bank, overbank flow frequency, and channel geometry in controlling the sedimentation rate. Channel infills, lower than adjacent floodplains, exhibit higher sedimentation rates and convey overbank sediment farther away within the floodplain. Additionally, channel degradation, aggradation, and bank erosion, which reduce or increase the distance between the main channel and the cutoff channel aquatic zone, affect local overbank flow magnitude and frequency and therefore sedimentation rates, thereby creating a complex mosaic of sedimentation zones within the floodplain and along the cutoff channel infills. Last, the dendrogeomorphic and 137Cs approaches are cross validated for estimating the sedimentation rate within a channel infill. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Effects of Channel Modification on Detection and Dating of Fault Scarps (United States)

    Sare, R.; Hilley, G. E.


    Template matching of scarp-like features could potentially generate morphologic age estimates for individual scarps over entire regions, but data noise and scarp modification limits detection of fault scarps by this method. Template functions based on diffusion in the cross-scarp direction may fail to accurately date scarps near channel boundaries. Where channels reduce scarp amplitudes, or where cross-scarp noise is significant, signal-to-noise ratios decrease and the scarp may be poorly resolved. In this contribution, we explore the bias in morphologic age of a complex scarp produced by systematic changes in fault scarp curvature. For example, fault scarps may be modified by encroaching channel banks and mass failure, lateral diffusion of material into a channel, or undercutting parallel to the base of a scarp. We quantify such biases on morphologic age estimates using a block offset model subject to two-dimensional linear diffusion. We carry out a synthetic study of the effects of two-dimensional transport on morphologic age calculated using a profile model, and compare these results to a well- studied and constrained site along the San Andreas Fault at Wallace Creek, CA. This study serves as a first step towards defining regions of high confidence in template matching results based on scarp length, channel geometry, and near-scarp topography.

  13. 33 CFR 162.35 - Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel of Christina River, Del.; navigation. 162.35 Section 162.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.35 Channel of...


    The extent of aquatic off-channel habitats such as secondary and side channels, sloughs, and alcoves, have been reduced more than 50% since the 1850s along the upper main stem of the Willamette River, Oregon, USA. Concurrently, the hydrogeomorphic potential, and associated flood...

  15. Characterization of geomorphic units in the alluvial valleys and channels of Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in Texas, with examples from the Brazos, Sabine, and Trinity Rivers, 2010 (United States)

    Coffman, David K.; Malstaff, Greg; Heitmuller, Franklin T.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, described and characterized examples of geomorphic units within the channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers using a geomorphic unit classification scale that differentiates geomorphic units on the basis of their location either outside or inside the river channel. The geomorphic properties of a river system determine the distribution and type of potential habitat both within and adjacent to the channel. This report characterizes the geomorphic units contained in the river channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in the context of the River Styles framework. This report is intended to help Texas Instream Flow Program practitioners, river managers, ecologists and biologists, and others interested in the geomorphology and the physical processes of the rivers of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain (1) gain insights into how geomorphic units develop and adjust spatially and temporally, and (2) be able to recognize common geomorphic units from the examples cataloged in this report. Recent aerial imagery (high-resolution digital orthoimagery) collected in 2008 and 2009 were inspected by using geographic information system software to identify representative examples of the types of geomorphic units that occurred in the study area. Geomorphic units outside the channels of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers are called \\"valley geomorphic units\\" in this report. Valley geomorphic units for the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers described in this report are terraces, flood plains, crevasses and crevasse splays, flood-plain depressions, tie channels, tributaries, paleochannels, anabranches, distributaries, natural levees, neck cutoffs, oxbow lakes, and constructed channels. Channel geomorphic units occur in the river channel and are subject to frequent stresses associated with flowing water and sediment transport; they adjust (change) relatively quickly in

  16. Exploring pre-channelization bar and planform dynamics of a large regulated Alpine River (United States)

    Zen, Simone; Zolezzi, Guido; Scorpio, Vittoria; Mastronunzio, Marco; Bertoldi, Walter; Comiti, Francesco; Daiprà, Elena


    As a consequence of heavy channelization mostly carried out in the 1800s, the planform and bars morphodynamics of many large European rivers is hardly detectable even from aerial images dating back several decades, because of the marked reduction of the channel width and of the related morphological complexity. However, when available, historical maps can provide quantitative information on the morphology that characterized these rivers before massive human intervention occurred. In this work we focus on a 100 km reach of the Adige - Etsch River, NE, Italy, with the aim of exploring the short-term (some decades) morphological dynamics that might have characterized the pre-channelized river bed and planform in its single-thread reaches before heavy human intervention. To this aim we integrate the application of a morphodynamic analytical model for meandering rivers with irregularly varying curvature and channel width with the multi-temporal analysis of pre-channelization historical maps. The work focuses on the sinuous and meandering reaches once characterized by spatially varying channel width, and presence of alternate, point and mid-channel bars. Challenges in such kind of integrated analysis are posed by the reconstruction of channel - forming streamflow values and of sediment size that may have characterized the river reaches up to nearly three centuries ago prior to heavy regulation. Formative discharge ranges have been obtained as those generating the best geometrical fit between the modeled river bed morphology and the one observed from the maps. Once calibrated by this procedure, the model was fed through the estimated discharge value to compute the longitudinal variability of the outer-bank shear stress, as a proxy for the locations potentially affected by fluvial bank erosion. The historical maps reveal that during the 17th and 18th century, before the massive channelization, the river morphodynamics was already far from being "natural", especially

  17. Causes and effects of morphological changes of the regulated channel of the river Toplica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đeković Vojislav


    Full Text Available The regulation of small torrential watercourses outside the urbanized areas is often based on the so-called field type of regulation. In the selection of this concept, after the regulation works, the new channel is left to the natural process of the morphological formation of the water cross-section taking care not to disturb the general stability of the regulated channel. We present the process of morphological development of the regulated channel of the river Toplica, tributary of the river Kolubara, in the period 1982-2004 i.e. from immediately after the regulation works to the present day.

  18. Quantifying River Channel Stability at the Basin Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip J. Soar


    Full Text Available This paper examines the feasibility of a basin‐scale scheme for characterising and quantifying river reaches in terms of their geomorphological stability status and potential for morphological adjustment based on auditing stream energy. A River Energy Audit Scheme (REAS is explored, which involves integrating stream power with flow duration to investigate the downstream distribution of Annual Geomorphic Energy (AGE. This measure represents the average annual energy available with which to perform geomorphological work in reshaping the channel boundary. Changes in AGE between successive reaches might indicate whether adjustments are likely to be led by erosion or deposition at the channel perimeter. A case study of the River Kent in Cumbria, UK, demonstrates that basin‐wide application is achievable without excessive field work and data processing. However, in addressing the basin scale, the research found that this is inevitably at the cost of a number of assumptions and limitations, which are discussed herein. Technological advances in remotely sensed data capture, developments in image processing and emerging GIS tools provide the near‐term prospect of fully quantifying river channel stability at the basin scale, although as yet not fully realized. Potential applications of this type of approach include system‐wide assessment of river channel stability and sensitivity to land‐use or climate change, and informing strategic planning for river channel and flood risk management.

  19. Channel adjustements over the last century of the Moldova River, Romania (United States)

    Chiriloaei, F. A.; Radoane, M.; Radoane, N.


    Moldova River is a 205 km long river, right tributary of the Siret River, with the confluence close to Roman city. The most important tributaries are Moldoviţa, Suha Mică, Suha Mare, Râsca, Ozana and Topolita Rivers. The drainage basin area is 4316 km2, a discharge of about 32.8 m3/s and is superimposed on four lithostratigraphic units: the crystalline Mesozoic unit, the flysch unit, the molasse unit and the platform unit. The study reach is 110 km long and is located on the external part of the Eastern-Carpathians at the contact with the Moldavian Plateau. This contact is characterised by a piedmont zone. The high rate of alluviation in this piedmont plain had a decisive role on the spatial and temporal evolution of fluvial forms and processes, expressed in the morphology of alluvial terraces in the valley bottom, the morphology of the active channel, the spatial distribution of bars and secondary channels and lateral migration rates. The morphology of the river in the study reach is dominated by braided and wandering channel patterns. The present (2005) active channel width ranges between 700 and 1000 m. Planform changes of river features over the last 100 years were analyzed on three historical maps (1910, 1960, and 1980) and one orthophoto (2005). Channel width average has significantly decreased in the last century. The Moldova river channel width suffered a strong narrowing, approximately 76% (from 1910 to 2005). So, from a channel width about more than 1200 m, it decreased at about 300 m. We can note two phase of narrowing: a first one - stronger, of 56%, untill 1960 (a reduction of active channel width for about 10.5 m/year) and a second phase, of 35%, after 1960, with a narrowing rate for about 8.8 m/an. The historical trend of braiding index shows a remarkable decrease in the last 50 - 60 years, from 3.2 in 1960, at 2.6 in 1980 and 2.0, in 2005, for all the extra-Carpathian study reach (110 km). There are different situations at local scale, shown

  20. Modeling the Effects of Connecting Side Channels to the Long Tom River, Oregon (United States)

    Appleby, C.; McDowell, P. F.


    The lower Long Tom River is a heavily managed, highly modified stream in the southwestern Willamette Valley with many opportunities for habitat improvements and river restoration. In the 1940s and 1950s, the US Army Corps of Engineers dramatically altered this river system by constructing the Fern Ridge Dam and three, large drop structures, converting the River from a highly sinuous channel to a straight, channelized stream that is interrupted by these grade control structures, and removed the majority of the riparian vegetation. As a result, juvenile spring Chinook salmon are no longer found in the Watershed and the local population of coastal cutthroat trout face limited aquatic habitat. When the river was channelized, long sections of the historical channel were left abandoned on the floodplain. Reconnecting these historical channels as side channels may improve the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat and could allow fish passage around current barriers. However, such construction may also lead to undesirable threats to infrastructure and farmland. This study uses multiple HEC-RAS models to determine the impact of reconnecting two historical channels to the lower Long Tom River by quantifying the change in area of flood inundation and identifying infrastructure in jeapordy given current and post-restoration conditions for 1.5, 5, 10, and 25-year flood discharges. Bathymetric data from ADCP and RTK-GPS surveys has been combined with LiDAR-derived topographic data to create continuous elevation models. Several types of side channel connections are modeled in order to determine which type of connection will result in both the greatest quantity of accessible habitat and the fewest threats to public and private property. In the future, this study will also consider the change in the quantity of physical salmonid habitat and map the areas prone to sedimentation and erosion using CEASAR and PHABSIM tools.

  1. Flow Structure and Channel Change in a Chute Cutoff along a Large Meandering River (United States)

    Rhoads, B. L.; Best, J.; Johnson, K.; Engel, F. L.


    Meander cutoffs, which develop when flow cuts across the narrow neck of a bend, are common features along actively migrating meandering rivers. Despite the importance of cutoffs in the dynamics of river meandering and floodplain sedimentation, few, if any, studies have documented in detail the fluvial processes involved in the development of a meander cutoff. This paper examines the morphodynamics of a chute cutoff along the Wabash River, Illinois-Indiana, immediately following initiation of the cutoff. The original cutoff channel formed across the neck of Mackey Bend, a meander loop immediately upstream of the confluence with the Ohio River, during a major flood in June 2008. The formation of the cutoff channel likely involved migration of a headcut from the downstream side to the upstream side of the meander neck along the path of a floodplain slough. A key focus of the investigation has been to document flow structure at the upstream and downstream ends of the cutoff channel so that patterns of flow can be related to morphological change. Three separate measurement campaigns using an acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) and single-beam echosounder were conducted between January and May 2009 to determine 3D flow structure and bed morphology during events with different discharges and flow stages. In addition, channel dimensions were surveyed using a dGPS system in September 2008 and in August 2009. Results indicate that the cutoff channel has widened dramatically over a one-year period, increasing its width by as much as 100 percent. Curvature of flow into the entrance of the cutoff channel from the Wabash River generates strong helical motion that advects momentum toward the outer bank, resulting in high velocities near the bank toe and ongoing bank retreat through slab failures. This flow pattern, accentuated by dramatic widening of the cutoff channel, has resulted in deposition along the inner bank and development of a large bar platform at this location

  2. Molecular mechanism of allosteric modification of voltage-dependent sodium channels by local anesthetics. (United States)

    Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel; Muroi, Yukiko; Chowdhury, Sandipan; Chanda, Baron


    The hallmark of many intracellular pore blockers such as tetra-alkylammonium compounds and local anesthetics is their ability to allosterically modify the movement of the voltage sensors in voltage-dependent ion channels. For instance, the voltage sensor of domain III is specifically stabilized in the activated state when sodium currents are blocked by local anesthetics. The molecular mechanism underlying this long-range interaction between the blocker-binding site in the pore and voltage sensors remains poorly understood. Here, using scanning mutagenesis in combination with voltage clamp fluorimetry, we systematically evaluate the role of the internal gating interface of domain III of the sodium channel. We find that several mutations in the S4-S5 linker and S5 and S6 helices dramatically reduce the stabilizing effect of lidocaine on the activation of domain III voltage sensor without significantly altering use-dependent block at saturating drug concentrations. In the wild-type skeletal muscle sodium channel, local anesthetic block is accompanied by a 21% reduction in the total gating charge. In contrast, point mutations in this critical intracellular region reduce this charge modification by local anesthetics. Our analysis of a simple model suggests that these mutations in the gating interface are likely to disrupt the various coupling interactions between the voltage sensor and the pore of the sodium channel. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding the mechanisms underlying allosteric interactions between a drug-binding site and voltage sensors.

  3. Molecular mechanism of allosteric modification of voltage-dependent sodium channels by local anesthetics (United States)

    Arcisio-Miranda, Manoel; Muroi, Yukiko; Chowdhury, Sandipan


    The hallmark of many intracellular pore blockers such as tetra-alkylammonium compounds and local anesthetics is their ability to allosterically modify the movement of the voltage sensors in voltage-dependent ion channels. For instance, the voltage sensor of domain III is specifically stabilized in the activated state when sodium currents are blocked by local anesthetics. The molecular mechanism underlying this long-range interaction between the blocker-binding site in the pore and voltage sensors remains poorly understood. Here, using scanning mutagenesis in combination with voltage clamp fluorimetry, we systematically evaluate the role of the internal gating interface of domain III of the sodium channel. We find that several mutations in the S4–S5 linker and S5 and S6 helices dramatically reduce the stabilizing effect of lidocaine on the activation of domain III voltage sensor without significantly altering use-dependent block at saturating drug concentrations. In the wild-type skeletal muscle sodium channel, local anesthetic block is accompanied by a 21% reduction in the total gating charge. In contrast, point mutations in this critical intracellular region reduce this charge modification by local anesthetics. Our analysis of a simple model suggests that these mutations in the gating interface are likely to disrupt the various coupling interactions between the voltage sensor and the pore of the sodium channel. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding the mechanisms underlying allosteric interactions between a drug-binding site and voltage sensors. PMID:20937693

  4. GREAT II (Upper Mississippi River. Guttenberg, Iowa to Saverton, Missouri). Side Channel Work Group Appendix (United States)


    canals . River Lakes and Ponds - River lakes and ponds may have some connection with the river at normal water stages or be com- pletely isolated...backwaters. Listing of Side Channels LeClaire Canal - EM 493.0 - 498.3 R Steamboat Slough - BM 503.3 - 506.0 R Grant Slough - EM 503.2 - 506.4 R Hanson...1977. The morphometry, benthos, and sedimentation rates of a flood- plain lake in Pool 9 of the Upper Mississippi River. Am. Midi , Nat. 97(2): 433

  5. Using a novel flood prediction model and GIS automation to measure the valley and channel morphology of large river networks (United States)

    Traditional methods for measuring river valley and channel morphology require intensive ground-based surveys which are often expensive, time consuming, and logistically difficult to implement. The number of surveys required to assess the hydrogeomorphic structure of large river n...

  6. Residence Times of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead in Off-Channel Tidal Freshwater Habitats, Columbia River, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, D. J.


    We estimated seasonal residence times of acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids in off-channel, tidal freshwater habitats of the Columbia River near the Sandy River delta (rkm 198; 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011) and Cottonwood Island (rkm 112; 2012).

  7. Diverse post-translational modifications of the pannexin family of channel-forming proteins. (United States)

    Penuela, Silvia; Lohman, Alexander W; Lai, Wesley; Gyenis, Laszlo; Litchfield, David W; Isakson, Brant E; Laird, Dale W


    The pannexin family of channel-forming proteins is composed of 3 distinct but related members called Panx1, Panx2, and Panx3. Pannexins have been implicated in many physiological processes as well as pathological conditions, primarily through their function as ATP release channels. However, it is currently unclear if all pannexins are subject to similar or different post-translational modifications as most studies have focused primarily on Panx1. Using in vitro biochemical assays performed on ectopically expressed pannexins in HEK-293T cells, we confirmed that all 3 pannexins are N-glycosylated to different degrees, but they are not modified by sialylation or O-linked glycosylation in a manner that changes their apparent molecular weight. Using cell-free caspase assays, we also discovered that similar to Panx1, the C-terminus of Panx2 is a substrate for caspase cleavage. Panx3, on the other hand, is not subject to caspase digestion but an in vitro biotin switch assay revealed that it was S-nitrosylated by nitric oxide donors. Taken together, our findings uncover novel and diverse pannexin post-translational modifications suggesting that they may be differentially regulated for distinct or overlapping cellular and physiological functions.

  8. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1967 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  9. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1939 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  10. Channel centerline for the Coquille River, Oregon in 2005 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  11. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 2009 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  12. Evolution of abandoned channels: Insights on controlling factors in a multi-pressure river system (United States)

    Dépret, Thomas; Riquier, Jérémie; Piégay, Hervé


    In the second half of the 19th century, channelization of large multi-thread rivers such as the Rhine, the Danube, and the Rhône rivers induced artificial disconnection of most of their secondary channels. Compared to naturally abandoned channels, terrestrialization (i.e., the passage from the aquatic to the terrestrial stage, controlled by sediment deposits and/or lowering of the water level) patterns and rates of such artificially prematurely abandoned channels remain largely unknown. Moreover, factors controlling their evolutionary trajectories are complex owing to a set of pressures occurring throughout the 20th century within specific space-time windows. Through a case study of the Rhône River, this paper aims to assess and distinguish the effects of a set of potential controlling factors on abandoned channel terrestrialization dynamics and lifespan. We tested the influence of: (i) submersible embankments closing the entrance of abandoned channels, (ii) main channel degradation following its channelization or the water level lowering due to channel bypassing in the middle of the 20th century involving drastic water abstraction in these reaches, (iii) transverse dykes within the abandoned channels, (iv) the flooding regime of abandoned channels (i.e., frequency and magnitude of upstream connections producing lotic functioning), and (v) longitudinal variation in the suspended sediment concentration along the main channel. To this end, we studied 24 abandoned channels (16 artificially disconnected at their upstream end by submersible embankments and eight naturally disconnected by bar plug establishment) from the mid-19th to the beginning of the 20th century. Their terrestrialization rates were characterized through the reconstruction of their planimetric trajectories using historical maps and aerial photos. The results reveal a much longer lifespan of artificial abandoned channels compared to natural ones because of the truncation of the initial bedload

  13. Yampa River channel elevation at Deerlodge Park, CO (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map provides raster data that can be used to assess channel response to streamflow alteration scenarios indicated...

  14. Hydrodynamic modeling to evaluate the influence of constructed side-channel habitat on larval drift of pallid strugeon in the Lower Missouri River (United States)

    Erwin, Susannah O.; Jacobson, Robert B.


    Larval drift is a critical phase of ontogeny for many species of lotic fishes. Downstream advection and dispersion of drifting larvae or eggs is controlled by the complex interaction of flow regime, channel planform, local channel morphology, and the resulting hydraulic gradients. In many regulated rivers, channel engineering and perturbations to the flow regime may disrupt natural dispersal processes and prevent successful recruitment of native fishes. Here, we explore the influence of flow regime and channel morphology on the downstream transport, dispersion, and retention of free embryos of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhychus albus), an endangered species endemic to the Mississippi River basin and the focus of significant conservation effort on the Missouri River. The transition from drifting free embryo to exogenously feeding larvae has been identified as a potential life stage bottleneck for the pallid sturgeon. We use a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to evaluate the sensitivity of drift and dispersion to in-channel navigation structures, constructed shallow-water habitat, and flood hydrology. In the simulations, larvae were treated as passively drifting particles and calculated retention times were used as an index of potential for settling and retention within specific environments. During low flows, retention of larvae is promoted by shallow, low velocity conditions provided by constructed side-channel habitats. At higher flows, retention is driven by overbank flows that inundate the floodplain. Based on insights gained from the analysis of field data and modeling outputs, we consider the effects of flow regime modifications or channel re-engineering on the distribution and retention of free embryos within the Lower Missouri River.

  15. Geomorphic changes resulting from floods in reconfigured gravel-bed river channels in Colorado, USA (United States)

    Elliott, J.G.; Capesius, J.P.


    Geomorphic changes in reconfi gured reaches of three Colorado rivers in response to floods in 2005 provide a benchmark for "restoration" assessment. Sedimententrainment potential is expressed as the ratio of the shear stress from the 2 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, and 2005 floods to the critical shear stress for sediment. Some observed response was explained by the excess of flood shear stress relative to the resisting force of the sediment. Bed-load entrainment in the Uncompahgre River and the North Fork Gunnison River, during 4 and 6 yr floods respectively, resulted in streambed scour, streambed deposition, lateral-bar accretion, and channel migration at various locations. Some constructed boulder and log structures failed because of high rates of bank erosion or bed-material deposition. The Lake Fork showed little or no net change after the 2005 flood; however, this channel had not conveyed floods greater than the 2.5 yr flood since reconfi guration. Channel slope and the 2 yr flood, a surrogate for bankfull discharge, from all three reconfi gured reaches plotted above the Leopold and Wolman channel-pattern threshold in the "braided channel" region, indicating that braiding, rather than a single-thread meandering channel, and midchannel bar formation may be the natural tendency of these gravel-bed reaches. When plotted against a total stream-power and median-sediment-size threshold for the 2 yr flood, however, the Lake Fork plotted in the "single-thread channel" region, the North Fork Gunnison plotted in the " multiplethread" region, and the Uncompahgre River plotted on the threshold. All three rivers plotted in the multiple-thread region for floods of 5 yr recurrence or greater. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  16. Effects of environmental changes and human impact on the functioning of mountain river channels, Carpathians, southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzemień Kazimierz


    Full Text Available In the northern slope of the Carpathian Mountains and in their foreland, river and stream channels have been significantly transformed by human impact. These transformations result from changing land use in river basins and direct interference with river channels (alluvia extraction, engineering infrastructure, channel straightening. Anthropogenic impacts cause significant changes in the channel system patterns leading to increased impact of erosion. This mainly leads to the channelling of the fluvial system. This article reviews studies of structure and dynamics of Carpathian river channels conducted based on the methodology of collection of data on channel systems, developed in the Department of Geomorphology of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University.

  17. Sediment Transport and Channel Morphology of the Kosi River, North Bihar Plain (India) (United States)

    Gaurav, Kumar; Chauvet, Hugo; Metivier, Francois; Devauchelle, Olivier; Sinha, Rajiv


    The Kosi River of the northern Bihar plain, India and Nepal, is well-known for the frequent lateral shift of its course. In the last two centuries, it migrated more than 150 km westward (Gole and Chitale, 1966; Wells and Dorr, 1987; Sinha.R, 2008). This westward shift produced a megafan of an area about 16,000 Km2. Today the river shows a braided networks of streams of various magnitude. The large dimension of the Kosi river, its sandy bed, and its avulsive nature makes it an ideal field site to understand sediment transport in large braided rivers. We report measurements of discharge, velocity, width and depth across channels of the Kosi river within its embankment. ADCP measurements were performed during the high flow period in late July to early August 2012. First-hand analysis of the ADCP data shows order-of-magnitude variations of channel aspect ratio, discharge and velocity. We use these measurements to evaluate wether individual threads are close to the threshold for the sediment movement, and to evaluate the relationship between channel shape and discharge. This represents a first step towards the establishment of sediment budgets in a large sandy braided river.

  18. Monitoring and Mapping Off-Channel Water Quality in the Willamette River, Oregon (United States)

    Buccola, N. L.; Rounds, S. A.; Smith, C.; Anderson, C.; Jones, K.; Mangano, J.; Wallick, R.


    The floodplain of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon includes remnant slower-moving sloughs, side-channels, and alcoves that provide rearing habitat and potential cool-water sources for native cold-water fish species, such as the federally threatened Chinook salmon. The mapping and characterization of the hydraulics and water sources of these off-channel areas is the first step toward protecting and restoring these resources for future generations. A primary focus of this study is to determine how flow management can increase the habitat value of these off-channel areas, especially during summer low-flow periods when water temperatures in the main channel regularly exceed lethal temperatures for salmonids. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Oregon State University, has been measuring the characteristics of off-channel water quality in the Willamette River under a variety of water levels in summer 2015-16. About 30 diverse off-channel sites within the Willamette floodplain are being monitored and compared with conditions in the main channel. Hourly water temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen (DO) data are being collected at a subset of these sites. Some deep off-channel pools have substantial, consistent cool-water inflows that can dominate locally, allowing them to function as cold-water refuges for salmonids at varying mainstem Willamette flows. Other sloughs have varying characteristics due to intermittent connections to the main channel, depending on river levels. A vibrant community of algae and aquatic macrophytes often coincide with thick layers of fine sediment or organic detritus near the bed, producing low DO zones (<5 mg/L) in many slower-moving off-channel areas. We propose some preliminary hydro-geomorphic categories to better explain cool inflows as sourced from regional groundwater aquifers or localized subsurface river features. A better understanding of the processes governing the

  19. Hydraulic interactions between a meandering river channel and its floodplain during an overbank flood (United States)

    Harrison, L.; Dunne, T.; Fisher, B.


    River channel and floodplain complexity is generated by the lateral migration of meandering river channels across the floodplain surface. The main driver of meander migration is the flow field which erodes the outer bank of river bends, scours pools, creates topographic variability on the floodplain and interacts with riparian vegetation. Flows between channels and floodplains are generally thought to be highly three-dimensional due to the presence of secondary circulation cells and helical flow patterns observed in laboratory experiments, yet few field datasets exist to test or validate existing conceptual models. Flow over and through floodplain vegetation has also been difficult to characterize at the field scale. We took advantage of a remarkably long and stable 5-year flood discharge to measure flow fields across the floodplain and in curved reaches of the gravel-bed Merced River In California to document the hydraulic interactions between the channel and floodplain. We then developed, calibrated and validated a quasi-3D hydrodynamic model of the flows in order to expand the interpretation of the results. Due to the spatial variability in both topography and flow resistance, the modeling required detailed mapping of the channel-floodplain surface and vegetation with a terrestrial LiDAR scanner and RTK GPS units. The results highlight several general aspects of the channel-floodplain flow during an overbank flow event: (1) the flow field in the channel was largely two-dimensional with only weak helical flow patterns; (2) the highest channel velocities and boundary shear stresses occurred at the local maxima in bend curvature where lateral migration has been documented via repeat topographic surveys; (3) flow velocities rapidly decelerated as water was decanted from the channel onto the floodplain where the velocity magnitude was roughly 20-30% of the average channel velocity; (4) dense vegetation along the channel margins enhanced channel velocities but reduced

  20. Analysis of Sedimentation Rates in the Densu River Channel: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    dams, pipes, canals, bridges, water treatment processes and in the evaluation of quality of water problems (Ayibotele & Tuffour-Darko, ... The degradation of the basin is attributed to the increase in the population of districts through which the river flows, particularly in the Greater Accra Region. For instance, the population of ...

  1. River channel instability in East Anglia as a result of increasing water demand (United States)

    Anstead, Lenka; Tovey, Keith


    Both climate change and population growth are having an increasing effect on the morphodynamics of lowland rivers in East Anglia, mainly due to the rising water demand and the increasing magnitude of climate extremes such as droughts or floods. The region has had the UK's highest percentage increase in population in recent years and it is projected to rise by a further 20% over the next 15 years. East Anglia is also already the driest region in the UK. It receives only half of the national average annual rainfall in a normal year and most catchments are over-abstracted. The naturally-available water supply is low and therefore water has to be transferred from neighbouring catchments via pipelines and existing rivers, adding a significant amount of extra water to the natural river flows. Inadequate research is available to explain the spatial and temporal relationships of these additional flows on the affected river channels. A four year field study has been recently undertaken to explore the rates and causes of river channel instability on the River Stour in East Anglia. A river bank retreat of up to 1.3 m/year was recorded, which is much higher than the maximum rate of 0.2 m/year interpreted from an analysis of historical maps since 1886. The field study employed a unique combination of four geomorphologic field methods including the use of innovative photo-electronic erosion pins system for detailed continuous bank research. The studied river channel is used to transport additional water to supply, which was found to create 40% of all effective flows in the upstream reaches during the study period. The impact of this transferred water decreased downstream. The frequency of effective flows due to the water transfer scheme was examined against the river bank erosion retreat data considering the complexity of the channel boundary processes. Clear morphological evidence has also been collected that proves the effect that the water transfer flows are having on the

  2. The formation and maintenance of single-thread tie channels entering floodplain lakes: observations from three diverse river systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, Joel C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dietrich, William E [UC BERKELEY; Day, Geoff [NEWCREST MINING; Parker, Gary [UNIV OF ILLINOIS


    Tie channels connect rivers to floodplain lakes on many lowland rivers and thereby play a central role in floodplain sedimentology and ecology, yet they are generally unrecognized and little studied. here we report the results of field studies focused on tie channel origin and morphodynamics in three contrasting systems: the Middle Fly River, Papua New Guinea, the Lower Mississippi River, and Birch Creek in Alaska. Across these river systems, tie channels vary by an order of magnitude in size but exhibit the same characteristic morphology and appear to develop and evolve by a similar set of processes. In all three systems, the channels are characterized by a narrow, leveed single-thread morphology with maximum width approximately one tenth the width of the mainstem river. The channels typically have a V shaped cross-section, unlike most fluvial channels. These channels develop as lakes become isolated from the river by sedimentation. Narrowing of the connection between river and lake causes a sediment-laden jet to develop. Levees develop along the margins of the jet leading to channel emergence and eventual levee aggradation to the height of the mainstem levees. Bi-directional flow in these channels is common. Outflows from the lake scour sediment and prevent channel blockage. We propose that channel geometry and size are then controlled by a dynamic balance between channel narrowing by suspended sediment deposition and incision and widening by mass failure of banks during outflows. Tie channels are laterally stable and may convey flow for hundreds to a few thousand of years.

  3. Channel Morphological Changes in the Yuba River, California, in the Post-Hydraulic Mining Period (United States)

    Ghoshal, S.; James, A.; Singer, M.; Aalto, R.


    Hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada of California (1853-1884) produced large volumes of sediment from upland placer gravels. The prevailing belief has been that piedmont storage of this sediment is volumetrically negligible or inactive. This study tests the hypothesis that large deposits of historical sediment remaining in the bed, banks and terraces of the lower Yuba River have been remobilized by floods and that erosion has continued over the past few decades. Remote sensing and GIS analyses of topographic and planimetric data from historical maps, surveys, aerial photographs, and LiDAR data document historic changes and the timing of sediment erosion and deposition within the channel and floodplain system. Planimetric and volumetric measurements of channel enlargement, lateral migration, avulsions, and channel filling provide magnitudes of erosion and deposition of historic sediments in the lower Yuba River. In 1906, the California Debris Commission produced a detailed large-scale topographic map of the lower Yuba floodplain showing it as a multi-thread channel system. The paleochannel scars remain evident on air photos, LiDAR images, and in the field. Differencing of topographic data derived from the 1906 topographic maps and 1999 LiDAR data provide volumetric measures of substantial channel morphologic changes including channel shifting, filling, and evolution towards a single- thread channel system. These measures identify processes and rates of sediment production relevant to broader issues of flood hazards in the region.

  4. Influence of hydrologic modifications on Fraxinus pennsylvanica in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA (United States)

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.


    We used tree-ring analysis to examine radial growth response of a common, moderately flood-tolerant species (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) to hydrologic and climatic variability for > 40 years before and after hydrologic modifications affecting two forest stands in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (USA): a stand without levees below dams and a stand within a ring levee. At the stand without levees below dams, spring flood stages decreased and overall growth increased after dam construction, which we attribute to a reduction in flood stress. At the stand within a ring levee, growth responded to the elimination of overbank flooding by shifting from being positively correlated with river stage to not being correlated with river stage. In general, growth in swales was positively correlated with river stage and Palmer Drought Severity Index (an index of soil moisture) for longer periods than flats. Growth decreased after levee construction, but swales were less impacted than flats likely because of differences in elevation and soils provide higher soil moisture. Results of this study indicate that broad-scale hydrologic processes differ in their effects on the flood regime, and the effects on growth of moderately flood-tolerant species such as F. pennsylvanica can be mediated by local-scale factors such as topographic position, which affects soil moisture.

  5. Heavy metal storage in near channel sediments of the Lahn River, Germany (United States)

    Martin, Charles W.


    Heavy metal pollution in urban, industrial, and mined watersheds of Europe is well documented, but less is known about metal contamination in agrarian watersheds or those with no history of mining. Along a 75-km reach of the Lahn River, central Germany, near-channel flood-plain sediments (industrial watersheds of western Europe, individual near-channel sites along the Lahn River have metal concentrations approaching those found in more urbanized drainage basins. Several sites along the Lahn are "excessively contaminated" with Cd and "moderately/strongly" contaminated with Cu, Pb, and Zn. Metal concentrations are generally higher and more variable downstream from metal-producing locations and in the vicinity of industrial facilities. Topographic and geomorphic factors appear to have minimal influence on near-channel metal concentrations. The elevated concentrations of metals in geomorphically sensitive channel banks and near-channel sediments raise the possibility of future metal pollution in the Lahn River watershed even as metal emissions to the environment decline.

  6. Probabilistic Evaluation of Anthropogenic Regulations In a Vegetated River Channel Using a Vegetation Dynamics Modeling (United States)

    Miyamoto, Hitoshi


    Vegetation overgrowth in fluvial floodplains, gravel beds, and sand bars has been a serious engineering problem for riparian management in Japan. From the viewpoints of flood control and ecological conservation, it would be necessary to predict the vegetation dynamics accurately for long-term duration. In this research, we have developed a stochastic model for predicting the vegetation dynamics in fluvial floodplains with emphasis on the interaction with flood impacts. The model consists of the following four components: (i) long-term stochastic behavior of flow discharge, (ii) hydrodynamics in a channel with floodplain vegetation, (iii) variation of riverbed topography, and (iv) vegetation dynamics on floodplains. In the vegetation dynamics model, the flood discharge (i) is stochastically simulated using a filtered Poisson process, one of the conventional approaches in hydrological time-series generation. The component for vegetation dynamics (iv) includes the effects of tree growth, mortality by floods, and infant tree recruitment. Vegetation condition has been observed mainly before and after floods since 2008 at a field site located between 23-24 km from the river mouth in Kako River, Japan. The Kako River has the catchment area of 1,730 km2 and the main channel length of 96 km. This site is one of the vegetation overgrowth sites in the Kako River floodplains. The predominant tree species are willows and bamboos. In the field survey, the position, trunk diameter and height of each tree as well as the riverbed materials were measured after several flood events to investigate their impacts on the floodplain vegetation community. This presentation tries to examine effects of anthropogenic river regulations, i.e., thinning and cutting-down, in the vegetated channel in Kako River by using the vegetation dynamics model. Sensitivity of both the flood water level and the vegetation status in the channel is statistically evaluated in terms of the different cutting

  7. Dynamic Channel Network Extraction from Satellite Imagery of the Jamuna River (United States)

    Addink, E. A.; Marra, W. A.; Kleinhans, M. G.


    Evolution of the largest rivers on Earth is poorly understood while their response to global change is dramatic, such as severe drought and flooding problems. Rivers with high annual dynamics, like the Jamuna, allow us to study their response to changing conditions. Most remote-sensing work so far focused only on pixel-based analysis of channels and change detection or manual digitisation of channels, which is far from urgently needed quantifiers of pattern and pattern change. Using a series of Landsat TM images taken at irregular intervals showing inter- and intra-annual variation, we demonstrate that braided rivers can be represented as nearly chain-like directional networks. These can be studied with novel methods gleaned from neurology. These networks provide an integral spatial description of the network and should not be confused with hierarchical hydrological stream network descriptions developed in the ’60s to describe drainage basins. The images were first classified into water, bare sediment and vegetation. The contiguous water body of the river was then selected and translated into a network description with bifurcations and confluences at the nodes, and interconnecting channels. Along the entire river the well-known braiding indices were derived from the network. The channel width is a crucial attribute of the channel network as this allows the calculation of bifurcation asymmetry. The width was also used with channel length as weights to all the elements in the network in the calculation of more advanced measures for the nature and evolution of the channel network. The key step here is to describe river network evolution by identifying the same node in multiple subsequent images as well as new and abandoned nodes, in order to distinguish migration of bifurcations from avulsion processes. Once identified through time, the changes in node position and the changes in the connected channels can be quantified. These changes can potentially be linked to

  8. Channel change and bed-material transport in the Umpqua River basin, Oregon (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Anderson, Scott; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Cannon, Charles; Risley, John C.


    The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers of western Oregon; with headwaters in the Cascade Range, the river flows through portions of the Klamath Mountains and Oregon Coast Range before entering the Pacific Ocean. Above the head of tide, the Umpqua River, along with its major tributaries, the North and South Umpqua Rivers, flows on a mixed bedrock and alluvium bed, alternating between bedrock rapids and intermittent, shallow gravel bars composed of gravel to cobble-sized clasts. These bars have been a source of commercial aggregate since the mid-twentieth century. Below the head of tide, the Umpqua River contains large bars composed of mud and sand. Motivated by ongoing permitting and aquatic habitat concerns related to in-stream gravel mining on the fluvial reaches, this study evaluated spatial and temporal trends in channel change and bed-material transport for 350 kilometers of river channel along the Umpqua, North Umpqua, and South Umpqua Rivers. The assessment produced (1) detailed mapping of the active channel, using aerial photographs and repeat surveys, and (2) a quantitative estimation of bed-material flux that drew upon detailed measurements of particle size and lithology, equations of transport capacity, and a sediment yield analysis. Bed-material transport capacity estimates at 45 sites throughout the South Umpqua and main stem Umpqua Rivers for the period 1951-2008 result in wide-ranging transport capacity estimates, reflecting the difficulty of applying equations of bed-material transport to a supply-limited river. Median transport capacity values calculated from surface-based equations of bedload transport for each of the study reaches provide indications of maximum possible transport rates and range from 8,000 to 27,000 metric tons per year (tons/yr) for the South Umpqua River and 20,000 to 82,000 metric tons/yr for the main stem Umpqua River upstream of the head of tide; the North Umpqua River probably contributes little bed material. A

  9. 77 FR 36394 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD (United States)


    ..., National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... launched from a floating platform located within the National Harbor Access Channel at Oxon Hill in Prince... River, National Harbor Access Channel, within a 150 yards radius of a fireworks discharge platform in...

  10. 77 FR 56115 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD (United States)


    ..., National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... launched from a floating platform located within the National Harbor Access Channel at Oxon Hill in Prince... Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, within a 150 yards radius of a fireworks discharge platform...

  11. The impact of nitrogen contamination and river modification on a Mississippi River floodplain lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthic, Indu [Box 1099 Environmental Sciences Program, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Brugam, Richard B., E-mail: [Box 1651 Department of Biological Sciences, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Retzlaff, William [Box 1099 Environmental Sciences Program, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL 62026 (United States); Johnson, Kevin


    Anthropogenic nitrogen contamination has increased in ecosystems around the world (frequently termed the “nitrogen cascade”). Coke production for steel manufacturing is often overlooked as a source of nitrogen to natural ecosystems. We examined sediment cores from a Horseshoe Lake, a floodplain lake located just East of St. Louis Missouri (USA) to test whether a coking plant effluent could be traced using stable isotopes of nitrogen and diatom microfossils. The distribution of δ{sup 15}N values in surface sediment samples from the lake shows the highest values near the coking plant effluent. Stable isotopes of nitrogen from 4 sediment cores using a mixing model showed three sources of nitrogen since 1688 CE. The first source (active between 1688 and 1920 CE) had a calculated δ{sup 15}N value ranging between − 0.4 and 1.1‰ depending on the core. After 1920 a second source with a δ{sup 15}N ranging between 10.6 and 15.4‰ became active. The change in these sources coincides with the construction of a coking plant on the lake shore. A third source with a value approximately 7.0‰ was present at all times and represents background. The diatom microfossil assemblages present from 1688 CE to the late 1800s are dominated by the planktonic species Aulacoseira granulata and periphytic and benthic genera Gomphonema, Cocconeis, and Lyrella. After the late 1800s the diatom assemblages are dominated by Staurosira species indicating a shift of species from high flow riverine environments to epipelic species from a lake environment. Diatom microfossils seem to track the reduction in flooding due to leveeing of the floodplain and the isolation of the lake from the river. Our results show how stable isotopes of nitrogen can be used to track nitrogen inputs from industrial sources. Diatom changes corresponded with changes in connectivity between the Mississippi River and its floodplain. - Highlights: • Effluent from a steel plant increases fixed nitrogen input to a

  12. Downstream effects of the Pelton-Round Butte hydroelectric project on bedload, transport, channel morphology, and channel-bed texture, lower Deschutes River, Oregon. (United States)

    Heidi Fassnacht; Ellen M. McClure; Gordon E. Grant; Peter C. Klingeman


    Field, laboratory, and historical data provide the basis for interpreting the effects of the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex on the surface water hydrology and geomorphology of the lower Deschutes River, Oregon, USA. The river's response to upstream impoundment and flow regulation is evaluated in terms of changes in predicted bedload transport rates, channel...

  13. Bottom morphology in the Song Hau distributary channel, Mekong River Delta, Vietnam (United States)

    Allison, Mead A.; Dallon Weathers, H.; Meselhe, Ehab A.


    Field studies in the Song Hau distributary of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam conducted at high (Sept.-Oct 2014) and low (March 2015) Mekong River discharge are utilized to examine channel bottom morphology and links with sediment transport in the system. Multibeam bathymetric mapping surveys over the entire channel complex in the lower 80 km of the distributary channel, and over 12- to 24-h tidal periods at six transect locations in the reach are used to characterize bottom type and change on seasonal and tidal timescales, supplemented by bottom sampling. The results of this study indicate that the largest proportion of channel floor (up to 80% of the total area) is composed of substratum outcrops of relict sediment units deposited during the progradation of the delta in the last 3.5 ka. These take the form of outcrops that are either (1) steep-sided, tabular channel floor, (2) steep-sided sidewall, or (3) relatively flat channel floor. Flatter outcrops of channel floor substratum are identified by the presence of sedimentary furrows (<0.5 m deep) incised into the channel bottom that are exposed at high discharge and oriented along channel and laterally continuous for kilometers. These furrows are persistent in location and extent across tidal cycles and appear to be incised into relict units, sometimes with a thin surficial layer of modern sediment observable in bottom grabs. The extent of substratum exposure, greater than that observed previously in low tidal energy systems like the Mississippi River, may relate both to a relatively low sand supply from the catchment, and/or to an efficient transfer of both sand and mud through this tidally energetic channel. Sand bottom areas forming dunes, comprise about 19% of the channel floor over the study area and are generally less than a few meters thick except on bar extensions of mid-channel islands. Both sandy and substratum areas are mantled by soft muds 0.25-1 m thick during low discharge in the estuarine section of

  14. Morphodynamic river processes and techniques for assessment of channel evolution in Alpine gravel bed rivers (United States)

    Formann, E.; Habersack, H. M.; Schober, St.


    Over the past 10 years many restoration projects have been undertaken in Austria, and river engineering measures such as spur dykes and longitudinal bank protection, which imposed fixed lateral boundaries on rivers, have been removed. The EU-Life Project "Auenverbund Obere Drau" has resulted in extensive restoration on the River Drau, aimed to improve the ecological integrity of the river ecosystem, to arrest riverbed degradation, and to ensure flood protection. An essential part of the restoration design involved the consideration of self-forming river processes, which led to new demands being imposed on river management. This paper illustrates how model complexity is adapted to the solution and evaluation of different aspects of river restoration problems in a specific case. Point-scale monitoring data were up-scaled to the whole investigation area by means of digital elevation models, and a scaling approach to the choice of model complexity was applied. Simple regime analysis methods and 1-D models are applicable to the evaluation of long-term and reach-scale restoration aims, and to the prediction of kilometre-scale processes (e.g. mean river bed aggradation or degradation, flood protection). 2-D models gave good results for the evaluation of hydraulic changes (e.g. transverse flow velocities, shear stresses, discharges at diffluences) for different morphological units at the local scale (100 m-10 m), and imposed an intermediate demand on calibration data and topographic survey. The study shows that complex 3-D numerical models combined with high resolution digital elevation models are necessary for detailed analysis of processes (1 m-0.01 m), but not for the evaluation of the restoration aims on the River Drau. In conclusion, model choice (complexity) will depend on both lower limits (determined by the complexity of processes to be analysed) and upper limits (field data quality and process understanding for numerical models).

  15. The usefulness of low-altitude aerial photography for the assessment of channel morphodynamics of a lowland river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowski Piotr


    Full Text Available The paper presents examples of using low-altitude aerial images of a modern river channel, acquired from an ultralight aircraft. The images have been taken for two sections of the Vistula river: in the Małopolska Gorge and near Dęblin and Gołąb. Alongside with research flights, there were also terrestrial investigations, such as echo sounding of the riverbed and geological mapping, carried out in the river channel zone. A comparison of the results of aerial and terrestrial research revealed high clarity of the images, allowing for precise identification of the evidence that indicates the specific course of river channel processes. Aerial images taken from ultralight aircrafts can significantly increase the accuracy of geological surveys of river channel zones in the Polish Lowlands due to low logistic requirements.

  16. Deriving Flood-Mediated Connectivity between River Channels and Floodplains: Data-Driven Approaches (United States)

    Zhao, Tongtiegang; Shao, Quanxi; Zhang, Yongyong


    The flood-mediated connectivity between river channels and floodplains plays a fundamental role in flood hazard mapping and exerts profound ecological effects. The classic nearest neighbor search (NNS) fails to derive this connectivity because of spatial heterogeneity and continuity. We develop two novel data-driven connectivity-deriving approaches, namely, progressive nearest neighbor search (PNNS) and progressive iterative nearest neighbor search (PiNNS). These approaches are illustrated through a case study in Northern Australia. First, PNNS and PiNNS are employed to identify flood pathways on floodplains through forward tracking. That is, progressive search is performed to associate newly inundated cells in each time step to previously inundated cells. In particular, iterations in PiNNS ensure that the connectivity is continuous - the connection between any two cells along the pathway is built through intermediate inundated cells. Second, inundated floodplain cells are collectively connected to river channel cells through backward tracing. Certain river channel sections are identified to connect to a large number of inundated floodplain cells. That is, the floodwater from these sections causes widespread floodplain inundation. Our proposed approaches take advantage of spatial-temporal data. They can be applied to achieve connectivity from hydro-dynamic and remote sensing data and assist in river basin planning and management.

  17. The equilibrium alluvial river under variable flow and its channel-forming discharge (United States)

    Blom, Astrid; Arkesteijn, Liselot; Chavarrías, Víctor; Viparelli, Enrica


    When the water discharge, sediment supply, and base level vary around stable values, an alluvial river evolves toward a mean equilibrium or graded state with small fluctuations around this mean state (i.e., a dynamic or statistical equilibrium state). Here we present analytical relations describing the mean equilibrium geometry of an alluvial river under variable flow by linking channel slope, width, and bed surface texture. The solution holds in river normal flow zones (or outside both the hydrograph boundary layer and the backwater zone) and accounts for grain size selective transport and particle abrasion. We consider the variable flow rate as a series of continuously changing yet steady water discharges (here termed an alternating steady discharge). The analysis also provides a solution to the channel-forming water discharge, which is here defined as the steady water discharge that, given the mean sediment supply, provides the same equilibrium channel slope as the natural long-term hydrograph. The channel-forming water discharge for the gravel load is larger than the one associated with the sand load. The analysis illustrates how the load is distributed over the range of water discharge in the river normal flow zone, which we term the "normal flow load distribution". The fact that the distribution of the (imposed) sediment supply spatially adapts to this normal flow load distribution is the origin of the hydrograph boundary layer. The results quantify the findings by Wolman and Miller (1960) regarding the relevance of both magnitude and frequency of the flow rate with respect to channel geometry.

  18. Channel morphodynamics on a small proglacial braid plain (Fagge River, Gepatschferner, Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Morche


    Full Text Available Braid plains are important sediment stores in high mountains, particularly in the glacier forefields of Alpine glaciers. Proglacial braid plains receive sediment input from glacial meltwater and proglacial sediment sources like moraines and glacio-fluvial deposits. The channel morphodynamics on the braid plains are strongly related to the sediment transport and flow regime of the proglacial river. This study deals with channel morphodynamics on a small proglacial braid plain in the European Alps. It focuses on two different time scales. Decadal channel planform changes were assessed by remote sensing approaches. The recent channel bed changes were investigated by cross-sectional surveys and particle counts in 2013. This study is part of the DFG/FWF funded interdisciplinary research project PROSA (High-resolution measurements of morphodynamics in rapidly changing PROglacial Systems of the Alps.

  19. The Influence of Climate, Lithology and Subsidence on the Transient Evolution of Hawaiian River Channels (United States)

    Gasparini, N. M.; Menking, J. A.; Han, J.; Johnson, J. P.


    We explore channel form and evolution in the Kohala peninsula of the Big Island of Hawai’i. Incoming trade winds from the northeast create a dramatic gradient in precipitation rates, which vary from over 4000 mm/yr on the wet side to less than 250 mm/yr on the dry side of the peninsula. The region is composed of two volcanic series: the older Pololu basalt (260-450 ka), which is capped in some places by the younger Hawi series (120-260 ka). Subsidence rates in the region are about 2.5 mm/yr. We use a 10 m digital elevation model, field surveys, and a numerical model to explore the effects of these boundary conditions on the transient evolution of Kohala river channels. We find that channels on the wet side receive, on average, over ~ 1600 mm/yr of rainfall and have developed convex-concave profiles with large (10-30 m) knickpoints. In almost all cases, the largest knickpoints in the wet-side channels lie near the contact between the Hawi and Pololu series. In comparison, channels on the dry side receive, on average, less than 1600 mm/yr of rainfall and have developed nearly straight longitudinal profiles, less local relief, and smaller knickpoints. Across the peninsula a correlation exists between greater concavity indices and higher mean annual precipitation, as well as between higher local relief along the channel and higher mean annual precipitation. While knickpoint propagation clearly influences channel evolution, numerical simulations using a one-dimensional channel profile evolution model that includes only the stream-power model suggest that the precipitation pattern and subsidence boundary condition may significantly contribute to the convex-concave form of wet-side channels. All of these observations suggest that rainfall patterns play an important role in transient channel evolution, but that changes in lithology and subsidence also significantly impact the form of the channel profile.

  20. Changes in floodplain inundation under nonstationary hydrology for an adjustable, alluvial river channel (United States)

    Call, B. C.; Belmont, P.; Schmidt, J. C.; Wilcock, P. R.


    Predicting the frequency and aerial extent of flooding in river valleys is essential for infrastructure design, environmental management, and risk assessment. Conventional flood prediction relies on assumptions of stationary flood distributions and static channel geometries. However, nonstationary flow regimes are increasingly observed and changes in flow and/or sediment supply are known to alter the geometry and flood conveyance of alluvial channels. Systematic changes in flows and/or channel geometry may amplify or attenuate the frequency and/or extent of flood inundation in unexpected ways. We present a stochastic, reduced complexity model to investigate such dynamics. The model routes a series of annual peak discharges through a simplified reach-averaged channel-floodplain cross section. Channel width, depth, and slope are permitted to adjust annually by a user-specified fraction toward equilibrium geometries predicted based on each year's peak discharge and sediment supply. Modeled channel adjustments are compared with empirical observations for two rivers in Minnesota, USA that have experienced multiple large floods over the past 6 years. The model is then run using six hypothetical scenarios simulating nonstationary flow regimes with temporal adjustments in the mean and/or variance of the governing peak-flow distributions. Each scenario is run repeatedly while varying parameters that control the amount of fractional adjustment that channel geometries can make annually. Results indicate that the intra-annual mean horizontal width of floodplain inundation primarily depends on the governing peak-flow distribution's coefficient of variation, but the intra-annual frequency of floodplain inundation (i.e., the fraction of modeled years with inundation) primarily depends on the amount of channel adjustment permitted annually.

  1. A case of self-perturbation: channel responses to meander cutoffs in the Ucayali River, Peru (United States)

    Schwenk, Jonathan; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi


    In 1997, the most drastic change in the course of the Ucayali River in over 200 years took place with the cutoff of a human-induced, 72 km triple-lobed meander bend near Pucallpa, Peru. The cutoff's anthropogenic origins are attributed to local ribereños, who decades earlier in an effort to reduce canoe travel time carved a meter deep by 2 m wide shortcut channel across the neck of the bend. The river responded dramatically in the following years, undergoing accelerated migration and channel widening both up- and downstream of the cutoff that led to the eventual cutoff of four additional cutoffs (three downstream and one upstream). In this study, we quantify Ucayali's response to this major cutoff event as well as twelve additional cutoffs occurring since 1992 through the analysis of annual, bankfull-resolving, Landsat-derived channel masks. Cutoff-induced accelerated morphodynamics occurred downstream of all 13 cutoffs, with 11/13 cutoffs spurring accelerated migration and 8/13 causing channel widening. We attempt to understand the mechanisms driving the observed nonlocal accelerated morphodynamics by computing the change in length of the river due to cutoff, which is approximately proportional to the slope perturbation, and the volumes of sediment released to the downstream reaches through the excavation of chute channels. By tracking planform changes of individual meander bends near cutoffs, we find that the downstream distance of cutoff influence scales linearly with the length of the removed reach. Our findings highlight the understated role of cutoff perturbations as drivers of nonlocal morphologic change and provide insight toward improved predictions of channel responses.

  2. Legacy Morphologies: Channel Avulsions and Historical Engineering Structures Drive Form and Process in the Lower Yuba and Feather Rivers, California (United States)

    James, L. A.; Singer, M. B.; Aalto, R.


    Geomorphic changes in the lower Yuba and Feather Rivers due to hydraulic mining provide a chance to study centennial-scale processes. Channel changes over 150 years were determined using channel-bank stratigraphy, geochemical signatures (total Hg, grain-size distributions, bulk geochemistry, fallout radionuclides, and Sr/Nd isotopes), and spatial analyses of high-resolution topographic data, historical maps, and aerial photos. Repeated avulsions and broad erosion/deposition patterns are shown, including a downstream shift in activity through time. In the 20th century, both rivers experienced deep main-channel incision and floodplain alluviation of natural levees and abandoned channels. Buried trees rooted in pre- mining soils indicate the Feather has not returned to pre-mining base levels below the Yuba confluence. Early engineering works controlled channel responses and recovery. For example, the Feather River avulsed into a channel dredged through Shanghai Bend (c.1907) so it now crosses resistant Quaternary alluvium over a 3-m knickpoint bench that could soon be breached. Moreover, levees and channelization near the Yuba-Feather confluence at Marysville (c.1905) narrowed and deepened flows, encouraging the bed incision noted by Gilbert. Effects of legacy sediment on channel processes are well known. Here, channel recovery was also constrained by channel morphologies engineered with boulder wing dams and revetment in the Yuba and channelization and levees in the Feather. The resulting bed incision reduces lateral connectivity between channels and floodplains and increases sediment conveyance. Historical and anthropogenic perspectives are essential to explaining channel dynamics at these scales. Unless models of channel and floodplain evolution recognize historical changes and engineering works, they may miss crucial components of geomorphic change and potential impacts downstream. In such systems, the historical dimension is essential to river management, water

  3. Channel mapping river miles 29–62 of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, May 2009 (United States)

    Kaplinski, Matt; Hazel, Joseph E.; Grams, Paul E.; Kohl, Keith; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Tusso, Robert B.


    Bathymetric, topographic, and grain-size data were collected in May 2009 along a 33-mi reach of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The study reach is located from river miles 29 to 62 at the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers. Channel bathymetry was mapped using multibeam and singlebeam echosounders, subaerial topography was mapped using ground-based total-stations, and bed-sediment grain-size data were collected using an underwater digital microscope system. These data were combined to produce digital elevation models, spatially variable estimates of digital elevation model uncertainty, georeferenced grain-size data, and bed-sediment distribution maps. This project is a component of a larger effort to monitor the status and trends of sand storage along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park. This report documents the survey methods and post-processing procedures, digital elevation model production and uncertainty assessment, and procedures for bed-sediment classification, and presents the datasets resulting from this study.

  4. The effect of channel shape, bed morphology, and shipwrecks on flow velocities in the Upper St. Clair River (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Oberg, Kevin; Best, Jim; Parsons, Daniel R.


    In the Great Lakes of North America, the St. Clair River is the major outlet of Lake Huron and conveys water to Lake St. Clair which then flows to Lake Erie. One major topic of interest is morphological change in the St. Clair River and its impact on water levels in the Upper Great Lakes and connecting channel flows. A combined multibeam echosounder (MBES) bathymetric survey and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow survey of the outlet of Lake Huron and the Upper St. Clair River was conducted July 21 – 25, 2008. This paper presents how channel morphology and shipwrecks affect the flow in the Upper St. Clair River. The river is most constricted at the Blue Water Bridge near Port Huron, Michigan, with water velocities over 2 ms-1 for a flow of 5,200 m3s-1. Downstream of this constriction, the river flows around a bend and expands creating a large recirculation zone along the left bank due to flow separation. This recirculation zone reduces the effective channel width, and thus increases flow velocities to over 2 ms-1 in this region. The surveys reveal several shipwrecks on the bed of the St. Clair River, which possess distinct wakes in their flow velocity downstream of the wrecks. The constriction and expansion of the channel, combined with forcing of the flow by bed topography, initiates channel-scale secondary flow, creating streamwise vortices that maintain coherence downstream over a distance of several channel widths.

  5. Reduced fine sediment flux and channel change in response to the managed diversion of an upland river channel (United States)

    Perks, Matthew Thomas; Warburton, Jeff


    This paper describes the implementation of a novel mitigation approach and subsequent adaptive management, designed to reduce the transfer of fine sediment (scheme on the fluvial suspended sediment dynamics. Analysis of the river response demonstrates that the fluvial sediment system has become more restrictive with reduced fine sediment transfer. This is characterized by reductions in flow-weighted mean suspended sediment concentrations from 77.93 mg L-1 prior to mitigation, to 74.36 mg L-1 following the diversion. A Mann-Whitney U test found statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) between the pre- and post-monitoring median suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs). Whilst application of one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the coefficients of sediment rating curves developed before and after the diversion found statistically significant differences (p < 0.001), with both Loga and b coefficients becoming smaller following the diversion. Non-parametric analysis indicates a reduction in residuals through time (p < 0.001), with the developed LOWESS model over-predicting sediment concentrations as the channel stabilizes. However, the channel is continuing to adjust to the reconfigured morphology, with evidence of a headward propagating knickpoint which has migrated 120 m at an exponentially decreasing rate over the last 7 years since diversion. The study demonstrates that channel reconfiguration can be effective in mitigating fine sediment flux in headwater streams but the full value of this may take many years to achieve whilst the fluvial system slowly readjusts.

  6. Modelling the flooding capacity of a Polish Carpathian river: A comparison of constrained and free channel conditions (United States)

    Czech, Wiktoria; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Hajdukiewicz, Hanna


    The gravel-bed Biała River, Polish Carpathians, was heavily affected by channelization and channel incision in the twentieth century. Not only were these impacts detrimental to the ecological state of the river, but they also adversely modified the conditions of floodwater retention and flood wave passage. Therefore, a few years ago an erodible corridor was delimited in two sections of the Biała to enable restoration of the river. In these sections, short, channelized reaches located in the vicinity of bridges alternate with longer, unmanaged channel reaches, which either avoided channelization or in which the channel has widened after the channelization scheme ceased to be maintained. Effects of these alternating channel morphologies on the conditions for flood flows were investigated in a study of 10 pairs of neighbouring river cross sections with constrained and freely developed morphology. Discharges of particular recurrence intervals were determined for each cross section using an empirical formula. The morphology of the cross sections together with data about channel slope and roughness of particular parts of the cross sections were used as input data to the hydraulic modelling performed with the one-dimensional steady-flow HEC-RAS software. The results indicated that freely developed cross sections, usually with multithread morphology, are typified by significantly lower water depth but larger width and cross-sectional flow area at particular discharges than single-thread, channelized cross sections. They also exhibit significantly lower average flow velocity, unit stream power, and bed shear stress. The pattern of differences in the hydraulic parameters of flood flows apparent between the two types of river cross sections varies with the discharges of different frequency, and the contrasts in hydraulic parameters between unmanaged and channelized cross sections are most pronounced at low-frequency, high-magnitude floods. However, because of the deep

  7. Reduced channel conveyance on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, 1900-2009 (United States)

    Winters, Karl; Baldys, Stanley; Schreiber, Russell


    Recent floods on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, have reached higher stages compared to historical floods of similar magnitude discharges. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has operated streamflow-gaging station 07312500 Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Tex., since 1938 and flood measurements near the location of the present gage were first made in 1900. Floods recorded in 2007 and 2008 at this gaging station, including the record flood of June 30, 2007, reached higher stages compared to historical floods before 1972 of similar peak discharges. For flood measurements made at stages of more than 18 feet, peak stages were about 1 to 3 feet higher compared to peak stages of similar peak discharges measured before 1972. Flood measurements made at stages of more than 18 feet also indicate a decrease in the measured mean velocity from about 3.5 to about 2.0 feet per second from 1941 to 2008. The increase in stage and decrease in streamflow velocity for similar magnitude floods indicates channel conveyance has decreased over time. A study to investigate the causes of reduced channel conveyance in the Wichita River reach from Loop 11 downstream to River Road in Wichita Falls was done by the USGS in cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls. Historical photographs indicate substantial growth of riparian vegetation downstream from Loop 11 between 1950 and 2009. Aerial photographs taken between 1950 and 2008 also indicate an increase in riparian vegetation. Twenty-five channel cross sections were surveyed by the USGS in this reach in 2009. These cross sections were located at bridge crossings or collocated with channel cross sections previously surveyed in 1986 for use in a floodplain mapping study by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Four channel cross sections 3,400 to 11,900 feet downstream from Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard indicate narrowing of the channel. The remaining channel cross sections surveyed in 2009 by the USGS compared favorably with

  8. Regulation of the cardiac Na+ channel NaV1.5 by post-translational modifications. (United States)

    Marionneau, Céline; Abriel, Hugues


    The cardiac voltage-gated Na(+) channel, Na(V)1.5, is responsible for the upstroke of the action potential in cardiomyocytes and for efficient propagation of the electrical impulse in the myocardium. Even subtle alterations of Na(V)1.5 function, as caused by mutations in its gene SCN5A, may lead to many different arrhythmic phenotypes in carrier patients. In addition, acquired malfunctions of Na(V)1.5 that are secondary to cardiac disorders such as heart failure and cardiomyopathies, may also play significant roles in arrhythmogenesis. While it is clear that the regulation of Na(V)1.5 protein expression and function tightly depends on genetic mechanisms, recent studies have demonstrated that Na(V)1.5 is the target of various post-translational modifications that are pivotal not only in physiological conditions, but also in disease. In this review, we examine the recent literature demonstrating glycosylation, phosphorylation by Protein Kinases A and C, Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein Kinase II, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, Serum- and Glucocorticoid-inducible Kinases, Fyn and Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase, methylation, acetylation, redox modifications, and ubiquitylation of Na(V)1.5. Modern and sensitive mass spectrometry approaches, applied directly to channel proteins that were purified from native cardiac tissues, have enabled the determination of the precise location of post-translational modification sites, thus providing essential information for understanding the mechanistic details of these regulations. The current challenge is first, to understand the roles of these modifications on the expression and the function of Na(V)1.5, and second, to further identify other chemical modifications. It is postulated that the diversity of phenotypes observed with Na(V)1.5-dependent disorders may partially arise from the complex post-translational modifications of channel protein components. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Historical Channel Adjustment and Estimates of Selected Hydraulic Values in the Lower Sabine River and Lower Brazos River Basins, Texas and Louisiana (United States)

    Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Greene, Lauren E.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, evaluated historical channel adjustment and estimated selected hydraulic values at U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in the lower Sabine River Basin in Texas and Louisiana and lower Brazos River Basin in Texas to support geomorphic assessments of the Texas Instream Flow Program. Channel attributes including cross-section geometry, slope, and planform change were evaluated to learn how each river's morphology changed over the years in response to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Historical and contemporary cross-sectional channel geometries at several gaging stations on each river were compared, planform changes were assessed, and hydraulic values were estimated including mean flow velocity, bed shear stress, Froude numbers, and hydraulic depth. The primary sources of historical channel morphology information were U.S. Geological Survey hard-copy discharge-measurement field notes. Additional analyses were done using computations of selected flow hydraulics, comparisons of historical and contemporary aerial photographs, comparisons of historical and contemporary ground photographs, evaluations of how frequently stage-discharge rating curves were updated, reviews of stage-discharge relations for field measurements, and considerations of bridge and reservoir construction activities. Based on historical cross sections at three gaging stations downstream from Toledo Bend Reservoir, the lower Sabine River is relatively stable, but is subject to substantial temporary scour-and-fill processes during floods. Exceptions to this characterization of relative stability include an episode of channel aggradation at the Sabine River near Bon Wier, Texas, during the 1930s, and about 2 to 3 feet of channel incision at the Sabine River near Burkeville, Texas, since the late 1950s. The Brazos River, at gaging stations downstream from Waco, Texas, has adjusted to a combination of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zenkin


    Full Text Available The article highlights the method of calculating the optimum curvature of the river channels using the kinematic model of the flow structure based on the concept of discrete nature of the channel process. It offers the analytic form of the equation of motion of river flow, which can be used simulation modeling for searching dynamically stable form of the river channel, and which can control water level in rivers. The source data for the illustrations of given in the article modeling methods have been served the images received from MODIS on the Terra satellite, for the lower reaches of the river Kur, which merges with the river Urmi, forming the Tunguska river – the left tributary of the Amur.The modified geometric method can be used to calculate obliquity of tangent to the curve and normal in those situations when observed on satellite imagery points are located on the coordinate of the network irregularly and when three points lying on the curve of the riverbed do not form isosceles triangle.The model assembles tangential and radial components of the forces acting on the water flow (centrifugal, friction and gravity. Curvature radius is explicitly expressed in the model through the parameter  – gradient angle relative to the axis X. As solution for the value of the angle  is searched, when the correlation function reaches its maximum. It is assumed that the riverbed shape “wrong” and could be modified so that the resulting curve better correlated with calculated curve. Morphometric dependences for macroforms allow creating series of morphological methods for the calculation of deformations and displacement of the shore in any section of meander scroll.The proposed technique has been tested also on satellite imagery of high resolution. The presented methods of calculation are used as the basis for hydrological projects of geoinformation systems oriented at prediction of morphodynamic processes and morphological evolution of river

  11. Particle size distribution of main-channel-bed sediments along the upper Mississippi River, USA (United States)

    Remo, Jonathan; Heine, Ruben A.; Ickes, Brian


    In this study, we compared pre-lock-and-dam (ca. 1925) with a modern longitudinal survey of main-channel-bed sediments along a 740-km segment of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) between Davenport, IA, and Cairo, IL. This comparison was undertaken to gain a better understanding of how bed sediments are distributed longitudinally and to assess change since the completion of the UMR lock and dam navigation system and Missouri River dams (i.e., mid-twentieth century). The comparison of the historic and modern longitudinal bed sediment surveys showed similar bed sediment sizes and distributions along the study segment with the majority (> 90%) of bed sediment samples having a median diameter (D50) of fine to coarse sand. The fine tail (≤ D10) of the sediment size distributions was very fine to medium sand, and the coarse tail (≥ D90) of sediment-size distribution was coarse sand to gravel. Coarsest sediments in both surveys were found within or immediately downstream of bedrock-floored reaches. Statistical analysis revealed that the particle-size distributions between the survey samples were statistically identical, suggesting no overall difference in main-channel-bed sediment-size distribution between 1925 and present. This was a surprising result given the magnitude of river engineering undertaken along the study segment over the past ~ 90 years. The absence of substantial differences in main-channel-bed-sediment size suggests that flow competencies within the highly engineered navigation channel today are similar to conditions within the less-engineered historic channel.

  12. Functional relationships between vegetation, channel morphology, and flow efficiency in an alluvial (anabranching) river (United States)

    Jansen, John D.; Nanson, Gerald C.


    Water and sediment flux interactions are examined in Magela Creek, an alluvial (anabranching) sand bed river in the northern Australian tropics. Dense riparian vegetation stabilizes the channels and floodplains thereby preventing erosional instability at flow depths up to 6.2 times bankfull and discharges up to 15 times bankfull. Narrow anabranching channels characterize >92% of the alluvial reach and transport bed load more efficiently than short reaches of wide single-channels, yet overall 29 ± 12% of the bed load is sequestered and the average vertical accretion rate is 0.41 ± 0.17 mm yr-1 along the 12 km study reach. The most effective discharge for transporting sediment (40-45 m3 s-1) is consistent at all 5 stations (10 channels) examined and is equivalent to the channel-forming discharge. It has an average recurrence interval of 1.01 years, occurs for an exceptionally long portion (13-15%) of the annual flow duration, and averages a remarkable 2.1 times bankfull. The high flow efficiency (i.e., bed load transport rate to stream power ratio) of the anabranches is facilitated by low width/depth channels with banks reinforced by vegetation. Colonnades of bank top trees confine high-velocity flows overbed (i.e., over the channel bed) at stages well above bankfull. At even larger overbank flows, momentum exchange between the channels and forested floodplains restrains overbed velocities, in some cases causing them to decline, thereby limiting erosion. Magela Creek exhibits a complicated set of planform, cross-sectional and vegetative adjustments that boost overbed velocities and enhance bed load yield in multiple channels while restraining velocities and erosion at the largest discharges.

  13. Tracing the contribution of debris flow-dominated channels to gravel-bed torrential river channel: implementing pit-tags in the upper Guil River (French Alps) (United States)

    Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Lissak, Candide; Fort, Monique; Bétard, François; Carlier, Benoit; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier


    In the upper, wider reaches of Alpine valleys, shaping of active channels is usually subject to rapid change. It mostly depends upon hydro-climatic variability, runoff concentration and sediment supply, and may result in alternating sequences of fluvial and debris-flow pulses, as recorded in alluvial fans and terraces. Our study, carried in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, focuses on the upper Guil River Valley (Queyras, Southern French Alps) cut into the slaty shale "schistes lustrés". Steep, lower order drains carry a contrasted solid discharge, including predominantly sandy-loam particles mixed with gravels and boulders (sandstone schists, ophiolites). Abundant sediment supply by frost shattering, snow avalanche and landslides is then reworked during snowmelt or summer storm runoff events, and may result in catastrophic, very destructive floods along the main channel, as shown by historical records. Following the RI-30 year 2000 flood, our investigations included sediment budgets, i.e. balance of erosion and deposition, and the mapping of the source, transport and storage of various sediments (talus, colluvium, torrential fans, terraces). To better assess sediment fluxes and sediment delivery into the main channel network, we implemented tracers (pit-tags) in selected sub-catchments, significantly contributing to the sediment yield of the valley bottoms during the floods and/or avalanches: Maloqueste, Combe Morel, Bouchouse and Peyronnelle catchments. The first three are direct tributaries of the Guil River whereas the Peyronnelle is a left bank tributary of the Peynin River, which joins the Guil River via an alluvial cone with high human and material stakes. The Maloqueste and the Combe Morel are two tributaries facing each other in the Guil valley, representing a double lateral constraint for the road during flood events of the Guil River. After pit-tag initialisation in laboratory, we set them up along the four tributaries: Maloqueste (20 pit-tags), Combe

  14. Mitigation of hazards from future lahars from Mount Merapi in the Krasak River channel near Yogyakarta, central Java (United States)

    Ege, John R.; ,


    Procedures for reducing hazards from future lahars and debris flows in the Krasak River channel near Yogyakarta, Central Java, Indonesia, include (1) determining the history of the location, size, and effects of previous lahars and debris flows, and (2) decreasing flow velocities. The first may be accomplished by geologic field mapping along with acquiring information by interviewing local residents, and the second by increasing the cross sectional area of the river channel and constructing barriers in the flow path.

  15. The role of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and water velocity in determining river temperature dynamics (United States)

    Garner, Grace; Malcolm, Iain A.; Sadler, Jonathan P.; Hannah, David M.


    A simulation experiment was used to understand the importance of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and flow velocity for stream energy budgets and river temperature dynamics. Water temperature and meteorological observations were obtained in addition to hemispherical photographs along a ∼1 km reach of the Girnock Burn, a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland. Data from nine hemispherical images (representing different uniform canopy density scenarios) were used to parameterise a deterministic net radiation model and simulate radiative fluxes. For each vegetation scenario, the effects of eight channel orientations were investigated by changing the position of north at 45° intervals in each hemispheric image. Simulated radiative fluxes and observed turbulent fluxes drove a high-resolution water temperature model of the reach. Simulations were performed under low and high water velocity scenarios. Both velocity scenarios yielded decreases in mean (≥1.6 °C) and maximum (≥3.0 °C) temperature as canopy density increased. Slow-flowing water resided longer within the reach, which enhanced heat accumulation and dissipation, and drove higher maximum and lower minimum temperatures. Intermediate levels of shade produced highly variable energy flux and water temperature dynamics depending on the channel orientation and thus the time of day when the channel was shaded. We demonstrate that in many reaches relatively sparse but strategically located vegetation could produce substantial reductions in maximum temperature and suggest that these criteria are used to inform future river management.

  16. Sandhill crane roosts use, channel characteristics, and environmental variables along the Platte River, Nebraska, 2003-2007 (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary


    The central Platte River Valley represents a key mid-latitude stopover This dataset supports a contemporary analysis of nocturnal roost selection for sandhill cranes staging along the Platte River during 2003-2007. We explored variation in selection for previously established characteristics of roost sites, including river channel width, vegetation height along the river bank, and distance to nearest disturbance feature. This analysis also included novel environmental factors (yearly estimates of corn near roost sites, nightly temperature, wind speed, and river discharge) and how they may interact with the more established characteristics.

  17. Modification history of the Harmakhis Vallis outflow channel, Mars, based on CTX-scale photogeologic mapping and crater count dating (United States)

    Kukkonen, S.; Kostama, V.-P.


    . The most significant of the modification processes on Harmakhis Vallis has been the formation of lineated valley fill units. The lineated valley fills now cover the outflow channel almost entirely. They formed not later than ∼ 400 Ma ago based on stratigraphic analyses and crater counts. All the floor units have also been resurfaced several, usually two or three times. The resurfacing ages of the dated units show that the later modification processes have occurred at least on a local scale in the Harmakhis Vallis region, not only inside the outflow channel. This, in turn, may indicate that the processes resulted from a larger-scale change, for example in the local climate or endogenic conditions.

  18. River restoration strategies in channelized, low-gradient landscapes of West Tennessee, USA (United States)

    Smith, D.P.; Diehl, T.H.; Turrini-Smith, L. A.; Maas-Baldwin, J.; Croyle, Z.


    West Tennessee has a complex history of watershed disturbance, including agricultural erosion, channelization, accelerated valley sedimentation, and the removal and reestablishment of beaver. Watershed management has evolved from fl oodplain drainage via pervasive channelization to include local drainage canal maintenance and local river restoration. Many unmaintained canals are undergoing excessive aggradation and complex channel evolution driven by upland erosion and low valley gradient. The locus of aggradation in fully occluded canals (valley plugs) moves up-valley as sediment continues to accumulate in the backwater behind the plug. Valley plugs that cause canal avulsion can lead to redevelopment of meandering channels in less disturbed areas of the fl oodplain, in a process of passive self-restoration. Some valley plugs have brought restored fl oodplain function, reoccupation of extant historic river channels, and formation of a "sediment shadow" that protects downstream reaches from excess sedimentation. Despite the presence of numerous opportunities, there is presently no mechanism for including valley plugs in mitigation projects. In 1997 a survey of 14 reference reach cross sections documented relations between drainage area and bankfull geometry of relatively unmodified streams in West Tennessee. Reassessment of seven of those sites in 2007 showed that one had been dammed by beaver and that two sites could not be analyzed further because of signifi cant vertical or lateral instability. In contrast to other regions of North America, the results suggest that stream channels in this region fl ood more frequently than once each year, and can remain out of banks for several weeks each year. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  19. Channel morphodynamics and habitat recovery in a river reach affected by gravel-mining (River Ésera, Ebro basin) (United States)

    Lopez-Tarazon, J. A.; Lobera, G.; Andrés-Doménech, I.; Martínez-Capel, F.; Muñoz-Mas, R.; Vallés, F.; Tena, A.; Vericat, D.; Batalla, R. J.


    Physical processes in rivers are the result of the interaction between flow regime and hydraulics, morphology, sedimentology and sediment transport. The frequency and magnitude of physical disturbance (i.e. bed stability) control habitat integrity and, consequently, ecological diversity of a particular fluvial system. Most rivers experience human-induced perturbations that alter such hydrosedimentary equilibrium, thus affecting the habitat of aquatic species. A dynamic balance may take long time to be newly attained. Within this context, gravel mining is well known to affect channel characteristics mostly at the local scale, but its effect may also propagate downstream and upstream. Sedimentary forms are modified during extraction and habitat features are reduced or even eliminated. Effects tend to be most acute in contrasted climatic environments, such as the Mediterranean areas, in which climatic and hydrological variability maximises effects of impacts and precludes short regeneration periods. Present research focuses on the evolution of a river reach, which has experienced an intense gravel extraction. The selected area is located in the River Ésera (Ebro basin), where interactions between morphodynamics and habitat recovery are examined. Emphasis is put on monitoring sedimentary, morphological and hydraulic variables to later compare pre (t0) and post (t1, t2... tn) extraction situations. Methodology for all time monitoring steps (i.e. ti) includes: i) characterization of grain size distribution at all of the different hydromorphological units within the reach; ii) description of channel morphology (together with changes before and after floods) by means of close-range aerial photographs, which are taken with a digital camera attached to a 1m3 helium balloon (i.e. BLIMP); and iii) determination of flow parameters from 2D hydraulic modelling that is based on detailed topographical data obtained from Leica® GNSS/GPS and robotic total station, and River

  20. Control of Sediment Availability on the Path of Channel Recovery in Bedload-Dominated Rivers (United States)

    Doyle, H.; Renshaw, C. E.; Magilligan, F. J.


    Following a disturbance, a channel can recover to an equilibrium form by adjusting its slope, width, depth, grain size, or some combination of these dimensions that define the recovery path. In this study we relate the channel recovery path to the quantity and caliber of sediment introduced due to dam construction/removal or erosion caused by flooding. We suggest that the recovery path of a channel depends on the availability of sediment of a size that is transported as bedload during bankfull flows (the "mobile fraction"). We define a ratio, S*, of the sediment volume added to the channel because of the disturbance to the average annual sediment flux. We compare S* values to the recovery path of New England gravel-bedded streams following two dam emplacements and removals and flooding related to Tropical Storm Irene. Pelham Dam in Pelham, MA (removed 2012) and Kendrick Dam in Pittsford, VT (removed 2014) were on similar streams: drainage areas ~25 km2, slopes 1-2%, and bankfull widths ~10 m. Sediment was excavated from both impoundments prior to removal, resulting in lower S* values. Irene-affected study sites are on ~10 gravel-bedded streams in VT, NH, and MA. Sediment input at these sites is due to bank failures and landslides, many of which continue to supply sediment to the channel four years after flooding. To track recovery we collected annual topographic and sediment size data and calculated Shields numbers to determine if channels had reached an equilibrium form. We define equilibrium for bedload rivers as Shields numbers at bankfull discharge equal to that required to initiate bedload transport. Following dam emplacements the channels failed to recover because mobile sediment was unavailable. Fining dominated the recovery at Irene-affected sites (~10% reduction in sediment size) and dam removal sites (up to 30-60% reduction) with little post-disturbance change in channel geometry, possibly due to the limited mobile fraction.

  1. Evaluating the impact of a wide range of vegetation densities on river channel pattern (United States)

    Pattison, Ian; Roucou, Ron


    Braided rivers are very dynamic systems which have complex controls over their planform and flow dynamics. Vegetation is one variable which influences channel geometry and pattern, through its effect on local flow hydraulics and the process continuum of sediment erosion-transport-deposition. Furthermore, where in the braided floodplain stable vegetation develops depends on the temporal sequencing of the river discharge i.e. floods. Understanding the effect of vegetation in these highly dynamic systems has multiple consequences for human activity and floodplain management. This paper focusses on the specific role of vegetation density in controlling braided river form and processes. Previous research in this field has been contradictory; with Gran and Paola (2001) finding that increasing vegetation density decreased the number of active channels. In contrast, Coulthard (2005] observed that as vegetation become denser there was an increase in the number of channels. This was hypothesized to be caused by flow separation around vegetation and the development of bars immediately downstream of the plant. This paper reports the results from a set of experiments in a 4m by 1m flume, where discharge, slope and sediment size were kept constant. Artificial grass was used to represent vegetation with a density ranging from 50 plants/m2 to 400 plants/m2. Digital photographs, using a GoPro camera with a fish eye lens, were taken from ~1m above the flume at an interval of 30 seconds during the 3 hour experiment. The experiments showed that as the vegetation density increased from 50 to 150 plants/m2, the number of channel bars developing doubled from 12 to 24. At vegetation densities greater than 150 plants/m2 there was a decline in the number of bars created to a minimum of 8 bars for a density of 400 plants/m2. We attribute these patterns to the effect that the vegetation has on flow hydraulics, sediment transport processes and the spatial patterns of erosion and deposition. We

  2. Mapping Prehistoric, Historic, and Channel Sediment Distribution, South Fork Noyo River: A Tool For Understanding Sources, Storage, and Transport (United States)

    Rich D. Koehler; Keith I. Kelson; Graham Matthews; K.H. Kang; Andrew D. Barron


    The South Fork Noyo River (SFNR) watershed in coastal northern California contains large volumes of historic sediment that were delivered to channels in response to past logging operations. This sediment presently is stored beneath historic terraces and in present-day channels. We conducted geomorphic mapping on the SFNR valley floor to assess the volume and location...

  3. An exploratory historical analysis of biogeomorphological changes in a channelized regulated river (United States)

    Serlet, Alyssa; Gurnell, Angela; Zolezzi, Guido; Jourdain, Camille; Belleudy, Philippe


    Many recent studies have analysed historical information sources to explore the impact of human activities on river morphology and vegetation, but investigations of channelized rivers have been relatively rare. We address this research gap by investigating the historical evolution of morphology and vegetation within a 33 km straightened and embanked reach of the River Isère, a tributary of the Rhône in southeast France. The goal of this study is to establish the trajectory of biogemorphological development of the 33 km reach since the beginning of the 20th century in response to changing human pressures and interventions. Achieving this goal should lead to an improved understanding of how mainly woody vegetation and fluvial processes interact in a heavily human-impacted setting, which in turn should lead to the development of better informed management strategies. The study reach was braided prior to channelisation in 1858, when the river was confined to a single straight channel between embankments. Since the mid 20th century, the river's flow and sediment transport regimes have become increasingly influenced by hydropower development as well as by sediment mining within the studied reach between 1948 and 1973. By extracting information from the historical sources across a range of space and time scales, we identify temporal trajectories of morphological and vegetation development in response to these human interventions. In particular, we identify a progressive development of alternate bars that become vegetated and also enlarge and coalesce through the study period. These processes are evident throughout the study reach but they follow different temporal trajectories within different parts of the reach. We propose tentative links between these biogeomorphic trajectories and human causal factors while at the same time emphasising some limiting aspects of the analysis of such historical data sets.

  4. Differences in ichthyofauna feeding habits among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir

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    M. Ferrareze

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated differences in feeding habits of small-sized ichthyofauna among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir. The study was performed in four lagoons and in one sampling site of the main channel in Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. The samples were taken in September and November of 2004 and in January, March, May, and August of 2005. Fish were sampled with a 7.5 m2 hand net. Five manual throws were made toward aquatic macrophytes stands. The sampling design favored the collection of small-sized fish fauna (juveniles/small-sized species. The stomach contents of 42 species were analyzed. A total of 183 different items were consumed by fish. These items were grouped in 11 food categories, which were used to classify fish into seven trophic guilds. Aquatic insects were consumed by 32 species and were the predominant feeding item. In the river, the most consumed items were aquatic insects, cladocerans, and phytoplankton, whereas in the lagoons aquatic insects, copepods, and cladocerans were the main items. By comparing each trophic guild, the number of insectivores, algivores, and zooplanktivores species was higher in the lagoons than in the river, and the opposite was found only for omnivore fish. Low niche width in all sites indicates high trophic specialization and low niche overlap between pairs of species. Fish assemblage in the lateral lagoons presents feeding habits distinct from those of the river species, indicating that the coexistence and high abundance of small-sized fish in the sampling sites are explained by their high feeding adaptability, which includes a tendency toward dietary specialization, low feeding overlap, and resource partitioning, along with different temporal resource uses.

  5. Differences in ichthyofauna feeding habits among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir. (United States)

    Ferrareze, M; Nogueira, M G; Casatti, L


    In this study, we investigated differences in feeding habits of small-sized ichthyofauna among lateral lagoons and the river channel in a large reservoir. The study was performed in four lagoons and in one sampling site of the main channel in Rosana Reservoir, Paranapanema River, Brazil. The samples were taken in September and November of 2004 and in January, March, May, and August of 2005. Fish were sampled with a 7.5 m2 hand net. Five manual throws were made toward aquatic macrophytes stands. The sampling design favored the collection of small-sized fish fauna (juveniles/small-sized species). The stomach contents of 42 species were analyzed. A total of 183 different items were consumed by fish. These items were grouped in 11 food categories, which were used to classify fish into seven trophic guilds. Aquatic insects were consumed by 32 species and were the predominant feeding item. In the river, the most consumed items were aquatic insects, cladocerans, and phytoplankton, whereas in the lagoons aquatic insects, copepods, and cladocerans were the main items. By comparing each trophic guild, the number of insectivores, algivores, and zooplanktivores species was higher in the lagoons than in the river, and the opposite was found only for omnivore fish. Low niche width in all sites indicates high trophic specialization and low niche overlap between pairs of species. Fish assemblage in the lateral lagoons presents feeding habits distinct from those of the river species, indicating that the coexistence and high abundance of small-sized fish in the sampling sites are explained by their high feeding adaptability, which includes a tendency toward dietary specialization, low feeding overlap, and resource partitioning, along with different temporal resource uses.

  6. Sediment Trapping by Emerged Channel Bars in the Lowermost Mississippi River during a Major Flood

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    Bo Wang


    Full Text Available The formation of channel bars has been recognized as the most significant sediment response to the highly trained Mississippi River (MR. However, no quantitative study exists on the dynamics of emerged channel bars and associated sediment accumulation in the last 500-kilometer reach of the MR from the Gulf of Mexico outlet, also known as the lowermost Mississippi River. Such knowledge is especially critical for riverine sediment management to impede coastal land loss in the Mississippi River Delta. In this study, we utilized a series of satellite images taken from August 2010 to January 2012 to assess the changes in surface area and volume of three large emerged channel bars in the lowermost MR following an unprecedented spring flood in 2011. River stage data were collected to develop a rating curve of surface areas detected by satellite images with flow conditions for each of the three bars. A uniform geometry associated with the areal change was assumed to estimate the bar volume changes. Our study reveals that the 2011 spring flood increased the surface area of the bars by 3.5% to 11.1%, resulting in a total surface increase of 7.3%, or 424,000 m2. Based on the surface area change, we estimated a total bar volume increase of 4.4%, or 1,219,900 m3. This volume increase would be equivalent to a sediment trapping of approximately 1.0 million metric tons, assuming a sediment bulk density of 1.2 metric tons per cubic meter. This large quantity of sediment is likely an underestimation because of the neglect of subaqueous bar area change and the assumption of a uniform geometry in volume estimation. Nonetheless, the results imply that channel bars in the lowermost MR are capable of capturing a substantial amount of sediment during floods, and that a thorough assessment of their long-term change can provide important insights into sediment trapping in the lowermost MR as well as the feasibility of proposed river sediment diversions.

  7. Medium and short-term channel planform changes on the Rivers Tay and Tummel, Scotland (United States)

    Winterbottom, Sandra J.


    Channel planform change was analysed using a variety of data-sources for the medium-term (>25 years and Tay and Tummel, Scotland. Map data were input into a Geographic Information System (GIS) and used to determine planform characteristics and changes in width, braiding index and sinuosity for the study reach between 1755 and 1976. Aerial photographs were utilised to determine the more recent changes that had taken place between 1971 and 1994. The analysis showed that significant changes had occurred over the medium term with a mean reduction in channel width of 34% for this period. These changes are comparable to those found in studies of similar European rivers for this period. Changes determined for the short-term displayed a continuance of this trend at a comparable rate of change. An analysis of flood frequency and magnitude, precipitation and discharge records for both periods does not show an associated decrease and therefore does not reflect the changes in channel planform. Evidence points towards flood embankment construction in the mid-1800s as the initial cause of channel change for the study reach which was later exacerbated by flow regulation. Incision and the subsequent stabilisation of lateral and mid-channel gravel bars by vegetation succession has resulted in an overall increase in the stability of the study reach which has persisted even where the embankments have fallen into disrepair.

  8. Width variations and mid-channel bar inception in meanders: River Bollin (UK) (United States)

    Luchi, R.; Hooke, J. M.; Zolezzi, G.; Bertoldi, W.


    The extent and pattern of width variations along a meandering channel and its association with variation in bed topography and development of mid-channel bars have been examined through field survey evidence for a reach of the River Bollin in NW England. The wet width has been quantified along the reach by applying a hydraulic model to surveyed cross sections under a range of discharges between low flow and defined bankfull conditions. This approach allows an objective, modelling-based method to compute channel width. The high spatial resolution of the topographical survey allows capture of significant variations in the cross-sectional morphology at the meander wavelength scale. Results disclose some features of longitudinal and stage-dependent width variability in meanders. Width variation is shown to be highly correlated with curvature: at bankfull conditions width peaks in bend apex sections exceed those at inflection sections and can be up to twice greater. The width-curvature behavior is correlated with the pattern of bed and banks morphology, which is different in bend apices and in meander inflections. The survey shows that the bedform morphology can be characterized by a mid-channel bar pattern that is initiated at the inflection section and that the bedform dynamics can be closely associated with channel width variations.

  9. How are River Discharge - Suspended Sediment Relations Influenced by Watershed and Channel-Floodplain Morphology? (United States)

    Vaughan, A. A.; Belmont, P.


    Erosion, transport and deposition of fine sediment (clay, silt and fine sand) influence the form and function of river systems. Excess suspended sediment degrades stream ecosystems and is implicated as a leading cause of water quality and aquatic life impairment. Consequently, understanding the factors that control fine sediment transport regimes is an interesting topic for basic science and one that has important management and policy implications. Fine sediment is mostly transported in suspension as a non-capacity load; transport rates are dependent on sediment supply in addition to a river's transport capacity. Many studies have investigated watershed-scale topographic, hydrologic, climatic, and land use influences on fine sediment erosion and transport regimes. Several recent studies in a wide range of landscapes have demonstrated that the majority of suspended sediment may be sourced from the near-channel environment; therefore, near-channel morphological characteristics may provide better predictive power compared to watershed averages. This study analyzes recent total suspended solids (TSS) data from 45 gages on 35 separate rivers. The rivers span the state of Minnesota, draining basins ranging from 33 km2 to 68100 km2 with distinct settings in terms of topography, land cover, hydrology and geologic history. We generate rating curves of the form TSS = aQb, where Q is normalized discharge and a and b are parameters that describe the shape of the relations. Values of a range from 4 to 138 mg/L; b values range from -0.53 to 1.86. We use high resolution lidar topography data to characterize the near-channel environment upstream of gages. In addition to commonly studied metrics describing the topographic, climatic/hydrologic and land use setting of the basin, we extract near-channel morphometrics that we hypothesize to influence fine sediment generation and transport: the difference in height of banks/bluffs (a measure of the amount of material available to be

  10. Effects of channel constriction on upstream steering of flow around Locke Island, Columbia River, Washington (United States)

    Loy, G. E.; Furbish, D. J.; Covey, A.


    Landsliding of the White Bluffs along the Columbia River in Washington State has constricted the width of the river on one side of Locke Island, a two-kilometer long island positioned in the middle of the channel. Associated changes in flow are thought to be causing relatively rapid erosion of Locke Island on the constricted side. This island is of cultural significance to Native American tribes of south-central Washington, so there are social as well as scientific reasons to understand how the alteration of stream channel processes resulting from the landsliding might be influencing observed erosion rates. Simple hydrodynamic calculations suggest that the constriction on one side of the island creates an upstream backwater effect. As a consequence a cross-stream pressure gradient upstream of the island results in steering of flow around the island into the unobstructed thread. This diversion of water decreases the discharge through the constriction. Therefore, flow velocities within the constriction are not necessarily expected to be higher than those in the unobstructed thread, contrary to initial reports suggesting that higher velocities within the constriction are the main cause of erosion. We set up streamtable experiments with lapse rate imaging to illustrate the backwater effects of the channel constriction and the associated cross-stream steering of flow around a model island. Our experiments are scaled by channel roughness and slope rather than geometrically, as the main focus is to understand the mechanical behavior of flow in this type of island-landslide system. In addition, we studied the stream velocities and flow steering as well as the magnitude of the backwater effect in both the constricted and unobstructed channels using tracer particles in the time-lapse images. These experimental data are compared with calculated upstream backwater distances determined from the known water-surface slope, flow depth, total discharge, and bed roughness

  11. Post-translational modifications of voltage-gated sodium channels in chronic pain syndromes.

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    Cédric James Laedermann


    Full Text Available In the peripheral sensory nervous system the neuronal expression of voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs is a very important for the transmission of nociceptive information since they give rise to the upstroke of the action potential. Navs are composed of 9 different isoforms with distinct biophysical properties. Studying the mutations associated with the increase or absence of pain sensitivity in humans, as well as other expression studies, have highlighted Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 as being the most important contributors to the control of nociceptive neuronal electrogenesis. Modulating their expression and/or function can impact the shape of the action potential and consequently modify pain transmission, a process that is observed in persistent pain conditions.Post-translational modification (PTM of Navs is a well-known process that modifies their expression and function. In chronic pain syndromes, the release of inflammatory molecules into the direct environment of dorsal root ganglia (DRG sensory neurons leads to an abnormal activation of enzymes that induce Navs PTM. The addition of small molecules, i.e. peptides, phosphoryl groups, ubiquitin moieties and/or carbohydrates, can modify the function of Navs in two different ways: via direct physical interference with the subunit of Nav gating, or via the control of Nav trafficking. Both mechanisms have a profound impact on neuronal excitability. In this review we will discuss the role of Protein Kinase A, B and C, Mitogen Activated Protein Kinases and Ca++/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II in peripheral chronic pain syndromes. We will also discuss more recent findings that the ubiquitination of Nav1.7 by Nedd4-2 and the effect of methylglyoxal on Nav1.8 are also implicated in the development of experimental neuropathic pain. We will address the potential roles of other PTMs in chronic pain and highlight the need for further investigation of PTMs of Navs in order to develop new pharmacological

  12. Channel and Floodplain Change Analysis over a 100-Year Period: Lower Yuba River, California

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    Rolf Aalto


    Full Text Available Hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, California (1853–1884 displaced ~1.1 billion m3 of sediment from upland placer gravels that were deposited along piedmont rivers below dams where floods can remobilize them. This study uses topographic and planimetric data from detailed 1906 topographic maps, 1999 photogrammetric data, and pre- and post-flood aerial photographs to document historic sediment erosion and deposition along the lower Yuba River due to individual floods at the reach scale. Differencing of 3 × 3-m topographic data indicates substantial changes in channel morphology and documents 12.6 × 106 m3 of erosion and 5.8 × 106 m3 of deposition in these reaches since 1906. Planimetric and volumetric measurements document spatial and temporal variations of channel enlargement and lateral migration. Over the last century, channels incised up to ~13 m into mining sediments, which dramatically decreased local flood frequencies and increased flood conveyance. These adjustments were punctuated by event-scale geomorphic changes that redistributed sediment and associated contaminants to downstream lowlands.

  13. Quantifying downstream impacts of impoundment on flow regime and channel planform, lower Trinity River, Texas (United States)

    Wellmeyer, Jessica L.; Slattery, Michael C.; Phillips, Jonathan D.


    As human population worldwide has grown, so has interest in harnessing and manipulating the flow of water for the benefit of humans. The Trinity River of eastern Texas is one such watershed greatly impacted by engineering and urbanization. Draining the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, just under 30 reservoirs are in operation in the basin, regulating flow while containing public supplies, supporting recreation, and providing flood control. Lake Livingston is the lowest, as well as largest, reservoir in the basin, a mere 95 km above the Trinity's outlet near Galveston Bay. This study seeks to describe and quantify channel activity and flow regime, identifying effects of the 1968 closure of Livingston dam. Using historic daily and peak discharge data from USGS gauging stations, flow duration curves are constructed, identifying pre- and post-dam flow conditions. A digital historic photo archive was also constructed using six sets of aerial photographs spanning from 1938 to 1995, and three measures of channel activity applied using a GIS. Results show no changes in high flow conditions following impoundment, while low flows are elevated. However, the entire post-dam period is characterized by significantly higher rainfall, which may be obscuring the full impact of flow regulation. Channel activity rates do not indicate a more stabilized planform following dam closure; rather they suggest that the Trinity River is adjusting itself to the stress of Livingston dam in a slow, gradual process that may not be apparent in a modern time scale.

  14. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

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    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  15. Seamless Mapping of River Channels at High Resolution Using Mobile LiDAR and UAV-Photography

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    Claude Flener


    Full Text Available Accurate terrain models are a crucial component of studies of river channel evolution. In this paper we describe a new methodology for creating high-resolution seamless digital terrain models (DTM of river channels and their floodplains. We combine mobile laser scanning and low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV photography-based methods for creating both a digital bathymetric model of the inundated river channel and a DTM of a point bar of a meandering sub-arctic river. We evaluate mobile laser scanning and UAV-based photogrammetry point clouds against terrestrial laser scanning and combine these data with an optical bathymetric model to create a seamless DTM of two different measurement periods. Using this multi-temporal seamless data, we calculate a DTM of difference that allows a change detection of the meander bend over a one-year period.

  16. Sampling surface particle size distributions and stability analysis of deep channel in the Pearl River Estuary (United States)

    Feng, Hao-chuan; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Yu-liang; Lei, Zhi-yi; Ji, Xiao-mei


    Particle size distributions (PSDs) of bottom sediments in a coastal zone are generally multimodal due to the complexity of the dynamic environment. In this paper, bottom sediments along the deep channel of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) are used to understand the multimodal PSDs' characteristics and the corresponding depositional environment. The results of curve-fitting analysis indicate that the near-bottom sediments in the deep channel generally have a bimodal distribution with a fine component and a relatively coarse component. The particle size distribution of bimodal sediment samples can be expressed as the sum of two lognormal functions and the parameters for each component can be determined. At each station of the PRE, the fine component makes up less volume of the sediments and is relatively poorly sorted. The relatively coarse component, which is the major component of the sediments, is even more poorly sorted. The interrelations between the dynamics and particle size of the bottom sediment in the deep channel of the PRE have also been investigated by the field measurement and simulated data. The critical shear velocity and the shear velocity are calculated to study the stability of the deep channel. The results indicate that the critical shear velocity has a similar distribution over large part of the deep channel due to the similar particle size distribution of sediments. Based on a comparison between the critical shear velocities derived from sedimentary parameters and the shear velocities obtained by tidal currents, it is likely that the depositional area is mainly distributed in the northern part of the channel, while the southern part of the deep channel has to face higher erosion risk.


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    Kovalchuk I.


    Full Text Available The article describes main methodological principles of geoecological assessment of riverbed-floodplain complex condition of one of the small rivers in Ukrainian Carpathians. According to our long-term field, cartographic, laboratory and remote sensing research, division of riverbed into homogeneous geoecological segments was made, as well as their standardization in accordance to the trends of unfavorable processes. Main reasons for deterioration of quality characteristics of channel-floodplain river complex were outlined; the role of natural and anthropogenic factors in deterioration of geoecological condition of the river and its floodplain complex was analyzed. Based on the assessment results it is possible to state that the condition of study segments of the Berezhnytsya river flood-plain and stream-way complex was marked as “excellent”, “good” and “satisfactory”. “Unsatisfactory” and “catastrophic” river and flood-plain condition has not been detected yet, although within Dashava urban settlement the river area condition is close to the “satisfactory” grade. The best situation is at the river head as human impact is minimized here and natural vegetation is preserved. Downstream we trace the tendency of condition worsening as anthropogenic load on the basin system and flood-plain and stream-way complex increases. Its negative impact is balanced by large forests, thus in segments limited by Banya Lysovytska village and Lotatnyky village the river and flood-plain condition is rated as “good”. So, downstream from the named village the value of such an important natural barrier as forest is reducing and anthropogenic load on the river significantly increases. The latter manifests in an intensive agricultural reclamation and housing development of flood-plains. Since degradation processes are rapidly developing over a considerable part of the Berezhnytsya river, negative changes are visible and only the study area

  18. Aftermath of an outburst flood: Holocene channel and floodplain development in the semi-arid lower Sycan River, Oregon (United States)

    Lind, P.; McDowell, P. F.; O'Connor, J. E.


    Water and pumice accumulated behind a dam that, upon failure, scoured the clay-dominated floodplain and deposited a lobe of pumice sands across the Sycan Valley. The pumice originated from the eruption of Mount Mazama (approximately 7660 cal yr BP) and dam failure occurred very shortly afterward. In response to the flood the lower Sycan River underwent episodes of channel aggradation and degradation. This study presents the history of channel evolution for the lower Sycan River from 11,000 years ago to present, based on floodplain stratigraphy and radiocarbon chronology. Seven primary periods of channel and floodplain development are identified: I. Early Holocene Dynamic Equilibrium; II. Sycan Outburst Flood; III. Initial Channel Formation; IV. Degradation & Widening; V. Aggradation & Lateral Migration; VI. (Secondary) Degradation & Widening; VII. Modern Quasi Dynamic-Equilibrium. The active floodplain of the modern lower Sycan River is flanked by terraces of the rapidly abandoned Sycan Outburst Flood deposits.

  19. Distribution and characterization of in-channel large wood in relation to geomorphic patterns on a low-gradient river (United States)

    Moulin, Bertrand; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.


    A 177 river km georeferenced aerial survey of in-channel large wood (LW) on the lower Roanoke River, NC was conducted to determine LW dynamics and distributions on an eastern USA low-gradient large river. Results indicate a system with approximately 75% of the LW available for transport either as detached individual LW or as LW in log jams. There were approximately 55 individual LW per river km and another 59 pieces in log jams per river km. Individual LW is a product of bank erosion (73% is produced through erosion) and is isolated on the mid and upper banks at low flow. This LW does not appear to be important for either aquatic habitat or as a human risk. Log jams rest near or at water level making them a factor in bank complexity in an otherwise homogenous fine-grained channel. A segmentation test was performed using LW frequency by river km to detect breaks in longitudinal distribution and to define homogeneous reaches of LWfrequency. Homogeneous reaches were then analyzed to determine their relationship to bank height, channel width/depth, sinuosity, and gradient. Results show that log jams are a product of LW transport and occur more frequently in areas with high snag concentrations, low to intermediate bank heights, high sinuosity, high local LW recruitment rates, and narrow channel widths. The largest concentration of log jams (21.5 log jams/km) occurs in an actively eroding reach. Log jam concentrations downstream of this reach are lower due to a loss of river competency as the channel reaches sea level and the concurrent development of unvegetated mudflats separating the active channel from the floodplain forest. Substantial LW transport occurs on this low-gradient, dam-regulated large river; this study, paired with future research on transport mechanisms should provide resource managers and policymakers with options to better manage aquatic habitat while mitigating possible negative impacts to human interests.

  20. Channel dynamics and geomorphic resilience in an ephemeral Mediterranean river affected by gravel mining (United States)

    Calle, Mikel; Alho, Petteri; Benito, Gerardo


    Gravel mining has been a widespread activity in ephemeral rivers worldwide whose long-lasting hydrogeomorphological impacts preclude effective implementation of water and environmental policies. This paper presents a GIS-based method for temporal assessment of morphosedimentary changes in relation to in-channel gravel mining in a typical ephemeral Mediterranean stream, namely the Rambla de la Viuda (eastern Spain). The aims of this work were to identify morphosedimentary changes and responses to human activities and floods, quantify river degradations and analyze factors favoring fluvial recovery for further applications in other rivers. Aerial photographs and LiDAR topography data were studied to analyze geomorphic evolution over the past 70 years along a 7.5-km reach of an ephemeral gravel stream that has been mined intensively since the 1970s. To evaluate changes in the riverbed, we mapped comparable units applying morphological, hydraulic, and stability (based on vegetation density and elevation) criteria to 13 sets of aerial photographs taken from 1946 to 2012. A detailed spatiotemporal analysis of comparable units revealed a 50% reduction in the active section and a 20% increase in stable areas, compared to the conditions observed prior to gravel mining. Instream mining was first observed in 1976 aerial photograph covering already up to 50% of the 1956 riverbed area. River degradation since then was quantified by means of a LiDAR DTM and RTK-GPS measurements, which revealed a 3.5-m incision that had started simultaneously with gravel mining. Climate and land use changes were present but the effects were completely masked by changes produced by instream gravel mining. Therefore, river incision/degradation was triggered by scarcity of sediment and lack of longitudinal sedimentary connection, creating an unbalanced river system that is still adjusting to the present hydrosedimentary conditions.

  1. Changes in the channel-bed level of the western Carpathian rivers over the last 40years (United States)

    Kijowska-Strugała, Małgorzata; Bucała-Hrabia, Anna


    Channel-bed level is constantly changing in time and space, and the process is dependent on both natural and anthropogenic factors. In mountain areas this is one of the more visible morphological processes. The main aim of the research was to analyze the dynamics of the position of river channel beds. Three rivers located within the western part of Polish Carpathians were chosen for the analysis: the Ropa river, the Kamienica Nawojowska river and the Ochotnica river. They are typical rivers for the Beskidy Mountains, medium Flysch mountains. To assess changes in the position of channel bed long-term series of data of minimum water stages in the river were used. The Ropa river is the biggest left tributary of the Wisłoka river (basin a of the upper Vistula River). The total length of the river amounts to 80 km, its gradient equals 58.9‰ and the water basin area amounts to 974 km2. The Kamienica Nawojowska river, with a length of 32.2 km is a right tributary of Dunajec river. The average decrease for the entire watercourse is 18.1‰. The catchment area is 238 km2. The Ochotnica river is 22.7 km long and it is a left tributary of the Dunajec river. The average slope for the entire watercourse is 36.1‰. The Ochotnica river characterized by deep valleys (catchment area 107.6 km2). Analysis of trends in minimum annual water stages in the alluvial Ropa river channel throughout the multi-year period of 1995-2014 shows an increasing trend amounting to 0.8 cm/year. In the Kamienica Nawojowska river the tendency of incision was observed starting from the 1960 to 2014. Average annual rate of increase of the minimum stages was between 0.4 to 1.2 cm/year. On the basis of the analysis of the minimum water levels in the years 1972-2011 two periods can be seen with different tendencies to change the position of the Ochotnica channel bottom. The first covers the years 1972-1996, where aggradation (3.9 cm/year) was the predominant process while in the period 1997-2011 incision

  2. Modification of the Revised Morgan-Morgan-Finney model for estimating sediment yield in large river basins (United States)

    Loos, S.; Van der Perk, M.; Van Beek, L. P. H.; Middelkoop, H.


    The RiNux model has been developed to simulate and predict monthly nutrient fluxes from land to coastal waters under various scenarios of global change. The RiNux model consists of different modules for simulating the hydrology, sediment transport, and nutrient transport within river basins at a 3 km resolution using available global data sets for input variables. The sediment transport module simulates the supply of sediment from the hillslopes to and transport through the river network and accounts for sediment detachment and transport capacity on hillslopes, transfer to and transport in the river channel network, conveyance losses due to sediment deposition in lakes and reservoirs, and overbank sedimentation on floodplains. To estimate sediment supply from hillslopes to the river network, we employed an adapted version of the Revised Morgan-Morgan-Finney (RMMF) model. As the RMMF model is intended for the prediction of annual soil loss in small-scale catchments, we accounted for the difference in scales between the RMMF and RiNux models by introducing appropriate scaling parameters for both spatial upscaling (from the original approximately 100 m resolution to the 3 km RiNux model resolution) and temporal downscaling (from an annual to a monthly resolution). In addition, the RiNux sediment module accounts for the limitation of the transfer of sediment from the hillslopes to the river channel due to the generally low slope gradients in the riparian zone. For this, we introduced an additional transport capacity parameter for the riparian zone, which was estimated taking into account the sub-grid variability using the SRTM digital elevation model (~ 90 m ×90 m). The transport capacity of the riparian zone was calculated from the average slope gradient in the SRTM grid cells adjacent to the river channel cells. The parameter values for RiNux sediment transport module were borrowed from the literature without further calibration. Test runs for three large river

  3. Experiments in dam removal, sediment pulses and channel evolution on the Clark Fork River, MT and White Salmon River, WA (United States)

    Wilcox, A. C.


    Two recent dam removals on tributaries to the Columbia River in the northwestern United States present contrasting examples of how dam removal methods, reservoir contents, and geomorphic settings influence system responses. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam, from the Clark Fork River (CFR), Montana, and the 2011 removal of Condit Dam from the White Salmon River (WSR), Washington (Table 1), represent two of the largest dam removals to date. The Milltown Dam removal was notable because the dam stored millions of cubic meters of contaminated mine tailings, a portion of which were excavated as part of Superfund remediation but a portion of which flowed downstream after the removal. On the CFR, post-breach high flows in 2008 produced reservoir erosion and downstream deposition in bed interstices, along bars, and on the floodplain, but above-average (3-15 year recurrence interval) floods since then have remobilized this material and have, to a large extent, erased signs of downstream sedimentation. The Condit Dam removal entailed dynamiting of a 4m by 5.5m hole at the base of the dam, which produced rapid and dramatic draining of fine reservoir sediments within hours of the blast. Downstream of Condit Dam, the initial hyperconcentrated flows and sediment pulse draped the WSR with fine sediment, filled pools, and, in an unconfined reach influenced by the Columbia River's backwater, caused meters of aggradation and new bar formation. In the confined, bedrock-dominated reach downstream of the Condit site, pool-riffle structure has started to reemerge as of summer 2012 and the finest bed materials have been evacuated from the main channel, although sediment storage in pools and eddies persists. Whereas post-breach geomorphic responses on the CFR have been largely driven by hydrology, the post-breach evolution of the WSR has been predominantly influenced by antecedent geomorphic conditions (slope, confinement, and Columbia River backwater). On both the CFR and WSR, the pace of

  4. Investigating the Performance of One- and Two-dimensional Flood Models in a Channelized River Network: A Case Study of the Obion River System (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Dullo, T. T.; Thornton, J. C.; Auld, L. A.


    Obion River, is located in the northwestern Tennessee region, and discharges into the Mississippi River. In the past, the river system was largely channelized for agricultural purposes that resulted in increased erosion, loss of wildlife habitat and downstream flood risks. These impacts are now being slowly reversed mainly due to wetland restoration. The river system is characterized by a large network of "loops" around the main channels that hold water either from excess flows or due to flow diversions. Without data on each individual channel, levee, canal, or pond it is not known where the water flows from or to. In some segments along the river, the natural channel has been altered and rerouted by the farmers for their irrigation purposes. Satellite imagery can aid in identifying these features, but its spatial coverage is temporally sparse. All the alterations that have been done to the watershed make it difficult to develop hydraulic models, which could predict flooding and droughts. This is especially true when building one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic models compared to two-dimensional (2D) models, as the former cannot adequately simulate lateral flows in the floodplain and in complex terrains. The objective of this study therefore is to study the performance of 1D and 2D flood models in this complex river system, evaluate the limitations of 1D models and highlight the advantages of 2D models. The study presents the application of HEC-RAS and HEC-2D models developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), a division of the US Army Corps of Engineers. The broader impacts of this study is the development of best practices for developing flood models in channelized river systems and in agricultural watersheds.

  5. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Rogue River basin, southwestern Oregon (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose


    This report summarizes a preliminary assessment of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Rogue River basin, which encompasses 13,390 square kilometers (km2) along the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * The Rogue River in its lowermost 178.5 kilometers (km) alternates between confined and unconfined segments, and is predominately alluvial along its lowermost 44 km. The study area on the mainstem Rogue River can be divided into five reaches based on topography, hydrology, and tidal influence. The largely confined, active channel flows over bedrock and coarse bed material composed chiefly of boulders and cobbles in the Grants Pass (river kilometers [RKM] 178.5-152.8), Merlin (RKM 152.8-132.7), and Galice Reaches (RKM 132.7-43.9). Within these confined reaches, the channel contains few bars and has stable planforms except for locally wider segments such as the Brushy Chutes area in the Merlin Reach. Conversely, the active channel flows over predominately alluvial material and contains nearly continuous gravel bars in the Lobster Creek Reach (RKM 43.9-6.7). The channel in the Tidal Reach (RKM 6.7-0) is also alluvial, but tidally affected and unconfined until RKM 2. The Lobster Creek and Tidal Reaches contain some of the most extensive bar deposits within the Rogue River study area. * For the 56.6-km-long segment of the Applegate River included in this study, the river was divided into two reaches based on topography. In the Upper Applegate River Reach (RKM 56.6-41.6), the confined, active channel flows over alluvium and bedrock and has few bars. In the Lower Applegate River Reach (RKM 41.6-0), the active channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments, flows predominantly over alluvium, shifts laterally in unconfined sections, and contains more numerous and larger bars. * The 6.5-km segment of the lower

  6. Identifying river channel characteristics of the Niger Inner Delta from altimeter data (United States)

    Neal, Jeffrey; Bates, Paul; Trigg, Mark


    To date, much flood inundation research has focused on the simulation of hydrodynamics within a framework where detailed river and floodplain bathymetry is used to construct a physically-based numerical model. This framework is fundamentally limited in scale by the lack of observed river bathymetry for most of the world's rivers and wetlands. To simulate floodplain inundation across large spatial scales requires a different approach that will need to estimate bathymetry and friction as reach averaged components of the hydraulic model, using remotely observable variables such as water level and channel width. This research presents a model where the river channel depth, shape and friction can be described by three physically meaningful but continuous parameters. We attempt to estimate these parameters using satellite altimeter data from a test site along ~1000 km of the River Niger, Mali. For calibration the model was split into 1, 2 or 3 reaches and we used a DEM at 2 arcminutes or ~4 km. River and fl¬oodplain dynamics were simulated from 2002 to 2009, with each simulation taking ~2.5 minutes. Each reach had two parameters if assumed rectangular and three if the cross-section shape was allowed to change. Therefore there were between two and nine parameters to calibrate, depending on the number of reaches and parameters. Infl¬ow boundary conditions were based on gauge observations. Water surface elevation observations were available from ICEsat and Envisat altimeters, with parameters estimated from these using a Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg method, with an objective function where observations were weighted given an estimate of their uncertainty. A twinned calibration experiment indicated that the information content of the data was sufficient to identify the parameters in an error free model and that the gradient based optimise was capable of finding the minimum of the objective function. Simulated levels were most sensitive to model friction and became more so with

  7. Modification of sodium channel inactivation in single myelinated nerve fibers by methionine-reactive chemicals. (United States)

    Wang, G K


    Several methionine-reactive reagents, including N-bromoacetamide, N-bromosuccinimide, chloramine-T, and N-chlorosuccinimide, irreversibly slowed and prevented Na channel inactivation in single myelinated nerve fibers, whereas sulfhydryl- or tyrosine-modifying reagents had little effect. The activation process was not modified by the reagents that altered inactivation and could be modulated normally by Ca++ ions and Centruroides scorpion toxin II alpha. These results suggest that externally applied N-bromoacetamide and its related compounds specifically affect Na channel inactivation by modifying methionine residues of the channel. PMID:6331542

  8. Inactivation of batrachotoxin-modified Na+ channels in GH3 cells. Characterization and pharmacological modification (United States)


    Batrachotoxin (BTX)-modified Na+ currents were characterized in GH3 cells with a reversed Na+ gradient under whole-cell voltage clamp conditions. BTX shifts the threshold of Na+ channel activation by approximately 40 mV in the hyperpolarizing direction and nearly eliminates the declining phase of Na+ currents at all voltages, suggesting that Na+ channel inactivation is removed. Paradoxically, the steady-state inactivation (h infinity) of BTX-modified Na+ channels as determined by a two-pulse protocol shows that inactivation is still present and occurs maximally near -70 mV. About 45% of BTX-modified Na+ channels are inactivated at this voltage. The development of inactivation follows a sum of two exponential functions with tau d(fast) = 10 ms and tau d(slow) = 125 ms at -70 mV. Recovery from inactivation can be achieved after hyperpolarizing the membrane to voltages more negative than -120 mV. The time course of recovery is best described by a sum of two exponentials with tau r(fast) = 6.0 ms and tau r(slow) = 240 ms at -170 mV. After reaching a minimum at -70 mV, the h infinity curve of BTX-modified Na+ channels turns upward to reach a constant plateau value of approximately 0.9 at voltages above 0 mV. Evidently, the inactivated, BTX-modified Na+ channels can be forced open at more positive potentials. The reopening kinetics of the inactivated channels follows a single exponential with a time constant of 160 ms at +50 mV. Both chloramine-T (at 0.5 mM) and alpha-scorpion toxin (at 200 nM) diminish the inactivation of BTX-modified Na+ channels. In contrast, benzocaine at 1 mM drastically enhances the inactivation of BTX-modified Na+ channels. The h infinity curve reaches minimum of less than 0.1 at -70 mV, indicating that benzocaine binds preferentially with inactivated, BTX-modified Na+ channels. Together, these results imply that BTX-modified Na+ channels are governed by an inactivation process. PMID:1311019

  9. Irreversible modification of sodium channel inactivation in toad myelinated nerve fibres by the oxidant chloramine-T. (United States)

    Wang, G K


    The effects of externally applied chloramine-T on the excitability of single toad myelinated nerve fibres were studied. Chloramine-T is a mild oxidant which reacts specifically with the cysteine and methionine residues of proteins. Chloramine-T prolongs the action potential of a single myelinated fibre by more than 1000-fold. This effect is concentration- and time-dependent; higher concentrations and longer incubation times increase prolongation. Under voltage-clamp conditions, sodium channel inactivation is markedly inhibited by chloramine-T while sodium channel activation remains normal. Prolonged depolarization of the membrane leads to a maintained sodium current. The maintained sodium currents show activation kinetics, dependence on membrane potential, and reversal potentials which are similar to those of normal, inactivating sodium currents in untreated fibres. Both the maintained and the peak sodium currents are equally inhibited by tetrodotoxin. After partial removal of sodium inactivation by brief exposures to chloramine-T, the voltage dependence of the steady-state sodium current inactivation (h infinity) is shifted in the depolarized direction by about 20 mV, even after correction for the non-inactivating component contributed by the maintained current. The phenomena described here imply that cysteine or methionine residues are critical for the sodium channel inactivation processes. The two different modifications of inactivation, its removal shown by the maintained current, and the shift in the voltage-dependence of the remaining inactivatable channels, reveal that at least two separate residues are modified by chloramine-T. PMID:6321714

  10. Estimated Entrainment of Dungeness Crab During Dredging For The Columbia River Channel Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Walter H.; Williams, Greg D.; Skalski, John R.


    The studies reported here focus on issues regarding the entrainment of Dungeness crab related to the proposed Columbia River Channel Improvement Project and provided direct measurements of crab entrainment rates at three locations (Desdomona Shoals, Upper Sands, and Miller Sands) from RM4 to RM24 during summer 2002. Entrainment rates for all age classes of crabs ranged from zero at Miller Sands to 0.224 crabs per cy at Desdemona Shoals in June 2002. The overall entrainment rate at Desdomona Shoals in September was 0.120 crabs per cy. A modified Dredge Impact Model (DIM) used the summer 2002 entrainment rates to project crab entrainment and adult equivalent loss and loss to the fishery for the Channel Improvement Project. To improve the projections, entrainment data from Flavel Bar is needed. The literature, analyses of salinity intrusion scenarios, and the summer 2002 site-specific data on entrainment and salinity all indicate that bottom salinity influences crab distribution and entrainment, especially at lower salinities. It is now clear from field measurements of entrainment rates and salinity during a period of low river flow (90-150 Kcfs) and high salinity intrusion that entrainment rates are zero where bottom salinity is less than 16 o/oo most of the time. Further, entrainment rates of 2+ and older crab fall with decreasing salinity in a clear and consistent manner. More elaboration of the crab distribution- salinity model, especially concerning salinity and the movements of 1+ crab, is needed.

  11. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Tillamook Bay tributaries and Nehalem River basin, northwestern Oregon (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose


    valley confinement. * Natural and human-caused disturbances such as mass movements, logging, fire, channel modifications for navigation and flood control, and gravel mining also have varying effects on channel condition, bed-material transport, and distribution and area of bars throughout the study areas and over time. * Existing datasets include at least 16 and 18 sets of aerial and orthophotographs that were taken of the study areas in the Tillamook Bay tributary basins and Nehalem River basin, respectively, from 1939 to 2011. These photographs are available for future assessments of long-term changes in channel condition, bar area, and vegetation establishment patterns. High resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys acquired in 2007-2009 could support future quantitative analyses of channel morphology and bed-material transport in all study areas. * A review of deposited and mined gravel volumes reported for instream gravel mining sites shows that bed-material deposition tends to rebuild mined bar surfaces in most years. Mean annual deposition volumes on individual bars exceeded 3,000 cubic meters (m3) on Donaldson Bar on the Wilson River, Dill Bar on the Kilchis River, and Plant and Winslow Bars on the Nehalem River. Cumulative reported volumes of bed-material deposition were greatest at Donaldson and Dill Bars, totaling over 25,000 m3 per site from 2004 to 2011. Within this period, reported cumulative mined volumes were greatest for the Donaldson, Plant, and Winslow Bars, ranging from 24,470 to 33,940 m3. * Analysis of historical stage-streamflow data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Wilson River near Tillamook (14301500) and Nehalem River near Foss (14301000) shows that these rivers have episodically aggraded and incised, mostly following high flow events, but they do not exhibit systematic, long-term trends in bed elevation. * Multiple cross sections show that channels near bridge crossings in all six study areas are dynamic with many

  12. Channel-floodplain sediment interactions along large rivers: hydrological connectivity and sediment budgets (United States)

    Latrubesse, E. M.; Park, E.


    Understanding the patterns of sediment delivery processes and their budgets between channel and floodplains of large rivers is important because both hydrogeomorphic and biogeochemical alterations in floodplains take place through these interactions. The Amazon River has continuous exchange of sediment with floodplains, which may exceed over 3500 Mt/yr in both directions. However, characterizing the sediment transport and deposition patterns in floodplains and quantifying their budgets still remains a challenge. In this study, geomorphic units in floodplains are digitized and their hydrological connectivity are assessed by identifying recharge thresholds from the main channel. Historical floodplain recharge records are examined from daily water level data measured at nearby gauge stations by calculating number of days falling in between the connection and disconnection thresholds within a hydrological cycle. Historical recharge patterns of each unit is assessed using Mann-Kendall test. Intensity of hydrological connectivity is further investigated for by building power spectrum of over 15 years water extent time series data through fast Fourier transform, which the power spectral density indicates the intensity of flooding pulses from the main channel. To quantify the sediment budget stored in floodplains, PALSAR DEM acquired during the lowest water level season is used with the MODIS 8-day composite data. First, shoreline grids derived from MODIS-MNDWI is overlaid on PALSAR image to identify the water level at each floodplain lake unit (h). Total imported Sediment Fluxes (TiSF) entering each floodplain lake during a given period will be calculated as sum of (ht1-ht2) x (SSC(x,y)x1000) x 2502, where htn is the water level in floodplain lake at time tn; SSC(x, y) denotes sediment concentration at x, y coordinate; 1000 is a scale factor; and 2502 is the area of MODIS pixel (m2). Successively summing up TiSF derived from each period will retrieve the amount of total

  13. Modification of C-type inactivating Shaker potassium channels by chloramine-T. (United States)

    Schlief, T; Schönherr, R; Heinemann, S H


    Shaker potassium channels undergo a slow C-type inactivation which can be hastened dramatically by single-point mutations in or near the pore region. We found that the oxidizing agent chloramine-T (Chl-T) causes an irreversible loss of current for those mutants which show C-type inactivation. For several mutants at position T449, which show a wide spectrum of inactivation time constants, the time constant of current rundown induced by Chl-T correlated with the speed of inactivation. Rundown was accelerated when the channels were in the inactivated state but rundown also occurred when channels were not opened or inactivated. Apparently, only those channels which can undergo C-type inactivation are accessible to Chl-T. In order to gain information about the target amino-acid residue for the action of Chl-T and the structural rearrangements occurring during C-type inactivation, several mutant channel proteins were compared with respect to their response to Chl-T. Since Chl-T can oxidize cysteine and methionine residues, we mutated the possible targets in and close to the pore region, namely C462 to A, and M440 and M448 to I. While the residues M440 and C462 were not important for channel rundown, mutation of M448 to I made the channels more resistant to Chl-T by about one order of magnitude. While inactivation was accelerated upon application of Chl-T in most mutants, mutation of M448 to I abolished this effect on the time course of inactivation, indicating that M448 is one of the target residues for Chl-T.

  14. Cycle time improvement for plastic injection moulding process by sub groove modification in conformal cooling channel (United States)

    Kamarudin, K.; Wahab, M. S.; Batcha, M. F. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Raus, A. A.; Ahmed, Aqeel


    Mould designers have been struggling for the improvement of the cooling system performance, despite the fact that the cooling system complexity is physically limited by the fabrication capability of the conventional tooling methods. However, the growth of Solid Free Form Technology (SFF) allow the mould designer to develop more than just a regular conformal cooling channel. Numerous researchers demonstrate that conformal cooling channel was tremendously given significant result in the improvement of productivity and quality in the plastic injection moulding process. This paper presents the research work that applies the passive enhancement method in square shape cooling channel to enhance the efficiency of cooling performance by adding the sub groove to the cooling channel itself. Previous design that uses square shape cooling channel was improved by adding various numbers of sub groove to meet the best sub groove design that able reduced the cooling time. The effect of sub groove design on cooling time was investigated by Autodesk Modlflow Insight software. The simulation results showed that the various sub groove designs give different values to ejection time. The Design 7 showed the lowest value of ejection time with 24.3% increment. The addition of sub groove significantly increased a coolant velocity and a rate of heat transfer from molten plastic to coolant.

  15. Designing long-term fish community assessments in connecting channels: Lessons from the Saint Marys River (United States)

    Schaeffer, Jeff; Rogers, Mark W.; Fielder, David G.; Godby, Neal; Bowen, Anjanette K.; O'Connor, Lisa; Parrish, Josh; Greenwood, Susan; Chong, Stephen; Wright, Greg


    Long-term surveys are useful in understanding trends in connecting channel fish communities; a gill net assessment in the Saint Marys River performed periodically since 1975 is the most comprehensive connecting channels sampling program within the Laurentian Great Lakes. We assessed efficiency of that survey, with intent to inform development of assessments at other connecting channels. We evaluated trends in community composition, effort versus estimates of species richness, ability to detect abundance changes for four species, and effects of subsampling yellow perch catches on size and age-structure metrics. Efficiency analysis revealed low power to detect changes in species abundance, whereas reduced effort could be considered to index species richness. Subsampling simulations indicated that subsampling would have allowed reliable estimates of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) population structure, while greatly reducing the number of fish that were assigned ages. Analyses of statistical power and efficiency of current sampling protocols are useful for managers collecting and using these types of data as well as for the development of new monitoring programs. Our approach provides insight into whether survey goals and objectives were being attained and can help evaluate ability of surveys to answer novel questions that arise as management strategies are refined.

  16. Use of glacier river-fed estuary channels by juvenile coho salmon: transitional or rearing habitats? (United States)

    Hoem Neher, Tammy D.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Walker, Coowe M.; Baird, Steven J.


    Estuaries are among the most productive ecosystems in the world and provide important rearing environments for a variety of fish species. Though generally considered important transitional habitats for smolting salmon, little is known about the role that estuaries serve for rearing and the environmental conditions important for salmon. We illustrate how juvenile coho salmonOncorhynchus kisutch use a glacial river-fed estuary based on examination of spatial and seasonal variability in patterns of abundance, fish size, age structure, condition, and local habitat use. Fish abundance was greater in deeper channels with cooler and less variable temperatures, and these habitats were consistently occupied throughout the season. Variability in channel depth and water temperature was negatively associated with fish abundance. Fish size was negatively related to site distance from the upper extent of the tidal influence, while fish condition did not relate to channel location within the estuary ecotone. Our work demonstrates the potential this glacially-fed estuary serves as both transitional and rearing habitat for juvenile coho salmon during smolt emigration to the ocean, and patterns of fish distribution within the estuary correspond to environmental conditions.

  17. Methow River Studies, Washington: abundance estimates from Beaver Creek and the Chewuch River screw trap, methodology testing in the Whitefish Island side channel, and survival and detection estimates from hatchery fish releases, 2013 (United States)

    Martens, Kyle D.; Fish, Teresa M.; Watson, Grace A.; Connolly, Patrick J.


    Salmon and steelhead populations have been severely depleted in the Columbia River from factors such as the presence of tributary dams, unscreened irrigation diversions, and habitat degradation from logging, mining, grazing, and others (Raymond, 1988). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been funded by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) to provide evaluation of on-going Reclamation funded efforts to recover Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed anadromous salmonid populations in the Methow River watershed, a watershed of the Columbia River in the Upper Columbia River Basin, in north-central Washington State (fig. 1). This monitoring and evaluation program was funded to document Reclamation’s effort to partially fulfill the 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion (BiOp) (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, Fisheries Division 2003). This Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternatives (RPA) to protect listed salmon and steelhead across their life cycle. Species of concern in the Methow River include Upper Columbia River (UCR) spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), UCR summer steelhead (O. mykiss), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are all listed as threatened or endangered under the ESA. The work done by the USGS since 2004 has encompassed three phases of work. The first phase started in 2004 and continued through 2012. This first phase involved the evaluation of stream colonization and fish production in Beaver Creek following the modification of several water diversions (2000–2006) that were acting as barriers to upstream fish movement. Products to date from this work include: Ruttenburg (2007), Connolly and others (2008), Martens and Connolly (2008), Connolly (2010), Connolly and others (2010), Martens and Connolly (2010), Benjamin and others (2012), Romine and others (2013a), Weigel and others (2013a, 2013b, 2013c), and Martens and others (2014). The second phase, initiated in

  18. Effect of channel width variation on sediment transport in mixed alluvial-bedrock rivers - from case study to concept (United States)

    Cook, Kristen; Turowski, Jens; Hovius, Niels


    In mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers, the response of the system to a flood event can be affected by a number of factors, including coarse sediment availability in the channel, sediment supply from the hillslopes, bedrock-controlled changes in channel width, and the shape of the hydrograph. Local hydraulics and therefore bedload transport capacity depend on discharge and channel geometry, typically quantified by channel width and bed slope. However, the influence of channel width on total bedload transport capacity depends on discharge. For a given slope, narrow channels are more efficient than wide ones at low discharges, while wider channels are more efficient at higher discharges. Therefore, abrupt changes in downstream channel width may affect bedload flux through a channel and have important influences on channel behavior. We use the model sedFlow (Heimann et al., 2014) to explore this effect. We ran the model in a 4.5 km long channel, the center of which contains a 1 km gorge section with a width of 15 m, bounded upstream and downstream by sections with widths of 50 m. We imposed a discharge time series with a random sequence of floods of different size. The channel responds to the imposed floods in complex ways. At high discharges, the gorge reach transports less total sediment than the wide reaches, leading to aggradation in the upper part of the gorge and upstream and erosion in the lower part of the gorge and downstream. At lower discharges, the gorge becomes more efficient at transporting sediment and the trends reverse. The channel may experience both of these regimes during the peak and recession periods of a single flood, leading to a highly dynamic channel bed. This is consistent with observations from the Daan River gorge in western Taiwan, where we observe substantial intra-flood variations in channel bed elevation. Our modeling suggests that width differences alone can drive substantial variations in sediment flux and bed response, without the need

  19. Characterizing and modelling river channel migration rates at a regional scale: Case study of south-east France. (United States)

    Alber, Adrien; Piégay, Hervé


    An increased awareness by river managers of the importance of river channel migration to sediment dynamics, habitat complexity and other ecosystem functions has led to an advance in the science and practice of identifying, protecting or restoring specific erodible corridors across which rivers are free to migrate. One current challenge is the application of these watershed-specific goals at the regional planning scales (e.g., the European Water Framework Directive). This study provides a GIS-based spatial analysis of the channel migration rates at the regional-scale. As a case study, 99 reaches were sampled in the French part of the Rhône Basin and nearby tributaries of the Mediterranean Sea (111,300 km2). We explored the spatial correlation between the channel migration rate and a set of simple variables (e.g., watershed area, channel slope, stream power, active channel width). We found that the spatial variability of the channel migration rates was primary explained by the gross stream power (R2 = 0.48) and more surprisingly by the active channel width scaled by the watershed area. The relationship between the absolute migration rate and the gross stream power is generally consistent with the published empirical models for freely meandering rivers, whereas it is less significant for the multi-thread reaches. The discussion focused on methodological constraints for a regional-scale modelling of the migration rates, and the interpretation of the empirical models. We hypothesize that the active channel width scaled by the watershed area is a surrogate for the sediment supply which may be a more critical factor than the bank resistance for explaining the regional-scale variability of the migration rates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tubulin tail sequences and post-translational modifications regulate closure of mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). (United States)

    Sheldon, Kely L; Gurnev, Philip A; Bezrukov, Sergey M; Sackett, Dan L


    It was previously shown that tubulin dimer interaction with the mitochondrial outer membrane protein voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) blocks traffic through the channel and reduces oxidative metabolism and that this requires the unstructured anionic C-terminal tail peptides found on both α- and β-tubulin subunits. It was unclear whether the α- and β-tubulin tails contribute equally to VDAC blockade and what effects might be due to sequence variations in these tail peptides or to tubulin post-translational modifications, which mostly occur on the tails. The nature of the contribution of the tubulin body beyond acting as an anchor for the tails had not been clarified either. Here we present peptide-protein chimeras to address these questions. These constructs allow us to easily combine a tail peptide with different proteins or combine different tail peptides with a particular protein. The results show that a single tail grafted to an inert protein is sufficient to produce channel closure similar to that observed with tubulin. We show that the β-tail is more than an order of magnitude more potent than the α-tail and that the lower α-tail activity is largely due to the presence of a terminal tyrosine. Detyrosination activates the α-tail, and activation is reversed by the removal of the glutamic acid penultimate to the tyrosine. Nitration of tyrosine reverses the tyrosine inhibition of binding and even induces prolonged VDAC closures. Our results demonstrate that small changes in sequence or post-translational modification of the unstructured tails of tubulin result in substantial changes in VDAC closure. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Formation and evolution of valley-bottom and channel features, Lower Deschutes River, Oregon (United States)

    Curran, Janet H.; O'Conner, Jim E.; O'Conner, Jim E.; Grant, Gordon E.


    Primary geologic and geomorphic processes that formed valley-bottom and channel features downstream from the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex are inferred from a canyon-long analysis of feature morphology, composition, location, and spatial distribution. Major controls on valley-bottom morphology are regional tectonics, large landslides, and outsized floods (floods with return periods greater than 1000 yrs), which include the late Holocene Outhouse Flood and several Quaternary landslide dam failures. Floods with a return period on the order of 100 yrs, including historical floods in 1996, 1964, and 1861, contribute to fan building and flood plain formation only within the resistant framework established by the major controls. Key processes in the formation of channel features, in particular the 153 islands and 23 large rapids, include long-term bedrock erosion, outsized floods, and century-scale floods. Historical analysis of channel conditions since 1911 indicates that the largest islands, which are cored by outsized-flood deposits, locally control channel location, although their margins are substantially modified during annual- to century-scale floods. Islands cored by bedrock have changed little. Islands formed by annual- to century-scale floods are more susceptible to dynamic interactions between tributary sediment inputs, mainstem flow hydraulics, and perhaps riparian vegetation. Temporal patterns of island change in response to the sequence of 20th century flooding indicate that many islands accreted sediment during annual- to decadal-scale floods, but eroded during larger century-scale floods. There is, however, no clear trend of long-term changes in patterns of island growth, movement, or erosion either spatially or temporally within the lower Deschutes River.

  2. Reduced fine sediment flux in response to the managed diversion of an upland river channel (United States)

    Perks, M. T.; Warburton, J.


    This paper describes the implementation of a novel mitigation approach and subsequent adaptive management, designed to reduce the transfer of fine sediment in Glaisdale Beck; a small upland catchment in the UK. Hydro-meteorological and suspended sediment datasets are collected over a two year period spanning pre- and post-diversion periods in order to assess the impact of the channel reconfiguration scheme on the fluvial suspended sediment dynamics. Analysis of the river response demonstrates that the fluvial sediment system has become more restrictive with reduced fine sediment transfer. This is characterised by reductions in flow-weighted mean suspended sediment concentrations from 77.93 mg L-1 prior to mitigation, to 74.36 mg L-1 following the diversion. A Mann-Whitney U test found statistically significant differences (p < 0.001) between the pre- and post-monitoring median SSCs. Whilst application of one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) on the coefficients of sediment rating curves developed before and after the diversion found statistically significant differences (p < 0.001), with both Log a and b coefficients becoming smaller following the diversion. Non-parametric analysis indicates a reduction in residuals through time (p < 0.001), with the developed LOWESS model over-predicting sediment concentrations as the channel stabilises. However, the channel is continuing to adjust to the reconfigured morphology, with evidence of a headward propagating knickpoint which has migrated 120 m at an exponentially decreasing rate over the last 7 years since diversion. The study demonstrates that channel reconfiguration can be effective in mitigating fine sediment flux in upland streams but the full value of this may take many years to achieve whilst the fluvial system, slowly readjusts.

  3. Effects of streamflows on stream-channel morphology in the eastern Niobrara National Scenic River, Nebraska, 1988–2010 (United States)

    Schaepe, Nathaniel J.; Alexander, Jason S.; Folz-Donahue, Kiernan


    The Niobrara River is an important and valuable economic and ecological resource in northern Nebraska that supports ecotourism, recreational boating, wildlife, fisheries, agriculture, and hydroelectric power. Because of its uniquely rich resources, a 122-kilometer reach of the Niobrara River was designated as a National Scenic River in 1991, which has been jointly managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Park Service. To assess how the remarkable qualities of the National Scenic River may change if consumptive uses of water are increased above current levels, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, initiated an investigation of how stream-channel morphology might be affected by potential decreases in summer streamflows. The study included a 65-kilometer segment in the wide, braided eastern stretch of the Niobrara National Scenic River that provides important nesting habitat for migratory bird species of concern to the Nation.

  4. Characterization of sands and mineral clays in channel and floodplain deposits of Portuguesa river, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando José González Clemente


    Full Text Available In the main channel and floodplain of Portuguesa River were studied the mineralogical characteristics of sand and clay minerals respectively. The methodology consisted of X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, for both mineral fractions. The results indicated the presence of mainly of quartz sands with minor amounts of chlorite, muscovite, calcite and feldspar which are considered quartz sand mature. Its origin is related to the source area and rework of soils and sediments of the floodplain. The clay fraction is characterized by the presence of 13 mineral crystalline phases consisting mainly of quartz, muscovite and chlorite, and clay minerals such as kaolinite, vermiculite, montmorillonite and nontronita. Its detrital origin may be due to mineral neoformation and inheritance. Therefore both mineral fractions consist mainly of quartz and kaolinite, which are essential components of the source area as well as the Quaternary alluvial deposits and the soils that make up the region.

  5. Entrainment of Dungeness Crab in the Desdemona Shoals Reach of the Lower Columbia River Navigation Channel

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    Pearson, Walter H.; Kohn, Nancy P.; Skalski, J. R.


    Proposed dredging of the Columbia River has raised concerns about related impacts on Dungeness crab in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). This study follows two major efforts, sponsored by the Portland District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to quantify the number of crabs entrained by a hopper dredge working in the CRE. From June 2002 through September 2002, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted direct measurements of crab entrainment in the CRE from the mouth of the Columbia River (MCR, river mile -3 to +3) upriver as far as Miller Sands (river mile 21 to 24). These studies constituted a major step in quantifying crab entrainment in the CRE, and allowed statistically bounded projections of adult equivalent loss (AEL) for Dungeness crab populations under a range of future construction dredging and maintenance dredging scenarios (Pearson et al. 2002, 2003). In 2004, PNNL performed additional measurements to improve estimates of crab entrainment at Desdemona Shoals and at Flavel Bar, a reach near Astoria that had not been adequately sampled in 2002 (Figure 1). The 2004 data were used to update the crab loss projections for channel construction to 43 ft MLLW. In addition, a correlation between bottom salinity and adult (age 2+ and 3+, >100 mm carapace width) crab entrainment was developed using 2002 data, and elaborated upon with the 2004 data. This crab salinity model was applied to forecasting seasonal (monthly) entrainment rates and AEL using seasonal variations in salinity (Pearson et al. 2005). In the previous studies, entrainment rates in Desdemona Shoals were more variable than in any of the other reaches. Pearson et al. (2005) concluded that ?the dynamics behind the variable entrainment rates at Desdemona Shoals are not fully understood,? as well as finding that juvenile crab entrainment was not significantly correlated with salinity as it was for older crab. The present study was undertaken to address the question of whether the

  6. A Hot Knife Through Ice-Cream: Earthflow Response to Channel Incision (Or Channel Response to Earthflows?), Eel River Canyon, California (United States)

    Mackey, B. H.; Roering, J. J.; McKean, J. A.


    Abundant glacier-like earthflow features are recognized as a primary erosional process in the highly erodable Franciscan Melange of the Eel River Basin, CA. Despite their prominence in this "melting ice-cream" topography, many questions regarding their effects on the long term sediment flux from this rapidly eroding basin remain unresolved. For example, does an earthflow's basal shear zone propagate vertically downwards with vertical river incision? What controls the upslope and lateral extent of individual earthflows? How does the erosive power of a river influence the rate of earthflow movement, or conversely do earthflow toe deposits regulate the rate of river incision? Here we present preliminary findings derived from study of 200km2 of lidar data (1m resolution) covering hillslopes adjacent to 30km of the Eel River. Lidar allows detailed analysis of the interaction between earthflows and the drainage network, and we document how inferred changes in local base level are propagated throughout adjacent hillslopes via earthflow movement. The most active earthflows (determined by field surveying and analysis of aerial photos rectified using lidar- generated digital topography) coincide with locally steep sections of channel, while downstream of the most active flows we frequently observe less-active or dormant earthflows. This observation supports the idea that the locations of the most active earthflows coincide with headward propagating knickpoints in the channel. The rate of earthflow movement appears to slow when an earthflow exhausts the upslope area of easily mobilized sediment. Earthflow toes can protrude directly into the channel, causing the channel to narrow and steepen, and even undercut the opposite bank. Large resistant boulders (>2m diameter) transported by the earthflow accumulate in the streambed and appear to both act as a check on further channel incision and earthflow movement. In contrast, areas adjacent to active earthflows exhibit smooth

  7. Coupling effect analysis between landslides, river channel changes and sediment budgets - extreme climate events in Laishe River, southern Taiwan (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Huang, Mei-Jen; Tseng, Chih-Ming


    amount of migration along Laishe River by analyzing the 3D DEM before and after the typhoon Morakot. The DEMs are built by using the aerial images taken by digital mapping camera (DMC) and by airborne digital scanner 40 (ADS40) before and after typhoon event. Recently, this research integrates Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and oblique photogrammetric technologies for image acquisition by 5-10cm GSD photos. This approach permits to construct true 3D model so as to decipher ground information more realistically. 10-20cm DSM and DEM, and field GPS, were compiled together to decipher the morphologic changes. All the information, especially by means of true 3D model, the datasets provides detail ground information that may use to evaluate the landslide triggering mechanism and river channel evolution. The goals of this study is to integrates the UAS system and to decipher the sliding process and morphologic changes of large landslide areas, sediment transport and budgets, and to investigate the phenomenon of river migration. The results of this study provides not only geomatics and GIS dataset of the hazards, but also for essential geomorphologic information for other study, and for hazard mitigation and planning, as well.

  8. Do Titan's river channels carve into ice bedrock or loose regolith? (United States)

    Collins, G. C.; Sklar, L. S.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.


    transportable blocks, and/or that most of the channels are transport-limited and are primarily acting to redistribute an existing loose regolith layer across Titan’s surface. References: Collins, G. C., Relative rates of fluvial bedrock incision on Titan and Earth, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, L22202, doi:10.1029/2005GL024551, 2005. Keller, H. U., B. Grieger, M. Küppers, S. E. Schröder, Y. V. Skorov, and M. G. Tomasko, The properties of Titan’s surface at the Huygens landing site from DISR observations, Planet. Space Sci. 56, 728-752, 2008. Perron, J. T., M. P. Lamb, C. D. Koven, I. Y. Fung, E. Yager, and M. Ádámkovics, Valley formation and methane precipitation rates on Titan, J. Geophys. Res. 111, E11001, 2006. Sklar, L. S., and W. E. Dietrich, A mechanistic model for river incision into bedrock by saltating bed load, Water Resour. Res. 40, W06301, 2004.

  9. A reduced-complexity model for river delta formation - Part 1: Modeling deltas with channel dynamics (United States)

    Liang, M.; Voller, V. R.; Paola, C.


    In this work we develop a reduced-complexity model (RCM) for river delta formation (referred to as DeltaRCM in the following). It is a rule-based cellular morphodynamic model, in contrast to reductionist models based on detailed computational fluid dynamics. The basic framework of this model (DeltaRCM) consists of stochastic parcel-based cellular routing schemes for water and sediment and a set of phenomenological rules for sediment deposition and erosion. The outputs of the model include a depth-averaged flow field, water surface elevation and bed topography that evolve in time. Results show that DeltaRCM is able (1) to resolve a wide range of channel dynamics - including elongation, bifurcation, avulsion and migration - and (2) to produce a variety of deltas such as alluvial fan deltas and deltas with multiple orders of bifurcations. We also demonstrate a simple stratigraphy recording component which tracks the distribution of coarse and fine materials and the age of the deposits. Essential processes that must be included in reduced-complexity delta models include a depth-averaged flow field that guides sediment transport a nontrivial water surface profile that accounts for backwater effects at least in the main channels, both bedload and suspended sediment transport, and topographic steering of sediment transport.

  10. Legacies of stream channel modification revealed using General Land Office surveys, with implications for water temperature and aquatic life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth M. White


    Full Text Available Land use legacies can have a discernible influence in present-day watersheds and should be accounted for when designing conservation strategies for riverine aquatic life. We describe the environmental history of three watersheds within the Grande Ronde subbasin of the Columbia River using General Land Office survey field notes from the 19th century. In the two watersheds severely impacted by Euro-American land use, stream channel widths—a metric representing habitat simplification—increased from an average historical width of 16.8 m to an average present width of 20.8 m in large streams; 4.3 m to 5.5 m in small, confined or partly confined streams; and 3.5 m to 6.5 m in small, laterally unconfined steams. Conversely, we did not detect significant change in stream widths in an adjacent, wilderness stream with minimal human impact. Using a mechanistic water temperature model and restoration scenarios based on the historical condition, we predicted that stream restoration in the impacted watersheds could notably decrease average water temperatures—especially when channel narrowing is coupled with riparian restoration—up to a 6.6°C reduction in the upper Grande Ronde River and 3.0°C in Catherine Creek. These reductions in water temperature translated to substantial changes in the percentage of stream network habitable to salmon and steelhead migration (from 29% in the present condition to 79% in the fully restored scenario and to core juvenile rearing (from 13% in the present condition to 36% in the fully restored scenario. We conclude that land use legacies leave an important footprint on the present landscape and are critical for understanding historic habitat-forming processes as a necessary first step towards restoration.

  11. Response of reach-scale bankfull channel geometry to the altered flow and sediment regime in the lower Yellow River (United States)

    Xia, Junqiang; Li, Xiaojuan; Li, Tao; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zong, Quanli


    The channel geometry in an alluvial river usually varies in response to the altered flow and sediment regime from upstream damming. Bankfull channel dimensions have significantly adjusted along the lower Yellow River (LYR) because of recent channel degradation caused by the operation of the Xiaolangdi Reservoir, which has led to longitudinal variability in the cross-sectional geometry. Therefore, describing the bankfull channel geometry of the LYR is more representative using reach-averaged variables. In this study, an integrated approach is proposed for calculating reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions based on the measured section-scale bankfull geometry in the LYR, and the proposed approach integrates a geometric mean based on the log-transformation with a weighted average based on the spacing between two consecutive sections. The post-flood reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions in three different channel-pattern reaches of the LYR were then calculated annually during the period from 1999 to 2012 using the proposed approach and the surveyed post-flood profiles at 91 sedimentation sections. Calculated results indicate that the channel geometry changed in the components of bankfull width and depth in the braided reach, with an increase of about 400 m in the reach-scale bankfull width over the past 13 years; and the channel evolution occurred mainly in the component of bankfull depth in the transitional and meandering reaches, with the increased reach-scale bankfull depths of 2.4 and 1.8 m, respectively. Finally, empirical relationships for the three reaches of the LYR were developed between the reach-scale bankfull channel dimensions and the previous four-year average discharge and incoming sediment coefficient during flood seasons, with higher correlations being obtained when calibrated by the measurements from 1999 to 2010. Furthermore, the developed relations were also verified by the observed data in 2011 and 2012, with encouraging results.

  12. Geomorphic Framework to assess changes to aquatic habitat due to flow regulation and channel and floodplain alteration, Cedar River, Washington (United States)

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Little, Rand


    Flow regulation, bank armoring, and floodplain alteration since the early 20th century have contributed to significant changes in the hydrologic regime and geomorphic processes of the Cedar River in Washington State. The Cedar River originates in the Cascade Range, provides drinking water to the Seattle metropolitan area, and supports several populations of anadromous salmonids. Flow regulation currently has limited influence on the magnitude, duration, and timing of high-flow events, which affect the incubation of salmonids as well as the production and maintenance of their habitat. Unlike structural changes to the channel and floodplain, flow regulation may be modified in the short-term to improve the viability of salmon populations. An understanding of the effects of flow regulation on those populations must be discerned over a range of scales from individual floods that affect the size of individual year classes to decadal high flow regime that influences the amount and quality of channel and off-channel habitat available for spawning and rearing. We present estimates of reach-scale sediment budgets and changes to channel morphology derived from historical orthoimagery, specific gage analyses at four long-term streamflow-gaging stations to quantify trends in aggradation, and hydrologic statistics of the magnitude and duration of peak streamflows. These data suggest a gradient of channel types from unconfined, sediment-rich segments to confined, sediment-poor segments that are likely to have distinct responses to high flows. Particle-size distribution data and longitudinal water surface and streambed profiles for the 56 km downstream of Chester Morse Lake measured in 2010 show the spatial extent of preferred salmonid habitat along the Cedar River. These historical and current data constitute a geomorphic framework to help assess different river management scenarios for salmonid habitat and population viability. PDF version of a presentation on changes to aquatic

  13. Abiotic controls of emergent macrophyte density in a bedrock channel - The Cahaba River, AL (USA) (United States)

    Vaughn, Ryan S.; Davis, Lisa


    Research examining bedrock channels is growing. Despite this, biotic-abiotic interactions remain a topic mostly addressed in alluvial systems. This research identified hydrogeomorphic factors operating at the patch-scale (100-102 m) in bedrock shoals of the Cahaba River (AL) that help determine the distribution of the emergent aquatic macrophyte, Justicia americana. Macrophyte patch density (number of stems/m2) and percent bedrock void surface area (rock surface area/m2 occupied by joints, fractures, and potholes) were measured (n = 24 within two bedrock shoals) using stem counts and underwater photography, respectively. One-dimensional hydrologic modeling (HEC-RAS 4.1.0) was completed for a section within a shoal to examine velocity and channel depth as controlling variables for macrophyte patch density. Results from binary logistic regression analysis identified depth and velocity as good predictors of the presence or absence of Justicia americana within shoal structures (depth p = 0.001, velocity p = 0.007), which is a similar finding to previous research conducted in alluvial systems. Correlation analysis between bedrock surface void area and stem density demonstrated a statistically significant positive correlation (r = 0.665, p = 0.01), elucidating a link between abiotic-biotic processes that may well be unique to bedrock channels. These results suggest that the amount of void space present in bedrock surfaces, in addition to localized depth and velocity, helps control macrophyte patch density in bedrock shoal complexes. The utility of geomorphology in explaining patch-scale habitat heterogeneity in this study highlights geomorphology's potential to help understand macrophyte habitat heterogeneity at the reach scale, while also demonstrating its promise for mapping and understanding habitat heterogeneity at the system scale.

  14. Wandering gravel-bed rivers and high-constructive stable channel sandy fluvial systems in the Ross River area, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel G.F. Long


    Gravel-dominated strata, inter-bedded with, and overlying coal-bearing units, are interpreted as deposits of wandering gravel-bed rivers, with sinuosity approaching 1.4. In most exposures they appear to be dominated by massive and thin planar-bedded granule to small pebble conglomerates, which would traditionally be interpreted as sheet-flood or longitudinal bar deposits of a high-gradient braided stream or alluvial fan. Architectural analysis of exposures in an open-pit shows that the predominance of flat bedding is an artefact of the geometry of the roadside exposures. In the pit the conglomerates are dominated by large scale cross stratification on a scale of 1–5.5 m. These appear to have developed as downstream and lateral accretion elements on side-bars and on in-channel bars in water depths of 2–12 m. Stacking of strata on domed 3rd order surfaces suggests development of longitudinal in-channel bar complexes similar to those observed in parts of the modern Rhône River system. Mudstone preserved in some of the channels reflects intervals of channel abandonment or avulsion. Minimum channel width is from 70 to 450 m.

  15. Evaluation of CAESAR-Lisflood as a tool for modelling river channel change and floodplain sediment residence times. (United States)

    Feeney, Christopher; Smith, Hugh; Chiverrell, Richard; Hooke, Janet; Cooper, James


    Sediment residence time represents the duration of particle storage, from initial deposition to remobilisation, within reservoirs such as floodplains. Residence time influences rates of downstream redistribution of sediment and associated contaminants and is a useful indicator of landform stability and hence, preservation potential of alluvial archives of environmental change. River channel change controls residence times, reworking sediments via lateral migration, avulsion and incision through floodplain deposits. As reworking progresses, the floodplain age distribution is 'updated', reflecting the time since 'older' sediments were removed and replaced with 'younger' ones. The relationship between ages and the spatial extents they occupy can be used to estimate the average floodplain sediment residence times. While dating techniques, historic maps and remote sensing can reconstruct age distributions from historic reworking, modelling provides advantages, including: i) capturing detailed river channel changes and resulting floodplain ages over longer timescales and higher resolutions than from historic mapping, and ii) control over inputs to simulate hypothetical scenarios to investigate the effects of different environmental drivers on residence times. CAESAR-Lisflood is a landform evolution model capable of simulating variable channel width, divergent flow, and both braided and meandering planforms. However, the model's ability to accurately simulate channel changes requires evaluation if it is to be useful for quantitative evaluation of floodplain sediment residence times. This study aims to simulate recent historic river channel changes along ten 1 km reaches in northern England. Simulation periods were defined by available overlapping historic map and mean daily flow datasets, ranging 27-39 years. LiDAR-derived 2 m DEMs were modified to smooth out present-day channels and burn in historic channel locations. To reduce run times, DEMs were resampled to coarser

  16. The challenges in using UAV and plane imagery to quantify channel change in sandy braided rivers (United States)

    Strick, Robert; Ashworth, Philip; Best, James; Lane, Stuart; Nicholas, Andrew; Parsons, Daniel; Sambrook Smith, Gregory; Simpson, Christopher; Unsworth, Christopher


    The development of numerical models of river morpho-dynamics is hampered by the lack of high-resolution data at multiple time and space scales for model validation. Such data are especially challenging to obtain for sand-bed braided rivers that typically have multiple channels of varying depth and contain rapidly migrating low-relief bar-lobes and dunes. This paper reports on the efforts to meet these challenges using repeat UAV surveys and plane sorties to quantify morphological change and bedform migration rates along the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. The South Saskatchewan River, near Outlook (SK Province) is 600 m wide with very well sorted medium sand (D50 = 0.3 mm) and negligible clay. The Gardiner Dam, 20 km upstream of the study reach, traps much of the very fine sediment so that the waters are clear at low flow and therefore the river bed is entirely visible. Fieldwork campaigns in 2015 and 2016 captured: (i) 1:5000 aerial colour photographs over a 17.5 km reach; (ii) high temporal frequency repeat imagery, obtained using quadcopter and fixed-wing UAV platforms for multiple 100 x 500 m sub-reaches. Plane images were processed via Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques using Pix4D and supporting ArcGIS and Global Mapper analysis. The resulting point cloud was corrected for tilt and filtered in MATLAB at multiple spatial scales to remove noise. Elevations in sub-aqueous zones were obtained using a statistical model, relating image brightness to water depth, developed using single beam echo-sounder data collected near to the flight time. The final DSM for the plane imagery combines these two methods and has a 0.5 m spatial resolution with vertical accuracy of 6 cm. UAV imagery is also processed using Pix4D with application of a diffraction water depth correction, required due to the lower flight height, and gives a resulting vertical accuracy of 2 cm. Initial results highlight the following issues: (i) there are a series of technical

  17. The dynamic feedbacks between channel changes in the Colorado River Basin and the rapid invasion of Tamarisk (United States)

    Manners, R.; Schmidt, J. C.


    The resiliency and sensitivity of western rivers to future climate change may be partly anticipated by the response of these rivers to past perturbations in stream flow and sediment supply. Predictions of earlier spring runoff and reduced peak flows of snowmelt-dominated streams mimic hydrologic changes caused by the closure and operation of large dams built within the past century. In the Colorado River Basin, channels have narrowed between 5 and 26% following large dam construction, but the correlation between flow reduction and channel narrowing is confounded by changes in bank strength caused by the rapid spread of the non-native riparian shrub, tamarisk (Tamarix spp.). Thus, predictions of future changes in channel form and analysis of past changes related to dams must distinguish between channel narrowing caused by direct changes in flow, and caused by the indirect effects wherein changes in flow regime allow expansion of non-native riparian vegetation that in turn leads to accelerated channel narrowing. Our research evaluates the geomorphic controls on tamarisk colonization, the role of tamarisk in accelerating the narrowing process, and the dynamic feedbacks between channel changes on western rivers and the invasion of non-native riparian species. The transformation of formerly active bars and channel margins into stable inset floodplain surfaces is the dominant process by which these channels have narrowed, as determined by detailed alluvial stratigraphy and dendrogeomorphology. We recreated the 3-dimensional bar surface present at the time of tamarisk establishment by excavating an extensive network of trenches. In doing this, we evaluated the hydraulic environment within which tamarisk established. We also characterized the hydrodynamic roughness of aging tamarisk stands from ground-based LiDAR scans to evaluate the role of tamarisk in the promotion of floodplain formation. Our study sites are representative of the predominant geomorphic organization of

  18. Drivers of Barotropic and Baroclinic Exchange through an Estuarine Navigation Channel in the Mississippi River Delta Plain

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    Gregg A. Snedden


    Full Text Available Estuarine navigation channels have long been recognized as conduits for saltwater intrusion into coastal wetlands. Salt flux decomposition and time series measurements of velocity and salinity were used to examine salt flux components and drivers of baroclinic and barotropic exchange in the Houma Navigation Channel, an estuarine channel located in the Mississippi River delta plain that receives substantial freshwater inputs from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River system at its inland extent. Two modes of vertical current structure were identified from the time series data. The first mode, accounting for 90% of the total flow field variability, strongly resembled a barotropic current structure and was coherent with alongshelf wind stress over the coastal Gulf of Mexico. The second mode was indicative of gravitational circulation and was linked to variability in tidal stirring and the horizontal salinity gradient along the channel’s length. Tidal oscillatory salt flux was more important than gravitational circulation in transporting salt upestuary, except over equatorial phases of the fortnightly tidal cycle during times when river inflows were minimal. During all tidal cycles sampled, the advective flux, driven by a combination of freshwater discharge and wind-driven changes in storage, was the dominant transport term, and net flux of salt was always out of the estuary. These findings indicate that although human-made channels can effectively facilitate inland intrusion of saline water, this intrusion can be minimized or even reversed when they are subject to significant freshwater inputs.

  19. Predicting the spatial patterns of hillslope sediment delivery to river channels in the Murrumbidgee catchment, Australia (United States)

    Verstraeten, Gert; Prosser, Ian P.; Fogarty, Peter


    SummarySediment yield data derived from long-term sedimentation rates in 26 small farm dams in SE Australia were used to calibrate a spatially distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) that takes into account contribution from gully erosion in areas of concentrated flow. For three different land use categories (poor, moderate and good vegetative cover), a sediment transport capacity coefficient was calibrated. All other parameters being equal, it was found that sediment transport capacity for cropland is 2 times higher than for degraded pasture and 20 times higher than for native forest and good pasture. Model efficiencies for the prediction of specific and total sediment yield are 0.56 and 0.89, respectively. These model efficiencies are much higher compared to those obtained when intense erosion in concentrated flow areas is not considered explicitly. Several of the catchments that were used for the calibration have very high sediment yield rates, which are attributed to the presence of gullies. The good performance of WATEM/SEDEM to all catchments suggests that the model accounts well for gully erosion. Next, the calibrated WATEM/SEDEM was applied to the Murrumbidgee River basin (30,000 km 2). A mean annual sediment input into the river channels from the hillslopes of 478,000 t was predicted. The spatial pattern of hillslope-derived suspended sediment delivery in the Murrumbidgee indicates that most of the sediment originates from a few tributaries downstream of Burrinjuck Reservoir. Given the fact that high-resolution datasets (including digital elevation models) are becoming available at reasonable cost, WATEM/SEDEM provides a powerful tool to predict hillslope sediment delivery under different environments including the spatial patterns of hillslope generated sediment fluxes.

  20. Suspended and Bedload Sand dynamics in the Mekong River Channel and Export to the Coastal Ocean (United States)

    Stephens, J. D.; Di Leonardo, D. R.; Weathers, H. D., III; Allison, M. A.


    Two field campaigns were conducted in the tidal and estuarine reach of the Song Hau distributary of the Mekong River to examine the dynamics of sand transport and export to the coastal ocean. This study examines variation in suspended sand concentration and net transport with respect to changes in discharge between the October 2014 high discharge and March 2015 low discharge studies, and over semi-diurnal and spring-neap tidal cycles between Can Tho and the Tran De and Dinh An distributary channels in the Mekong Delta. Suspended sand concentrations were measured using a P-61 isokinetic suspended sediment sampler and a Sequoia Scientific LISST-100X used in vertical profiling mode. Stationary ADCP data are used to examine bed stress at cast sites. Bed load transport rates were calculated using a repeat multibeam transect methodology and dune translation rates with flow. Preliminary results indicate that suspended sand concentration increases towards the bed and is positively correlated with increasing shear stress controlled by river discharge and tides. However, sites with non-sandy bottoms, as indicated by multibeam bathymetry, have low suspended sand concentrations, suggesting a close linkage with a bed sand source. Bed load transport rates vary cross-sectionally with shear stress and are linked to dune size. Most bed load transport is taking place in or near the thalweg. The reduction in ebb flows at low discharge and the mantling of sand fields by salinity driven mud deposition, is suspected to control the low suspended sand concentrations observed in March. Results to date suggest that net sand export (suspended plus bed load) to the ocean occurs predominantly during the high discharge monsoon season.

  1. A multi-scalar approach for modelling river channel change in the Anthropocene (United States)

    Downs, Peter; Piégay, Hervé; Piffady, Jeremy; Valette, Laurent; Vaudor, Lise


    Adjustments in river channel morphology during the 'Anthropocene' arise as a cumulative impact from the influence of numerous natural and human stressors operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, the research requirement for data on impacts at multiple scales, and at sufficiently high spatial and temporal resolution to determine reach-level effect, largely prevented such studies until recent improvements in digital technologies and data availability. A meta-analysis of recent cumulative impact studies indicates that the analytical component is still overwhelmingly interpretative, with cause-and-effect reasoning based largely on temporal synchronicity and spatial proximity, whereas our conceptual understanding of adjustment processes is far more nuanced. We propose, instead, that studies of cumulative impact should be underpinned by an analytical model of cause and effect, partly to test and enhance our predictive capabilities and allow scenario setting, but also to learn about the relative sensitivities involved in different parts of the model and thus to prioritize future research endeavours. Our requirements are that the model should be inherently designed to detect reach-level changes over Anthropocene timescales, be capable of integrating co-existing and hierarchical human and natural pressures on fluvial systems, be able to accommodate time-lagged effects and upstream-downstream connectivity, and be based on an explicit conceptual model that can be refined as our process understanding improves. Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) offer some potential in this regard and are becoming an increasingly popular option for dealing with complex, multi-scalar relationships in ecology and other environmental sciences. BBNs consist of a conceptual model of nodes and edges (i.e., graph theory) that qualitatively describe the structure of causal relationships between chains of variables, and a quantitative expression of the relative strength of the

  2. Proposed modifications to the Lower Mokelumne River Project, California: FERC Project No. 2916-004. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This final environmental impact statement (FEIS) has been prepared for the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) to consider modifications to the existing Lower Mokelumne River Project (LMRP) (FERC Project No. 2916-004) in California. Chinook salmon and steelhead trout populations in the lower Mokelumne River have experienced recent declines and fish kills associated, in part, with discharges from Camanche Dam. The California Department of Fish and Game and the California Sportfishing Protection Alliance have asked the Commission to investigate and correct these problems. A wide range of different mitigation actions has been proposed by parties participating in the scoping of this proceeding, and staff has evaluated these proposed actions in this assessment. The staff is recommending a combination of flow and non-flow modifications to the existing license, including new minimum flow and minimum pool elevation requirements at Camanche Reservoir, ramping rates on dam releases, interim attraction and out-migrant spike flows, instream habitat improvements, and a series of studies and monitoring to determine feasible means for solving off-site fish passage problems.

  3. Effect of the barrage and embankments on flooding and channel avulsion case study Koshi River, Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devkota, L.; Crosato, A.; Giri, S.


    Humans have utilized water resources for millennia by modifying natural river courses and such interventions have greatly influenced not only river flows and sediment fluxes, but also the overall river morphology. Situated in the Nepal's eastern Ganges region, the braided Koshi River is unique among

  4. Potential effects of deepening the St. Johns River navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system, Jacksonville, Florida (United States)

    Bellino, Jason C.; Spechler, Rick M.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) has proposed dredging a 13-mile reach of the St. Johns River navigation channel in Jacksonville, Florida, deepening it to depths between 50 and 54 feet below North American Vertical Datum of 1988. The dredging operation will remove about 10 feet of sediments from the surficial aquifer system, including limestone in some locations. The limestone unit, which is in the lowermost part of the surficial aquifer system, supplies water to domestic wells in the Jacksonville area. Because of density-driven hydrodynamics of the St. Johns River, saline water from the Atlantic Ocean travels upstream as a saltwater “wedge” along the bottom of the channel, where the limestone is most likely to be exposed by the proposed dredging. A study was conducted to determine the potential effects of navigation channel deepening in the St. Johns River on salinity in the adjacent surficial aquifer system. Simulations were performed with each of four cross-sectional, variable-density groundwater-flow models, developed using SEAWAT, to simulate hypothetical changes in salinity in the surficial aquifer system as a result of dredging. The cross-sectional models were designed to incorporate a range of hydrogeologic conceptualizations to estimate the effect of uncertainty in hydrogeologic properties. The cross-sectional models developed in this study do not necessarily simulate actual projected conditions; instead, the models were used to examine the potential effects of deepening the navigation channel on saltwater intrusion in the surficial aquifer system under a range of plausible hypothetical conditions. Simulated results for modeled conditions indicate that dredging will have little to no effect on salinity variations in areas upstream of currently proposed dredging activities. Results also indicate little to no effect in any part of the surficial aquifer system along the cross section near River Mile 11 or in the water-table unit along the cross

  5. Evaluation of flushing of a high-selenium backwater channel in the Colorado River (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.; Weston, L.K.; McDonald, S.F.


    Concern has been raised that selenium contamination may be adversely affecting endangered fish in the upper Colorado River basin. The objective of the study was to determine if operation of a water control structure (opened in December 1996) that allowed the Colorado River to flow through a channel area at Walter Walker State Wildlife Area (WWSWA) would reduce selenium and other inorganic elements in water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates, and forage fish. Endangered Colorado pikeminnow were collected and muscle plug samples taken for selenium analysis. Selenium concentrations in filtered water were 21.0 ??g/L in 1995, 23.5 ??g/L in 1996, 2.1 ??g/L in 1997, and 2.1 ??g/L in 1998. Selenium concentrations in sediment cores and sediment traps were 8.5 ??/g in 1995, 8.2 ??g/g in 1996, 4.8 ??g/g in 1997, and 1.1 ??g/g in 1998. Selenium concentrations in aquatic invertebrates were 27.4 ??g/g in 1996, 15.5 ??g/g in 1997, and 4.9 ??g/g in 1998. Selenium concentrations in forage fish were 27.2 ??g/g in 1996, 20.2 ??g/g in 1997, and 8.6 ??g/g in 1998. Selenium concentrations in muscle plugs of Colorado pikeminnow were 9.8 ??g/g in 1995, 9.5 ??g/g in 1996, 9.0 ??g/g in 1997, and 10.3 ??g/g in 1998. Although selenium concentrations in water, sediment, aquatic invertebrates, and forage fish decreased substantially after operation of the water control structure, a corresponding change in Colorado pikeminnow did not seem to occur. Selenium concentrations in muscle plugs decreased with increasing fish total length and weight, did not change between repeat sampling in the same year or recapture in subsequent years, and seemed to be most closely associated with the mean monthly river flow for the March-July period. ?? 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Estimates of deep percolation beneath native vegetation, irrigated fields, and the Amargosa-River Channel, Amargosa Desert, Nye County, Nevada (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Prudic, David E.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Akstin, Katherine C.; Boyd, Robert A.; Henkelman, Katherine K.


    The presence and approximate rates of deep percolation beneath areas of native vegetation, irrigated fields, and the Amargosa-River channel in the Amargosa Desert of southern Nevada were evaluated using the chloride mass-balance method and inferred downward velocities of chloride and nitrate peaks. Estimates of deep-percolation rates in the Amargosa Desert are needed for the analysis of regional ground-water flow and transport. An understanding of regional flow patterns is important because ground water originating on the Nevada Test Site may pass through the area before discharging from springs at lower elevations in the Amargosa Desert and in Death Valley. Nine boreholes 10 to 16 meters deep were cored nearly continuously using a hollow-stem auger designed for gravelly sediments. Two boreholes were drilled in each of three irrigated fields in the Amargosa-Farms area, two in the Amargosa-River channel, and one in an undisturbed area of native vegetation. Data from previously cored boreholes beneath undisturbed, native vegetation were compared with the new data to further assess deep percolation under current climatic conditions and provide information on spatial variability. The profiles beneath native vegetation were characterized by large amounts of accumulated chloride just below the root zone with almost no further accumulation at greater depths. This pattern is typical of profiles beneath interfluvial areas in arid alluvial basins of the southwestern United States, where salts have been accumulating since the end of the Pleistocene. The profiles beneath irrigated fields and the Amargosa-River channel contained more than twice the volume of water compared to profiles beneath native vegetation, consistent with active deep percolation beneath these sites. Chloride profiles beneath two older fields (cultivated since the 1960?s) as well as the upstream Amargosa-River site were indicative of long-term, quasi-steady deep percolation. Chloride profiles beneath the

  7. Channel adjustments and vegetation cover dynamics in a large gravel bed river over the last 200 years (United States)

    Comiti, F.; Da Canal, M.; Surian, N.; Mao, L.; Picco, L.; Lenzi, M. A.


    The timing and extent of the morphological changes that occurred in the last 200 years in a large gravel bed river (the Piave River, eastern Italian Alps) that was heavily impacted by human activities (training structures, hydropower schemes, and gravel mining) have been analyzed by historical maps, aerial photos, repeated topographic measurements, and geomorphological surveys. Results show that the channel underwent a strong narrowing during the twentieth century, but with a faster pace during the 1970s-1990s and with an associated shift from a dominant braided pattern to a wandering morphology. Bed incision up to 2 m — mostly from gravel mining — has been documented for this period. Large areas of the former active channel were colonized by riparian forests, both as islands and as marginal woodlands. The ceasing of gravel extraction in the late 1990s seems to have determined a reversal in the evolutionary trend, with evidence of vegetation erosion/channel widening even though a significant aggradation phase is not present. We conclude that alteration of sediment regime has played a major role on the long-term channel evolution. However, only relevant flood events ( RI > 10-15 years) appear to determine substantial island erosion, and therefore the proportion of island vs. channel area fluctuates depending on flood history.

  8. Estimating of suspended sediment loads of rivers in the Seine downstream basin and coastal rivers in Southeastern Channel (United States)

    Landemaine, Valentin; Cerdan, Olivier; Laignel, Benoit; Fournier, Matthieu; Copard, Yoann


    Sediment exports in rivers constitute the essential of materials transfer from the land surface to the ocean and contribute significantly to the transfer of nutrients, pesticides, heavy metals which can affect water quality. Such problems of water pollution are particularly present at the Norman loess plateaus because soil erosion is a frequent phenomena and mudslides are common. In this context, the quantification of sediment load, as well as the short and long term variability analysis are a key component for any sustainable management project of water resources. The quantification of sediment fluxes is based on turbidity, suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) and discharge measurements. These measurements must be made with sufficient high frequency for integrating temporal variability of SSC and flows. However, the cost of a high frequency monitoring limits their use at large scale. In France, discharges are monitored using daily frequency (Banque Hydro), while SSC are measured in monthly or bimonthly frequency under the national water quality survey system (RNB). With these low frequency measurements, an algorithm must be used to reconstruct SSC temporal variability and to estimate a sediment flux. Many estimation algorithms have been developed in recent decades, from the simplest to the most elaborate, but no consensus has been reached on the use of a particular algorithm because of the complexity of SSC-discharge relationship. In this study, the analysis focuses on eight Channel coastal watersheds and nine Seine watersheds in the downstream part. We have a several years of high-frequency measurements on nine watersheds with highly variable area (10 km² to 10,000 km²) and low-frequency measurements for all watersheds. From these data, we compared the statistical performance of eleven algorithms to estimate sediment fluxes conventionally used in the literature. These algorithms are: averaging estimator, ratio estimator, linear interpolation, rating curve

  9. Angler survey contributes to socially acceptable modification of harvest regulations to preserve cutthroat trout fishery in Snake River, Wyoming, USA (United States)

    Hubert, Wayne A.; Gipson, Robert D.


    This is a case study that describes a survey of anglers that was used to assist in modifying fishing regulations for indigenous trout in the Snake River, Wyoming. A mail survey of anglers who purchased 1991 Wyoming fishing licenses in the two counties adjacent to the Snake River was conducted during fall 1992. Differences in angler preferences were noted between anglers who purchased licenses in two adjacent counties with different socioeconomic structures, as well as between residents and nonresidents in each county. Anglers who purchased licenses in Teton County, where there is extensive tourism and immigration by relatively wealthy residents, tended to be more specialized and less harvest oriented. Anglers in Lincoln County, which is largely agricultural and has substantially less tourism and immigration of residents, tended to fish in many different ways and indicated more desire to harvest fish. Anglers from the two counties segregated themselves; those from Teton County primarily used the upstream portion of the study reach, and those from Lincoln County primarily used a short downstream portion of the reach. Modification of fishing regulations to reduce harvest of spawning-size cutthroat trout in the Snake River probably was acceptable to most anglers due to spatial segregation and their attitudes toward harvest.

  10. Influence of Channel Morphology on Flow Hydraulics in a Compound Meander Bend of the Lower Brazos River, Texas (United States)

    Hales, B. U.; Guneralp, I.; Filippi, A. M.


    At a meander-bend scale, process-form interactions between channel morphology and flow hydraulics generate unique features called geomorphic units, such as pools, sediment bars, and backwater regions. Geomorphic units play an important role as distinct habitats for aquatic species. In this study, we investigate channel morphology and flow structure of an incised meander bend on the lower Brazos River, Texas, to inform aquatic habitat assessment. The bend represents the characteristics of sand-bed and high-amplitude meandering rivers and contains a localized bank-protection structure along its cutbank. We examine: 1) the spatial characteristics of channel morphology (i.e., geomorphic units); 2) spatial characteristics of flow hydraulics in relation to geomorphic units at low- (Q1), medium- (Q2), and high- (Q3) discharge conditions; and 3) the influence of channel morphology on flow hydraulics within this meander bend. We utilize bathymetric and hydraulic surveys conducted using Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and simultaneously collected bed-sediment samples. To characterize channel morphology, we use a digital terrain model (DTM) of the bend that we generate by fusing our bathymetric data and an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)-derived DTM. We examine flow hydraulics by performing quasi 3-D hydraulic modeling. Results show that channel morphology has a strong influence on the spatial distribution of hydraulic parameters, including water depth, flow velocities, Froude number, and helix strength. At Q1, the emergent mid-channel bar forces flow divergence/convergence and acts as a macro-roughness structure. High flow velocity concentrates in the deeper and narrower sub-channel along the cutbank side. At Q2, the location of the mid-channel bar shifts toward the point bar, forming a new chute sub-channel. Highest flow velocities are still concentrated in the permanent sub-channel along the cutbank, but shift downstream toward the exit

  11. Precipitation effects on microbial pollution in a river: lag structures and seasonal effect modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tornevi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The river Göta Älv is a source of freshwater for 0.7 million swedes. The river is subject to contamination from sewer systems discharge and runoff from agricultural lands. Climate models projects an increase in precipitation and heavy rainfall in this region. This study aimed to determine how daily rainfall causes variation in indicators of pathogen loads, to increase knowledge of variations in river water quality and discuss implications for risk management. METHODS: Data covering 7 years of daily monitoring of river water turbidity and concentrations of E. coli, Clostridium and coliforms were obtained, and their short-term variations in relation with precipitation were analyzed with time series regression and non-linear distributed lag models. We studied how precipitation effects varied with season and compared different weather stations for predictive ability. RESULTS: Generally, the lowest raw water quality occurs 2 days after rainfall, with poor raw water quality continuing for several more days. A rainfall event of >15 mm/24-h (local 95 percentile was associated with a three-fold higher concentration of E. coli and 30% higher turbidity levels (lag 2. Rainfall was associated with exponential increases in concentrations of indicator bacteria while the effect on turbidity attenuated with very heavy rainfall. Clear associations were also observed between consecutive days of wet weather and decreased water quality. The precipitation effect on increased levels of indicator bacteria was significant in all seasons. CONCLUSIONS: Rainfall elevates microbial risks year-round in this river and freshwater source and acts as the main driver of varying water quality. Heavy rainfall appears to be a better predictor of fecal pollution than water turbidity. An increase of wet weather and extreme events with climate change will lower river water quality even more, indicating greater challenges for drinking water producers, and suggesting better

  12. Connectivity of Multi-Channel Fluvial Systems: A Comparison of Topology Metrics for Braided Rivers and Delta Networks (United States)

    Tejedor, A.; Marra, W. A.; Addink, E. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.; Kleinhans, M. G.


    Advancing quantitative understanding of the structure and dynamics of complex networks has transformed research in many fields as diverse as protein interactions in a cell to page connectivity in the World Wide Web and relationships in human societies. However, Geosciences have not benefited much from this new conceptual framework, although connectivity is at the center of many processes in hydro-geomorphology. One of the first efforts in this direction was the seminal work of Smart and Moruzzi (1971), proposing the use of graph theory for studying the intricate structure of delta channel networks. In recent years, this preliminary work has precipitated in a body of research that examines the connectivity of multiple-channel fluvial systems, such as delta networks and braided rivers. In this work, we compare two approaches recently introduced in the literature: (1) Marra et al. (2014) utilized network centrality measures to identify important channels in a braided section of the Jamuna River, and used the changes of bifurcations within the network over time to explain the overall river evolution; and (2) Tejedor et al. (2015a,b) developed a set of metrics to characterize the complexity of deltaic channel networks, as well as defined a vulnerability index that quantifies the relative change of sediment and water delivery to the shoreline outlets in response to upstream perturbations. Here we present a comparative analysis of metrics of centrality and vulnerability applied to both braided and deltaic channel networks to depict critical channels in those systems, i.e., channels where a change would contribute more substantially to overall system changes, and to understand what attributes of interest in a channel network are most succinctly depicted in what metrics. Marra, W. A., Kleinhans, M. G., & Addink, E. A. (2014). Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, doi:10.1002/esp.3482Smart, J. S., and V. L. Moruzzi (1971), Quantitative properties of delta channel networks

  13. Wetted channel and bar features for the Rogue River, Oregon in 1967 and 1969 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  14. Wetted channel and bar features for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2009 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  15. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 1967 and 1969 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  16. Wetted channel and bar features for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2005 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  17. Imaging and locating paleo-channels using geophysical data from meandering system of the Mun River, Khorat Plateau, Northeastern Thailand (United States)

    Nimnate, P.; Thitimakorn, T.; Choowong, M.; Hisada, K.


    The Khorat Plateau from northeast Thailand, the upstream part of the Mun River flows through clastic sedimentary rocks. A massive amount of sand was transported. We aimed to understand the evolution of fluvial system and to discuss the advantages of two shallow geophysical methods for describing subsurface morphology of modern and paleo-channels. We applied Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) to characterize the lateral, vertical morphological and sedimentary structures of paleo-channels, floodplain and recent point bars. Both methods were interpreted together with on-sites boreholes to describe the physical properties of subsurface sediments. As a result, we concluded that four radar reflection patterns including reflection free, shingled, inclined and hummocky reflections were appropriated to apply as criteria to characterize lateral accretion, the meandering rivers with channel-filled sequence and floodplain were detected from ERT profiles. The changes in resistivity correspond well with differences in particle size and show relationship with ERT lithological classes. Clay, silt, sand, loam and bedrock were classified by the resistivity data. Geometry of paleo-channel embayment and lithological differences can be detected by ERT, whereas GPR provides detail subsurface facies for describing point bar sand deposit better than ERT.

  18. Thinking outside the channel: modeling nitrogen cycling in networked river ecosystems (United States)

    Ashley M. Helton; Geoffrey C. Poole; Judy L. Meyer; Wilfred M. Wollheim; Bruce J. Peterson; Patrick J. Mulholland; Emily S. Bernhardt; Jack A. Stanford; Clay Arango; Linda R. Ashkenas; Lee W. Cooper; Walter K. Dodds; Stanley V. Gregory; Robert O. Hall; Stephen K. Hamilton; Sherri L. Johnson; William H. McDowell; Jody D. Potter; Jennifer L. Tank; Suzanne M. Thomas; H. Maurice Valett; Jackson R. Webster; Lydia. Zeglin


    Agricultural and urban development alters nitrogen and other biogeochemical cycles in rivers worldwide. Because such biogeochemical processes cannot be measured empirically across whole river networks, simulation models are critical tools for understanding river-network biogeochemistry. However, limitations inherent in current models restrict our ability to simulate...

  19. Characterizing the danger of in-channel river hazards using LIDAR and a 2D hydrodynamic model (United States)

    Strom, M. A.; Pasternack, G. B.


    Despite many injuries and deaths each year worldwide, no analytically rigorous attempt exists to characterize and quantify the dangers to boaters, swimmers, fishermen, and other river enthusiasts. While designed by expert boaters, the International Scale of River Difficulty provides a whitewater classification that uses qualitative descriptions and subjective scoring. The purpose of this study was to develop an objective characterization of in-channel hazard dangers across spatial scales from a single boulder to an entire river segment for application over a wide range of discharges and use in natural hazard assessment and mitigation, recreational boating safety, and river science. A process-based conceptualization of river hazards was developed, and algorithms were programmed in R to quantify the associated dangers. Danger indicators included the passage proximity and reaction time posed to boats and swimmers in a river by three hazards: emergent rocks, submerged rocks, and hydraulic jumps or holes. The testbed river was a 12.2 km mixed bedrock-alluvial section of the upper South Yuba River between Lake Spaulding and Washington, CA in the Sierra Mountains. The segment has a mean slope of 1.63%, with 8 reaches varying from 1.07% to 3.30% slope and several waterfalls. Data inputs to the hazard analysis included sub-decimeter aerial color imagery, airborne LIDAR of the river corridor, bathymetric data, flow inputs, and a stage-discharge relation for the end of the river segment. A key derived data product was the location and configuration of boulders and boulder clusters as these were potential hazards. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling was used to obtain the meter-scale spatial pattern of depth and velocity at discharges ranging from baseflow to modest flood stages. Results were produced for four discharges and included the meter-scale spatial pattern of the passage proximity and reaction time dangers for each of the three hazards investigated. These results

  20. Linking River Basin Modifications and Rural Soil and Water Management Practices in Tropical Deltas to Sea Level Rise Vulnerability (United States)

    Rogers, K. G.; Brondizio, E.; Roy, K.; Syvitski, J. P.


    The increased vulnerability of deltaic communities to coastal flooding as a result of upstream engineering has been acknowledged for decades. What has received less attention is the sensitivity of deltas to the interactions between river basin modifications and local scale cultivation and irrigation. Combined with reduced river and sediment discharge, soil and water management practices in coastal areas may exacerbate the risk of tidal flooding, erosion of arable land, and salinization of soils and groundwater associated with sea level rise. This represents a cruel irony to smallholder subsistence farmers whose priorities are food, water and economic security, rather than sustainability of the environment. Such issues challenge disciplinary approaches and require integrated social-biophysical models able to understand and diagnose these complex relationships. This study applies a new conceptual framework to define the relevant social and physical units operating on the common pool resources of climate, water and sediment in the Bengal Delta (Bangladesh). The new framework will inform development of a nested geospatial analysis and a coupled model to identify multi-scale social-biophysical feedbacks associated with smallholder soil and water management practices, coastal dynamics, basin modification, and climate vulnerability in tropical deltas. The framework was used to create household surveys for collecting data on climate perceptions, land and water management, and governance. Test surveys were administered to rural farmers in 14 villages during a reconnaissance visit to coastal Bangladesh. Initial results demonstrate complexity and heterogeneity at the local scale in both biophysical conditions and decision-making. More importantly, the results illuminate how national and geopolitical-level policies scale down to impact local-level environmental and social stability in communities already vulnerable to coastal flooding. Here, we will discuss components of the

  1. Age, distribution, and significance within a sediment budget, of in-channel depositional surfaces in the Normanby River, Queensland, Australia (United States)

    Pietsch, T. J.; Brooks, A. P.; Spencer, J.; Olley, J. M.; Borombovits, D.


    We present the results of investigations into alluvial deposition in the catchment of the Normanby River, which flows into Princess Charlotte Bay (PCB) in the northern part of the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. Our focus is on the fine fraction (LiDAR based mapping combined with optical dating of exposures cut into these in-channel deposits to compare their aggradation rates with those found in other depositional zones in the catchment, namely the floodplain and coastal plain. In total 59 single grain OSL dates were produced across 21 stratigraphic profiles at 14 sites distributed though the 24 226 km2 catchment. In-channel storage in these inset features is a significant component of the contemporary fine sediment budget (i.e. recent decades/last century), annually equivalent to more than 50% of the volume entering the channel network from hillslopes and subsoil sources. Therefore, at the very least, in-channel storage of fine material needs to be incorporated into sediment budgeting exercises. Furthermore, deposition within the channel has occurred in multiple locations coincident in time with accelerated sediment production following European settlement. Generally, this has occurred on a subset of the features we have examined here, namely linear bench features low in the channel. This suggests that accelerated aggradation on in-channel depositional surfaces has been in part a response to accelerated erosion within the catchment. The entire contribution of ~ 370 kilotonnes per annum of fine sediment estimated to have been produced by alluvial gully erosion over the last ~ 100 years can be accounted for by that stored as in-channel alluvium. These features therefore can play an important role in mitigating the impact on the receiving water of accelerated erosion.

  2. The Role of Riparian Vegetation Density, Channel Orientation and Water Velocity in Determining River Water Temperature Dynamics (United States)

    Garner, G.; Malcolm, I.; Sadler, J. P.; Hannah, D. M.


    There is substantial scientific and practical interest in the potential of riparian shading to mitigate climate change impacts on river temperature extremes. However, there is limited process-based evidence to determine the density and spatial extent of riparian tree planting required to obtain temperature targets under differing environmental conditions. A simulation experiment was used to understand the importance of riparian vegetation density, channel orientation and flow velocity for stream energy budgets and river temperature dynamics. Water temperature and meteorological observations were obtained in addition to hemispherical photographs along a ~1 km reach of the Girnock Burn, a tributary of the Aberdeenshire Dee, Scotland. Nine hemispherical images (representing different uniform canopy density scenarios) were used to parameterise a deterministic net radiation model and simulate radiative fluxes. For each vegetation scenario, the effects of eight channel orientations were investigated by changing the position of north at 45° intervals in each hemispheric image. Simulated radiative fluxes and observed turbulent fluxes drove a high-resolution water temperature model for the reach. Simulations were performed under low and high water velocity scenarios. Both velocity scenarios yielded decreases in mean (≥ 1.7 °C) and maximum (≥ 3.0 °C) temperature as canopy density increased. Slow-flowing water resided longer within the reach, which enhanced heat accumulation and dissipation and drove higher maximum and lower minimum temperatures. Intermediate levels of shade produced highly variable energy flux and water temperature dynamics depending on the channel orientation and thus the time of day when the channel was shaded. We demonstrate that in many reaches relatively sparse but strategically located vegetation could produce substantial reductions in maximum temperature and suggest that these criteria are used to inform future river management.

  3. 77 FR 39630 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events; Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD (United States)


    ... Harbor Access Channel, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... and National Harbor Access Channel during the event. DATES: This rule is effective on July 8, 2012... ``Special Local Regulations for [[Page 39631

  4. 76 FR 70647 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel, MD (United States)


    ... Harbor Access Channel, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... floating platform located within the National Harbor Access Channel, in Prince Georges County, Maryland... Access Channel, within a 50 yards radius of a fireworks discharge platform in approximate position...

  5. Low sinuosity and meandering bedload rivers of the Okavango Fan: channel confinement by vegetated levées without fine sediment (United States)

    Stanistreet, I. G.; Cairncross, B.; McCarthy, T. S.


    The river systems of the Okavango Fan negate present fluviological perceptions that fluvial geometry is primarily dependent upon the type of sediment load being carried by the river. In northwest Botswana, meandering and low sinuosity rivers, both of which may show anastomosis, are distinctly bedload in character. This is mainly because of a restricted source of clastic sediment, consisting of aeolian sand from the Tertiary to Recent Kalahari Basin. All that seems to be required, therefore, to control low sinuosity and meandering geometries is adequate confinement of channels. In the study examples this is provided by heavily vegetated levées comprising peat, formed from and colonised by a Cyperus papyrus dominated flora: fine sediment plays almost no role in the confinement process. Active and abandoned examples of low sinuosity river channels were studied. An inversion of topography develops in the latter, caused by the low survival probability of metres thick peat levées. Desiccation and burning of peat ultimately form a degraded ash layer only tens of centimetres thick. The channel sand then stands as a ridge rising above the surrounding fan surface. In both examples studied, no crevasse splays occur, but hippopotami trails breach the levées to form minor distributary channels which become filled with sand. The sand ultimately grades backwards to plug the breach. Meander belts are also developed, particularly in the upper fan and entry corridor. Cut banks incise into the sand substrate and scroll bar topographies can be discerned beneath their peat cover. Fine sediment plays no role in the confinement of these channels, which are maintained by peat levées similar to those encountered in the low sinuosity river channels. The recognition of these bedload low sinuosity and meandering river channels now completes the matrix, whereby any geometry of river channel can be developed in bedload, mixed load and suspended load rivers. Important aspects of the modern

  6. Assessment of channel changes, model of historical floods, and effects of backwater on flood stage, and flood mitigation alternatives for the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas (United States)

    Winters, Karl E.; Baldys, Stanley


    In cooperation with the City of Wichita Falls, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel changes on the Wichita River at Wichita Falls, Texas, and modeled historical floods to investigate possible causes and potential mitigation alternatives to higher flood stages in recent (2007 and 2008) floods. Extreme flooding occurred on the Wichita River on June 30, 2007, inundating 167 homes in Wichita Falls. Although a record flood stage was reached in June 2007, the peak discharge was much less than some historical floods at Wichita Falls. Streamflow and stage data from two gages on the Wichita River and one on Holliday Creek were used to assess the interaction of the two streams. Changes in the Wichita River channel were evaluated using historical aerial and ground photography, comparison of recent and historical cross sections, and comparison of channel roughness coefficients with those from earlier studies. The floods of 2007 and 2008 were modeled using a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibrated channel roughness was larger for the 2007 flood compared to the 2008 flood, and the 2007 flood peaked about 4 feet higher than the 2008 flood. Calibration of the 1941 flood yielded a channel roughness coefficient (Manning's n) of 0.030, which represents a fairly clean natural channel. The step-backwater model was also used to evaluate the following potential mitigation alternatives: (1) increasing the capacity of the bypass channel near River Road in Wichita Falls, Texas; (2) removal of obstructions near the Scott Avenue and Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard bridges in Wichita Falls, Texas; (3) widening of aggraded channel banks in the reach between Martin Luther King Junior Boulevard and River Road; and (4) reducing channel bank and overbank roughness. Reductions in water-surface elevations ranged from 0.1 foot to as much as 3.0 feet for the different mitigation alternatives. The effects of implementing a combination of different flood-mitigation alternatives were

  7. Riparian vegetation patterns in relation to fluvial landforms and channel evolution along selected rivers of Tuscany (Central Italy) (United States)

    Hupp, C.R.; Rinaldi, M.


    Riparian vegetation distribution patterns and diversity relative to various fluvial geomorphic channel patterns, landforms, and processes are described and interpreted for selected rivers of Tuscany, Central Italy; with emphasis on channel evolution following human impacts. Field surveys were conducted along thirteen gauged reaches for species presence, fluvial landforms, and the type and amount of channel/riparian zone change. Inundation frequency of different geomorphic surfaces was determined, and vegetation data were analyzed using BDA (binary discriminate analysis) and DCA (detrended correspondence analysis) and related to hydrogeomorphology. Multivariate analyses revealed distinct quantitative vegetation patterns relative to six major fluvial geomorphic surfaces. DCA of the vegetation data also showed distinct associations of plants to processes of adjustment that are related to stage of channel evolution, and clearly separated plants along disturbance/landform/soil moisture gradients. Species richness increases from the channel bed to the terrace and on heterogeneous riparian areas, whereas species richness decreases from moderate to intense incision and from low to intense narrowing. ?? 2007 by Association of American Geographers.

  8. Erosion and Deposition in a Dynamic Gravel-Cobble River are Dominated by Vertical Channel Change Processes (United States)

    Wyrick, J. R.; Pasternack, G. B.


    Quantification of changes in channel morphology provides a means for monitoring and analyzing fluvial sediment budgets relevant to ecosystem services. For this study, digital elevation models (DEMs) of ~37-km of the regulated lower Yuba River (LYR) were used to calculate high resolution (sub-meter) topographic changes for the period 1999-2008 and stratified across multiple spatial scales (i.e., segment, reach, and morphologic unit). With this dense dataset, the objectives are to (1) analyze the annual rates of volumetric change at multiple spatial scales, (2) delineate the topographic changes by processes and stratify these processes at multiple spatial scales, and (3) explain the patterns and processes of topographic change in terms of channel self-maintenance. At the segment scale, the channel exhibits a relatively small overall sediment output (net scour of ~17,000 cubic meters per year); however, the scour/fill rates were found to vary widely at the reach and morphologic unit (MU) scales. The dynamism experienced at the smaller spatial scales is a result of differences in the processes of topographic change. From the difference of DEMs, a suite of 19 channel change processes (CCP) (e.g., bank migration, avulsion, bar emergence, downcutting, in-channel fill, etc.) was delineated within ArcGIS using an objective classification metric. The areal patterns and volumetric rates of change of each CCP were then analyzed at multiple scales. For example, overbank scour processes are dominant within the segment; however, in-channel downcutting scours more sediment volume in the uppermost and lowermost reaches. Additionally, the valley-wide longitudinal pattern shows high scour rates in the reaches upstream of an 8-m run-of-the-river dam that trend towards higher fill rates downstream. To discern the CCP at the MU scale, the valley was previously delineated and mapped at this scale using the 2008 topography. To wit, the channel changes represent processes that occurred to

  9. Environmental Statement for Lavon Dam and Reservoir Modification and East Fork Channel Improvement - Pertaining to East Fork Channel and Levee Improvement Increment I. Supplement. (United States)


    along the river side of levees. Impacts to water quality due to erosion of the poor soil or contamination by excavated material leachate should be...materials, and the quantity of excavated material capable of producing polluted leachate is quite limited as indicated by stream sediment studies. 4.06 Long...Benthic invertebrates are the insect larvae, mollusks, worms and other organisms which exist on or in the bottom substrate of a river or other body of

  10. Effects of channel relocation and proposed bridge construction on floodflows of the Catawba River near Marion, North Carolina (United States)

    Stamey, T.C.


    The relocation of a part (about one-half a mile) of the Catawba River near Marion, North Carolina, and the proposed addition of a main bridge and an overflow bridge of U.S. Highway 221 have created the need for a current evaluation of the effects of these physical changes on floodflow in the river. The 100-year flood discharge, elevation-discharge relations, flood profiles, floodway, and flooding effects were determined for 1988 and for proposed bridge conditions. Analysis of data indicates that for the 100-year flood, the maximum amount of backwater effect from the proposed bridges would be 1.2 feet, and backwater would extend upstream about 6,800 feet. The 100-year flood elevation in the relocated channel reach will be about 6 feet lower than elevations determined in a 1983 U.S. Soil Conservation Service flood study.

  11. Post-dam Channel and Floodplain Adjustment along the Lower Volga River, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, Hans; Alabyan, Andrei M; Babich, Dmitry B; Ivanov, Vadim V


    The Volga River in the Russian Federation has been regulated by a cascade of reservoir dams since the 1950–1960s. This chapter presents an overview of the main hydrological and morphological responses of the Volga River downstream of the Volgograd reservoir dam. Regulation caused a decrease in

  12. Mapping spatial patterns of stream power and channel change along a gravel-bed river in northern Yellowstone (United States)

    Lea, Devin M.; Legleiter, Carl J.


    Stream power represents the rate of energy expenditure along a river and can be calculated using topographic data acquired via remote sensing or field surveys. This study sought to quantitatively relate temporal changes in the form of Soda Butte Creek, a gravel-bed river in northeastern Yellowstone National Park, to stream power gradients along an 8-km reach. Aerial photographs from 1994 to 2012 and ground-based surveys were used to develop a locational probability map and morphologic sediment budget to assess lateral channel mobility and changes in net sediment flux. A drainage area-to-discharge relationship and DEM developed from LiDAR data were used to obtain the discharge and slope values needed to calculate stream power. Local and lagged relationships between mean stream power gradient at median peak discharge and volumes of erosion, deposition, and net sediment flux were quantified via spatial cross-correlation analyses. Similarly, autocorrelations of locational probabilities and sediment fluxes were used to examine spatial patterns of sediment sources and sinks. Energy expended above critical stream power was calculated for each time period to relate the magnitude and duration of peak flows to the total volumetric change in each time increment. Collectively, we refer to these methods as the stream power gradient (SPG) framework. The results of this study were compromised by methodological limitations of the SPG framework and revealed some complications likely to arise when applying this framework to small, wandering, gravel-bed rivers. Correlations between stream power gradients and sediment flux were generally weak, highlighting the inability of relatively simple statistical approaches to link sub-budget cell-scale sediment dynamics to larger-scale driving forces such as stream power gradients. Improving the moderate spatial resolution techniques used in this study and acquiring very-high resolution data from recently developed methods in fluvial remote

  13. Characterizing the differences in bankfull channel geometry across the tidal-fluvial zone of micro- to macro- tidal fluvial systems: Lower Trinity River, TX, USA vs Chehalis River, WA, USA (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Prokocki, E.; Best, J.; Ashworth, P. J.; Simpson, C.; Constantine, S.


    Bankfull channel width measurements and bankfull stage-discharge relationships, coupled with published and/or collected channel depth sounding readings, were utilized to examine bankfull channel geometries (in the single-thread meandering channel reaches only) spanning from the fluvial 'normal flow' moving downstream through the tidal-fluvial 'backwater' hydraulic regime of two rivers that are micro- (lower Trinity River) and macro- tidally influenced (Chehalis River). This analysis reveals that moving downstream from the fully-fluvial 'normal flow' regime through to the tidal-fluvial 'backwater' regime, the micro-tidal lower Trinity River displays: (a) a decrease in bankfull channel width and an increase in bankfull channel depth, (b) a decrease in bankfull channel width/depth ratio, (c) a bankfull channel cross-sectional area that remains nearly constant, and (d) both measured and calculated bankfull discharge remains constant at approximately 900 m3sec-1. Conversely, the macro-tidal lower Chehalis River displays: (a) an increase in both bankfull channel width and depth, (b) bankfull channel width/depth ratios that remain constant, (c) a bankfull channel cross-sectional area that increases significantly, and (d) both measured and/or calculated bankfull discharge values range from approximately 800 (normal flow) to 10,000 m3sec-1 (downstream end of backwater regime). Importantly, along the Chehalis River a maximum of ~ 2,000 m3sec-1 of the total bankfull water discharge (10,000 m3sec-1), at the downstream end of the 'backwater flow' regime, can be accounted for by the Chehalis River proper and two tributary inputs. This suggests, at this channel cross-sectional location, that the additional 8,000 m3sec-1 of total bankfull water discharge must be supplied by the downstream tidally-sourced component of total water discharge. These results, coupled with the rates of change of measured and/or computed metrics from above, will be utilized to provide insight into the

  14. Recent morphological changes in the Mekong and Bassac river channels, Mekong delta: The marked impact of river-bed mining and implications for delta destabilisation (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward J.; Goichot, Marc; Provansal, Mireille; Dussouillez, Philippe


    The Mekong delta, in Vietnam, is the world's third largest delta. Densely populated, the delta has been significantly armoured with engineering works and dykes to protect populations and infrastructure from storms, and shrimp farms from saltwater intrusion. Considerable development pressures in Vietnam and in the upstream countries have resulted in the construction of several dams in China and in important channel-bed aggregate extractions especially in Cambodia. The effects of these developments impact the delta dynamics in various ways. In this study, changes in the channel morphology of the Mekong proper and the Bassac, the two main distributaries in the 250 km-long deltaic reach from the Cambodian border to the coast, were analysed using channel depth data for 1998 and 2008. The channels display important and irregular bed changes over the 10-year comparison period, including significant incision and expansion and deepening of numerous pools. The mean depth of both channels increased by more than 1.3 m. Both channels also showed correlative significant bed material losses: respectively 90 million m3 in the Mekong and 110 million m3 in the Bassac over the 10-year period. These important losses over a relatively short period, and weak correlations between bed incision and hydraulic parameters suggest that the marked morphological changes are not in equilibrium with flow and sediment entrainment conditions, and are therefore not related to changes in river hydrology. We claim that aggregate extraction, currently practised on a very large scale in the Mekong delta channels and upstream of the delta, is the main cause of these recent morphological changes. These changes are deemed to contribute actively to rampant bank erosion in the delta as well as to erosion of the Mekong delta shoreline. Other contributory activities include the numerous dykes and embankments. The role of existing dams in bed losses remains unclear in the absence of reliable data on the Mekong

  15. Effects of SCN9A gene modification on Na+ channel and the expression of nerve growth factor in a rat model of diarrhea‑predominant irritable bowel syndrome. (United States)

    Cai, Yong-Yan; Li, Chen; Yan, Zhi-Xin; Ma, Na; Li, Fang-Fang


    The aim of the present study was to identify whether the sodium voltage-gated channel alpha subunit 9 (SCN9A) gene modification is a potential treatment for diarrhea‑predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D‑IBS), via regulating the Na+ channel and the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF). The recombinant adenovirus vector of the SCN9A gene was established, and rat colon cells were isolated for SCN9A gene modification. All subjects were divided into four groups: i) The SCN9A‑modified (D‑IBS rat model implanted with SCN9A‑modified colon cells), ii) negative control (NC; D‑IBS rat model implanted with colon cells without SCN9A gene modification), iii) blank (D‑IBS rat model without any treatment) and iv) normal (normal rats without any treatment). Western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression levels of SCN9A, NGF and voltage gated sodium channels (Nav)1.8 and Nav1.9 in rat colon tissues. Compared with the normal group, the rats in the SCN9A, NC and blank groups had significantly elevated mRNA and protein expression levels of NGF, SCN9A, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9. The rats in the SCN9A group demonstrated significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of NGF, SCN9A, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 compared with the NC group and the blank group (all PNav1.9 channels, in addition to NGF which may provide a novel therapeutic basis for treating of D‑IBS.

  16. Evolution of a meander in a constricted reach of a dryland alluvial channel: Little Colorado River, Arizona (United States)

    Block, D.


    Lateral migration of river meander systems is complex, particularly in drylands where fluvial processes are discontinuous. Analysis of aerial photography and GPS tracking of cutbank erosion can further empirical knowledge of meander development. Moreover, discharge records link landscape response to hydroclimatic variability. In the semiarid Little Colorado River valley, extreme erosive episodes typically result from snowmelt flow, or lately, rain-on-snow events. The 90-km reach of the Little Colorado River (LCR), from Winslow to Leupp, Arizona, meanders within a 5-km-wide valley. Near Winslow, however, the LCR is disconnected from its floodplain by a 12-km-long levee. The levee restricts the floodplain to only 450 m wide in one location. In this severely constricted river stretch, a flood event in January 2008 relocated a meander bend. Bend development followed a common sequence of migration phases long noted in the literature, but at a very rapid pace. During the flood event one meander limb migrated ~200 m, following the general northwesterly flow direction of the river. Movement vectors of meander inflection points, apex, and apical line characterize changes in bend morphology. Before the 2008 flood event the apical line of the meander bend had azimuth 50°; after the 2008 flood event the apical line of the meander bend had azimuth 345°. Since that event, the meander bend has migrated an additional ~200 m through a combination of translation, extension, and rotation. The data provide information on geomorphic response to bimodal precipitation patterns in a human-perturbed channel reach.

  17. Channel centerline for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 2009 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  18. Wetted channel and bar features for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 2009 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  19. Channel centerline for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 2005 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  20. Channel centerline for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 1967 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  1. Predicted channel types - Potential for Habitat Improvement in the Columbia River Basin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basin-wide analysis of potential to improve tributary habitats in the Columbia River basin through restoration of habitat-forming processes. Identification of...

  2. Wetted channel and bar features for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1939 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  3. Side Channels of the Impounded and Middle Mississippi River: Opportunities and Challenges to Maximize Restoration Potential (United States)


    always, temporary river features that eventually fill with sediment and become colonized by terrestrial vegetation . Therefore, over time, most side...geospatial scale of project footprint from the geospatial scale of project effect because a project footprint may be relatively small and well defined...actions affecting condition of the river ecosystem. Management actions typically have a defined geographic area called a project site or footprint , but

  4. Three new species of the armored catfish genus Loricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from river channels of the Amazon basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Thomas

    Full Text Available Three new species of Loricaria are described from large white- and black-water river channels of the Amazon basin of Brazil, the upper rio Negro drainage of southern Venezuela, and clear waters of the lower rio Tocantins. Loricaria spinulifera and L. pumila differ from other species of Loricaria by having unique patterns of abdominal plate development and hypertrophied odontodes forming conspicuous crests on dorsal surfaces of the head and predorsal plates. Both are small species of Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 120 mm SL, and exhibiting sexually dimorphic characters consistent with members of the L. cataphracta complex. Loricaria spinulifera differs from L. pumila in having a unique arrangement of buccal papillae and large thorn-like odontodes on the dorsum of the head. Loricaria pumila is the smallest known Loricaria, reaching sexual maturity at less than 80 mm SL. Loricaria lundbergi differs from other Loricaria by having a unique abdominal plate pattern, broad head, and small basicaudal plate. Loricaria lundbergi is sympatric with L. spinulifera in the lower rio Negro drainage, but is also known from the rio Baria system of the Casiquiare drainage. Loricaria pumila occurs in the lower rio Amazonas and lower rio Tocantins. All three new species exhibit varying degrees of reduction in eye size and pigmentation seen in other fishes inhabiting deep river channels of South America.

  5. Salmon as drivers of physical and biological disturbance in river channels (United States)

    Albers, S. J.; Petticrew, E. L.


    Large migrations across landscapes and ecosystem boundaries combined with disturbances of riverine spawning habitats through nest construction indicate the huge potential that Pacific salmon (Onchorhynchus sp.) have to disturb and alter regional energy flow. Nutrients derived from ocean-reared dead and decaying salmon are released into surrounding aquatic ecosystems fertilizing the water column, recently disturbed by increased suspended sediments due to nest construction. These opposing forces of disturbance and fertilization on spawning habitat have been demonstrated to impact local geomorphic and ecological cycles within salmon streams. An often cited, yet not fully tested, hypothesis is that this pulse of nutrients provided by decaying salmon can shift freshwater habitats to higher production levels. This hypothesis, however, remains contested and uncertain. Fine sediments are increasingly being recognized as important delivery and storage vectors for marine-derived nutrients (MDNs) in spawning streams. The temporal and spatial significance of these sediment vectors on gravelbed storage of MDN have not been quantified thereby restricting our ability to estimate the impact of gravelbed storage of MDNs on the riverine habitats. The objectives of this study were to i) quantify the magnitude of sediment deposition and retention in an active spawning area and ii) determine the contribution of MDN associated with the fine sediment storage. The Horsefly River spawning channel (HFC), an artificial salmon stock enhancement stream, was used to examine the biogeomorphic impacts of salmon spawning. We organized the HFC in an upstream-downstream paired treatment approach where the upstream enclosure was kept free of salmon and the downstream enclosure was loaded with actively spawning salmon. We used the difference in suspended sediment concentration between the salmon enclosure and the control enclosure to determine the contribution of salmon nest construction to suspended

  6. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and habitat use among main- and side-channel environments in the lower Kootenai River, Idaho (United States)

    Watkins, Carson J.; Stevens, Bryan S.; Quist, Michael C.; Shepard, Bradley B.; Ireland, Susan C.


    The lower Kootenai River, Idaho, was sampled during the summers of 2012 and 2013 to evaluate its fish assemblage structure at seven sites within main- and side-channel habitats where large-scale habitat rehabilitation was undertaken. Understanding the current patterns of fish assemblage structure and their relationships with habitat is important for evaluating the effects of past and future rehabilitation projects on the river. Species-specific habitat associations were modeled, and the variables that best explained the occurrence and relative abundance of fish were identified in order to guide future habitat rehabilitation so that it benefits native species. The results indicated that the side-channel habitats supported higher species richness than the main-channel habitats and that nonnative fishes were closely associated with newly rehabilitated habitats. This research provides valuable insight on the current fish assemblages in the Kootenai River and the assemblage-level responses that may occur as a result of future rehabilitation activities.

  7. Sediment Dynamics Affecting the Threatened Santa Ana Sucker in the Highly-modified Santa Ana River and Inset Channel, Southern California, USA (United States)

    Minear, J. T.; Wright, S. A.


    In this study, we investigate the sediment dynamics of the low-flow channel of the Santa Ana River that is formed by wastewater discharges and contains some of the last remaining habitat of the Santa Ana Sucker (Catostomus santaanae). The Santa Ana River is a highly-modified river draining the San Bernardino Mountains and Inland Empire metropolitan area east of Los Angeles. Home to over 4 million people, the watershed provides habitat for the federally-threatened Santa Ana Sucker, which presently reside within the mainstem Santa Ana River in a reach supported by year-round constant discharges from water treatment plants. The nearly constant low-flow wastewater discharges and infrequent runoff events create a small, approximately 8 m wide, inset channel within the approximately 300 m wide mainstem channel that is typically dry except for large flood flows. The sediment dynamics within the inset channel are characterized by constantly evolving bed substrate and sediment transport rates, and occasional channel avulsions. The sediment dynamics have large influence on the Sucker, which rely on coarse-substrate (gravel and cobble) for their food production. In WY 2013 through the present, we investigated the sediment dynamics of the inset channel using repeat bathymetric and substrate surveys, bedload sampling, and discharge measurements. We found two distinct phases of the inset channel behavior: 1. 'Reset' flows, where sediment-laden mainstem discharges from upstream runoff events result in sand deposition in the inset channel or avulse the inset channel onto previously dry riverbed; and 2. 'Winnowing' flows, whereby the sand within the inset channel is removed by clear-water low flows from the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Thus, in contrast to many regulated rivers where high flows are required to flush fine sediments from the bed (for example, downstream from dams), in the Santa Ana River the low flows from wastewater treatment plants serve as the flushing

  8. Submerged and buried Pleistocene river channels in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea): Geomorphic, stratigraphic and tectonic inferences (United States)

    Trobec, Ana; Šmuc, Andrej; Poglajen, Sašo; Vrabec, Marko


    We use multibeam sonar scanning of the seafloor and high-resolution sub-bottom sonar profiling to investigate pre-Holocene geomorphic features in the Gulf of Trieste that are visible in seafloor topography. We focus on two channel-like features, the Paleorižana and Paleoreka. Sub-bottom profiles and published core log data reveal that these features represent the transgressive surface at the boundary between Pleistocene continental and Holocene marine sedimentation. The geometry of the paleosurface, the architecture, and the acoustic facies of underlying sediment bodies clearly show that this surface represents an alluvial plain containing a moderate- to low-energy floodplain. The Paleorižana feature represents a meander belt with multiple meander scars and oxbow lakes, while the Paleoreka is a single, slightly sinuous channel river with well-developed levees. Geomorphic characteristics of the two rivers are replicated in the seafloor topography in astonishing detail, despite being draped by up to 10 m of Holocene marine sediments. We extract Paleoreka thalweg depths from sub-bottom profiles to construct a longitudinal channel profile, which runs approximately perpendicular to the main tectonic structures of the Gulf. We find no evidence of long-term mm-scale localized relative vertical tectonic movements which were previously inferred from repeated geodetic levelling surveys along the SW-NE oriented Slovenian coastline. We speculate that the geodetic data may instead indicate short-term interseismic deformation along the Slovenian coast, which would necessitate further investigation of tectonic activity and seismic hazard in the Gulf area.

  9. Pool 5 Channel Management Study. Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Channel Management Program. Definite Project Report/Environmental Assessment. Pool 5, Upper Mississippi River, Buffalo County, Wisconsin and Wabasha and Winona Counties, Minnesota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ... 738.2 upstream to Lock and Dam no. 4 at river mile 752.8. Study efforts focused on measures to reduce the frequency of dredging problem areas, preventive maintenance, and using dredged material to construct islands habitat purposes...

  10. Path Loss Channel Model for Inland River Radio Propagation at 1.4 GHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Yu


    Full Text Available In this paper, a propagation path loss model for inland river is proposed by three improvements compared with the Round Earth Loss (REL model for open-sea environment. Specifically, parameters optimization uses Okumura-Hata model in dB scale to replace the equation transformed from the free space loss in REL model; secondly, diffraction loss caused by the obstacles (e.g., large buildings, bridges, or some other facilities near the river bank is also taken into account; mixed-path methodology as another improvement is used for Inland River (IR model because the actual propagation environment between transmitter (TX antenna and receiver (RX antenna contains both land part and water part. The paper presents a set of 1.4 GHz measurements conducted along the Yangtze River in Wuhan. According to the comparison between path loss models and experimental results, IR model shows a good matching degree. After that, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Grey Relation Grade and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (GRG-MAPE, Pearson Correlation Coefficient, and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (PCC-MAPE are employed to implement quantitative analysis. The results prove that IR model with consideration of mixed path and deterministic information is more accurate than other classic empirical propagation models for these scenarios.

  11. Spatial distribution of impacts to channel bed mobility due to flow regulation, Kootenai River, USA (United States)

    Michael Burke; Klaus Jorde; John M. Buffington; Jeffrey H. Braatne; Rohan Benjakar


    The regulated hydrograph of the Kootenai River between Libby Dam and Kootenay Lake has altered the natural flow regime, resulting in a significant decrease in maximum flows (60% net reduction in median 1-day annual maximum, and 77%-84% net reductions in median monthly flows for the historic peak flow months of May and June, respectively). Other key hydrologic...

  12. Modification of sodium and potassium channel kinetics by diethyl ether and studies on sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, Bruce Palmer [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)


    The effects of ether and halothane on membrane currents in the voltage clamped crayfish giant axon membrane were investigated. Concentrations of ether up to 300 mM and of halothane up to 32 mM had no effect on resting potential or leakage conductance. Ether and halothane reduced the size of sodium currents without changing the voltage dependence of the peak currents or their reversal potential. Ether and halothane also produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding of sodium current decay at all membrane potentials. Ether reduced the time constants for inactivation, and also shifted the midpoint of the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. Potassium currents were smaller with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state currents. The activation of potassium channels was faster with ether present. There was no apparent change in the capacitance of the crayfish giant axon membrane with ether concentrations of up to 100 mM. Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed using 4-aminopyridine to block potassium currents. Sodium currents decayed with a time course generally fit well by a single exponential. The time constant of decay was a steep function of voltage, especially in the negative resistance region of the peak current vs voltage relation.The time course of inactivation was very similar to that of the decay of the current at the same potential. The measurement of steady-state inactivation curves with different test pulses showed no shifts along the voltage asix. The voltage-dependence of the integral of sodium conductance was measured to test models of sodium channel inactivation in which channels must open before inactivating; the results appear inconsistent with some of the simplest cases of such models.

  13. The impacts of ski slope development on stream channel morphology in the White River National Forest, Colorado, USA (United States)

    David, Gabrielle C. L.; Bledsoe, Brian P.; Merritt, David M.; Wohl, Ellen


    The combined influence of tree-clearing, road construction, snowmaking, and machine-grading can cause increased flow and sediment loads along streams in or adjacent to commercial ski resorts. These changes to stream channels can increase bank failures, bed material size, pool scour, and, in extreme cases, channel incision. We used field data from the White River National Forest in Colorado, which includes several major ski resorts, to test the hypothesis that ski slope development causes a significant difference in bank stability, undercut banks, fine sediment, wood load, pool residual depth, and particle size ( D84) between the ski area project streams and reference streams. We further hypothesize that the changes in a stream are mitigated by the density and type of vegetation growing along the banks. A significant difference is defined as a project stream that is outside the range of variability of the reference streams. To test these hypotheses, we surveyed channel conditions, channel dimensions, and vegetation along 47 stream reaches (200-300 m in length). Twenty-four of these streams are within ski areas (project streams), either adjacent to or downstream from ski slopes. Twenty-three reference streams with very little to no development in their basins are used to define reference conditions of bank stability, bank undercutting, bank height, wood load, pool residual depth, sediment size, and vegetation structure. A combination of statistical techniques, including Principal Components Analysis and Classification and Regression Tree Analysis, was used to assess the controls on stream channel morphology and to analyze the differences between project and reference streams. Project streams that are significantly different than reference streams have a combination of a higher percentage of fine sediment, smaller pool residual depth, and higher percentage of unstable banks. The impacted project streams have bed material derived from granitic rocks and a lower density

  14. On debris flows, river networks, and the spatial structure of channel morphology. (United States)

    P.E. Bigelow; L.E. Benda; D.J. Miller; K.M. Burnett


    In this paper, we examine the influence of debris-flow deposits and fans on channels and habitat characteristics in small to intermediate-size watersheds in the Oregon Coast Range. We evaluate: (1) the proportion of stream length bordered by debris fans and the spacing between fans, (2) the recurrence interval of debris flows in unmanaged watersheds, (3) the proportion...

  15. Ship Navigation Simulation Study, Sacramento River Deepwater Ship Channel Project, Phase II, Sacramento, California (United States)


    Three different ranges of 0.5 mile, 0.75 mile, and 1.5 miles were pro- grammed in order for the pilot to choose the scale needed. Currents A current...problem areas for the proposed channel, Between the Ryer Island Ferry and light 37 the mean minimums go negativo tw;c This is in the vicinity of the

  16. Maintenance Dredging of the Federal Navigation Channels in the Detroit River, Michigan. (United States)


    activities, a low-magnitude siltation of aquatic habitat will occur. The aquatic ecosystem within the dredging areas will be disrupted on a long-term basis...macroinvertebrates. The river currents may disperse turbidity arising from dredging, thereby creating siltation which would affect aquatic habitat not...Region - Environment Protection Service Canada Center for Inland Waters Windsor Harbour Commission Federal Aencies Advisory Council on Historic

  17. Air-photo based change in channel width in the Minnesota River basin: Modes of adjustment and implications for sediment budget (United States)

    Wesley Lauer, J.; Echterling, Caitlyn; Lenhart, Christian; Belmont, Patrick; Rausch, Rachel


    The Minnesota River and major tributaries have experienced large increases in discharge over the past century. Aerial photograph-based measurements of channel width were made for the 1938-2015 period at 16 multibend subreaches by digitizing the area between vegetation lines and dividing by centerline length. Results show considerable increases in width for the main stem (0.62 ± 0.10%/y) and major tributaries (0.31 ± 0.08%/y) but are inconclusive for smaller channels (width lateral centerline movement and temporal change in at-a-station hydraulic geometry for water surface width, indicating that widening is associated with cross-sectional change and not simply upward movement of the vegetation line. Digital elevation model analysis and regional hydraulic geometry show that the main stem and larger tributaries account for the vast majority ( 85%) of bankfull channel volume. High-order channels are thus disproportionately responsible for sediment production through cross section enlargement, although floodplains or off-channel water bodies adjacent to these channels likely represent important sediment sinks. Because channel enlargement can play an important role in sediment production, it should be considered in sediment reduction strategies in the Minnesota River basin and carefully evaluated in other watersheds undergoing long-term increases in discharge.

  18. Modification by KCNE1 variants of the hERG potassium channel response to premature stimulation and to pharmacological inhibition. (United States)

    Du, Chunyun; El Harchi, Aziza; Zhang, Henggui; Hancox, Jules C


    human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of cardiac rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (I Kr) channels, which play important roles in ventricular repolarization, in protecting the myocardium from unwanted premature stimuli, and in drug-induced Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). KCNE1, a small transmembrane protein, can coassemble with hERG. However, it is not known how KCNE1 variants influence the channel's response to premature stimuli or if they influence the sensitivity of hERG to pharmacological inhibition. Accordingly, whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of hERG current (I hERG) were made at 37°C from hERG channels coexpressed with either wild-type (WT) KCNE1 or with one of three KCNE1 variants (A8V, D76N, and D85N). Under both conventional voltage clamp and ventricular action potential (AP) clamp, the amplitude of I hERG was smaller for A8V, D76N, and D85N KCNE1 + hERG than for WT KCNE1 + hERG. Using paired AP commands, with the second AP waveform applied at varying time intervals following the first to mimic premature ventricular excitation, the response of I hERG carried by each KCNE1 variant was reduced compared to that with WT KCNE1 + hERG. The I hERG blocking potency of the antiarrhythmic drug quinidine was similar between WT KCNE1 and the three KCNE1 variants. However, the I hERG inhibitory potency of the antibiotic clarithromycin and of the prokinetic drug cisapride was altered by KCNE1 variants. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring KCNE1 variants can reduce the response of hERG channels to premature excitation and also alter the sensitivity of hERG channels to inhibition by some drugs linked to acquired LQTS.

  19. Optimization of binding B-lymphocytes in a microfluidic channel: surface modification, stasis time and shear response. (United States)

    McCormick, Scott; Tong, Ziqiu; Ivask, Angela; Morozesk, Mariana; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Lombi, Enzo; Priest, Craig


    Binding and maintaining cells inside microfluidic channels is a challenging task due to the potential release of cells from the channels with the flow and accompanying shear stress. In this work we optimized the binding of human B-lymphocyte cells (HR1K) inside a microfluidic channel and determined the strength of this binding under shear stress of flowing liquid. In order to determine the parameters required for a live/dead test in microfluidic devices, populations of both living and dead cells were tested separately. Channels were prepared in glass-polydimethylsiloxane hybrid chips, with a self-assembled monolayer of 3-(glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) before covalently immobilizing anti-CD20 antibody. Without GPTMS linker, ∼90% of the CD20-expressing cells detached at 200 μl min-1 (the highest flow rate studied). With GPTMS linker, the bonding method proved critical for sustained immobilization of HR1K cells under flow. Masking the channel area during plasma bonding preserves the antibody functionality; the masked surface gives 15% cell detachment at 200 μl min-1 compared with 80% for an unmasked surface. Sealing the chip via clamping (without plasma treatment) was similar to masked plasma treatment (20% detachment) and allowing a post-adhesion stasis time (30 min) did not significantly change the relative cell detachment for the flow rates studied. Membrane integrity and calcium spiking behaviour were measured fluorescently, and demonstrated that the live cells retained comparable functionality to unanchored cells for the duration of the flow experiments. Non-viable HR1K cells were found to detach more readily, exhibiting only 20% cell retention at 200 μl min-1 compared with >80% for live cells.

  20. Numerical Model of the Hoosic River Flood-Control Channel, Adams, MA (United States)


    configurations designed to improve habitat and aesthetics . DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or...line. The spiral curve layout is in accor- dance with the Hydraulic Design Criteria (Hydraulic Design Chart 660- 2/2 and sheets 660-2 to 660-2/4) from...proposed channel restoration configurations designed to improve habitat and aesthetics . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Finite element Flood control High

  1. Columbia River Channel Improvement Project: Final Supplemental Integrated Feasibility Report and Environmental Impact Statement (United States)


    defines terms that are specific to the Supplemental Integrated Feasibility Report for Channel Improvements and Environmental Impact Statement. Alevin ...The first post-hatch life stage of salmon. Alevins will have some portion of their yolk sac showing on their abdomen. A life stage commonly found...still within its first few months of life. Fry are generally about 30-50 mm in length. Follows alevin life stage. Habitat complexity: The

  2. Sand dynamics in the Mekong River channel and export to the coastal ocean (United States)

    Stephens, J. D.; Allison, M. A.; Di Leonardo, D. R.; Weathers, H. D.; Ogston, A. S.; McLachlan, R. L.; Xing, F.; Meselhe, E. A.


    Two field campaigns were conducted in the tidal and estuarine reach of the Sông Hậu distributary of the Mekong River to explore the dynamics of sand transport and export to the coastal ocean. This study examines variations in suspended sand concentration and net flux of suspended and bedload sand with respect to changes in discharge between the October 2014 high discharge and March 2015 low discharge season. Isokinetic measurements of suspended sand were used to calibrate a larger dataset of LISST profiles to report suspended sand mass concentrations. During the high discharge season, ebb and flood currents are a primary control on suspended sand concentrations. Ebb tidal flows are more capable of sand transport than flooding flows, due to river discharge augmenting tidal currents. Sand in suspension is primarily derived locally from bed material sand. Bedform transport estimates were limited, but suggest that bedload sand transport is less than 10% of net suspended sand flux. Very low concentrations of suspended sand sediment are found during the low discharge season. These low concentrations are likely caused by (1) a reduction in maximum ebb tide shear stresses associated with less freshwater input, and (2) mud mantling in the bed associated with upstream migration of estuarine circulation, that inhibits local sourcing (resuspension) of bed sand. Results of the observational study were used to calibrate a numerical model of annual sand flux to the ocean from all distributaries of the Mekong River. Annual sand export is estimated at 6.5 ± 1.6 Mt yr-1. The Định An subdistributary accounts for 32% of this total while the smaller Trần Đề subdistributary accounts for only 9%.

  3. Maintenance Dredging of the Federal Navigation Channels in the St. Clair River, Michigan. (United States)


    37.0 indicated "high" concentrations of cobalt , and sedi- ments collected at river mile 17.5 showed higher zinc, cadmium, and manganese concentrations...sedimentary constituents (e.g. COD, TKN, 37 total phosphorus, chromium , zinc, manganese, and iron) as it descends from Lake Huron. In most instances, this...1974 Fews I Reg istar ; 5 ti gh I Vdesi ra6ble aft conI stent w ith noa ?. 6 -2- our own views. Such policy could substantially discourage the

  4. Investigation on Effect of Gravity Level on Bubble Distribution and Liquid Turbulence Modification for Horizontal Channel Bubbly Flow (United States)

    Pang, M. J.; Wei, J. J.; Yu, B.


    Bubbly flows in the horizontal channel or pipe are often seen in industrial engineering fields, so it is very necessary to fully understand hydrodynamics of horizontal bubbly flows so as to improve industrial efficiency and to design an efficient bubbly system. In this paper, in order to fully understand mechanisms of phase distribution and liquid-phase turbulence modulation in the horizontal channel bubbly flow, the influence of gravity level on both of them were investigated in detail with the developed Euler-Lagrange two-way coupling method. For the present investigation, the buoyance on bubbles in both sides of the channel always points to the corresponding wall in order to study the liquid-phase turbulence modulation by bubbles under the symmetric physical condition. The present investigation shows that the gravity level has the important influence on the wall-normal distribution of bubbles and the liquid-phase turbulence modulation; the higher the gravity level is, the more bubbles can overcome the wall-normal resistance to accumulate near the wall, and the more obvious the liquid-phase turbulence modulation is. It is also discovered that interphase forces on the bubbles are various along the wall-normal direction, which leads to the fact that the bubble located in different wall-normal places has a different wall-normal velocity.

  5. Morphodynamic modeling of fluvial channel fill and avulsion time scales during early Holocene transgression, as substantiated by the incised valley stratigraphy of the Trinity River, Texas (United States)

    Moran, Kaitlin E.; Nittrouer, Jeffrey A.; Perillo, Mauricio M.; Lorenzo-Trueba, Jorge; Anderson, John B.


    The Trinity River system provides a natural laboratory for linking fluvial morphodynamics to stratigraphy produced by sea-level rise, because the sediments occupying the Trinity incised valley are well constrained in terms of timing of deposition and facies distribution. Herein, the Trinity River is modeled for a range of base-level rise rates, avulsion thresholds, and water discharges to explore the effects of backwater-induced in-channel sedimentation on channel avulsion. The findings are compared to observed sediment facies to evaluate the capability of a morphodynamic model to reproduce sediment deposition patterns. Base-level rise produces mobile locations of in-channel sedimentation and deltaic channel avulsions. For scenarios characteristic of early Holocene sea-level rise (4.3 mm yr-1), the Trinity fluvial-deltaic system progrades 13 m yr-1, followed by backstepping of 27 m yr-1. Avulsion is reached at the position of maximum sediment deposition (located 108 km upstream of the outlet) after 3,548 model years, based on sedimentation filling 30% of the channel. Under scenarios of greater base-level rise, avulsion is impeded because the channel fill threshold is never achieved. Accounting for partitioning of bed-material sediment between the channel and floodplain influences the timing and location of avulsion over millennial time scales: the time to avulsion is greatly increased. Sedimentation patterns within the valley, modeled and measured, indicate preference toward sandy bed material, and the rates of deposition are substantiated by previous measurements. Although the results here are specific to the Trinity River, the analysis provides a framework that is adaptable to other lowland fluvial-deltaic systems.

  6. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.


    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess of 200 watts per square meter (W/m2); and (vi) downstream convergence of hydraulic geometry exponents for bankfull and macrochannels, explained by co-increases of flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively minimize

  7. Trends in selected streamflow and stream-channel characteristics for the Chagrin River at Willoughby, Ohio (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.; Kunze, Allison E.


    Monotonic upward trends in annual mean streamflows and annual 7-day low flows were identified statistically for the streamflow-gaging station on the Chagrin River at Willoughby, Ohio. No monotonic trends were identified for the annual peak streamflow series or partial-duration series of peak streamflows augmented with annual peak streamflows that did not exceed a base discharge of 4,000 cubic feet per second. A plot of cumulative departure of annual precipitation from the long-term mean annual precipitation for the weather-observation station at Hiram, Ohio, indicates a relatively dry period extending from about 1910 to about 1968, followed by a relatively wet period extending from about 1968 to the late 1990s. A plot of cumulative departure of annual mean streamflow from the mean annual streamflow for the Chagrin River at Willoughby, Ohio, closely mimics the shape of the precipitation departure plot, indicating that the annual mean streamflows increased in concert with annual precipitation. These synchronous trends likely explain why upward trends in annual mean streamflows and annual 7-day low flows were observed. A lack of trend in peak streamflows indicates that the intensity and severity of flood-producing storms did not increase appreciably along with the increases in annual precipitation. An analysis of point-of-zero-flow data indicates that the low-water control of the Chagrin River streamflow-gaging station tended to aggrade over the period 1930?93; however, the magnitude of aggradation is sufficiently small that its effect on stages of moderate to large floods would be negligible. Stage values associated with reference streamflows of 500 and 5,000 cubic feet per second tended to remain fairly stable during the period from about 1950 to 1970 and then decreased slightly during the period from about 1970 to 1980, suggesting that the flood-carrying capacity of the stream increased somewhat during the latter period. Since a large flood on May 26, 1989

  8. Residence times and diel passage distributions of radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon and steelhead in a gatewell and fish collection channel of a Columbia River Dam (United States)

    Beeman, J.W.; Maule, A.G.


    The amount of time radio-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and juvenile steelhead O. mykiss spent within a gatewell and the juvenile collection channel at McNary Dam, Columbia River, USA, was measured to determine the diel passage behavior and residence times within these portions of the juvenile bypass system. The median gatewell residence times were 8.9 h for juvenile chinook salmon and 3.2 h for steelhead. Juvenile spring chinook salmon spent 83% of their time in the 18-m-deep gatewell at depths of 9 m or less, and juvenile steelhead spent 96% of their time in the upper 11 m. Fish released during midday and those released in the evening generally exited the gatewell in the evening, indicating that fish entering the gatewell during daylight will have prolonged residence times. Median collection-channel residence times of juvenile chinook salmon were much shorter (2.3 min) than those of steelhead (28.0 min), most likely because of the greater size of the steelhead and the high water velocities within the channel (2.1 m/s). This and other studies indicate most juvenile salmonids enter gatewells of several Columbia and Snake river dams in the evening and pass into the collection channels quickly. However, this is not consistent with the natural in-river migration patterns of these species and represents a delay in dam passage.

  9. A geomorphic framework to assess changes to aquatic habitat due to flow regulation and channel and floodplain alteration of the Cedar River, Washington (United States)

    Gendaszek, A. S.; Magirl, C. S.; Barnas, C. R.; Konrad, C. P.; Little, R.


    Flow regulation, bank armoring, and floodplain alteration since the early 20th century have contributed to significant changes in the hydrologic regime and geomorphic processes of the Cedar River in Washington State. The Cedar River originates in the Cascade Range, provides drinking water to the Seattle metropolitan area, and supports several populations of anadromous salmonids. Flow regulation currently has limited influence on the magnitude, duration, and timing of high-flow events, which affect the incubation of salmonids as well as the production and maintenance of their habitat. Unlike structural changes to the channel and floodplain, flow regulation may be modified in the short-term to improve the viability of salmon populations. An understanding of the effects of flow regulation on those populations must be discerned over a range of scales from individual floods that affect the size of individual year classes to decadal high flow regime that influences the amount and quality of channel and off-channel habitat available for spawning and rearing. We present estimates of reach-scale sediment budgets and changes to channel morphology derived from historical orthoimagery, specific gage analyses at four long-term streamflow-gaging stations to quantify trends in aggradation, and hydrologic statistics of the magnitude and duration of peak streamflows. These data suggest a gradient of channel types from unconfined, sediment-rich segments to confined, sediment-poor segments that are likely to have distinct responses to high flows. Particle-size distribution data and longitudinal water surface and streambed profiles for the 56 km downstream of Chester Morse Lake measured in 2010 show the spatial extent of preferred salmonid habitat along the Cedar River. These historical and current data constitute a geomorphic framework to help assess different river management scenarios for salmonid habitat and population viability.

  10. Interplay between spatially explicit sediment sourcing, hierarchical river-network structure, and in-channel bed material sediment transport and storage dynamics (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Gran, Karen B.; Belmont, Patrick; Wilcock, Peter R.


    Understanding how sediment moves along source to sink pathways through watersheds—from hillslopes to channels and in and out of floodplains—is a fundamental problem in geomorphology. We contribute to advancing this understanding by modeling the transport and in-channel storage dynamics of bed material sediment on a river network over a 600 year time period. Specifically, we present spatiotemporal changes in bed sediment thickness along an entire river network to elucidate how river networks organize and process sediment supply. We apply our model to sand transport in the agricultural Greater Blue Earth River Basin in Minnesota. By casting the arrival of sediment to links of the network as a Poisson process, we derive analytically (under supply-limited conditions) the time-averaged probability distribution function of bed sediment thickness for each link of the river network for any spatial distribution of inputs. Under transport-limited conditions, the analytical assumptions of the Poisson arrival process are violated (due to in-channel storage dynamics) where we find large fluctuations and periodicity in the time series of bed sediment thickness. The time series of bed sediment thickness is the result of dynamics on a network in propagating, altering, and amalgamating sediment inputs in sometimes unexpected ways. One key insight gleaned from the model is that there can be a small fraction of reaches with relatively low-transport capacity within a nonequilibrium river network acting as "bottlenecks" that control sediment to downstream reaches, whereby fluctuations in bed elevation can dissociate from signals in sediment supply.

  11. Head group-functionalized poly(ethyleneglycol)-lipid (PEG-lipid) surface modification for highly selective analyte extractions on capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers. (United States)

    Schadock-Hewitt, Abby J; Pittman, Jennifer J; Christensen, Kenneth A; Marcus, R Kenneth


    Polypropylene (PP) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers were modified by adsorption of a head group-functionalized lipid to generate analyte-specific surfaces for application as a stationary phase in high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or solid phase extraction (SPE). The aliphatic moiety of the lipid adsorbs strongly to the hydrophobic PP surface, with the hydrophilic active head groups orienting themselves toward the more polar mobile phase, thus allowing for interactions with the desired solutes. Initial proof-of-concept was achieved by adsorbing a biotin-poly(ethylene glycol)-functionalized lipid to the surface of the PP C-CP fibers. Surface modification and uniformity was evaluated by binding streptavidin labeled with Texas Red (SAv-TR) to the biotin moiety. Isolation of SAv-TR from a mixture in neat buffer and in cleared lysate demonstrated the capability of the modified fibers to extract an analyte of interest from a complex viscous mixture. It is believed that this surface modification approach is generally applicable to a diversity of selective protein immobilization applications, including clinical diagnostics and preparative scale HPLC on C-CP fibers as well as to other hydrophobic supports.

  12. Characteristics of suspended and streambed sediment within constructed chutes and the main channel at Upper Hamburg and Glovers Point Bends, Missouri River, Nebraska, 2008 (United States)

    Woodward, Brenda K.; Rus, David L.


    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Omaha District, as part of the Missouri River Bank Stabilization and Navigation Mitigation Project, has constructed 17 off-channel chutes along the channelized Missouri River, downstream from Sioux City, Iowa, to increase habitat diversity. To better understand characteristics of suspended and streambed sediment within these constructed chutes, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated specific aspects of chute design and function in relation to sediment characteristics including: (1) effects of inlet structures; (2) changes occurring between the inlet and the outlet of a chute; (3) effects of chutes on sediment characteristics in the main channel; and (4) differences in chute dynamics between sampled chutes. Two chutes differing in design, location, and dynamics were studied, Upper Hamburg Bend near Nebraska City, Nebr., and Glovers Point Bend near Winnebago, Nebr. Each site was characterized using five or more sampling transects (two in the chute and three to four in the main channel) designed to bracket sediment exchanges between chutes and the main channel. A sixth transect was included at the Upper Hamburg Bend study site to account for the effects of a nontarget chute having its inlet midway between the inlet and outlet of the primary chute. Representative samples of suspended and streambed sediment were collected at each transect, along with measurements of turbidity and streamflow, between June and November 2008. Four sets of samples were collected at the Glovers Point Bend study site and five sample sets were collected from the Upper Hamburg Bend study site. Results from paired t-tests and standard t-tests indicated that the inlet structure design, passing inflow only from the top of the main-channel water column, reduced the supply of coarse-grained suspended sediment entering the chutes. Statistical comparisons did not indicate differences between the inlet and outlet of either chute; however, anecdotal evidence of recent

  13. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the Upper Mississippi River: Transport, processing, and effects on the river ecosystem (United States)

    Houser, J.N.; Richardson, W.B.


    Existing research on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) can be organized into the following categories: (1) Long-term changes in nutrient concentrations and export, and their causes; (2) Nutrient cycling within the river; (3) Spatial and temporal patterns of river nutrient concentrations; (4) Effects of elevated nutrient concentrations on the river; and (5) Actions to reduce river nutrient concentrations and flux. Nutrient concentration and flux in the Mississippi River have increased substantially over the last century because of changes in land use, climate, hydrology, and river management and engineering. As in other large floodplain rivers, rates of processes that cycle nitrogen and phosphorus in the UMR exhibit pronounced spatial and temporal heterogeneity because of the complex morphology of the river. This spatial variability in nutrient processing creates clear spatial patterns in nutrient concentrations. For example, nitrate concentrations generally are much lower in off-channel areas than in the main channel. The specifics of in-river nutrient cycling and the effects of high rates of nutrient input on UMR have been less studied than the factors affecting nutrient input to the river and transport to the Gulf of Mexico, and important questions concerning nutrient cycling in the UMR remain. Eutrophication and resulting changes in river productivity have only recently been investigated the UMR. These recent studies indicate that the high nutrient concentrations in the river may affect community composition of aquatic vegetation (e. g., the abundance of filamentous algae and duckweeds), dissolved oxygen concentrations in off-channel areas, and the abundance of cyanobacteria. Actions to reduce nutrient input to the river include changes in land-use practices, wetland restoration, and hydrological modifications to the river. Evidence suggests that most of the above methods can contribute to reducing nutrient concentration in

  14. Influences of Human-induced Habitat Modifications on Basin-wide Fish Species Richness in the Danshuei River Watershed of Taiwan (United States)

    Cheng, S. T.; Yu, C. J.; Tsai, W. P.; Chang, F. J.


    The intensive exploitation of water resources has seriously degraded riverine environments and threatened inhabitant biota. In this study, we aim to assess the influences of human-induced habitat modifications on basin-wide fish species richness based on multi-year heterogeneous datasets collected from the Danshuei River Watershed of Taiwan. We aggregated long-term datasets (2003-2012) of fish composition, river network structures, dam locations and water quality parameters including water temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen and total phosphorus, at 45 sampling sites across the Danshuei River Watershed. We first used a multiple linear regression model to relate river network structures, water quality parameters, land-use changes and dam locations with fish species richness. Then we performed an unsupervised learning and clustering method, the self-organizing map (SOM), to nonlinearly interrelate the complex hydro-chemo-ecosystems. Following that, we compared the major forcing factors detected by different models to evaluate the anthropogenic influences on fish species richness. Our results showed that although based on the same datasets, the forcing factors identified by different methods may not be consistent, and therefore would result in distinct method-oriented stressor-response relationships. Patterns described by linear models focused on the changes of fish species richness with the use of the selected predictors; while patterns described by nonlinear models tended to systematically link multiple variables without the identification of major predictors. Based on the results of our analysis, we recommend that a more effective watershed management strategy should consider landscape as well as riverine habitats as a whole and maintain long-term monitoring programs as a key element to river conservation.

  15. Heterogeneity of soil carbon pools and fluxes in a channelized and a restored floodplain section (Thur River, Switzerland) (United States)

    Samaritani, E.; Shrestha, J.; Fournier, B.; Frossard, E.; Gillet, F.; Guenat, C.; Niklaus, P. A.; Pasquale, N.; Tockner, K.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Luster, J.


    Due to their spatial complexity and dynamic nature, floodplains provide a wide range of ecosystem functions. However, because of flow regulation, many riverine floodplains have lost their characteristic heterogeneity. Restoration of floodplain habitats and the rehabilitation of key ecosystem functions, many of them linked to organic carbon (C) dynamics in riparian soils, has therefore become a major goal of environmental policy. The fundamental understanding of the factors that drive the processes involved in C cycling in heterogeneous and dynamic systems such as floodplains is however only fragmentary. We quantified soil organic C pools (microbial C and water extractable organic C) and fluxes (soil respiration and net methane production) in functional process zones of adjacent channelized and widened sections of the Thur River, NE Switzerland, on a seasonal basis. The objective was to assess how spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of these pools and fluxes relate to physicochemical soil properties on one hand, and to soil environmental conditions and flood disturbance on the other hand. Overall, factors related to seasonality and flooding (temperature, water content, organic matter input) affected soil C dynamics more than soil properties did. Coarse-textured soils on gravel bars in the restored section were characterized by low base-levels of organic C pools due to low TOC contents. However, frequent disturbance by flood pulses led to high heterogeneity with temporarily and locally increased C pools and soil respiration. By contrast, in stable riparian forests, the finer texture of the soils and corresponding higher TOC contents and water retention capacity led to high base-levels of C pools. Spatial heterogeneity was low, but major floods and seasonal differences in temperature had additional impacts on both pools and fluxes. Soil properties and base levels of C pools in the dam foreland of the channelized section were similar to the gravel bars of

  16. Heterogeneity of soil carbon pools and fluxes in a channelized and a restored floodplain section (Thur River, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Samaritani


    Full Text Available Due to their spatial complexity and dynamic nature, floodplains provide a wide range of ecosystem functions. However, because of flow regulation, many riverine floodplains have lost their characteristic heterogeneity. Restoration of floodplain habitats and the rehabilitation of key ecosystem functions, many of them linked to organic carbon (C dynamics in riparian soils, has therefore become a major goal of environmental policy. The fundamental understanding of the factors that drive the processes involved in C cycling in heterogeneous and dynamic systems such as floodplains is however only fragmentary.

    We quantified soil organic C pools (microbial C and water extractable organic C and fluxes (soil respiration and net methane production in functional process zones of adjacent channelized and widened sections of the Thur River, NE Switzerland, on a seasonal basis. The objective was to assess how spatial heterogeneity and temporal variability of these pools and fluxes relate to physicochemical soil properties on one hand, and to soil environmental conditions and flood disturbance on the other hand.

    Overall, factors related to seasonality and flooding (temperature, water content, organic matter input affected soil C dynamics more than soil properties did. Coarse-textured soils on gravel bars in the restored section were characterized by low base-levels of organic C pools due to low TOC contents. However, frequent disturbance by flood pulses led to high heterogeneity with temporarily and locally increased C pools and soil respiration. By contrast, in stable riparian forests, the finer texture of the soils and corresponding higher TOC contents and water retention capacity led to high base-levels of C pools. Spatial heterogeneity was low, but major floods and seasonal differences in temperature had additional impacts on both pools and fluxes. Soil properties and base levels of C pools in the dam foreland of the channelized section

  17. Comparative effects of oil palm and selective logging on erosion, river channels and water chemistry in Malaysian steeplands (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Nainar, Anand; Nurhidayu, Siti; Higton, Sam; Annammala, Kogilavani; Wall, Katy; Bidin, Kawi; Blake, William; Darling, Isabella


    Oil palm land-use has expanded greatly in recent decades in SE Asia and other parts of the wet tropics, including to steepland areas, where bench-terraced landscaping is involved. Retaining (and sometimes restoring) riparian forest strips and rainforest fragments on the steepest slopes have been adopted as elements of strategies designed to reduce adverse effects on runoff generation, erosion, downstream sedimentation, flooding and pollutional problems - as well as biodiversity and emissions. Results of catchment monitoring, soil erosion and sediment fingerprinting research in oil palm and selectively logged steeplands of eastern Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia are presented. The evidence indicates the greater scale and temporal persistence of effects that oil palm land-use (compared with selective logging) has had on suspended sediment dynamics, soil erosion, downstream sedimentation, channel geometry and dynamics and river pollution. The importance of (1) high densities of roads and tracks and (2) relatively impermeable bench-terraced terrain in enhancing runoff, sediment and nutrient outputs in storm events is stressed. Influences of oil palm management practices including riparian forest strips in increasing or reducing these effects are critically reviewed and ways of increasing the effectiveness of riparian forest strips are proposed. The design and rationale of current projects exploring and testing consequences of existing and proposed improved land management practices are briefly described. The key importance of involvement of people from the oil palm industry (including multinational companies, smallholders and their organizations) and Government bodies that are responsible for land-use policies and land management practices is stressed.

  18. Inactivation of the cloned potassium channel mouse Kv1.1 by the human Kv3.4 'ball' peptide and its chemical modification. (United States)

    Stephens, G J; Robertson, B


    1. This study used the whole-cell patch clamp technique to investigate the action of a 28-mer 'inactivation peptide' based on part of the N-terminal sequence of the human Kv3.4 K+ channel (hKv3.4 peptide) on the cloned mouse brain K+ channel mKv1.1 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and compared this with the inactivation produced by Shaker B inactivation peptide (ShB peptide). 2. Inclusion of the hKv3.4 peptide in the patch electrode (320 microM) transformed non-inactivating mKv1.1 into a rapidly inactivating current. The voltage dependence of time constants of decay and steady-state inactivation induced by hKv3.4 peptide were characteristic of an 'A-type' K+ current. 3. The hKv3.4 peptide had no effect on the voltage dependence of activation of mKv1.1, with a mid-point of activation of -8 mV, and a slope factor of 15 mV. Steady-state inactivation curves had a mid-point of inactivation of -36 mV and a slope factor of -7 mV; the time constant of recovery from inactivation at -90 mV was 1.3 s. 4. The chemical modification reagents N-bromoacetamide (NBA, 100 microM) and chloramine-T (CL-T, 500 microM) had no effect on the fast inactivation of mKv1.1 induced by ShB peptide. In contrast, the inactivation caused by hKv3.4 peptide was removed by brief exposure to NBA and CL-T. 5. Chemical modification resulted in a hyperpolarizing shift of -8 mV (CL-T) and -11 mV (NBA) in the voltage dependence of activation of mKv1.1 in the presence of hKv3.4 peptide. 6. Chemical modification was critically dependent on the presence of a cysteine residue at position 6, and not position 24, of hKv3.4 peptide. 7. NBA and CL-T caused only a slight inhibition of unmodified mKv1.1 current with no significant effect on the voltage dependence of mKv1.1 activation, and also had no effect on channel deactivation at -90 mV. 8. Chemical modification experiments were consistent with a selective action on the hKv3.4 peptide itself, specifically at the cysteine residue at position 6

  19. Influence of Partial Dam Removal on Change of Channel Morphology and Physical Habitats: A Case Study of Yu-Sheng River (United States)

    Hao Weng, Chung; Yeh, Chao Hsien


    The rivers in Taiwan have the characteristic of large slope gradient and fast flow velocity caused by rugged terrain. And Taiwan often aces many typhoons which will bring large rainfall in the summer. In early Taiwan, river management was more focus on flood control, flood protection and disaster reduction. In recent years, the rise of ecological conservation awareness for the precious fish species brings spotlight on the Taiwan salmon (Oncorhynchus masou formosanus) which lives in the river section of this study. In order to make sure ecological corridor continuing, dam removal is the frequently discussed measure in recent years and its impact on environmental is also highly concerned. Since the dam removal may causes severe changes to the river channel, the action of dam removal needs careful evaluation. As one of the endangered species, Taiwan salmon is considered a national treasure of Taiwan and it was originally an offshore migration of the Pacific salmon. After the ice age and geographical isolation, it becomes as an unique subspecies of Taiwan and evolved into landlocked salmon. Now the Taiwan salmon habitats only exists in few upstream creeks and the total number of wild Taiwan salmon in 2015 was about 4,300. In order to expand the connectivity of the fish habitats in Chi-Jia-Wan creek basin, several dam removal projects had completed with good results. Therefore, this paper focuses on the dam removal of Yu-Sheng creek dam. In this paper, a digital elevation model (DEM) of about 1 kilometer channel of the Yu-Sheng creek dam is obtained by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Using CCHE2D model, the simulation of dam removal will reveal the impact on channel morphology. After model parameter identification and verification, this study simulated the scenarios of three historical typhoon events with recurrence interval of two years, fifteen years, and three decades under four different patterns of dam removal to identify the the head erosion, flow pattern, and

  20. Channelization and floodplain forests: Impacts of accelerated sedimentation and valley plug formation on floodplain forests of the Middle Fork Forked Deer River, Tennessee, USA (United States)

    Oswalt, S.N.; King, S.L.


    We evaluated the severe degradation of floodplain habitats resulting from channelization and concomitant excessive coarse sedimentation on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River in west Tennessee from 2000 to 2003. Land use practices have resulted in excessive sediment in the tributaries and river system eventually resulting in sand deposition on the floodplain, increased overbank flooding, a rise in the groundwater table, and ponding of upstream timber. Our objectives were to: (1) determine the composition of floodplain vegetation communities along the degraded river reach, (2) to isolate relationships among these communities, geomorphic features, and environmental variables and (3) evaluate successional changes based on current stand conditions. Vegetation communities were not specifically associated with predefined geomorphic features; nevertheless, hydrologic and geomorphic processes as a result of channelization have clearly affected vegetation communities. The presence of valley plugs and continued degradation of upstream reaches and tributaries on the impacted study reach has arrested recovery of floodplain plant communities. Historically common species like Liquidambar styraciflua L. and Quercus spp. L. were not important, with importance values (IV) less than 1, and occurred in less than 20% of forested plots, while Acer rubrum L., a disturbance-tolerant species, was the most important species on the site (IV = 78.1) and occurred in 87% of forested plots. The results of this study also indicate that channelization impacts on the Middle Fork Forked Deer River are more temporally and spatially complex than previously described for other river systems. Rehabilitation of this system necessitates a long-term, landscape-scale solution that addresses watershed rehabilitation in a spatially and temporally hierarchical manner. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined modifications of mexiletine pharmacophores for new lead blockers of Na(v)1.4 channels. (United States)

    De Bellis, Michela; De Luca, Annamaria; Desaphy, Jean F; Carbonara, Roberta; Heiny, Judith A; Kennedy, Ann; Carocci, Alessia; Cavalluzzi, Maria M; Lentini, Giovanni; Franchini, Carlo; Camerino, Diana Conte


    Previously identified potent and/or use-dependent mexiletine (Mex) analogs were used as template for the rational design of new Na(v)-channel blockers. The effects of the novel analogs were tested on sodium currents of native myofibers. Data and molecular modeling show that increasing basicity and optimal alkyl chain length enhance use-dependent block. This was demonstrated by replacing the amino group with a more basic guanidine one while maintaining a proper distance between positive charge and aromatic ring (Me13) or with homologs having the chirality center nearby the amino group or the aromatic ring. Accordingly, a phenyl group on the asymmetric center in the homologated alkyl chain (Me12), leads to a further increase of use-dependent behavior versus the phenyl Mex derivative Me4. A fluorine atom in paraposition and one ortho-methyl group on the xylyloxy ring (Me15) increase potency and stereoselectivity versus Me4. Charge delocalization and greater flexibility of Me15 may increase its affinity for Tyr residues influencing steric drug interaction with the primary Phe residue of the binding site. Me12 and Me15 show limited selectivity against Na(v)-isoforms, possibly due to the highly conserved binding site on Na(v). To our knowledge, the new compounds are the most potent Mex-like Na(v) blockers obtained to date and deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River (United States)

    Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.


    Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

  3. Modification of alpha 1-receptor-operated channels by mebeverine in smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig taenia caeci. (United States)

    Den Hertog, A; Van den Akker, J


    Changes in the potential and contractility of smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig taenia caeci were measured (22 degrees C) in order to investigate the effect of mebeverine, a derivative of beta-phenylethylamine, on alpha 1-receptor-operated ion channels in particular. Mebeverine (6 X 10(-6) M) showed atropine-like properties by shifting to the right the concentration-response curve obtained with carbachol. Hyperpolarization and cessation of spike activity of the muscle cells, accompanied by an increased amplitude of the electrotonic potential were observed in the presence of mebeverine (6 X 10(-5] after block of the alpha 2-, beta- and muscarinic receptors. This effect of mebeverine was not observed in low-sodium solution (23.8 mM), suggesting that mebeverine decreased sodium permeability. The alpha 1-receptor-induced hyperpolarization caused by adrenaline (3 X 10(-6) M) in the presence of mebeverine declined after reaching an initial maximum. The hyperpolarization induced by a second addition of adrenaline to the preparation was decreased and sustained in the presence of mebeverine, while the decrease of the electrotonic potential evoked during the alpha 1 response was less pronounced. The transient hyperpolarization representing the alpha 1 response in the absence of extracellular calcium developed more slowly in the presence of mebeverine, the area of the response being constant. When the experiment was continued in calcium-free solution after a short exposure to calcium-containing Krebs solution still in the presence of mebeverine, the alpha 1-receptor-induced hyperpolarization was suppressed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The science and practice of river restoration (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen; Lane, Stuart N.; Wilcox, Andrew C.


    River restoration is one of the most prominent areas of applied water-resources science. From an initial focus on enhancing fish habitat or river appearance, primarily through structural modification of channel form, restoration has expanded to incorporate a wide variety of management activities designed to enhance river process and form. Restoration is conducted on headwater streams, large lowland rivers, and entire river networks in urban, agricultural, and less intensively human-altered environments. We critically examine how contemporary practitioners approach river restoration and challenges for implementing restoration, which include clearly identified objectives, holistic understanding of rivers as ecosystems, and the role of restoration as a social process. We also examine challenges for scientific understanding in river restoration. These include: how physical complexity supports biogeochemical function, stream metabolism, and stream ecosystem productivity; characterizing response curves of different river components; understanding sediment dynamics; and increasing appreciation of the importance of incorporating climate change considerations and resiliency into restoration planning. Finally, we examine changes in river restoration within the past decade, such as increasing use of stream mitigation banking; development of new tools and technologies; different types of process-based restoration; growing recognition of the importance of biological-physical feedbacks in rivers; increasing expectations of water quality improvements from restoration; and more effective communication between practitioners and river scientists.

  5. Coupling channel evolution monitoring and RFID tracking in a large, wandering, gravel-bed river: Insights into sediment routing on geomorphic continuity through a riffle-pool sequence (United States)

    Chapuis, Margot; Dufour, Simon; Provansal, Mireille; Couvert, Bernard; de Linares, Matthieu


    Bedload transport and bedform mobility in large gravel-bed rivers are not easily monitored, especially during floods. Large reaches present difficulties in bed access during flows for flow measurements. Because of these logistical issues, the current knowledge about bedload transport processes and bedform mobility lacks field-based information, while this missing information would precisely match river management needs. The lack of information linking channel evolution and particle displacements is even more striking in wandering reaches. The Durance River is a large, wandering, gravel-bed river (catchment area: 14,280 km2; mean width: 240 m), located in the southern French Alps and highly impacted by flow diversion and gravel mining. In order to improve current understanding of the link between sediment transport processes and river bed morphodynamics, we set up a sediment particle survey in the channel using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tracking and topographic surveys (GPS RTK and scour chains) for a 4-year recurrence interval flood. By combining topographic changes before and after a flood, intraflood erosion/deposition patterns from scour chains, differential routing of tracer particles, and spatial distribution of bed shear stress through a complex reach, this paper aims to define the critical shear stress for significant sediment mobility in this setting. Gravel tracking highlights displacement patterns in agreement with bar downstream migration and transport of particles across the riffle within this single flood event. Because no velocity measurements were possible during flood, a TELEMAC three-dimensional model helped interpret particle displacements by estimating spatial distribution of shear stresses and flow directions at peak flow. Although RFID tracking in a large, wandering, gravel-bed river does have some technical limitations (burial, recovery process time-consuming), it provides useful information on sediment routing through a riffle

  6. Differential state-dependent modification of rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Bingjun [College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Soderlund, David M., E-mail: [Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)


    We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat {beta}1 and {beta}2 auxiliary subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on expressed sodium currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Both pyrethroids produced concentration-dependent, resting modification of Na{sub v}1.6 channels, prolonging the kinetics of channel inactivation and deactivation to produce persistent 'late' currents during depolarization and tail currents following repolarization. Both pyrethroids also produced concentration dependent hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation. Maximal shifts in activation, determined from the voltage dependence of the pyrethroid-induced late and tail currents, were {approx} 25 mV for tefluthrin and {approx} 20 mV for deltamethrin. The highest attainable concentrations of these compounds also caused shifts of {approx} 5-10 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. In addition to their effects on the voltage dependence of inactivation, both compounds caused concentration-dependent increases in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation following strong depolarizing prepulses. We assessed the use-dependent effects of tefluthrin and deltamethrin on Na{sub v}1.6 channels by determining the effect of trains of 1 to 100 5-ms depolarizing prepulses at frequencies of 20 or 66.7 Hz on the extent of channel modification. Repetitive depolarization at either frequency increased modification by deltamethrin by {approx} 2.3-fold but had no effect on modification by tefluthrin. Tefluthrin and deltamethrin were equally potent as modifiers of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293 cells using the conditions producing maximal modification as the basis for comparison. These findings show that the actions of tefluthrin and deltamethrin of Na{sub v}1.6 channels

  7. Modification of the Revised Morgan-Morgan-Finney model for estimating sediment yield in large river basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, S.; Perk, M. van der; Beek, L.P.H. van; Middelkoop, H.


    The RiNux model has been developed to simulate and predict monthly nutrient fluxes from land to coastal waters under various scenarios of global change. The RiNux model consists of different modules for simulating the hydrology, sediment transport, and nutrient transport within river basins at a 3

  8. Export of materials along a tidal river channel that links a coastal lagoon to the adjacent sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Aldeco Ramírez


    Full Text Available Intratidal variability and flux of salt, chlorophyll-a and suspended materials were evaluated in a shallow tropical tidal channel linking a coastal lagoon to the western Gulf of Mexico. Velocity, temperature and conductivity were used to calculate the fluxes. Data were recorded during three tidal velocity cycles (tvc under extreme river discharge conditions. Chlorophyll-a and suspended materials were determined below the surface. In both seasons (dry and rainy, the flow was ebb-dominated and with longer duration than when in flood. Maximum current velocities were 0.30 m s-1 in May (dry season and 0.60 m s-1 in September (rainy season. In the dry season the mean chlorophyll-a export was of 7.56 Kg over tvc while the import was of 3.32 Kg. In the rainy season mean export (47.3 Kg was 6 times greater than the import (7.93 Kg over tvc. Phytoplankton was dominated by organisms of marine origin. The mean of exported, suspended materials in the rainy season (111.3 Kg was 4.6 times greater (859 Kg than that in the dry season (184.7 Kg over tvc. Tidal velocity asymmetry is an effective mechanism of exportation, introducing relatively warm and saltier water into the river through the tidal channel.A variabilidade intramaré, o fluxo de salinidade, a clorofila-a e material em suspensão foram avaliados em um canal superficial de maré tropical em uma lagoa costeira ao oeste do Golfo do México. Os dados de velocidade, temperatura e condutividade foram usados para cálculo dos fluxos durante três ciclos de velocidades das marés (tvc sob condições extremas de descarga. A Clorofila-a e material em suspensão foram determinados abaixo em subsuperfície. Em ambas as estações (seca e chuvosa, o fluxo dominante foi durante o refluxo e com duração maior durante o fluxo de entrada. A máxima velocidade encontrada foi 0.30 m s-1 em maio (estação seca e 0.60 m s-1 em setembro (estação chuvosa. Durante a época seca foram exportadas 7.56 Kg de clorofila

  9. Modification of boundary layer momentum by the presence and pumping behavior of the bivalve clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, in a tidal channel (United States)

    Delavan, S. K.; Webster, D. R.


    The presence and activity of biological organisms have the potential to modify turbulent boundary layer characteristics in natural field settings. To determine the effect of the presence and pumping behavior of the bivalve clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, on the boundary layer momentum, profiles were collected for flood tides in the tidal rivers adjacent to Wassaw Sound, Georgia, USA. Velocity profiles were collected simultaneously with two adjacent Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters for boundary layer flows above sediments with and without the presence of buried clams. Treatment sites included clams buried in mud sediments, sand sediments, downstream of oyster beds, and downstream of sea grass beds. We hypothesize that the modification of boundary layer momentum is unique to the treatment characteristics. Vertical profiles of mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds shear stress are calculated from the collected time records. Preliminary analysis suggests that flows downstream of sea grass and oyster beds are less affected by the presence of clams than flows over sand and mud flats. Clams reduce the horizontal velocity values above mud substrates when compared to adjacent measurements without clams present, particularly close to the substrate. When buried in sand flats, clams tend to increase the horizontal velocity values higher in the water column.

  10. CHNTRN: a CHaNnel TRaNsport model for simulating sediment and chemical distribution in a stream/river network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, G.T.


    This report presents the development of a CHaNnel TRaNsport model for simulating sediment and chemical distribution in a stream/river network. A particular feature of the model is its capability to deal with the network system that may consist of any number of joined and branched streams/rivers of comparable size. The model employs a numerical method - an integrated compartment method (ICM) - which greatly facilitates the setup of the matrix equation for the discrete field approximating the corresponding continuous field. Most of the possible boundary conditions that may be anticipated in real-world problems are considered. These include junctions, prescribed concentration, prescribed dispersive flux, and prescribed total flux. The model is applied to two case studies: (1) a single river and (2) a five-segment river in a watershed. Results indicate that the model can realistically simulate the behavior of the sediment and chemical variations in a stream/river network. 11 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Gendaszek, Andrew S.; Magirl, Christopher S.


    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River. PDF version of a presentation on hydrodynamic modelling in the Cedar River in Washington state. Presented at the American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting 2010.

  12. Longitudinal dispersion in natural channels: 2. The roles of shear flow dispersion and dead zones in the River Severn, U.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Davis


    Full Text Available The classical one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation (ADE gives an inadequate description of tracer cloud evolution in the River Severn, U.K. A solute transport model incorporating the effects of tracer storage in dead zones is presented in which the channel is conceived as being divided into two parallel regions. The bulk flow region occurs in the central part. Its longitudinal dispersive properties are described by the ADE. Adjacent to this, an additional cross-sectional area is defined in which tracer can be stored temporarily in regions of slowly moving water called dead zones. Exchange between the two regions follows a first order rate equation. Applying the model to the River Severn shows that a dispersing cloud’s evolution occurs in two distinct stages with a rapid transitional phase. Initially, shear-dispersion is dominant while the tracer particles mix fully over the bulk flow. Once this has occurred, dead zone storage accounts well for the non-Fickian evolution of the cloud. After the transitional phase the dead zone storage mechanism clearly dominates over shear-dispersion. Overall, the combined shear flow dispersion – dead zone model (D-DZM provides a much better, physically consistent description of the tracer cloud’s evolution than the simple classical ADE approach can do alone. Keywords: Channels; dispersion; dead zones; tracers; River Severn

  13. Channel Mapping of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, May 2009, river miles 29 to 62—Data (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Bathymetric, topographic, and grain-size data were collected in May 2009 along a 33-mi reach of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The study...

  14. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling to quantify effects of peak-flow management on channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat in the Cedar River, Washington (United States)

    Barnas, C. R.; Czuba, J. A.; Gendaszek, A. S.; Magirl, C. S.


    The Cedar River in Washington State originates on the western slope of the Cascade Range and provides the City of Seattle with most of its drinking water, while also supporting a productive salmon habitat. Water-resource managers require detailed information on how best to manage high-flow releases from Chester Morse Lake, a large reservoir on the Cedar River, during periods of heavy precipitation to minimize flooding, while mitigating negative effects on fish populations. Instream flow-management practices include provisions for adaptive management to promote and maintain healthy aquatic habitat in the river system. The current study is designed to understand the linkages between peak flow characteristics, geomorphic processes, riverine habitat, and biological responses. Specifically, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling is used to simulate and quantify the effects of the peak-flow magnitude, duration, and frequency on the channel morphology and salmon-spawning habitat. Two study reaches, representative of the typical geomorphic and ecologic characteristics of the Cedar River, were selected for the modeling. Detailed bathymetric data, collected with a real-time kinematic global positioning system and an acoustic Doppler current profiler, were combined with a LiDAR-derived digital elevation model in the overbank area to develop a computational mesh. The model is used to simulate water velocity, benthic shear stress, flood inundation, and morphologic changes in the gravel-bedded river under the current and alternative flood-release strategies. Simulations of morphologic change and salmon-redd scour by floods of differing magnitude and duration enable water-resource managers to incorporate model simulation results into adaptive management of peak flows in the Cedar River.

  15. Microwave-assisted grafting polymerization modification of nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer fibers for enhanced weak cation exchange protein separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Liuwei; Marcus, R. Kenneth, E-mail:


    A weak cation exchange liquid chromatography stationary phase (nylon-COOH) was prepared by grafting polyacrylic acid on to native nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers via a microwave-assisted radical polymerization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of applying microwave-assisted grafting polymerization to affect nylon material for protein separation. The C-CP fiber surfaces were characterized by attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anticipated carbonyl peak at 1722.9 cm{sup −1} was found on the nylon-COOH fibers, but was not found on the native fiber, indicating the presence of the polyacrylic acid on nylon fibers after grafting. The nylon-COOH phase showed a ∼12× increase in lysozyme dynamic binding capacity (∼12 mg mL{sup −1}) when compared to the native fiber phase (∼1 mg mL{sup −1}). The loading capacity of the nylon-COOH phase is nearly independent of the lysozyme loading concentration (0.05–1 mg mL{sup −1}) and the mobile phase linear velocity (7.3–73 mm s{sup −1}). The reproducibility of the lysozyme recovery from the nylon-COOH (RSD = 0.3%, n = 10) and the batch-to-batch variability in the functionalization (RSD = 3%, n = 5) were also investigated, revealing very high levels of consistency. Fast baseline separations of myoglobin, α-chymotrypsinogen A, cytochrome c and lysozyme were achieved using the nylon-COOH column. It was found that a 5× increase in the mobile phase linear velocity (7.3-to-36.5 mm s{sup −1}) had little effect on the separation resolution. The microwave-assisted grafting polymerization has great potential as a generalized surface modification methodology across the applications of C-CP fibers. - Highlights: • A microwave-assisted grafting method to attach acrylic acid is described for the first time for chromatographic phases. • A high-density, weak cation exchange surface is created on a nylon

  16. Lateral and vertical channel movement and potential for bed-material movement on the Madison River downstream from Earthquake Lake, Montana (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; McCarthy, Peter M.


    The 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake caused a massive landslide (Madison Slide) that dammed the Madison River and formed Earthquake Lake. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers excavated a spillway through the Madison Slide to permit outflow from Earthquake Lake. In June 1970, high streamflows on the Madison River severely eroded the spillway channel and damaged the roadway embankment along U.S. Highway 287 downstream from the Madison Slide. Investigations undertaken following the 1970 flood events concluded that substantial erosion through and downstream from the spillway could be expected for streamflows greater than 3,500 cubic feet per second (ft3/s). Accordingly, the owners of Hebgen Dam, upstream from Earthquake Lake, have tried to manage releases from Hebgen Lake to prevent streamflows from exceeding 3,500 ft3/s measured at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gaging station 0638800 Madison River at Kirby Ranch, near Cameron, Montana. Management of flow releases from Hebgen Lake to avoid exceeding the threshold streamflow at USGS gaging station 06038800 is difficult, and has been questioned for two reasons. First, no road damage was reported downstream from the Earthquake Lake outlet in 1993, 1996, and 1997 when streamflows exceeded the 3,500-ft3/s threshold. Second, the 3,500-ft3/s threshold generally precludes releases of higher flows that could be beneficial to the blue-ribbon trout fishery downstream in the Madison River. In response to concerns about minimizing streamflow downstream from Earthquake Lake and the possible armoring of the spillway, the USGS, in cooperation with the Madison River Fisheries Technical Advisory Committee (MADTAC; Bureau of Land Management; Montana Department of Environmental Quality; Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks; PPL-Montana; U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service - Gallatin National Forest; and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service), conducted a study to determine movement of the Madison River channel downstream from Earthquake Lake

  17. Analysis of in situ water velocity distributions in the lowland river floodplain covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats - a case study of the bypass channel of Warta River (Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laks Ireneusz


    Full Text Available The analysis of in situ measurements of velocity distribution in the floodplain of the lowland river has been carried out. The survey area was located on a bypass channel of the Warta River (West of Poland which is filled with water only in case of flood waves. The floodplain is covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats. The velocity measurements were performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP in a cross-section with a bed reinforced with concrete slabs. The measured velocities have reflected the differentiated impact of various vegetation types on the loss of water flow energy. The statistical analyses have proven a relationship between the local velocities and the type of plant communities.

  18. An assessment of the fine sediment dynamics in an upland river system: INCA-Sed modifications and implications for fisheries. (United States)

    Lazar, Attila N; Butterfield, Dan; Futter, Martyn N; Rankinen, Katri; Thouvenot-Korppoo, Marie; Jarritt, Nick; Lawrence, Deborah S L; Wade, Andrew J; Whitehead, Paul G


    There is a need for better links between hydrology and ecology, specifically between landscapes and riverscapes to understand how processes and factors controlling the transport and storage of environmental pollution have affected or will affect the freshwater biota. Here we show how the INCA modelling framework, specifically INCA-Sed (the Integrated Catchments model for Sediments) can be used to link sediment delivery from the landscape to sediment changes in-stream. INCA-Sed is a dynamic, process-based, daily time step model. The first complete description of the equations used in the INCA-Sed software (version 1.9.11) is presented. This is followed by an application of INCA-Sed made to the River Lugg (1077 km(2)) in Wales. Excess suspended sediment can negatively affect salmonid health. The Lugg has a large and potentially threatened population of both Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). With the exception of the extreme sediment transport processes, the model satisfactorily simulated both the hydrology and the sediment dynamics in the catchment. Model results indicate that diffuse soil loss is the most important sediment generation process in the catchment. In the River Lugg, the mean annual Guideline Standard for suspended sediment concentration, proposed by UKTAG, of 25 mg l(-1) is only slightly exceeded during the simulation period (1995-2000), indicating only minimal effect on the Atlantic salmon population. However, the daily time step simulation of INCA-Sed also allows the investigation of the critical spawning period. It shows that the sediment may have a significant negative effect on the fish population in years with high sediment runoff. It is proposed that the fine settled particles probably do not affect the salmonid egg incubation process, though suspended particles may damage the gills of fish and make the area unfavourable for spawning if the conditions do not improve. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Introducing an R-package for calculating channel width and other basic metrics for irregular river polygons (United States)

    Golly, Antonius; Turowski, Jens


    The width of fluvial streams and channel beds is an important metric for a large number of hydraulic, geomorphic and ecologic applications. For example, for a given discharge the local channel width determines the water flow velocity and thus the sediment transport capacity of a reach. Since streams often have irregular shapes with uneven channel banks, the channel width strongly varies along the channel. Although, the geometry of streams or their beds can be measured easily in the field (e.g. with a Total Station or GPS) or from maps or aerial images in a GIS, the width of the stream cannot be identified objectively without further data processing, since the results are more or less irregular polygons with sometimes bended shapes. An objective quantification of the channel width and other metrics requires automated algorithms that are applicable over a range of channel shapes and spatial scales. Here, we present a lightweight software suite with a small number of functions that process 2D or 3D geometrical data of channels or channel beds. The software, written as an R-package, accepts various text data formats and can be configured through five parameters. It creates interactive overview plots (if desired) and produces three basic channel metrics: the centerline, the channel width along the centerline and the slope along the centerline. The centerline is an optimized line that minimizes the distances to both channel banks. This centerline gives also a measure for the real length and slope of the channel. From this centerline perpendicular transects are generated which allow for the calculation of the channel width where they intersect with the channel banks. Briefly, we present an example and demonstrate the importance of these metrics in a use case of a steep stream, the Erlenbach stream in Switzerland. We were motivated to develop and publish the algorithm in an open-source framework, since only proprietary solutions were available at that time. The software is

  20. Legacy sediment, lead, and zinc storage in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River, Old Lead Belt Mining District, Missouri, USA (United States)

    Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Lecce, Scott A.; Owen, Marc R.; Martin, Derek J.


    The Old Lead Belt of southeastern Missouri was one of the leading producers of Pb ore for more than a century (1869-1972). Large quantities of contaminated mine waste have been, and continue to be, supplied to local streams. This study assessed the magnitude and spatial distribution of mining-contaminated legacy sediment stored in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River in the Ozark Highlands of southeastern Missouri. Although metal concentrations decline downstream from the mine sources, the channel and floodplain sediments are contaminated above background levels with Pb and Zn along its entire 171-km length below the mine sources. Mean concentrations in floodplain cores > 2000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn extend 40-50 km downstream from the mining area in association with the supply of fine tailings particles that were easily dispersed downstream in the suspended load. Mean concentrations in channel bed and bar sediments ranging from 1400 to 1700 mg kg- 1 for Pb extend 30 km below the mines, while Zn concentrations of 1000-3000 mg kg- 1 extend 20 km downstream. Coarse dolomite fragments in the 2-16 mm channel sediment fraction provide significant storage of Pb and Zn, representing 13-20% of the bulk sediment storage mass in the channel and can contain concentrations of > 4000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn. These coarse tailings have been transported a maximum distance of only about 30 km from the source over a period of 120 years for an average of about 250 m/y. About 37% of the Pb and 9% of the Zn that was originally released to the watershed in tailings wastes is still stored in the Big River. A total of 157 million Mg of contaminated sediment is stored along the Big River, with 92% of it located in floodplain deposits that are typically contaminated to depths of 1.5-3.5 m. These contaminated sediments store a total of 188,549 Mg of Pb and 34,299 Mg of Zn, of which 98% of the Pb and 95% of the Zn are stored in floodplain

  1. 75 FR 5279 - Sucker Creek Channel and Floodplain Restoration Project (Phase II), Rogue River-Siskiyou National... (United States)


    ..., including reconstruction of portions of the stream channel, placement of large wood structures in the stream..., increase spatial habitat diversity); reintroduce and stabilize large wood for fisheries and stream channel... hydrologist and/or fisheries biologist will identify trees for the project. Depending on tree heights, one...

  2. Wetted channel and bar features for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 2005 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  3. Recommended Investigations of Sediment Transport and Deposition for Predicting Future Configurations of Mississippi River System Channels and Floodplain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaugush, Robert


    Reviews the progress made in the study of sediment transport and geomorphology in the Upper Mississippi River System since the 1994 meeting of the working group that developed a description of activities needed...

  4. Testing river surveying techniques in tidal environments: example from an actively meandering channel surveyed with TLS (Mont Saint-Michel bay, France) (United States)

    Leroux, J.; Lague, D.


    Tidal channel developed in mega-tidal salt marsh offer a unique set of characteristics to study the interaction between hydraulics, riparian vegetation and sedimentation using Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). The recession of water allows a nearly complete survey of the channel that is otherwise impossible in rivers. Moreover, the predictability of tide amplitude allows to target surveys large events. Finally, the hydro-sedimentary processes and peak flow velocities in excess of 2 m/s in mega-tidal estuaries (e.g. Mont Saint Michel (MSM) bay) allow to explore conditions that are similar to river during flood conditions. This has motivated a 3 years study of a sinuous tidal channel located on the fringe of the marsh with the aim to understand its dynamics at daily to annual scales. We have acquired 36 high resolution topographic surveys with TLS, whose 13 daily surveys were acquired during annual largest tides. A local reference network of targets is used to yield a high registration accuracy with uncertainty varying between 1.5 mm and 3.4 mm. We use the CANUPO algorithm for classifying riparian vegetation and ground in 3D data, and use the point cloud comparison algorithm M3C2 to resolve 3D topographic changes down to 5 mm. ADCP, ADV and a turbidimeter were installed to constrain flow velocities and suspended sediment concentration (SSC). Our analysis is focused on three active compartments: (1) the inner bar on which riparian pioneer vegetation is developing and where sedimentation reaches up to 5 cm/tide; (2) the actively eroding outer bank which exhibits local retreat rates up to 2 m/tide; (3) the channel itself for which we document fluctuations of up to 0.2 m in elevation at daily to monthly timescales. We find that High Water Level (HWL) is a good predictor of the mean rate of evolution of these compartments with different empirical relationships. Spatially averaged sedimentation on the inner bend tends to increase linearly with HWL and is increased by a

  5. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu


    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  6. Saving Salmon Through Advances in Fluvial Remote Sensing: Applying the Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) for Bathymetric Mapping of Over 250 km of River Channel and Habitat Classification (United States)

    Richardson, R.; Legleiter, C. J.; Harrison, L.


    Salmonids are threatened with extinction across the world from the fragmentation of riverine ecosystems from dams and diversions. In California, efforts to expand the range of spawnable habitat for native salmon by transporting fish around reservoirs is a potentially species saving idea. But, strong scientific evidence of the amount of high quality habitat is required to make these difficult management decisions. Remote sensing has long been used in fluvial settings to identify physical parameters that drive the quality of aquatic habitat; however, the true strength of remote sensing to cover large spatial extents has not been applied with the resolution that is relevant to salmonids. This project utilizes hyperspectral data of over 250 km of the Tuolumne and Merced Rivers to extract depth and bed slope from the wetted channel and NIR LiDAR for the surrounding topography. The Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) has proven as an effective tool to create bathymetric maps of river channels in ideal settings with clear water, high amounts of bottom reflectance, and less than 3 meters deep over short distances. Results from this study show that OBRA can be applied over larger riverscapes at high resolutions (0.5 m). The depth and bed slope estimations are used to classify habitat units that are crucial to quantifying the quality and amount of habitat in these river that once produced large populations of native salmonids. As more managers look to expand habitat for these threatened species the tools developed here will be cost effective over the large extents that salmon migrate to spawn.

  7. Microwave-assisted grafting polymerization modification of nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer fibers for enhanced weak cation exchange protein separations. (United States)

    Jiang, Liuwei; Marcus, R Kenneth


    A weak cation exchange liquid chromatography stationary phase (nylon-COOH) was prepared by grafting polyacrylic acid on to native nylon 6 capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers via a microwave-assisted radical polymerization. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of applying microwave-assisted grafting polymerization to affect nylon material for protein separation. The C-CP fiber surfaces were characterized by attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The anticipated carbonyl peak at 1722.9 cm(-1) was found on the nylon-COOH fibers, but was not found on the native fiber, indicating the presence of the polyacrylic acid on nylon fibers after grafting. The nylon-COOH phase showed a ∼12× increase in lysozyme dynamic binding capacity (∼12 mg mL(-1)) when compared to the native fiber phase (∼1 mg mL(-1)). The loading capacity of the nylon-COOH phase is nearly independent of the lysozyme loading concentration (0.05-1 mg mL(-1)) and the mobile phase linear velocity (7.3-73 mm s(-1)). The reproducibility of the lysozyme recovery from the nylon-COOH (RSD = 0.3%, n = 10) and the batch-to-batch variability in the functionalization (RSD = 3%, n = 5) were also investigated, revealing very high levels of consistency. Fast baseline separations of myoglobin, α-chymotrypsinogen A, cytochrome c and lysozyme were achieved using the nylon-COOH column. It was found that a 5× increase in the mobile phase linear velocity (7.3-to-36.5 mm s(-1)) had little effect on the separation resolution. The microwave-assisted grafting polymerization has great potential as a generalized surface modification methodology across the applications of C-CP fibers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Erosional and depositional changes wrought by the flood of May 1978 in the channels of Powder River, southeastern Montana (United States)

    Meade, Robert H.; Moody, John A.


    Powder River’s second largest flood of record (1919–2012) moved through northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during May 1978. Within a ninety-kilometer reach of the channel in southeastern Montana, the most prominent planform effects of the flood were the growth of meander bends by bank erosion (this was most intense just downriver of bend apexes, causing 1–2 channel widths of lateral displacement) and the erosion of new cutoff channels through the necks of two large and two small meanders. Surveys of cross sections, made before and after the flood, show the responses of the channel to the flood waters, which ranged from minimal (bedrock control) to large (maximum channel curvature in unconsolidated bank and terrace deposits). Geomorphic work done during two weeks of extreme flooding in May 1978, as measured by cross-channel erosion and new sediment deposition, was approximately equal in magnitude to the work done during the two decades (1978–1998) that followed the flood.

  9. Numerical modelling of river processes: flow and river bed deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassi, P.A.


    The morphology of alluvial river channels is a consequence of complex interaction among a number of constituent physical processes, such as flow, sediment transport and river bed deformation. This is, an alluvial river channel is formed from its own sediment. From time to time, alluvial river

  10. Channel morphology [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Alvin L. Medina; Daniel G. Neary


    Channel morphology has become an increasingly important subject for analyzing the health of rivers and associated fish populations, particularly since the popularization of channel classification and assessment methods. Morphological data can help to evaluate the flows of sediment and water that influence aquatic and riparian habitat. Channel classification systems,...

  11. Effects of hydrologic modifications on salinity and formation of hypoxia in the Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet and adjacent waterways, southeastern Louisiana, 2008 to 2012 (United States)

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Mize, Scott V.


    The Mississippi River-Gulf Outlet (MRGO) was constructed between 1958 and 1968 to provide a safer and shorter route between the Gulf of Mexico and the Port of New Orleans for ocean-going vessels. In 2006, the U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to develop and implement a plan to deauthorize a portion of the MRGO ship channel from its confluence with the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway to the Gulf of Mexico. In 2009, in accordance with plans submitted to Congress, the USACE built a rock barrier across the MRGO near Hopedale, Louisiana. Following Hurricane Katrina, Congress also authorized the USACE to implement the Hurricane Storm Damage Risk Reduction System (HSDRRS) by building structures in the MRGO and adjacent surface waters, to reduce vulnerability of this area to storm surge. The HSDRRS includes the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway-Lake Borgne Surge Barrier and Gate Complex near mile 58 of the deauthorized portion of the MRGO and the Seabrook Gate Complex on the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC). By blocking or limiting tidal exchange in the MRGO, these barriers could affect water quality in the MRGO and nearby waters including Lake Pontchartrain, the IHNC, and Lake Borgne. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the USACE, began a study to document the effects of the construction activities on salinity and dissolved oxygen in these surface waters. Data were collected from August 2008 through October 2012. Completion of the rock barrier in the vicinity of mile 35 in July 2009 reduced hydrologic circulation and separated the MRGO into two distinct salinity regimes, with substantially fresher conditions prevailing upstream from the rock barrier. The rock barrier also contributed to a zone of hypoxia (dissolved oxygen less than 2 milligrams per liter) that formed along the channel bottom during the warmer summer months in each year of this monitoring; the zone was much more developed downstream from the rock barrier. The most

  12. Transport of salt and suspended sediments in a curving channel of a coastal plain estuary: Satilla River, GA (United States)

    Blanton, Jackson O.; Seim, Harvey; Alexander, Clark; Amft, Julie; Kineke, Gail


    This study describes the transport of salt and suspended sediment in a curving reach of a shallow mesotidal coastal plain estuary. Circulation data revealed a subtidal upstream bottom flow during neap tide, indicating the presence of a gravitational circulation mode throughout the channel. During spring tide, landward bottom flow weakened considerably at the upstream end of the channel and changed to seaward in the middle and downstream areas of the reach, suggesting the importance of tidal pumping. Salt flux near-bottom was landward at both ends of the channel during neap tide. At spring, however, the salt flux diverged along the bottom of the thalweg suggesting that tidal pumping caused a transfer of salt vertically and laterally into the intertidal zone. Thus, landward flux of salt is maintained even in the presence of subtidal seaward flow along the bottom at the downstream end of the channel. Landward bottom stress is greater than seaward stress, preferentially transporting suspended sediments upstream. Compared with salt, however, the weight of the suspended sediments causes less upward transfer of sediments into the intertidal zone. Flood flow carried more suspended sediments landward at the upstream end compared with the downstream end. We speculate that secondary flow in the curving channel picks up increasing amounts of suspended sediments along the sides during flood and adds them to the axial flow in the thalweg. Since the landward flow along the bottom of the thalweg weakens and even reverses during spring tide, there appears to be a complex re-circulation system for sediments re-suspended in curving channels that complicates the picture of a net transport of sediments landward.

  13. Drift of ichthyoplankton in two channels of the Paraná River, between Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul states, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Bialetzki


    Full Text Available Analysis of drift of ichthyoplankton in two channels in the River Paraná, Brazil, were made. Sampling was undertaken from October 1995 to April 1996 during nychthemeral cycles. Water samples were collected to determine several environmental variables. Eggs densities largely differed to layers, times of day and months. In both the channels, highest occurrence of eggs was detected between January and March; greater concentrations at the bottom, during night. With regard to larvae, densities were significantly different in channels, times of days and months. Maximum occurrences were seen in the right channel, in both layers, with largest capture between January and March. Surface of the both channels presented highest density of larvae during night. Water temperature, electrical conductivity and flux velocity were different in the two channels, however, these variables and larvae density didn't showed correlations. This indicates that there was another possible factor, might be influencing the distribution of ichthyoplankton.Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a deriva do ictioplâncton em dois canais com diferentes condições de topografia e velocidade de fluxo, entre os estados do Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul (Brasil. As amostragens foram realizadas no período de outubro de 1995 a abril de 1996, durante ciclos nictemerais. Amostras de água foram coletadas para determinação de algumas variáveis ambientais. A densidade de ovos diferiu significativamente entre os estratos, horários e meses; sendo que em ambos os canais, as maiores ocorrências de ovos foram verificadas entre janeiro e março, com maiores concentrações no fundo durante o período noturno. Com relação as larvas, as densidades diferiram entre os canais, horários e meses. As maiores ocorrências foram observas no canal direito, em ambos estratos, com maior período de captura entre janeiro e março. A superfície dos canais apresentou as maiores densidades de larvas

  14. Fine sediment transport into the hyperturbid lower Ems River : The role of channel deepening and sediment-induced drag reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maren, D.S.; Winterwerp, J.C.; Vroom, J.


    Deepening of estuarine tidal channels often leads to tidal amplification and increasing fine sediment import. Increasing fine sediment import, in turn, may lower the hydraulic drag (due to a smoother muddy bed and/or sediment-induced damping of turbulence), and therefore, further strengthen tidal

  15. Operation and Maintenance. 9-Foot Navigation Channel, Upper Mississippi River, Head of Navigation to Guttenberg, Iowa. Volume 1. Narrative. (United States)


    grass 3 lb/acre; hairy vetch 15 lb/acre; switch grass 3 lb/acre. This mixture would apparently provide a sufficient mixture of xeric grasses and legumes...September, thousands of acres of annuals such as Bidens were inundated, which made for excellent waterfowl food. The occasional drying out of potholes...growth is stimulated especially for such species as Bidens and Polygonum. In total, it is probably true that the impoundment of the Mississippi River

  16. Basin-wide sediment interactions between channels, floodplains and dunes in a large, dryland river system, central Australia (United States)

    Eccleshall, Sarah; Jansen, John; Fujioka, Toshiyuki; Codilean, Alexandru; Mifsud, Charles


    Low, flat terrain (slope 400 kyr) implied in the 'storage' hypothesis. The 26Al/10Be ratio has been used to identify a complex exposure history, such as one including burial, where a lower offset in 26Al/10Be ratio from the expected production-rate ratio of 6.8 can be converted to a burial age. Eleven detrital samples were collected along the full length of the Cooper, plus three surface samples from source-bordering dunes in the lowermost reach. We discuss our preliminary findings with regard to sediment burial and long-term interactions in the river-dune systems of central Australia. References: 1Willenbring, J. K., Codilean, A. T., Ferrier, K. L., McElroy, B., & Kirchner, J. W. (2014). Short Communication: Earth is (mostly) flat, but mountains dominate global denudation: apportionment of the continental mass flux over millennial time scales, revisited. Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions, 2(1), 1-17. 2Magee, J. W., Miller, G. H., Spooner, N. A., & Questiaux, D. (2004). Continuous 150 ky monsoon record from Lake Eyre, Australia: insolation-forcing implications and unexpected Holocene failure. Geology, 32(10), 885-888. 3Jansen, J. D., Nanson, G. C., Cohen, T. J., Fujioka, T., Fabel, D., Larsen, J. R., Codilean, A. T., Price, D.M, Bowman, H. H., May, J-H. & Gliganic, L. A. (2013). Lowland river responses to intraplate tectonism and climate forcing quantified with luminescence and cosmogenic 10Be. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 366, 49-58.

  17. Distribution of Pectinaria koreniLarvae (Annelida : Polychaeta) in Relation to the Seine River Plume Front (Eastern English Channel) (United States)

    Thiébaut, E.


    The distribution of Pectinaria korenilarvae in the Seine river plume was studied in June 1992 in the course of three inshore-offshore transects. Plume waters were characterized by a higher turbidity and a well-developed phytoplankton biomass. The hydrological structure varied greatly among surveys, principally due to lunar tidal cycle and wind events. Pectinaria korenilarval densities were consistently larger, by at least one order of magnitude, in plume waters than they were in ambient shelf waters. The frontal structure of the plume, acting as a physical boundary, may favour transport along a coastal band which offers rich trophic resources and limits offshore export. Nonetheless, some mixing processes were observed between water masses. Wind events were also able to break up the front and induce a large-scale dispersal of larvae. In frontal zones, larval and phytoplankton aggregation was quite variable and this cannot be explained by a calculated index of potential convergent velocities.

  18. A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River Estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics (United States)

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Waite, Ian R.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Elias, Edwin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Zaugg, Steven D.


    While previous studies have documented contaminants in fish, sediments, water, and wildlife, few specifics are known about the spatial distribution of contaminants in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). Our study goal was to characterize sediment contaminant detections and concentrations in reaches of the CRE that were concurrently being sampled to assess contaminants in water, invertebrates, fish, and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs. Our objectives were to develop a survey design based on sedimentation characteristics and then assess whether sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), and contaminant concentrations and detections varied between areas with different sedimentation characteristics. We used a sediment transport model to predict sedimentation characteristics of three 16 km river reaches in the CRE. We then compartmentalized the modeled change in bed mass after a two week simulation to define sampling strata with depositional, stable, or erosional conditions. We collected and analyzed bottom sediments to assess whether substrate composition, organic matter composition, and contaminant concentrations and detections varied among strata within and between the reaches. We observed differences in grain size fractions between strata within and between reaches. We found that the fine sediment fraction was positively correlated with TOC. Contaminant concentrations were statistically different between depositional vs. erosional strata for the industrial compounds, personal care products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons class (Indus–PCP–PAH). We also observed significant differences between strata in the number of detections of Indus–PCP–PAH (depositional vs. erosional; stable vs. erosional) and for the flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides class (depositional vs. erosional, depositional vs. stable). When we estimated mean contaminant concentrations by reach, we observed higher contaminant concentrations in the furthest

  19. Human-induced hydrologic and geomorphic changes in the crisscross river network of the Pearl River Delta, South China (United States)

    Chen, Y. D.; Chen, X. H.


    discharge. Thirdly, the ratio of flow partition into two channels at several river bifurcation points has continuously changed over the past decade. This is an excellent indication of an increasingly larger portion of river flow discharging from the West River channels into the North River delta, which was found to be a major reason making the middle part of the PRD more and more vulnerable to flooding in recent years. Closely associated with the hydrologic changes are alterations of river channel and estuarine morphologies. Such geomorphic changes primarily include noticeable or even alarmingly severe modification of river channel bed, extension of river mouth and contraction of estuary in the study region. It was found that the hydrologic and geomorphic changes that have occurred within a relatively short period of time are mainly consequences of a wide variety of human activities, coupled with influences of natural events, including (a) channel dredging of sand for construction usage, (b) combination of embankments and construction of dams, (c) channel constriction and reduction or complete loss of floodplain, (d) sea level rise, and (e) channel bed erosion by record floods. Finally, an analysis is presented to examine the effects of these changes on various issues such as flood prevention and control, river channel management and navigation, low-flow regimes and water supply, water quality and aquatic ecosystem protection in the PRD region.

  20. One-channel monitor for wood stove heat output. Project report for the Hood River Conservation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modera, M.P.; Wagner, B.S.; Shelton, J.


    A major problem associated with monitoring the overall energy performance of single family residences is to determine the energy contribution of wood-burning appliances. Because the heat content of wood is variable and the efficiency of a stove changes with operating conditions, the energy contribution cannot be accurately determined by monitoring the amount of wood burned. The goal of the research presented in this report was to find a single-channel sensor whose output could be correlated with the heat output of a wood stove. To accomplish this, five wood stoves were monitored with thermocouples and radiometers while being operated in a calorimeter room. Using several physical models to describe the heat transfer, sensor readings were compared with the heat output measured by the calorimeter room. It was found that radiometers and surface temperature probes are suitable for monitoring the heat output of a wood stove, both providing consistent results for separate tests on a given stove. The radiometers, however, provide accurate results using an average correlation parameter for all stoves. Using this average parameter value, the radiometers predict the full-cycle (start-up to cool-down) heat output to within 20% of the measured value. This report describes the experimentation and data analysis, presents the correlation parameters for the radiometers and temperature sensors, and provides detailed installation instructions for one of the radiometers. 13 figs.

  1. Contraction rate, flow modification and bed layering impact on scour at the elliptical guide banks (United States)

    Gjunsburgs, B.; Jaudzems, G.; Bizane, M.; Bulankina, V.


    Flow contraction by the bridge crossing structures, intakes, embankments, piers, abutments and guide banks leads to general scour and the local scour in the vicinity of the structures. Local scour is depending on flow, river bed and structures parameters and correct understanding of the impact of each parameter can reduce failure possibility of the structures. The paper explores hydraulic contraction, the discharge redistribution between channel and floodplain during the flood, local flow modification and river bed layering on depth, width and volume of scour hole near the elliptical guide banks on low-land rivers. Experiments in a flume, our method for scour calculation and computer modelling results confirm a considerable impact of the contraction rate of the flow, the discharge redistribution between channel and floodplain, the local velocity, backwater and river bed layering on the depth, width, and volume of scour hole in steady and unsteady flow, under clear water condition. With increase of the contraction rate of the flow, the discharge redistribution between channel and floodplain, the local velocity, backwater values, the scour depth increases. At the same contraction rate, but at a different Fr number, the scour depth is different: with increase in the Fr number, the local velocity, backwater, scour depth, width, and volume is increasing. Acceptance of the geometrical contraction of the flow, approach velocity and top sand layer of the river bed for scour depth calculation as accepted now, may be the reason of the structures failure and human life losses.

  2. Covalent modification of mutant rat P2X2 receptors with a thiol-reactive fluorophore allows channel activation by zinc or acidic pH without ATP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo S Dellal

    Full Text Available Rat P2X2 receptors open at an undetectably low rate in the absence of ATP. Furthermore, two allosteric modulators, zinc and acidic pH, cannot by themselves open these channels. We describe here the properties of a mutant receptor, K69C, before and after treatment with the thiol-reactive fluorophore Alexa Fluor 546 C(5-maleimide (AM546. Xenopus oocytes expressing unmodified K69C were not activated under basal conditions nor by 1,000 µM ATP. AM546 treatment caused a small increase in the inward holding current which persisted on washout and control experiments demonstrated this current was due to ATP independent opening of the channels. Following AM546 treatment, zinc (100 µM or acidic external solution (pH 6.5 elicited inward currents when applied without any exogenous ATP. In the double mutant K69C/H319K, zinc elicited much larger inward currents, while acidic pH generated outward currents. Suramin, which is an antagonist of wild type receptors, behaved as an agonist at AM546-treated K69C receptors. Several other cysteine-reactive fluorophores tested on K69C did not cause these changes. These modified receptors show promise as a tool for studying the mechanisms of P2X receptor activation.

  3. Oceanographic data collected from North Channel Bottom Node for ETM Cruise by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2012-04-28 to 2012-05-17 (NCEI Accession 0162178) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162178 contains navigational and physical data collected at North Channel Bottom Node for ETM Cruise, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  4. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  5. Fine sediment transport by tidal asymmetry in the high-concentrated Ems River : Indications for a regime shift in response to channel deepening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winterwerp, J.C.


    This paper describes an analysis of the observed up-river transport of fine sediments in the Ems River, Germany/Netherlands, using a 1DV POINT MODEL, accounting for turbulence-induced flocculation and sediment-induced buoyancy destruction. From this analysis, it is inferred that the net up-river

  6. Use of navigation channels by Lake Sturgeon: Does channelization increase vulnerability of fish to ship strikes? (United States)

    Hondorp, Darryl W.; Bennion, David; Roseman, Edward; Holbrook, Christopher; Boase, James C.; Chiotti, Justin A.; Thomas, Michael V.; Wills, Todd C.; Drouin, Richard; Kessel, Steven T.; Krueger, Charles C.


    Channelization for navigation and flood control has altered the hydrology and bathymetry of many large rivers with unknown consequences for fish species that undergo riverine migrations. In this study, we investigated whether altered flow distributions and bathymetry associated with channelization attracted migrating Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) into commercial navigation channels, potentially increasing their exposure to ship strikes. To address this question, we quantified and compared Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels vs. alternative pathways in two multi-channel rivers differentially affected by channelization, but free of barriers to sturgeon movement. Acoustic telemetry was used to quantify Lake Sturgeon movements. Under the assumption that Lake Sturgeon navigate by following primary flow paths, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River were expected to choose navigation channels over alternative pathways and to exhibit greater selection for navigation channels than conspecifics in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. Consistent with these predictions, acoustic-tagged Lake Sturgeon in the more-channelized lower Detroit River selected the higher-flow and deeper navigation channels over alternative migration pathways, whereas in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River, individuals primarily used pathways alternative to navigation channels. Lake Sturgeon selection for navigation channels as migratory pathways also was significantly higher in the more-channelized lower Detroit River than in the less-channelized lower St. Clair River. We speculated that use of navigation channels over alternative pathways would increase the spatial overlap of commercial vessels and migrating Lake Sturgeon, potentially enhancing their vulnerability to ship strikes. Results of our study thus demonstrated an association between channelization and the path use of migrating Lake Sturgeon that could prove important for

  7. Quaternary tectonic control on channel morphology over sedimentary low land: A case study in the Ajay-Damodar interfluve of Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvendu Roy


    Full Text Available The style of active tectonic on the deformation and characterization of fluvial landscape has been investigated on three typical skrike-slip fault zones of the Ajay-Damodar Interfluve (ADI in Eastern India through field mapping, structural analysis and examination of digital topography (ASTER-30 m, multi-spectral imageries, and Google Earth images. Channel morphology in Quaternary sediment is more deformed than Cenozoic lateritic tract and igneous rock system by the neotectonic activities. The structural and lithological controls on the river system in ADI region are reflected by distinct drainage patterns, abrupt change in flow direction, offset river channels, straight river lines, ponded river channel, marshy lands, sag ponds, palaeo-channels, alluvial fans, meander cutoffs, multi-terrace river valley, incised compressed meander, convexity of channel bed slope and knick points in longitudinal profile. Seven morphotectonic indices have been used to infer the role of neotectonic on the modification of channel morphology. A tectonic index map for the ADI region has been prepared by the integration of used morphotectonic indices, which is also calibrated by Bouguer gravity anomaly data and field investigation.

  8. Studying the Effects of Hardwood Stand Modifications, Periodic Flooding, and Fire on Insect and Disease Communities in the Lower Mississippi River Ecosystem. (United States)

    E.T. Nebeker; Theodor D. Leininger; J.S. Meadows


    Abstract - The relationship between stand modification and pest organisms (insects and diseases) has been noted in general with few specific studies to evaluate this relationship in the southern hardwoods. As a prerequisite to making the best improvement cut prescription, it is essential to have a perspective on thinning impacts that at present can...

  9. Impact of Sensor Zenith Angle on MOD10A1 Data Reliability and Modification of Snow Cover Data for the Tarim River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixing Li


    Full Text Available Snow in the mountainous watersheds of the Tarim River Basin is the primary source of water for western China. The Snow Cover Daily L3 Global 500-m Grid (MOD10A1 remote sensing dataset has proven extremely valuable for monitoring the changing snow cover patterns over large spatial areas; however, inherent uncertainty associated with large sensor zenith angles (SZAs has called its reliability into question. Comparative analysis that utilized a paired-date difference method for parameters such as snow cover frequency, snow cover percentage, and normalized difference snow index (NDSI has shown that overestimation of snow cover in the Tarim River Basin correlates with high values of SZA. Hence, such overestimation was associated with an increase in the NDSI, attributable to the change in reflectance between Band 4 and Band 6 imagery. A maximum threshold value of SZA of 22.37° was used alongside a multiday refilling method to modify the MOD10A1 dataset to produce a new daily snow cover map of the Tarim River Basin, spanning a 10-year period. A comparison of benchmark results of snow cover classification produced by the HJ-1A/B satellite revealed an increase in the overall accuracy of up to 4%, confirming the usefulness of our modified MOD10A1 data.

  10. River-corridor habitat dynamics, Lower Missouri River (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.


    Intensive management of the Missouri River for navigation, flood control, and power generation has resulted in substantial physical changes to the river corridor. Historically, the Missouri River was characterized by a shifting, multithread channel and abundant unvegetated sandbars. The shifting channel provided a wide variety of hydraulic environments and large areas of connected and unconnected off-channel water bodies.Beginning in the early 1800s and continuing to the present, the channel of the Lower Missouri River (downstream from Sioux City, Iowa) has been trained into a fast, deep, single-thread channel to stabilize banks and maintain commercial navigation. Wing dikes now concentrate the flow, and revetments and levees keep the channel in place and disconnect it from the flood plain. In addition, reservoir regulation of the Missouri River upstream of Yankton, South Dakota, has substantially changed the annual hydrograph, sediment loads, temperature regime, and nutrient budgets.While changes to the Missouri River have resulted in broad social and economic benefits, they have also been associated with loss of river-corridor habitats and diminished populations of native fish and wildlife species. Today, Missouri River stakeholders are seeking ways to restore some natural ecosystem benefits of the Lower Missouri River without compromising traditional economic uses of the river and flood plain.

  11. Large wood in the Snowy River estuary, Australia (United States)

    Hinwood, Jon B.; McLean, Errol J.


    In this paper we report on 8 years of data collection and interpretation of large wood in the Snowy River estuary in southeastern Australia, providing quantitative data on the amount, sources, transport, decay, and geomorphic actions. No prior census data for an estuary is known to the authors despite their environmental and economic importance and the significant differences between a fluvial channel and an estuarine channel. Southeastern Australian estuaries contain a significant quantity of large wood that is derived from many sources, including river flood flows, local bank erosion, and anthropogenic sources. Wind and tide are shown to be as important as river flow in transporting and stranding large wood. Tidal action facilitates trapping of large wood on intertidal bars and shoals; but channels are wider and generally deeper, so log jams are less likely than in rivers. Estuarine large wood contributes to localised scour and accretion and hence to the modification of estuarine habitat, but in the study area it did not have large-scale impacts on the hydraulic gradients nor the geomorphology.

  12. Antecedent Rivers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    far north of the high NandaDevi (7,817 m) - Api Nampa. (7,132 m) range of the Himadri. The Sindhu flows northwestwards, the Satluj goes west, the Karnali takes the southerly course and the Tsangpo flows east. These rivers flow through their pristine channels, carved out at the very outset about 50 to 55 m.y (million years) ...

  13. Mouth Bar Formation in Yangtze River Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, C.


    The periodic shifting of the bifurcation point of the North Channel and South Channel of the Yangtze river is very important in the estuary. The North Channel is bifurcated from the South Branch by cutting a channel through the submerged sandbanks. Once a bifurcation channel is formed, the

  14. Modification, calibration and verification of the IWA River Water Quality Model to simulate a pilot-scale high rate algal pond. (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Niall; Park, Jason B K; McBride, Graham B; Craggs, Rupert J


    We implemented the IWA River Water Quality Model No. 1 (Reichert et al., 2001. River Water Quality Model No. 1, IWA Scientific & Technical Report No. 12) to simulate water-quality characteristics in two pilot-scale High Rate Algal Ponds. Simulation results were compared with two years' of data from the ponds. The first year's data from one pond were used for model calibration; the remaining data were used for validation. As originally formulated and parameterized, the model consistently yielded summer-time algal biomass concentrations which were too low - with consequent failures in its reproduction of dissolved oxygen, pH and nutrient dynamics. We experimented with various structural/parametric changes to improve the model's performance. The most effective strategy was to greatly increase the respiratory losses suffered by the heterotrophic osmotrophs (thereby giving the algae access to a larger fraction of the incoming dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen). This suggests that CO(2)-bubbling alone cannot entirely preclude resource-limitation of algal production. We doubt that our parameterization of heterotrophic osmotrophs is correct and infer that the algae derive a large fraction of their nutrition by direct osmotrophic uptake of dissolved organic matter. This inference is supported by the literature concerning the physiology of the dominant algal species in our ponds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Fine sediment transport by tidal asymmetry in the high-concentrated Ems River: Indications for a regime shift in response to channel deepening


    Winterwerp, J.C.


    This paper describes an analysis of the observed up-river transport of fine sediments in the Ems River, Germany/Netherlands, using a 1DV POINT MODEL, accounting for turbulence-induced flocculation and sediment-induced buoyancy destruction. From this analysis, it is inferred that the net up-river transport is mainly due to an asymmetry in vertical mixing, often referred to as internal tidal asymmetry. It is argued that the large stratification observed during ebb should be attributed to a prof...

  16. Fish and Wildlife Habitat Changes Resulting from Construction of a Nine-Foot Channel on Pools 24, 25, and 26 of the Mississippi River and the Lower Illinois River, (United States)


    relative paucity of benthos in the study reach: (1) The bottom was well scoured and there was a lack of soft mud substrate due to higher current...between river miles 58.0 and 18.9. 22 areas where there is a moderate amount of organic pollution and where soft mud bottoms are available. Between...bog @wwkr Wimeim alarieme, C 1 2 2 x Lae tuIuk r so smceuc, F 1 2 Sheet 2 of 4 112 Table 37 (continued) Illinois Upper Mississippi River River 1876

  17. Fine sediment transport by tidal asymmetry in the high-concentrated Ems River: indications for a regime shift in response to channel deepening (United States)

    Winterwerp, Johan C.


    This paper describes an analysis of the observed up-river transport of fine sediments in the Ems River, Germany/Netherlands, using a 1DV POINT MODEL, accounting for turbulence-induced flocculation and sediment-induced buoyancy destruction. From this analysis, it is inferred that the net up-river transport is mainly due to an asymmetry in vertical mixing, often referred to as internal tidal asymmetry. It is argued that the large stratification observed during ebb should be attributed to a profound interaction between turbulence-induced flocculation and sediment-induced buoyancy destruction, as a result of which the river became an efficient trap for fine suspended sediment. Moreover, an asymmetry in flocculation processes was found, such that during flood relative large flocs are transported at relative large flow velocity high in the water column, whereas during ebb, the larger flocs are transported at smaller velocities close to the bed—this asymmetry contributes to the large trapping mentioned above. The internal tidal asymmetry and asymmetry in flocculation processes are both driven by the pronounced asymmetry in flow velocities, with flood velocities almost twice the ebb values. It is further argued that this efficient trapping is the result of a continuous deepening of the river, and occurs when concentrations in the river become typically a few hundred mg/l; this was the case during the 1990 survey analyzed in this paper. We also speculate that a second regime shift did occur in the river when fluid mud layers become so thick that net transport rates are directly related to the asymmetry in flow velocity itself, probably still in conjunction with internal asymmetry as well. This would yield an efficient mechanism to transport large amounts of fine sediment far up-river, as currently observed.

  18. Hydraulic, geomorphic, and trout habitat conditions of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River in Hinsdale County, Lake City, Colorado, Water Years 2010-2011 (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Richards, Rodney J.; Schaffrath, Keelin R.


    Channel rehabilitation, or reconfiguration, to mitigate a variety of riverine problems has become a common practice in the western United States. However, additional work to monitor and assess the channel response to, and the effectiveness of, these modifications over longer periods of time (decadal or longer) is still needed. The Lake Fork of the Gunnison River has been an area of active channel modification to accommodate the needs of the Lake City community since the 1950s. The Lake Fork Valley Conservancy District began a planning process to assess restoration options for a reach of the Lake Fork in Lake City to enhance hydraulic and ecologic characteristics of the reach. Geomorphic channel form is affected by land-use changes within the basin and geologic controls within the reach. The historic channel was defined as a dynamic, braided channel with an active flood plain. This can result in a natural tendency for the channel to braid. A braided channel can affect channel stability of reconfigured reaches when a single-thread meandering channel is imposed on the stream. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and Colorado River Water Conservation District, began a study in 2010 to quantify existing hydraulic and habitat conditions for a reach of the Lake Fork of the Gunnison River in Lake City, Colorado. The purpose of this report is to quantify existing Lake Fork hydraulic and habitat conditions and establish a baseline against which post-reconfiguration conditions can be compared. This report (1) quantifies the existing hydraulic and geomorphic conditions in a 1.1-kilometer section of the Lake Fork at Lake City that has been proposed as a location for future channel-rehabilitation efforts, (2) characterizes the habitat suitability of the reach for two trout species based on physical conditions within the stream, and (3) characterizes the current riparian canopy density.

  19. Downstream hydraulic geometry of a tidally influenced river delta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sassi, M.G.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Brye, de B.; Deleersnijder, E.


    Channel geometry in tidally influenced river deltas can show a mixed scaling behavior between that of river and tidal channel networks, as the channel forming discharge is both of river and tidal origin. We present a method of analysis to quantify the tidal signature on delta morphology, by

  20. Hydrological and sedimentary analysis of two recent flash floods in a Mediterranean basin with major changes in land uses and channel shape (Sió River, NE Iberian Peninsula) (United States)

    Carles Balasch, Josep; Garcia-Rodríguez, David; Tuset, Jordi; Lluis Ruiz-Bellet, Josep; Rodríguez-Ochoa, Rafael; Jaquet, Eisharc; Barriendos, Mariano; Castelltort, Xavier; Pino, David


    Two important rain events occurred in November 2015 and November 2016 in the Sió River basin (150 km2), a small tributary of the Segre River, within the Ebro River basin (NE Iberian Peninsula), caused two considerable flash floods. The first event (November 2015) was the most destructive: although the rain only fell on a small area in the headwaters, the subsequent flood killed four people and inundated many dwellings in the town of Agramunt. Total precipitation ranged between 136 and 146 mm in 12 hours, with maximum intensities of 32 mm·h-1 over very dry soils. The highest peak flow along the river occurred in Les Oluges (150 m3·s-1); this peak flow was very much abated when it reached Agramunt (45 m3·s-1) and even more at the junction with Segre River (8 m3·s-1). This runoff reduction of about 90% was caused by a great lamination due to water stored on the flood plains. In the second event (November 2016) the maximum precipitation within the basin was about 50 mm in 5 hours and the subsequent water discharge did not overflow in the town of Agramunt. In this second event, rainfall data in three locations within the basin and discharge data in two locations will permit the calibration of a hydrological model. From a hydrological point of view, runoff production has been controlled more by morphology (channel slope and length and basin shape) than by soil type and land use, because these soils have a very limited capacity of retention in the case of heavy precipitation. Long-time land use management in the basin has incorporated the flood plain to the agricultural fields, thus reducing dramatically the channel dimensions. Thus, the flowing discharge easily overflows and circulates over the flood plains, which store and infiltrate a great part of the runoff. This results in a great buffer effect that laminates the floods and protects the towns downstream.

  1. Characteristics of Phytoplankton Biomass, Primary Production and Community Structure in the Modaomen Channel, Pearl River Estuary, with Special Reference to the Influence of Saltwater Intrusion during Neap and Spring Tides. (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Gao, Jie; Liao, Jianzu; Shi, Ronggui; Li, Tao; Guo, Yajuan; Long, Aimin


    In recent decades, increasing frequency and intensity of saltwater intrusion in the Modaomen Channel has threatened the freshwater supply in the surrounding cities of the Pearl River Estuary, and ulteriorly changed the environmental conditions of the estuarine waters. Phytoplankton biomass, primary production (PP) and species composition, as well as hydrological and chemical parameters were examined along a downstream transect in the Modaomen Channel during neap tide (NT) and spring tide (ST), when a strong saltwater intrusion event occurred in late September, 2011. A total of 46 species phytoplankton were identified, including Bacillariophyta (25 species), Dinoflagellate (14 species), Chlorophyta (4 species), Cyanophyta (2 species) and Euglenozoa (1 species). The dominant species were shifted from freshwater diatoms (e.g., Melosira granulata and Melosira granulata var. angustissima) in the upper reaches to saline water diatoms (e.g., Skeletonema costatum and Coscinodiscus sp.) in the river mouth. Generally, phytoplankton density, biomass (chl-a) and PP decreased from the upper to lower reaches along the channel, and were significantly higher in NT than those of ST. There was a shift from large-sized phytoplankton (>20 μm) in the upper reaches to relative small-sized cells (5-20 μm) in the lower reaches. Compared to NT, low discharge and flow velocity, coupled with strong easterly winds during ST specially aggravated saltwater intrusion further to the upstream (~50 km from the estuary). The intruded saltwater diluted nutrients, N/P ratios, chl-a, and phytoplankton abundances, and thereby led to a decline in PP during ST.

  2. In situ measurements of microbially-catalyzed nitrification and nitrate reduction rates in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving water from coalbed natural gas discharge, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA (United States)

    Harris, S.H.; Smith, R.L.


    Nitrification and nitrate reduction were examined in an ephemeral drainage channel receiving discharge from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) production wells in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. CBNG co-produced water typically contains dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), primarily as ammonium. In this study, a substantial portion of discharged ammonium was oxidized within 50??m of downstream transport, but speciation was markedly influenced by diel fluctuations in dissolved oxygen (> 300????M). After 300??m of transport, 60% of the initial DIN load had been removed. The effect of benthic nitrogen-cycling processes on stream water chemistry was assessed at 2 locations within the stream channel using acrylic chambers to conduct short-term (2-6??h), in-stream incubations. The highest ambient DIN removal rates (2103????mol N m- 2 h- 1) were found at a location where ammonium concentrations > 350????M. This occurred during light incubations when oxygen concentrations were highest. Nitrification was occurring at the site, however, net accumulation of nitrate and nitrite accounted for nitrification was not a factor and changes in DIN removal rates were controlled by nitrate reduction, diel fluctuations in oxygen concentration, and availability of electron donor. This study indicates that short-term adaptation of stream channel processes can be effective for removing CBNG DIN loads given sufficient travel distances, but the long-term potential for nitrogen remobilization and nitrogen saturation remain to be determined.

  3. Efficiency of a nature-like bypass channel for restoring longitudinal connectivity for a river-resident population of brown trout. (United States)

    Dodd, Jamie R; Cowx, Ian G; Bolland, Jonathan D


    Man-made, physical barriers have disrupted longitudinal connectivity for migratory fish in many river systems throughout the world for centuries. These barriers are considered to be a key reason for the decline of many fish species in river systems. To date, most research to ease movement of anadromous salmonids past such barriers to help dwindling populations has focused on the use of technical fishways. More recently emphasis has been placed on nature-like fishways to enable a wider range of fish species to bypass these barriers, but few studies have examined their efficacy. In this study, Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) telemetry was used to assess the upstream-directed movements of 111 river-resident brown trout (length, 151-510-mm) into and through a 150-m long, nature-like bypass on the River Aire, England. Attraction (51%), entrance (86%), passage (78%) and exit (97%) efficiencies were high, and trout of a wide range of sizes entered and exited (197-510 mm) the pass across a wide range of flows (entrance = 3.55-67.44 m3s-1 and exit = 3.89-35.5 m3s-1). There was evidence that two trout inhabited the pass during the day, entering at sunrise and exiting at sunset. This information is important to improve understanding of fish pass performance, thus informing future best practice guidance of fish passage designs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River: annual report 2011 (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Annis, Mandy L.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Fuller, D. B.; Haas, Justin D.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; McElroy, Brandon J.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wildhaber, Mark L.


    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2011 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult sturgeon, and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and including downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2011.

  5. Palaeoflood evidence on the River Nore, South East Ireland (United States)

    Fleming, Ciara; Turner, Jonathan; Bourke, Mary


    Past geomorphic changes can be detected in sediment sinks, through the investigation of natural sediment archives. Since the advent of palaeoflood hydrology in the 1980s, numerous authors have demonstrated that such sediment deposits record valuable evidence of past flooding events. Many of these studies have focussed on fluvial systems in arid environments, with bedrock channels proving to be particularly successful field sites. In some districts, the collected datasets are now routinely employed to augment analyses of flood frequency and magnitude, which have traditionally relied on extrapolation of short hydrometric datasets. This study targets river reaches in a temperate humid environment, with a predominantly alluvial channel. The River Nore is one of the largest catchments draining South East Ireland. It is situated in a valley with an inherited glacial legacy and is principally a lowland river catchment. Specific morphological zones have been targeted which are optimal for flood deposit preservation, including palaeochannels, tributary junctions and floodplain overbank settings.There are a variety of anthropogenic pressures evident in this landscape. Among them are channelisation of select tributaries, a legacy of coal mining in the upland Carboniferous limestones, and the installation of man-made obstacles or modifications along the length of the river channel such as sluices and weirs. Regarding land-use, the majority of the catchment is dominated by agriculture, mainly pasture with some tillage. This study investigates palaeoflood evidence in the River Nore catchment and examines the development of the river floodplain using a variety of complementary field and desk-based methods. The sub-surface and micro-topography of river reaches are investigated using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technology. Flood deposits have been characterised by examination of bank exposures and sediment cores. Installation of sediment traps

  6. Factors affecting river health and its assessment over broad geographic ranges: the Western Australian experience. (United States)

    Halse, S A; Scanlon, M D; Cocking, J S; Smith, M J; Kay, W R


    AusRivAS is an Australia-wide program that measures river condition using predictive models to compare the macroinvertebrate families occurring at a river site with those expected if the site were in natural condition. Results of assessment of 685 sites across all major rivers in Western Australia are presented. Most rivers were in relatively natural condition in the northern half of the state where the human population is low and pastoralism is the major land use. In the south, where the human population is higher and agriculture is more intensive, rivers were mostly more disturbed. AusRivAS assessment produced some erroneous results in rivers of the south-west cropping zone because of the lack of appropriate reference site groups and biased distribution of sampling sites. Collecting low numbers of animals from many forested streams, because of low stream productivity and samples that were difficult to sort, also affected assessments. Overall, however, AusRivAs assessment identified catchment processes that were inimical to river health. These processes included salinisation, high nutrient and organic loads, erosion and loss of riparian vegetation. River regulation, channel modification and fire were also associated with river degradation. As is the case with other assessment methods, one-off sampling at individual sites using AusRivAS may be misleading. Seasonal drought, in particular, may make it difficult to relate conditions at the time of sampling to longer-term river health. AusRivAS has shown river condition in Western Australia is not markedly different from other parts of Australia which, as a whole, lacks the substantial segments of severely degraded river systems reported in England.

  7. Channel Classification across Arid West Landscapes in Support of OHW Delineation (United States)


    perspective at Agua Fria River, AZ ...................................................................... 24 Figure 12. Landscape perspective at...27 Figure 16. Active channel at Agua Fria River, AZ...33 Figure 24. Landscape perspective at Agua Fria River, AZ

  8. Satellite-derived Inter-annual Variation in the channel of the Nun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reported herein aims to determine the extent of changes that have occurred over time in the river channels and to establish the present position of the river relative to the maps used in the construction of a hydrodynamic model of the Niger Delta. Selected locations along the river channel of the River Nun ...

  9. Sediment tracing from small torrential channels to gravel-bed rivers using pit tags method. A case study from the upper Guil catchment. (United States)

    Graff, Kévin; Viel, Vincent; Carlier, Benoit; Lissak, Candide; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Fort, Monique; Madelin, Malika


    In mountainous areas, especially in large catchments with torrential tributaries, the production and sediment transport significantly increase flood impacts in the valley bottoms. The quantification and characterisation of sedimentary transfers are therefore major challenges to provide better flood risk management. As a part of SAMCO (ANR 12 SENV-0004 SAMCO) project, for mountain hazard assessment in a context of global changes, we tried to improve the knowledge of these hydromorphological systems at both spatial and temporal scales, by identifying sediment supply and sediment dynamics from torrential tributaries to the main channel. A sediment budget was used as a tool for quantifying erosion, transport and deposition processes. This research is focused on the upper Guil catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317 km2) entrenched in "schistes lustrés" and ophiolitic bedrock. This catchment is prone to catastrophic summer floods [June 1957 (>R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)] characterised by huge sediment transport from tributaries to downvalley, very much facilitated by strong hillslope-channel connectivity (about 12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded in the Peyronnelle fan during the June 2000 RI-30 year flood event). We intend to highlight sediment dynamics on small torrential channels and its connection with gravel-bed streams. Four study sites characterised by avalanche and debris flow-dominated channels located in the upper Guil catchment were investigated. In order to better assess sediment movement, we used the pit-tags technique. In total, 560 pit-tags (pt) have been implemented in four catchments: Peyronnelle (320pt), Combe Morel (40pt), Bouchouse (120pt), and Maloqueste (80pt). Distances and trajectories of gravels sediments have been monitored since two years during summer periods. We specifically describe results obtained along the Peyronnelle channel affected by a large debris-flow during august 2015. Data are used to discuss lag time

  10. Marketing channels and competitive advantage


    Jovičić Dragoljub


    Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more an...

  11. A brief history and summary of the effects of river engineering and dams on the Mississippi River system and delta (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Wilson, Richard C.; Green, W. Reed


    The U.S. Geological Survey Forecast Mekong project is providing technical assistance and information to aid management decisions and build science capacity of institutions in the Mekong River Basin. A component of this effort is to produce a synthesis of the effects of dams and other engineering structures on large-river hydrology, sediment transport, geomorphology, ecology, water quality, and deltaic systems. The Mississippi River Basin (MRB) of the United States was used as the backdrop and context for this synthesis because it is a continental scale river system with a total annual water discharge proportional to the Mekong River, has been highly engineered over the past two centuries, and the effects of engineering have been widely studied and documented by scientists and engineers. The MRB is controlled and regulated by dams and river-engineering structures. These modifications have resulted in multiple benefits including navigation, flood control, hydropower, bank stabilization, and recreation. Dams and other river-engineering structures in the MRB have afforded the United States substantial socioeconomic benefits; however, these benefits also have transformed the hydrologic, sediment transport, geomorphic, water-quality, and ecologic characteristics of the river and its delta. Large dams on the middle Missouri River have substantially reduced the magnitude of peak floods, increased base discharges, and reduced the overall variability of intraannual discharges. The extensive system of levees and wing dikes throughout the MRB, although providing protection from intermediate magnitude floods, have reduced overall channel capacity and increased flood stage by up to 4 meters for higher magnitude floods. Prior to major river engineering, the estimated average annual sediment yield of the Mississippi River Basin was approximately 400 million metric tons. The construction of large main-channel reservoirs on the Missouri and Arkansas Rivers, sedimentation in dike

  12. Mathematical modelling and its impact on open channel flow | Eyo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical model for dredging (excavating) an open channel, namely, a river has been developed using the conditions for best hydraulic performances for the channel. Applying the model to a numerical example we determine new dimensions for the new open channel for two-channel sections, viz: the trapezoidal and ...

  13. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.


    are now largely stable in response to flow regulation and revetment construction. The upper Willamette and North Santiam Rivers retain some dynamic characteristics, and provide the greatest diversity of aquatic and riparian habitats under the current flow and sediment regime. The McKenzie River has some areas that are more dynamic, whereas other sections are stable due to geology or revetments. Historical reductions in channel dynamism also have implications for ongoing and future recruitment and succession of floodplain forests. For instance, the succession of native plants like black cottonwood is currently limited by (1) fewer low-elevation gravel bars for stand initiation; (2) altered streamflow during seed release, germination, and stand initiation; (3) competition from introduced plant species; and (4) frequent erosion of young vegetation in some locations because scouring flows are concentrated within a narrow channel corridor. Despite past alterations, the Willamette River Basin has many of the physical and ecological building blocks necessary for highly functioning rivers. Management strategies, including environmental flow programs, river and floodplain restoration, revetment modifications, and reclamation of gravel mines, are underway to mitigate some historical changes. However, there are some substantial gaps in the scientific understanding of the modern Willamette basin that is needed to efficiently integrate these blocks and to establish realistic objectives for future conditions. Unanswered questions include: 1. What is the distribution and diversity of landforms and habitats along the Willamette River and its tributaries?

  14. Modification Project, Big Stone Lake - Whetstone River. (United States)


    accomplish these activities during low water periods to keep impacts to a minimum . 8 5.03 In addition, minor amounts of runoff and sedimentation from land...raquest tutac you submit ,’ co a-maa by Lj july 1 oJ. If you raqu.ire aJUioaa Laforaation , jilae coatact dr. JaviU a.trwick~, 4rcLuaolo;ist

  15. River meander modeling of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.; Boldt, Justin A.


    Natural river channels continually evolve and change shape over time. As a result, channel evolution or migration can cause problems for bridge structures that are fixed in the flood plain. A once-stable bridge structure that was uninfluenced by a river’s shape could be encroached upon by a migrating river channel. The potential effect of the actively meandering Wabash River on the Interstate 64 Bridge at the border with Indiana near Grayville, Illinois, was studied using a river migration model called RVR Meander. RVR Meander is a toolbox that can be used to model river channel meander migration with physically based bank erosion methods. This study assesses the Wabash River meandering processes through predictive modeling of natural meandering over the next 100 years, climate change effects through increased river flows, and bank protection measures near the Interstate 64 Bridge.

  16. River bathymetry estimation based on the floodplains topography. (United States)

    Bureš, Luděk; Máca, Petr; Roub, Radek; Pech, Pavel; Hejduk, Tomáš; Novák, Pavel


    capacity and monitor the amount and dynamics of sediments) and Internal Grant Agency of Faculty of Environmental Sciences (CULS) (IGA/20164233). Keywords: bathymetry, global optimization, bed topography References: Merwade, Venkatesh. "Effect of spatial trends on interpolation of river bathymetry." Journal of Hydrology, 371.1, 169-181, 2009. Legleiter, Carl J., and Phaedon C. Kyriakidis. Spatial prediction of river channel topography by kriging. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 33.6 , 841-867, 2008. P. Maca and P. Pech and and J. Pavlasek. Comparing the Selected Transfer Functions and Local Optimization Methods for Neural Network Flood Runoff Forecast. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2014, Article ID 782351, 10 pages, 2014. M. Jakubcova and P. Maca and and P. Pech. A Comparison of Selected Modifications of the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm. Journal of Applied Mathematics, vol. 2014, Article ID 293087, 10 pages, 2014.

  17. The rivers of civilization (United States)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John


    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  18. Anthropogenic influences on the morphodynamics of the upper Odra channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czajka Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The aim of the studies presented in this article was a multifaceted approach to the problem of the processes of river adjustments to new conditions created by channel regulation. The Upper Odra channel has been significantly shortened by meander cut offs and locally by channelization. The influence of those changes on channel morphodynamics and the pattern of bedload transport were calculated. Pre-regulation channel geometry was reconstructed and the channel stability and bedload transport were characterized and compared with the present state. Also the flow duration curves (FDC for the characteristic water stages and for the average discharges were plotted and analyzed to assess vertical channel bed movement. By comparing the behavior of natural channel sectors (both, present and fossil to channelized and sectors shortened by cut offs it was possible to understand the intensity of changes depending on a way of channel regulation. The range of post regulation changes in bedload transport and channel stability was also calculated for the functioning, unregulated sector of the Odra channel. Flow duration curves reflect steady channel incision while the protected river banks prevent the channel from lateral movement. In order to achieve lateral stability, which is unnatural for meandering rivers, the Odra channel is totally remodelled and the new geometry and flow conditions created. The morphological response to the training works was channel incision and accelerated bedload transport.

  19. Developing laminar flow in curved rectangular channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vriend, H.J.


    As an intermediate step between earlier investigations on fully developed laminar flow in curved channels of shallow rectancular wet cross-section and the mathematical modeling of turbulent flow in river bends, a mathematical model of developing laminar flow in such channels is investigated. The

  20. Dynamic reorganization of river basins. (United States)

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu


    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  1. Marketing channels and competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub


    Full Text Available Issue that can already be seen and will be very clear in the future is that the central problem in the market of tube caps will not be the product or the price or promotion, but marketing channels. Therefore, the competitive advantage will most probably be built on marketing channels and not the production - as it has been so far, so, the questions of choice functioning and modification of marketing channels, as well as selection of the most appropriate members of channels will become more and more important. Accordingly, it may freely be said that the choice, i.e. the movement of marketing channels represents one of the strategic decisions which has to be made by a company management and which will subsequently very significantly influence the functioning and efficacy of not only the system of distribution, but also the entire business transactions.

  2. The Zambezi Channel: A new perspective on submarine channel evolution at low latitudes (United States)

    Wiles, E.; Green, A.; Watkeys, M.; Jokat, W.


    Submarine channels are not stand-alone systems. They are long-lived systems modified by imperceptibly slow processes and rapid gravity flows, in some part controlled by hinterland dynamics. The submarine Zambezi Channel, within the Mozambique Channel, receives sediment from the Zambezi River catchment which has a dynamic tectonic and morphological history. Using recently collected multibeam bathymetry and PARASOUND data we discuss the geomorphology of the Zambezi Channel. Results show this system to be distinct in geomorphologic character when compared to other low-latitude submarine channels, sharing similarities with high-latitude systems. We propose a new, source-to-sink, hypothesis for the evolution of the Zambezi Channel, taking in to consideration hinterland tectonics, palaeo-lake development, river capture and rapid gravity flows. This hypothesis accounts for the unique present-day anatomy of the Zambezi Channel within the dynamic framework of the systems regional setting.

  3. Changes in channel morphology over human time scales [Chapter 32 (United States)

    John M. Buffington


    Rivers are exposed to changing environmental conditions over multiple spatial and temporal scales, with the imposed environmental conditions and response potential of the river modulated to varying degrees by human activity and our exploitation of natural resources. Watershed features that control river morphology include topography (valley slope and channel...

  4. Upstream control of river anastomosis by sediment overloading, upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, Bart; Lavooi, Eva; de Haas, Tjalling; Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Smith, Derald G.


    Anastomosing rivers, systems of multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins, constitute a major category of rivers for which various sedimentary facies models have been developed. While the sedimentary products of anastomosing rivers are relatively well-known, their genesis is still

  5. Upstream control of river anastomosis by sediment overloading, upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, A.; Lavooi, E.; Haas, de Tjalling; Kleinhans, M.G.; Smith, D.G.


    Anastomosing rivers, systems of multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins, constitute a major category of rivers for which various sedimentary facies models have been developed. While the sedimentary products of anastomosing rivers are relatively well-known, their genesis is still

  6. Assessment of Modifications for Improving Navigation at Hilo Harbor, Hawaii (United States)


    proposed modifications, (5) develop hydrodynamic conditions for the ship simulator study, and (6) document study results by a technical report. The...breakwater, and (f) developing hydrodynamic conditions for the ship simulator study. 1.3 Study area Hilo Harbor is a deep-draft port located in Hilo Bay...on the Island of Hawaii at the mouth of two rivers, the Wailuku River and the smaller Wailoa River. There is also a small- boat harbor in Radio Bay

  7. Laboratory Alluvial Rivers (United States)

    Devauchelle, O.; Abramian, A.; Seizilles, G.; Lajeunesse, E.


    By which physical mechanisms does a river select its shape and size? We investigate this question using small laboratory rivers formed by laminar flows.In its simplest form, this experiment consists in a flow of glycerol over a uniform layer of plastic sediments. After a few hours, a channel forms spontaneously, and eventually reaches a stable geometry. This equilibrium state corresponds accurately to the force balance proposed by Henderson (1961).If we impose a sediment discharge at the inlet of the experiment, the river adjusts to this boundary condition by widening its channel. Observation suggests that this new equilibrium results from the balance between gravity, which pulls the entrained grains towards the center of the channel, and bedload diffusion, which returns them towards the banks. This balance explains why experimental rivers get wider and shallower as their sediment load increases.However, to test quantitatively this theory against observation, we need to evaluate independently the effect of transverse slope on bedload transport. We propose to use an instability generated by bedload diffusion to do so.

  8. An Experimental Study to Control Scour at River Confluence (United States)

    Wuppukondur, A.; Chandra, V.


    The aim of present study is finding a method to control sediment erosion at river confluence. The confluences are mixture of two different flows and are common occurrences along the river. River confluences are sites of natural scour phenomenon and also influence reservoir sedimentation. The river confluence is associated with a separation zone, stagnation zone and a mixing layer along which the scour hole is observed. The eroded sediment creates potential problems by depositing at unwanted downstream locations such as barrages, weirs, check dams, reservoirs etc. As per the literature, the storage capacity of major reservoirs in India is going to be reduced nearly half of the storage capacity by 2020. Hence, an experimental study has been conducted on mobile bed (d50=0.28 mm) with a confluence angle of 90o for a discharge ratio (Qr) of 0.5, where, Qr is defined as the ratio between lateral flow discharge (Ql) and main flow discharge (Qm). Circular shape pile models of same diameter are arranged in a systematic manner with constant spacing (5 cm, 10 cm and 15 cm) to change the flow pattern for reducing scour at the confluence. Two types of pile models (8 mm ϕ and 12 mm ϕ) are used to conduct the experiments. The experimental results show that maximum scour depth at confluence is reduced by 60%. In addition, the bed profile modifications are also reported. Keywords: Reservoir sedimentation, River confluence, Mobile bed, Scour, Vanes. References:1. Borghei, S. M., and Sahebari, A. J. (2010). "Local Scour at Open-Channel Junctions", Journal of Hydraulic Research, 48(4), 37 - 41. 2. Kothyari, U. C. (1996). "Methods for Estimation Sediment Yield from Catchments", Proc., Int. Sem. On Civil Engg. Practices in Twenty First Century, Roorkee, India, 1071-1086. 3. Mosley, M. P. (1976) "An Experimental Study of Channel Confluences". The Journal of Geology, 84(55), 532-562. 4. Ouyang, H. T. (2009). "Investigation on the dimensions and shape of a submerged vane for sediment

  9. Conveyance estimation in channels with emergent bank vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emergent vegetation along the banks of a river channel influences its conveyance considerably. The total channel discharge can be estimated as the sum of the discharges of the vegetated and clear channel zones calculated separately. The vegetated zone discharge is often negligible, but can be estimated using ...

  10. Anthropogenic changes to the tidal channel network, sediment rerouting, and social implications in southwest Bangladesh (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Sams, S.; Small, C.


    The tidal channel network in southwest Bangladesh has been undergoing major adjustment in response to anthropogenic modification over the past few decades. Densely inhabited, agricultural islands that have been embanked to protect against inundation by tides, river flooding, and storm surges (i.e., polders) preclude tidal exchange and sedimentation. Studies reveal this results in elevation deficits relative to mean high water, endangering local communities when embankment failures occur (e.g., during storms, lateral channel erosion). In addition, many studies suggest that the decrease in tidal prism and associated change in hydrodynamics from poldering causes shoaling in remaining tidal channels, which can cause a disruption in transportation. The widespread closure and conversion of tidal channel areas to profitable shrimp aquaculture is also prevalent in this region. In this study, we quantify the direct closure of tidal channels due to poldering and shrimp aquaculture using historical Landsat and Google Earth imagery, and analyze the morphologic adjustment of the tidal channel network due to these perturbations. In the natural Sundarbans mangrove forest, the tidal channel network has remained relatively constant since the 1970s. In contrast, construction of polders removed >1000 km of primary tidal creeks and >90 km2 has been reclaimed outside of polders through infilling and closure of formerly-active, higher order conduit channels now used for shrimp aquaculture. Field validation confirm tidal restriction by large sluice gates is prevalent, favoring local channel siltation at rates up to 20cm/yr. With the impoundment of primary creeks and closure of 30-60% of conduit channels in the study area, an estimated 1,400 x 106 m3 of water has been removed from the tidal prism and potentially redirected within remaining channels. This has significant implications for tidal amplification in this region. Further, we estimate that 12.3 x 106 MT of sediment annually

  11. A century scale human-induced hydrological and ecological changes of wetlands of two large river basins in Australia (Murray) and China (Yangtze): development of an adaptive water resource management framework (United States)

    Kattel, G. R.; Dong, X.; Yang, X.


    Recently, the provision of food and water resources of two of the world's large river basins, the Murray and the Yangtze, has been significantly altered through widespread landscape modification. Long-term sedimentary archives, dating back to past centuries, from wetlands of these river basins reveal that rapid, basin-wide development has reduced resilience of biological communities, resulting in considerable decline in ecosystem services, including water quality. In particular, large-scale human disturbance to river systems, due to river regulation during the mid-20th century, has transformed the hydrology of rivers and wetlands, causing widespread disturbance to aquatic biological communities. Historical changes of cladoceran zooplankton (water fleas) were used to assess the hydrology and ecology of three Murray and Yangtze River wetlands over the past century. Subfossil assemblages of cladocerans retrieved from sediment cores (94, 45 and 65 cm) of three wetlands: Kings Billabong (Murray), Zhangdu and Liangzi Lakes (Yangtze) strongly responded to hydrological changes of the river after the mid-20th century. River regulation caused by construction of dams and weirs, and river channel modifications has led to hydrological alterations. The hydrological disturbances were either: (1) a prolonged inundation of wetlands, or (2) reduced river flow, which caused variability in wetland depth. These phenomena subsequently transformed the natural wetland habitats, leading to a switch in cladoceran assemblages preferring poor water quality and eutrophication. An adaptive water resource management framework for both of these river basins has been proposed to restore or optimize the conditions of wetland ecosystems impacted by 20th century human disturbance and climate change.

  12. Geomorphic and vegetation changes in a meandering dryland river regulated by a large dam, Sauce Grande River, Argentina (United States)

    Casado, Ana; Peiry, Jean-Luc; Campo, Alicia M.


    This paper investigates post-dam geomorphic and vegetation changes in the Sauce Grande River, a meandering dryland river impounded by a large water-conservation dam. As the dam impounds a river section with scarce influence of tributaries, sources for fresh water and sediment downstream are limited. Changes were inspected based on (i) analysis of historical photographs/imagery spanning pre- (1961) and post-dam (1981, 2004) channel conditions for two river segments located above and below the dam, and (ii) field survey of present channel conditions for a set of eight reference reaches along the river segments. Whilst the unregulated river exhibited active lateral migration with consequent adjustments of the channel shape and size, the river section below the dam was characterized by (i) marked planform stability (93 to 97%), and by (ii) vegetation encroachment leading to alternating yet localized contraction of the channel width (up to 30%). The present river displays a moribund, stable channel where (i) redistribution of sediment along the river course no longer occurs and (ii) channel forms constitute a remnant of a fluvial environment created before closing the dam, under conditions of higher energy. In addition to providing new information on the complex geomorphic response of dryland rivers to impoundment, this paper represents the very first geomorphic assessment of the regulated Sauce Grande and therefore provides an important platform to underpin further research assessing the geomorphic state of this highly regulated dryland river.

  13. Geomorphology and River Dynamics of the Lower Copper River, Alaska (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.


    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges. Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005-07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36-37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36-37 during average flow periods. The U.S. Geological Survey's Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the

  14. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality (United States)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian


    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  15. Functional Expression of Drosophila para Sodium Channels (United States)

    Warmke, Jeffrey W.; Reenan, Robert A.G.; Wang, Peiyi; Qian, Su; Arena, Joseph P.; Wang, Jixin; Wunderler, Denise; Liu, Ken; Kaczorowski, Gregory J.; Ploeg, Lex H.T. Van der; Ganetzky, Barry; Cohen, Charles J.


    The Drosophila para sodium channel α subunit was expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and in combination with tipE, a putative Drosophila sodium channel accessory subunit. Coexpression of tipE with para results in elevated levels of sodium currents and accelerated current decay. Para/TipE sodium channels have biophysical and pharmacological properties similar to those of native channels. However, the pharmacology of these channels differs from that of vertebrate sodium channels: (a) toxin II from Anemonia sulcata, which slows inactivation, binds to Para and some mammalian sodium channels with similar affinity (Kd ≅ 10 nM), but this toxin causes a 100-fold greater decrease in the rate of inactivation of Para/TipE than of mammalian channels; (b) Para sodium channels are >10-fold more sensitive to block by tetrodotoxin; and (c) modification by the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin is >100-fold more potent for Para than for rat brain type IIA sodium channels. Our results suggest that the selective toxicity of pyrethroid insecticides is due at least in part to the greater affinity of pyrethroids for insect sodium channels than for mammalian sodium channels. PMID:9236205


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović


    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  17. Behavior Modification in Coaching. (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.


    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  18. Application of a hierarchical framework for assessing environmental impacts of dam operation: changes in hydrology, channel hydraulics, bed mobility and recruitment of riparian trees in a western North American river (United States)

    Michael Burke; Klaus Jorde; John M. Buffington


    River systems have been altered worldwide by dams and diversions, resulting in a broad array of environmental impacts. The use of a process-based, hierarchical framework for assessing environmental impacts of dams is explored here in terms of a case study of the Kootenai River, western North America. The goal of the case study is to isolate and quantify the relative...

  19. Anastomosing rivers: a review of their classification, origin and sedimentary products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.


    Anastomosing rivers constitute an important category of multi-channel rivers on alluvial plains. Most often they seem to form under relatively low-energetic conditions near a (local) base level. It appears to be impossible to define anastomosing rivers unambiguously on the basis of channel plantform

  20. Lateral transfer of streamwise momentum caused by a roughness transition across a shallow channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermaas, D.A.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.; Hoitink, A.J.F.


    Research on lateral exchange of streamwise momentum between parallel flows in open channels has mainly been focused on compound channels composed of a main channel and a floodplain, on mixing layer development downstream of river confluences, and on partially vegetated channels. This study aims to

  1. Parameter estimation in channel network flow simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Longxi


    Full Text Available Simulations of water flow in channel networks require estimated values of roughness for all the individual channel segments that make up a network. When the number of individual channel segments is large, the parameter calibration workload is substantial and a high level of uncertainty in estimated roughness cannot be avoided. In this study, all the individual channel segments are graded according to the factors determining the value of roughness. It is assumed that channel segments with the same grade have the same value of roughness. Based on observed hydrological data, an optimal model for roughness estimation is built. The procedure of solving the optimal problem using the optimal model is described. In a test of its efficacy, this estimation method was applied successfully in the simulation of tidal water flow in a large complicated channel network in the lower reach of the Yangtze River in China.

  2. Numerical study of junction-angle effects on flow pattern in a river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of main channel curvature on the flow pattern in river junctions is a complex and important issue. The 3-dimensional flow pattern in a river bend with a lateral or tributary channel is not only affected by the centrifugal force and pressure gradient but is also affected by the tributary channel's momentum.

  3. Challenges, developments and perspectives in intermittent river ecology (United States)

    Although more than half the world's river networks comprise channels that periodically cease to flow and dry [intermittent rivers (IRs)], river ecology was largely developed from and for perennial systems. Ecological knowledge of IRs is rapidly increasing, so there is a need to s...

  4. 77 FR 57022 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ AGENCY: Coast..., and the S35 bridge, mile 0.9, all of which are across the Shark River (South Channel), at Avon Township, NJ. This deviation is necessary to facilitate stringer replacement on the Shark River railroad...

  5. 78 FR 3836 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, Avon, NJ AGENCY: Coast... which are across the Shark River (South Channel), at Avon Township, NJ. This deviation is necessary to facilitate machinery replacement on the Shark River railroad bridge. This temporary deviation will allow the...

  6. Channel Power in Multi-Channel Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik); B. Skiera (Bernd)


    textabstractIn the literature, little attention has been paid to instances where companies add an Internet channel to their direct channel portfolio. However, actively managing multiple sales channels requires knowing the customers’ channel preferences and the resulting channel power. Two key

  7. KATP Channels in the Cardiovascular System. (United States)

    Foster, Monique N; Coetzee, William A


    KATP channels are integral to the functions of many cells and tissues. The use of electrophysiological methods has allowed for a detailed characterization of KATP channels in terms of their biophysical properties, nucleotide sensitivities, and modification by pharmacological compounds. However, even though they were first described almost 25 years ago (Noma 1983, Trube and Hescheler 1984), the physiological and pathophysiological roles of these channels, and their regulation by complex biological systems, are only now emerging for many tissues. Even in tissues where their roles have been best defined, there are still many unanswered questions. This review aims to summarize the properties, molecular composition, and pharmacology of KATP channels in various cardiovascular components (atria, specialized conduction system, ventricles, smooth muscle, endothelium, and mitochondria). We will summarize the lessons learned from available genetic mouse models and address the known roles of KATP channels in cardiovascular pathologies and how genetic variation in KATP channel genes contribute to human disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.


    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  9. Cross-Scale Baroclinic Simulation of the Effect of Channel Dredging in an Estuarine Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye


    Full Text Available Holistic simulation approaches are often required to assess human impacts on a river-estuary-coastal system, due to the intrinsically linked processes of contrasting spatial scales. In this paper, a Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model (SCHISM is applied in quantifying the impact of a proposed hydraulic engineering project on the estuarine hydrodynamics. The project involves channel dredging and land expansion that traverse several spatial scales on an ocean-estuary-river-tributary axis. SCHISM is suitable for this undertaking due to its flexible horizontal and vertical grid design and, more importantly, its efficient high-order implicit schemes applied in both the momentum and transport calculations. These techniques and their advantages are briefly described along with the model setup. The model features a mixed horizontal grid with quadrangles following the shipping channels and triangles resolving complex geometries elsewhere. The grid resolution ranges from ~6.3 km in the coastal ocean to 15 m in the project area. Even with this kind of extreme scale contrast, the baroclinic model still runs stably and accurately at a time step of 2 min, courtesy of the implicit schemes. We highlight that the implicit transport solver alone reduces the total computational cost by 82%, as compared to its explicit counterpart. The base model is shown to be well calibrated, then it is applied in simulating the proposed project scenario. The project-induced modifications on salinity intrusion, gravitational circulation, and transient events are quantified and analyzed.

  10. Statistical dynamics of early river networks (United States)

    Wang, Xu-Ming; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Ping; Hao, Rui; Huo, Jie


    Based on local erosion rule and fluctuations in rainfall, geology and parameters of a river channel, a generalized Langevin equation is proposed to describe the random prolongation of a river channel. This equation is transformed into the Fokker-Plank equation to follow the early evolution of a river network and the variation of probability distribution of channel lengths. The general solution of the equation is in the product form of two terms. One term is in power form and the other is in exponent form. This distribution shows a complete history of a river network evolving from its infancy to “adulthood”). The infancy is characterized by the Gaussian distribution of the channel lengths, while the adulthood is marked by a power law distribution of the channel lengths. The variation of the distribution from the Gaussian to the power law displays a gradual developing progress of the river network. The distribution of basin areas is obtained by means of Hack's law. These provide us with new understandings towards river networks.

  11. Flood effects provide evidence of an alternate stable state from dam management on the Upper Missouri River (United States)

    Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Schenk, Edward R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.


    We examine how historic flooding in 2011 affected the geomorphic adjustments created by dam regulation along the approximately 120 km free flowing reach of the Upper Missouri River bounded upstream by the Garrison Dam (1953) and downstream by Lake Oahe Reservoir (1959) near the City of Bismarck, ND, USA. The largest flood since dam regulation occurred in 2011. Flood releases from the Garrison Dam began in May 2011 and lasted until October, peaking with a flow of more than 4200 m3 s−1. Channel cross-section data and aerial imagery before and after the flood were compared with historic rates of channel change to assess the relative impact of the flood on the river morphology. Results indicate that the 2011 flood maintained trends in island area with the loss of islands in the reach just below the dam and an increase in island area downstream. Channel capacity changes varied along the Garrison Segment as a result of the flood. The thalweg, which has been stable since the mid-1970s, did not migrate. And channel morphology, as defined by a newly developed shoaling metric, which quantifies the degree of channel braiding, indicates significant longitudinal variability in response to the flood. These results show that the 2011 flood exacerbates some geomorphic trends caused by the dam while reversing others. We conclude that the presence of dams has created an alternate geomorphic and related ecological stable state, which does not revert towards pre-dam conditions in response to the flood of record. This suggests that management of sediment transport dynamics as well as flow modification is necessary to restore the Garrison Segment of the Upper Missouri River towards pre-dam conditions and help create or maintain habitat for endangered species. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. On Shor's Channel Extension and Constrained Channels (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.; Shirokov, M. E.

    Several equivalent formulations of the additivity conjecture for constrained channels, which formally is substantially stronger than the unconstrained additivity, are given. To this end a characteristic property of the optimal ensemble for such a channel is derived, generalizing the maximal distance property. It is shown that the additivity conjecture for constrained channels holds true for certain nontrivial classes of channels. After giving an algebraic formulation for Shor's channel extension, its main asymptotic property is proved. It is then used to show that additivity for two constrained channels can be reduced to the same problem for unconstrained channels, and hence, ``global'' additivity for channels with arbitrary constraints is equivalent to additivity without constraints.

  13. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias


    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  14. Tyrosine Modifications in Aging


    Feeney, Maria B.; Schöneich, Christian


    Significance: The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may cont...

  15. Humin to Human: Organic carbon, sediment, and water fluxes along river corridors in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutfin, Nicholas Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This is a presentation with slides on What does it mean to be human? ...humin?; River flow and Hydrographs; Snake River altered hydrograph (Marston et al., 2005); Carbon dynamics are important in rivers; Rivers and streams as carbon sink; Reservoirs for organic carbon; Study sites in Colorado; River morphology; Soil sample collection; Surveys at RMNP; Soil organic carbon content at RMNP; Abandoned channels and Cutoffs; East River channel migration and erosion; Linking hydrology to floodplain sediment flux; Impact of Extreme Floods on Floodplain Sediment; Channel Geometry: RMNP; Beavers dams and multithread channels; Geomorphology and carbon in N. St. Vrain Creek; Geomorphology and carbon along the East River; Geomorphology and carbon in N. St. Vrain Creek; San Marcos River, etc.

  16. Developing Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhik Chakraborty


    Full Text Available This article explores the reasons behind the continuation of contentious dam projects in Japanese river basins. Though the River Law of the country was reformed in 1997, and subsequent sociopolitical developments raised hopes that river governance would progress toward a more environment-oriented and bottom-up model, basin governance in Japan remains primarily based on a utilitarian vision that sees rivers as waterways. This article reviews the Achilles heel of the 1997 River Law by examining some most contentious river valley projects, and concludes that a myth of vulnerability to flooding, short-sightedness of river engineers, and bureaucratic inertia combine to place basin governance in a time warp: as projects planned during postwar reconstruction and economic growth continue to be top priorities in policymaking circles while concerns over environment remain largely unaddressed.

  17. Restoration strategies for river floodplains along large lowland rivers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijse, A.D.; Coops, H.; Staras, M.; Jans, L.H.; Van Geest, G.J.; Grift, R.E.; Ibelings, B.W.; Oosterberg, W.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.


    1. Most temperate rivers are heavily regulated and characterised by incised channels, aggradated floodplains and modified hydroperiods. As a consequence, former extensive aquatic /terrestrial transition zones lack most of their basic ecological functions. 2. Along large rivers in Europe and North

  18. Restoration strategies for river floodplains along large lowland rivers in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijse, A.D.; Coops, H.; Staras, M.; Jans, L.H.; Geest, van G.; Grift, R.E.; Ibelings, B.W.; Oosterberg, W.; Roozen, F.C.J.M.


    1. Most temperate rivers are heavily regulated and characterised by incised channels, aggradated floodplains and modified hydroperiods. As a consequence, former extensive aquatic/terrestrial transition zones lack most of their basic ecological functions. 2. Along large rivers in Europe and North

  19. The Transport of Chemicals and Biota into Coastal Rivers and Marine Ecosystems


    Ng, Charlene Marie


    Coastal rivers link terrestrial and freshwater systems to oceans. River networks drain watersheds, delivering freshwater, nutrients, sediment, chemicals, and biota to estuaries and coastal ecosystems. These influences can negatively and positively affect downstream receiving water bodies. Effects of rivers on oceans depend on rates of transport and export of river-borne materials from channels versus rates of in-channel processing: degradation, storage, or biological uptake of those materi...

  20. Methodology for calculating shear stress in a meandering channel (United States)

    Kyung-Seop Sin


    Shear stress in meandering channels is the key parameter to predict bank erosion and bend migration. A representative study reach of the Rio Grande River in central New Mexico has been modeled in the Hydraulics Laboratory at CSU. To determine the shear stress distribution in a meandering channel, the large scale (1:12) physical modeling study was conducted in the...

  1. Ecohydraulics of Strings and Beads in Bedrock Rivers (United States)

    Wohl, E.


    Twenty years ago, Jack Stanford and others described rivers in bedrock canyons as resembling beads on a string when viewed in planform. The beads are relatively wide, low gradient river segments with floodplains, whereas the strings are the intervening steep, narrow river segments with minimal floodplain development. This pattern of longitudinal variations in channel and valley morphology along bedrock canyon rivers is very common, from small channels to major rivers such as the Colorado. Basic understanding of river ecosystems, as well as limited studies, indicates that the beads are more retentive and biologically productive. Although both strings and beads can provide habitat for diverse organisms, strings are more likely to serve as migration corridors, whereas beads provide spawning and nursery habitat, facilitate lateral (channel-floodplain) and vertical (channel-hyporheic) exchanges and associated habitat diversity, and retain dissolved and particulate organic matter. Recognition of the different characteristics and functions of strings and beads can be used to identify their spatial distribution along a river or within a river network and the hydraulically driven processes that sustain channel form, water quality, and biota within strings and beads. Diverse modeling approaches can then be used to quantify the fluxes of water and sediment needed to maintain these hydraulically driven processes. This conceptual framework is illustrated using examples from mountain streams in the Southern Rockies and canyon rivers in the southwestern United States.

  2. Hydraulic and sedimentary processes causing anastomosing morphology of the upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makaske, B.; Smith, D.G.; Berendsen, H.J.A.; Boer, de A.G.; Nielen-Kiezebrink, van M.F.; Locking, T.


    The upper Columbia River, British Columbia, Canada, shows typical anastomosing morphology - multiple interconnected channels that enclose floodbasins - and lateral channel stability We analysed field data on hydraulic and sedimentary processes and show that the anastomosing morphology of the upper

  3. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... system, after some modifications are introduced into the sestem, is analysed using two different databases: the modal database and the frequency response function database. The limitaions of the modal database are discussed. Structural modifications that can be accounted for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and ...

  4. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  5. Assessment of the effects of regional channel stability and sediment transport on roadway hydraulic structures : final report. (United States)


    Rivers and streams evolve all the time. As a result, no stream channel is absolutely stable. Channels evolve at various speeds both vertically (degradation/aggradation) and horizontally (meander : migration). They also respond to man-made changes ran...

  6. An Assessment of Habitat Quality Using Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations in Floodplain Water Bodies in Relation to River Flow and Mainstem Connectivity (United States)

    Stofleth, J.; Andrews, E. S.; White, J. Q.


    The floodplains of the Apalachicola River, Florida include an intricate network of sloughs, lakes and wetlands. These floodplain water bodies provide essential spawning and nursery areas for a diverse array of aquatic organisms. The frequency and duration of Apalachicola River flows sufficient to hydraulically connect and thereby activate these floodplain features has decreased over time due to upstream dams, diversions, and modification to the channel geometry (incision and widening). The main objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between a key water quality parameter, dissolved oxygen (DO), to the hydraulic connectivity of the ecologically-important large slough systems within the Apalachicola River floodplain over a range of flow conditions. When DO concentrations drop, the quality of habitat for fish, invertebrates and other aquatic organisms are impacted. Hydraulic connection between the river and the floodplain sloughs contributes markedly to DO levels in the sloughs. To characterize the relationship between hydraulic connectivity and water quality, water level, DO, and temperature data were continuously monitored within four (4) major floodplain sloughs, one (1) oxbow lake, and mainstem (control) from August 2009 to January 2011. A comparison was made between statistically representative DO concentrations (daily mean, diurnal range, daily minimum and maximum) for each site and in the river. River discharge was estimated at each site from nearby gages. By examining distinct changes in DO signatures with increasing flow, it was possible to determine the approximate flow at which the sloughs and oxbow lakes begin to become activated or hydraulically connected (flowing condition) to the mainstem of the Apalachicola River, and at what flow rates these floodplain wetlands become fully connected. Based on this data, we drew conclusions about the availability of suitable habitat for native fish species in these slough systems across a range of

  7. Venus - 600 Kilometer Segment of Longest Channel on Venus (United States)


    This compressed resolution radar mosaic from Magellan at 49 degrees north latitude, 165 degrees east longitude with dimensions of 460 by 460 kilometers (285 by 285 miles), shows a 600 kilometers (360 mile segment of the longest channel discovered on Venus to date. The channel is approximately 1.8 kilometers (1.1 miles) wide. At more than 7,000 kilometers (4,200 miles) long, it is several hundred kilometers longer than the Nile River, Earth's longest river, thus making it the longest known channel in the solar system. Both ends of the channel are obscured, however, so its original length is unknown. The channel was initially discovered by the Soviet Venera 15-16 orbiters which, in spite of their one kilometer resolution, detected more than 1,000 kilometers (620 miles) of the channel. These channel-like features are common on the plains of Venus. In some places they appear to have been formed by lava which may have melted or thermally eroded a path over the plains' surface. Most are 1 to 3 kilometers (0.6 to 2 miles) wide. They resemble terrestrial meandering rivers in some aspects, with meanders, cutoff bows and abandoned channel segments. However, Venus channels are not as tightly sinuous as terrestrial rivers. Most are partly buried by younger lava plains, making their sources difficult to identify. A few have vast radar-dark plains units associated with them, suggesting large flow volumes. These channels, with large deposits appear to be older than other channel types, as they are crossed by fractures and wrinkle ridges, and are often buried by other volcanic materials. In addition, they appear to run both upslope and downslope, suggesting that the plains were warped by regional tectonism after channel formation. Resolution of the Magellan data is about 120 meters (400 feet).

  8. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this method, the energy and continuity equations are solved for steady, gradually varied flow by the Newton–Raphson method and the proposed methodology is applied to tree-type and looped-channel networks. An algorithm is presented to determine multiple critical depths in a compound channel. Modifications in ...

  9. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment (United States)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.


    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  10. Estimated flood-inundation mapping for the Lower Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, 2003-2005 (United States)

    Kelly, Brian P.; Rydlund, Jr., Paul H.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Kansas City, Missouri, began a study in 2003 of the lower Blue River in Kansas City, Missouri, from Gregory Boulevard to the mouth at the Missouri River to determine the estimated extent of flood inundation in the Blue River valley from flooding on the lower Blue River and from Missouri River backwater. Much of the lower Blue River flood plain is covered by industrial development. Rapid development in the upper end of the watershed has increased the volume of runoff, and thus the discharge of flood events for the Blue River. Modifications to the channel of the Blue River began in late 1983 in response to the need for flood control. By 2004, the channel had been widened and straightened from the mouth to immediately downstream from Blue Parkway to convey a 30-year flood. A two-dimensional depth-averaged flow model was used to simulate flooding within a 2-mile study reach of the Blue River between 63rd Street and Blue Parkway. Hydraulic simulation of the study reach provided information for the design and performance of proposed hydraulic structures and channel improvements and for the production of estimated flood-inundation maps and maps representing an areal distribution of water velocity, both magnitude and direction. Flood profiles of the Blue River were developed between Gregory Boulevard and 63rd Street from stage elevations calculated from high water marks from the flood of May 19, 2004; between 63rd Street and Blue Parkway from two-dimensional hydraulic modeling conducted for this study; and between Blue Parkway and the mouth from an existing one-dimensional hydraulic model by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Twelve inundation maps were produced at 2-foot intervals for Blue Parkway stage elevations from 750 to 772 feet. Each map is associated with National Weather Service flood-peak forecast locations at 63rd Street, Blue Parkway, Stadium Drive, U.S. Highway 40, 12th Street, and the Missouri River

  11. Tidal controls on river delta morphology (United States)

    Hoitink, A. J. F.; Wang, Z. B.; Vermeulen, B.; Huismans, Y.; Kästner, K.


    River delta degradation has been caused by extraction of natural resources, sediment retention by reservoirs, and sea-level rise. Despite global concerns about these issues, human activity in the world’s largest deltas intensifies. Harbour development, construction of flood defences, sand mining and land reclamation emerge as key contemporary factors that exert an impact on delta morphology. Tides interacting with river discharge can play a crucial role in the morphodynamic development of deltas under pressure. Emerging insights into tidal controls on river delta morphology suggest that--despite the active morphodynamics in tidal channels and mouth bar regions--tidal motion acts to stabilize delta morphology at the landscape scale under the condition that sediment import during low flows largely balances sediment export during high flows. Distributary channels subject to tides show lower migration rates and are less easily flooded by the river because of opposing non-linear interactions between river discharge and the tide. These interactions lead to flow changes within channels, and a more uniform distribution of discharge across channels. Sediment depletion and rigorous human interventions in deltas, including storm surge defence works, disrupt the dynamic morphological equilibrium and can lead to erosion and severe scour at the channel bed, even decades after an intervention.

  12. Sediment deposition and sources into a Mississippi River floodplain lake; Catahoula Lake, Louisiana (United States)

    Latuso, Karen D.; Keim, Richard F.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.; DeLaune, Ronald D.


    Floodplain lakes are important wetlands on many lowland floodplains of the world but depressional floodplain lakes are rare in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley. One of the largest is Catahoula Lake, which has existed with seasonally fluctuating water levels for several thousand years but is now in an increasingly hydrologically altered floodplain. Woody vegetation has been encroaching into the lake bed and the rate of this expansion has increased since major human hydrologic modifications, such as channelization, levee construction, and dredging for improvement of navigation, but it remains unknown what role those modifications may have played in altering lake sedimentation processes. Profiles of thirteen 137Cs sediment cores indicate sedimentation has been about 0.26 cm y− 1 over the past 60 years and has been near this rate since land use changes began about 200 years ago (210Pb, and 14C in Tedford, 2009). Carbon sequestration was low (10.4 g m− 2 y− 1), likely because annual drying promotes mineralization and export. Elemental composition (high Zr and Ti and low Ca and K) and low pH of recent (<~60 y) or surface sediments suggest Gulf Coastal Plain origin, but below the recent sediment deposits, 51% of sediment profiles showed influence of Mississippi River alluvium, rich in base cations such as K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +. The recent shift to dominance of Coastal Plain sediments on the lake-bed surface suggests hydrologic modification has disconnected the lake from sediment-bearing flows from the Mississippi River. Compared to its condition prior to hydrologic alterations that intensified in the 1930s, Catahoula Lake is about 15 cm shallower and surficial sediments are more acidic. Although these results are not sufficient to attribute ecological changes directly to sedimentological changes, it is likely the altered sedimentary and hydrologic environment is contributing to the increased dominance of woody vegetation.

  13. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  14. Valley evolution by meandering rivers (United States)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  15. Streamflow and Topographic Characteristics of the Platte River near Grand Island, Nebraska, 1938-2007 (United States)

    Woodward, Brenda K.


    The central Platte River is a dynamic, braided, sand-bed river located near Grand Island, Nebraska. An understanding of the Platte River channel characteristics, hydrologic flow patterns, and geomorphic conditions is important for the operation and management of water resources by the City of Grand Island. The north channel of the Platte River flows within 1 mile of the municipal well field, and its surface-water flow recharges the underlying aquifer, which serves as a water source for the city. Recharge from the north channel helps minimize the flow of contaminated ground water from the north of the channel towards the well field. In recent years the river channels have experienced no-flow conditions for extended periods during the summer and fall seasons, and it has been observed that no-flow conditions in the north channel often persist after streamflow has returned to the other three channels. This potentially allows more contaminated ground water to move toward the municipal well field each year, and has caused resource managers to ask whether human disturbances or natural geomorphic change have contributed to the increased frequency of no-flow conditions in the north channel. Analyses of aerial photography, channel surveys, Light Detection and Ranging data, discharge measurements, and historical land surveys were used to understand the past and present dynamics of the four channels of the Platte River near Grand Island and to detect changes with time. Results indicate that some minor changes have occurred in the channels. Changes in bed elevation, channel location, and width were minimal when compared using historical information. Changes in discharge distribution among channels indicate that low- and no-flow conditions in the north channel may be attributed to the small changes in channel characteristics or small elevation differences, along with recent reductions in total streamflow within the Platte River near Grand Island, or to factors not measured in

  16. Simulation and comparison of stream power in-channel and on the floodplain in a German lowland area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Song


    Full Text Available Extensive lowland floodplains cover substantial parts of the glacially formed landscape of Northern Germany. Stream power is recognized as a force of formation and development of the river morphology and an interaction system between channel and floodplain. In order to understand the effects of the river power and flood power, HEC-RAS models were set up for ten river sections in the Upper Stör catchment, based on a 1 m digital elevation model and field data, sampled during a moderate water level period (September, 2011, flood season (January, 2012 and dry season (April, 2012. The models were proven to be highly efficient and accurate through the seasonal roughness modification. The coefficients of determination (R2 of the calibrated models were 0.90, 0.90, 0.93 and 0.95 respectively. Combined with the continuous and long-term data support from SWAT model, the stream power both in-channel and on the floodplain was analysed. Results show that the 10-year-averaged discharge and unit stream power were around 1/3 of bankfull discharge and unit power, and the 10-year-peak discharge and unit stream power were nearly 1.6 times the bankfull conditions. Unit stream power was proportional to the increase of stream discharge, while the increase rate of unit in-channel stream power was 3 times higher than that of unit stream power on the floodplain. Finally, the distribution of the hydraulic parameters under 10-years-peak discharge conditions was shown, indicating that only 1-10% of flow stream was generated by floodplain flow, but 40-75% volume of water was located on the floodplain. The variation of the increasing rate of the stream power was dominated by the local roughness height, while the stream power distributed on the floodplain mainly depended on the local slope of the sub-catchment.

  17. The Upper Mississippi River System—Topobathy (United States)

    Stone, Jayme M.; Hanson, Jenny L.; Sattler, Stephanie R.


    The Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS), the navigable part of the Upper Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, is a diverse ecosystem that contains river channels, tributaries, shallow-water wetlands, backwater lakes, and flood-plain forests. Approximately 10,000 years of geologic and hydrographic history exist within the UMRS. Because it maintains crucial wildlife and fish habitats, the dynamic ecosystems of the Upper Mississippi River Basin and its tributaries are contingent on the adjacent flood plains and water-level fluctuations of the Mississippi River. Separate data for flood-plain elevation (lidar) and riverbed elevation (bathymetry) were collected on the UMRS by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (USACE) Upper Mississippi River Restoration (UMRR) Program. Using the two elevation datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) developed a systemic topobathy dataset.

  18. Estructura de la comunidad íctica en las lagunas del delta exterior del río Magdalena, en relación con la reapertura del canal Clarín (Caribe colombiano Ictic community structure in the laggons of the external delta of the Magdalena river related with the reopening of the Clarin channel (Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bateman Vargas Natalia


    Full Text Available

    Con el propósito de evaluar el efecto de la reapertura del canal Clarín sobre la comunidad íctica en las lagunas en el Delta exterior del rio Magdalena, se colectaron peces mensualmente en 1S estaciones. Este canal fue abierto con el fin de reestabler el equilibrio hídrico del sistema y con él, su flora y fauna. Las muestras fueron usadas para analizar las variaciones entre tres subregiones: Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Pajarales y Salamanca Occidental y entre dos años (1995 y 1996 uno antes y otro después de la reapertura del canal. Se capturaron 4.161 peces pertenecientes a 59 especies y se encontró la salinidad como el factor ambiental más importante que afecta a la comunidad. El análisis de los datos (clasificación y ordenación y prueba de significancia mostró que las diferencias de la comunidad entre las tres zonas fueron mayores que las diferencias entre los dos años, reflejando el mayor grado de la influencia regional del río Magdalena, respecto a la influencia local del canal Clarín. El año de estudio se caracterizó por los bajos valores de salinidad obtenidos en el área con respecto a años anteriores, lo que hizo que se encontrara abundancia de especies dulceacuícolas.

    In order to evaluate the effect of the the Clarin channel reopening on the fish community around the lagoons of the External Delta of the Magdalena river, fish samples were collected each month in 15 stations. This channel was opened with the purpose to recover the hydric equilibrium in the region and the mangrove forest and fauna. The fish samples were used to analyse the variations of their community structure between three subregions: Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta, Pajarales and Salamanca Occidental and, between the years (1995 and 1996 before and after the Clarin channel opening. A total of 4161 fishes of S9 especies were captured, and the salinity was found the most is (classification and significance test showed that the differences of

  19. Environmental changes in the central Po Plain (northern Italy) due to fluvial modifications and anthropogenic activities (United States)

    Marchetti, Mauro


    The fluvial environment of the central Po Plain, the largest plain in Italy, is discussed in this paper. Bounded by the mountain chains of the Alps and the Apennines, this plain is a link between the Mediterranean environment and the cultural and continental influences of both western and eastern Europe. In the past decades, economic development has been responsible for many changes in the fluvial environment of the area. This paper discusses the changes in fluvial dynamics that started from Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene due to distinct climatic changes. The discussion is based on geomorphological, pedological, and archaeological evidences and radiocarbon dating. In the northern foothills, Late Pleistocene palaeochannels indicate several cases of underfit streams among the northern tributaries of the River Po. On the other hand, on the southern side of the Po Plain, no geomorphological evidence of similar discharge reduction has been found. Here, stratigraphic sections, together with archaeological remains buried under the fluvial deposits, show a reduction in the size of fluvial sediments after the 10th millennium BC. During the Holocene, fluvial sedimentation became finer, and was characterised by minor fluctuations in the rate of deposition, probably related to short and less intense climatic fluctuations. Given the high rate of population growth and the development of human activities since the Neolithic Age, human influence on fluvial dynamics, especially since the Roman Age, prevailed over other factors (i.e., climate, tectonics, vegetation, etc.). During the Holocene, the most important changes in the Po Plain were not modifications in water discharge but in sediment. From the 1st to 3rd Century AD, land grants to war veterans caused almost complete deforestation, generalised soil erosion, and maximum progradation of the River Po delta. At present, land abandonment in the mountainous region has led to reafforestation. Artificial channel control in the

  20. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Asiatic Soc. o/Bengal., 55:322-343.1886. C F Oldham. The Saraswati and the lost river of the Indian desertJ. R. Asiatic. Soc., 34:49-76. 1893. S C Sharma. The description of rivers in the Rigveda, The Geographical. Observer, 10:79-85. 1974.

  1. Phenomena and characteristics of barrier river reaches in the middle and lower Yangtze River, China (United States)

    You, Xingying; Tang, Jinwu


    Alluvial river self-adjustment describes the mechanism whereby a river that was originally in an equilibrium state of sediment transport encounters some disturbance that destroys the balance and results in responses such as riverbed deformation. A systematic study of historical and recent aerial photographs and topographic maps in the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River (MLYR) shows that river self-adjustment has the distinguishing feature of transferring from upstream to downstream, which may affect flood safety, waterway morphology, bank stability, and aquatic environmental safety over relatively long reaches downstream. As a result, it is necessary to take measures to control or block this transfer. Using the relationship of the occurrence time of channel adjustments between the upstream and downstream, 34 single-thread river reaches in the MLYR were classified into four types: corresponding, basically corresponding, basically not corresponding, not corresponding. The latter two types, because of their ability to prevent upstream channel adjustment from transferring downstream, are called barrier river reaches in this study. Statistics indicate that barrier river reaches are generally single thread and slightly curved, with a narrow and deep cross-sectional morphology, and without flow deflecting nodes in the upper and middle parts of reaches. Moreover, in the MLYR, barrier river reaches have a hydrogeometric coefficient of {}1.2‱, a silty clay content of the concave bank {>}{9.5}%, and a median diameter of the bed sediment {>}{0.158} mm. The barrier river reach mechanism lies in that can effectively centralise the planimetric position of the main stream from different upstream directions, meaning that no matter how the upper channel adjusts, the main stream shows little change, providing relatively stable inflow conditions for the lower reaches. Regarding river regulation, it is necessary to optimise the benefits of barrier river reaches; long river

  2. River-Based Experiential Learning: the Bear River Fellows Program (United States)

    Rosenberg, D. E.; Shirley, B.; Roark, M. F.


    The Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Outdoor Recreation, and Parks and Recreation programs at Utah State University (USU) have partnered to offer a new, unique river-based experiential learning opportunity for undergraduates called the Bear River Fellows Program. The program allows incoming freshmen Fellows to experience a river first hand during a 5-day/4-night river trip on the nearby Bear River two weeks before the start of their first Fall semester. As part of the program, Fellows will navigate the Bear River in canoes, camp along the banks, interact with local water and environmental managers, collect channel cross section, stream flow, vegetation cover, and topological complexity data, meet other incoming freshmen, interact with faculty and graduate students, develop boating and leadership skills, problem solve, and participate as full members of the trip team. Subsequently, Fellows will get paid as undergraduate researchers during their Fall and Spring Freshman semesters to analyze, synthesize, and present the field data they collect. The program is a collaborative effort between two USU academic units and the (non-academic) division of Student Services and supports a larger National Science Foundation funded environmental modelling and management project for the lower Bear River, Utah watershed. We have advertised the program via Facebook and emails to incoming USU freshmen, received 35 applications (60% women), and accepted 5 Fellows into the program (3 female and 2 male). The river trip departs August 14, 2012. The poster will overview the Bear River Fellows Program and present qualitative and preliminary outcomes emerging from the trip and Fellows' work through the Fall semester with the field data they collect. We will also undertake more rigorous and longer longitudinal quantitative evaluation of Program outcomes (for example, in problem-solving and leadership) both in Spring 2013 and in subsequent 2013 and 2014 offerings of the

  3. Tyrosine modifications in aging. (United States)

    Feeney, Maria B; Schöneich, Christian


    The understanding of physiological and pathological processes involving protein oxidation, particularly under conditions of aging and oxidative stress, can be aided by proteomic identification of proteins that accumulate oxidative post-translational modifications only if these detected modifications are connected to functional consequences. The modification of tyrosine (Tyr) residues can elicit significant changes in protein structure and function, which, in some cases, may contribute to biological aging and age-related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and cataracts. Studies characterizing proteins in which Tyr has been modified to 3-nitrotyrosine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, 3,3'-dityrosine and other cross-links, or 3-chlorotyrosine are reviewed, with an emphasis on structural and functional consequences. Distinguishing between inconsequential modifications and functionally significant ones requires careful biochemical and biophysical analysis of target proteins, as well as innovative methods for isolating the effects of the multiple modifications that often occur under oxidizing conditions. The labor-intensive task of isolating and characterizing individual modified proteins must continue, especially given the expanding list of known modifications. Emerging approaches, such as genetic and metabolic incorporation of unnatural amino acids, hold promise for additional focused studies of this kind.

  4. Numerical simulation of baseflow modification due to effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 2, 2001 ... lateral flow obtained as a constant calibration parameter (e.g.. Chang, 1982). When streamflow and sediment routing is performed for rocky basins with river beds that have very low permeability, or when stream-aquifer interaction is simulated for stable channels with negligible sediment yield, then errors ...

  5. Human Rights and Behavior Modification (United States)

    Roos, Philip


    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  6. Detection of major river bed changes in the River Ebro (north-eastern Spain) (United States)

    Espejo, R.; Torrent, J.; Roquero, C.


    The application or ERTS-1 data to determine the major river bed changes of the Ebro River in northeastern Spain is discussed. Image quality was good enough to permit a clear identification of the river course and bands MSS 5 and 7 proved to be the most useful for this purpose. Reflectance for band 5 was high due to the high sediment content of the water and sufficed to identify the river. Features like bodies of water related to old channels and depressions were only apparent in band 7.

  7. Assessment of intermediate fine sediment storage in a braided river reach (southern French Prealps)


    Navratil, Oldrich; Legout, C.; Gateuille, D.; Esteves, Michel; Liebault, F.


    This paper presents a field investigation on river channel storage of fine sediments in an unglaciated braided river, the Bes River, located in a mountainous region in the southern French Prealps. Braided rivers transport a very large quantity of bedload and suspended sediment load because they are generally located in the vicinity of highly erosive hillslopes. Consequently, these rivers play an important role because they supply and control the sediment load of the entire downstream fluvial ...

  8. USGS 2015 JSankey Riparian Vegetation and Colorado River (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data include image-based classifications of total vegetation from 1965, 1973, 1984, 1992, 2002, 2004, 2005, and 2009, and characteristics of the river channel...

  9. Hydraulic Geometry Analysis of the Lower Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soar, Philip J; Thorne, Colin R; Harmar, Oliver P


    The hydraulic geometry of the Lower Mississippi River is primarily the product of the action of natural flows acting on the floodplain materials over centuries and millennia to form an alluvial forming a channel...

  10. Morphometric convergence between Proterozoic and post-vegetation rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ielpi, A.; Rainbird, R.H.; Ventra, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304823708; Ghinassi, M.


    Proterozoic rivers flowed through barren landscapes, and lacked interactions with macroscopic organisms. It is widely held that, in the absence of vegetation, fluvial systems featured barely entrenched channels that promptly widened over floodplains during floods. This hypothesis has never been

  11. Contaminant evaluation of shovelnose sturgeon from the Atchafalaya River, Louisiana (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Baseline contaminant levels in shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirynchus platorynchus) collected from the outfall channel of the Old River Control Structure (ORCS),...

  12. 30 CFR 18.81 - Field modification of approved (permissible) equipment; application for approval of modification... (United States)


    ...) equipment; application for approval of modification; approval of plans for modification before modification... Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines...) equipment; application for approval of modification; approval of plans for modification before modification...

  13. Convergence of estuarine channels (United States)

    Dronkers, Job


    Tide-dominated coastal plain estuaries have typically up-estuary convergent tidal channels. Analysis of estuarine characteristics indicates a dependence of the convergence length on relative tidal amplitude, relative intertidal area and river flow velocity. In order to explain these relationships we investigate a condition for continuity of net sediment transport throughout the estuary, corresponding to morphodynamic equilibrium. We show, by using an analytical solution of the tidal equations, that this condition is equivalent to a condition on the convergence length. This condition is evaluated for 21 estuaries in different regions of the world. It appears that the convergence length determined in this way can explain observed convergence lengths for the considered set of estuaries. The dependence of the convergence length on different estuarine characteristics is analysed by solving the fully coupled hydro-morphodynamic equations. We show that this dependence limits the range of variation of the tidal velocity amplitude. The analysis provides insight in the morphological response of estuaries to human interventions. The condition can easily be evaluated to yield an estimate of this response.

  14. Computational Analysis of Protein Tunnels and Channels. (United States)

    Brezovsky, Jan; Kozlikova, Barbora; Damborsky, Jiri


    Protein tunnels connecting the functional buried cavities with bulk solvent and protein channels, enabling the transport through biological membranes, represent the structural features that govern the exchange rates of ligands, ions, and water solvent. Tunnels and channels are present in a vast number of known proteins and provide control over their function. Modification of these structural features by protein engineering frequently provides proteins with improved properties. Here we present a detailed computational protocol employing the CAVER software that is applicable for: (1) the analysis of tunnels and channels in protein structures, and (2) the selection of hot-spot residues in tunnels or channels that can be mutagenized for improved activity, specificity, enantioselectivity, or stability.

  15. Monitoring river discharge with remotely sensed imagery using river island area as an indicator (United States)

    Ling, Feng; Cai, Xiaobin; Li, Wenbo; Xiao, Fei; Li, Xiaodong; Du, Yun


    River discharge is an important parameter in understanding water cycles, and consistent long-term discharge records are necessary for related research. In practice, discharge records based on in situ measurement are often limited because of technological, economic, and institutional obstacles. Satellite remote sensing provides an attractive alternative way to measure river discharge by constructing an empirical rating curve between the parameter provided by remote sensing techniques and simultaneous ground discharge data. River width is a popular parameter for constructing the empirical curve, since change in river discharge can be represented by a change in river width. In some rectangular channels, however, river width does not change significantly with river discharge, so an alternative parameter is necessary. We analyze a novel technique using river island area as an indicator of discharge. A river island often has a flat terrain, and its area decreases with higher discharge. This technique is validated by three river islands in the Yangtze River in China. All 61 remotely sensed images acquired by the HuanJing (HJ) satellites from 2009 to 2010 were correlated with corresponding in situ discharge of the nearby Zhicheng hydrological station. The performance of fitted curves for inferring river discharge is validated using 36 HJ images taken in 2011, and the influence of remotely sensed imagery and river islands is discussed. All three river islands can be used as indicators of river discharge, although their performances are much different. For the river island with the best result, the mean accuracy of the estimates is less than 10% of the observed discharge, and all relative errors are within 20%, validating the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Hydrogeomorphic Reach (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith


    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  17. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Geomorphic Catena (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith


    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  18. Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification Ecosystem Complex (United States)

    Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe


    Estuarine ecosystems are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary Ecosystem Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive ecosystem evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) Ecosystem Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) Ecosystem Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their current geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub

  19. Contribution of River Mouth Reach to Sediment Load of the Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang


    Full Text Available This paper examined the sediment gain and loss in the river mouth reach of the Yangtze River by considering sediment load from the local tributaries, erosion/accretion of the river course, impacts of sand mining, and water extraction. A quantitative estimation of the contribution of the river mouth reach to the sediment load of the Yangtze River was conducted before and after impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD in 2003. The results showed that a net sediment load loss of 1.78 million ton/yr (Mt/yr occurred from 1965 to 2002 in the study area. The contribution of this reach to the sediment discharge into the sea is not as high as what was expected before the TGD. With impoundment of the TGD, channel deposition (29.90 Mt/yr and a net sediment loss of 30.89 Mt/yr occurred in the river mouth reach from 2003 to 2012. The river mouth reach has acted as a sink but not a source of sediment since impoundment of the TGD, which has exacerbated the decrease in sediment load. Technologies should be advanced to measure changes in river channel morphology, as well as in water and sediment discharges at the river mouth reach.

  20. Headward growth and branching in subterranean channels (United States)

    Kudrolli, Arshad; Ionkin, Nikolay; Panaitescu, Andreea


    We investigate the erosive growth of channels in a thin subsurface sedimentary layer driven by hydrodynamic drag toward understanding subterranean networks and their relation to river networks charged by ground water. Building on a model based on experimental observations of fluid-driven evolution of bed porosity, we focus on the characteristics of the channel growth and their bifurcations in a horizontal rectangular domain subject to various fluid source and sink distributions. We find that the erosion front between low- and high-porosity regions becomes unstable, giving rise to branched channel networks, depending on the spatial fluctuations of the fluid flow near the front and the degree to which the flow is above the erodibility threshold of the medium. Focusing on the growth of a network starting from a single channel, and by identifying the channel heads and their branch points, we find that the number of branches increases sublinearly and is affected by the source distribution. The mean angles between branches are found to be systematically lower than river networks in humid climates and depend on the domain geometry.

  1. The Mechanics of River Avulsions on Deltas (United States)

    Ganti, Vamsi; Chadwick, Austin; Hassenruck-Gudipati, Hima; Lamb, Michael


    River deltas are highly dynamic, often fan-shaped depositional systems that form when rivers drain into a standing body of water. They host over a half billion people worldwide and are currently under threat of drowning and destruction by relative sea-level rise, subsidence, and anthropogenic interference. Many river deltas develop planform fan shapes through avulsions, whereby major river channel shifts occur via "channel jumping" about a persistent spatial node, thus determining their fundamental length scale. Emerging theories suggest that the size of deltas is set by backwater hydrodynamics; however, these ideas are difficult to test on natural deltas, which evolve on centennial to millennial timescales. Here, using physical experiments coupled with observations of the dynamics of modern deltaic evolution, we show that deltas grow through successive deposition of lobes that maintain a constant size that scales with backwater hydrodynamics. The preferential avulsion node in our experiments is a consequence of multiple river floods and Froude-subcritical flows that produce persistent nonuniform flows and a peak in net channel deposition within the backwater zone of the coastal river. Moreover, because the backwater hydrodynamics are controlled by the downstream boundary condition of constant sea level, the backwater-mediated avulsion sites translate seaward in step with shoreline progradation. In contrast, experimental deltas without multiple floods produce flows with uniform velocities and delta lobes that lack a characteristic size. Results have broad applications to sustainable management of deltas and for decoding their stratigraphic record on Earth and Mars.

  2. Prediction of concentrated flow width in ephemeral gully channels (United States)

    Nachtergaele, J.; Poesen, J.; Sidorchuk, A.; Torri, D.


    Empirical prediction equations of the form W = aQb have been reported for rills and rivers, but not for ephemeral gullies. In this study six experimental data sets are used to establish a relationship between channel width (W, m) and flow discharge (Q, m3 s-1) for ephemeral gullies formed on cropland. The resulting regression equation (W = 2·51 Q0·412; R2 = 0·72; n = 67) predicts observed channel width reasonably well. Owing to logistic limitations related to the respective experimental set ups, only relatively small runoff discharges (i.e. Q channel width was attributed to a calculated peak runoff discharge on sealed cropland, the application field of the regression equation was extended towards larger discharges (i.e. 5 × 10channels revealed that the discharge exponent (distribution over the wetted perimeter between rills, gullies and rivers, (ii) a decrease in probability of a channel formed in soil material with uniform erosion resistance from rills over gullies to rivers and (iii) a decrease in average surface slope from rills over gullies to width equation for concentrated flow on cropland. For the frozen soils the equation

  3. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2010 (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Haas, Justin D.; Mestl, Gerald E.


    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2010 scope of work primarily address spawning as a probable factor limiting pallid sturgeon survival and recovery, although limited pilot studies also have been initiated to examine the requirements of early life stages. The research is designed to inform management decisions affecting channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2010.

  4. Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia (United States)

    Meshkova, Liubov. V.; Carling, Paul. A.


    The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of sand bars, numerous bedrock exposures, rapids, waterfalls and deep bedrock pools which can be classified as a large mixed bedrock-alluvial anastomosed river of a tropical monsoonal climate zone. In order to complete a portrait of the river at the high level of details new data on morphology, geology and sediments were obtained during field surveys of a 120 km river section in Cambodia and combined with information from published literature and interpretation of available remote sensing images. This process has enabled to update and clarify knowledge on morphology of observed islands and floodplain, comprehensive geology and tectonic structures, hydrological regime and land cover. Complex analyses of the collected data have distinguished several geomorphological zones accordingly to frequency of morphological elements, the planview configuration of channels and vertical profile characteristics. The occurrence of each zone is a subject of variable controlling factors such as local topography, channel gradient, structural and tectonic elements and intercalating geological units. Evolution of the channel pattern has been considered at both short- and long term time scales. Historical cartographic and remote sensing materials were applied to determine planform channel changes over the last 50 years revealing the channels stability and cases of occasional, local erosion and deposition. The channel network was extracted from vector layers to examine channels and islands width and length parameters, bifurcation angles at the upstream end of islands and to obtain main channel network indices such as braiding

  5. Efficient incorporation of channel cross-section geometry uncertainty into regional and global scale flood inundation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neal, J. C.; Odini, Nicolas; trigg, mark; Freer, Jim; garcia-pintado, javier; mason, david; Wood, Melissa; Bates, P. D.


    This paper investigates the challenge of representing structural differences in river channel cross-section geometry for regional to global scale river hydraulic models and the effect this can have on simulations of wave dynamics. Classically, channel geometry is defined using data, yet at larger

  6. T-type calcium channels in synaptic plasticity. (United States)

    Leresche, Nathalie; Lambert, Régis C


    The role of T-type calcium currents is rarely considered in the extensive literature covering the mechanisms of long-term synaptic plasticity. This situation reflects the lack of suitable T-type channel antagonists that till recently has hampered investigations of the functional roles of these channels. However, with the development of new pharmacological and genetic tools, a clear involvement of T-type channels in synaptic plasticity is starting to emerge. Here, we review a number of studies showing that T-type channels participate to numerous homo- and hetero-synaptic plasticity mechanisms that involve different molecular partners and both pre- and post-synaptic modifications. The existence of T-channel dependent and independent plasticity at the same synapse strongly suggests a subcellular localization of these channels and their partners that allows specific interactions. Moreover, we illustrate the functional importance of T-channel dependent synaptic plasticity in neocortex and thalamus.

  7. Influence of icings on river aufeis fluviogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Alekseev


    Full Text Available Formation and development of a river network in the permafrost zone is heavily influenced by icings and icing processes. It is of the most widespread occurrence in regions of discontinuous and continuous permafrost where the mean thickness of the ice on rivers varies over the range 1−2.5 m, and most of the ice cover is formed by consecutive freezing of outcropping groundwater. The intensity of cryogenic channel formation in the permafrost zone has a clearly pronounced cyclic character that depends on the exceeding of the icing ice over the water edge of the river during the autumn low-water period. Five stages of cryogenic channel genesis are described: preglacial, transgressive, stabilizing, regressive, and postglacial. To each stage there corresponds a definite glaciohydrological regime of the discharge channels, their shape, size, and spatial distribution. The channel network is in its maximum development during the third and fourth states when the channel of the allochthonous flow divides into a number of shallow branches producing a complicated plan pattern of the terrain. Mature sites of annual appearance of icings clearly show areas that are in different development stages, which bears witness to a broad range of variability in the channel icing genesis across space and time. According to the size of icings, the flow of the river and geologo-geomorphological and cryogenic-hydrological conditions, five kinds of icing structure of the channel network have been identified: fan-shaped, cone-shaped, treelike, reticular, and longitudinal-insular. The channel icing network is a characteristic indicator of the specific character of development of glaciohydrosystems in the permafrost zone.

  8. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R


    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  9. New River Dam Foundation Report. Gila River Basin: Phoenix, Arizona and Vicinity (Including New River). (United States)


    further downstream before merging with the Agua Fria River. 6 Site Geology 2.08 The geological formations present within the project area and tributary wash deposits. The older Quaternary alluvium also includes the usually thin spotty veneer of residual soil and slope wash found on...that post magmatic hydrothermal alteration may have been caused by residual aqueous-gaseous fluids rising through the intergranular pore spaces in the

  10. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.


    This study provides information on channel and flood-plain processes and historical trends to guide effective restoration and monitoring strategies for the Sprague River Basin, a primary tributary (via the lower Williamson River) of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The study area covered the lower, alluvial segments of the Sprague River system, including the lower parts of the Sycan River, North Fork Sprague River, South Fork Sprague River, and the entire main-stem Sprague River between the confluence of the North Fork Sprague and the South Fork Sprague Rivers and its confluence with the Williamson River at Chiloquin, Oregon. The study included mapping and stratigraphic analysis of flood-plain deposits and flanking features; evaluation of historical records, maps and photographs; mapping and analysis of flood-plain and channel characteristics (including morphologic and vegetation conditions); and a 2006 survey of depositional features left by high flows during the winter and spring of 2005–06.

  11. Raft River Geothermal Aquaculture Experiment. Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.K.; Rose, F.L.; Kent, J.C.; Watson, L.R.; Sullivan, J.F.


    Channel catfish, tilapia and Malaysian prawns were cultured directly in geothermal water for approximately seven months at the Department of Energy, Raft River Geothermal Site, to evaluate the organisms throughout a grow-out cycle. Parameters evaluated included survival, growth, bioaccumulation of metals and fluoride, collagen synthesis, and bone calcium levels. Growth at Raft River was slightly lower than at a companion commercial facility at Buhl, Idaho, but was attributed to facility differences rather than an adverse impact of geothermal water. No significant differences were recorded between Raft River and Buhl fish for bone calcium or collagen concentrations. No significant accumulation of heavy metals by fish or prawns was recorded.

  12. Citizens and service channels: channel choice and channel management implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterson, Willem Jan


    The arrival of electronic channels in the 1990s has had a huge impact on governmental service delivery. The new channels have led to many new opportunities to improve public service delivery, not only in terms of citizen satisfaction, but also in cost reduction for governmental agencies. However,

  13. Aggravation of north channels' shrinkage and south channels' development in the Yangtze Estuary under dam-induced runoff discharge flattening (United States)

    Zhu, Bo-yuan; Li, Yi-tian; Yue, Yao; Yang, Yun-ping


    Construction of dams on rivers has progressively affected the seasonal variability of runoff discharge, which has consequently produced remarkable impacts on the morphology of estuarine channels. This paper considers four-typical-order bifurcations of the Yangtze Estuary and adopts an ebb partition ratio (defined as the diversion ratio of ebb flow in a given branch divided by the total ebb tidal discharge immediately upstream of the river node where the bifurcation occurs) as a measure of water excavating force in the bifurcation channels. Results show that the seasonal variability of runoff discharge at Datong Hydrological Station (Datong) is flattened, being mainly driven by upstream runoff flattening observed at Yichang Hydrological Station (Yichang) and the tributary rivers. Yearly ebb partition ratios of the channels located to the north and south of the islands present decreasing and increasing trends respectively, and as also do the yearly north and south channel volume of the bifurcations. Yearly ebb partition ratio is proved to be an effective index to represent the water excavating force considering the stability of yearly ebb tidal discharge and its relationship with the channel erosion-deposition. River dams are the driving factors behind the runoff flattening at Datong because of their flattening effects on its main contributors (Yichang and tributary rivers). This flattening significantly helps reduce and enlarge the yearly ebb partition ratios of the north and south channels respectively, and then aggravates the shrinkage and development of the north and south channels separately. Yearly ebb partition ratio of the North Passage (NP) must be enlarged in order for the NP to maintain its function as a shipping channel.

  14. River predisposition to ice jams: a simplified geospatial model (United States)

    De Munck, Stéphane; Gauthier, Yves; Bernier, Monique; Chokmani, Karem; Légaré, Serge


    Floods resulting from river ice jams pose a great risk to many riverside municipalities in Canada. The location of an ice jam is mainly influenced by channel morphology. The goal of this work was therefore to develop a simplified geospatial model to estimate the predisposition of a river channel to ice jams. Rather than predicting the timing of river ice breakup, the main question here was to predict where the broken ice is susceptible to jam based on the river's geomorphological characteristics. Thus, six parameters referred to potential causes for ice jams in the literature were initially selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, high sinuosity, presence of a bridge, confluence of rivers, and slope break. A GIS-based tool was used to generate the aforementioned factors over regular-spaced segments along the entire channel using available geospatial data. An ice jam predisposition index (IJPI) was calculated by combining the weighted optimal factors. Three Canadian rivers (province of Québec) were chosen as test sites. The resulting maps were assessed from historical observations and local knowledge. Results show that 77 % of the observed ice jam sites on record occurred in river sections that the model considered as having high or medium predisposition. This leaves 23 % of false negative errors (missed occurrence). Between 7 and 11 % of the highly predisposed river sections did not have an ice jam on record (false-positive cases). Results, limitations, and potential improvements are discussed.

  15. The Effect of Road Crossing on River Morphology and Riverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper is to explain the local level impact of a road crossing on channel morphology and aquatic lives of the Kunur River, based on geomorphic survey and stream classification. This study shows a comparison between upstream and downstream reaches of Kunur River where the State Highway-14 ...

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in Bottom Sediments of Ikpoba River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 23, 2014 ... Much of the land is also exposed to agricultural activities and municipal waste. Industrial wastes and water from drainage channel are discharged into the river at several points. Sampling Stations : Samples were collected from five different stations along the course of the river with a grab. Station 1 was ...

  17. The Ecological Reserve: Towards a common understanding for river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jul 3, 2006 ... The legal requirement for an Ecological Reserve established in South Africa's water law is commonly regarded by stakehold- ers as being in ... the macro channels of rivers, or for their use in supporting social and economic activity remote from the river. The paper ... participation as intended by legislation.

  18. River predisposition to ice jams: a simplified geospatial model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. De Munck


    Full Text Available Floods resulting from river ice jams pose a great risk to many riverside municipalities in Canada. The location of an ice jam is mainly influenced by channel morphology. The goal of this work was therefore to develop a simplified geospatial model to estimate the predisposition of a river channel to ice jams. Rather than predicting the timing of river ice breakup, the main question here was to predict where the broken ice is susceptible to jam based on the river's geomorphological characteristics. Thus, six parameters referred to potential causes for ice jams in the literature were initially selected: presence of an island, narrowing of the channel, high sinuosity, presence of a bridge, confluence of rivers, and slope break. A GIS-based tool was used to generate the aforementioned factors over regular-spaced segments along the entire channel using available geospatial data. An ice jam predisposition index (IJPI was calculated by combining the weighted optimal factors. Three Canadian rivers (province of Québec were chosen as test sites. The resulting maps were assessed from historical observations and local knowledge. Results show that 77 % of the observed ice jam sites on record occurred in river sections that the model considered as having high or medium predisposition. This leaves 23 % of false negative errors (missed occurrence. Between 7 and 11 % of the highly predisposed river sections did not have an ice jam on record (false-positive cases. Results, limitations, and potential improvements are discussed.

  19. 78 FR 77591 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, NJ (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Shark River, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard... Shark River (South Channel), mile 0.8, at Belmar, NJ. The deviation is necessary to facilitate the... facilitate the replacement of motor seals and instrumentation on the bridge. The Route 71 Bridge across Shark...

  20. Development and maintenance of a telescoping debris flow fan in response to human-induced fan surface channelization, Chalk Creek Valley Natural Debris Flow Laboratory, Colorado, USA (United States)

    Wasklewicz, T.; Scheinert, C.


    Channel change has been a constant theme throughout William L. Graf's research career. Graf's work has examined channel changes in the context of natural environmental fluctuations, but more often has focused on quantifying channel change in the context of anthropogenic modifications. Here, we consider how channelization of a debris flows along a bajada has perpetuated and sustained the development of 'telescoping' alluvial fan. Two-dimensional debris-flow modeling shows the importance of the deeply entrenched channelized flow in the development of a telescoping alluvial fan. GIS analyses of repeat (five different debris flows), high-resolution (5 cm) digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from repeat terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data elucidate sediment and topographic dynamics of the new telescoping portion of the alluvial fan (the embryonic fan). Flow constriction from channelization helps to perpetuate debris-flow runout and to maintain the embryonic fan and telescoping nature of the alluvial fan complex. Embryonic fan development, in response to five debris flows, proceeds with a major portion of the flows depositing on the southern portion of the embryonic fan. The third through the fifth debris flows also begin to shift some deposition to the northern portion of the embryonic. The transfer of sediment from a higher portion of the embryonic fan to a lower portion continues currently on the embryonic fan. While channelized flow has been shown to be critical to the maintenance of the telescoping fan, the flow constriction has led to higher than background levels of sediment deposition in Chalk Creek, a tributary of the Arkansas River. A majority of the sediment from each debris flow is incorporated into Chalk Creek as opposed to being stored on the embryonic fan.

  1. Toy Modification Note. Revised. (United States)

    Vanderheiden, Gregg C.; And Others

    Described are toy modifications which enable handicapped individuals to operate battery-powered toys. A battery interrupter is explained as a device which fits between the batteries in a toy and provides the ability to have a separate on-off switch which can be custom designed to fit a handicapped user's needs. Construction and use of three types…

  2. Limiting the development of riparian vegetation in the Isère River: physical and numerical modelling study (United States)

    Claude, Nicolas; El Kadi Abderrezzak, Kamal; Duclercq, Marion; Tassi, Pablo; Leroux, Clément


    The Isère River (France) has been strongly impacted during the 19th and 20th centuries by human activities, such as channelization, sediment dredging and damming. The hydrology and river morphodynamic have been significantly altered, thereby leading to riverbed incision, a decrease in submersion frequency of gravel bars and an intense development of riparian vegetation on the bars. The flood risk has increased due to the reduction of the flow conveyance of the river, and the ecological status of the river has been degraded. To face these issues, a research program involving EDF and French state authorities has been recently initiated. Modification of the current hydrology, mainly controlled by dams, and definition of a new bed cross-sectional profile, are expected to foster the submersion frequency and mobility of the bars, thus limiting the riparian development. To assess the performance of these mitigating solutions, a physical and numerical modelling study has been conducted, applied to a 2 km long reach of the Isère River. The experimental setup consists of an undistorted movable bed designed to ensure the similarity of the Froude number and initial conditions for sediment particle motion. The resulting physical model is 35 m long and 2.6 m wide, with sand mixture composed of three grain size classes. The numerical simulations performed with the Telemac Modelling System ( show, for the current morphology, a limited sediment mobility and submersion for flow discharge lower than 400 m3/s, confirming that the actual conditions in the Isère River promote the development of riparian vegetation. Different new bed geometry profiles have been evaluated using the numerical model. Then two configurations, one based on the creation of deflecting bedforms in the thalweg and one based on the transformation of the long bars into small central bars, have been selected and modelled with the physical model.

  3. Channel nut tool (United States)

    Olson, Marvin


    A method, system, and apparatus for installing channel nuts includes a shank, a handle formed on a first end of a shank, and an end piece with a threaded shaft configured to receive a channel nut formed on the second end of the shaft. The tool can be used to insert or remove a channel nut in a channel framing system and then removed from the channel nut.

  4. Bathymetric Control of Front Generation in a Tidal River (United States)


    important linkages between the land margin and the coastal ocean serving as major export pathways for terrigenous sediment (Childers and Day, 1990a... sediment dynamics (Largier, 1993). Tidal creeks are small costal inlets or else side channels or tributaries of tidal rivers, the flow in which is...relative strengths of the tidal flows and the river flows. As the river water picks up much sediment in the shallow side creek, the action of the shoals

  5. Managing the complexity of communication: regulation of gap junctions by post-translational modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Callø, Kirstine; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik


    expression by transcription and translation is of great importance, the trafficking, channel activity and degradation are also under tight control. The function of connexins can be regulated by several post translational modifications, which affect numerous parameters; including number of channels, open...

  6. Savannah River Laboratory monthly report, February 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, J.M. [comp.; Ice, L.W. [ed.


    This report is a progress report for the Savannah River Laboratory for the month of February 1992. The progress and activities in six categories were described in the report. The categories are reactor, tritium, separations, environmental, waste management, and general. Each category described numerous and varied activities. Some examples of these activities described are such things as radiation monitoring, maintenance, modifications, and remedial action.

  7. The contemporary geomorphology of the Letaba River in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Moon


    Full Text Available The Letaba River drains part of Northern Province in north-east South Africa. Its catchment has been modified significantly by human activity which has affected the flow regime; it experiences only ephemeral flows through the Kruger National Park to its confluence with the Olifants River. Although the Letaba is similar to the other rivers in the Kruger National Park in that it displays some bedrock influenced channel features, increased sediment delivery from the degraded catchment upstream has resulted in extensive alluviation within the channel. Sections of channel flowing over bedrock with no sediment covering are rare, and the river comprises a series of channel types: mixed anastomosing, alluvial braided, mixed pool-rapid and alluvial single thread. Each is characterised by a different combination of morphological units which relate to the degree of alluviation in the channel. These channel types are described in detail and inferences are made concerning their formation and maintenance from field observation and measurement.

  8. Multiple crossings of a large glacial river by Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) (United States)

    D. Feierabend; K. Kielland


    Rivers may act as barriers to the movement of terrestrial mammals, which could limit dispersal and gene flow. Glacial rivers are particularly hazardous because of the cold water temperature and swift current. Yet, we determined that 2 Canada Lynx (Lynx canadensis) equipped with GPS collars repeatedly swam across the main channel of the Tanana River in interior Alaska...

  9. Understanding river dune splitting through flume experiments and analysis of a dune evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmink, Jord Jurriaan; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Lansink, Jord; Naqshband, Suleyman; van Duin, Olav; Paarlberg, Andries; Termes, A.P.P.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.


    Forecasts of water level during river floods require accurate predictions of the evolution of river dune dimensions, because the hydraulic roughness of the main channel is largely de