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Sample records for river bay delaware

  1. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  2. 75 FR 12561 - Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard [Docket No. USCG-2008-0333] Delaware River and Bay Oil Spill Advisory Committee; Meeting Cancelled AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of...) is cancelled. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gerald Conrad, Liaison to the DFO of the DRBOSAC, (215...

  3. 226Ra and 228Ra in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay, Yangtze River and Delaware Bay Estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.; Moore, W.S.

    1984-01-01

    226 Ra and 228 Ra have non-conservative excess concentrations in the mixing zones of the Pee Dee River-Winyah Bay estuary, the Yangtze River estuary, and the Delaware Bay estuary. Laboratory experiments, using Pee Dee River sediment, indicate desorption of 226 Ra to increase with increasing salinities up to 20 per mille. In Winyah Bay desorption from river-borne sediments could contribute almost all of the increases for both isotopes. Desorption adds only a portion of the excess 228 Ra measured in the Yangtze River and adjacent Shelf waters and Delaware Bay. In the Yangtze River the mixing zone extends over a considerable portion of the Continental Shelf where 228 Ra is added to the water column by diffusion from bottom sediments, while 226 Ra concentrations decrease from dilution. Diffusion of 228 Ra from bottom sediments in Delaware Bay primarily occurs in the upper part of the bay ( 228 Ra of 0.33 dpm cm -2 year was determined for Delaware Bay. (author)

  4. Hydrogeologic setting and ground water flow beneath a section of Indian River Bay, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, David E.; Manheim, Frank T.; Bratton, John F.; Phelan, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    The small bays along the Atlantic coast of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia) are a valuable natural resource, and an asset for commerce and recreation. These coastal bays also are vulnerable to eutrophication from the input of excess nutrients derived from agriculture and other human activities in the watersheds. Ground water discharge may be an appreciable source of fresh water and a transport pathway for nutrients entering the bays. This paper presents results from an investigation of the physical properties of the surficial aquifer and the processes associated with ground water flow beneath Indian River Bay, Delaware. A key aspect of the project was the deployment of a new technology, streaming horizontal resistivity, to map the subsurface distribution of fresh and saline ground water beneath the bay. The resistivity profiles showed complex patterns of ground water flow, modes of mixing, and submarine ground water discharge. Cores, gamma and electromagnetic-induction logs, and in situ ground water samples collected during a coring operation in Indian River Bay verified the interpretation of the resistivity profiles. The shore-parallel resistivity lines show subsurface zones of fresh ground water alternating with zones dominated by the flow of salt water from the estuary down into the aquifer. Advective flow produces plumes of fresh ground water 400 to 600 m wide and 20 m thick that may extend more than 1 km beneath the estuary. Zones of dispersive mixing between fresh and saline ground water develop on the upper, lower, and lateral boundaries of the the plume. the plumes generally underlie small incised valleys that can be traced landward to stream draining the upland. The incised valleys are filled with 1 to 2 m of silt and peat that act as a semiconfining layer to restrict the downward flow of salt water from the estuary. Active circulation of both the fresh and saline ground water masses beneath the bay is inferred from the geophysical

  5. Pharmaceuticals in water, fish and osprey nestlings in Delaware River and Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Thomas G.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Lazarus, Rebecca S.; Day, Daniel D.; Burket, S. Rebekah; Brooks, Bryan W.; Haddad, Samuel P.; Bowerman, William W.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure of wildlife to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) is likely to occur but studies of risk are limited. One exposure pathway that has received attention is trophic transfer of APIs in a water-fish-osprey food chain. Samples of water, fish plasma and osprey plasma were collected from Delaware River and Bay, and analyzed for 21 APIs. Only 2 of 21 analytes exceeded method detection limits in osprey plasma (acetaminophen and diclofenac) with plasma levels typically 2–3 orders of magnitude below human therapeutic concentrations (HTC). We built upon a screening level model used to predict osprey exposure to APIs in Chesapeake Bay and evaluated whether exposure levels could have been predicted in Delaware Bay had we just measured concentrations in water or fish. Use of surface water and BCFs did not predict API concentrations in fish well, likely due to fish movement patterns, and partitioning and bioaccumulation uncertainties associated with these ionizable chemicals. Input of highest measured API concentration in fish plasma combined with pharmacokinetic data accurately predicted that diclofenac and acetaminophen would be the APIs most likely detected in osprey plasma. For the majority of APIs modeled, levels were not predicted to exceed 1 ng/mL or method detection limits in osprey plasma. Based on the target analytes examined, there is little evidence that APIs represent a significant risk to ospreys nesting in Delaware Bay. If an API is present in fish orders of magnitude below HTC, sampling of fish-eating birds is unlikely to be necessary. However, several human pharmaceuticals accumulated in fish plasma within a recommended safety factor for HTC. It is now important to expand the scope of diet-based API exposure modeling to include alternative exposure pathways (e.g., uptake from landfills, dumps and wastewater treatment plants) and geographic locations (developing countries) where API contamination of the environment may represent greater risk.

  6. Examination of contaminant exposure and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Delaware Bay and River in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, Barnett A; Lazarus, Rebecca S; Bean, Thomas G; McGowan, Peter C; Callahan, Carl R; Erickson, Richard A; Hale, Robert C

    2018-05-22

    A study of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in the coastal Inland Bays of Delaware, and the Delaware Bay and Delaware River in 2015 examined spatial and temporal trends in contaminant exposure, food web transfer and reproduction. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), coplanar PCB toxic equivalents, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants in sample eggs were generally greatest in the Delaware River. Concentrations of legacy contaminants in 2015 Delaware Bay eggs were lower than values observed in the 1970s through early 2000s. Several alternative brominated flame retardants were rarely detected, with only TBPH [bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate)] present in 5 of 27 samples at <5 ng/g wet weight. No relation was found between p,p'-DDE, total PCBs or total PBDEs in eggs with egg hatching, eggs lost from nests, nestling loss, fledging and nest success. Osprey eggshell thickness recovered to pre-DDT era values, and productivity was adequate to sustain a stable population. Prey fish contaminant concentrations were generally less than those in osprey eggs, with detection frequencies and concentrations greatest in white perch (Morone americana) from Delaware River compared to the Bay. Biomagnification factors from fish to eggs for p,p'-DDE and total PCBs were generally similar to findings from several Chesapeake Bay tributaries. Overall, findings suggest that there have been improvements in Delaware Estuary waterbird habitat compared to the second half of the 20th century. This trend is in part associated with mitigation of some anthropogenic contaminant threats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...., between Reedy Point, Delaware River, and Old Town Point Wharf, Elk River. (b) Speed. No vessel in the..., are required to travel at all times at a safe speed throughout the canal and its approaches so as to... Point and Welch Point. (f) Sailboats. Transiting the canal by vessels under sail is not permitted...

  8. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  9. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  10. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  11. Delaware Bay, Delaware Benthic Habitats 2010 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  12. Delaware Bay, Delaware Sediment Distribution 2003 to 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 38 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2003 to 2004 along the middle to lower Delaware Bay Coast. The bottom sediment map...

  13. 78 FR 63972 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the 2014 Delaware River and Bay Water Quality Assessment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Water Quality Assessment Report AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice....us , with ``Water Quality Assessment 2014'' as the subject line; via fax to 609-883-9522; via U.S. Mail to DRBC, Attn: Water Quality Assessment 2014, P.O. Box 7360, West Trenton, NJ 08628-0360; via...

  14. 76 FR 50188 - Notice of Proposed Methodology for the Delaware River and Bay Integrated List Water Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Integrated List Water Quality Assessment AGENCY: Delaware River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Integrated List Water Quality Assessment is available for review and comment. DATES: Comments must be... should have the phrase ``Water Quality Assessment 2012'' in the subject line and should include the name...

  15. 78 FR 39601 - Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone, Sugar House Casino Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: Coast... the Delaware River. Sugar House Casino has contracted with Pyrotecnico Fireworks to arrange for this display. The Captain of the Port, Sector Delaware Bay, has determined that the Sugar House Casino...

  16. 78 FR 36658 - Safety Zone; Delaware River Waterfront Corp. Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... portion of the Delaware River from operating while a fireworks event is taking place. This temporary...-AA00 Safety Zone; Delaware River Waterfront Corp. Fireworks Display, Delaware River; Camden, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary...

  17. Delaware Bay Database; Delaware Sea Grant College Program, 28 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8900151)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Delaware Bay database contains records of discrete quality observations, collected on 40 oceanographic cruises between May 1978 and October 1985. Each record...

  18. Measuring Macrobenthos Biodiversity at Oyster Aquaculture Sites in the Delaware Inland Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuoco, M. J.; Ozbay, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Delaware Inland Bays consists of three shallow coastal bays located in the southern portion of Delaware. Anthropogenic activities have led to the degradation of water quality, because the bays are surrounded by highly developed areas and have low flushing rates. This results in loss of biodiversity and abundance of organisms. Ongoing degradation of the bays has led to a dramatic decline in local oyster populations since the late 1800s. Oysters are keystone species, which provide habitats for organisms and help to improve water quality. This study aims to find if the introduction of oyster aquaculture improves local biodiversity and abundance of macrobenthos. The study was conducted in Rehoboth Bay, Indian River Bay and Little Assawoman Bay. Aquaculture gear was placed at one location in each of the bays and 24 sediment core samples were taken once a month. From these core samples all worms were fixed and stained in a 10% Formalin Rose Bengal solution and preserved in 70% Ethanol for later identification. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of oyster tissue will also be performed to assess the health of the bay. The goals of this research are to better understand the role of oyster aquaculture in restoring the viability and health of the Delaware Inland Bays.

  19. Seasonality in the Mesozooplankton Community of Delaware Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickline, A.; Cohen, J.

    2016-02-01

    Zooplankton communities in temperate estuaries undergo seasonal shifts in abundance and species composition, though the physical/biological mechanisms behind these shifts vary among systems. Delaware Bay is a well-mixed estuary on the mid-Atlantic coast with predictable seasonal variation in environmental conditions and circulation. To understand factors influencing mesozooplankton community dynamics in this system, we conducted seasonal sampling at 16 stations over the estuary's salinity range in 2014-2015. Sampling paralleled the last similar investigation into Delaware Bay zooplankton, conducted in the early 1950s. Biomass, measured as dry weight and totaled for all stations, was low in late summer and high in spring and fall. Bio-volume, measured either as displacement volume or calculated from ZooScan processing to exclude detritus, also showed a similar pattern. Across seasons, the mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods, representing over 60% of the relative abundance at each station. Acartia tonsa was the dominant calanoid species in summer and fall, with abundances up to 7,353 ind. m-3, which is similar to the 1950s. In spring, Centropages hamatus and C. typicus were dominant at densities up to 2,550 ind. m-3 throughout the estuary, which is an increase from the 1950s. Environmental data suggest the seasonal shift in dominance from neritic Centropages to estuarine Acartia could be driven by increased stratification of the estuary during periods of high river discharge in spring, creating a two-layer system with a bottom advection current fed by the coastal ocean, bringing coastal species into the estuary. As river discharge decreases, the advection current is reduced, creating a well-mixed estuary and allowing Acartia to dominante. As river discharge is ultimately determined by precipitation, which is predicted to increase during winter with climate change in this region, the phenology of mesozooplankton species dynamics could shift as well.

  20. Derivation of Delaware Bay tidal parameters from space shuttle photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Quanan; Yan, Xiaohai; Klemas, V.

    1993-01-01

    The tide-related parameters of the Delaware Bay are derived from space shuttle time-series photographs. The water areas in the bay are measured from interpretation maps of the photographs with a CALCOMP 9100 digitizer and ERDAS Image Processing System. The corresponding tidal levels are calculated using the exposure time annotated on the photographs. From these data, an approximate function relating the water area to the tidal level at a reference point is determined. Based on the function, the water areas of the Delaware Bay at mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW), below 0 m, and for the tidal zone are inferred. With MHW and MLW areas and the mean tidal range, the authors calculate the tidal influx of the Delaware Bay, which is 2.76 x 1O 9 m 3 . Furthermore, the velocity of flood tide at the bay mouth is determined using the tidal flux and an integral of the velocity distribution function at the cross section between Cape Henlopen and Cape May. The result is 132 cm/s, which compares well with the data on tidal current charts

  1. Concentrations of metals in blood and feathers of nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Golden, N.H.; Toschik, P.C.; McGowan, P.C.; Custer, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, 2001, and 2002, blood and feather samples were collected from 40-45-day-old nestling ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) from Chesapeake Bay and Delaware Bay and River. Concentrations of 18 metals, metalloids, and other elements were determined in these samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and Hg concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy. When compared to concurrent reference areas (South, West, and Rhode Rivers), mean As and Hg concentrations in blood were greater (p nestlings from the highly industrialized Elizabeth River compared to the rural reference area. When compared to the concurrent reference area, mean Al, Ba, Hg, Mn, and Pb concentrations in feathers were substantially greater (p nestlings from northern Delaware Bay and River had greater concentrations (p nestling feathers from Delaware were frequently greater than in the Chesapeake. The present findings and those of related reproductive studies suggest that concentrations of several heavy metals (e.g., Cd, Hg, Pb) in nestling blood and feathers from Chesapeake and Delaware Bays were below toxicity thresholds and do not seem to be affecting chick survival during the nestling period.

  2. 75 FR 33690 - Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... scenario with potential for loss of life and property. Basis and Purpose The New Hope Chamber of Commerce... to protect life and property operating on the navigable waterways of the Delaware River in New Hope...-AA00 Safety Zone, Lights on the River Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA AGENCY: Coast...

  3. Delaware Bay Upper Shelf Bottom Sediments 2008-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Program of Delaware's Division of Soil and Water conservation (DNREC), the University of Delaware, Partnership for the Delaware Estuary, and the New...

  4. Novel coronavirus and astrovirus in Delaware Bay shorebirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi S Honkavuori

    Full Text Available Wild birds are an important but to some extent under-studied reservoir for emerging pathogens. We used unbiased sequencing methods for virus discovery in shorebird samples from the Delaware Bay, USA; an important feeding ground for thousands of migratory birds.Analysis of shorebird fecal samples indicated the presence of a novel astrovirus and coronavirus. A sanderling sample yielded sequences with distant homology to avian nephritis virus 1, an astrovirus associated with acute nephritis in poultry. A ruddy turnstone sample yielded sequences with homology to deltacoronaviruses.Our findings highlight shorebirds as a virus reservoir and the need to closely monitor wild bird populations for the emergence of novel virus variants.

  5. National Status and Trends: Bioeffects Assessment Program, Delaware Bay Summary Database (1997)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  6. Surface Currents and Winds at the Delaware Bay Mouth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscarella, P A; Barton, N P; Lipphardt, B L; Veron, D E; Wong, K C; Kirwan, A D

    2011-04-06

    Knowledge of the circulation of estuaries and adjacent shelf waters has relied on hydrographic measurements, moorings, and local wind observations usually removed from the region of interest. Although these observations are certainly sufficient to identify major characteristics, they lack both spatial resolution and temporal coverage. High resolution synoptic observations are required to identify important coastal processes at smaller scales. Long observation periods are needed to properly sample low-frequency processes that may also be important. The introduction of high-frequency (HF) radar measurements and regional wind models for coastal studies is changing this situation. Here we analyze synoptic, high-resolution surface winds and currents in the Delaware Bay mouth over an eight-month period (October 2007 through May 2008). The surface currents were measured by two high-frequency radars while the surface winds were extracted from a data-assimilating regional wind model. To illustrate the utility of these monitoring tools we focus on two 45-day periods which previously were shown to present contrasting pictures of the circulation. One, the low-outflow period is from 1 October through 14 November 2007; the other is the high-outflow period from 3 March through 16 April 2008. The large-scale characteristics noted by previous workers are clearly corroborated. Specifically the M2 tide dominates the surface currents, and the Delaware Bay outflow plume is clearly evident in the low frequency currents. Several new aspects of the surface circulation were also identified. These include a map of the spatial variability of the M2 tide (validating an earlier model study), persistent low-frequency cross-mouth flow, and a rapid response of the surface currents to a changing wind field. However, strong wind episodes did not persist long enough to set up a sustained Ekman response.

  7. Modern sedimentary environments in a large tidal estuary, Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data from an extensive grid of sidescan-sonar records reveal the distribution of sedimentary environments in the large, tidally dominated Delaware Bay estuary. Bathymetric features of the estuary include large tidal channels under the relatively deep (> 10 m water depth) central part of the bay, linear sand shoals (2-8 m relief) that parallel the sides of the tidal channels, and broad, low-relief plains that form the shallow bay margins. The two sedimentary environments that were identified are characterized by either (1) bedload transport and/or erosion or (2) sediment reworking and/or deposition. Sand waves and sand ribbons, composed of medium to coarse sands, define sites of active bedload transport within the tidal channels and in gaps between the linear shoals. The sand waves have spacings that vary from 1 to 70 m, amplitudes of 2 m or less, and crestlines that are usually straight. The orientations of the sand waves and ribbons indicate that bottom sediment movement may be toward either the northwest or southeast along the trends of the tidal channels, although sand-wave asymmetry indicates that the net bottom transport is directed northwestward toward the head of the bay. Gravelly, coarse-grained sediments, which appear as strongly reflective patterns on the sonographs, are also present along the axes and flanks of the tidal channels. These coarse sediments are lag deposits that have developed primarily where older strata were eroded at the bay floor. Conversely, fine sands that compose the linear shoals and muddy sands that cover the shallow bay margins appear mainly on the sonographs either as smooth featureless beds that have uniform light to moderate shading or as mosaics of light and dark patches produced by variations in grain size. These acoustic and textural characteristics are the result of sediment deposition and reworking. Data from this study (1) support the hypothesis that bed configurations under deep tidal flows are functions of current

  8. Skylab/EREP application to ecological, geological, and oceanographic investigations of Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Bartlett, D. S.; Philpot, W. D.; Rogers, R. H.; Reed, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    Skylab/EREP S190A and S190B film products were optically enhanced and visually interpreted to extract data suitable for; (1) mapping coastal land use; (2) inventorying wetlands vegetation; (3) monitoring tidal conditions; (4) observing suspended sediment patterns; (5) charting surface currents; (6) locating coastal fronts and water mass boundaries; (7) monitoring industrial and municipal waste dumps in the ocean; (8) determining the size and flow direction of river, bay and man-made discharge plumes; and (9) observing ship traffic. Film products were visually analyzed to identify and map ten land-use and vegetation categories at a scale of 1:125,000. Digital tapes from the multispectral scanner were used to prepare thematic maps of land use. Classification accuracies obtained by comparison of derived thematic maps of land-use with USGS-CARETS land-use maps in southern Delaware ranged from 44 percent to 100 percent.

  9. Composition and temporal patterns of larval fish communities in Chesapeake and Delaware Bays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ribeiro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Comparing larval fish assemblages in different estuaries provides insights about the coastal distribution of larval populations, larval transport, and adult spawning locations (Ribeiro et al. 2015. We simultaneously compared the larval fish assemblages entering two Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB estuaries (Delaware Bay and Chesapeake Bay, USA through weekly sampling from 2007 to 2009. In total, 43 taxa (32 families and 36 taxa (24 families were collected in Delaware and Chesapeake Bays, respectively. Mean taxonomic diversity, mean richness, and evenness were generally lower in Delaware Bay. Communities of both bays were dominated by Anchoa spp., Gobiosoma spp., Micropogonias undulatus, and Brevoortia tyrannus; Paralichthys spp. was more abundant in Delaware Bay and Microgobius thalassinus was more abundant in Chesapeake Bay. Inter-annual variation in the larval fish communities was low at both sites, with a relatively consistent composition across years, but strong seasonal (intra-annual variation in species composition occurred in both bays. Two groups were identified in Chesapeake Bay: a ‘winter’ group dominated by shelf-spawned species (e.g. M. undulatus and a ‘summer’ group comprising obligate estuarine species and coastal species (e.g. Gobiosoma spp. and Cynoscion regalis, respectively. In Delaware Bay, 4 groups were identified: a ‘summer’ group of mainly obligate estuarine fishes (e.g. Menidia sp. being replaced by a ‘fall’ group (e.g. Ctenogobius boleosoma and Gobionellus oceanicus; ‘winter’ and ‘spring’ groups were dominated by shelf-spawned (e.g. M. undulatus and Paralichthys spp. and obligate estuarine species (e.g. Leiostomus xanthurus and Pseudopleuronectes americanus, respectively. This study demonstrates that inexpensive and simultaneous sampling in different estuaries provides important insights into the variability in community structure of fish assemblages at large spatial scales.

  10. Monitoring coastal water properties and current circulation with ERTS-1. [Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V.; Otley, M.; Wethe, C.; Rogers, R.

    1974-01-01

    Imagery and digital tapes from nine successful ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay during different portions of the tidal cycle have been analyzed with special emphasis on turbidity, current circulation, waste disposal plumes and convergent boundaries between different water masses. ERTS-1 image radiance correlated well with Secchi depth and suspended sediment concentration. Circulation patterns observed by ERTS-1 during different parts of the tidal cycle, agreed well with predicted and measured currents throughout Delaware Bay. Convergent shear boundaries between different water masses were observed from ERTS-1. In several ERTS-1 frames, waste disposal plumes have been detected 36 miles off Delaware's Atlantic coast. The ERTS-1 results are being used to extend and verify hydrodynamic models of the bay, developed for predicting oil slick movement and estimating sediment transport.

  11. 33 CFR 100.T05-0443 - Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Delaware River, New Hope, PA. 100.T05-0443 Section 100.T05-0443 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Safety Zone; Fireworks Display, Delaware River, New Hope, PA. (a) Location. The safety zone will restrict.... Bridge located in New Hope, PA, and 400 ft east of the shoreline of New Hope, PA. (b) Regulations. (1) No...

  12. Atmospheric nitrogen inputs to the Delaware Inland Bays: the role of ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scudlark, Joseph R.; Jennings, Jennifer A.; Roadman, Megan J.; Savidge, Karen B.; Ullman, William J.

    2005-01-01

    + wet deposition within the Inland Bays watershed. In a pilot study, precipitation composition at the Lewes NADP-AIRMoN site (DE 02) was compared with that at a satellite site established at Riverdale on the Indian River Estuary, approximately 21 km southwest. While the volume-weighted mean precipitation NO 3 - concentrations did not differ significantly between sites, the NH 4 + concentration observed at Riverdale (26.3 μmoles L -1 ) was 73% greater than at Lewes (15.2 μmoles L -1 ). More recently, a NADP site was established at Trap Pond, DE (DE 99), which was intentionally located within the region of intense poultry production. A comparison of the initial two years (6/2001-5/2003) of precipitation chemistry data from Trap Pond with other nearby NADP-AIRMoN sites (Lewes and Smith Island) reveals fairly homogeneous NO 3 - wet deposition, but significant spatial differences (∼60%) in the NH 4 + wet flux. Overall, these results suggest that local emissions and below-cloud scavenging provide a significant contribution to regional atmospheric N deposition. - Local emissions from poultry production appear to significantly contribute to wet and dry atmospheric NH x loading to the Delaware Inland Bays

  13. NOAA Office for Coastal Management RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Benthic Habitat Data, Rehoboth Bay, Delaware, 2000 (NODC Accession 0089461)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs (DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  14. RoxAnn Acoustic Sensor Data Points - Rehoboth Bay, Delaware Algae Mapping with Single Beam Acoustics: June 12 - 16, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the spring of 1999, the Delaware Coastal Programs(DCP) identified the spatial extent of macroalgae in the shallow portions of Rehoboth Bay utilizing...

  15. Biological, chemical, and physical data collected in Delaware Bay from 2 Sep 1997 to 8 Oct 1997 (NODC Accession 0118720)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study was based on the sediment quality triad (SQT) approach. A stratified probabilistic sampling design was utilized to characterize the Delaware Bay system in...

  16. Prevalence of Perkinsus marinus (dermo), Haplosporidium nelsoni (MSX), and QPX in bivalves of Delaware's inland bays and quantitative, high-throughput diagnosis of dermo by QPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Paul N; Ewart, John W; Marsh, Adam G

    2007-01-01

    Restoration of oyster reef habitat in the Inland Bays of Delaware was accompanied by an effort to detect and determine relative abundance of the bivalve pathogens Perkinsus marinus, Haplosporidium nelsoni, and QPX. Both the oyster Crassostrea virginica and the clam Mercenaria mercenaria were sampled from the bays. In addition, oysters were deployed at eight sites around the bays as sentinels for the three parasites. Perkinsus marinus prevalence was measured with a real-time, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methodology that enabled high-throughput detection of as few as 31 copies of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer region in 500 ng oyster DNA. The other pathogens were assayed using PCR with species-specific primers. Perkinsus marinus was identified in Indian River Bay at moderate prevalence ( approximately 40%) in both an artificial reef and a wild oyster population whereas sentinel oysters were PCR-negative after 3-months exposure during summer and early fall. Haplosporidium nelsoni was restricted to one oyster deployed in Little Assawoman Bay. QPX and P. marinus were not detected among wild clams. While oysters in these bays have historically been under the greatest threat by MSX, it is apparent that P. marinus currently poses a greater threat to recovery of oyster aquaculture in Delaware's Inland Bays.

  17. Comparative status and assessment of Limulus polyphemus with emphasis on the New England and Delaware Bay populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David; Millard, Michael J.; Carmichael, Ruth H.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in harvest of the American horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) during the 1990s, particularly for whelk bait, coupled with decreases in species that depend on their eggs has reduced horseshoe crab abundance, threatened their ecological relationships, and dictated precautionary management of the horseshoe crab resource. Accordingly, population assessments and monitoring programs have been developed throughout much of the horseshoe crab’s range. We review and discuss implications for several recent assessments of Delaware Bay and New England populations and a meta-analysis of region-specific trends. These assessments show that the western Atlantic distribution of the horseshoe crab is comprised of regional or estuarine-specific meta-populations, which exhibit distinct population dynamics and require management as separate units. Modeling of Delaware Bay and Cape Cod populations confirmed that overharvest caused declines, but indicated that some harvest levels are sustainable and consistent with population growth. Coast-wide harvest was reduced by 70% from 1998 to 2006, with the greatest reductions within Delaware Bay states. Harvest regulations in Delaware Bay starting in the late 1990s, such as harvest quotas, seasonal closures, male-only harvest, voluntary use of bait-saving devices, and establishment of the Carl N. Shuster Jr. Horseshoe Crab Reserve, were followed by stabilization and recent evidence of increase in abundance of horseshoe crabs in the region. However, decreased harvest of the Delaware Bay population has redirected harvest to outlying populations, particularly in New York and New England. While the recent Delaware Bay assessments indicate positive population growth, increased harvest elsewhere is believed to be unsustainable. Two important considerations for future assessments include (1) managing Delaware Bay horseshoe crab populations within a multi-species context, for example, to help support migratory shorebirds and (2

  18. Nitrogen metabolism of the eutrophic Delaware River ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the nitrogen cycle in the Delaware River was carried out using 13 N tracers to measure rates for important transformations of nitrogen. Daily, depth-averaged 15 N rates for the principal inorganic nitrogen species were consistent with rates derived from longitudinal profiles of concentration in the river. The data indicated that nitrification was a rapid, irreversible sink for NH 4 + , with export of the product NO 3 - from the study area. Utilization of NO 3 - by primary producers was negligible, owing to low irradiance levels and to high NH 4 + concentrations. The oxygen sag near Philadelphia was found to result from oxygen demand in the water column, with only minor benthic influence. Reaeration provided the major oxygen input. Nitrification accounted for about 1% of the net oxygen demand near Philadelphia but as much as 25% farther downstream

  19. Hindcasting of Storm Surges, Currents, and Waves at Lower Delaware Bay during Hurricane Isabel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, M.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricanes are a major threat to coastal communities and infrastructures including nuclear power plants located in low-lying coastal zones. In response, their sensitive elements should be protected by smart design to withstand against drastic impact of such natural phenomena. Accurate and reliable estimate of hurricane attributes is the first step to that effort. Numerical models have extensively grown over the past few years and are effective tools in modeling large scale natural events such as hurricane. The impact of low probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay is investigated using dynamically coupled meteorological, hydrodynamic, and wave components of Delft3D software. Efforts are made to significantly reduce the computational overburden of performing such analysis for the industry, yet keeping the same level of accuracy at the area of study (AOS). The model is comprised of overall and nested domains. The overall model domain includes portion of Atlantic Ocean, Delaware, and Chesapeake bays. The nested model domain includes Delaware Bay, its floodplain, and portion of the continental shelf. This study is portion of a larger modeling effort to study the impact of low probability hurricanes on sensitive infrastructures located at the coastal zones prone to hurricane activity. The AOS is located on the east bank of Delaware Bay almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. Model generated wind speed, significant wave height, water surface elevation, and current are calibrated for hurricane Isabel (2003). The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations. Furthermore, sensitivity of surge and wave responses to various hurricane parameters was tested. In line with findings from other researchers, accuracy of wind field played a major role in hindcasting the hurricane attributes.

  20. Development, calibration, and analysis of a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica L.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2003-01-01

    Excessive nutrients and sediment are among the most significant environmental stressors in the Delaware Inland Bays (Rehoboth, Indian River, and Little Assawoman Bays). Sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants within the Inland Bays watershed include point-source discharges from industries and wastewater-treatment plants, runoff and infiltration to ground water from agricultural fields and poultry operations, effluent from on-site wastewater disposal systems, and atmospheric deposition. To determine the most effective restoration methods for the Inland Bays, it is necessary to understand the relative distribution and contribution of each of the possible sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants. A cooperative study involving the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the Delaware Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 2000 to develop a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed that can be used as a water-resources planning and management tool. The model code Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was used. The 719-square-kilometer watershed was divided into 45 model segments, and the model was calibrated using streamflow and water-quality data for January 1999 through April 2000 from six U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations within the watershed. Calibration for some parameters was accomplished using PEST, a model-independent parameter estimator. Model parameters were adjusted systematically so that the discrepancies between the simulated values and the corresponding observations were minimized. Modeling results indicate that soil and aquifer permeability, ditching, dominant land-use class, and land-use practices affect the amount of runoff, the mechanism or flow path (surface flow, interflow, or base flow), and the loads of sediment and nutrients. In general, the edge-of-stream total suspended solids yields in the Inland Bays

  1. Nelson River and Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Rivers that empty into large bodies of water can have a significant impact on the thawing of nearshore winter ice. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 18, 2001, shows the Nelson River emptying spring runoff from the Manitoba province to the south into the southwestern corner of Canada's Hudson Bay. The warmer waters from more southern latitudes hasten melting of ice near the shore, though some still remained, perhaps because in shallow coastal waters, the ice could have been anchored to the bottom. High volumes of sediment in the runoff turned the inflow brown, and the rim of the retreating ice has taken on a dirty appearance even far to the east of the river's entrance into the Bay. The sediment would have further hastened the melting of the ice because its darker color would have absorbed more solar radiation than cleaner, whiter ice. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  2. Settlement to Improve Water Quality in Delaware River, Philadelphia-Area Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice have reached agreement with a major water utility in the greater Philadelphia area to significantly reduce sewage discharges to the Delaware River and local creeks.

  3. Implementation of a framework for multi-species, multi-objective adaptive management in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.; Nichols, James D.; Lyons, James E.; Sweka, John A.; Kalasz, Kevin; Niles, Lawrence J.; Wong, Richard; Brust, Jeffrey; Davis, Michelle C.; Spear, Braddock

    2015-01-01

    Decision analytic approaches have been widely recommended as well suited to solving disputed and ecologically complex natural resource management problems with multiple objectives and high uncertainty. However, the difference between theory and practice is substantial, as there are very few actual resource management programs that represent formal applications of decision analysis. We applied the process of structured decision making to Atlantic horseshoe crab harvest decisions in the Delaware Bay region to develop a multispecies adaptive management (AM) plan, which is currently being implemented. Horseshoe crab harvest has been a controversial management issue since the late 1990s. A largely unregulated horseshoe crab harvest caused a decline in crab spawning abundance. That decline coincided with a major decline in migratory shorebird populations that consume horseshoe crab eggs on the sandy beaches of Delaware Bay during spring migration. Our approach incorporated multiple stakeholders, including fishery and shorebird conservation advocates, to account for diverse management objectives and varied opinions on ecosystem function. Through consensus building, we devised an objective statement and quantitative objective function to evaluate alternative crab harvest policies. We developed a set of competing ecological models accounting for the leading hypotheses on the interaction between shorebirds and horseshoe crabs. The models were initially weighted based on stakeholder confidence in these hypotheses, but weights will be adjusted based on monitoring and Bayesian model weight updating. These models were used together to predict the effects of management actions on the crab and shorebird populations. Finally, we used a dynamic optimization routine to identify the state dependent optimal harvest policy for horseshoe crabs, given the possible actions, the stated objectives and our competing hypotheses about system function. The AM plan was reviewed, accepted and

  4. Ground-water resources in the tri-state region adjacent to the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Henry C.; Greenman, David W.; Lang, Solomon Max; Hilton, George Stockbridge; Outlaw, Donald E.

    1958-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to appraise and evaluate the groundwater resources of a tri-state region adjacent to the lower Delaware River that is centered around Philadelphia, Pa., and Camden, N. J., and includes Wilmington, Del., and Trenton, N.J. Specifically, the region includes New Castle County, Del.; Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Mercer, and Salem Counties in New Jersey; and Bucks, Chester, Delaware, Montgomery, and Philadelphia Counties in Pennsylvania.

  5. Water quality trends in the Delaware River Basin (USA) from 1980 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Gerald J; Homsey, Andrew R; Belden, Andrew C; Sanchez, Jessica Rittler

    2011-06-01

    In 1940, the tidal Delaware River was "one of the most grossly polluted areas in the United States." During the 1950s, water quality was so poor along the river at Philadelphia that zero oxygen levels prevented migration of American shad leading to near extirpation of the species. Since then, water quality in the Delaware Basin has improved with implementation of the 1961 Delaware River Basin Compact and 1970s Federal Clean Water Act Amendments. At 15 gages along the Delaware River and major tributaries between 1980 and 2005, water quality for dissolved oxygen, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sediment improved at 39%, remained constant at 51%, and degraded at 10% of the stations. Since 1980, improved water-quality stations outnumbered degraded stations by a 4 to 1 margin. Water quality remains good in the nontidal river above Trenton and, while improved, remains fair to poor for phosphorus and nitrogen in the tidal estuary near Philadelphia and in the Lehigh and Schuylkill tributaries. Water quality is good in heavily forested watersheds (>50%) and poor in highly cultivated watersheds. Water quality recovery in the Delaware Basin is coincident with implementation of environmental laws enacted in the 1960s and 1970s and is congruent with return of striped bass, shad, blue crab, and bald eagle populations.

  6. Methylmercury bioaccumulation in an urban estuary: Delaware River USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckman, Kate; Taylor, Vivien; Broadley, Hannah; Hocking, Daniel; Balcom, Prentiss; Mason, Rob; Nislow, Keith; Chen, Celia

    2017-09-01

    Spatial variation in mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) bioaccumulation in urban coastal watersheds reflects complex interactions between Hg sources, land use, and environmental gradients. We examined MeHg concentrations in fauna from the Delaware River estuary, and related these measurements to environmental parameters and human impacts on the waterway. The sampling sites followed a north to south gradient of increasing salinity, decreasing urban influence, and increasing marsh cover. Although mean total Hg in surface sediments (top 4cm) peaked in the urban estuarine turbidity maximum and generally decreased downstream, surface sediment MeHg concentrations showed no spatial patterns consistent with the examined environmental gradients, indicating urban influence on Hg loading to the sediment but not subsequent methylation. Surface water particulate MeHg concentration showed a positive correlation with marsh cover whereas dissolved MeHg concentrations were slightly elevated in the estuarine turbidity maximum region. Spatial patterns of MeHg bioaccumulation in resident fauna varied across taxa. Small fish showed increased MeHg concentrations in the more urban/industrial sites upstream, with concentrations generally decreasing farther downstream. Invertebrates either showed no clear spatial patterns in MeHg concentrations (blue crabs, fiddler crabs) or increasing concentrations further downstream (grass shrimp). Best-supported linear mixed models relating tissue concentration to environmental variables reflected these complex patterns, with species specific model results dominated by random site effects with a combination of particulate MeHg and landscape variables influencing bioaccumulation in some species. The data strengthen accumulating evidence that bioaccumulation in estuaries can be decoupled from sediment MeHg concentration, and that drivers of MeHg production and fate may vary within a small region.

  7. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers RWJ Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Niles, Lawrence [Conserve Wildlife, 109 Market Lane, Greenwich, NJ (United States); Dey, Amanda [NJ Department of Environmental Protection, Endangered and Nongame Species Program, Trenton, NJ (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, NJ (United States); Tsipoura, Nellie [New Jersey Audubon Society, 11 Hardscrabble Rd, Bernardsville, NJ (United States)

    2014-08-15

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  8. Metals in tissues of migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) from Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Dey, Amanda; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Tsipoura, Nellie

    2014-01-01

    There is an abundance of field data on levels of metals for feathers in a variety of birds, but relatively few data for tissues, especially for migrant species from one location. In this paper we examine the levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium in muscle, liver, brain, fat and breast feathers from migrant semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) collected from Delaware Bay, New Jersey. Our primary objectives were to (1) examine variation as a function of tissue, (2) determine the relationship of metal levels among tissues, and (3) determine the selenium:mercury molar ratio in different tissues since selenium is thought to protect against mercury toxicity. We were also interested in whether the large physiological changes that occur while shorebirds are on Delaware Bay (e.g. large weight gains in 2–3 weeks) affected metal levels, especially in the brain. There were significant differences among tissues for all metals. The brain had the lowest levels of arsenic and cadmium, and was tied for the lowest levels of all other metals except lead and selenium. Correlations among metals in tissues were varied, with mercury levels being positively correlated for muscle and brain, and for liver and breast feathers. Weights vary among individuals at the Delaware Bay stopover, as they arrive light, and gain weight prior to migration north. Bird weight and levels of arsenic, cadmium, and selenium in the brain were negatively correlated, while they were positively correlated for lead. There was no positive correlation for mercury in the brain as a function of body weight. The selenium:mercury molar ratio varied significantly among tissues, with brain (ratio of 141) and fat having the highest ratios, and liver and breast feathers having the lowest. In all cases, the ratio was above 21, suggesting the potential for amelioration of mercury toxicity. - Highlights: • Metal levels were examined for migrant semipalmated sandpipers. • There

  9. Climate change effects on forests, water resources, and communities of the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will Price; Susan Beecher

    2014-01-01

    The Delaware River provides drinking water to 5 percent of the United States, or approximately 16.2 million people living in 4 states, 42 counties, and over 800 municipalities. The more than 1.5 billion gallons withdrawn or diverted daily for drinking water is delivered by more than 140 purveyors, yet constitutes less than 20 percent of the average daily withdrawals....

  10. Proximate causes of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus Polyphemus) of the Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.R.; Mandt, M.T.; Macdonald, P.D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The unresolved status of the proximate cause for sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs has practical consequence, because harvest recommendations rely on assumptions about sex-specific growth and maturity. We propose and evaluate competing hypotheses for the proximate cause of sexual size dimorphism in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) by comparing size and estimated age frequencies from spring-captured juveniles (n = 9,075) and adults (n = 36,274) to predictions from the competing hypotheses. We found that the number of identifiable juvenile size distributions was greater for females than males and the probability of remaining a juvenile was higher for females than males among older juveniles. These findings are consistent with males maturing earlier than females. Molt increments and mean sizes were similar for male and female juveniles, which is not consistent with differential growth. Among adults, one size distribution accounted for ???90% of females regardless of carapace wear. Also, size ratio of adult females to males was 1.26, and size ratio of the largest adult to largest juvenile female was 1.28. These observations are not consistent with females continuing to molt as adults. Differential-maturity is the most parsimonious explanation for sexual size dimorphism in Delaware Bay horseshoe crabs. In addition, because of a low frequency of juvenile females >195 mm relative to adult females and male-biased sex ratios starting at 105 mm, we hypothesize that females, more than males, migrate as older juveniles and mature in the ocean. Management implications include that (1) minimum size limits, as previously suggested, would not allocate harvest to older adults as intended because size does not indicate age among adult horseshoe crabs in the Delaware Bay population, and (2) the Shuster Horseshoe Crab Reserve, which has reduced harvest on the continental shelf, could be protecting older juveniles and newly mature females from harvest prior to their first

  11. The Cost of Clean Water in the Delaware River Basin (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald J. Kauffman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Delaware River has made a marked recovery in the half-century since the adoption of the Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC Compact in 1961 and passage of the Federal Clean Water Act amendments during the 1970s. During the 1960s, the DRBC set a 3.5 mg/L dissolved oxygen criterion for the river based on an economic analysis that concluded that a waste load abatement program designed to meet fishable water quality goals would generate significant recreational and environmental benefits. Scientists with the Delaware Estuary Program have recently called for raising the 1960s dissolved oxygen criterion along the Delaware River from 3.5 mg/L to 5.0 mg/L to protect anadromous American shad and Atlantic sturgeon, and address the prospect of rising temperatures, sea levels, and salinity in the estuary. This research concludes, through a nitrogen marginal abatement cost (MAC analysis, that it would be cost-effective to raise dissolved oxygen levels to meet a more stringent standard by prioritizing agricultural conservation and some wastewater treatment investments in the Delaware River watershed to remove 90% of the nitrogen load by 13.6 million kg N/year (30 million lb N/year for just 35% ($160 million of the $449 million total cost. The annual least cost to reduce nitrogen loads and raise dissolved oxygen levels to meet more stringent water quality standards in the Delaware River totals $45 million for atmospheric NOX reduction, $130 million for wastewater treatment, $132 million for agriculture conservation, and $141 million for urban stormwater retrofitting. This 21st century least cost analysis estimates that an annual investment of $50 million is needed to reduce pollutant loads in the Delaware River to raise dissolved oxygen levels to 4.0 mg/L, $150 million is needed for dissolved oxygen levels to reach 4.5 mg/L, and $449 million is needed for dissolved oxygen levels to reach 5.0 mg/L.

  12. Effects of Microbial and Heavy Metal Contaminants on Environmental/Ecological Health and Revitalization of Coastal Ecosystems in Delaware Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnihal Ozbay

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of heavy metals, excess nutrients, and microbial contaminants in aquatic systems of coastal Delaware has become a public concern as human population increases and land development continues. Delaware's coastal lagoons have been subjected to problems commonly shared by other coastal Mid-Atlantic states: turbidity, sedimentation, eutrophication, periodic hypoxic/anoxic conditions, toxic substances, and high bacterial levels. The cumulative impact of pollutants from run-off and point sources has degraded water quality, reduced the diversity and abundance of various fish species, invertebrates, and submerged aquatic vegetation. The effects are especially pronounced within the manmade dead end canal systems. In this article, we present selected case studies conducted in the Delaware Inland Bays. Due to the ecological services provided by bivalves, our studies in Delaware Inland Bays are geared toward oysters with special focus on the microbial loads followed by the water quality assessments of the bay. The relationships between oysters (Crassostrea virginica, microbial loads and nutrient levels in the water were investigated. The heavy metal levels monitored further away from the waste water treatment plant in the inland bays are marginally higher than the recommended EPA limits. Also, our studies confirmed that aerobic bacteria and Vibrionaceae levels are salinity dependent. Total bacteria in oysters increased when nitrate and total suspended solids increased in the waters. Studies such as these are important because every year millions of Americans consume raw oysters. Data collected over the last 10 years from our studies may be used to build a predictive index of conditions that are favorable for the proliferation of human pathogenic bacteria. Results from this study will benefit the local community by helping them understand the importance of oyster aquaculture and safe consumption of oysters while making them appreciate their

  13. Holocene depocenter migration and sediment accumulation in Delaware Bay: A submerging marginal marine sedimentary basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, C. H.; Knebel, H.J.; Kraft, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The Holocene transgression of the Delaware Bay estuary and adjacent Atlantic coast results from the combined effect of regional crustal subsidence and eustasy. Together, the estuary and ocean coast constitute a small sedimentary basin whose principal depocenter has migrated with the transgression. A millenial time series of isopach and paleogeographic reconstructions for the migrating depocenter outlines the basin-wide pattern of sediment distribution and accumulation. Upland sediments entering the basin through the estuarine turbidity maximum accumulate in tidal wetland or open water sedimentary environments. Wind-wave activity at the edge of the tidal wetlands erodes the aggraded Holocene section and builds migrating washover barriers. Along the Atlantic and estuary coasts of Delaware, the area of the upland environment decreases from 2.0 billion m2 to 730 million m2 during the transgression. The area of the tidal wetland environment increases from 140 million to 270 million m2, and due to the widening of the estuary the area of open water increases from 190 million to 1.21 billion m2. Gross uncorrected rates of sediment accumulation for the tidal wetlands decrease from 0.64 mm/yr at 6 ka to 0.48 mm/yr at 1 ka. In the open water environments uncorrected rates decrease from 0.50 mm/yr to 0.04 mm/yr over the same period. We also present data on total sediment volumes within the tidal wetland and open water environments at specific intervals during the Holocene. 

  14. Using transplanted bivalves to assess oil exposure and effects in Delaware Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, M.; Salazar, S.; Mearns, A.; Venosa, A.; Eberhart, B.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation, the US EPA oiled intertidal plots in Delaware Bay and monitored oil degradation rates. This controlled release of oil was also used to test the utility of transplanted bivalves in assessing oil spills and to evaluate the extent and potential effects of the release. Measuring the accumulation of oil in bivalve tissues was used to estimate exposure and the extent of contamination. Growth was used to estimate potential bioeffects. Approximately 1,800 mussels and 1,200 oysters were transplanted to 11 intertidal sites. Five treatment sites were within 1 meter of the lower end of the oiled plots. A total of six sites were used as controls, three on either side of the oiled plots at 5, 10, and 100 m. Samples were taken on Day 0, 2, 15, and 28 to estimate the rate of bioaccumulation. All of the mussels died within the first week of exposure; oysters exhibited over 95% survival but growth was minimal. The authors found a statistically significant difference in tissue weights when comparing treatment sites with control sites. The total concentration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of oysters nearest the oiled plots increased by a factor of four after an exposure period of two days. PAH concentrations in control oysters nearest the mouth of the bay increased slightly but the differences were not statistically significant. The control oysters nearest the head of the bay received an intermediate dose which was depurated by the end of the 28-day experiment. PAHs in the oysters nearest the oiled plots approached but did not return to background levels by the end of the test

  15. 33 CFR 100.919 - International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false International Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. 100.919 Section 100.919 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Bay City River Roar, Bay City, MI. (a) Regulated Area. A regulated area is established to include all...

  16. 77 FR 38488 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY... restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce... of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence...

  17. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  18. Direct and indirect atmospheric deposition of PCBs to the Delaware River watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, Lisa A; Panangadan, Maya; Eisenreich, Steven J; Cavallo, Gregory J; Fikslin, Thomas J

    2006-04-01

    Atmospheric deposition can be an important source of PCBs to aquatic ecosystems. To develop the total maximum daily load (TMDL) for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for the tidal Delaware River (water-quality Zones 2-5), estimates of the loading of PCBs to the river from atmospheric deposition were generated from seven air-monitoring sites along the river. This paper presents the atmospheric PCB data from these sites, estimates direct atmospheric deposition fluxes, and assesses the importance of atmospheric deposition relative to other sources of PCBs to the river. Also, the relationship between indirect atmospheric deposition and PCB loads from minor tributaries to the Delaware River is discussed. Data from these sites revealed high atmospheric PCB concentrations in the Philadelphia/Camden urban area and lower regional background concentrations in the more remote areas. Wet, dry particle, and gaseous absorption deposition are estimated to contribute about 0.6, 1.8, and 6.5 kg year-(-1) sigmaPCBs to the River, respectively, exceeding the TMDL of 0.139 kg year(-1) by more than an order of magnitude. Penta-PCB watershed fluxes were obtained by dividing the tributary loads by the watershed area. The lowest of these watershed fluxes are less than approximately 1 ng m(-2) day(-1) for penta-PCB and probably indicates pristine watersheds in which PCB loads are dominated by atmospheric deposition. In these watersheds, the pass-through efficiency of PCBs is estimated to be on the order of 1%.

  19. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  20. Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalles, J.F. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA)); Sharitz, R.R.; Gibbons, J.W.; Leversee, G.J.; Knox, J.N. (Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Much of the research to date on the Carolina bays of the Savannah River Plant and elsewhere has focused on certain species or on environmental features. Different levels of detail exist for different groups of organisms and reflect the diverse interests of previous investigators. This report summarizes aspects of research to date and presents data from numerous studies. 70 refs., 14 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Intra- and inter-annual trends in phosphorus loads and comparison with nitrogen loads to Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, J.A.; Scudlark, J.R.; Savidge, K.B.; Andres, A.S.; Stenger, R.J.; Ullman, W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Monthly phosphorus loads from uplands, atmospheric deposition, and wastewater to Rehoboth Bay (Delaware) were determined from October 1998 to April 2002 to evaluate the relative importance of these three sources of P to the Bay. Loads from a representative subwatershed were determined and used in an areal extrapolation to estimate the upland load from the entire watershed. Soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) are the predominant forms of P in baseflow and P loads from the watershed are highest during the summer months. Particulate phosphorus (PP) becomes more significant in stormflow and during periods with more frequent or larger storms. Atmospheric deposition of P is only a minor source of P to Rehoboth Bay. During the period of 1998-2002, wastewater was the dominant external source of P to Rehoboth Bay, often exceeding all other P sources combined. Since 2002, however, due to technical improvements to the sole wastewater plant discharging directly to the Bay, the wastewater contribution of P has been significantly reduced and upland waters are now the principal source of P on an annualized basis. Based on comparison of N and P loads, primary productivity and biomass carrying capacity in Rehoboth Bay should be limited by P availability. However, due to the contrasting spatial and temporal patterns of N and P loading and perhaps internal cycling within the ecosystem, spatial and temporal variations in N and P-limitation within Rehoboth Bay are likely. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Groundwater quality in the Delaware and St. Lawrence River Basins, New York, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 10 production and domestic wells in the Delaware River Basin in New York and from 20 production and domestic wells in the St. Lawrence River Basin in New York from August through November 2010 to characterize groundwater quality in the basins. The samples were collected and processed by standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 147 physiochemical properties and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria.

  3. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  4. The Delaware Bay Estuary as a Classroom: A Research Experience for Future Elementary Grade-Level Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J.; Fifield, S.; Allen, D.; Shipman, H.; Ford, D.; Dagher, Z.; Brickhouse, N.

    2004-05-01

    With supplemental funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), students from the University of Delaware's Science Semester course took part in a two-day research cruise in the Delaware Bay Estuary. The Science Semester, an NSF-funded project, is an integrated 15-credit sequence that encompasses the entire course work for the spring semester for approximately 60 sophomore-level elementary education majors. The semester includes the earth, life, and physical science content courses and the education science methods course integrated into one curriculum. In this curriculum, problem-based learning and other inquiry-based approaches are applied to foster integrated understandings of science and pedagogy that future elementary teachers need to effectively use inquiry-based approaches in their classrooms. The research cruise was conducted as part of one of the four major investigations during the course. The investigation focused on Delaware's state marine animal, Limulus polyphemus. It is one of the four remaining species of horseshoe crabs; the largest spawning population of Limulus is found in Delaware Bay. Within the problem- and inquiry-based learning approaches of the Science Semester course, the students became aware that very little data exists on the benthic habitat of Limulus polyphemus. In order to learn more about this habitat, a cohort of seven students from the course was recruited as part of the scientific party to take part in the research cruise to collect data on the floor of Delaware Bay. The data included: multibeam bathymetry/backscatter data, grab samples of bay bottom sediments, and CTD profiles. Prior to the cruise, all students in the course took part in laboratory exercises to learn about topographic maps and navigation charts using the Delaware Bay area as the region of study. While "at-sea", the cruise participants sent the ship's latitude and longitude positions as a function of time. The positions were used by the on-land students to

  5. Extent and frequency of floods on Delaware River in vicinity of Belvidere, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlekas, George M.

    1966-01-01

    A stream overflowing its banks is a natural phenomenon. This natural phenomenon of flooding has occurred on the Delaware River in the past and will occur in the future. T' o resulting inundation of large areas can cause property damage, business losses and possible loss of life, and may result in emergency costs for protection, rescue, and salvage work. For optimum development of the river valley consistent with the flood risk, an evaluation of flood conditions is necessary. Basic data and the interpretation of the data on the regimen of the streams, particularly the magnitude of floods to be expected, the frequency of their occurrence, and the areas inundated, are essential for planning and development of flood-prone areas.This report presents information relative to the extent, depth, and frequency of floods on the Delaware River and its tributaries in the vicinity of Belvidere, N.J. Flooding on the tributaries detailed in the report pertains only to the effect of backwater from the Delaware River. Data are presented for several past floods with emphasis given to the floods of August 19, 1955 and May 24, 1942. In addition, information is given for a hypothetical flood based on the flood of August 19, 1955 modified by completed (since 1955) and planned flood-control works.By use of relations presented in this report the extent, depth, and frequency of flooding can be estimated for any site along the reach of the Delaware River under study. Flood data and the evaluation of the data are presented so that local and regional agencies, organizations, and individuals may have a technical basis for making decisions on the use of flood-prone areas. The Delaware River Basin Commission and the U.S. Geological Survey regard this program of flood-plain inundation studies as a positive step toward flood-damage prevention. Flood-plain inundation studies, when followed by appropriate land-use regulations, are a valuable and economical supplement to physical works for flood

  6. Potential well yields from unconsolidated deposits in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolcott, Stephen W.

    1987-01-01

    A comprehensive groundwater protection plan, developed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation in 1985, identified the need to delineate significant aquifers within the state. A map of the unconsolidated aquifers in the lower Hudson and Delaware River basins was compiled from available data on the surficial geology and well yields. It delineates the significant unconsolidated aquifers and indicates the potential yield of wells that tap these aquifers. The potential well yield is categorized into three ranges: 100 gal/min. No yield range is given for till, but some large diameter or dug wells in till may yield up 10 gal/min. (Lantz-PTT)

  7. Dynamic Management of Releases for the Delaware River Basin using NYC's Operations Support Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Wang, L.; Murphy, T.; Muralidhar, D.; Tarrier, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) has initiated design of an Operations Support Tool (OST), a state-of-the-art decision support system to provide computational and predictive support for water supply operations and planning. Using an interim version of OST, DEP and the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) have developed a provisional, one-year Delaware River Basin reservoir release program to succeed the existing Flexible Flow Management Program (FFMP) which expired on May 31, 2011. The FFMP grew out of the Good Faith Agreement of 1983 among the four Basin states (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) that established modified diversions and flow targets during drought conditions. It provided a set of release schedules as a framework for managing diversions and releases from New York City's Delaware Basin reservoirs in order to support multiple objectives, including water supply, drought mitigation, flood mitigation, tailwaters fisheries, main stem habitat, recreation, and salinity repulsion. The provisional program (OST-FFMP) defines available water based on current Upper Delaware reservoir conditions and probabilistic forecasts of reservoir inflow. Releases are then set based on a set of release schedules keyed to the water availability. Additionally, OST-FFMP attempts to provide enhanced downstream flood protection by making spill mitigation releases to keep the Delaware System reservoirs at a seasonally varying conditional storage objective. The OST-FFMP approach represents a more robust way of managing downstream releases, accounting for predicted future hydrologic conditions by making more water available for release when conditions are forecasted to be wet and protecting water supply reliability when conditions are forecasted to be dry. Further, the dynamic nature of the program allows the release decision to be adjusted as hydrologic conditions change. OST simulations predict that this

  8. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Delaware River, Delhi, New York, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Breaker, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 5-mile reach of the West Branch Delaware River through the Village and part of the Town of Delhi, New York, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Village of Delhi, the Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation District, and the Delaware County Planning Department. The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/ and the Federal Flood Inundation Mapper Web site at http://wim.usgs.gov/FIMI/FloodInundationMapper.html, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) referenced to the USGS streamgage at West Branch Delaware River upstream from Delhi, N.Y. (station number 01421900). In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model that had been used to produce the flood insurance rate maps for the most recent flood insurance study for the Town and Village of Delhi. This hydraulic model was used to compute 10 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 7 ft or near bankfull to 16 ft, which exceeds the stages that correspond to both the estimated 0.2-percent annual-exceedance-probability flood (500-year recurrence interval flood) and the maximum recorded peak flow. The simulated water-surface profiles were then combined with a geographic information system (GIS) digital elevation model, which was derived from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with a 1.2-ft (0.61-ft root mean squared error) vertical accuracy and 3.3-ft (1-meter) horizontal resolution, to delineate the area flooded at each water level. A map that was produced using this method to delineate the inundated area for the flood that occurred on August 28, 2011, agreed well with highwater marks that had been located in the field using a

  9. 33 CFR 165.553 - Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations, Delaware River, Salem County, New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone; Salem and Hope... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.553 Security Zone; Salem and Hope Creek Generation...: the waters of the Delaware River in the vicinity of the Salem and Hope Creek Generation Stations...

  10. Current direction and CTD data from moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from 1984-01-01 to 1984-12-01 (NODC Accession 8600001)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction and CTD data were collected using moored current meter and CTD casts in the Delaware Bay from January 1, 1984 to December 1, 1985. Data were...

  11. Bacteriology data from moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS-Mid Atlantic Ocean) project, 1976-11-05 to 1977-08-16 (NODC Accession 7800207)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bacteriology data were collected using moored buoy casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 5, 1976 to August 16, 1977....

  12. Zooplankton data from zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean as part of the Ocean Continental Shelf (OCS - Mid Atlantic) project, 03 November 1976 - 18 November 1977 (NODC Accession 7800340)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton data were collected using zooplankton net casts and other instruments in the Delaware Bay and North Atlantic Ocean from November 3, 1976 to November 18,...

  13. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58–1.311, NSE = 0.99–0.97, d = 0.98–0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = −0.10 to −1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed

  14. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58-1.311, NSE = 0.99-0.97, d = 0.98-0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = -0.10 to -1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed well; the

  15. 77 FR 30443 - Safety Zone; Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce, St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to establish a temporary safety zone on the St. Lawrence River, Alexandria Bay, NY. This proposed rule is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the St. Lawrence River during the Alexandria Bay Chamber of Commerce fireworks display. The safety zone established by this proposed rule is necessary to protect spectators and vessels from the hazards associated with a fireworks display.

  16. A summary of the test procedures and operational details of a Delaware River and an ocean dumping pollution monitoring experiment conducted 28 August 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Ohlhorst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Two remote sensor evaluation experiments are discussed. One experiment was conducted at the DuPont acid-dump site off the Delaware coast. The second was conducted at an organic waste outfall in the Delaware River. The operational objective of obtaining simultaneous sea truth sampling with remote sensors overpasses was met. Descriptions of the test sites, sensors, sensor platforms, flight lines, sea truth data collected, and operational chronology are presented.

  17. Freshwater mussel salvage and relocation at the Pond Eddy Bridge, Delaware River, New York and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.

    2018-03-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, freshwater mussels were salvaged and relocated from the anticipated zone of impact for the Pond Eddy Bridge construction project in New York and Pennsylvania. Five 25-meter (m) by 25-m cells along the Pennsylvania bank of the Delaware River were sampled in three generally straight-line passes by four surveyors wearing snorkel gear for a total of 180 survey minutes per cell. All mussels encountered were collected and identified to species. A subset of individuals was marked with shellfish tags, weighed, and measured prior to relocation upstream from the zone of impact. A total of 3,434 mussels, including 3,393 Elliptio complanata (eastern elliptio mussels), 39 Anodonta implicata (alewife floaters), 1 Strophitus undulatus (creeper), and 1 Pyganodon cataracta (eastern floater), were salvaged and relocated. All non-eastern elliptio species were georeferenced using a high-resolution global positioning system unit; a subset of tagged eastern elliptio was placed in transects between georeferenced points. These mussels will be monitored to assess the effects of translocation on mortality and body condition at 1 month, 1 year, and 2 years.

  18. Sensitivity of water resources in the Delaware River basin to climate variability and change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Mark A.; Wolock, David M.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Tasker, Gary D.

    1994-01-01

    Because of the greenhouse effect, projected increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels might cause global warming, which in turn could result in changes in precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration and in increases in sea level. This report describes the greenhouse effect; discusses the problems and uncertainties associated with the detection, prediction, and effects of climate change; and presents the results of sensitivity analyses of how climate change might affect water resources in the Delaware River basin. Sensitivity analyses suggest that potentially serious shortfalls of certain water resources in the basin could result if some scenarios for climate change come true . The results of model simulations of the basin streamflow demonstrate the difficulty in distinguishing the effects that climate change versus natural climate variability have on streamflow and water supply . The future direction of basin changes in most water resources, furthermore, cannot be precisely determined because of uncertainty in current projections of regional temperature and precipitation . This large uncertainty indicates that, for resource planning, information defining the sensitivities of water resources to a range of climate change is most relevant . The sensitivity analyses could be useful in developing contingency plans for evaluating and responding to changes, should they occur.

  19. Mercury, Lead, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium and Selenium in Feathers of Shorebirds during Migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey: Comparing the 1990s and 2011/2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Burger

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding temporal changes in contaminant levels in coastal environments requires comparing levels of contaminants from the same species from different time periods, particularly if species are declining. Several species of shorebirds migrating through Delaware Bay have declined from the 1980s to the present. To evaluate some contaminants as cause for the declines, we examine levels of mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, chromium and selenium in feathers of red knot (Calidris canutus, N = 46 individuals, semipalmated sandpiper (Calidris pusilla, N = 70 and sanderling (Calidris alba, N = 32 migrating through Delaware Bay, New Jersey, USA, from 1991 to 1992 (N = 40, 1995 (N = 28, and 2011–2012 (N = 80 to determine if levels have changed. We found: (1 arsenic, chromium, and lead increased in red knot and decreased in semipalmated sandpiper; (2 cadmium decreased in semipalmated sandpipers; (3 mercury decreased in red knot and sanderlings; (4 selenium decreased in red knot and increased in semipalmated sandpipers. In 2011/2012 there were significant interspecific differences for arsenic, mercury and selenium. Except for selenium, the element levels were well below levels reported for feathers of other species. The levels in feathers in red knots, sanderling, and semipalmated sandpipers from Delaware Bay in 2011/2012 were well below levels in feathers that are associated with effect levels, except for selenium. Selenium levels ranged from 3.0 µg·g−1 dry weight to 5.8 µg·g−1 (semipalmated sandpiper, within the range known to cause adverse effects, suggesting the need for further examination of selenium levels in birds. The levels of all elements were well below those reported for other marine species, except for selenium, which was near levels suggesting possible toxic effects.

  20. Bedload transport over run-of-river dams, Delaware, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam J.; Pizzuto, Jim

    2015-11-01

    We document the detailed morphology and bed sediment size distribution of a stream channel upstream and downstream of a 200-year-old run-of-river dam on the Red Clay Creek, a fifth order stream in the Piedmont of northern Delaware, and combine these data with HEC-RAS modeling and bedload transport computations. We hypothesize that coarse bed material can be carried through run-of-river impoundments before they completely fill with sediment, and we explore mechanisms to facilitate this transport. Only 25% of the accommodation space in our study site is filled with sediment, and maximum water depths are approximately equal to the dam height. All grain-size fractions present upstream of the impoundment are also present throughout the impoundment. A characteristic coarse-grained sloping ramp leads from the floor of the impoundment to the crest of the dam. A 2.3-m-deep plunge pool has been excavated below the dam, followed immediately downstream by a mid-channel bar composed of coarse bed material similar in size distribution to the bed material of the impoundment. The mid-channel bar stores 1472 m3 of sediment, exceeding the volume excavated from the plunge pool by a factor of 2.8. These field observations are typical of five other sites nearby and suggest that all bed material grain-size fractions supplied from upstream can be transported through the impoundment, up the sloping ramp, and over the top of the dam. Sediment transport computations suggest that all grain sizes are in transport upstream and within the impoundment at all discharges with return periods from 1 to 50 years. Our computations suggest that transport of coarse bed material through the impoundment is facilitated by its smooth, sandy bed. Model results suggest that the impoundment is currently aggrading at 0.26 m/year, but bed elevations may be recovering after recent scour from a series of large floods during water year 2011-2012. We propose that impoundments upstream of these run-of-river dams

  1. A comparative analysis among computational intelligence techniques for dissolved oxygen prediction in Delaware River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Olyaie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water quality models previously developed and used in dissolved oxygen (DO prediction are complex. Moreover, reliable data available to develop/calibrate new DO models is scarce. Therefore, there is a need to study and develop models that can handle easily measurable parameters of a particular site, even with short length. In recent decades, computational intelligence techniques, as effective approaches for predicting complicated and significant indicator of the state of aquatic ecosystems such as DO, have created a great change in predictions. In this study, three different AI methods comprising: (1 two types of artificial neural networks (ANN namely multi linear perceptron (MLP and radial based function (RBF; (2 an advancement of genetic programming namely linear genetic programming (LGP; and (3 a support vector machine (SVM technique were used for DO prediction in Delaware River located at Trenton, USA. For evaluating the performance of the proposed models, root mean square error (RMSE, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS, mean absolute relative error (MARE and, correlation coefficient statistics (R were used to choose the best predictive model. The comparison of estimation accuracies of various intelligence models illustrated that the SVM was able to develop the most accurate model in DO estimation in comparison to other models. Also, it was found that the LGP model performs better than the both ANNs models. For example, the determination coefficient was 0.99 for the best SVM model, while it was 0.96, 0.91 and 0.81 for the best LGP, MLP and RBF models, respectively. In general, the results indicated that an SVM model could be employed satisfactorily in DO estimation.

  2. National Dam Inspection Program. Ingham Creek (Aquetong Lake) Dam (NDI ID PA 00224, PA DER 9-49) Delaware River Basin, Ingham Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    Delaware River Basing Ingham Justif icaticn--- L Creek, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Do DEL-AWARE RIVER BASIN Availabilit T Co~es Avail and/or D...about 1.5H:IV and an unknown upstream slope below the water surface. The dam impounds a reservoir with a normal pool surface area of 12.4 acres and a...deep. It was once used to direct water to a mill downstream of the dam and is now in poor condition. The spillway Design Flood (SDF) chosen for this

  3. Linking Indian rivers vs Bay of Bengal monsoon Activity

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajamani, V.; Mohanty, U.C.; Ramesh, R.; Bhat, G.S.; Vinayachandran, P.N.; Sengupta, D.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Kolli, R.K.

    stream_size 12553 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt stream_source_info CurrSci_2006_Linking_rivers.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859.... Stratification below the mixed layer also affects the chemical and bi o logical pro c esses in the Bay. It is worth noting here that because the low salinity layer in the BOB prevents vertical mi x ing, the Bay is not a source of CO 2 to the atmo s- phere...

  4. 77 FR 21864 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Lafayette Street Bridge at mile 6.78, all over the Saginaw River at Bay City, MI. The previous regulation... Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI, in the Federal Register (76 FR 76637). We received one...

  5. Assessment and Mmanagement of North American horseshoe crab populations, with emphasis on a multispecies framework for Delaware Bay, U.S.A. populations: Chapter 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Michael J.; Sweka, John A.; McGowan, Conor P.; Smith, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The horseshoe crab fishery on the US Atlantic coast represents a compelling fishery management story for many reasons, including ecological complexity, health and human safety ramifications, and socio-economic conflicts. Knowledge of stock status and assessment and monitoring capabilities for the species have increased greatly in the last 15 years and permitted managers to make more informed harvest recommendations. Incorporating the bioenergetics needs of migratory shorebirds, which feed on horseshoe crab eggs, into the management framework for horseshoe crabs was identified as a goal, particularly in the Delaware Bay region where the birds and horseshoe crabs exhibit an important ecological interaction. In response, significant effort was invested in studying the population dynamics, migration ecology, and the ecologic relationship of a key migratory shorebird, the Red Knot, to horseshoe crabs. A suite of models was developed that linked Red Knot populations to horseshoe crab populations through a mass gain function where female spawning crab abundance determined what proportion of the migrating Red Knot population reached a critical body mass threshold. These models were incorporated in an adaptive management framework wherein optimal harvest decisions for horseshoe crab are recommended based on several resource-based and value-based variables and thresholds. The current adaptive framework represents a true multispecies management effort where additional data over time are employed to improve the predictive models and reduce parametric uncertainty. The possibility of increasing phenologic asynchrony between the two taxa in response to climate change presents a potential challenge to their ecologic interaction in Delaware Bay.

  6. Development of Land Segmentation, Stream-Reach Network, and Watersheds in Support of Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF) Modeling, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, and Adjacent Parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Sarah K.; Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Hopkins, Katherine J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Chesapeake Bay Program Office, Interstate Commission on the Potomac River Basin, Maryland Department of the Environment, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science are collaborating on the Chesapeake Bay Regional Watershed Model, using Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN to simulate streamflow and concentrations and loads of nutrients and sediment to Chesapeake Bay. The model will be used to provide information for resource managers. In order to establish a framework for model simulation, digital spatial datasets were created defining the discretization of the model region (including the Chesapeake Bay watershed, as well as the adjacent parts of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia outside the watershed) into land segments, a stream-reach network, and associated watersheds. Land segmentation was based on county boundaries represented by a 1:100,000-scale digital dataset. Fifty of the 254 counties and incorporated cities in the model region were divided on the basis of physiography and topography, producing a total of 309 land segments. The stream-reach network for the Chesapeake Bay watershed part of the model region was based on the U.S. Geological Survey Chesapeake Bay SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) model stream-reach network. Because that network was created only for the Chesapeake Bay watershed, the rest of the model region uses a 1:500,000-scale stream-reach network. Streams with mean annual streamflow of less than 100 cubic feet per second were excluded based on attributes from the dataset. Additional changes were made to enhance the data and to allow for inclusion of stream reaches with monitoring data that were not part of the original network. Thirty-meter-resolution Digital Elevation Model data were used to delineate watersheds for each

  7. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife...), intend to prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary Restoration... any one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  8. User's manual for the upper Delaware River riverine environmental flow decision support system (REFDSS), Version 1.1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.; Holmquist-Johnson, Chris; Hanson, Leanne

    2014-01-01

    Between 2002 and 2006, the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted field surveys, organized workshops, and performed analysis of habitat for trout and shad in the Upper Delaware River Basin. This work culminated in the development of decision support system software (the Delaware River DSS–DRDSS, Bovee and others, 2007) that works in conjunction with the Delaware River Basin Commission’s reservoir operations model, OASIS, to facilitate comparison of the habitat and water-delivery effects of alternative operating scenarios for the Basin. This original DRDSS application was developed in Microsoft Excel and is available to all interested parties through the FORT web site (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/Products/Software/DRDSS/). Initial user feedback on the original Excel-based DSS highlighted the need for a more user-friendly and powerful interface to effectively deliver the complex data and analyses encapsulated in the DSS. In order to meet this need, the USGS FORT and Northern Appalachian Research Branch (NARB) developed an entirely new graphical user interface (GUI) application. Support for this research was through the DOI WaterSmart program (http://www.doi.gov/watersmart/html/index.php) of which the USGS component is the National Water Census (http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/WaterSMART.html). The content and methodology of the new GUI interface emulates those of the original DSS with a few exceptions listed below. Refer to Bovee and others (2007) for the original information. Significant alterations to the original DSS include: • We moved from Excel-based data storage and processing to a more powerful database back end powered by SQLite. The most notable effect of this is that the previous maximum temporal extent of 10 years has been replaced by a dynamic extent that can now cover the entire period of record for which we have data (1928–2000). • We incorporated interactive geographic information system (GIS

  9. H11022: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River and Bay, Delaware and New Jersey, 2001-11-19

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. 33 CFR 207.100 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... enter or pass through any part of the waterway will be contingent on the vessel's having adequate... facilities are of limited capacity, and permission to occupy them for periods exceeding 24 hours must be...

  11. H11070: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River and Bay, Delaware and New Jersey, 2001-11-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. Stable isotope and pen feeding trial studies confirm the value of horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus eggs to spring migrant shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Link, W.A.; Osenton, P.C.; Carter, Daniel B.; Weber, R.G.; Clark, N.A.; Teece, M.A.; Mizrahi, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We used stable isotope (SI) methods in combination with pen feeding trials to determine the importance of eggs of the Atlantic horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus to migratory fattening of red knots Calidris canutus rufa and ruddy turnstones Arenaria interpres morinella during spring stopover in Delaware Bay. By manifesting measurable fractionation (ca +3?) and rapid turnover, blood plasma *15 nitrogen proved a functional marker for SI diet tracking during the short 3-week stopover. Blood samples from free-ranging knots (3 data sets) and turnstones (1 data set) produced similar convergence of plasma *15 N signatures with increasing body mass that indicated highly similar diets. Asymptotes deviated slightly (0.3? to 0.7?) from that of captive shorebirds fed a diet of only crab eggs during stopover, thus confirming a strong crab egg-shorebird linkage. The plasma *15N crab-egg diet asymptote was enriched ca +4.5? and therefore readily discriminated from that of either blue mussels Mytilus edulis or coquina clams Donax variabilis, the most likely alternative prey of knots in Delaware Bay. Crab eggs were highly palatable to captive knots and turnstones which achieved rates of mass gain (3?11 g/d) comparable to that of free-ranging birds. Peak consumption rates during hyperphagic events were 23,940 and 19,360 eggs/bird/d, respectively. The empirical conversions of eggs consumed to body mass gained (5,017 eggs/g for knots and 4,320 eggs/g for turnstones) indicate the large quantities of crab eggs required for the maintenance of these shorebird populations during stopover.

  13. 76 FR 76637 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Saginaw River, Bay City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... at mile 5.60, and the Lafayette Street Bridge at mile 6.78, all over the Saginaw River at Bay City... the Great Lakes, requested that the existing drawbridge regulation for Saginaw River be reviewed and...

  14. Influence of groundwater on distribution of dwarf wedgemussels (Alasmidonta heterodon in the upper reaches of the Delaware River, northeastern USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Rosenberry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The remaining populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (DWM (Alasmidonta heterodon in the upper Delaware River, northeastern USA, were hypothesized to be located in areas of greater-than-normal groundwater discharge to the river. We combined physical (seepage meters, monitoring wells and piezometers, thermal (fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing, infrared, vertical bed-temperature profiling, and geophysical (electromagnetic-induction methods at several spatial scales to characterize known DWM habitat and explore this hypothesis. Numerous springs were observed using visible and infrared imaging along the river banks at all three known DWM-populated areas, but not in adjacent areas where DWM were absent. Vertical and lateral groundwater gradients were toward the river along all three DWM-populated reaches, with median upward gradients 3 to 9 times larger than in adjacent reaches. Point-scale seepage-meter measurements indicated that upward seepage across the riverbed was faster and more consistently upward at DWM-populated areas. Discrete and areally distributed riverbed-temperature measurements indicated numerous cold areas of groundwater discharge during warm summer months; all were within areas populated by DWM. Electromagnetic-induction measurements, which may indicate riverbed geology, showed patterning but little correlation between bulk streambed electromagnetic conductivity and areal distribution of DWM. In spite of complexity introduced by hyporheic exchange, multiple lines of research provide strong evidence that DWM are located within or directly downstream of areas of substantial focused groundwater discharge to the river. Broad scale thermal-reconnaissance methods (e.g., infrared may be useful in locating and protecting other currently unknown mussel populations.

  15. Influence of groundwater on distribution of dwarf wedgemussels (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the upper reaches of the Delaware River, northeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Briggs, Martin A.; Voytek, Emily B.; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    The remaining populations of the endangered dwarf wedgemussel (DWM) (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the upper Delaware River, northeastern USA, were hypothesized to be located in areas of greater-than-normal groundwater discharge to the river. We combined physical (seepage meters, monitoring wells and piezometers), thermal (fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing, infrared, vertical bed-temperature profiling), and geophysical (electromagnetic-induction) methods at several spatial scales to characterize known DWM habitat and explore this hypothesis. Numerous springs were observed using visible and infrared imaging along the river banks at all three known DWM-populated areas, but not in adjacent areas where DWM were absent. Vertical and lateral groundwater gradients were toward the river along all three DWM-populated reaches, with median upward gradients 3 to 9 times larger than in adjacent reaches. Point-scale seepage-meter measurements indicated that upward seepage across the riverbed was faster and more consistently upward at DWM-populated areas. Discrete and areally distributed riverbed-temperature measurements indicated numerous cold areas of groundwater discharge during warm summer months; all were within areas populated by DWM. Electromagnetic-induction measurements, which may indicate riverbed geology, showed patterning but little correlation between bulk streambed electromagnetic conductivity and areal distribution of DWM. In spite of complexity introduced by hyporheic exchange, multiple lines of research provide strong evidence that DWM are located within or directly downstream of areas of substantial focused groundwater discharge to the river. Broad scale thermal-reconnaissance methods (e.g., infrared) may be useful in locating and protecting other currently unknown mussel populations.

  16. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Breece

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species.

  17. 77 FR 14689 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Berwick Bay (Atchafalaya River), Morgan City, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... Operation Regulation; Berwick Bay (Atchafalaya River), Morgan City, LA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Fe (BNSF) Railway Company vertical lift span bridge across Berwick Bay, mile 0.4, (Atchafalaya River, mile 17.5) at Morgan City, St. Mary Parish, Louisiana. The deviation is necessary to perform scheduled...

  18. 77 FR 42640 - Safety Zone; Can-Am Festival Fireworks, Black River Bay, Sackets Harbor, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Can-Am Festival Fireworks, Black River Bay, Sackets Harbor, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard... Black River Bay during the Can-Am Festival Fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to... Can-Am Festival Fireworks. This zone will be effective and enforced from 9:15 p.m. until 10:45 p.m. on...

  19. Mobile Bay river plume mixing in the inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, S. M.; Book, J. W.; Warner, S. J.; Moum, J.

    2017-12-01

    The microtidal region (0.5 m spring tides) of the inner shelf outside Mobile Bay presented a complex circulation pattern driven by the pulsed river discharge and winds. Currents, salinity, temperature, and turbulence profiles were measured for up to three weeks in April 2016 at six moorings outside Mobile Bay. Currents varied between locations and with depth. During neap and spring tides the currents were reliably >0.4 and 0.5 m/s) and toward deeper waters, concurrent with the strongest stratification. The possible flow drivers considered include tides, winds, inertial oscillations, waves, and stratification. Turbulent kinetic energy production and dissipation were calculated with multiple methods using data from bottom-mounted, upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers sampling at 1 Hz, and using data from line-moored chi-pod turbulent temperature microstructure instruments sampling at 100 Hz. This work explores different forcing mechanisms involved in modulating the circulation and turbulence in a multi-layered pulsed-river inner shelf region in the Gulf of Mexico.

  20. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River in Green Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of the Fox River... Waterboard Warrior Ski Team will perform two 30-minute shows on the Fox River between the Hwy 141 Bridge and...

  1. Evaluating methods to establish habitat suitability criteria: A case study in the upper Delaware River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.; Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Defining habitat suitability criteria (HSC) of aquatic biota can be a key component to environmental flow science. HSC can be developed through numerous methods; however, few studies have evaluated the consistency of HSC developed by different methodologies. We directly compared HSC for depth and velocity developed by the Delphi method (expert opinion) and by two primary literature meta-analyses (literature-derived range and interquartile range) to assess whether these independent methods produce analogous criteria for multiple species (rainbow trout, brown trout, American shad, and shallow fast guild) and life stages. We further evaluated how these two independently developed HSC affect calculations of habitat availability under three alternative reservoir management scenarios in the upper Delaware River at a mesohabitat (main channel, stream margins, and flood plain), reach, and basin scale. In general, literature-derived HSC fell within the range of the Delphi HSC, with highest congruence for velocity habitat. Habitat area predicted using the Delphi HSC fell between the habitat area predicted using two literature-derived HSC, both at the basin and the site scale. Predicted habitat increased in shallow regions (stream margins and flood plain) using literature-derived HSC while Delphi-derived HSC predicted increased channel habitat. HSC generally favoured the same reservoir management scenario; however, no favoured reservoir management scenario was the most common outcome when applying the literature range HSC. The differences found in this study lend insight into how different methodologies can shape HSC and their consequences for predicted habitat and water management decisions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. 78 FR 54571 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Event Hampton Bay Days Festival, Hampton River; Hampton, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation for Marine Event Hampton Bay Days Festival, Hampton River; Hampton, VA... Fifth Coast Guard District. This regulation applies only to the Hampton Bay Days Festival, which... Purpose Hampton Bay Days is sponsoring the three days Hampton Bay Days Festival, which includes a...

  3. 1988 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  4. 2000 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  5. Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  6. 1992 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  7. Habitat use by Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa): Experiments with oyster racks and reefs on the beach and intertidal of Delaware Bay, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Niles, Lawrence J.

    2017-07-01

    Sea level rise and increasing human activities have decreased intertidal habitat in many places in the world. The expansion of aquaculture in intertidal areas may impact birds and other organisms using these habitats, leading to questions of sustainability of both aquaculture and functioning estuarine ecosystems. Understanding the effect of oyster culture on shorebird activity, particularly on Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa), a species on the U.S. Threatened List, is important for adaptive management and the expansion of oyster culture. In May 2013 we experimentally compared Red Knot and shorebird use of a beach section with racks and a control, and in 2016 we compared the use of sections with artificial reefs, oyster racks, and control on Delaware Bay, New Jersey (USA). The data included only times when no workers or other people were present. Censuses, conducted every 30 min throughout the day (279 censuses in 2013, 231 censuses in 2016), included the number of Red Knots and other shorebirds in each treatment section. In 2013, the total number of shorebirds was significantly higher in the rack section than in the control section, except for Red Knots and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) that occurred in higher numbers in the control than in the rack section. In 2016 Red Knot numbers were also significantly lower in the rack section. In 2013, the mean number of Red Knots/census was 13 for racks vs 59 for the control (P racks and over 68 for other treatments (P racks while both foraging and roosting, suggesting that caution should be used before placing oyster racks in areas used for foraging by Red Knots.

  8. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Simon A; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J

    2016-09-30

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377m(3)s(-1) entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174tons and 14 to 60tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0374] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... from the regulation governing the operation of the Main Street Bridge at Mile 1.21 over the Fox River...

  10. The influence of time on the magnetic properties of late Quaternary periglacial and alluvial surface and buried soils along the Delaware River, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary E Stinchcomb

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic susceptibility of soils has been used as a proxy for rainfall, but other factors can contribute to magnetic enhancement in soils. Here we explore influence of century- to millennial-scale duration of soil formation on periglacial and alluvial soil magnetic properties by assessing three terraces with surface and buried soils ranging in exposure ages from <0.01 to ~16 kyrs along the Delaware River in northeastern USA. The A and B soil horizons have higher Xlf, Ms, and S-ratios compared to parent material, and these values increase in a non-linear fashion with increasing duration of soil formation. Magnetic remanence measurements show a mixed low- and high-coercivity mineral assemblage likely consisting of goethite, hematite and maghemite that contributes to the magnetic enhancement of the soil. Room-temperature and low-temperature field-cooled and zero field-cooled remanence curves confirm the presence of goethite and magnetite and show an increase in magnetization with increasing soil age. These data suggest that as the Delaware alluvial soils weather, the concentration of secondary ferrimagnetic minerals increase in the A and B soil horizons. We then compared the time-dependent Xlf from several age-constrained buried alluvial soils with known climate data for the region during the Quaternary. Contradictory to most studies that suggest a link between increases in magnetic susceptibility and high moisture, increased magnetic enhancement of Delaware alluvial soils coincides with dry climate intervals. Early Holocene enhanced soil Xlf (9.5 – 8.5 ka corresponds with a well-documented cool-dry climate episode. This relationship is probably related to less frequent flooding during dry intervals allowing more time for low-coercive pedogenic magnetic minerals to form and accumulate, which resulted in increased Xlf. Middle Holocene enhanced Xlf (6.1 – 4.3 ka corresponds with a transitional wet/dry phase and a previously documented incision

  11. Numerical simulations of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulp, Simon A. van der; Damar, Ario; Ladwig, Norbert; Hesse, Karl-J.

    2016-01-01

    The present application of numerical modelling techniques provides an overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient dispersal in Jakarta Bay. A hydrological model simulated river discharges with a total of 90 to 377 m 3 s −1 entering Jakarta Bay. Daily total nitrogen and total phosphorus loads ranged from 40 to 174 tons and 14 to 60 tons, respectively. Flow model results indicate that nutrient gradients are subject to turbulent mixing by tides and advective transport through circulation driven by wind, barotropic and baroclinic pressure gradients. The bulk of nutrient loads originate from the Citarum and Cisadane rivers flowing through predominantly rural areas. Despite lower nutrient loads, river discharges from the urban area of Jakarta exhibit the highest impact of nutrient concentrations in the near shore area of Jakarta Bay and show that nutrient concentrations were not only regulated by nutrient loads but were strongly regulated by initial river concentrations and local flow characteristics. - Highlights: • Full overview of river discharges, nutrient flux and nutrient levels in Jakarta Bay • Important overview of nutrient flux from individual rivers • Simulations identify the principal drivers of water circulation and nutrient gradient. • Nutrient dispersion model includes the local effects of the Java Sea current system.

  12. Habitat persistence for sedentary organisms in managed rivers: the case for the federally endangered dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in the Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Lellis, William A.; Bennett, Randy M.; Waddle, Terry J.

    2012-01-01

    1. To manage the environmental flow requirements of sedentary taxa, such as mussels and aquatic insects with fixed retreats, we need a measure of habitat availability over a variety of flows (i.e. a measure of persistent habitat). Habitat suitability measures in current environmental flow assessments are measured on a ‘flow by flow’ basis and thus are not appropriate for these taxa. Here, we present a novel measure of persistent habitat suitability for the dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon), listed as federally endangered in the U.S.A., in three reaches of the Delaware River. 2. We used a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to quantify suitable habitat over a range of flows based on modelled depth, velocity, Froude number, shear velocity and shear stress at three scales (individual mussel, mussel bed and reach). Baseline potentially persistent habitat was quantified as the sum of pixels that met all thresholds identified for these variables for flows ≥40 m3 s−1, and we calculated the loss of persistently suitable habitat by sequentially summing suitable habitat estimates at lower flows. We estimated the proportion of mussel beds exposed at each flow and the amount of change in the size of the mussel bed for one reach. 3. For two reaches, mussel beds occupied areas with lower velocity, shear velocity, shear stress and Froude number than the reach average at all flows. In the third reach, this was true only at higher flows. Together, these results indicate that beds were possible refuge areas from the effects of these hydrological parameters. Two reaches showed an increase in the amount of exposed mussel beds with decreasing flow. 4. Baseline potentially persistent habitat was less than half the areal extent of potentially suitable habitat, and it decreased with decreasing flow. Actually identified beds and modelled persistent habitat showed good spatial overlap, but identified beds occupied only a portion of the total modelled persistent

  13. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: Impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Shichun; Xu Weihai; Zhang Ruijie; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. - Highlights: → Some antibiotics were ubiquitous with high concentration in the Bohai bay, North China. → The antibiotics were mainly from the six rivers discharge around the Bay. → Antibiotics are commonly used in aquaculture activities around the Bay. → Aquaculture was suggested to be an important antibiotics source in the Bay. - River discharge and aquaculture were suggested to be important sources for antibiotics occurred in the coastal water of the Bohai Bay, North China.

  14. Study of environmental pollution by heavy metals in Sepetiba Bay and Paraiba do Sul River - Guandu River by analysis of critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.; Malm, O.; Lima, N.R.W.; Azcue, J.M.

    The heavy metal pollution in Sepetiba Bay and Paraiba do Sul River - Guandu River is studied by analysis of critical parameters. This ones are employed in environmental impact determination of nuclear installations. Three critic metals (Cr, Zn, Cd) and four (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr) ones are lauched by the industrial park of Sepetiba Bay and Paraiba Vale respectively. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Particle-borne radionuclides as tracers for sediment in the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, J F [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (USA). Dept. of Geology; Bricker, O P [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA). Water Resources Div.; Olsen, C R [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1989-10-01

    The Chesapeake Bay receives nearly 1,000,000 tonnes of sediment annually from its major tributary, the Susquehanna River. The pattern of deposition of this sediment affects the lifetime of the estuarine resource and the fate of any sediment-borne contaminants. Previous estimates of the extent to which Susquehanna River sediment is transported down the Chesapeake have differed considerably. By use of reactor-generated radionuclides adsorbed on the river sediment, a sediment budget has been compiled for the upper Chesapeake Bay and the reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna. Reservoirs impound nearly 1,400,000 tonnes of sediment annually behind the power dams on the lower Susquehanna River. Without the dams, sediment delivery to the upper bay would more than double. The uppermost Chesapeake Bay, within and above the turbidity maximum, retains virtually all of the fluvial sediment delivered to it. The result is an annual sedimentation rate of approximately 3 mm yr{sup -1} in the upper bay, an infilling rate that is nearly equal to the regional rate of sea level rise. (author).

  16. Particle-borne radionuclides as tracers for sediment in the Susquehanna River and Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoghue, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay receives nearly 1,000,000 tonnes of sediment annually from its major tributary, the Susquehanna River. The pattern of deposition of this sediment affects the lifetime of the estuarine resource and the fate of any sediment-borne contaminants. Previous estimates of the extent to which Susquehanna River sediment is transported down the Chesapeake have differed considerably. By use of reactor-generated radionuclides adsorbed on the river sediment, a sediment budget has been compiled for the upper Chesapeake Bay and the reservoirs on the lower Susquehanna. Reservoirs impound nearly 1,400,000 tonnes of sediment annually behind the power dams on the lower Susquehanna River. Without the dams, sediment delivery to the upper bay would more than double. The uppermost Chesapeake Bay, within and above the turbidity maximum, retains virtually all of the fluvial sediment delivered to it. The result is an annual sedimentation rate of approximately 3 mm yr -1 in the upper bay, an infilling rate that is nearly equal to the regional rate of sea level rise. (author)

  17. River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: Fatty acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reemtsma, T.; Ittekkot, V.; Bartsch, M.; Nair, R.R

    ) 55-71 55 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam \\[RA\\] River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: fatty acids T. Reemtsma a, V. Ittekkot a, M. Bartsch a and R.R. Nair b alnstitut fiir Biogeochemie und Meereschemie..., R.R., 1993. River inputs and organic matter fluxes in the northern Bay of Bengal: fatty acids. Chem. Geol., 103: 55-71. Total particulate matter flux and organic carbon and fatty acid fluxes associated with settling particles collected during...

  18. 76 FR 31895 - Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... navigation area (RNA) in certain waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland, on July 23, 2011. This RNA is necessary to provide for the safety of life, property and the environment. This RNA... number is 202-366-9329. To avoid duplication, please use only one of these four methods. See the ``Public...

  19. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shichun; Xu, Weihai; Zhang, Ruijie; Tang, Jianhui; Chen, Yingjun; Zhang, Gan

    2011-10-01

    The presence of 21 antibiotics in six different groups was investigated in coastal water of the Bohai Bay. Meantime, to illuminate the potential effects caused by the river discharge and aquaculture activities, wastewater from three breeding plants and surface water from six rivers flowing into the Bohai Bay were also analyzed for the selected antibiotics. The result revealed that measured antibiotics in the North Bobai Bay were generally higher than those in the South, highlighting the remarkable effects of high density of human activities on the exposure of antibiotics in environment. The antibiotics found in the six rivers were generally higher than those in the Bohai Bay reflecting the important antibiotics source of river discharge. This study reveals that the high consumption of some antibiotics in aquaculture activities may pose high ecological risk to the bay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Time as An Important Soil-Forming Factor Influencing Modern and Ancient Magnetic Susceptibility Enhancement Along the Delaware River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcomb, G. E.; Peppe, D. J.; Driese, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is an increasingly popular low-cost method for rapidly assessing paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental impact on buried soils. The goal of this study is to determine the primary influence(s) on soil magnetic susceptibility along floodplain, terrace and upland soils in the middle Delaware River Valley, USA, using environmental magnetic, pedologic, and stratigraphic techniques. Two-hundred thirty samples were collected from age-constrained sandy, quartz-rich, floodplain, terrace, and upland soils (Entisols, Inceptisols). A Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) and post-hoc Tukey-Kramer (T-K) (α=0.05) multiple comparisons analysis on 176 mass-specific low-field susceptibility (Xlf) assays show that A and B horizons are magnetically enhanced compared to C and E horizons (ptesting show that Xlf results, when grouped by floodplain-terrace designation (i.e., chronofunction) are significantly different (p<0.0001). The older T3 terrace and upland Xlf values (0.34±0.14 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) are greater than the younger T2 terrace (0.18±0.06 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) values, which are greater than modern floodplain (0.09±0.01 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) Xlf values. These data suggest that longer intervals of soil formation enhance the Χlf value. This hypothesis is further supported when 159 Xlf values are plotted vs. age for the entire Holocene. A locally-weighted regression smoothing curve (LOESS) shows two distinct intervals of magnetic enhancement during previously established dry intervals, the early and late-middle Holocene. We hypothesize that prolonged drought during the early and middle Holocene reduced flood frequency and magnitude and the likelihood of soil burial, resulting in longer soil forming intervals and higher Xlf values. Although precipitation influences the Xlf signature, the results from this study suggest that the magnetic susceptibility values of well-drained buried floodplain soils along the Delaware River Valley are partly a function of time.

  1. 2000 Benthic and Landcover Characterization of Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Coix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  2. 1970's Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  3. 2000 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  4. 1988 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St. Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  5. 1970's Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Branch, for Salt River Bay...

  6. 1992 Seagrass and Mangrove Habitats of the Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Preserve, St Croix, USVI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Habitat maps were created as part of a larger ecological assessment conducted by NOAA's National Ocean Service (NOS), Biogeography Program, for Salt River Bay...

  7. Aquatic vegetation were photographed from aircraft from Florida Bay, Indian River (Florida), and the Coast of Massachusetts (NODC Accession 0000411)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographs were taken of the aquatic vegetation of Florida Bay, Indian River (Florida), and the Coast of Massachusetts. Photographs were scanned and...

  8. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the... affected waters of Eagle Bay and Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle... B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier: Due to security...

  9. 78 FR 1246 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ...-FF08RSDC00] Otay River Estuary Restoration Project; South San Diego Bay Unit and Sweetwater Marsh Unit of the... scoping with regard to the environmental impact statement (EIS) for the proposed Otay River Estuary... one of the following methods. Email: [email protected] . Please include ``Otay Estuary NOI'' in the...

  10. Total mercury and methylmercury in fish fillets, water, and bed sediments from selected streams in the Delaware River basin, New Jersery, New York, and Pennsylvania, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Bilger, Michael D.; Byrnes, John D.

    2004-01-01

    Within the Delaware River Basin, fish-tissue samples were analyzed for total mercury (tHg). Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for tHg and methylmercury (MeHg), and methylation efficiencies were calculated. This study was part of a National Mercury Pilot Program conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The Delaware River Basin was chosen because it is part of the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment Program that integrates physical, chemical, and biological sampling efforts to determine status and trends in surface-water and ground-water resources. Of the 35 sites in the study, 31 were sampled for fish. The species sampled at these sites include smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), the target species, and where smallmouth bass could not be collected, brown trout (Salmo trutta), chain pickerel (Esox niger), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), and rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris). There were a total of 32 fish samples; 7 of these exceeded the 0.3 ?g/g (micrograms per gram) wet-weight mercury (Hg) concentration set for human health by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and 27 of these exceeded the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service criteria of 0.1 ?g/g wet weight for the protection of fish-eating birds and wildlife. Basinwide analysis of Hg in fish, water, and bed sediment showed tHg concentration in fillets correlated positively with population density, urban land cover, and impervious land surface. Negative correlations included wetland land cover, septic density, elevation, and latitude. Smallmouth bass from the urban sites had a higher median concentration of tHg than fish from agricultural, low intensity-agricultural, or forested sites. Concentrations of tHg and MeHg in water were higher in samples from the more urbanized areas of the basin and were positively correlated with urbanization and negatively correlated with forested land cover. Methylation efficiency of water was negatively correlated with urbanization. Bed

  11. Relation of water quality to land use in the drainage basins of six tributaries to the lower Delaware River, New Jersey, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Esralew, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents in six streams in the lower Delaware River Basin of New Jersey were determined in a multi-year study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Two streams receive water from relatively undeveloped basins, two from largely agricultural basins, and two from heavily urbanized basins. Each stream was monitored during eight storms and at least eight times during base flow during 2002-07. Sampling was conducted during base flow before each storm, when stage was first observed to rise, and several times during the rising limb of the hydrographs. Agricultural and urban land use has resulted in statistically significant increases in loads of nitrogen and phosphorus species relative to loads in undeveloped basins. For example, during the growing season, median storm flow concentrations of total nitrogen in the two streams in agricultural areas were 6,290 and 1,760 mg/L, compared to 988 and 823 mg/L for streams in urban areas, and 719 and 333 mg/L in undeveloped areas. Although nutrient concentrations and loads were clearly related to land useurban, agricultural, and undeveloped within the drainage basins, other basin characteristics were found to be important. Residual nutrients entrapped in lake sediments from streams that received effluent from recently removed sewage-treatment plants are hypothesized to be the cause of extremely high levels of nutrient loads to one urban stream, whereas another urban stream with similar land-use percentages (but without the legacy of sewage-treatment plants) had much lower levels of nutrients. One of the two agricultural streams studied had higher nutrient loads than the other, especially for total phosphorous and organic nitrogen. This difference appears to be related to the presence (or absence) of livestock (cattle).

  12. User manuals for the Delaware River Basin Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (DRB–WATER) and associated WATER application utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tanja N.; Lant, Jeremiah G.

    2015-11-18

    The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) is a decision support system (DSS) for the nontidal part of the Delaware River Basin (DRB) that provides a consistent and objective method of simulating streamflow under historical, forecasted, and managed conditions. WATER integrates geospatial sampling of landscape characteristics, including topographic and soil properties, with a regionally calibrated hillslope-hydrology model, an impervious-surface model, and hydroclimatic models that have been parameterized using three hydrologic response units—forested, agricultural, and developed land cover. It is this integration that enables the regional hydrologic-modeling approach used in WATER without requiring site-specific optimization or those stationary conditions inferred when using a statistical model. The DSS provides a “historical” database, ideal for simulating streamflow for 2001–11, in addition to land-cover forecasts that focus on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities are provided with the DSS and apply change factors for precipitation, temperature, and potential evapotranspiration to a 1981–2011 climatic record provided with the DSS. These change factors were derived from a suite of general circulation models (GCMs) and representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios. These change factors are based on 25-year monthly averages (normals) that are centere on 2030 and 2060. The WATER Application Utilities also can be used to apply a 2010 snapshot of water use for the DRB; a factorial approach enables scenario testing of increased or decreased water use for each simulation. Finally, the WATER Application Utilities can be used to reformat streamflow time series for input to statistical or reservoir management software. 

  13. Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of estuarial seawater and river water of Bailanghe in Laizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaofeng; Xu, Suning; Wang, Ruijiu; Li, Wenpeng; Wang, Zhiyi; Mei, Junjun; Ding, Zhilei; Yang, Peijie; Yu, Liangju; Lv, Tieying; Bai, Gang; Kang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    In the study of seawater intrusion, seawater is usually taken as an end-member that mixes with other source(s). However, compared to standard seawater, the coastal seawater particularly that near the estuary, can be strongly influenced by the rivers into the sea and by coastal human activities. Their composition can be thus continuously changed and redistributed with space and time. Therefore, before investigating seawater intrusion in a certain area, it is essentially important to determine the features of the estuarine seawater (e.g. the mixture percentage between standard seawater and river water). In this study, we aimed to gain a clear situation of the seawater intrusion in Laizhou Bay, Southern Bohai, China. The issue aforementioned was investigated by comparing the stable isotopic and hydrochemical composition of the marine and river water collected in this area. Samples investigated include 5 surface water samples collected at the downstream of the Bailanghe and 7 seawater samples near the estuary of Laizhou Bay. Inert tracers (δD, δ18O, Cl, Br) and reaction tracers (Na, Mg, SO4, HCO3, Ca, NO3) are particularly analyzed. The major results are as follows: 1) All the river water samples fall below the Global Meteoric Water Line in the δD - δ18O diagram, reflecting evaporation of the upstream reservoir water. The seawater samples fall on the mixing line of standard seawater and the river water in the stable isotopic diagram. 2) The Cl-δ18O diagram indicates widespread dissolution of evaporate into the river, while high concentration of Ca and HCO3-, as well as the SO42- - Cl relation of the river water samples reflect the dissolution of CO2 , carbonate and sulfate in the atmosphere and on the ground. 3) The Br/Cl ratios of seawater samples are closed to the marine ratios. This together with the plots of major ions vs. Cl suggest that the seawater samples are originated from the mixture of standard seawater and river water. Therefore, when referring to the

  14. Subsoil erosion dominates the supply of fine sediment to rivers draining into Princess Charlotte Bay, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olley, Jon; Brooks, Andrew; Spencer, John; Pietsch, Timothy; Borombovits, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The Laura-Normanby River (catchment area: 24,350 km(2)), which drains into Princess Charlotte Bay, has been identified in previous studies as the third largest contributor of sediment to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. These catchment scale modelling studies also identified surface soil erosion as supplying >80% of the sediment. Here we use activity concentrations of the fallout radionuclides (137)Cs and (210)Pbex to test the hypothesis that surface soil erosion dominates the supply of fine (river systems draining into Princess Charlotte Bay. Our results contradict these previous studies, and are consistent with channel and gully erosion being the dominant source of fine sediment in this catchment. The hypothesis that surface soil erosion dominates the supply of fine sediment to Princess Charlotte Bay is rejected. River sediment samples were collected using both time-integrated samplers and sediment drape deposits. We show that there is no detectable difference in (137)Cs and (210)Pbex activity concentrations between samples collected using these two methods. Two methods were also used to collect samples to characterise (137)Cs and (210)Pbex concentrations in sediment derived from surface soil erosion; sampling of surface-wash deposits and deployment of surface runoff traps that collected samples during rain events. While there was no difference in the (137)Cs activity concentrations for samples collected using these two methods, (210)Pbex activity concentrations were significantly higher in the samples collected using the runoff traps. The higher (210)Pbex concentrations are shown to be correlated with loss-on-ignition (r(2) = 0.79) and therefore are likely to be related to higher organic concentrations in the runoff trap samples. As a result of these differences we use a three end member mixing model (channel/gully, hillslope surface-wash and hillslope runoff traps) to determine the relative contribution from surface soil erosion. Probability

  15. Collection and analysis of remotely sensed data from the Rhode River Estuary Watershed. [ecological parameters of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    NASA chose the watershed of Rhode River, a small sub-estuary of the Bay, as a representative test area for intensive studies of remote sensing, the results of which could be extrapolated to other estuarine watersheds around the Bay. A broad program of ecological research was already underway within the watershed, conducted by the Smithsonian Institution's Chesapeake Bay Center for Environmental Studies (CBCES) and cooperating universities. This research program offered a unique opportunity to explore potential applications for remote sensing techniques. This led to a joint NASA-CBCES project with two basic objectives: to evaluate remote sensing data for the interpretation of ecological parameters, and to provide essential data for ongoing research at the CBCES. A third objective, dependent upon realization of the first two, was to extrapolate photointerpretive expertise gained at the Rhode River watershed to other portions of the Chesapeake Bay.

  16. Geochemistry and mineralogy of recent sediments of Guanabara Bay (NE sector) and its major rivers - Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    FARIA, MARCIA DE MELO; SANCHEZ, BRAZ A.

    2001-01-01

    Geochemical and clay mineralogical studies of bottom sediments collected along the Macacu and Caceribu rivers and Guanabara Bay were carried out in order to investigate the relationship between major source areas and recent sediments of the bay. Clay mineralogy includes different groups with selective distribution conditioned by geomorphic features and depositional settings. Micaceous clay minerals are abundant near parent rock in the upper course, whereas kaolinite derived from varied source...

  17. Colloid dynamics and transport of major elements through a boreal river - brackish bay mixing zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Ö.; Widerlund, A.; Andersson, P.

    2000-01-01

    km in the spring.. During the dynamic springflood conditions studied, small 238U–234Th disequilibria, low sediment trap fluxes, laboratory mixing experiments, as well as results from an independent two-box, two-dimensional mixing model combine to suggest that no significant removal of Fe, Si......A range of biogeochemical methodologies were applied to investigate how aggregation processes affected the phase distribution and mixing of Fe, Si, and organic carbon between the Kalix River and the Bothnic Bay, northernmost Baltic Sea salinityF3; the low-salinity zone LSZ. was stretching over 60...... similar to that of neighboring Russian Arctic rivers, is hypothesized to result from a comparatively high organic-to-detrital matter characteristic of the aggregates. While first principles would indeed suggest that decreasing electrostatic repulsion during mixing lead to aggregation, a low specific...

  18. Analysis of flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2007-01-01

    The Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania experienced severe flooding as a result of intense rainfall during June 2006. The height of the flood waters on the rivers and tributaries approached or exceeded the peak of record at many locations. Updated flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations on tributaries in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins were analyzed using data through the 2006 water year to determine if there were any major differences in the flood-discharge data. Flood frequencies for return intervals of 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years (Q2, Q5, Q10, Q50, Q100, and Q500) were determined from annual maximum series (AMS) data from continuous-record gaging stations (stations) and were compared to flood discharges obtained from previously published Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) and to flood frequencies using partial-duration series (PDS) data. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine any statistically significant differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS. Percentage differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS also were determined for the 10, 50, 100, and 500 return intervals. A Mann-Kendall trend test was performed to determine statistically significant trends in the updated AMS peak-flow data for the period of record at the 41 stations. In addition to AMS station data, PDS data were used to determine flood-frequency discharges. The AMS and PDS flood-frequency data were compared to determine any differences between the two data sets. An analysis also was performed on AMS-derived flood frequencies for four stations to evaluate the possible effects of flood-control reservoirs on peak flows. Additionally, flood frequencies for three stations were evaluated to determine possible effects of urbanization on peak flows. The results of the Wilcoxon signed

  19. Analysis and dating of Sediments in Montevideo Bay and Silver river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odino, R.; Suarez Antola, R.; Cabral, W.

    1999-01-01

    The present work includes generalities on the River of the Silver, antecedents of studies carried out during the years 1992-1997, in the issuing sub aquatic of Tip Carts, studies about the contamination of silts carried out during the years 1993-1996, studies preliminary of the contamination of silts in the Bay,results obtain,treatment of the data and enrichment factors. In the description of the project it is looked for to obtain reliable data on the state of contamination for heavy metals sedimentation ,velocity and age of the silts of the Bay of Montevideo and the River of the Silver, describe geologic aspects in the area involved in the study, the sampling of silts is planned having present the purpose of the same one that is to say to take samples that represent the characteristics real of silts in the sampling area, X Ray Fluorescence dispersive Energy are used in the analysis of samples, for finish, results and discussion are presented

  20. Organic Carbon and Trace Element Cycling in a River-Dominated Tidal Coastal Wetland System (Tampa Bay, FL, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. P.; Smoak, J. M.; Engelhart, S. E.; Powell, C. E.; Chappel, A. R.; Gerlach, M. J.; Kemp, A.; Breithaupt, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Tampa Bay is the largest open water, river-fed estuary in Florida (USA), and is characterized by the presence of both mangrove and salt marsh ecosystems. Both coastal wetland systems, and small rivers such as the ones draining into Tampa Bay have historically been underestimated in terms of their role in the global carbon and elemental cycles. Climate change and sea-level rise (SLR) are major threats in Tampa Bay and stand to disrupt hydrologic cycles, compromising sediment accumulation and the rate of organic carbon (OC) burial. This study evaluates organic carbon content, sediment accumulation, and carbon burial rates in salt marsh and mangrove ecosystems, along with measurements of fluxes of dissolved OC (DOC) and trace elements in the water column of the Little Manatee River (LMR) in Tampa Bay. The characterization of OC and trace elements in tidal rivers and estuaries is critical for quantitatively constraining these systems in local-to-regional scale biogeochemical budgets, and provide insight into biogeochemical processes occurring with the estuary and adjacent tidal wetlands. Material fluxes of DOC and trace elements were tied to discharge irrespective of season, and the estuarine habitats removed 15-65% of DOC prior to export to Tampa Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Thus, material is available for cycling and burial within marsh and mangrove peats, however, LMR mangrove peats have higher OC content and burial rates than adjacent salt marsh peats. Sedimentary accretion rates in LMR marshes are not currently keeping pace with SLR, thus furthering the rapid marsh-to-mangrove conversions that have been seen in Tampa Bay over the past half-century. Additionally, wetlands in Tampa Bay tend to have a lower rate of carbon burial than other Florida tidal wetlands, demonstrating their high sensitivity to climate change and SLR.

  1. Satellite Derived Water Quality Observations Are Related to River Discharge and Nitrogen Loads in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    John C. Lehrter; John C. Lehrter; Chengfeng Le

    2017-01-01

    Relationships between satellite-derived water quality variables and river discharges, concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic carbon, and sediments were investigated over a 9-year period (2003–2011) in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA. These analyses were conducted to better understand which river forcing factors were the primary drivers of estuarine variability in several water quality variables. Remote sensing reflectance time-series data were retrieved from the MEdium Resolution Imaging ...

  2. 33 CFR 162.205 - Suisun Bay, San Joaquin River, Sacramento River, and connecting waters, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commander or his authorized representative. (5) Wrecks. In no case following accidents of fire or collision...); a wharf or other structure; work under construction; plant engaged in river and harbor improvement... navigable channels, when within a reasonable distance therefrom and not in any case over a mile, shall...

  3. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Red Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, Brandywine Creek, and Christina River. The Red Clay Creek is the smallest of the subbasins and drains an area of 54 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking-water supply, and to support aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency, waterquality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpointsource contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpointsource evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at 1 site in the Red Clay Creek subbasin and at 10 sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin.The HSPF model for the Red Clay Creek subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.7 to 10 mi2. One of the reaches contains a regulated reservoir. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Red Clay Creek

  4. Presence of selected chemicals of emerging concern in water and bottom sediment from the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, Minnesota and Wisconsin, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Kieta, Kristen A.; Elliott, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    The St. Louis Bay of Lake Superior receives substantial urban runoff, wastewater treatment plant effluent, and industrial effluent. In 1987, the International Joint Commission designated the St. Louis Bay portion of the lower St. Louis River as one of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern. Concerns exist about the potential effects of chemicals of emerging concern on aquatic biota because many of these chemicals, including endocrine active chemicals, have been shown to affect the endocrine systems of fish. To determine the occurrence of chemicals of emerging concern in the St. Louis River, the St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources collected water and bottom-sediment samples from 40 sites from August through October 2010. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify the extent to which chemicals of emerging concern, including pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic chemicals, occur in the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, and Superior Bay, and (2) identify the extent to which the chemicals may have accumulated in bottom sediment of the study area. Samples were analyzed for selected wastewater indicators, hormones, sterols, bisphenol A, and human-health pharmaceuticals. During this study, 33 of 89 chemicals of emerging concern were detected among all water samples collected and 56 of 104 chemicals of emerging concern were detected in bottom-sediment samples. The chemical N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) was the most commonly detected chemical in water samples and 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene was the most commonly detected chemical in bottom-sediment samples. In general, chemicals of emerging concern were detected at a higher frequency in bottom-sediment samples than in water samples. Estrone (a steroid hormone) and hexahydrohexamethyl cyclopentabensopyran (a synthetic fragrance) were the most commonly detected endocrine active chemicals in

  5. Subsoil erosion dominates the supply of fine sediment to rivers draining into Princess Charlotte Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olley, Jon; Brooks, Andrew; Spencer, John; Pietsch, Timothy; Borombovits, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Laura–Normanby River (catchment area: 24,350 km 2 ), which drains into Princess Charlotte Bay, has been identified in previous studies as the third largest contributor of sediment to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. These catchment scale modelling studies also identified surface soil erosion as supplying >80% of the sediment. Here we use activity concentrations of the fallout radionuclides 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex to test the hypothesis that surface soil erosion dominates the supply of fine ( 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex activity concentrations between samples collected using these two methods. Two methods were also used to collect samples to characterise 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex concentrations in sediment derived from surface soil erosion; sampling of surface-wash deposits and deployment of surface runoff traps that collected samples during rain events. While there was no difference in the 137 Cs activity concentrations for samples collected using these two methods, 210 Pb ex activity concentrations were significantly higher in the samples collected using the runoff traps. The higher 210 Pb ex concentrations are shown to be correlated with loss-on-ignition (r 2 = 0.79) and therefore are likely to be related to higher organic concentrations in the runoff trap samples. As a result of these differences we use a three end member mixing model (channel/gully, hillslope surface-wash and hillslope runoff traps) to determine the relative contribution from surface soil erosion. Probability distributions for 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex concentrations were determined for each of the end members, with these distributions then used to estimate the surface soil contribution to each of the collected river sediment samples. The mean estimate of contribution of surface derived sediment for all river samples (n = 70) is 16 ± 2%. This study reinforces the importance of testing model predictions before they are used to target investment in remedial action and adds to the body of evidence

  6. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Christina River subbasin and overview of simulations in other subbasins of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, and Christina River. The Christina River subbasin (exclusive of the Brandywine, Red Clay, and White Clay Creek subbasins) drains an area of 76 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking water supply, and support of aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point- and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpoint-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in small subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint- source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the Christina River subbasin and nine sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin.The HSPF model for the Christina River subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 3.8 to 21.9 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Christina

  7. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the White Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, White Clay Creek, and Red Clay Creek. The White Clay Creek is the second largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 108 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in non point-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the three major subbasins and for the Christina River, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program—Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base- flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the White Clay Creek subbasin and at nine sites in the other subbasins.The HSPF model for the White Clay Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 17 reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.37 to 13 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the White Clay Creek Basin are agricultural, forested

  8. Impact of the river Liffey discharge on nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay (Irish Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, T. G.; Wilson, J. G.

    2005-08-01

    Temperature, salinity, nutrients (total oxidised nitrogen (TON), ammonium (NH 4) and orthophosphate (PO 4)) and chlorophyll a were monitored in the Liffey estuary and Dublin Bay from June 2000 to June 2003. Four groups of sites were defined comprising the upper estuary (Gp. I), the outer estuary (Gp. III) with a small set (Gp. II) of sites between Groups I and III heavily influenced by the sewage treatment works outflow, and the Bay proper (Gp. IV). Riverine inputs of TON and PO 4 were calculated at an average of 826 t N y -1 and 31 t P y -1, respectively, and were largely controlled by flow rate. The sewage treatment works were identified as a major source of PO 4 and NH 4 to the system. Mixing in the upper estuary of nutrient limited saline waters with hypernutrified river water regularly (i.e. annually) produced relatively high concentrations of chlorophyll a (>10 mg chl a m -3), and also sporadic blooms with extremely high chlorophyll a values (max. 121.6 mg chl a m -3). These latter phytoplankton blooms occurred in high salinity waters and were due to mixing of nutrient limited saline waters and nutrient rich river waters. The mean annual flux of phytoplankton carbon from the river Liffey was calculated at 23.5 t C y -1, of which half was accumulated or remineralised in the estuary and did not enter the Bay. In the Bay proper (Gp. IV) summer nutrient concentrations dropped below detection limits, and chlorophyll a concentrations followed the classic pattern with a spring bloom maximum of 5.5 mg chl a m -3. This pattern in nutrients and chlorophyll a came from the advection of waters into the Bay from an offshore source. Overall while there was considerable evidence for eutrophication in the estuary, the bay itself showed little biological response to nutrient loading.

  9. Fluvial fluxes from the Magdalena River into Cartagena Bay, Caribbean Colombia: Trends, future scenarios, and connections with upstream human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Escobar, Rogger; Tosic, Marko

    2018-02-01

    Fluxes of continental runoff and sediments as well as downstream deposition of eroded soils have severely altered the structure and function of fluvial and deltaic-estuarine ecosystems. The Magdalena River, the main contributor of continental fluxes into the Caribbean Sea, delivers important amounts of water and sediments into Cartagena Bay, a major estuarine system in northern Colombia. Until now, trends in fluvial fluxes into the bay, as well as the relationship between these tendencies in fluvial inputs and associated upstream changes in the Magdalena catchment, have not been studied. Here we explore the interannual trends of water discharge and sediment load flowing from the Magdalena River-Canal del Dique system into Cartagena Bay during the last three decades, forecast future scenarios of fluxes into the bay, and discuss possible connections between observed trends in fluvial inputs and trends in human intervention in the Magdalena River basin. Significant upward trends in annual runoff and sediment load during the mid-1980s, 1990s, and post-2000 are observed in the Magdalena and in the Canal del Dique flowing into Cartagena Bay. During the last decade, Magdalena streamflow and sediment load experienced increases of 24% and 33%, respectively, compared to the pre-2000 year period. Meanwhile, the Canal del Dique witnessed increases in water discharge and sediment load of 28% and 48%, respectively. During 26 y of monitoring, the Canal del Dique has discharged 177 Mt of sediment to the coastal zone, of which 52 Mt was discharged into Cartagena Bay. Currently, the Canal drains 6.5% and transports 5.1% of the Magdalena water discharge and sediment load. By 2020, water discharge and sediment flux from the Canal del Dique flowing to the coastal zone will witness increments of 164% and 260%, respectively. Consequently, sediment fluxes into Cartagena Bay will witness increments as high as 8.2 Mt y- 1 or 317%. Further analyses of upstream sediment load series for 21

  10. Metagenomic evidence for reciprocal particle exchange between the mainstem estuary and lateral bay sediments of the lower Columbia River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya W Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lateral bays of the lower Columbia River estuary are areas of enhanced water retention that influence net ecosystem metabolism through activities of their diverse microbial communities. Metagenomic characterization of sediment microbiota from three disparate sites in two brackish lateral bays (Baker and Youngs produced approximately 100 Gbp of DNA sequence data analyzed subsequently for predicted SSU rRNA and peptide-coding genes. The metagenomes were dominated by Bacteria. A large component of Eukaryota was present in Youngs Bay samples, i.e. the inner bay sediment was enriched with the invasive New Zealand mudsnail, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, known for high ammonia production. The metagenome was also highly enriched with an archaeal ammonia oxidizer closely related to Nitrosoarchaeum limnia. Combined analysis of sequences and continuous, high-resolution time series of biogeochemical data from fixed and mobile platforms revealed the importance of large-scale reciprocal particle exchanges between the mainstem estuarine water column and lateral bay sediments. Deposition of marine diatom particles in sediments near Youngs Bay mouth was associated with a dramatic enrichment of Bacteroidetes (58% of total Bacteria and corresponding genes involved in phytoplankton polysaccharide degradation. The Baker Bay sediment metagenome contained abundant Archaea, including diverse methanogens, as well as functional genes for methylotrophy and taxonomic markers for syntrophic bacteria, suggesting that active methane cycling occurs at this location. Our previous work showed enrichments of similar anaerobic taxa in particulate matter of the mainstem estuarine water column. In total, our results identify the lateral bays as both sources and sinks of biogenic particles significantly impacting microbial community composition and biogeochemical activities in the estuary.

  11. GeoTIFF of 5x5 m Relative Reflectivity for Salt River Bay, St. Croix, 2011, UTM 20N NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 5x5 meter resolution bathymetric surface for an area surrounding the mouth of Salt River Bay (SARI)St....

  12. NOAA Office for Coastal Management Benthic Habitat Data, Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River in Chesapeake Bay, VA, 2002-2004 (NODC Accession 0090253)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a collection of benthic habitat data from studies conducted in the Catlett and Goodwin Islands on the York River in Chesapeake Bay, Virginia in GIS...

  13. Bathymetry 2M Grid of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  14. Satellite Derived Water Quality Observations Are Related to River Discharge and Nitrogen Loads in Pensacola Bay, Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Lehrter

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between satellite-derived water quality variables and river discharges, concentrations and loads of nutrients, organic carbon, and sediments were investigated over a 9-year period (2003–2011 in Pensacola Bay, Florida, USA. These analyses were conducted to better understand which river forcing factors were the primary drivers of estuarine variability in several water quality variables. Remote sensing reflectance time-series data were retrieved from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS and used to calculate monthly and annual estuarine time-series of chlorophyll a (Chla, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM, and total suspended sediments (TSS. Monthly MERIS Chla varied from 2.0 mg m−3 in the lower region of the bay to 17.2 mg m−3 in the upper bay. MERIS CDOM and TSS exhibited similar patterns with ranges of 0.51–2.67 (m−1 and 0.11–8.9 (g m−3. Variations in the MERIS-derived monthly and annual Chla, CDOM, and TSS time-series were significantly related to monthly and annual river discharge and loads of nitrogen, organic carbon, and suspended sediments from the Escambia and Yellow rivers. Multiple regression models based on river loads (independent variables and MERIS Chla, CDOM, or TSS (dependent variables explained significant fractions of the variability (up to 62% at monthly and annual scales. The most significant independent variables in the regressions were river nitrogen loads, which were associated with increased MERIS Chla, CDOM, and TSS concentrations, and river suspended sediment loads, which were associated with decreased concentrations. In contrast, MERIS water quality variations were not significantly related to river total phosphorus loads. The spatially synoptic, nine-year satellite record expanded upon the spatial extent of past field studies to reveal previously unseen system-wide responses to river discharge and loading variation. The results indicated that variations in Pensacola Bay Chla

  15. Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Roger A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2008-01-01

    Sussex County, Delaware, occupies a 938-square-mile area of low relief near sea level in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. The county is bounded on the east by the Delaware Bay and the Atlantic Ocean, including a barrier-island system, and inland bays that provide habitat for valuable living resources. Eastern Sussex County is an area of rapid population growth with a long-established beach-resort community, where land elevation is a key factor in determining areas that are appropriate for development. Of concern to State and local planners are evacuation routes inland to escape flooding from severe coastal storms, as most major transportation routes traverse areas of low elevation that are subject to inundation. The western half of the county is typically rural in character, and land use is largely agricultural with some scattered forest land cover. Western Sussex County has several low-relief river flood-prone areas, where accurate high-resolution elevation data are needed for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) studies. This fact sheet describes the methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results. It indicates where to view metadata on the data sets and where to acquire bare-earth mass points, DEM data, and contour data.

  16. Mass balance in the monitoring of pollutants in tidal rivers of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Raquel Pinhão; Rodrigues, Ana Paula de Castro; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Bidone, Edison Dausacker

    2011-10-01

    This study addressed the identification and monitoring of pollution sources of terrestrial origin in rivers (domestic sewage and industrial effluents) and critical fluvial segments in highly polluted environments under tidal influence (mixing marine and continental sources) from Guanabara Bay Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mass balance of contaminants was determined in conditions of continuous flow (low tide) during dry season (lower dilution capability). The results allowed the evaluation of the potential of contaminant mass generation by the different river segments and the estimation of their natural and anthropogenic components. The water quality of Iguaçú and Sarapuí Rivers were evaluated for metals and biochemical oxygen demand. The method gave an excellent response, including the possibility of sources identification and contaminated river segments ranking. The approach also offers fast execution and data interpretation, being highly efficient.

  17. Study of heavy metal concentration and partitioning in the Estrela River: implications for the pollution in Guanabara Bay - SE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M. A. Rangel; José A. Baptista Neto; Estefan M. Fonseca; John McAlister; Bernard J. Smith

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the geochemical analysis of ten sediment samples collected along the fluvial system of the Estrela River, which flows into the northern portion of Guanabara Bay, shows the presence of anthropogenic impacts in this area. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni obtained were slightly higher, when compared with values found innatural environments. The particle size and organic matter content in most of the analyzed stations showed featuresnot conducive to the accumulation ...

  18. Oceanographic studies in Harrison Bay and the Colville River Delta, Alaska, to support the development of oil spill response strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, E.H.; Taylor, E.; Hale, B.

    2003-01-01

    The risk of an oil spill resulting from the development of the Alpine oil field is considered to be low. The field is located on the North Slope of Alaska adjacent to the Alaskan Beaufort Sea and reaches coastal waters from the distributary channels of the Colville River Delta. The physical environmental (hydrodynamic) conditions that would affect the transport and fate of spilled oil was investigated to further reduce the risk. During the open-water season of 2001 in Harrison Bay, near shore current meters were deployed and data on weather and surface currents was analyzed. Ocean current and wind measurements were examined to evaluate the relationship between meteorology and water levels during the open-water season. The objective was to gain a better understanding of the near shore hydrodynamic processes at play in Harrison Bay, in order to plan the most appropriate spill response strategies. The results obtained indicate that surface currents within the bay adjacent to the Colville Delta are variable. They respond to wind forces as well as other possible mechanisms like estuarine circulation. The surface currents reach maximum speeds of 0.26 metre per second. For the late July-September deployment, the calculated net surface drift was a 0.02 metre per second current to the east southeast. In both Harrison Bay and Colville Delta, prevailing southwest and northeast winds, respectively, induced water level changes of more than 0.5 metre above and below the average. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  19. Upriver transport of dissolved substances in an estuary and sub-estuary system of the lower James River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian; Xu, Hongzhou

    2018-01-01

    The water exchange between the James River and the Elizabeth River, an estuary and sub-estuary system in the lower Chesapeake Bay, was investigated using a 3D numerical model. The conservative passive tracers were used to represent the dissolved substances (DS) discharged from the Elizabeth River. The approach enabled us to diagnose the underlying physical processes that control the expansion of the DS, which is representative of potential transport of harmful algae blooms, pollutants from the Elizabeth River to the James River without explicitly simulating biological processes. Model simulations with realistic forcings in 2005, together with a series of processoriented numerical experiments, were conducted to explore the correlations of the transport process and external forcing. Model results show that the upriver transport depends highly on the freshwater discharge on a seasonal scale and maximum upriver transport occurs in summer with a mean transport time ranging from 15-30 days. The southerly/easterly wind, low river discharge, and neap tidal condition all act to strengthen the upriver transport. On the other hand, the northerly/westerly wind, river pulse, water level pulse, and spring tidal condition act to inhibit the upriver transport. Tidal flushing plays an important role in transporting the DS during spring tide, which shortens the travel time in the lower James River. The multivariable regression analysis of volume mean subtidal DS concentration in the mesohaline portion of the James River indicates that DS concentration in the upriver area can be explained and well predicted by the physical forcings (r = 0.858, p = 0.00001).

  20. Delaware's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya W. Lister; Glenn Gladders; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew J. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The fifth full inventory of Delaware's forests reports an 8 percent decrease in the area of forest land to 352,000 acres, which cover 28 percent of the State's land area and has a volume of approximately 2,352 cubic feet per acre. Twenty-one percent of the growing-stock volume is red maple, followed by sweetgum (13 percent), and loblolly pine (12 percent)....

  1. Acoustic tag detections of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay estuaries, Washington and Oregon, 2010–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansel, Hal C.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2017-11-08

    The Columbia River, in Washington and Oregon, and Coos Bay, in Oregon, are economically important shipping channels that are inhabited by several fishes protected under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Maintenance of shipping channels involves dredge operations to maintain sufficient in-channel depths to allow large ships to navigate the waterways safely. Fishes entrained by dredge equipment often die or experience delayed mortality. Other potential negative effects of dredging include increased turbidity, reductions in prey resources, and the release of harmful contaminants from the dredged sediments. One species of concern is the ESA-listed green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris; Southern Distinct Population Segment). In this study, we used acoustic telemetry to identify habitat use, arrival and departure timing, and the extent of upstream migration of green sturgeon in the Columbia River and Coos Bay to help inform dredge operations to minimize potential take of green sturgeon. Autonomous acoustic receivers were deployed in Coos Bay from the mouth to river kilometer (rkm) 21.6 from October 2009 through October 2010. In the Columbia River Estuary, receivers were deployed between the mouth and rkm 37.8 from April to November in 2010 and 2011. A total of 29 subadult and adult green sturgeon were tagged with temperature and pressure sensor tags and released during the study, primarily in Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington, and the Klamath River, Oregon. Green sturgeon detected during the study but released by other researchers also were included in the study.The number of tagged green sturgeon detected in the two estuaries differed markedly. In Coos Bay, only one green sturgeon was detected for about 2 hours near the estuary mouth. In the Columbia River Estuary, 9 green sturgeon were detected in 2010 and 10 fish were detected in 2011. Green sturgeon entered the Columbia River from May through October during both years, with the greatest numbers of fish being

  2. Influence of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.) on fish community structure and function in headwater streams of the Delaware River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, R.M.; Bennett, R.M.; Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Smith, D.R.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) forest of the eastern U.S. are in decline due to invasion by the exotic insect hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae). Aquatic biodiversity in hemlock ecosystems has not been documented; thus the true impact of the infestation cannot be assessed. We compared ichthyofaunal assemblages and trophic structure of streams draining hemlock and hardwood forests by sampling first- and second-order streams draining 14 paired hemlock and hardwood stands during base flows in July 1997 at the Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area of Pennsylvania and New Jersey. Over 1400 fish of 15 species and 7 families were collected, but hemlock and hardwood streams individually harbored only one to four species. Brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) were two to three times as prevalent in hemlock than hardwood streams. Insectivorous fishes occurred in significantly higher proportion in streams of hardwood (0.90) than hemlock (0.46) stands, while piscivores occurred more often in hemlock (0.85) than hardwood (0.54) stands. Functional (trophic) diversity of fishes in hemlock and second-order streams was numerically greater than that of hardwood and first-order streams. Species composition also differed by stream order and terrain type. Biodiversity is threatened at several levels within hemlock ecosystems at risk to the hemlock woolly adelgid in eastern U.S. forests.

  3. Seasonal dynamics of atmospheric and river inputs of black carbon, and impacts on biogeochemical cycles in Halong Bay, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Mari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of black carbon (BC, a product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels and biomass, are high in the Asia-Pacific region, yet input pathways and rates to the ocean are not well constrained. Atmospheric and riverine inputs of BC in Halong Bay (Vietnam, a hotspot of atmospheric BC, were studied at monthly intervals during one year. Climate in Halong Bay is governed by the monsoon regime, characterized by a northeast winter monsoon (dry season and southeast summer monsoon (wet season. During the dry season, atmospheric BC concentrations averaged twice those observed during the wet season. In the sea surface microlayer (SML and underlying water (ULW, concentrations of particulate BC (PBC averaged 539 and 11 μmol C L–1, respectively. Dissolved BC (DBC concentrations averaged 2.6 μmol C L–1 in both the SML and ULW. Seasonal variations indicated that PBC concentration in the SML was controlled by atmospheric deposition during the dry season, while riverine inputs controlled both PBC and DBC concentrations in ULW during the wet season. Spatiotemporal variations of PBC and DBC during the wet season suggest that river runoff was efficient in transporting PBC that had accumulated on land during the dry season, and in mobilizing and transporting DBC to the ocean. The annual river flux of PBC was about 3.8 times higher than that of DBC. The monsoon regime controls BC input to Halong Bay by favoring dry deposition of BC originating from the north during the dry season, and wet deposition and river runoff during the wet season. High PBC concentrations seem to enhance the transfer of organic carbon from dissolved to particulate phase by adsorbing dissolved organic carbon and stimulating aggregation. Such processes may impact the availability and biogeochemical cycling of other dissolved substances, including nutrients, for the coastal marine ecosystem.

  4. Application of stable isotopes to the assessment of pollution loading from various sources in the Pampanga River system into the Manila Bay, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on the Pampanga River Basin as prototype for the other watersheds of Manila Bay. The pollution of the Bay is associated to loading from agriculture, industry and services sectors but with no direct evidence, hence the origins of pollution have to be identified for area-based resource management actions. The multiple stable isotopes were used and applied in identifying and tracing through spectral signature the origin of nutrient loading

  5. Territorial analysis of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa María Huatulco, Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rosalía Gómez Rojo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is an integrated analysis if the following: the physical and bio-geographic elements, the chronological history of the population’s place, types of land ownership, its uses that are parts of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa Maria Huatulco, Oaxaca. The 55% of the study zone, falls within the boundaries of the Huatulco National Park and the remaining along the river basin adjacent to the park. This entire region harbors high biodiversity and is made up of scenic landscapes, where different interests come into play which dispute the use of the natural resources and the appropriation of lands. Among the analysis techniques employed analysis in this investigation are map-like diagrams known as choremes, which demonstrates the relationship of the above mentioned aspects of the study.

  6. Planktonic copepod community in the neritic area south western part of Tunis bay influenced by Meliane river supplies (south western Mediterranean sea)

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Lamine, Y.; Daly Yahia Kefi, O.; Daly Yahia, N.

    2012-01-01

    The Tunis bay is located in the North Estern coast of Tunisia and receives in its Western part flows from Meliane River. Our study aims to describe the composition and the spatiotemporal distribution of planktonic copepods in the bay in order to identify the effect of the Meliane River supplies on the community. A grid of 19 stations was investigated monthly from July 2004 to December 2004 using a 160 μm mesh size plankton net, towed obliquely from the bottom to the surface. The planktonic co...

  7. Behaviour of wintering Tundra Swans Cygnus columbianus columbianus at the Eel River delta and Humboldt Bay, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jeffrey M.; Gress, Carol; Byers, Jacob W.; Jennings, Emily; Ely, Craig R.

    2010-01-01

    Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus columbinanus phenology and behaviour at the Eel River delta and southern Humboldt Bay in northern California, USA, is described. Counts made each January from 1963 onwards peaked at 1,502 swans in 1988. Monthly counts recorded during the 2006/07 and 2008/09 winters peaked in February, at 1,033 and 772 swans respectively. Swans roosted on ephemeral ponds at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, on ephemeral ponds within grassland pastures in the vicinity of the Refuge, and perhaps also used the Eel River as a roost. Flights between Refuge roosts and the pastures and ponds occurred in the two hours after sunrise and before dark. In winters 2008/09 and 2009/10, the percentage of cygnets in the flocks was 10.6% and 21.4% respectively, and increased to =31% cygnets each year after most swans had departed from the area in March. Average brood size in 2009/10 was 2.1 cygnets. Daily activities consisted of foraging (44.9% of activities recorded), comfort behaviour (22.1%), locomotion (16.2%) and vigilance (15.5%). Eight neck-collared swans identified in the wintering flock were marked at four locations in different parts of Alaska, up to 1,300 km apart.

  8. Delaware's first serial killer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inguito, G B; Sekula-Perlman, A; Lynch, M J; Callery, R T

    2000-11-01

    The violent murder of Shirley Ellis on November 29, 1987, marked the beginning of the strange and terrible tale of Steven Bryan Pennell's reign as the state of Delaware's first convicted serial killer. Three more bodies followed the first victim, and all had been brutally beaten and sadistically tortured. The body of a fifth woman has never been found. State and county police collaborated with the FBI to identify and hunt down their suspect, forming a task force of over 100 officers and spending about one million dollars. Through their knowledge and experience with other serial killers, the FBI was able to make an amazingly accurate psychological profile of Delaware's serial killer. After months of around-the-clock surveillance, Steven Pennell was arrested on November 29, 1988, one year to the day after the first victim was found. Pennell was found guilty in the deaths of the first two victims on November 29, 1989, and plead no contest to the murder of two others on October 30, 1991. Still maintaining his innocence, he asked for the death penalty so that he could spare his family further agony. Steven Pennell was executed by lethal injection on March 15, 1992.

  9. Issues in ecology: Nutrient pollution of coastal rivers, bays, and seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Robert W.; Anderson, D. B.; Cloern, James E.; Elfring, Chris; Hopkinson, Charles S.; Lapointe, Brian; Maloney, Thomas J.; Marcus, Nancy; McGlathery, Karen; Sharpley, A.N.; Walker, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 40 years, antipollution laws have greatly reduced discharges of toxic substances into our coastal waters. This effort, however, has focused largely on point-source pollution of industrial and municipal effluent. No comparable effort has been made to restrict the input of nitrogen (N) from municipal effluent, nor to control the flows of N and phosphorus (P) that enter waterways from dispersed or nonpoint sources such as agricultural and urban runoff or as airborne pollutants. As a result, inputs of nonpoint pollutants, particularly N, have increased dramatically. Nonpoint pollution from N and P now represents the largest pollution problem facing the vital coastal waters of the United States. Nutrient pollution is the common thread that links an array of problems along the nation’s coastline, including eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, ”dead zones,” fish kills, some shellfish poisonings, loss of seagrass and kelp beds, some coral reef destruction, and even some marine mammal and seabird deaths. More than 60 percent of our coastal rivers and bays in every coastal state of the continental United States are moderately to severely degraded by nutrient pollution. This degradation is particularly severe in the mid Atlantic states, in the southeast, and in the Gulf of Mexico. A recent report from the National Research Council entitled “Clean Coastal Waters: Understanding and Reduc- ing the Effects of Nutrient Pollution” concludes that: Nutrient over-enrichment of coastal ecosystems generally triggers ecological changes that decrease the biologi- cal diversity of bays and estuaries. While moderate N enrichment of some coastal waters may increase fish production, over-enrichment generally degrades the marine food web that supports commercially valuable fish. The marked increase in nutrient pollution of coastal waters has been accompanied by an increase in harmful algal blooms, and in at least some cases, pollution has triggered these blooms. High

  10. [Effect of Elodea nuttallii-immobilized Nitrogen Cycling Bacteria on Nitrogen Removal Mechanism in an Inflow River, Gonghu Bay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hua-yang; Li, Zheng-kui; Wang, Hao; Zhu, Qian

    2016-04-15

    Undisturbed sediment cores and surface water from Qinshui River in Gonghu Bay were collected to carry out a simulation experiment in our laboratory. The remediation effect of Elodea nuttallii-Immobilized Nitrogen Cycling Bacteria (INCB) was applied in the polluted inflow river. The denitrification rate, ANAMMOX rate and nitrogen microorganism diversity were measured by ¹⁵N isotope pairing technology and high-throughput sequencing technology based on 16S rRNA. The TN, NH₄⁺-N, NO₃⁻-N concentrations were reduced by 72.03%, 46.67% and 76.65% in the treatment with addition of Elodea nuttallii and INCB in our laboratory experiment. Meanwhile, denitrification bacteria and ANAMMOX bacteria had synergistic effect with each other. The denitrification and ANAMMOX rates were increased by 165 µmol (m² · h)⁻¹ and 269.7 µmol · (m² · h)⁻¹, respectively. The diversities of denitrification and ANAMMOX bacteria also increased in our experiment. From the level of major phylum, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobbacteria and Bacteroidetes all increased significantly. The results showed that the Elodea nuttallii-INCB assemblage technology could increase the bio-diversity of nitrogen cycling bacteria and promote the ability of nitrogen removal in Qinshui River.

  11. Relationship of land use to water quality in the Chesapeake Bay region. [water sampling and photomapping river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correll, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Both the proportions of the various land use categories present on each watershed and the specific management practices in use in each category affect the quality of runoff waters, and the water quality of the Bay. Several permanent and portable stations on various Maryland Rivers collect volume-integrated water samples. All samples are analyzed for a series of nutrient, particulate, bacterial, herbicide, and heavy metal parameters. Each basin is mapped with respect to land use by the analysis of low-elevation aerial photos. Analyses are verified and adjusted by ground truth surveys. Data are processed and stored in the Smithsonian Institution data bank. Land use categories being investigated include forests/old fields, pastureland, row crops, residential areas, upland swamps, and tidal marshes.

  12. [Quality level assessment of lowly efficient Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiang-Bao; Liu, Yu-Ting; Zhu, Jin-Fang; Xu, Jing-Wei; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Liu, Jing-Tao; Liu, Qing

    2013-06-01

    Taking the Tamarix chinensis secondary shrubs in Laizhou Bay of Yellow River Delta as test objects, and by using synthetic factor method, this paper studied the main factors causing the lowly efficiency of T. chinensis secondary shrubs as well as the main parameters for the classification of lowly efficient T. chinensis secondary shrubs. A total of 24 indices including shrubs growth and soil physical and chemical properties were selected to determine the main affecting factors and parameters in evaluating and classifying the lowly efficient shrubs. There were no obvious correlations between the indices reflecting the shrubs growth and soil quality, and thus, only using shrub growth index to reflect the lowly efficiency level of T. chinensis was not enough, and it would be necessary to combine with soil quality factors to make a comprehensive evaluation. The principal factors reflecting the quality level of lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs included soil salt content and moisture content, stand age, single tree's aboveground stem, leaf biomass, and basal diameter, followed by soil density, porosity, and soil nutrient status. The lowly efficient T. chinensis shrubs in the Bay could be classified into five types, namely, shrub with growth potential, slightly low quality shrub, moderately lowly efficient shrub, moderately low quality and lowly efficient shrub, and seriously low quality and lowly efficient shrub. The main features, low efficiency causes, and management measures of these shrubs were discussed based on the mean cluster value.

  13. Suspended matter and nutrient gradients of a small-scale river plume in Sepetiba Bay, SE-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Paiva Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal river plumes represent one of the final stages of material transport across the land-sea interface. Most studies, however have focused on the behavior of medium to large sized river plumes of coastal-shelf waters, whereas small sized river plumes acting within estuaries have been neglected. This study addressed the behavior of suspended particulate matter (SPM, dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN, DIP and DSi and Chlorophyll a (Chl. a of a small sized river plume derived from the closely lain São Francisco and Guandú river channels, set in the Sepetiba Bay estuary, SE-Brazil. Two surface water sampling campaigns were conducted, one in January 2003 (humid summer conditions and the other in June 2003 (dry winter conditions. On both occasions, the plumes dispersed in a SE direction towards the inner portion of the bay. The "wet" event plume was more turbid, nutrient rich and dispersed beyond nearshore waters, whereas the "dry" event plume proliferated as a narrow, less turbid and more nutrient poor film alongshore. Both exhibited a marked degree of patchiness, induced by the differential input of materials from the river sources and resuspension processes from the shallow nearshore bottom. The São Francisco river channel was the main source of freshwater, SPM and nutrients, except for ammonia (NH4+-N derived from domestic effluents of the Guandú river. The mesohaline portion of the estuarine mixing zone of the plumes behaved as a slight source for SPM, DSi and DIP, due to bottom resuspension processes. N:P molar ratios ranged between 80:1 and 20:1 along the estuarine gradient, being higher in the summer than in the winter event, indicating that DIP was the potential nutrient limiting primary production. Chl. a concentrations increased at the outer premises of the plume, suggesting that the short residence times and turbidity of the plume waters, hampered primary production nearshore, particularly during the summer occasion. The small

  14. Distribution and risk assessment of trace metals in sediments from Yangtze River estuary and Hangzhou Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feipeng; Mao, Lingchen; Jia, Yubao; Gu, Zhujun; Shi, Weiling; Chen, Ling; Ye, Hua

    2018-01-01

    The Yangtze River estuary (YRE) and Hangzhou Bay (HZB) is of environmental significance because of the negative impact from industrial activities and rapid development of aquaculture on the south bank of HZB (SHZB) in recent years. This study investigated the distribution and risk assessments of trace metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Hg, Pb, and Cd) accumulated in surface sediments by sampling in YRE, outer and south HZB. Copper and Zn concentration (avg. 35.4 and 98.7 mg kg -1 , respectively) in surface sediments were generally higher than the background suggesting a widespread of Cu and Zn in the coastal area of Yangtze River Delta. High concentrations of Cu (~ 42 mg kg -1 ), Zn (~ 111 mg kg -1 ), Cd (~ 0.27 mg kg -1 ), and Hg (~ 0.047 mg kg -1 ) were found in inner estuary of YRE and decreased offshore as a result of terrestrial input and dilution effect of total metal contents by "cleaner" sediments from the adjacent sea. In outer HZB, accumulation of terrestrial derived metal has taken place near the Zhoushan Islands. Increase in sediment metal concentration from the west (inner) to the east (outer) of SHZB gave rise to the input of fine-grained sediments contaminated with metals from outer bay. According the results from geoaccumulation index, nearly 75% of samples from YRE were moderately polluted (1.0 < I geo  < 2.0) by Cd. Cadmium and Hg contributed for 80~90% to the potential ecological risk index in the YRE and HZB, with ~ 72% sites in HZB under moderate risk (150 ≤ RI < 300) especially near Zhoushan Islands.

  15. Movements and habitat use locations of manatees within Kings Bay Florida during the Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge winter season (November 15–March 31)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Daniel H.; Butler, Susan M.; Reid, James P.

    2018-04-06

    Kings Bay, Florida, is one of the most important natural winter habitat locations for the federally threatened Trichechus manatus latirostris (Florida manatee). Crystal River National Wildlife Refuge was established in 1983 specifically to provide protection for manatees and their critical habitat. To aid managers at the refuge and other agencies with this task, spatial analyses of local habitat use locations and travel corridors of manatees in Kings Bay during manatee season (November 15–March 31) are presented based on Global Positioning System telemetry of 41 manatees over a 12-year timespan (2006−18). Local habitat use areas and travel corridors differed spatially when Gulf of Mexico water temperatures were cold (less than or equal to 17 degrees Celsius) versus when they were warm (greater than 17 degrees Celsius). During times of cold water, manatees were found in higher concentrations in the main springs and canals throughout the eastern side of the bay, whereas when waters were warm, they were found more generally throughout the bay and into Crystal River, except for the central open part of the bay and the southwest corner.

  16. Lithogenic sources, composition and intra-annual variability of suspended particulate matter supplied from rivers to the Northern Galician Rias (Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, Patricia; Prego, Ricardo; Filgueiras, Ana Virginia; Ospina-Álvarez, Natalia; Santos-Echeandía, Juan; Álvarez-Vázquez, Miguel Angel; Caetano, Miguel

    2017-12-01

    Scarce research about small European rivers from non-human impacted areas to determine their natural background state has been undertaken. During the annual hydrological cycle of 2008-9 the patterns of particulate supply (SPM, POC, PON, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) from the rivers Sor, Mera Landro, Lourido and Landoi to the Northern Galician Rias (SW Bay of Biscay) were tackled. No differences in the composition of the SPM were detected for the studied rivers regarding Al, Fe and POC but the relative percentage of particulate trace elements (PTE) discriminate the rivers. So, Cr, Co and Ni in the Lourido, and Landoi rivers, and Cu in the Mera River, are controlled by watershed minerals of Ortegal Geological Complex while for the rest rivers PTE are by granitic and Ollo de Sapo bedrock watershed. Therefore, the imprint of PTE in the parental rocks of the river basins is reflected on the coastal sediments of the Rias. The main process controlling the dynamics and variations of chemical elements in the particulate form is the river discharge. This fact exemplifies that these rivers presents a natural behavior not being highly influenced by anthropogenic activities.

  17. The hydrochemistry of glacial Ebba River (Petunia Bay, Central Spitsbergen): Groundwater influence on surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Krzysztof; Marciniak, Marek; Szpikowski, Józef; Szpikowska, Grażyna; Wawrzyniak, Tomasz

    2015-10-01

    The article presents the investigation of surface water chemistry changes of the glacial Ebba River (Central Spitsbergen) during three melting seasons of 2008, 2009 and 2010. The twice daily water chemistry analyses allow recognition of the surface water chemistry differentiation. The surface water chemistry changes are related to the river discharge and changes in the influence of different water balance components during each melting season. One of the most important process that influence river water component concentration increase is groundwater inflow from active layer occurring on the valley area. The significance of this process is the most important at the end of the melting season when temperatures below 0 °C occur on glaciers (resulting in a slowdown of melting of ice and snow and a smaller recharge of the river by the water from the glaciers) while the flow of groundwater is still active, causing a relatively higher contribution of groundwater to the total river discharge. The findings presented in this paper show that groundwater contribution to the total polar river water balance is more important than previously thought and its recognition allow a better understanding of the hydrological processes occurring in a polar environment.

  18. Elemental composition of otoliths from migrating chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, captured at the Kitakami river and Ishinomaki Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakuta, Izuru; Iizuka, Keiki; Sugawara, Yoshio; Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Ishii, Keizo

    2000-01-01

    The elemental composition (Ca, Sr, Zn and Fe) of otoliths from migrating chum salmon, Oncorhynchus keta, captured at the Kitakami river and Ishinomaki Bay was analyzed to understand the migratory history using a particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The Sr/Ca ratio of salmon otoliths was lower (less than 1 x 10 -3 ) in the portion formed in a freshwater environment and higher (approximately 4.8 x 10 -3 ) in a sea water environment. When the fish migrated from sea water into a freshwater environment, the otoliths' Sr/Ca ratios significantly increased. The highest values were found in the fish captured at the lower part of the Kitakami river (about 20 km upriver from the mouth). The values from the fish captured at the upper part of the Kitakami river (about 200 km upriver from the mouth) were also not less than those of the fish captured at Ishinomaki Bay. Abnormally high otolith Sr/Ca ratios for these upriver-migrating fish, when compared to the values from non-migrating salmon inhabiting stable environmental (salinity and temperature) conditions, provided evidence that they were stressed. No significant changes in the otoliths' Zn/Ca ratios were found, while these values were inversely proportional to the Sr/Ca ratios. However, a rapid drop in the Zn/Ca ratio and an increase in the Sr/Ca ratio was observed in some individuals in which higher values for the Fe/Ca were found. These results suggest that these otolith parameters don't exactly reflect the salinity and temperature history in upriver-migrating chum salmon because the physiological mechanism of incorporation of Sr, Zn and Ca within the otolith of those fish is abnormal, though for fish in non-stressful conditions the Sr/Ca and the Zn/Ca ratios in otoliths are effective indices for predicting the history of environmental conditions experienced by the fish in the past. Regarding the relationship between the Sr/Ca and the Zn/Ca ratios, and also the Fe/Ca ratio, there is a possibility that they

  19. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and Ecological Reserve, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the a portion of the NPS's Salt River Bay National Historical Park and...

  20. 226Ra behavior in the Pee Dee river-Winyah Bay estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsinger, R.J.; Moore, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved 226 Ra in Winyah Bay, South Carolina, and in the adjacent Atlantic Ocean are augmented by the desorption of radium from sediments in the low-salinity area of the estuary and diffusion from bottom sediments. Desorption of 226 Ra is reflected by lower concentrations in suspended sediments from higher-salinity regions of the estuary. Bottom sediments from the high-salinity region have lower 226 Ra/ 230 Th activity ratios than those from the low-salinity end. (orig./ME)

  1. Geochemistry and mineralogy of recent sediments of Guanabara Bay (NE sector and its major rivers - Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCIA DE MELO FARIA

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical and clay mineralogical studies of bottom sediments collected along the Macacu and Caceribu rivers and Guanabara Bay were carried out in order to investigate the relationship between major source areas and recent sediments of the bay. Clay mineralogy includes different groups with selective distribution conditioned by geomorphic features and depositional settings. Micaceous clay minerals are abundant near parent rock in the upper course, whereas kaolinite derived from varied sources is gradually concentrated towards the estuary. In the Guanabara Bay, kaolinite accumulates near river mouths, while micaceous clay minerals are converted into mixed layers in the estuary. Analyses of heavy metal contents reveal higher levels of Zn and Cu in sediments of the bay than in river sediments. Profiles along rivers indicate a downstream decrease of heavy metals, whereas in the bay geochemical trends display greater variations. In general river mouth sediments present the lowest concentrations. At the north and east of Paquetá Island anomalous areas with the highest heavy metal contents occur. Cu tends to concentrate in A correlação dos sedimentos recentes da Baía de Guanabara com as suas principais áreas-fontes foi realizada a partir de análises geoquímicas e de argilominerais em amostras de fundo coletadas ao longo dos rios Macacu e Caceribu e na baía. Os argilominerais indicam uma distribuição seletiva intimamente associada às características do relevo e aos ambientes deposicionais. Os argilominerais micáceos são predominantes na região do alto curso próximos à área-fonte primária, enquanto que a caulinita, proveniente da decomposição de diversos minerais, se concentra gradativamente em direção ao estuário. Na Baía de Guanabara observa-se um acúmulo de caulinita na região de foz dos rios, ao passo que os argilominerais micáceos são convertidos em interestratificados e depositados no fundo da baía. As análises geoqu

  2. Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS), with an application to Chesapeake Bay River inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Moyer, Douglas; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to the analysis of long-term surface water-quality data is proposed and implemented. The goal of this approach is to increase the amount of information that is extracted from the types of rich water-quality datasets that now exist. The method is formulated to allow for maximum flexibility in representations of the long-term trend, seasonal components, and discharge-related components of the behavior of the water-quality variable of interest. It is designed to provide internally consistent estimates of the actual history of concentrations and fluxes as well as histories that eliminate the influence of year-to-year variations in streamflow. The method employs the use of weighted regressions of concentrations on time, discharge, and season. Finally, the method is designed to be useful as a diagnostic tool regarding the kinds of changes that are taking place in the watershed related to point sources, groundwater sources, and surface-water nonpoint sources. The method is applied to datasets for the nine large tributaries of Chesapeake Bay from 1978 to 2008. The results show a wide range of patterns of change in total phosphorus and in dissolved nitrate plus nitrite. These results should prove useful in further examination of the causes of changes, or lack of changes, and may help inform decisions about future actions to reduce nutrient enrichment in the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed.

  3. 77 FR 19570 - Special Local Regulation for Marine Events, Chesapeake Bay Workboat Race, Back River, Messick...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... typically comprise marine events include sailing regattas, power boat races, swim races and holiday parades... of boat races to be held on the waters of Back River, Poquoson, Virginia on June 24, 2012. This event... Federal Government and Indian tribes. Energy Effects We have analyzed this proposed rule under Executive...

  4. Spatial Statistical Network Models for Stream and River Temperatures in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous metrics have been proposed to describe stream/river thermal regimes, and researchers are still struggling with the need to describe thermal regimes in a parsimonious fashion. Regional temperature models are needed for characterizing and mapping current stream thermal re...

  5. Delaware Technical & Community College's response to the critical shortage of Delaware secondary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy S.

    This executive position paper examines the critical shortage of Delaware high school science teachers and Delaware Technical & Community College's possible role in addressing this shortage. A concise analysis of economic and political implications of the science teacher shortage is presented. The following topics were researched and evaluated: the specific science teacher needs for Delaware school districts; the science teacher education program offerings at Delaware universities and colleges; the Alternative Route to Teacher Certification (ARTC); and the state of Delaware's scholarship response to the need. Recommendations for Delaware Tech's role include the development and implementation of two new Associate of Arts of Teaching programs in physics secondary science education and chemistry secondary science education.

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus transport between Fourleague Bay, LA, and the Gulf of Mexico: The role of winter cold fronts and Atchafalaya River discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, B.C.; Day, J.W.; Justic, D.; Twilley, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrient fluxes were measured between Fourleague Bay, a shallow Louisiana estuary, and the Gulf of Mexico every 3 h between February 1 and April 30, 1994 to determine how high velocity winds associated with cold fronts and peak Atchafalaya River discharge influenced transport. Net water fluxes were ebb-dominated throughout the study because of wind forcing and high volumes of water entering the northern Bay from the Atchafalaya River. Flushing time of the Bay averaged winds with approximately 56% of the volume of the Bay exported to the Gulf in 1 day during the strongest flushing event. Higher nitrate + nitrite (NO2+ NO3), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were indicative of Atchafalaya River input and fluxes were greater when influenced by high velocity northerly winds associated with frontal passage. Net exports of NO2 + NO3, TN, and TP were 43.5, 98.5, and 13.6 g s-1, respectively, for the 89-day study. An average of 10.6 g s-1 of ammonium (NH4) was exported to the Gulf over the study; however, concentrations were lower when associated with riverine influence and wind-driven exports suggesting the importance of biological processes. Phosphate (PO4) fluxes were nearly balanced over the study with fairly stable concentrations indicating a well-buffered system. The results indicate that the high energy subsidy provided by natural pulsing events such as atmospheric cold fronts and seasonal river discharge are efficient mechanisms of nutrient delivery to adjacent wetlands and nearshore coastal ecosystems and are important in maintaining coastal sustainability. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemistry of uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra river system: Weathering processes and fluxes to the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, M. M.; Krishnaswami, S.; somayajulu, B. L. K.; Moore, W. S.

    1990-05-01

    The most comprehensive data set on uranium, thorium, and radium isotopes in the Ganga-Brahmaputra, one of the major river systems of the world, is reported here. The dissolved 238U concentration in these river waters ranges between 0.44 and 8.32 μ/1, and it exhibits a positive correlation with major cations (Na + K + Mg + Ca). The 238U /∑Cations ratio in waters is very similar to that measured in the suspended sediments, indicating congruent weathering of uranium and major cations. The regional variations observed in the [ 234U /238U ] activity ratio are consistent with the lithology of the drainage basins. The lowland tributaries (Chambal, Betwa, Ken, and Son), draining through the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Deccan Traps and the Vindhyan-Bundelkhand Plateau, have [ 234U /238U ] ratio in the range 1.16 to 1.84. This range is significantly higher than the near equilibrium ratio (~1.05) observed in the highland rivers which drain through sedimentary terrains. The dissolved 226Ra concentration ranges between 0.03 and 0.22 dpm/1. The striking feature of the radium isotopes data is the distinct difference in the 228Ra and 226Ra abundances between the highland and lowland rivers. The lowland waters are enriched in 228Ra while the highland waters contain more 226Ra. This difference mainly results from the differences in their weathering regimes. The discharge-weighted mean concentration of dissolved 238U in the Ganga (at Patna) and in the Brahmaputra (at Goalpara) are 1.81 and 0.63 μ/1, respectively. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system constitutes the major source of dissolved uranium to the Bay of Bengal. These rivers transport annually about 1000 tons of uranium to their estuaries, about 10% of the estimated global supply of dissolved uranium to the oceans via rivers. The transport of uranium by these rivers far exceeds that of the Amazon, although their water discharge is only about 20% of that of the Amazon. The high intensity of weathering of uranium in

  8. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Delaware single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  9. Archaeology in Delaware. Pupil's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Public Instruction, Dover.

    The archeology of Delaware, for all practical purposes meaning Indian prehistory, is the focus of this set consisting of teacher's and pupil's guides. Intended primarily for use at the fourth grade level, the material can successfully be adapted for use in grades 5 through 8. The teacher's guide is flexible and non-structured, allowing for…

  10. Effect of Hurricane Hugo on molluscan skeletal distributions,Salt River Bay, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arnold I.; Llewellyn, Ghislaine; Parsons, Karla M.; Cummins, Hays; Boardman, Mark R.; Greenstein, Benjamin J.; Jacobs, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Just prior to the passage of Hurricane Hugo over St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 35 molluscan skeletal samples were collected at 30 m intervals along a sampling transect in Salt River Bay, on the north-central coast. Three months after the hurricane, the transect was resampled to permit direct assessment of storm effects on skeletal distributions. Results indicate that spatial zonation of molluscan accumulations, associated with environmental transitions along the transect, was maintained in the wake of the hurricane. However, limited transport was diagnosed by comparing the compositions of prestorm and poststorm samples from the deepest, mud-rich subenvironment on the transect. In aggregate, the species richness of samples from the southern half of this zone increased from 16 to 40, and the abundance of species that were not among the characteristic molluscs of this subenvironment increased from 11% to 26%. These storm effects could probably not have been recognized, and attributed directly to Hugo, had there been no prestorm samples with which to compare directly the poststorm samples.

  11. Trace and major elements in geological samples from Itingusssu River Basin, Sepetiba Bay - Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araripe, D.R.; Favaro, D.I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Itingussu drainage basin is situated at 22 deg 44' - 22 deg 55' SL and 44 deg 53' - 43 deg 55' WL, in Coroa-Grande district, Sepetiba Bay, southwest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Its total area is less than 10 km 2 and includes a waterfall with three drop offs. The study area is located in a granitic pre-Cambrian embasement, discharging in a mangrove forest fringe. This work attempts to investigate the influence of lithology types in the elemental composition of soil of region and sediments of related mangrove. Instrumental neutron activation analysis and subsequent gamma-ray spectrometry were used. This technique enabled the measurement of at least twenty-one chemical elements. The more representative soil samples were enriched with U and Th. Multivariate Statistical Analysis showed that the soil and sediments formed in this area have been influenced by the leucocratic rocks, enriched with LREE and Th. The factorial analysis enables the identification of five factors of influence in the ordination of elements: presence of iron minerals (biotite); presence of allanite; marine influence in the sediment; differentiated kinetic of transport and diagenesis. (author)

  12. 75 FR 15343 - Regulated Navigation Area: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...: Narragansett Bay, RI and Mount Hope Bay, RI and MA, Including the Providence River and Taunton River AGENCY... River and Mount Hope Bay in the vicinity of the two Brightman Street bridges have not been adopted and... Island and Mt. Hope Bay, MA.'' The notice was prompted primarily by two events: (1) The U.S. Army Corps...

  13. Agricultural Chemical Concentrations and Loads in Rivers Draining the Central Valley, California, to the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary: Before and During an Extended Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    Drought or near drought conditions have occurred in California since 2012. Although some parts of the State received near normal precipitation in water year 2016, other locations were still below average. Extended drought can impact aquatic organisms in a variety of ways because of decreased flows and elevated water temperature. However, lower precipitation and availability of irrigation water may limit subsequent runoff, resulting in reduced concentrations and loads of certain environmental toxicants, such as pesticides and ammonia, thereby limiting their toxic effects. In this study, funded by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Program, the occurrence of 227 pesticides and degradation products, and nutrients was assessed before and during this current drought in the two largest rivers draining to the San Francisco Bay: the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. The watersheds of both rivers include substantial agricultural and urban land use. Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and ammonia were detected throughout the study (2010 to 2016) and models of daily concentration using the seasonal wave model (rloadest) were formulated to assess the amount of time that concentrations may have exceeded benchmark levels known to be toxic to aquatic organisms. Frequently detected pesticides included the fungicide azoxystrobin, herbicides or their degradation products such as diuron, glyphosate, and metolachlor, and insecticides such as imidacloprid. Compounds that are transported primarily by surface runoff generally showed decreasing concentrations as the drought progressed, especially in the San Joaquin River. Compounds mainly transported by groundwater, as indicated by seasonal concentration profiles, had more stable concentrations in the rivers. Mass loads to the Bay all decreased, as expected, because of the lower river discharge. When compared to aquatic-life benchmarks, modeled concentrations indicated that individual compounds were not contributing to

  14. The timber resources of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland H. Ferguson; Carl E. Mayer

    1974-01-01

    Under the authority of the McSweeney-McNary Forest Research Act of May 22, 1928, and subsequent amendments, the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of all states to provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation. The first forest survey of Delaware was made in 1956 by the Northeastern...

  15. EPA's Review of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO) Permits and Nutrient Management Plans in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starting in 2013, EPA conducted reviews of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) permits and nutrient management plans (NMPs) in six of the Bay jurisdictions (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia).

  16. Silver Creek Mine Treatment is Golden in Protecting Schuylkill River

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Schuylkill River spans over 130 miles from its headwaters in Schuylkill County through several counties on to New Philadelphia where it joins the Delaware River. It serves a drinking water source for 1.5 million people.

  17. Multielement determination in river-water of Sepetiba Bay tributaries (Brazil) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.M.; Castro, C.R.F.; Lopes, R.T.; Anjos, M.J.; Rio de Janeiro State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in the surface waters of tributaries of the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (Piraque, Ita, Sao Francisco, Guarda, Guandu Mirim, Vala do Sangue and Engenho Novo rivers) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Eighteen trace elements could be determined in the dissolved and the suspended particulate phases: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared to the values recommended by the Brazilian legislation. (author)

  18. PAH Baselines for Amazonic Surficial Sediments: A Case of Study in Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Northern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Camila Carneiro Dos Santos; Santos, Ewerton; Ramos, Brunalisa Silva; Damasceno, Flaviana Cardoso; Correa, José Augusto Martins

    2018-06-01

    The 16 priority PAH were determined in sediment samples from the insular zone of Guajará Bay and Guamá River (Southern Amazon River mouth). Low hydrocarbon levels were observed and naphthalene was the most representative PAH. The low molecular weight PAH represented 51% of the total PAH. Statistical analysis showed that the sampling sites are not significantly different. Source analysis by PAH ratios and principal component analysis revealed that PAH are primary from a few rate of fossil fuel combustion, mainly related to the local small community activity. All samples presented no biological stress or damage potencial according to the sediment quality guidelines. This study discuss baselines for PAH in surface sediments from Amazonic aquatic systems based on source determination by PAH ratios and principal component analysis, sediment quality guidelines and through comparison with previous studies data.

  19. Recent research on the hydrodynamics of the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta and north San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, J.R.; Monismith, S.G.; Stacey, M.T.; Oltmann, R.N.; Lacy, J.R.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents an overview of recent findings from hydrodynamic research on circulation and mixing in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta) (Figure 1) and North San Francisco Bay (North Bay) (Figure 2). For the purposes of this article, North Bay includes San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, and Suisun Bay. The findings presented are those gained from field studies carried out by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Interagency Ecological Program (IEP), and Stanford University beginning about 1993. The premise behind these studies was that a basic understanding of circulation and mixing patterns in the Bay and Delta is an essential part of understanding how biota and water quality are affected by natural hydrologic variability, water appropriation, and development activities. Data collected for the field studies described in this article have significantly improved our understanding of Bay and Delta hydrodynamics. Measured flows ,in the Delta have provided valuable information on how water moves through the Delta's network of channels and how export pumping affects flows. Studies of the shallows and shallow-channel exchange processes conducted in Honker Bay have shown that the water residence time in Honker Bay is much shorter than previously reported (on the order of hours to several tidal cycles instead ofweeks). Suisun Bay studies have provided data on hydrodynamic transport and accumulation mechanisms that operate primarily in the channels. The Suisun Bay studies have caused us to revise our understanding of residual circulation in the channels of North Bay and of "entrapment" mechanisms in the low salinity zone. Finally, detailed tidal and residual (tidally averaged) time-scale studies of the mechanisms that control gravitational circulation in the estuary show that density-driven transport in the channels is governed by turbulence time-scale (seconds) interactions between the mean flow and stratification. The hydrodynamic research

  20. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2001-09-28

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  1. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. EPA requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard and must consider inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  2. Assessment of salinity intrusion in the James and Chickahominy Rivers as a result of simulated sea-level rise in Chesapeake Bay, East Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C; Hong, Bo; Shen, Jian

    2012-11-30

    Global sea level is rising, and the relative rate in the Chesapeake Bay region of the East Coast of the United States is greater than the worldwide rate. Sea-level rise can cause saline water to migrate upstream in estuaries and rivers, threatening freshwater habitat and drinking-water supplies. The effects of future sea-level rise on two tributaries of Chesapeake Bay, the James and Chickahominy (CHK) Rivers, were evaluated in order to quantify the salinity change with respect to the magnitude of sea-level rise. Such changes are critical to: 1) local floral and faunal habitats that have limited tolerance ranges to salinity; and 2) a drinking-water supply for the City of Newport News, Virginia. By using the three-dimensional Hydrodynamic-Eutrophication Model (HEM-3D), sea-level rise scenarios of 30, 50, and 100 cm, based on the U.S. Climate Change Science Program for the mid-Atlantic region for the 21st century, were evaluated. The model results indicate that salinity increases in the entire river as sea level rises and that the salinity increase in a dry year is greater than that in a typical year. In the James River, the salinity increase in the middle-to-upper river (from 25 to 50 km upstream of the mouth) is larger than that in the lower and upper parts of the river. The maximum mean salinity increase would be 2 and 4 ppt for a sea-level rise of 50 and 100 cm, respectively. The upstream movement of the 10 ppt isohaline is much larger than the 5 and 20 ppt isohalines. The volume of water with salinity between 10 and 20 ppt would increase greatly if sea level rises 100 cm. In the CHK River, with a sea-level rise of 100 cm, the mean salinity at the drinking-water intake 34 km upstream of the mouth would be about 3 ppt in a typical year and greater than 5 ppt in a dry year, both far in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary standard for total dissolved solids for drinking water. At the drinking-water intake, the number of days of salinity

  3. Study of heavy metal concentration and partitioning in the Estrela River: implications for the pollution in Guanabara Bay - SE Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. A. Rangel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the geochemical analysis of ten sediment samples collected along the fluvial system of the Estrela River, which flows into the northern portion of Guanabara Bay, shows the presence of anthropogenic impacts in this area. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr and Ni obtained were slightly higher, when compared with values found innatural environments. The particle size and organic matter content in most of the analyzed stations showed featuresnot conducive to the accumulation of pollutants due to the low organic matter content and the strong presence ofsand fraction. There was also the fractionation of heavy metals in sediments and it was found the prominence ofresidual and reducible phase, besides the significant occurrence of organic fractions in some analyzed stations. Thesefactors, thus, highlight the potential risks of contamination, where the metals associated with the organic phase canbecome bioavailable in processes of dissolution, provided by physico-chemical changes that can occur in this aquaticenvironment.Neste estudo, analises geoquímicas de dez amostras de sedimentos coletadas ao longo do sistema fluvial do rio Estrela, que deságua na porção norte da Baía de Guanabara, evidenciam a presença de impactos antropogênicos nesta área. As concentrações de Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr e Ni obtidas foram ligeiramente elevadas, quando comparados com valores encontrados em ambientes naturais. A granulometria e o teor de matéria orgânica na maioria dos pontos analisados mostraram características não favoráveis à acumulação destes poluentes devido à baixa concentração de matéria orgânica e à forte presença de fração areia. Realizou-se também o fracionamento dos metais pesados nos sedimentos e constatou-se a preeminência da fase residual e redutível, além da ocorrência significativa da fração orgânica em alguns pontos analisados. Estes fatores evidenciam, portanto, riscos potenciais de contamina

  4. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo; Maron, Philippe; Amouroux, David

    2014-01-01

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day −1 ) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day −1 ), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day −1 ) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d −1 , in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d −1 ). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d −1 ) may also limit Hg T inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d −1 ). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the coastal zone. - Highlights:

  5. Fate of mercury species in the coastal plume of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay, SW France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, Abubaker; Monperrus, Mathilde; Tessier, Emmanuel; Bouchet, Sylvain; Pinaly, Hervé; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Pablo [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France); Maron, Philippe [Laboratoire des Sciences de l' Ingénieur Appliquées à la Mécanique et au Génie Electrique, Institut Supérieur Aquitain du Bâtiment et des Travaux Publics, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Allée du Parc Montaury, 64600 Anglet (France); Amouroux, David, E-mail: david.amouroux@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l' Environnement et les Matériaux, UMR 5254 CNRS, Université de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2 av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau cedex 9 (France)

    2014-10-15

    Because mercury (Hg) undergoes significant biogeochemical processes along the estuarine-coastal continuum, the objective of this work was to investigate the distribution and reactivity of methylmercury (MeHg), inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) and gaseous Hg (DGM) in plume waters of the Adour River estuary (Bay of Biscay). Vertical profiles, spatial and tidal variability of Hg species concentrations were evaluated during two campaigns (April 2007 and May 2010) characterized by significant plume extents over the coastal zone. Incubations with isotopically enriched tracers were performed on bulk and filtered waters under sunlight or dark conditions to investigate processes involved in Hg methylation, demethylation and reduction rates. Total Hg(II) concentrations were more dispersed in April 2007 (5.2 ± 4.9 pM) than in May 2010 (2.5 ± 1.1 pM) while total MeHg concentrations were similar for both seasons and averaged 0.13 ± 0.07 and 0.18 ± 0.11 pM, respectively. DGM concentrations were also similar between the two campaigns, averaging 0.26 ± 0.10 and 0.20 ± 0.09 pM, respectively. Methylation yields remained low within the estuarine plume (< 0.01–0.4% day{sup −1}) while MeHg was efficiently demethylated via both biotic and abiotic pathways (2.3–55.3% day{sup −1}), mainly photo-induced. Hg reduction was also effective in these waters (0.3–43.5% day{sup −1}) and was occurring in both light and dark conditions. The results suggest that the plume is overall a sink for MeHg with integrated net demethylation rates, ranging from 2.0–3.7 g (Hg) d{sup −1}, in the same range than the estimated MeHg inputs from the estuary (respectively, 0.9 and 3.5 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). The large evasion of DGM from the plume waters to the atmosphere (8.8–26.9 g (Hg) d{sup −1}) may also limit Hg{sub T} inputs to coastal waters (33–69 g (Hg) d{sup −1}). These processes are thus considered to be most significant in controlling the fate of Hg transferred from the river to the

  6. Analysis and dating of Sediments in Montevideo Bay and Silver river; Analisis y Datacion de Sedimentos de la Bahia de Montevideo y el Rio de la Plata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odino, R; Suarez Antola, R; Cabral, W [Ministere of Industry Energy and Mining, National Direction of Nuclear Technology, Montevideo(Uruguay); and others

    1999-07-01

    The present work includes generalities on the River of the Silver, antecedents of studies carried out during the years 1992-1997, in the issuing sub aquatic of Tip Carts, studies about the contamination of silts carried out during the years 1993-1996, studies preliminary of the contamination of silts in the Bay,results obtain,treatment of the data and enrichment factors. In the description of the project it is looked for to obtain reliable data on the state of contamination for heavy metals sedimentation ,velocity and age of the silts of the Bay of Montevideo and the River of the Silver, describe geologic aspects in the area involved in the study, the sampling of silts is planned having present the purpose of the same one that is to say to take samples that represent the characteristics real of silts in the sampling area, X Ray Fluorescence dispersive Energy are used in the analysis of samples, for finish, results and discussion are presented.

  7. The distribution of phosphorus in Popes Creek, VA, and in the Pocomoke River, MD: Two watersheds with different land management practices in the Chesapeake Bay Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N.S.; Bricker, O.P.; Newell, W.; McCoy, J.; Morawe, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares phosphorus (P) concentrations in sediments from two watersheds, one with, and one without, intensive animal agriculture. The watersheds are in the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay and have similar physiographic characteristics. Agriculture in the Pocomoke River, MD, watershed supplied 2.7 percent of all broiler chickens produced in the USA in 1997. Poultry litter is an abundant, local source of manure for crops. Broiler chickens are not produced in the Popes Creek, VA, watershed and poultry manure is, therefore, not a major source of fertilizer. The largest concentrations of P in sediment samples are found in floodplain and main-stem bottom sediment in both watersheds. Concentrations of total P and P extracted with 1N HCl are significantly larger in main-stem bottom sediments from the Pocomoke River than in main-stem bottom sediments from Popes Creek. Larger concentrations of P are associated with what are potentially redox sensitive iron oxyhydroxides in sediment samples from the Pocomoke River watershed than are associated with what are potentially redox sensitive iron oxyhydroxides in sediment samples from the Popes Creek watershed. Data for P and iron (Fe) concentrations in sediments from the Popes Creek watershed provide a numerical framework (baseline) with which to compare P and Fe concentrations in sediment from the Pocomoke River watershed. ?? Springer 2005.

  8. Reconnaissance of chemical and physical characteristics of selected bottom sediments of the Caloosahatchee River and estuary, tributaries, and contiguous bays, Lee County, Florida, July 20-30, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Mario; Marot, M.E.; Holmes, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes a reconnaissance study, conducted July 20-30, 1998, of chemical and physical characteristics of recently deposited bottom sediments in the Caloosahatchee River and Estuary. Recently deposited sediments were identified using an isotopic chronometer, Beryllium-7 (7Be), a short-lived radioisotope. Fifty-nine sites were sampled in an area that encompasses the Caloosahatchee River (River) about three miles upstream from the Franklin Lock (S-79), the entire tidally affected length of the river (estuary), and the contiguous water bodies of Matlacha Pass, San Carlos Bay, Estero Bay, Tarpon Bay, and Pine Island Sound in Lee County, Florida. Bottom sediments were sampled for 7Be at 59 sites. From the results of the 7Be analysis, 30 sites were selected for physical and chemical analysis. Sediments were analyzed for particle size, total organic carbon (TOC), trace elements, and toxic organic compounds, using semiquantitative methods for trace elements and organic compounds. The semiquantitative scans of trace elements indicated that cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc concentrations, when normalized to aluminum, were above the natural background range at 24 of 30 sites. Particle size and TOC were used to characterize sediment deposition patterns and organic content. Pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CaPAHs) were determined at 30 sites using immunoassay analysis. The semiquantitative immunoassay analyses of toxic organic compounds indicated that all of the samples contained DDT, cyclodienes as chlordane (pesticides), and CaPAHs. PCBs were not detected. Based on analyses of the 30 sites, sediments at 10 of these sites were analyzed for selected trace elements and toxic organic compounds, including pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs, using quantitative laboratory procedures. No arsenic or cadmium was detected. Zinc was detected at two sites with concentrations greater than the lower limit of the range of

  9. Flux of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment from the Susquehanna River Basin to the Chesapeake Bay during Tropical Storm Lee, September 2011, as an indicator of the effects of reservoir sedimentation on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment are measured at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgage at Conowingo Dam at the downstream end of the Susquehanna River Basin in Maryland, where the river flows into the Chesapeake Bay. During the period September 7-15, 2011, in the aftermath of Tropical Storm Lee, concentrations of these three constituents were among the highest ever measured at this site. These measurements indicate that sediment-storage processes behind the three dams on the lower Susquehanna River are evolving. In particular, they indicate that scouring of sediment (and the nitrogen and phosphorus attached to that sediment) may be increasing with time. Trends in flow-normalized fluxes at the Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland, streamgage during 1996-2011 indicate a 3.2-percent decrease in total nitrogen, but a 55-percent increase in total phosphorus and a 97-percent increase in suspended sediment. These large increases in the flux of phosphorus and sediment from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay have occurred despite reductions in the fluxes of these constituents from the Susquehanna River watershed upstream from the reservoirs. Although the Tropical Storm Lee flood event contributed about 1.8 percent of the total streamflow from the Susquehanna River to the Chesapeake Bay over the past decade (water years 2002-11), it contributed about 5 percent of the nitrogen, 22 percent of the phosphorus, and 39 percent of the suspended sediment during the same period. These results highlight the importance of brief high-flow events in releasing nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment derived from the Susquehanna River watershed and stored in the Conowingo Reservoir to the Chesapeake Bay.

  10. Water circulation within a high-Arctic glaciated valley (Petunia Bay, Central Spitsbergen): Recharge of a glacial river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marek; Dragon, Krzysztof; Chudziak, Łukasz

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an investigation of the runoff of a glacial river located in the high Arctic region of Spitsbergen. The Ebba River runoff was measured during three melting seasons of 2007, 2008 and 2009. The most important component of the river recharge is the flow of melting water from glaciers (76-82% of total river runoff). However, the other components (surface water and groundwater) also made a significant contribution to the river recharge. The contribution of groundwater flow in total river runoff was estimated by measurements performed in four groups of piezometers located in different parts of the valley. The hydrogeological parameters that characterize shallow aquifer (thickness of the active layer, hydraulic conductivity, groundwater level fluctuations) were recognized by direct field measurements. The groundwater recharging river was the most variable recharge component, and ranged from 1% of the total runoff at the beginning of the melting season to even 27% at the end of summer.

  11. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay to characterize water quality in agricultural streams in the Fox/Wolf watershed in northeastern Wisconsin and provide information to assist in the calibration of a watershed model for the area. Streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids data were collected between October 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, in five streams, including Apple Creek, Ashwaubenon Creek, Baird Creek, Duck Creek, and the East River. During this study, total annual precipitation was close to the 30-year normal of 29.12 inches. The 3-year mean streamflow was highest in the East River (113 ft3/s), followed by Duck Creek (58.2 ft3/s), Apple Creek (26.9 ft3/s), Baird Creek (12.8 ft3/s), and Ashwaubenon Creek (9.1 ft3/s). On a yield basis, during these three years, the East River had the highest flow (0.78 ft3/s/mi2), followed by Baird Creek (0.61 ft3/s/mi2), Apple Creek (0.59 ft3/s/mi2), Duck Creek (0.54 ft3/s/mi2), and Ashwaubenon Creek (0.46 ft3/s/mi2). The overall median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was highest in Baird Creek (73.5 mg/L), followed by Apple and Ashwaubenon Creeks (65 mg/L), East River (40 mg/L), and Duck Creek (30 mg/L). The median total phosphorus (TP) concentration was highest in Ashwaubenon Creek (0.60 mg/L), followed by Baird Creek (0.47 mg/L), Apple Creek (0.37 mg/L), East River (0.26 mg/L), and Duck Creek (0.22 mg/L).

  12. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-21

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  13. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  14. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2005-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  15. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-09-30

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  16. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  17. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  18. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  19. Delaware Basin Monitoring Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Delaware Basin Drilling Surveillance Program (DBDSP) is designed to monitor drilling activities in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This program is based on Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The EPA environmental standards for the management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste are codified in 40 CFR Part 191 (EPA 1993). Subparts B and C of the standard address the disposal of radioactive waste. The standard requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the expected performance of the disposal system using a probabilistic risk assessment or performance assessment (PA). This PA must show that the expected repository performance will not release radioactive material above limits set by the EPA's standard. This assessment must include the consideration of inadvertent drilling into the repository at some future time.

  20. H09699: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay Entrance, Delaware, 1977-08-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. H10084: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1983-05-03

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  2. H10537: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, Delaware, 1994-05-18

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. Delineation of marsh types of the Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River in 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Brasher, Michael G.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mitchell, Michael K.; Ballard, Bart M.; Parr, Mark W.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Wilson, Barry C.

    2014-01-01

    Coastal zone managers and researchers often require detailed information regarding emergent marsh vegetation types for modeling habitat capacities and needs of marsh-reliant wildlife (such as waterfowl and alligator). Detailed information on the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation zones throughout the Texas coast has been historically unavailable. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation and collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service via the Gulf Coast Joint Venture, Texas A&M University-Kingsville, the University of Louisiana-Lafayette, and Ducks Unlimited, Inc., has produced a classification of marsh vegetation types along the middle and upper Texas coast from Corpus Christi Bay to the Sabine River. This study incorporates approximately 1,000 ground reference locations collected via helicopter surveys in coastal marsh areas and about 2,000 supplemental locations from fresh marsh, water, and “other” (that is, nonmarsh) areas. About two-thirds of these data were used for training, and about one-third were used for assessing accuracy. Decision-tree analyses using Rulequest See5 were used to classify emergent marsh vegetation types by using these data, multitemporal satellite-based multispectral imagery from 2009 to 2011, a bare-earth digital elevation model (DEM) based on airborne light detection and ranging (lidar), alternative contemporary land cover classifications, and other spatially explicit variables believed to be important for delineating the extent and distribution of marsh vegetation communities. Image objects were generated from segmentation of high-resolution airborne imagery acquired in 2010 and were used to refine the classification. The classification is dated 2010 because the year is both the midpoint of the multitemporal satellite-based imagery (2009–11) classified and the date of the high-resolution airborne imagery that was used to develop image objects. Overall accuracy corrected for bias (accuracy

  4. Fresh Water River discharges as observed by SMOS in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Turiel, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) and the Arabian Sea (AS) are two peculiar regions in the Indian Ocean exhibiting a wide range of Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) values. In the BoB, the strong summer monsoon rainfall and the continental run-offs into these semi-enclosed basins result in an intense dilution of the surface seawater in the northern part of the Bay, thereby inducing some of the lowest SSS water masses found in the tropical belt. In the AS, because of the intense variability associated with the monsoon cycle, water mass structure in the upper layers of the AS shows enormous variability in the space and time. As such, the role of the salinity in these regions is crucial in the ocean dynamics of these regions. After more than 7 years in orbit, the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission [1] continues to provide a series of salinity data that could be used to monitor the SSS variations in these climatically relevant regions, provided that systematic errors due to land contamination are reduced. Recently-developed algorithms for SSS retrieval [2] have improved the filtering criteria and the mitigation of the systematic bias, providing coherent SSS retrievals close to the land masses. In this work we have analyzed the SSS in 2-degree boxes located at the mouth of the main rivers in the BoB: Ganges-Brahmaputra, Irrawady, Mahanadi, Godovari; and in the AS: Indus. We have first tried to validate the SMOS salinity retrievals with in situ measurements. Since there is few available in situ data, we have also compared the climatological SSS behavior derived from SMOS with the ones provided by the World Ocean Atlas [3]. We have also compared the SMOS SSS data with historical data of discharges [4] and [5], ocean currents from the Ocean Surface Current Analyses Real-time (OSCAR) [6], Sea Surface Temperature from Operational Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Ice Analysis (OSTIA) [7],[8] and [9] and Chlorophyll data [10]. The conclusion of this work is that, when the proper

  5. 78 FR 14060 - Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ...] Television Broadcasting Services; Seaford, Delaware and Dover, Delaware AGENCY: Federal Communications... waiver of the Commission's freeze on the filing of petitions for rulemaking by televisions stations... first local television service, and that Seaford will remain well-served after the reallotment because...

  6. Environmental Assessment: Eagle Heights Housing Area Revitalization Dover Air Force Base, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    tidal species. Butterflies were the only insects surveyed, and nine were found on base. Approximately 51 species of birds were recorded on base...Jones River adjacent to the northern border of the housing area, the fro-fruit (Phyla lanceolata) and the hyssop-leaf hedge- nettle (Stachys...other sites in Delaware that this species is found. The hyssop-leaf hedge- nettle thrives in moist sandy soil along the coast and shoreline and occurs

  7. Distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in surface sediments in Xiaoqing river estuary and its adjacent sea of Laizhou bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Luo, Xianxiang; Fan, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the monitoring results of four heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn and Hg at 10 sampling stations in Xiaoqing river estuary and its adjacent sea of Laizhou Bay in November 2008 were analyzed and evaluated. The results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the steam channel and estuary are higher than those in the adjacent sea, and the metal concentrations were below the standard for I class of marine sediment quality, excepting the station 2 in the steam channel and station 5 in the estuary. The assessment of the single-factor pollution index showed that the overall pollution level of the study area was relatively low, but there was serious pollution phenomenon in individual station. The potential ecological risk of heavy metals in the surface sediments was generally at a low level, and Hg had the highest potential risk.

  8. The distribution and speciation of trace metals in surface sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and the Daya Bay, Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiujuan; Yan Yan; Wang Wenxiong

    2010-01-01

    Surface sediments collected from the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the Daya Bay (DYB) were analyzed for total metal concentrations and chemical phase partitioning. The total concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the PRE were obviously higher than those in DYB. The maximum concentrations of trace metals in DYB occurred in the four sub-basins, especially in Dapeng Cove, while the concentrations of these metals in the western side of the PRE were higher than those in the east side. Such distribution pattern was primarily due to the different hydraulic conditions and inputs of anthropogenic trace metals. The chemical partitioning of metals analyzed by the BCR sequential extraction method showed that Cr, Ni, and Zn of both areas were present dominantly in the residual fraction, while Pb was found mostly in the non-residual fractions. The partitioning of Cu showed a significant difference between the two areas.

  9. Understanding Aggregation and Estimating Seasonal Abundance of Chrysaora quinquecirrha Medusae from a Fixed-station Time Series in the Choptank River, Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, J.; Hood, R. R.

    2016-02-01

    Although jellyfish exert strong control over marine plankton dynamics (Richardson et al. 2009, Robison et al. 2014) and negatively impact human commercial and recreational activities (Purcell et al. 2007, Purcell 2012), jellyfish biomass is not well quantified due primarily to sampling difficulties with plankton nets or fisheries trawls (Haddock 2004). As a result, some of the longest records of jellyfish are visual shore-based surveys, such as the fixed-station time series of Chrysaora quinquecirrha that began in 1960 in the Patuxent River in Chesapeake Bay, USA (Cargo and King 1990). Time series counts from fixed-station surveys capture two signals: 1) demographic change at timescales on the order of reproductive processes and 2) spatial patchiness at shorter timescales as different parcels of water move in and out of the survey area by tidal and estuarine advection and turbulent mixing (Lee and McAlice 1979). In this study, our goal was to separate these two signals using a 4-year time series of C. quinquecirrha medusa counts from a fixed-station in the Choptank River, Chesapeake Bay. Idealized modeling of tidal and estuarine advection was used to conceptualize the sampling scheme. Change point and time series analysis was used to detect demographic changes. Indices of aggregation (Negative Binomial coefficient, Taylor's Power Law coefficient, and Morisita's Index) were calculated to describe the spatial patchiness of the medusae. Abundance estimates revealed a bloom cycle that differed in duration and magnitude for each of the study years. Indices of aggregation indicated that medusae were aggregated and that patches grew in the number of individuals, and likely in size, as abundance increased. Further inference from the conceptual modeling suggested that medusae patch structure was generally homogenous over the tidal extent. This study highlights the benefits of using fixed-station shore-based surveys for understanding the biology and ecology of jellyfish.

  10. Geologic framework studies of South Carolina's Long Bay from Little River Inlet to Winyah Bay, 1999-2003: geospatial data release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, W.E.; Denny, J.F.; Schwab, W.C.; Gayes, P.T.; Morton, R.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2007-01-01

    offshore of the northern South Carolina coast. The digital data presented herein accompany USGS Open-File Reports OFR 2004-1013 and OFR 2005-1345, describing the stratigraphic framework and modern sediment distribution within Long Bay, respectively. Direct on-line links to these publications are available within 'References' on the navigation bar to the left. Additional links to other publications and web sites are also available.

  11. Goddard DEVELOP Students: Using NASA Remote Sensing Technology to Study the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The DEVELOP National Program is an Earth Science research internship, operating under NASA s Applied Sciences Program. Each spring, summer, and fall, DEVELOP interns form teams to investigate Earth Science related issues. Since the Fall of 2003, Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has been home to one of 10 national DEVELOP teams. In past terms, students completed a variety of projects related to the Applied Sciences Applications of National Priority, such as Public Health, Natural Disasters, Water Resources, and Ecological Forecasting. These projects have focused on areas all over the world, including the United States, Africa, and Asia. Recently, Goddard DEVELOP students have turned their attention to a local environment, the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Watershed is a complex and diverse ecosystem, spanning approximately 64,000 square miles. The watershed encompasses parts of six states: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and West Virginia, as well as the District of Columbia. The Bay itself is the biggest estuary in the United States, with over 100,000 tributaries feeding into it. The ratio of fresh water to salt water varies throughout the Bay, allowing for a variety of habitats. The Bay s wetlands, marshes, forests, reefs, and rivers support more than 3,600 plant and animal species, including birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and crabs. The Bay is also commercially significant. It is ranked third in the nation in fishery catch, and supplies approximately 500 million pounds of seafood annually. In addition to its abundant flora and fauna, the Chesapeake Bay watershed is home to approximately 16.6 million people, who live and work throughout the watershed, and who use its diverse resources for recreational purposes. Over the past several decades, the population throughout the watershed has increased rapidly, resulting in land use changes, and ultimately decreasing the health of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Over the

  12. Human-induced river runoff overlapping natural climate variability over the last 150 years: Palynological evidence (Bay of Brest, NW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Clément; Penaud, Aurélie; Vidal, Muriel; Klouch, Khadidja; Gregoire, Gwendoline; Ehrhold, Axel; Eynaud, Frédérique; Schmidt, Sabine; Ragueneau, Olivier; Siano, Raffaele

    2018-01-01

    For the first time a very high resolution palynological study (mean resolution of 1 to 5 years) was carried out over the last 150 years in a French estuarine environment (Bay of Brest; NW France), allowing direct comparison between the evolution of landscapes, surface water, and human practices on Bay of Brest watersheds, through continental (especially pollen grains) and marine (phytoplanktonic microalgae: cysts of dinoflagellates or dinocysts) microfossils. Thanks to the small size of the watersheds and the close proximity of the depositional environment to the mainland, the Bay of Brest represents an ideal case study for palynological investigations. Palynological data were then compared to published palaeo-genetic analyses conducted on the same core and to various available instrumental data, allowing us to better characterize past environmental variability since the second half of the 19th century in Western Brittany. We provide evidence of some clues of recent eutrophication and/or pollution that affected phytoplankton communities and which appears linked with increased runoff (higher precipitations, higher percentages of riparian forest pollen, decline of salt marsh-type indicators, and higher values of the XRF Ti/Ca signal), mainly explained by the evolution of agricultural practices since 1945 superimposed on the warming climate trend. We assume that the significant relay observed between dinocyst taxa: Lingulodinium machaerophorum and Spiniferites bentorii around 1965 then followed by Spiniferites membranaceus after 1985, attests to a strong and recent eutrophication of Bay of Brest surface waters induced by high river runoff combined with abnormally elevated air temperatures, especially obvious in the data from 1990. The structure of the dinocyst community has thus been deeply altered, accompanied by an unprecedented increase of Alexandrium minutum toxic form at the same period, as confirmed by the genetic quantification. Despite this recent major

  13. Acid Volatile Sulfides (avs) and the Bioavailability of Trace Metals in the Channel of the SÃO Francisco River, Sepetiba Bay - de Janeiro-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Christiane; Rodrigues, Ana Paula; Marinho, Matheus; Quaresma, Tássia; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-01

    Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro. Sepetiba Bay has 430 Km2 of internal and 2,500 Km2 area of the drainage basin (Lacerda et al., 2007), located 60 km west of the city of Rio de Janeiro.The San Francisco channel comes from the Guandu River and empties into Sepetiba Bay and is the main contributor of freshwater to the estuarine system. The Guandu River system/channel of San Francisco receives contribution of domestic and industrial effluents, which go largely to Sepetiba Bay. This work aimed to evaluate the .This work aimed to evaluate the ratio SEM/AVS as a way of predicting bioavailability trace metals from industrial sewage, mainly, in the estuarine system of Sepetiba. This model is based on the property of some Divalent metal cations (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn), by presenting a low solubility constant, are removed from the soluble fraction by precipitation, forming secondary metal sulfides. Were held four transects, made up of three points each, the coast line to the center of the Bay. The surface sediment was collected with a van Veen sampler type ,packed in glass jars and kept frozen until analysis.The determination of SEM/AVS followed the methodology described by Allen et al. (1991). The variation between sulfide 159.88 ± 0.05 µmol/g on 12 points. The metals that entered the sum of simultaneous extraction were: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn ranging from: 6.47 ± 0.11 µmol/g on sum.The means (± standard deviation) ratio SEM/AVS per transect were: 1.04 ± 1.20 (transect 1); 0.48 ± 0.53 (transect 2); 1.26 ± 1.32 (transect 3) and 0.18 ± 0.14 (transect 4). Only transects 1 and 3 had higher results than 1 , meaning that there are more divalent metal sulfides in the environment. This means that only the sulfides would not be capable of complex and may reflect the potential bioavailability of these in the aquatic environment. There is no statistical

  14. The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Delaware, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, river and stream resource management, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, coastal zone management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide publicly available coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  15. Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins Water and Related Land Resources Study. Big River Reservoir Project. Volume II. Appendix A-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    actuarial rate are determined and flood plain zoning is enacted. A flood hazard analysis of the Pocasset River in Johnston has been completed by the Soil...RELATED LAND ESOURCES STUDY TPANOWMSON MAIN CNlmlONCOOT CUMV ENA ________ _____ AW B- ANONO o EOF " asmS TAPA MTIONN. COS6 PLATE NO 6-16 " : Ei 2 wm (L ca 0

  16. Use of dissolved inorganic carbon isotopes to track photosynthesis, respiration, and nitrification along a 56 mile transect in the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, S. R.; Kendall, C.; Peek, S.; Young, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    A decline in phytoplankton stocks in the San Francisco Bay and Delta is thought to contribute to the pelagic organism decline observed over the past two decades. One factor controlling phytoplankton growth rate is the availability of nutrients. Although there is an excess of nutrients in the Bay and Delta, the type and relative abundance of nutrients is critical to phytoplankton growth. To evaluate the response of phytoplankton to nutrient sources and to better understand phytoplankton dynamics downstream, we tested the hypothesis that the δ13C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) along with conventional water chemistry analyses will record events such as increased nitrification (related to the Sacramento River Wastewater Treatment Plant ammonium input) and algal blooms, and reflect the balance between photosynthesis and bacterial respiration. Multiple parameters affect [DIC] and its δ13C, including DIC sources, pH, and biological processes. Consumption of CO2 by phytoplankton during photosynthesis and by autotrophic bacteria during nitrification both result in increases in δ13C-DIC. However, photosynthesis and nitrification have very different relationships to chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations. The balance between heterotrophic bacterial respiration and photosynthesis should be reflected in trends in DIC, nutrient, and chlorophyll concentration, and δ13C-DIC. The δ13C of DIC should also be reflected in the δ13C of phytoplankton with approximately a 20 per mil fractionation. Significant deviation in the fractionation factor may indicate local variations in growth rate, nutrient availability, or speciation. Combined, these parameters should provide a gauge of the relative importance of the above mentioned processes. To test this hypothesis, we collected 19 water samples per cruise between July 2012 and July 2013 along a 56 mile transect between Rio Vista on the Sacramento River and San Francisco Bay near Angel Island during 8 cruises on the USGS RV

  17. Estimates of Shear Stress and Measurements of Water Levels in the Lower Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.

  18. Can hydrocarbons in coastal sediments be related to terrestrial flux? A case study of Godavari river discharge (Bay of Bengal)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rayaprolu, K.; GopalaKrishna, V.V.J.; Naik, B.G.; Mahalakshmi, G.; Rengarajan, R.; Mazumdar, A; Sarma, N.S.

    A sediment core aged ~250 years and deposition rate of ~2.4 mm yr-1 raised from the coastal region receiving inputs from the Godavari river was examined for n-alkanes The carbon preference index (CPI) of shortchain hydrocarbons (SHC...

  19. Intensified oxygen minimum zone on the western shelf of Bay of Bengal during summer monsoon: Influence of river discharge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Krishna, M.S.; Viswanadham, R.; Rao, G.D.; Rao, V.D.; Sridevi, B.; Kumar, B.S.K.; Prasad, V.R.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Acharyya, T.; Bandopadhyay, D.

    monsoon 2001. Deep Sea Res. II, 50, 881–896. McAullife, C. (1971). GC Determination of solutes by multiple phase equilibration. Chemical Technology, 1, 46-50. Milliman, J.D., and R.H. Meade (1983). World-wide delivery of river sediment...

  20. Levels of chromium contamination in the estuary of the Iraja river (Guanabara Bay) and experimental incorporation of 51Cr in barnacles (Balanus sp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weerelt, M.D.M.V.

    1982-01-01

    Levels were determined of chromium contamination in the estuary of Iraja River, produced by an electroplating industry located 3 km upstream the study area. Uptake-and release kinetics of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in barnacles (Balanus sp.) were studied. Samples of barnacles and suspended particles from Guanabara Bay were analysed. Chromium concentrations (dry weight) ranged from not detectable (ND) to 154,66 μg/g for soft tissues and from ND to 423,76 μg/g for suspended particles. Mean of maximum concentrations of chromium in samples from Guanabara Bay are 3 and 4 times above those of identical samples from control area (Coroa Grande). Soft tissues presented a concentration factor (CF) of 10 3 related to chromium available in suspended particles. 51 Cr(VI) is preferentiably incorparated by soft tissues (biological half life being 100 days). Chromium uptake by Balanus sp from solution is as significant as it is from particulate matter available in sea water from experimental sets. CF for Cr(VI) in soft tissues in laboratory conditions was 10 2 related to 51 Cr present in sea water. Environmental chromium contamination was found to be of the same order of magnitude or above levels reported for other areas subjected to industrial impacts. Barnacles appear to be able to accumulate chromium in soft tissues from the available metal in the environment. Cr(VI) is the critical form, being greatly accumulated in soft tissues of barnacles, that act as a long-term integrator of this metal. For Cr(III), this organism can only be regarded as an instantaneous indicator of environmental contamination of chromium attached to suspended particles. (M.A.) [pt

  1. Relative growth in the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis Nobili, 1901 (Brachyura, Ocypodidae from Garças River mangrove, Guaratuba Bay, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salise Brandt Martins

    Full Text Available A study on the relative growth was carried out in a population of the fiddler crab Uca uruguayensis from the mangrove of Garças River, Guaratuba Bay, Paraná State, southern Brazil. The dimensions analyzed were the length of the major chela (LMC of males and width of the abdomen (AW of females, because they are related to reproductive activities of waving (males and egg incubation (females. The cheliped handedness in males was also analyzed. The LMC was measured in 480 males, the AW in 566 females, and all crabs had the carapace width (CW measured that was considered as the reference dimension for both sexes. The inflection point in the graphs between each the dimensions and CW was calculated with the aid of the software REGRANS. The CW ranged from 2.33 to 8.33 mm in males and from 1.65 to 7.79 mm in females. The relationship between CW and LMC showed an inflection point at 4.14 mm CW among males, and between CW and AW at 3.52 mm CW among females. The allometric growth was positive for both dimensions throughout the entire ontogeny of both sexes, before and after the puberty. The equations describing the relationship between CW and LMC in males were: logLMC = - 0.695960 + 1.72.logCW for juveniles and logLMC = - 1.212513 + 2.5.logCW for adults. In females, the equations were logAW = - 0.519071 + 1.02.logCW and logAW = - 0.902874 + 1.73.logCW, respectively for juveniles and adults. The population of U. uruguayensis from Guaratuba Bay is composed of the smallest crabs, and it also attains morphological sexual maturity at smallest CW. The frequency of occurrence of right and left handed males was statistically the same (1:1 as in most population of fiddler crabs.

  2. A Laboratory Safety Program at Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmyre, George; Sandler, Stanley I.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory safety program at the University of Delaware. Includes a history of the program's development, along with standard safety training and inspections now being implemented. Outlines a two-day laboratory safety course given to all graduate students and staff in chemical engineering. (TW)

  3. Field comparison of sardine post-flexion larval growth and biochemical composition from three sites in the W Mediterranean (Ebro river coast, bays of Almería and Málaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Garcia

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Late larval stages of sardine (16-23 mm were sampled during the 2003 spawning season in their nursery grounds located off the Ebro river mouth, on the Catalan coast, and in two bays of the Alborán Sea coasts, the Bay of Almería and the Bay of Málaga. The daily growth analysis of each sampled population revealed faster growth in the Ebro sardine larvae than in both of the Alboran Sea larval populations. This fact is supported by their greater content with age of DNA, RNA and protein. However, the significantly higher carbohydrate content of the Bay of Almería sardine larvae and a higher Fulton’s index, indicative of energy storage of individuals, in both of the sardine populations sampled in the Bays of Almería and Málaga show evident differences in the daily growth of the Alborán Sea larvae from those originating in the Ebro region. Late larval growth in the Alborán Sea sardine tends to favour an increase in body mass rather than in body length. This study hypothesises that the productivity pulses off the Alboran Sea coasts induced by the north and northwestern wind regimes may be responsible for the growth pulses observed in the otolith microstructure.

  4. The Influence of Baker Bay and Sand Island on Circulations in the Mouth of the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Island is a good example of a dredge spoils area protected by a pile dike system. Without the stabilizing effect of the Sand Island pile dikes, the...Sand Island) and pile dikes, and the effects of these features on adjacent water masses in the lower Columbia River. 4 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY...each drifter using Velcro and nylon straps with pinch buckles. Each case contained a 1-Hz sampling internally-logging GT-31 handheld GPS unit for

  5. Determination of volatile, toxic hydrogen phosphides in the sediments of the Elbe river, the Elbe estuaries and the Heligoland Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassmann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution and concentraion of phosphines in the sediments of the Elbe river were determined by selective preparation and analysis. The concentration of phosphines in one kilogram wet sediment was in the range of 0.1 to 57 n g with the bulking, anaerobic mud from harbors having the highest and the sandy, aerobic sediments having the lowest concentrations. Phosphines in fluvial sediments were detected successfully for the first time applying the method described. (orig.) [de

  6. Dissolved indium and rare earth elements in three Japanese rivers and Tokyo Bay: Evidence for anthropogenic Gd and In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Lerche, Dorte; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Tsutsumi, Makoto

    2000-12-01

    New data on the dissolved (Thailand reported elsewhere (Nozaki et al., in press). Like Gd, the high dissolved In in the study area can also be ascribed to recent use of In-containing organic compound, In(DTPA) 2- in medical diagnosis. Thus, in the highly populated and industrialized area, dissolved heavy metal concentrations in rivers and estuaries may be significantly perturbed by human activities and the fate of those anthropogenic soluble substances in the marine environment needs to be investigated further.

  7. An examination of historic inorganic sedimentation and organic matter accumulation in several marsh types within the Mobile Bay and and Mobile-Tensaw River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2013-01-01

    Mass accumulation rates (MAR; g cm-2 y-1), linear sedimentation rates (LSR; cm y-1), and core geochronology derived from excess lead-210 (210Pb) profiles and inventories measured in six sediment cores collected from marsh sites from the MobileTensaw River Delta and Mobile Bay region record the importance of both continuous and event-driven inorganic sedimentation over the last 120 years. MAR in freshwater marshes varied considerably between sites and through time (0.24 and 1.31 g cm-2 y-1). The highest MARs occurred in the 1950s and 1960s and correspond to record discharge events along the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. In comparison, MAR at salt marsh sites increased almost threefold over the last 120 years (0.05 to 0.18 g cm-2 y-1 or 0.23 to 0.48 cm y-1). From 1880 to 1960, organic accumulation remained fairly constant (20%), while intermittent pulses of high inorganic sedimentation were observed following 1960. The pulses in inorganic sedimentation coincide with several major hurricanes (e.g., Hurricanes Camille, Fredric, Georges, and Ivan). The nearly threefold increase in MAR in salt marshes during the last 120 years would thus appear to be partially dependent on inorganic sedimentation from storm events. This study shows that while hurricanes, floods, and other natural hazards are well-known threats to human infrastructure and coastal ecosystems, these events also transport sediment to marshes that help abate other pressures such as sea-level rise (SLR) and subsidence.

  8. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Tillamook Bay tributaries and Nehalem River basin, northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    valley confinement. * Natural and human-caused disturbances such as mass movements, logging, fire, channel modifications for navigation and flood control, and gravel mining also have varying effects on channel condition, bed-material transport, and distribution and area of bars throughout the study areas and over time. * Existing datasets include at least 16 and 18 sets of aerial and orthophotographs that were taken of the study areas in the Tillamook Bay tributary basins and Nehalem River basin, respectively, from 1939 to 2011. These photographs are available for future assessments of long-term changes in channel condition, bar area, and vegetation establishment patterns. High resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) surveys acquired in 2007-2009 could support future quantitative analyses of channel morphology and bed-material transport in all study areas. * A review of deposited and mined gravel volumes reported for instream gravel mining sites shows that bed-material deposition tends to rebuild mined bar surfaces in most years. Mean annual deposition volumes on individual bars exceeded 3,000 cubic meters (m3) on Donaldson Bar on the Wilson River, Dill Bar on the Kilchis River, and Plant and Winslow Bars on the Nehalem River. Cumulative reported volumes of bed-material deposition were greatest at Donaldson and Dill Bars, totaling over 25,000 m3 per site from 2004 to 2011. Within this period, reported cumulative mined volumes were greatest for the Donaldson, Plant, and Winslow Bars, ranging from 24,470 to 33,940 m3. * Analysis of historical stage-streamflow data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Wilson River near Tillamook (14301500) and Nehalem River near Foss (14301000) shows that these rivers have episodically aggraded and incised, mostly following high flow events, but they do not exhibit systematic, long-term trends in bed elevation. * Multiple cross sections show that channels near bridge crossings in all six study areas are dynamic with many

  9. Levels and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fishes from the Pearl River estuary and Daya Bay, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Lingli; Qiu Yaowen; Zhang Gan; Zheng, Gene J.; Lam, Paul K.S.; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    Fifty fish samples were collected from the Pearl River estuary (PRE) and Daya Bay, South China and were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs, chlordanes and polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Except the high concentrations of DDT observed in fishes, the concentrations of HCHs, chlordanes and PBDEs were low when compared to other regions. BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE congener and the BDE-209 concentrations were relatively low, despite its high concentration in surface sediments. The absence of significant increase of DDT, HCH, chlordane and PBDE concentrations towards higher δ 15 N values, as well as the lack of a significant correlation (p 15 N, may indicate a weak biomagnification of these chemicals in the food webs. Good agreement was observed between their concentrations and lipid contents of the organisms. Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms in the studied subtropical waters. - Bioconcentration was suggested to be responsible for the accumulation of OCPs and PBDEs in the lower trophic organisms of subtropical waters

  10. Characterizing the parent and alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Pearl River Estuary, Daya Bay and northern South China Sea: Influence of riverine input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Ke; Wang, Xiaowei; Lin, Li; Zou, Shichun; Li, Yan; Yang, Qingshu; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-01-01

    Distributions of 31 parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 29 alkyl PAHs in surface sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE), Daya Bay (DYB) and northern South China Sea (SCS) were examined to study the influence of riverine input. It was found that the contributions of riverine input to sediment PAHs in PRE was much higher than other areas. However, higher proportion of alkyl PAHs and low molecular weight PAHs in DYB and the northern SCS was observed, indicating their different sources. Nevertheless, the sediment PAHs in PRE were heterogeneous and affected by the hydrodynamic conditions. The high molecular weight PAHs were dominant in PRE and enriched in the depositional area of suspended particular matter (SPM). Moreover, the concentration of PAHs in SPM was similar to those in surface sediments and dominated in water columns. Therefore, SPM played a very important role in transportation and distribution of PAHs in PRE. - Highlights: • EPA 16 PAHs contributed a small amount of total PAHs. • Alkyl PAHs showed different behaviors from parent PAHs. • High weight PAHs preferably indicated riverine input. • PAHs distribution in sediment was related with the suspended particle deposition. - Suspended particular matter played a very important role in distribution of PAHs in tide-dominated estuary and alkyl PAHs showed different behavior from parent PAHs

  11. North Atlantic Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Massachusetts (2001), Delaware Bay (1996), New Hampshire (2004), Hudson River (2006), and Rhode Island, Connecticut, NY/NJ Metro Area (2001) maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0020555)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ESI data were collected, mapped, and digitized to provide environmental data for oil spill planning and response. The Clean Water Act with amendments by the...

  12. Influenza Weekly Surveillance Reports - Delaware Health and Social Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    & Wellness Healthy Homes Healthy Workplaces Laboratory Restaurant Inspections Screening and Testing ; Travel Contact Us Corporations Franchise Tax Gross Receipts Tax Withholding Tax Delaware Topics Help

  13. DPH Healthy Living Information: Immunizations - Delaware Health and Social

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Wellness Healthy Homes Healthy Workplaces Laboratory Restaurant Inspections Screening and Testing WIC ; Travel Contact Us Corporations Franchise Tax Gross Receipts Tax Withholding Tax Delaware Topics Help

  14. Trophic transfer of toxic elements in the estuarine invertebrate and fish food web of Daliao River, Liaodong Bay, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Bobo; Jiao, Deqi; Wang, Jing; Lei, Kai; Lin, Chunye

    2016-01-01

    In order to study element accumulation and trophic transfer in the food web, sixteen benthic invertebrate species and nine fish species were collected from the Daliao River estuary for analysis of toxic elements and nitrogen stable isotope in the muscle tissue. The concentrations ranged between 1.44–17.98, 0.01–9.30, 0.17–36.15, 0.7–145.4, 0.01–0.33, 0.14–14.88, 0.10–2.51, 0.02–0.14, and 19.3–221.1 mg kg −1 for As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, respectively. As, Cd, Cu, and Zn were significantly higher in the benthic invertebrates than in fish, whereas Hg and Sb were significantly lower. In addition, the benthic invertebrates were characterized by the highest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for Cd, whereas the fish were characterized by the highest BAF for Hg. A significant decrease in Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni levels, and a significant increase in Hg and Sb levels were observed with increasing trophic levels. - Highlights: • Toxic elements and trophic level were determined in biota from Daliao River estuary. • Benthic invertebrates had higher As, Cd, Cu, Zn and lower Hg and Sb levels than fish. • Benthic invertebrates accumulated high As levels, while fish accumulated high Hg levels. • Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni levels decreased, and Hg and Sb levels increased with trophic levels.

  15. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  16. Chesapeake Bay under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to extensive data obtained over its 13,000 km of shoreline, the Chesapeake Bay has been suffering a major, indeed unprecedented, reduction in submerged vegetation. Chesapeake Bay is alone in experiencing decline in submerged vegetation. Other estuary systems on the east coast of the United States are not so affected. These alarming results were obtained by the synthesis of the findings of numerous individual groups in addition to large consortium projects on the Chesapeake done over the past decade. R. J. Orth and R. A. Moore of the Virginia Institute of Marine Science pointed to the problem of the severe decline of submerged grasses on the Bay and along its tributaries. In a recent report, Orth and Moore note: “The decline, which began in the 1960's and accelerated in the 1970's, has affected all species in all areas. Many major river systems are now totally devoid of any rooted vegetation” (Science, 222, 51-53, 1983).

  17. Sweden in the Delaware Valley: Everyday Life and Material Culture in New Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena; Ekengren, Fredrik; Zagal Mach Wolfe, Ulla Isabel

    2013-01-01

    In 1637 the Swedish Crown, encouraged by Dutch merchants, developed a plan to establish a colonial outpost in America to tap into profitable tobacco and beaver pelt trade. The same year the first cargo ships left Sweden and sailed westwards to claim their piece of America along the Delaware River......, their perception and interactions with the neighbouring Native American groups. It discusses the ways material culture was used, exchanged and appropriated by the colonists and the local Lenape and Susquehannock in the processes of meeting, negotiations and daily coexistence....

  18. Abundance, distribution and bioavailability of major and trace elements in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay (South China Sea, Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukina, S. E.; Lobus, N. V.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Dara, O. M.; Smurov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    Major (Si, Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K, S, P), minor (Mn) and trace (Li, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Zr, Mo, Cd, Ag, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Pb, Bi and U) elements, their chemical forms and the mineral composition, organic matter (TOC) and carbonates (TIC) in surface sediments from the Cai River estuary and Nha Trang Bay were first determined along the salinity gradient. The abundance and ratio of major and trace elements in surface sediments are discussed in relation to the mineralogy, grain size, depositional conditions, reference background and SQG values. Most trace-element contents are at natural levels and are derived from the composition of rocks and soils in the watershed. A severe enrichment of Ag is most likely derived from metal-rich detrital heavy minerals such as Ag-sulfosalts. Along the salinity gradient, several zones of metal enrichment occur in surface sediments because of the geochemical fractionation of the riverine material. The parts of actually and potentially bioavailable forms (isolated by four single chemical reagent extractions) are most elevated for Mn and Pb (up to 36% and 32% of total content, respectively). The possible anthropogenic input of Pb in the region requires further study. Overall, the most bioavailable parts of trace elements are associated with easily soluble amorphous Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides. The sediments are primarily enriched with bioavailable metal forms in the riverine part of the estuary. Natural (such as turbidities) and human-generated (such as urban and industrial activities) pressures are shown to influence the abundance and speciation of potential contaminants and therefore change their bioavailability in this estuarine system.

  19. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a century of continuing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R. Wayne; Jassby, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  20. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco bay-delta-river system in a century of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; Van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R.W.; Jassby, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings: We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance: Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  1. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-river system in a century of climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Cloern

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species.We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations.Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21(st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1 an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2 varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3 inevitability of biological community changes as responses to cumulative effects of climate

  2. Projected Evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a Century of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R. Wayne; Jassby, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  3. 77 FR 69490 - Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... determined that the emergency conditions in the State of Delaware resulting from Hurricane Sandy beginning on... areas of the State of Delaware have been designated as adversely affected by this declared emergency... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  4. 76 FR 60850 - Delaware; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... determined that the emergency conditions in the State of Delaware resulting from Hurricane Irene beginning on... have been designated as adversely affected by this declared emergency: The entire State of Delaware for... Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and Households in...

  5. Comparison of different ecological remediation methods for removing nitrate and ammonium in Qinshui River, Gonghu Bay, Taihu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Li, Zhengkui; Han, Huayang

    2017-01-01

    Ecological remediation is one of the most practical methods for removing nutrients from river ecosystems. In this study, transformation and fate of nitrate and ammonium among four different ecological restoration treatments were investigated by stable 15 N isotope pairing technique combined with quantitative polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput sequencing technology. The results of 15 N mass-balance model showed that there were three ways to the fate of nitrogen: precipitated in the sediment, absorbed by Elodea nuttallii (E. nuttallii), and consumed by microbial processes (denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox)). The results shown that the storage of 15 NH 4 + in sediments was about 1.5 times as much as that of 15 NO 3 - . And much more 15 NH 4 + was assimilated by E. nuttallii, about 2 times as much as 15 NO 3 - . Contrarily, the rate of microbial consuming 15 NO 3 - was higher than converting 15 NH 4 + . As for the group with 15 NO 3 - added, 29.61, 45.26, 30.66, and 51.95 % were accounted for 15 N-labeled gas emission. The proportions of 15 NH 4 + loss as 15 N-labeled gas were 16.06, 28.86, 16.93, and 33.09 % in four different treatments, respectively. Denitrification and anammox were the bacterial primary processes in N 2 and N 2 O production. The abundances of denitrifying and anammox functional genes were relatively higher in the treatment with E. nuttallii-immobilized nitrogen cycling bacteria (E-INCB) assemblage technology applied. Besides, microbial diversity increased in the treatment with E. nuttallii and INCB added. The 15 NO 3 - removal rates were 35.27, 49.42, 50.02, and 65.46 % in four different treatments. And the removal rates of 15 NH 4 + were 24, 34.38, 48.84, and 57.74 % in treatments A, B, C, and D, respectively. The results indicated that E-INCB assemblage technology could significantly promote the nitrogen cycling and improve nitrogen removal efficiency.

  6. Storm Surge and Wave Impact of Low-Probability Hurricanes on the Lower Delaware Bay—Calibration and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Salehi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes pose major threats to coastal communities and sensitive infrastructure, including nuclear power plants, located in the vicinity of hurricane-prone coastal regions. This study focuses on evaluating the storm surge and wave impact of low-probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay using the Delft3D dynamically coupled wave and flow model. The model comprised Overall and Nested domains. The Overall model domain encompassed portions of the Atlantic Ocean, Delaware Bay, and Chesapeake Bay. The two-level Nested model domains encompassed the Delaware Estuary, its floodplain, and a portion of the continental shelf. Low-probability hurricanes are critical considerations in designing and licensing of new nuclear power plants as well as in establishing mitigating strategies for existing power facilities and other infrastructure types. The philosophy behind low-probability hurricane modeling is to establish reasonable water surface elevation and wave characteristics that have very low to no probability of being exceeded in the region. The area of interest (AOI is located on the west bank of Delaware Bay, almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. The model was first calibrated for Hurricane Isabel (2003 and then applied to synthetic hurricanes with very low probability of occurrence to establish the storm surge envelope at the AOI. The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations of water surface elevation, wind velocity, wave height, and wave period. A range of meteorological, storm track direction, and storm bearing parameters that produce the highest sustained wind speeds were estimated using the National Weather Service (NWS methodology and applied to the model. Simulations resulted in a maximum stillwater elevation and wave height of 7.5 m NAVD88 and 2.5 m, respectively, at the AOI. Comparison of results with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, North Atlantic Coastal Comprehensive Study (USACE-NACCS storm surge

  7. The Courts, the Legislature, and Delaware's Resegregation: A Report on School Segregation in Delaware, 1989-­2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Arielle

    2014-01-01

    Delaware's history with school desegregation is complicated and contradictory. The state both advanced and impeded the goals of "Brown v. Board of Education." After implementing desegregation plans that were ineffective by design, Delaware was ultimately placed under the first metropolitan, multi-district desegregation court order in the…

  8. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  9. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  10. Willapa Bay, Washington Benthic Habitats 1995 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 1995, the Columbia River Estuary Study Taskforce (CREST) acquired 295 true color aerial photographs (1:12,000) of Willapa Bay, Washington, from the State of...

  11. Behaviour of uranium during mixing in the Delaware and Chesapeake estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, M.M.; Church, T.M.

    1994-01-01

    Unequivocal evidence is presented for the removal of uranium in two major estuarine systems of the north-eastern United States: the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays. In both the estuaries, during all seasons but mostly in summer, dissolved uranium shows distinctly non-conservative behaviour at salinities ≤ 5. At salinities above 5, there are no deviations from the ideal dilution line. In these two estuaries as much as 22% of dissolved uranium is removed at low salinities, around salinity 2. This pronounced removal of uranium observed at low salinities has been investigated in terms of other chemical properties measured in the Delaware Estuary. In the zone of uranium removal, dissolved oxygen is significantly depleted and pH goes through a minimum down to 6.8. In the same low salinity regime, total alkalinity shows negative deviation from the linear dilution line and phosphate is removed. Humic acids, dissolved iron and manganese are also rapidly removed during estuarine mixing in this low salinity region. Thus, it appears that removal of uranium is most likely related to those properties of alkalinity and acid-base system of the upper estuary that may destabilize the uranium-carbonate complex. Under these conditions, uranium may associate strongly with phosphates or humic substances and be removed onto particulate phases and deposited within upper estuarine sediments. (author)

  12. Linking the watershed to the schoolshed: teaching sustainable development in K-12 with the Chester RIver Watershed Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trembanis, A. C.; Levin, D.; Seidel, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Chester River has been the subject of ongoing scientific studies in response to both the Clean Water Act and the EPA's Chesapeake Bay Program initiatives. The Upper, Middle, and Lower Chester are on the Maryland Department of Environment's list of "impaired waters". The Chester River Watershed (CRW) Observatory is lead by the Center for Environment & Society at Washington College. Eight clusters representing 22 public and private K-12 schools in the CRW provide the sampling sites distributed throughout the watershed. Weather stations will be installed at these sites allowing monitoring of the watershed's microclimate. Each cluster will be assigned a Basic Observation Buoy (BOB), an easy to assemble inexpensive buoy platform for real-time water column and atmospheric condition measurements. The BOBs are fitted with a data sonde to collect similar data parameters (e.g. salinity, temperature) as the main stem Chesapeake Bay buoys do. These assets will be deployed and the data transmitted to the Chester River Geographic Information System site for archival and visual display. Curriculum already developed for the Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System by the NOAA Chesapeake Bay Office will be adapted to the Chester River Watershed. Social issues of water sustainability will be introduced using the Watershed Game (Northland NEMO ®). During 2011 NOAA's Chesapeake Bay Office completed curriculum projects including Chesapeake Exploration, Build-a-Buoy (BaBs) and Basic Observation Buoys (BOBs). These engaging projects utilize authentic data and hands-on activities to demonstrate the tools scientists use to understand system interactions in the Bay. Chesapeake Exploration is a collection of online activities that provides teachers and students with unprecedented access to Bay data. Students are guided through a series of tasks that explore topics related to the interrelation between watersheds, land-use, weather, water quality, and living resources. The BaBs and BOBs

  13. Delaware River Dredging Disposal Study, Stage 1 Reconnaissance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Ep1iAiu rupILcoa (Kurtz 1860) C x FamilIy Ca Iyp tra oi dae C rmep-idu. Ia fon- nic -tal (Linne 1758) S Crepiduloa convexad Say 1822 SF x x Crepidula...Penn’s home. This reconstruction, based on Penn’s correspondence, was constructed in 1939. Nat. Reg. PB 01 Andalusia (Nicholas Biddle Estate) Pa32...earlier structure. Nicholas Biddle politician and financier of the Revolution designed the classical motif and lived here. NHL. PB 28 St. Elizabeth’s

  14. Distribution and behavior of major and trace elements in Tokyo Bay, Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay marine sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, Teruyuki; Kimura, Ken-ichiro

    2003-01-01

    Fourteen major and trace elements in marine sediment core samples collected from the coasts along eastern Japan, i.e. Tokyo Bay (II) (the recess), Tokyo Bay (IV) (the mouth), Mutsu Bay and Funka Bay and the Northwest Pacific basin as a comparative subject were determined by the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The sedimentation rates and sedimentary ages were calculated for the coastal sediment cores by the 210 Pb method. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: (1) Lanthanoid abundance patterns suggested that the major origin of the sediments was terrigenous material. La*/Lu* and Ce*/La* ratios revealed that the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Mutsu Bay more directly reflected the contribution from river than those of other regions. In addition, the Th/Sc ratio indicated that the coastal sediments mainly originated in the materials from the volcanic island-arcs, Japanese islands, whereas those from the Northwest Pacific mainly from the continent. (2) The correlation between the Ce/U and Th/U ratios with high correlation coefficients of 0.920 to 0.991 indicated that all the sediments from Tokyo Bay (II) and Funka Bay were in reducing conditions while at least the upper sediments from Tokyo Bay (IV) and Mutsu Bay were in oxidizing conditions. (3) It became quite obvious that the sedimentation mechanism and the sedimentation environment at Tokyo Bay (II) was different from those at Tokyo Bay (IV), since the sedimentation rate at Tokyo Bay (II) was approximately twice as large as that at Tokyo Bay (IV). The sedimentary age of the 5th layer (8∼10 cm in depth) from Funka Bay was calculated at approximately 1940∼50, which agreed with the time, 1943∼45 when Showa-shinzan was formed by the eruption of the Usu volcano. (author)

  15. Algae Reefs in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Numerous algae reefs are seen in Shark Bay, Western Australia, Australia (26.0S, 113.5E) especially in the southern portions of the bay. The south end is more saline because tidal flow in and out of the bay is restricted by sediment deposited at the north and central end of the bay opposite the mouth of the Wooramel River. This extremely arid region produces little sediment runoff so that the waters are very clear, saline and rich in algae.

  16. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  18. Impact of impingement on the Hudson River white perch population. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Kirk, B.L.; Vaughan, D.S.

    1982-02-01

    This report summarizes a series of analyses of the magnitude and biological significance of the impingement of white perch at the Indian Point Nuclear Generating Station and other Hudson River power plants. Included in these analyses were evaluations of: (1) two independent lines of evidence relating to the magnitude of impingement impacts on the Hudson River white perch population; (2) the additional impact caused by entrainment of white perch; (3) data relating to density-dependent growth among young-of-the-year white perch; (4) the feasibility of performing population-level analyses of impingement impacts on the white perch populations of Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River; and (5) the feasibility of using simple food chain and food web models to evaluate community-level effects of impingement and entrainment. Estimated reductions in the abundances of the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes, caused by impingement and entrainment, were high enough that the possibility of adverse long-term effects cannot be excluded.

  19. F00437A: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Delaware, Vicinity of Big Stone Anchorage Area, 1997-11-17

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  20. F00467: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, Delaware and New Jersey, 2000-09-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  1. Chesapeake Bay Climate Study Partnership: Undergraduate Student Experiential Learning on Microclimates at the University of Hawai'i, Hilo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Fan, C.; Adolf, J.

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate student experiential learning activities focused on microclimates of Hawai'i Island, Hawai'i. Six students from Virginia State University, three students from Delaware State University and faculty advisors were hosted by the University of Hawai'i at Hilo (UHH) Department of Marine Science. This partnership provided integrated, cohesive, and innovative education and research capabilities to minority students on climate change science. Activities included a summer course, instrumentation training, field and laboratory research training, sampling, data collection, logging, analysis, interpretation, report preparation, and research presentation. Most training activities used samples collected during students' field sampling in Hilo Bay. Water quality and phytoplankton data were collected along a 220 degree line transect from the mouth of the Wailuku River to the pelagic zone outside of Hilo Bay into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of 15.5 km. Water clarity, turbidity, chlorophyll, physical water quality parameters, and atmospheric CO2 levels were measured along the transect. Phytoplankton samples were collected for analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Flow Cytometry. Data showed the extent of anthropogenic activity on water quality, with implications for food web dynamics. In addition, atmospheric CO2 concentration, island vegetation, and GPS points were recorded throughout the island of Hawai'i to investigate how variations in microclimate, elevation, and land development affect the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, vegetation, and water quality. Water quality results at locations near rivers were completely different from other study sites, requiring students' critical thinking skills to find possible reasons for the difference. Our data show a correlation between population density and CO2 concentrations. Anthropogenic activities affecting CO2 and ocean conditions in Hawaiian microclimates can potentially have deleterious effects on the life

  2. Delaware Estuary situation reports. Emergency response: How do emergency management officials address disasters in the Delaware Estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylves, R.T.

    1991-01-01

    From hurricanes and other natural threats to oil spills and other manmade emergencies, the Delaware Estuary has experienced a variety of disasters over the years. The toll that these events take on the estuary and those who live on its shores depends largely upon the degree of emergency preparedness, speed of response, and effectiveness of recovery operations. In Emergency Response: How Do Emergency Management Officials Address Disasters in the Delaware Estuary, the latest addition to its Delaware Estuary Situation Report series, the University of Delaware Sea Grant College Program defines emergency management; examines the roles that the Coast Guard, Army Corps of Engineers, and Environmental Protection Agency play in an emergency; and reviews how each of these federal agencies operated during an actual disaster--the 1985 Grand Eagle oil spill. The report was written by Dr. Richard T. Sylves, a professor of political science at the University of Delaware. Sylves has been studying emergency management for the past 15 years, with special emphasis on oil spill preparedness and response in the Mid-Atlantic Region. The Delaware Estuary Situation Report is 12 pages long and contains maps and photographs, as well as a detailed account of response and recovery operations undertaken during the Grand Eagle oil spill. A comparison of the 1985 Grand Eagle spill and the 1989 Presidente Rivera spill also is included

  3. Effects of small-scale hydrogeologic heterogeneity on submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) dynamics in river dominated estuaries: example of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel, D.; Dimova, N.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is known to be an important pathway for nutrients and dissolved constituents in estuarine environments worldwide. Despite its limited contribution to the total fresh water flux to the ocean (5 - 10 %), SGD-derived material loadings can rival riverine inputs. Therefore, a good understanding of the coastal hydrogeology and subsequent SGD dynamics is crucial to further investigate constituent fluxes and its implications on small and large scale coastal ecosystems. We evaluated SGD in Mobile Bay (Alabama), the fourth largest estuary in the US, using a combination of radiotracer techniques (223Ra, 226Ra, and 222Rn), stable isotopes (δ 18O and δ 2H), geophysical surveys (continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT)), and seepage meters during three consecutive years. A detailed examination of the entire shoreline of Mobile Bay using CRP, ERT imaging, and multiple sediment cores collection unveiled a heterogeneous (horizontal and vertical) distribution of the surficial coastal aquifer. This was reflected and confirmed by groundwater tracer measurements and direct measurements of SGD in the coastal zone. We found that SGD occurs mainly in the northeast section of Mobile Bay with a total flux that ranged between 0.9 and 13 × 105 m3 d-1 during dry and wet periods, which represents 0.4 - 2 % of the total fresh water inputs into the Bay. While total SGD is insignificant when accounting the whole water budget of Mobile Bay, we found that small-scale geology variations produce groundwater flow preferential pathways in particular areas where SGD inputs play an important role in the water and nutrient budgets.

  4. POTENTIAL HAZARDS OF SEDIMENT IN KENDARI BAY, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adi Kristanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kendari bay is located in front of Kendari city. There are two harbors in the inner part of bay which very important to support economic activities such as shipping and passenger transportation. The result of coastal characteristic mapping and physical oceanography survey show various coastal morphology, vegetation, weathering processes, sedimentation, currents, and water depth and sea floor morphology. Kendari bay is an enclosed bay; the area is wide in the inner part and narrow in mouth of bay (outlet, the morphology look like a bottle’s neck. Numerous mouth rivers are concentrate around the bay. The rivers load material from land since erosion on land is intensive enough. There is indication that sediment supplies from land trough river mouth not equivalent with outlet capacity. Sediment load is trapped in the inner bay caused the outlet morphology. So high sediment rate play an important role in the process of shallow of water depth in Kendari bay. This condition make the Kendari bay is a prone area of sediment hazard due to height rate of sedimentary process. Therefore, to anticipate the hazards, precaution should be taken related to the Kendari bay as the center of activities in southeast of Sulawesi. The further survey is needed such as marine geotechnique and on land environmental to collect data, which can be used as database for development planning. Key words: Potential hazard, sediment, Kendari Bay Teluk

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  6. Evidence of natural reproduction of Atlantic sturgeon in the Connecticut River from unlikely sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Savoy

    Full Text Available Atlantic Sturgeon is listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five Distinct Population Segments (DPS. The "endangered" New York Bight (NYB DPS is thought to only harbor two populations; one in the Hudson River and a second smaller one in the Delaware River. Historically, the Connecticut River probably supported a spawning population of Atlantic Sturgeon that was believed extirpated many decades ago. In 2014, we successfully collected pre-migratory juvenile specimens from the lower Connecticut River which were subjected to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region sequence and microsatellite analyses to determine their genetic relatedness to other populations coastwide. Haplotype and allelic frequencies differed significantly between the Connecticut River collection and all other populations coastwide. Sibship analyses of the microsatellite data indicated that the Connecticut River collection was comprised of a small number of families that were likely the offspring of a limited number of breeders. This was supported by analysis of effective population size (Ne and number of breeders (Nb. STRUCTURE analysis suggested that there were 11 genetic clusters among the coastwide collections and that from the Connecticut River was distinct from those in all other rivers. This was supported by UPGMA analyses of the microsatellite data. In AMOVA analyses, among region variation was maximized, and among population within regions variation minimized when the Connecticut River collection was separate from the other two populations in the NYB DPS indicating the dissimilarity between the Connecticut River collection and the other two populations in the NYB DPS. Use of mixed stock analysis indicated that the Connecticut River juvenile collection was comprised of specimens primarily of South Atlantic and Chesapeake Bay DPS origins. The most parsimonious explanation for these results is that the Connecticut River hosted successful natural reproduction in 2013

  7. 40 CFR 81.55 - Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.55 Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Pennsylvania-Upper Delaware Valley Interstate Air Quality Control...

  8. Mex Bay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... surveys to assess the vulnerability of the most important physical and eutrophication parameters along. El- Mex Bay coast. As a result of increasing population and industrial development, poorly untreated industrial waste, domestic sewage, shipping industry and agricultural runoff are being released to the.

  9. A model of late quaternary landscape development in the Delaware Valley, New Jersey and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, J.C.; Evenson, E.B.; Sevon, W.D.

    1992-01-01

    In the Delaware Valley of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania the late Quaternary history of colluviation, fluvial adjustment, and soil formation is based on the ages of pre-Wisconsinan soils and glacial deposits which are indicated by feld relationships and inferred from mid-latitude climate changes indicated by marine oxygen-isotope records. The area is divided into four terranes characterized by sandstone, gneiss, slate and carbonate rocks. Since the last pre-Wisconsinan glaciation (> 130 ka, inferred to be late Illinoian), each terrane responded differently to chemical and mechanical weathering. During the Sangamon interglacial stage (??? 130-75 ka) in situ weathering is inferred to have occurred at rates greater than transportation of material which resulted in the formation of deep, highly weathered soil and saprolite, and dissolution of carbonate rocks. Cold climatic conditions during the Wisconsinan, on the other hand, induced erosion of the landscape at rates faster than soil development. Upland erosion during the Wisconsinan removed pre-Wisconsinan soil and glacial sediment and bedrock to produce muddy to blocky colluvium, gre??zes lite??es, and alluvial fans on footslopes. Fluvial gravel and overlying colluvium in the Delaware Valley, both buried by late Wisconsinan outwash, are inferred to represent episodes of early and middle Wisconsinan (??? 75-25 ka) upland erosion and river aggradiation followed by river degradation and colluvium deposition. Early-middle Wisconsinan colluvium is more voluminous than later colluvium despite colder, possibly permafrost conditions during the late Wisconsinan ??? 25-10 ka). Extensive colluviation during the early and middle Wisconsinan resulted from a longer (50 kyr), generally cold interval of erosion with a greater availability of easily eroded pre-Wisconsinan surficial materials on uplands than during the late Wisconsinan. After recession of late Wisconsinan ice from its terminal position, soil formation and

  10. East Bay Marina Olympia, Thurston County, Washington. Final Detailed Project Report, Section 107, 1960 River and Harbor Act and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    the Pacific Coast. Thus, transplanting of plants from the Nisqually marshes or other locations nearby in southern Puget Sound would appear to be the...However, transplants bring quicker establishment and are more tolerant of stressful conditions, more vigorous, and tend to give more permanent results. 19...SHEET 7 of 101 G-22 I \\i \\ LLA PAR-L ;,ki ! 4 L ~fl~i~\\\\ - L \\ ; I0 L \\;x M’ PSEN-PL-NC-79-I UL (EAST BAY-OCYMPIA) i% 4V4 OSEO DREOGING

  11. An Analysis of the Charter School Facility Landscape in Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesla, Kevin; Johnson, Jessica M.; Massett, Kendall; Ziebarth, Todd

    2018-01-01

    In the spring of 2016, the National Charter School Resource Center (NCSRC), the Colorado League of Charter Schools (the League), the Delaware Charter Schools Network (DCSN), and the National Alliance for Public Charter Schools (the Alliance) collaborated to collect data and information about charter school facilities and facilities expenditures in…

  12. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Delaware. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  13. 76 FR 64959 - Delaware; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... resulting from Hurricane Irene during the period of August 25-31, 2011, is of sufficient severity and... State of Delaware have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster: Kent and Sussex... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to...

  14. Towards a sustainable future in Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrainetz, G.

    1991-01-01

    To date, ca $40-50 billion has been invested in or committed to hydroelectric development on the rivers feeding Hudson Bay. In addition, billions more have been invested in land uses such as forestry and mining within the Hudson Bay drainage basin. However, there has never been a study of the possible impacts on Hudson Bay resulting from this activity. Neither has there been any federal environmental assessment on any of the economic developments that affect Hudson Bay. To fill this gap in knowledge, the Hudson Bay Program was established. The program will not conduct scientific field research but will rather scan the published literature and consult with leading experts in an effort to identify biophysical factors that are likely to be significantly affected by the cumulative influence of hydroelectric and other developments within and outside the region. An annotated bibliography on Hudson Bay has been completed and used to prepare a science overview paper, which will be circulated for comment, revised, and used as the basis for a workshop on cumulative effects in Hudson Bay. Papers will then be commissioned for a second workshop to be held in fall 1993. A unique feature of the program is its integration of traditional ecological knowledge among the Inuit and Cree communities around Hudson Bay with the scientific approach to cumulative impact assessment. One goal of the program is to help these communities bring forward their knowledge in such a way that it can be integrated into the cumulative effects assessment

  15. Holocene environmental and parasequence development of the St. Jones Estuary, Delaware (USA): Foraminiferal proxies of natural climatic and anthropogenic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leorri, E.; Martin, R.; McLaughlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The benthic foraminiferal record of marshes located along western Delaware Bay (St. Jones Estuary, USA) reflects the response of estuaries to sea-level and paleoclimate change during the Holocene. System tracts are recognized and within them parasequences based on sedimentological and foraminiferal assemblages identification. The parasequences defined by foraminiferal assemblages appear correlative with rapid Holocene climate changes that are of worldwide significance: 6000-5000, 4200-3800, 3500-2500, 1200-1000, and 600??cal years BP. Following postglacial sea-level rise, modern subestuaries and marshes in the region began to develop between 6000 and 4000??years BP, depending on their proximity to the mouth of Delaware Bay and coastal geomorphology. Initial sediments were fluvial in origin, with freshwater marshes established around 4000??years BP. The subsequent sea-level transgression occurred sufficiently slowly that freshwater marshes alternated with salt marshes at the same sites to around 3000??years BP. Locally another two transgressions are identified at 1800 and 1000??years BP respectively. Marine influence increased in the estuaries until 600??years BP (Little Ice Age), when regression occurred. Sea-level began to rise again during the mid-19th Century at the end of the Little Ice Age, when marshes became established. The presence of a sand lens in the upper and middle estuary and the reduction in the number of tests in the top samples in cores from the same area also suggest an anthropogenic influence. The estuary infill resulted in a sharp transgressive sequence, represented by salt marsh foraminiferal assemblages in the upper part of the cores. The increase in marsh foraminifera in both areas suggests an increase in marine influence that might be due to the transgression beginning at the end of the Little Ice Age about 150-180??years ago coupled with anthropogenic straightening of the channel in 1913. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of ecological, geological and oceanographic ERTS-1 imagery to Delaware's coastal resources planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Communities containing five different coastal vegetation species, developed marshlands, and fresh water impoundments have been identified in ERTS-1 images. Suspended sediment and circulation patterns in imagery from five ERTS-1 passes over Delaware Bay have been enhanced and correlated with predicted current patterns. Conclusions reached are: (1) ERTS-1 is suitable platform for observing suspended sediment patterns and water masses synoptically over large areas. (2) Suspended sediment acts as a natural tracer allowing photointerpreters to deduce gross current circulation patterns from ERTS-1 imagery. (3) Under atmospheric conditions encountered along the East Coast of the United States MSS band 5 seems to give the best representation of sediment load in upper one meter of water column. (4) In the ERTS-1 imagery the sediment patterns are delineated by three to four neighboring shades of grey. (5) Negative transparencies of the ERTS-1 images give better contrast whenever the suspended sediment tones fall within the first few steps of the grey scale. (6) Color density slicing helps delineate the suspended sediment patterns more clearly and differentiate turbidity levels.

  17. The effect of Delaware law on firm value: Evidence from poison pill adoptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry L. Campbell II

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available As the leading location for firm incorporations and corporate law, Delaware occupies a unique place in corporate governance and control. In this paper, we provide fresh evidence on whether Delaware’s dominance arises from its takeover laws being in the best interest of shareholders versus managers by investigating the role of the state in which a firm is incorporated on the firm’s adoption of a poison pill. Our results indicate that announcements of adoptions of poison pills by Delaware firms are associated with returns not significantly different from those for non-Delaware firms. Moreover, Delaware firms that adopt poison pills are no more likely to receive a takeover bid, be successfully acquired, or receive better merger terms than non-Delaware firms. Overall, it appears that Delaware law, with regards to takeovers, promotes an environment consistent with a “race to the middle” philosophy, neutral to management and shareholders.

  18. 77 FR 60089 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware, New Jersey, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ... Producers Council, et al. v. EPA, 559 F.3d 512 (DC Cir. 2009). As a result of this challenge, the U.S. Court... 2010 value status \\3\\ Delaware New Castle........ 10-003-1003 * 31.6 23.2 24.3 26 Max quarter. Delaware New Castle........ 10-003-1007 28.1 * 20.6 27.5 25 Max quarter. Delaware New Castle........ 10-003...

  19. The Environmental Assessment and Management (TEAM) Guide: Delaware Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Department of Health and Social Services - Reports to o r f rom, o r in vestigations, b y t he D elaware D epartment o f Transportation...Satyrium kingi) Rare Skipper ( Problema bulenta) Mulberry Wing (Poanes massasoit chermocki) 5-20 Natural Resources Management Mammals...Schools T2.20.1.DE. Radon Management According to Guidelines for Persons Qualified to Provide Radon Services of the Delaware Health and Social Services

  20. Zooplankton abundance in the River Kars, Northeast Turkey: Impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Turkey: Impact of environmental variables. H. Özbay1* and ... in the river. Key words: River Kars, zooplankton, running water, environmental factors. ..... tergestina (Branchiopoda: Onychopoda) in Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Braz.

  1. Exploring Marine Science through the University of Delaware's TIDE camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, D. E.; Newton, F. A.; Veron, F.; Trembanis, A. C.; Miller, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    For the past five years, the University of Delaware has offered a two-week, residential, summer camp to rising sophomores, juniors, and seniors who are interested in marine science. The camp, named TIDE (Taking an Interest in Delaware's Estuary) camp, is designed to introduce students to the breadth of marine science while providing them with a college experience. Campers participate in a variety of academic activities which include classroom, laboratory, and field experiences, as well as numerous social activities. Two unique features of this small, focused camp is the large number of university faculty that are involved, and the ability of students to participate in ongoing research projects. At various times students have participated in fish and dolphin counts, AUV deployment, wind-wave tank experiments, coastal water and beach studies, and ROV activities. In addition, each year campers have participated in a local service project. Through communication with former TIDE participants, it is clear that this two-week, formative experience plays a large role in students choice of major when entering college.2012 Tide Camp - Salt marsh in southern Delaware 2012 Tide Camp - Field trip on a small boat

  2. National Dam Safety Program. Roxbury Dam (Inventory Number 788) Delaware River Basin, Delaware County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-21

    service spillway was analyzed as a sharp - crested weir with:.a discharge coefficient (c) of 3.1. The auxiliary spillway channel was analyzed as a broad ...upstream portion of this channel is a concrete structure which forms a 27.4 foot long rectangular weir . There is a 5 foot vertical drop beyond the crest ...I on 1.5 Crest Width (ft) 12 g. Service Spillway Type: Concrete channel-rectangular weir . Five foot vertical drop beyond crest . Masonry and laid up

  3. Eutrophication influence on phytoplankton community composition in three bays on the eastern Adriatic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Bužančić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Šibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kaštela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kaštela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Šibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kaštela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kaštela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Šibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.

  4. Temporal variation in demography of the Chocoan River turtle, Rhinoclemmys nasuta (Geoemydidae), on Isla Palma, Malaga Bay, pacific coast of Valle del Cauca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces Restrepo, Mario Fernando; Giraldo, Alan; Carr, John L

    2014-01-01

    Few long-term demographic studies have been conducted in freshwater turtles of South America despite the need for this type of inquiry to investigate natural variation and strengthen conservation efforts for these species. In this study, we examined variation in demography of the Chocoan River turtle (Rhinoclemmys nasuta) based on a population from an island locality in the Colombian pacific region between 2005 and 2012. At this locality we captured turtles by hand in five streams with a total area of 0.4 ha. We calculated population size with the jolly-seber method and compared the population structure of four time periods (2005-06, 2007, 2011 and 2012). we calculated the probability of survival and capture probability for males, females and juveniles using the cormack jolly seber model and we estimated the rate of population growth with the Popan model. We found increases and decreases in population size, and a significant increase in the percentage of juveniles in 2011 and 2012. In all periods, females dominated the sex structure of the population. Temporal variation in population size may be due to natural changes in habitat or density dependent effects. However, it may correspond with normal fluctuations in population parameters, therefore continuous monitoring that can be correlated with environmental and physical factors of the habitat could elucidate the causes of the variation.

  5. Ports of Delaware Bay: Industry And Public Sector Cooperation For Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Introduction MIST Fall 2010 high-density tunnels, stations, and bridges. Another $20 million was provided for intercity ...passenger rail to protect infrastructure and the traveling public.12 This commitment of funds at a time of shrinking budgets demonstrates the essential

  6. H12568: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, 2013-08-27

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. H10167: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1984-12-04

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  8. H10439: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Delaware Bay, New Jersey, 1992-10-28

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  9. H12569: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay and Approaches, 2013-09-24

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  10. Intestinal Microbiota and Species Diversity of Campylobacter and Helicobacter spp. in Migrating Shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using rDNA sequencing analysis, we examined the bacterial diversity and the presence of opportunistic bacterial pathogens (i.e., Campylobacter and Helicobacter) in Red Knot (Calidris canutus, n=40), Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres, n=35), and Semipalmated Sandpiper (Calidris ...

  11. F00504: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware Bay, Pennsylvania, 2004-12-07

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  12. Uptake of planar polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dibenzo-p-dioxins by birds nesting in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankley, Gerald T.; Niemi, Gerald J.; Lodge, Keith B.; Harris, Hallett J.; Beaver, Donald L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Schwartz, Ted R.; Giesy, John P.; Jones, Paul D.; Hagley, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. Accumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDDs), and H411E rat hepatoma cell bioassay-derived 2,37,8-tetrachlorodibenzop-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ) was evaluated in Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) and common tern (Sterna hirundo) chicks, and in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) nestlings from colonies nesting in several locations within the watershed. Concentrations of the PCHs were greatest in eggs and chicks of the two tern species, less in the tree swallows and least in the red-winged blackbirds. Young of all four species accumulated total PCBs, PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, and TCDD-EQ. The young birds also accumulated small concentrations of several 2,3,7,8-sbustituted PCDF and PCDD congeners. Uptake rates for certain of the PCHs for the Forster's tern chicks were: 15 μg/day for total PCBs, 70, 200, 6.5, and 0.14 ng/day for PCB congeners 77, 105, 126, and 169, respectively, and 270 μg/day for TCDD-EQ. Principal components analysis revealed that the patterns of PCH concentrations in the samples were influenced by species of bird, their age (or length of exposure) and nesting location. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that exposure of avian species to contaminants derived from aquatic food chains can be characterized and quantified for the purposes of ecological risk assessment.

  13. 76 FR 59087 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental... manufacture, sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. This action is being... consists of Delaware's regulation for reducing VOCs from commercially-used adhesive and sealant products by...

  14. 77 FR 65518 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... email. The www.regulations.gov Web site is an ``anonymous access'' system, which means EPA will not know... proposed revision to the Delaware SIP. The revision is to 7 DE Admin. Code 1125--Requirements for... DE Admin. Code 1125. Final approval of Delaware's October 12, 2011 SIP revision will put in place the...

  15. 75 FR 12168 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial... the State of Delaware. The revision adds a new section, Section 2--Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions.../SIP Regulation No. 42-- Specific Emission Control Requirements for controlling nitrogen oxide (NO X...

  16. 77 FR 58953 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control Technique...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... Environmental Control (DNREC). The revisions amend Delaware's regulation for the Control of Volatile Organic... approval of the Delaware SIP revision that amends Regulation No. 1124, Control of Volatile Organic..., specifies standards and exemptions, and specifies control devices, test methods, compliance certification...

  17. Positive Behavior Support in Delaware Schools: Developing Perspectives on Implementation and Outcomes. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Cheryl M.; Cooksy, Leslie J.; Murphy, Aideen; Rubright, Jonathan; Bear, George; Fifield, Steve

    2010-01-01

    In Spring 2010, the Delaware Education Research and Development Center conducted an evaluation of Delaware's PBS project, an initiative focused on developing a school-wide system of strategies to reduce behavior problems and foster a positive school climate. The study focused on facilitators and barriers to PBS implementation, and also included…

  18. Urban Greening Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the San Francisco Bay Water Quality Project (SFBWQP) Urban Greening Bay Area, a large-scale effort to re-envision urban landscapes to include green infrastructure (GI) making communities more livable and reducing stormwater runoff.

  19. Short Term Sediment Exchange Between Marshes and Bays Using Beryllium-7 as a Tracer, Fourleague Bay, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    Modern delta models focus on the availability and exchange of coarse sediment as one of the major factors of deltaic growth or decay. Fine-grained sediment exchange within a river's delta is relatively poorly understood, as is the impact that this exchange has on land building and land loss. To better understand the dynamics of fine grain sediment exchange between river mouth, adjacent bays, and marshland, sediment cores from Fourleague Bay, LA, were collected and analyzed for 7Be, a naturally occurring radioisotope that serves as a marker for recently deposited sediment. Time-series push cores were collected every two months at ten sites, five located across a longitudinal transect in the middle bay and five located along adjacent marshes, from May 2015 to May 2016. All sites fall within 11 to 28 km of the Atchafalaya Delta, along a gradient extending towards the open ocean. Cores were extruded in 2 cm intervals, dried, ground, and analyzed via gamma spectrometry for the presence of 7Be. Inventories of 7Be were then calculated and used to determine bimonthly sedimentation rates over the course twelve months. Sediment deposition on the bay floor and marsh surface were then compared to Atchafalaya River discharge, wind speed and direction, and wave action. Preliminary results indicate patterns of initial fluvial sediment transfer from river to bay floor, then bay floor to marsh surface, with decreasing fluvial influence towards the open ocean. Sediment transport from bay to marsh appears to be coupled with meteorological forcing that induces bay-floor sediment resuspension and the flooding of marsh surfaces. This indirect mechanism of fluvial sediment supply to wetland surfaces may extend the region of influence for sediment delivery from man-made river-sediment diversions.

  20. Quantification and probabilistic modeling of CRT obsolescence for the State of Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, Kelsea A.; Schumacher, Thomas; Agbemabiese, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We modeled the obsolescence of cathode ray tube devices in the State of Delaware. • 411,654 CRT units or ∼16,500 metric tons have been recycled in Delaware since 2002. • The peak of the CRT obsolescence in Delaware passed by 2012. • The Delaware average CRT recycling rate between 2002 and 13 was approximately 27.5%. • CRTs will continue to infiltrate the system likely until 2033. - Abstract: The cessation of production and replacement of cathode ray tube (CRT) displays with flat screen displays have resulted in the proliferation of CRTs in the electronic waste (e-waste) recycle stream. However, due to the nature of the technology and presence of hazardous components such as lead, CRTs are the most challenging of electronic components to recycle. In the State of Delaware it is due to this challenge and the resulting expense combined with the large quantities of CRTs in the recycle stream that electronic recyclers now charge to accept Delaware’s e-waste. Therefore it is imperative that the Delaware Solid Waste Authority (DSWA) understand future quantities of CRTs entering the waste stream. This study presents the results of an assessment of CRT obsolescence in the State of Delaware. A prediction model was created utilizing publicized sales data, a variety of lifespan data as well as historic Delaware CRT collection rates. Both a deterministic and a probabilistic approach using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) were performed to forecast rates of CRT obsolescence to be anticipated in the State of Delaware. Results indicate that the peak of CRT obsolescence in Delaware has already passed, although CRTs are anticipated to enter the waste stream likely until 2033

  1. Whole Watershed Quantification of Net Carbon Fluxes by Erosion and Deposition within the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Karwan, D. L.; Aalto, R. E.; Marquard, J.; Yoo, K.; Wenell, B.; Chen, C.

    2013-12-01

    We have proposed that the rate at which fresh, carbon-free minerals are delivered to and mix with fresh organic matter determines the rate of carbon preservation at a watershed scale (Aufdenkampe et al. 2011). Although many studies have examined the role of erosion in carbon balances, none consider that fresh carbon and fresh minerals interact. We believe that this mechanism may be a dominant sequestration process in watersheds with strong anthropogenic impacts. Our hypothesis - that the rate of mixing fresh carbon with fresh, carbon-free minerals is a primary control on watershed-scale carbon sequestration - is central to our Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory project (CRB-CZO, http://www.udel.edu/czo/). The Christina River Basin spans 1440 km2 from piedmont to Atlantic coastal plain physiographic provinces in the states of Pennsylvania and Delaware, and experienced intensive deforestation and land use beginning in the colonial period of the USA. Here we present a synthesis of multi-disciplinary data from the CRB-CZO on materials as they are transported from sapprolite to topsoils to colluvium to suspended solids to floodplains, wetlands and eventually to the Delaware Bay estuary. At the heart of our analysis is a spatially-integrated, flux-weighted comparison of the organic carbon to mineral surface area ratio (OC/SA) of erosion source materials versus transported and deposited materials. Because source end-members - such as forest topsoils, farmed topsoils, gullied subsoils and stream banks - represent a wide distribution of initial, pre-erosion OC/SA, we quantify source contributions using geochemical sediment fingerprinting approaches (Walling 2005). Analytes used for sediment fingerprinting include: total mineral elemental composition (including rare earth elements), fallout radioisotope activity for common erosion tracers (beryllium-7, beryllium-10, lead-210, cesium-137), particle size distribution and mineral specific surface area, in addition

  2. Delaware's Wellness Program: Motivating Employees Improves Health and Saves Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer J J

    2008-09-01

    Every year, employers around the country evaluate their company benefits package in the hopes of finding a solution to the ever-rising cost of health insurance premiums. For many business executives, the only logical choice is to pass along those costs to the employee. As an employer, our goal in Delaware has always been to come up with innovative solutions to drive down the cost of health insurance premiums while encouraging our employees to take responsibility for their own health and wellness by living a healthy and active lifestyle, and provide them with the necessary tools. The DelaWELL program (N = 68,000) was launched in 2007, after being tested in initial (N = 100) and expanded (N = 1500) pilot programs from 2004 to 2006 in which 3 similar groups were compared before and after the pilot. Employee health risk assessment, education, and incentives provided employees the necessary tools we had assumed would help them make healthier lifestyle choices. In the first pilot, fewer emergency department visits and lower blood pressure levels resulted in direct savings of more than $62,000. In the expanded pilot, in all 3 groups blood pressure was significantly reduced (P employees participating in DelaWELL had a combined weight loss of 5162 lb. Decision makers in the State of Delaware have come up with an innovative solution to controlling costs while offering employees an attractive benefits package. The savings from its employee benefit program have allowed the state to pass along the savings to employees by maintaining employee-paid health insurance contributions at the same level for the past 3 years. DelaWELL has already confirmed our motto, "Although it may seem an unusual business investment to pay for healthcare before the need arises, in Delaware we concluded that this makes perfect sense." This promising approach to improving health and reducing healthcare costs could potentially be applied to other employer groups.

  3. Characteristics of Wind Generated Waves in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Ralston, D. K.; Geyer, W. R.; Chant, R. J.; Sommerfield, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal marshes provide important services for human uses such as fishery industry, recreation, ports and marine operations. Bombay Hook Wildlife Refuge, located along the western shore of the Delaware Estuary, has experienced substantial loss of salt marsh in recent decades. To evaluate the importance of different mechanisms which cause observed shoreline retreat, wave gauges were deployed along the dredged navigation channel and shoreline in the Delaware Estuary. A coupled wave and circulation modeling system (SWAN/ROMS) based on the most recent bathymetry (last updated 2013) is validated with waves observed during both calm and energetic conditions in November 2015. Simulation results based on different model parameterizations of whitecapping, bottom friction and the wind input source are compared. The tendency of observed wave steepness is more similar to a revised whitecapping source term [Westhuysen, 2007] than the default in SWAN model. Both model results and field data show that the generation/dissipation of waves in the Delaware estuary is determined by the local wind speed and channel depth. Whitecapping-induced energy dissipation is dominant in the channel, while dissipation due to bottom friction and depth-induced breaking become important on lateral shoals. To characterize the effects of wind fetch on waves in estuaries more generally, simulations with an idealized domain and varying wind conditions are compared and the results are expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters. The simulations based on a 10m-depth uniform idealized channel show that the dissipation of waves is mainly controlled by whitecapping in all wind conditions. Under strong wind conditions (wind speed >10m/s) the effect of bottom friction becomes important so the simulated wave heights are no longer linearly correlated with wind speed.

  4. Delaware's Wellness Program: Motivating Employees Improves Health and Saves Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer “J. J.”

    2008-01-01

    Background Every year, employers around the country evaluate their company benefits package in the hopes of finding a solution to the ever-rising cost of health insurance premiums. For many business executives, the only logical choice is to pass along those costs to the employee. Objectives As an employer, our goal in Delaware has always been to come up with innovative solutions to drive down the cost of health insurance premiums while encouraging our employees to take responsibility for their own health and wellness by living a healthy and active lifestyle, and provide them with the necessary tools. Methods The DelaWELL program (N = 68,000) was launched in 2007, after being tested in initial (N = 100) and expanded (N = 1500) pilot programs from 2004 to 2006 in which 3 similar groups were compared before and after the pilot. Employee health risk assessment, education, and incentives provided employees the necessary tools we had assumed would help them make healthier lifestyle choices. Results In the first pilot, fewer emergency department visits and lower blood pressure levels resulted in direct savings of more than $62,000. In the expanded pilot, in all 3 groups blood pressure was significantly reduced (P employees participating in DelaWELL had a combined weight loss of 5162 lb. Conclusions Decision makers in the State of Delaware have come up with an innovative solution to controlling costs while offering employees an attractive benefits package. The savings from its employee benefit program have allowed the state to pass along the savings to employees by maintaining employee-paid health insurance contributions at the same level for the past 3 years. DelaWELL has already confirmed our motto, “Although it may seem an unusual business investment to pay for healthcare before the need arises, in Delaware we concluded that this makes perfect sense.” This promising approach to improving health and reducing healthcare costs could potentially be applied to other

  5. The impact of the 2002 Delaware smoking ordinance on heart attack and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraros, John; Bird, Yelena; Chen, Shande; Buckingham, Robert; Meltzer, Richard S; Prapasiri, Surasri; Solis, Luis H

    2010-12-01

    In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000-accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999-2002) and after (2003-2004) the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21) and 430 (se = 21) respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR) for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999), which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046). By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  6. The Impact of the 2002 Delaware Smoking Ordinance on Heart Attack and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Solis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, smoking is the leading cause of death - having a mortality rate of approximately 435,000 people in 2000—accounting for 8.1% of all US deaths recorded that year. Consequently, we analyzed the Delaware Hospital Discharge Database, and identified state and non-state residents discharged with AMI or asthma for the years 1999 to 2004. Statistical data analysis compared the incidence of AMI or asthma for each group before (1999–2002 and after (2003–2004 the amendment. As a result, we found that pre-ordinance and post-ordinance quarterly rates of AMI for Delaware residents were 451 (se = 21 and 430 (se = 21 respectively, representing a 4.7% reduction. Over the same time period, there was negligible change in the incidence of AMI for non-Delaware residents. After adjusting for population growth, the Risk Ratio (RR for asthma in Delaware residents post-ordinance was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.999, which represented a significant reduction (P = 0.046. By comparison, non-Delaware residents had an increased RR for asthma post-ordinance of 1.62 (95% CI, 1.46 to 1.86; P < 0.0001.The results suggest that Delaware’s comprehensive non-smoking ordinance effectively was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of AMI and asthma in Delaware residents when compared to non-Delaware residents.

  7. Hydrodynamics and water quality models applied to Sepetiba Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Cynara de L. da N.; Rosman, Paulo C. C.; Ferreira, Aldo Pacheco; Carlos do Nascimento Monteiro, Teófilo

    2006-10-01

    A coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model is used to simulate the pollution in Sepetiba Bay due to sewage effluent. Sepetiba Bay has a complicated geometry and bottom topography, and is located on the Brazilian coast near Rio de Janeiro. In the simulation, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are used as indicators for the presence of organic matter in the body of water, and as parameters for evaluating the environmental pollution of the eastern part of Sepetiba Bay. Effluent sources in the model are taken from DO and BOD field measurements. The simulation results are consistent with field observations and demonstrate that the model has been correctly calibrated. The model is suitable for evaluating the environmental impact of sewage effluent on Sepetiba Bay from river inflows, assessing the feasibility of different treatment schemes, and developing specific monitoring activities. This approach has general applicability for environmental assessment of complicated coastal bays.

  8. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  9. Phytoplankton and nutrient dynamics in Winyah Bay, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boneillo, G. E.; Brooks, S. S.; Brown, S. L.; Woodford, K. M.; Wright, C. R.

    2016-02-01

    Winyah Bay is a coastal plain estuary located in South Carolina that has been classified for a moderate risk of Eutrophication by NOAA. Winyah Bay receives freshwater input from four rivers, the Waccamaw, Sampit, Black, and Pee Dee Rivers. The Waccamaw, Sampit and Black River are blackwater systems that discharge elevated amounts of colored dissolved organic matter. During the summer and fall of 2015, bioassay experiments were performed to simultaneously examine both light and nutrient (nitrogen & phosphate) limitation throughout Winyah Bay. Sampling stations near the mouth of the Waccamaw and Sampit Rivers showed that phytoplankton were light limited in the late summer instead of nutrient limited. These stations were located in the industrialized area of the bay and typically had the highest nutrient concentrations and highest turbidity, with Secchi depths typically less than 0.5 meters. Results indicated that phytoplankton may be nitrogen limited near the mouth of Winyah Bay, where nutrient concentrations and turbidity were observed to be lower than locations further upstream. There was also an observed dissolved oxygen and pH gradient during the summer of 2015. Dissolved oxygen levels less than 4.0 mg/L were routinely observed near the industrialized head of the estuary and corresponded with lower pH values.

  10. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  11. Sensibility Study of St Andrew Bay Rapid Response System for Naval Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pauly, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    .... For the physical part, time constraint may limit to using the barotropic mode. But because rain can be significant in St Andrew Bay system, Florida, fresh water, even when rivers lack, is a prevailing salinity regulator through ground seepage...

  12. Delaware State Briefing Book on low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The Delaware State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Delaware. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Delaware. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Delaware

  13. Weatherization Builds on Delaware's Innovative Past: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Delaware demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  14. 76 FR 79537 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Adhesives and Sealants Rule AGENCY: Environmental..., sale, use, or application of adhesives, sealants, primers, and solvents. EPA is approving this SIP... miscellaneous industrial adhesives control techniques guideline (CTG) category in accordance with the...

  15. 78 FR 13496 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Prevention of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... are listed in the www.regulations.gov Web site. Although listed in the electronic docket, some... modifies Delaware's PSD program at 7 DE Admin. Code 1125 to establish appropriate emission thresholds for...

  16. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Delaware based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Delaware census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  17. Trip attraction rates of shopping centers in Northern New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the trip attraction rates of the shopping centers in Northern New : Castle County in Delaware. The study aims to provide an alternative to ITE Trip : Generation Manual (1997) for computing the trip attraction of shopping centers ...

  18. NOAA orthorectified Digital Elevation Model (DEM) image tiles, Bombay Hook, Delaware, 2011 (NODC Accession 0112173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Bombay Hook Project covers 177 square kilometers of the Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and surrounding areas in Kent County, Delaware. The Dewberry...

  19. 78 FR 40394 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the maritime public from the hazards... Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display. DATES: This rule is...

  20. 78 FR 29091 - Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival; Shallowbag Bay, Manteo, NC AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival. This action is necessary to protect the life and property of the... vessels from a portion of Shallowbag Bay River during the Outer Banks Bluegrass Festival Fireworks display...

  1. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  2. Enhanced particle fluxes in Bay of Bengal inducEd. by injection of freshwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ittekkot, V.; Nair, R.R.; Honjo, S.; Ramaswamy, V.; Bartsch, M.; Manganini, S.J.; Desai, B.N.

    deployed three sediment-trap moorings (two traps in each mooring) in the northern, central and southern parts of the Bay of Bengal, respectively. The Bay of Bengal is suitable for such a study, because some of the world's largest rivers supply pulses...

  3. Radionuclides in sediments from Port Phillip Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Tinker, R.A.; Towler, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Sediment cores were collected from two sites in Port Phillip Bay, Australia, in 1994 and 1995. The concentration of 210 Pb and parameters including water content were measured. The sites chosen were near the centre of the bay where fine sediment accumulates, and towards the northern end of the bay closer to the mouth of the Yarra River. The mid-bay sediment had a high water content (about 1.8 g water per g dry sediment) and a supported 210 Pb activity of about 22 mBq per g of dry sediment. The sediments from further north in the bay were more consolidated, with a lower water content (about 0.6 g water per g dry sediment), and had a supported 210 Pb activity of about 6 mBq per g of dry sediment. Unsupported 210 Pb occurred to depths of about 10 cm in the mid-bay sediment and about 20 cm in sediment from further north in the bay. Models incorporating the water and 210 Pb contents of the sediments were used to calculate possible rates of sediment accumulation and mixing. The distribution of other radionuclides was used as an aid in understanding the sediment behaviour in Port Phillip Bay

  4. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell 3H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware c...

  5. Study of Circulation in the Tillamook Bay and the Surrounding Wetland Applying Triple-Nested Models Downscaling from Global Ocean to Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    To study the circulation and water quality in the Tillamook Bay, Oregon, a high-resolution estuarine model that covers the shallow bay and the surrounding wetland has been developed. The estuarine circulation at Tillamook Bay is mainly driven by the tides and the river flows and ...

  6. Epidemiological investigation of a youth suicide cluster: Delaware 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Katherine A; Crosby, Alexander E; Parks, Sharyn E; Ivey, Asha Z; Silverman, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    In the first quarter of 2012, eight youth (aged 13-21 years) were known to have died by suicide in Kent and Sussex counties, Delaware, twice the typical median yearly number. State and local officials invited the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assist with an epidemiological investigation of fatal and nonfatal youth suicidal behaviors in the first quarter of 2012, to examine risk factors, and to recommend prevention strategies. Data were obtained from the Delaware Office of the Medical Examiner, law enforcement, emergency departments, and inpatient records. Key informants from youth-serving organizations in the community were interviewed to better understand local context and perceptions of youth suicide. Eleven fatal and 116 nonfatal suicide attempts were identified for the first quarter of 2012 in Kent and Sussex counties. The median age was higher for the fatalities (18 years) than the nonfatal attempts (16 years). More males died by suicide, and more females nonfatally attempted suicide. Fatal methods were either hanging or firearm, while nonfatal methods were diverse, led by overdose/poisoning and cutting. All decedents had two or more precipitating circumstances. Seventeen of 116 nonfatal cases reported that a peer/friend recently died by or attempted suicide. Local barriers to youth services and suicide prevention were identified. Several features were similar to previous clusters: Occurrence among vulnerable youth, rural or suburban setting, and precipitating negative life events. Distribution by sex and method were consistent with national trends for both fatalities and nonfatalities. References to the decedents in the context of nonfatal attempts support the concept of 'point clusters' (social contiguity to other suicidal youth as a risk factor for vulnerable youth) as a framework for understanding clustering of youth suicidal behavior. Recommended prevention strategies included: Training to identify at-risk youth and guide them to services

  7. Upper Cenozoic deposits of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, James Patrick; Denny, Charles Storrow

    1979-01-01

    represents the highest stand of the Quaternary seas in the Delmarva region. The Ironshire and Kent Island Formations overlie or cut into the Omar Formation and are probably late Sangamon and middle Wisconsin, respectively, in age. Near Ocean City, the Ironshire forms a seaward-facing scarp with a toe nearly 4.5 m (15 ft) above sea level. A warm-temperate microfloral assemblage from the fluviatile-estuarine facies of the Ironshire Formation in the Delaware Bay region suggests that the formation is interglacial, probably late Sangamon in age. The Ironshire and Omar Formations are overlain unconformably by the Sinepuxent Formation. The top of this marine unit is slightly above present sea level and has been dated by radiocarbon as about 30,000 years old or middle Wisconsin. The microflora from this formation is a cold to cool-temperate assemblage (high proportion of spruce pollen). The outer fringes of the Delmarva Peninsula are being overlapped by deposits of a Holocene marine transgression.

  8. Discharge between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, southern Gulf Coast, Texas, May-September 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Jeffery W.

    2001-01-01

    Along the Gulf Coast of Texas, many estuaries and bays are important habitat and nurseries for aquatic life. San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay, located about 50 and 30 miles northeast, respectively, of Corpus Christi, are two important estuarine nurseries on the southern Gulf Coast of Texas (fig. 1). According to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, “Almost 80 percent of the seagrasses [along the Texas Gulf Coast] are located in the Laguna Madre, an estuary that begins just south of Corpus Christi Bay and runs southward 140 miles to South Padre Island. Most of the remaining seagrasses, about 45,000 acres, are located in the heavily traveled San Antonio, Aransas and Corpus Christi Bay areas” (Shook, 2000).Population growth has led to greater demands on water supplies in Texas. The Texas Water Development Board, the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission have the cooperative task of determining inflows required to maintain the ecological health of the State’s streams, rivers, bays, and estuaries. To determine these inflow requirements, the three agencies collect data and conduct studies on the need for instream flows and freshwater/ saline water inflows to Texas estuaries.To assist in the determination of freshwater inflow requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, conducted a hydrographic survey of discharge (flow) between San Antonio Bay and Aransas Bay during the period May–September 1999. Automated instrumentation and acoustic technology were used to maximize the amount and quality of data that were collected, while minimizing personnel requirements. This report documents the discharge measured at two sites between the bays during May–September 1999 and describes the influences of meteorologic (wind and tidal) and hydrologic (freshwater inflow) conditions on discharge between the two bays. The movement of water between the bays is

  9. eBay.com

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Celebrated as one of the leading and most valuable brands in the world, eBay has acquired iconic status on par with century-old brands such as Coca-Cola and Disney. The eBay logo is now synonymous with the world’s leading online auction website, and its design is associated with the company...

  10. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 11, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Henry; Horn, Marilee A.

    1997-01-01

    Segment 11 consists of the States of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, West Virginia, and the Commonwealths of Pennsylvania and Virginia. All but West Virginia border on the Atlantic Ocean or tidewater. Pennsylvania also borders on Lake Erie. Small parts of northwestern and north-central Pennsylvania drain to Lake Erie and Lake Ontario; the rest of the segment drains either to the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. Major rivers include the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susquehanna, the Potomac, the Rappahannock, the James, the Chowan, the Neuse, the Tar, the Cape Fear, and the Yadkin-Peedee, all of which drain into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Ohio and its tributaries, which drain to the Gulf of Mexico. Although rivers are important sources of water supply for many cities, such as Trenton, N.J.; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pa.; Baltimore, Md.; Washington, D.C.; Richmond, Va.; and Raleigh, N.C., one-fourth of the population, particularly the people who live on the Coastal Plain, depends on ground water for supply. Such cities as Camden, N.J.; Dover, Del.; Salisbury and Annapolis, Md.; Parkersburg and Weirton, W.Va.; Norfolk, Va.; and New Bern and Kinston, N.C., use ground water as a source of public supply. All the water in Segment 11 originates as precipitation. Average annual precipitation ranges from less than 36 inches in parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia to more than 80 inches in parts of southwestern North Carolina (fig. 1). In general, precipitation is greatest in mountainous areas (because water tends to condense from moisture-laden air masses as the air passes over the higher altitudes) and near the coast, where water vapor that has been evaporated from the ocean is picked up by onshore winds and falls as precipitation when it reaches the shoreline. Some of the precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration (evaporation plus transpiration by plants), but much of it either flows overland into streams as

  11. 77 FR 40518 - Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... 1625-AA00 Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River, Upper New York Bay, Lower New York Bay; New York, NY ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing seven temporary safety zones for swim events within the Captain of the Port (COTP) New York Zone. These...

  12. Potential climate change impacts on a tropical estuary: Hilo Bay, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolf, J.; LaPinta, J.; Marusek, J.; Pascoe, K.; Pugh, A.

    2016-02-01

    Hilo Bay is a tropical estuarine ecosystem on the northeast (windward) coast of Hawai`i Island that is potentially vulnerable to climate change effects mediated through elevated water temperatures and/or changing rainfall patterns that impact river and groundwater fluxes. Here, we document trends in water temperature, river flow and phytoplankton dynamics in Hilo Bay. Hilo Bay is fed by two major rivers, Wailuku and Honoli`i, both of which have shown long term declines in output over their 85 and 38 year monitoring periods (USGS), respectively. Time series of groundwater inputs to Hilo Bay do not exist, but the average estimated rate rivals that of average river inputs. Daily average Hilo Bay water temperatures have increased at a rate of 0.35 degrees C per year (p Hilo Bay water quality buoy began in 2010, with the warmest temperatures on record recorded Sept 2015. Salinity did not show a trend over this same time period. Phytoplankton showed a pronounced seasonal cycle in Hilo Bay with a long term average of 3.7 mg m-3 and dominance by diatoms that exploit the co-availability of silica and nitrate in this environment. On shorter time scales of days to Hilo Bay salinity, temperature and phytoplankton biomass. Coincidental atmospheric warming, SST warming in the adjacent North Pacific ocean, and declining river flows will likely work together to result in elevated SST in Hilo Bay if observed trends continue. The El Nino event that started this year is expected to exacerbate this warming through reduce river flow and warmer regional SST.

  13. Lost lake - restoration of a Carolina bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlin, H.G.; McLendon, J.P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology; Wike, L.D. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center; Dietsch, B.M. [Univ. of South Carolina, Aiken, SC (United States). Dept. of Biology and Geology]|[Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Carolina bays are shallow wetland depressions found only on the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Although these isolated interstream wetlands support many types of communities, they share the common features of having a sandy margin, a fluctuating water level, an elliptical shape, and a northwest to southeast orientation. Lost Lake, an 11.3 hectare Carolina bay, was ditched and drained for agricultural production before establishment of the Savannah River Site in 1950. Later it received overflow from a seepage basin containing a variety of chemicals, primarily solvents and some heavy metals. In 1990 a plan was developed for the restoration of Lost Lake, and restoration activities were complete by mid-1991. Lost Lake is the first known project designed for the restoration and recovery of a Carolina bay. The bay was divided into eight soil treatment zones, allowing four treatments in duplicate. Each of the eight zones was planted with eight species of native wetland plants. Recolonization of the bay by amphibians and reptiles is being evaluated by using drift fences with pitfall traps and coverboard arrays in each of the treatment zones. Additional drift fences in five upland habitats were also established. Hoop turtle traps, funnel minnow traps, and dip nets were utilized for aquatic sampling. The presence of 43 species common to the region has been documented at Lost Lake. More than one-third of these species show evidence of breeding populations being established. Three species found prior to the restoration activity and a number of species common to undisturbed Carolina bays were not encountered. Colonization by additional species is anticipated as the wetland undergoes further succession.

  14. Fecal indicator bacteria at Havana Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Perez, Lisse; Gomez D'Angelo, Yamiris; Beltran Gonzalez, Jesus; Alvarez Valiente, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations were evaluated in Havana Bay. Methods: Concentrations of traditional fecal indicator bacteria were calculated between April 2010 and February 2011, by MPN methods. Concentrations of thermo tolerant coliform (CTT), Escherichia coli, fecal streptococci (EF), intestinal enterococci (ENT) in seawater, and Clostridium perfringens in sediment surface, were determined. Results: CTT and E. coli levels were far above Cuban water quality standard for indirect contact with water, showing the negative influence of sewage and rivers on the bay. The EF and ENT were measured during sewage spills at the discharge site and they were suitable indicators of fecal contamination, but these indicators didn't show the same behavior in other selected sites. This result comes from its well-known inactivation by solar light in tropical zones and the presumable presence of humid acids in the waters of the bay. Conclusion: Fecal indicator bacteria and its statistical relationships reflect recent and chronic fecal contamination at the bay and near shores.

  15. A Collaborative Study of Disproportionate Chemical Risks in Seven Delaware Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, O.; Goldman, G. T.; White, R.; Moore, D.; Roberts, M.; Thomas, J.; Johnson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have found that, compared to national averages, a significantly greater percentage of Blacks (African-Americans), Latinos (Hispanics), and people at or near poverty levels tend to live near industrial facilities that use large quantities of toxic chemicals and present a risk of major chemical disasters with potentially severe consequences for nearby communities. The Union of Concerned Scientists, the Environmental Justice Health Alliance for Chemical Policy Reform, and Delaware Concerned Residents for Environmental Justice collaborated on a study to examine the potential for cumulative impacts from health and safety risks for seven Delaware communities with a percentage of people of color and/or poverty levels greater than the Delaware average located along an industrial corridor in the northern portion of Delaware's New Castle County. These risks include close proximity to major industrial sources, as well as facilities that use large quantities of toxic, flammable or explosive chemicals and pose a high risk of a major chemical release or catastrophic incident. Additionally, proximity to contaminated waste sites was assessed, as well as the risk of cancer and potential for respiratory disease impacts from exposure to toxic air pollution. We found that people in these seven communities face a substantial cumulative health risk from exposure to toxic air pollution, proximity to polluting industrial facilities and hazardous chemical facilities, as well as contaminated waste sites. These health risks are substantially greater when compared to a wealthier and predominantly White Delaware community and for Delaware as a whole. Significant and expedited improvements in regulatory and public policy are needed at the national, state, and municipal levels to address the health and well-being of at-risk communities in Delaware and elsewhere.

  16. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  17. Concentrations of PAHs (Polycyclicaromatic Hydrocarbons Pollutant in Sediment of The Banten Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khozanah Munawir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Banten Bay is end of stream for a few rivers from Banten mainland where many manufactures and petrochemical industries are built. This may give environmental pressure of water quality of the bay due to pollutant input, such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs. This study is to identify those pollutants and determine their total concentration and distribution in sediments. Surface sediment samples were collected in four zones: inner coastline within the bay, middle bay, coastline off the bay and outer of the Bay in April 2016. PAH components were extracted and measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Levels of total PAHs in sediments in inner coastline within the bay ranged between 0.381-2.654 ppm with an average of 1.288 ppm, middle of the bay ranged between 0.747-1.762 ppm with an average of 1.198 ppm, outer of the bay ranged between 0.192-1.394 ppm with an average of 0.921 ppm, and east coast of the bay ranged between 0.191-1.394 ppm and an average of 0.778 ppm. The levels of total PAH contamination is apparently lower than those of PAH threshold in sediments (i.e. 4.5 ppm. Keywords: PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Banten Bay

  18. Designing virtual science labs for the Islamic Academy of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlZahrani, Nada Saeed

    Science education is a basic part of the curriculum in modern day classrooms. Instructional approaches to science education can take many forms but hands-on application of theory via science laboratory activities for the learner is common. Not all schools have the resources to provide the laboratory environment necessary for hands-on application of science theory. Some settings rely on technology to provide a virtual laboratory experience instead. The Islamic Academy of Delaware (IAD), a typical community-based organization, was formed to support and meet the essential needs of the Muslim community of Delaware. IAD provides science education as part of the overall curriculum, but cannot provide laboratory activities as part of the science program. Virtual science labs may be a successful model for students at IAD. This study was conducted to investigate the potential of implementing virtual science labs at IAD and to develop an implementation plan for integrating the virtual labs. The literature has shown us that the lab experience is a valuable part of the science curriculum (NBPTS, 2013, Wolf, 2010, National Research Council, 1997 & 2012). The National Research Council (2012) stressed the inclusion of laboratory investigations in the science curriculum. The literature also supports the use of virtual labs as an effective substitute for classroom labs (Babateen, 2011; National Science Teachers Association, 2008). Pyatt and Simms (2011) found evidence that virtual labs were as good, if not better than physical lab experiences in some respects. Although not identical in experience to a live lab, the virtual lab has been shown to provide the student with an effective laboratory experience in situations where the live lab is not possible. The results of the IAD teacher interviews indicate that the teachers are well-prepared for, and supportive of, the implementation of virtual labs to improve the science education curriculum. The investigator believes that with the

  19. Rate of Loaded Sediments in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Becira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A study in Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines was conducted to determine and compare the rate of loaded sediments of and among six sites in Honda Bay and during two seasons, and to discuss sedimentation rate in relation to selected environmental parameters commencing on April 2003 to November 2003.Results showed that the Babuyan River significantly contributed to the amounts of sediments being loaded to Honda Bay, Puerto Princesa City of which the amount of sediments loaded between the two sampling season and among the six sampling events had no significant difference. Sediment's color and texture affirmed the land-based activities in Babuyan and Mauyon watersheds, which eventually carried into the Bay during storm weather condition.The amount of trapped sediments in all stations is probably affected by the river's discharge capacity and the river's water velocity, although the duration sediment traps were mounted could also affect the measurement of sedimentation rate.

  20. Creating an Early Warning System: Predictors of Dropout in Delaware. REL Mid-Atlantic Technical Assistance Brief. REL MA 1.2.75-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekawa, Kazuaki; Merola, Stacey; Fernandez, Felix; Porowski, Allan

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Brief presents an historical analysis of key indicators of dropout for Delaware students in grades 9-12. Cut points for key risk indicators of high school dropout for the State of Delaware are provided. Using data provided by the Delaware Department of Education (DDOE), relationships between student dropout and several student…

  1. Holocene depositional history of a large glaciated estuary, Penobscot Bay, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knebel, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Data from seismic-reflection profiles, sidescan sonar images, and sediment samples reveal the Holocene depositional history of the large (1100 km2) glaciated Penobscot Bay estuary of coastal Maine. Previous work has shown that the late Wisconsinan ice sheet retreated from the three main passages of the bay between 12,700 and 13,500 years ago and was accompanied by a marine transgression during which ice and sea were in contact. Isostatic recovery of the crust caused the bay to emerge during the immediate postglacial period, and relative sea level fell to at least -40 m sometime between 9000 and 11,500 years ago. During lowered sea level, the ancestral Penobscot River flowed across the subaerially exposed head of the bay and debouched into Middle Passage. Organic-matter-rich mud from the river was deposited rapidly in remnant, glacially scoured depressions in the lower reaches of Middle and West Passages behind a shallow (???20 m water depth) bedrock sill across the bay mouth. East Passage was isolated from the rest of the bay system and received only small amounts of locally derived fine-grained sediments. During the Holocene transgression that accompanied the eustatic rise of sea level, the locus of sedimentation shifted to the head of the bay. Here, heterogeneous fluvial deposits filled the ancestral valley of the Penobscot River as base level rose, and the migrating surf zone created a gently dipping erosional unconformity, marked by a thin (energy conditions and the waning influence of the Penobscot River at the head of the bay. In contrast, relatively thick (up to 25 m) silty clays accumulated within a subbottom trough in the western half of the bay head. This deposit apparently developed late in the transgression after sea level had reached -20 m and after the westward transport of fine-grained sediments from the Penobscot River had been established. During and since the late Holocene transgression of sea level, waves and currents have eroded, reworked, and

  2. Water quality in the surficial aquifer near agricultural areas in the Delaware Coastal Plain, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Mensch, Laura L.; Denver, Judith M.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-07-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Delaware Department of Agriculture, developed a network of wells to monitor groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer of the Delaware Coastal Plain. Well-drained soils, a flat landscape, and accessible water in the Delaware Coastal Plain make for a productive agricultural setting. As such, agriculture is one of the largest industries in the State of Delaware. This setting enables the transport of chemicals from agriculture and other land uses to shallow groundwater. Efforts to mitigate nutrient transport to groundwater by the implementation of agricultural best management practices (BMPs) have been ongoing for several decades. To measure the effectiveness of BMPs on a regional scale, a network of 48 wells was designed to measure shallow groundwater quality (particularly nitrate) over time near agricultural land in the Delaware Coastal Plain. Water characteristics, major ions, nutrients, and dissolved gases were measured in groundwater samples collected from network wells during fall 2014. Wells were organized into three groups based on their geochemical similarity and these groups were used to describe nitrate and chloride concentrations and factors that affect the variability among the groups. The results from this study are intended to establish waterquality conditions in 2014 to enable comparison of future conditions and evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural BMPs on a regional scale.

  3. Biscayne Bay Alongshore Epifauna

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Field studies to characterize the alongshore epifauna (shrimp, crabs, echinoderms, and small fishes) along the western shore of southern Biscayne Bay were started in...

  4. Bathymetry in Jobos Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 4x4 meter resolution bathymetric surface for Jobos Bay, Puerto Rico (in NAD83 UTM 19 North). The depth values are in meters referenced to the...

  5. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  6. Humboldt Bay Orthoimages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of 0.5-meter pixel resolution, four band orthoimages covering the Humboldt Bay area. An orthoimage is remotely sensed image data in which...

  7. 76 FR 4716 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off Delaware, Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... No. BOEM-2010-0075] Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Off... commercial wind development on the OCS off Delaware and requests submission of indications of competitive... received two nominations of proposed lease areas: One from Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC (Bluewater) and...

  8. 75 FR 21653 - Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware-Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore Delaware--Request for Interest (RFI... proposal. In June 2008, Bluewater Wind Delaware LLC announced that it signed a 25-year power purchase agreement with Delmarva Power to sell up to 200 megawatts (MW) of power to the utility from an offshore wind...

  9. Impact of river discharge on the coastal water pH and pCO2 levels during the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) years in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Paul, Y.S.; Vani, D.G.; Murty, V.S.N.

    > levels in the coastal western BoB. It could be envisioned that the enhanced acidity in the coastal waters due to variations in river discharge and phases of IOD may significantly modify the coastal ecosystem that requires careful evaluation...

  10. Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP Napa River Sediment TMDL Implementation and Habitat Enhancement Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  11. Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, L.E.; Twichell, D.C.; Poore, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    A program of geophysical mapping and vibracoring was conducted to better understand the geologic evolution of Apalachicola Bay. Analyses of the geophysical data and sediment cores along with age control provided by 34 AMS 14C dates on marine shells and wood reveal the following history. As sea level rose in the early Holocene, fluvial deposits filled the Apalachicola River paleochannel, which extended southward under the central part of the bay and seaward across the continental shelf. Sediments to either side of the paleochannel contain abundant wood fragments, with dates documenting that those areas were forested at 8,000 14C years b.p. As sea level continued to rise, spits formed of headland prodelta deposits. Between ???6,400 and ???2,500 14C years b.p., an Apalachicola prodelta prograded and receded several times across the inner shelf that underlies the western part of the bay. An eastern deltaic lobe was active for a shorter time, between ???5,800 and 5,100 14C years b.p. Estuarine benthic foraminiferal assemblages occurred in the western bay as early as 6,400 14C years b.p., and indicate that there was some physical barrier to open-ocean circulation and shelf species established by that time. It is considered that shoals formed in the region of the present barrier islands as the rising sea flooded an interstream divide. Estuarine conditions were established very early in the post-glacial flooding of the bay. ?? 2009 US Government.

  12. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Harrison Bay Quadrangle, Alaska. Final report, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    During the months of July and August of 1980, Aero Service Division Western Geophysical Company of America conducted an airborne high sensitivity gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey over eleven (11) 3 0 x 1 0 and one (1) 4 0 x 1 0 NTMS quadrangles of the Alaska North Slope. These include the Barrow, Wainwright, Meade River, Teshekpuk, Harrison Bay, Beechey Point, Point Lay, Utukok River, Lookout Ridge, Ikpikpuk River, Umiat, and Sagavanirktok quadrangles. This report discusses the results obtained over the Harrison Bay map area

  13. Trends in Accretion Rates of Riverine Sediments in a Distal Bay and Wetlands Using 7-Beryllium as a Tracer: Fourleague Bay, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restreppo, G. A.; Bentley, S. J.; Wang, J.; Xu, K.

    2017-12-01

    To combat land loss along the Mississippi River Delta, Louisiana has launched a historic campaign to sustain and regrow coastal lands using, in part, sediment diversions. Previous research has focused primarily on sand sized sediment load, which is usually deposited proximal to a river's delta or a diversion's outlet. Fine sediments constitute the majority of sediment load in the Mississippi, but are under-studied with respect to dispersal processes, particularly in terms of sediment supply to distal deltaic bays and wetlands. The Atchafalaya River and associated wetlands serve as prime study areas for this purpose. Bimonthly time-series push cores were collected from May 2015 to May 2016 along ten sites within Fourleague Bay, Louisiana. Fourleague Bay has remained stable against the deteriorative effects of relative sea level rise, standing out along Louisiana's declining coastline. Of the ten field sites, five are located across a longitudinal transect in the middle bay, while the other five are located in adjacent marshes. All sites fall within 10 to 30 km of the Atchafalaya Delta, extending south towards the Gulf of Mexico. Cores were extruded in 2 cm intervals, dried, ground, and analyzed via gamma spectrometry for the presence of 7Be. Inventories of 7Be were then calculated and used to determine daily mass accretion rate (MAR) over twelve months. Average MAR values for the bay and the marshes are compared with Atchafalaya River discharge, wind data, and atmospheric pressure through the year of sampling. Peak marsh MAR, 0.88 ± 0.20 kg m-2 d-1, occurs just after historically high river discharge. Peak bay MAR, 1.2 ± 0.67 kg m-2 d-1, occurs during seasonal low river discharge and calm winds. Average bay and marsh MARs have a moderate to strong, negative correlation when compared. Results indicate sediment bypass of the bay floor during periods of moderate to high river discharge, entering the marshes directly when inundation occurs and enhanced by the passage

  14. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  15. Health assessment for E. I. Dupont Newport Plant Landfill, Newport, Delaware, Region 3. CERCLIS No. DED980555122. Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The E.I. Dupont Newport Plant Landfill, a seven acre site located adjacent to the Dupont Pigment Plant in Newport, Delaware, was used to bury paint pigments (heavy metals and chlorinated solvents) and radioactive materials from 1902 to 1975. The site was closed in 1975, the surface covered, graded and vegetated, and groundwater monitoring wells installed on- and off-site. Heavy metals (cadmium, barium, lead, zinc), and chlorinated solvents (trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene) have been measured in groundwater on-site. Radiation levels appear to be close to background. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via groundwater. More information is needed concerning levels of contamination in private wells and the Christina River, the direction of groundwater flow, the size and extent of the groundwater contamination plume, the location of the private wells and the public water supply wells, and the composition of the population down gradient of the site

  16. 75 FR 11837 - Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative AGENCY...: Notice of availability of program funds for the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative. SUMMARY: The... through the Chesapeake Bay Watershed Initiative for agricultural producers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed...

  17. 33 CFR 100.124 - Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York. 100.124 Section 100.124 Navigation and Navigable... NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.124 Maggie Fischer Memorial Great South Bay Cross Bay Swim, Great South Bay, New York...

  18. Studies on retranslocation of accumulated assimilates in 'Delaware' grapevines, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yau-Shiang; Hori, Yutaka

    1979-01-01

    Potted Delaware grapevines were supplied with 14 CO 2 in summer or autumn, and the accumulation and retranslocation of 14 C-assimilates were investigated. At pruning time, 14 C-assimilates were distributed to the roots at higher ratio than to the trunks and canes, and this trend was more marked in the autumn feeding than the summer feeding. The respiratory consumption and retranslocation of 14 C during the growth period of new shoots were evaluated as the percentage of 14 C found in the vines just after pruning. The percentage of the respiratory consumption of 14 C was evidently higher in the autumn feeding. The retranslocation began with the bud burst, and reached maximum at the 6- to 8-leaf stages in the vines fed 14 CO 2 in autumn and at the 10-leaf stage in those fed in summer. The retranslocation in both groups ceased by the flowering stage. Such course of the retranslocation with time was recognized in radioautographs of the new shoots. The maximum percentage of the translocation to the newly developed shoots was 5.1 - 5.2 and 15.3 - 10.7 in the vines fed 14 CO 2 in summer and autumn, respectively. It was peculiar to the new shoots that nearly half of their ethanol-soluble 14 C was found in amino acids unlike the one-sided distribution to soluble carbohydrates in the trunks and roots. It was assumed that amino acids were retranslocated to the new shoots after they had been synthesized in the roots. (Kaihara, S.)

  19. [Nutrients Input Characteristics of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River During the "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiao-xue; Ma, Ying-qun; Qin, Yan-wen; Zou, Hua

    2015-08-01

    Overall 20 surface water samples were collected from the Yangtze River, the Wangyu River and the Gonghu Bay (Lake Taihu) to clarify the pollution characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus during 2 sample stages of "Water Transfers on Lake Taihu from the Yangtze River" in August and December of 2013 respectively. The results showed that the mass concentrations of NO2- -N, NO3- -N, NH4+ -N and TN in the Gonghu Bay were lower than those of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. However, there was higher level of DON content in the Gonghu Bay than that of the Yangtze River and Wangyu River. The percentages of various N species showed that NO3- -N was the major N species in the Yangtze River and Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes. TP contents in samples collected from the Yangtze River displayed a constant trend compared with the Wangyu River. However, the percentages of various P species were different with each other during the 2 water transfer processes. Mass concentrations of DON and TP in surface water in August were higher than those in December and the contents of NO3- -N and TDP were lower in August than those in December. In general, NO3- -N and TPP were the main N and P species in Wangyu River from the Yangtze River. NO3- -N, PO4(3-) -P and TPP were the main N and P species in Gonghu Bay from Wangyu River during the 2 water transfer processes.

  20. 78 FR 11097 - Artificial Island Anchorage No. 2 Partial Closure, Delaware River; Salem, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ...-4851, email [email protected] . If you have questions on viewing or submitting material to the... Port is establishing this safety zone to ensure the safety of life and property of all mariners and...'' W and extending to the southern boundary according to NOAA chart 12311. Vessels will not be...

  1. 76 FR 11961 - Safety Zone, Dredging Operations; Delaware River, Marcus Hook, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... term ``small entities'' comprises small businesses, not-for-profit organizations that are independently... effect for only a limited period. Vessel traffic will be diverted through the lower end of Anchorage 7 to...

  2. F00490: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River, New Jersey, 2003-05-31

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  3. 77 FR 47334 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Flugtag, Delaware River; Camden, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self... proceed at the minimum speed necessary to maintain a safe course that minimizes wake near the event area...

  4. Decadal change of forest biomass carbon stocks and tree demography in the Delaware River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing Xu; Yude Pan; Alain F. Plante; Arthur Johnson; Jason Cole; Richard Birdsey

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying forest biomass carbon (C) stock change is important for understanding forest dynamics and their feedbacks with climate change. Forests in the northeastern U.S. have been a net carbon sink in recent decades, but C accumulation in some northern hardwood forests has been halted due to the impact of emerging stresses such as invasive pests, land use change and...

  5. F00594: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 2010-07-26

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  6. H12152: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 2009-12-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  7. 77 FR 60896 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Delaware River, Between Burlington, NJ and Bristol, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... temporary deviation. The bridge will not be able to open in an emergency during lift cable tension... the operating lift cables. DATES: This deviation is effective from 7 a.m. on October 30, 2012 to 3 p.m... 33 CFR 117.5 and 117.716(b) to facilitate the adjustment of the operational lift cables. The...

  8. Mobile Bay turbidity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, G. F.; Schroeder, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The termination of studies carried on for almost three years in the Mobile Bay area and adjacent continental shelf are reported. The initial results concentrating on the shelf and lower bay were presented in the interim report. The continued scope of work was designed to attempt a refinement of the mathematical model, assess the effectiveness of optical measurement of suspended particulate material and disseminate the acquired information. The optical characteristics of particulate solutions are affected by density gradients within the medium, density of the suspended particles, particle size, particle shape, particle quality, albedo, and the angle of refracted light. Several of these are discussed in detail.

  9. Delaware School Climate Survey--Student: Its Factor Structure, Concurrent Validity, and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Gaskins, Clare; Blank, Jessica; Chen, Fang Fang

    2011-01-01

    The Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (DSCS-S) was developed to provide schools with a brief and psychometrically sound student survey for assessing school climate, particularly the dimensions of social support and structure. Confirmatory factor analyses, conducted on a sample of 11,780 students in 85 schools, showed that a bifactor model…

  10. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  11. Case-control study of tobacco smoke exposure and breast cancer risk in Delaware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hathcock H Leroy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoke exposure may be associated with increased breast cancer risk, although the evidence supporting the association is inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study in Delaware, incorporating detailed exposure assessment for active and secondhand smoke at home and in the workplace. Methods Primary invasive breast cancer cases diagnosed among female Delaware residents, ages 40–79, in 2000–2002 were identified through the Delaware cancer registry (n = 287. Delaware drivers license and Health Care Finance Administration records were used to select age frequency-matched controls for women Results A statistically significant increased risk of breast cancer was observed for ever having smoked cigarettes (odds ratio = 1.43, 95% confidence interval = 1.03–1.99. However, there was no evidence of a dose-response relationship between breast cancer risk and total years smoked, cigarettes per day, or pack-years. Neither residential nor workplace secondhand smoke exposure was associated with breast cancer. Recalculations of active smoking risks using a purely unexposed reference group of women who were not exposed to active or secondhand smoking did not indicate increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusion These findings do not support an association between smoking and breast cancer.

  12. Dover AFB Catchment Area TRICARE Marketing Plan, 436th Medical Group, Dover AFB, Delaware,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    cosmetic changes (Nadiu, Kleimenhagen, and Pillari 1992). Berkowitz classifies the debate in terms of eras. During the production era, the function was to...facilities in Smyrna and Fenton , Delaware. KGH has aggressive marketing and community education programs which include classes on: cardiopulmonary

  13. The Politics of Race and Educational Disparities in Delaware's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Theodore J., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Delaware has long played a pivotal role in the nation's struggle to end school segregation and promote educational equality. This article discusses racial disparities in educational achievement and outcomes by examining the state's political history and the politics of race in public education. This article explores educational disparities from a…

  14. 75 FR 31711 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial... controlling nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from industrial boilers. This action is being taken under the Clean...--Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries in...

  15. 75 FR 32858 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R03-OAR-2010-0039; FRL-9158-3] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Control of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From Industrial Boilers and Process Heaters at Petroleum Refineries Correction In rule document 2010-13377 beginning on...

  16. 36 CFR 7.71 - Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.71 Delaware Water Gap National... route begins at the Smithfield Beach parking area and is in two loops. Loop One is a small trail... number of axles and wheels on a vehicle, regardless of load or weight, as follows: (i) Two-axle car, van...

  17. 76 FR 2853 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Infrastructure State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Environmental Control, 89 Kings Highway, P.O. Box 1401, Dover, Delaware 19903. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...) and (2) for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) NAAQS'' (hereafter the 2009 Guidance). EPA... Under Sections 110(a)(1) and (2) for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) NAAQS'' was not issued...

  18. 75 FR 64673 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Delaware; Limiting Emissions of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... From Consumer Products AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA... revision amends existing Section 2.0--Consumer Products to Delaware's Regulation 1141 (formerly SIP... hours at the Air Protection Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, 1650 Arch Street...

  19. TOXICITY TRENDS DURING AN OIL SPILL BIOREMEDIATION EXPERIMENT ON A SANDY SHORELINE IN DELAWARE, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 13-week, refereed, inter-agency toxicity testing program involving five bioassay methods was used to document the effectiveness of shoreline bioremediation to accelerate toxicity reduction of an oiled sandy shoreline at Fowler Beach, Delaware, USA. The study was part of an inte...

  20. Analysis of Level of Technogenic Impact on Water Area of Uglovoy Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, V. I.; Petrova, E. A.; Losev, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    Industrial effluent discharge and man-induced soil fills play a decisive role in increased pollutant concentrations. Several areas which are unfavorable in terms of the heavy metal and oil product content have been identified by the environmental monitoring results in the Uglovoy Bay in February 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of heavy metals and oil products were exceeded in the northeastern part of the Uglovoy Bay in locations where the Peschanka River and the Aerodromnaya River drain into the sea. Integral heavy-metal index calculations showed that this area is the most polluted in the Uglovoy Bay. Other significantly polluted areas were identified off the Zima Yuzhnaya settlement in the mouth of the bay and in vicinity of the low-level bridge.

  1. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  2. Bayes and Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation consists of research in three subjects in two themes—Bayes and networks: The first studies the posterior contraction rates for the Dirichlet-Laplace mixtures in a deconvolution setting (Chapter 1). The second subject regards the statistical inference in preferential attachment

  3. Radionuclides and trace elements in middle Chesapeake Bay sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilas, M.

    1988-01-01

    Sediments play an important role in aquatic ecology by serving as a repository for radioactive substances and for soluble chemical pollutants that they may transport over considerable distances and may pass to a higher trophic level by way of bottom-feeding biota. The Chesapeake Bay is a moderately stratified, drowned river valley estuary. The oscillatory flood and ebb of the tidal currents are the most obvious motions in the bay and its tributary estuaries. It is considered that the distribution of most of the pollutants, once diluted by the mixing action of the tidal flow, remains relatively constant for many miles up and down the bay. This paper documents the present status of the radioactivity and of trace elements in sediment samples collected in March 1986 from and extended area around the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

  4. A snapshot of tobacco-related messages relayed in pediatric offices in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Judith; Raughley, Erin; Chang, Christine D; Chidekel, Aaron

    2003-10-01

    Much research exists demonstrating that pediatricians should counsel patients and families about tobacco. However, few data are available about tobacco-related messages relayed in pediatric offices. Since an anti-tobacco office environment can be a strong component of an active tobacco prevention program, we evaluated pediatric offices in Delaware to characterize tobacco-related messages. A convenience sample of 32 of 63 (51%) pediatric offices in Delaware was directly evaluated for the presence of tobacco-related messages. Fifty-five of 63 (87%) pediatric practices in Delaware were contacted by telephone to inquire about the presence of a tobacco coordinator. The 32 practices represented 71 physicians, were located in all three counties throughout the state, and were urban and non-urban in setting. The same investigator evaluated practices in a single site visit. All were located in smoke-free buildings. At one office, people were seen smoking outside; however, the presence of discarded cigarettes was much more common. Thirteen practices (41%) employed smokers, most of whom smoked outside during work hours. Twenty-one of 28 practices (75%) had waiting room magazines containing tobacco advertisements. Fifteen practices (47%) offered anti-tobacco literature while six practices (19%) displayed visual media, none exclusively addressing tobacco. Nine practices (28%) use chart flags to identify smokers. None of 55 pediatric practices in Delaware contacted by telephone identified an office tobacco prevention coordinator. Our data indicate that, in Delaware, the pediatric offices we visited overall convey a limited message about tobacco and could strengthen tobacco prevention strategies. Research measuring the impact of office-based anti-tobacco messages is needed. If these messages are effective in preventing tobacco use, practitioners can supplement active counseling with indirect interventions that require minimal maintenance once established and that place no

  5. Feasibility Study of Economics and Performance of Solar Photovoltaics at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware Superfund Site in Delaware City, Delaware. A Study Prepared in Partnership with the Environmental Protection Agency for the RE-Powering America's Land Initiative: Siting Renewable Energy on Potentially Contaminated Land and Mine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Geiger, J.; Mosey, G.; Healey, V.

    2013-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Standard Chlorine of Delaware site in Delaware City, Delaware, for a feasibility study of renewable energy production. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical assistance for this project. The purpose of this report is to assess the site for a possible photovoltaic (PV) system installation and estimate the cost, performance, and site impacts of different PV options. In addition, the report recommends financing options that could assist in the implementation of a PV system at the site.

  6. Riverine organic matter composition and fluxes to Hudson Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Z. Z. A.; Macdonald, R. W.; Goni, M. A.; Godin, P.; Stern, G. A.

    2016-12-01

    With warming in northern regions, many changes including permafrost degradation, vegetation alteration, and wildfire incidence will impact the carbon cycle. Organic carbon (OC) carried by river runoff to northern oceans has the potential to provide integrated evidence of these impacts. Here, concentrations of dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) OC are used to estimate terrestrial OC transport in 17 major rivers draining varied vegetative and permafrost conditions into Hudson Bay and compositional data (lignin and 14C) to infer OC sources. Hudson Bay lies just south of the Arctic Circle in Canada and is surrounded by a large drainage basin (3.9 × 106 km2) dominated by permafrost. Analysis of POC and DOC in the 17 rivers indicates that DOC dominates the total OC load. The southern rivers dominate. The Nelson and Churchill Rivers to the southwest are particularly important suppliers of OC partly because of large drainage basins but also perhaps because of impacts by hydroelectric development, as suggested by a 14C age of DOC in the Churchill River of 2800 years. Higher DOC and POC concentrations in the southern rivers, which have substantive areas only partially covered by permafrost, compared to northern rivers draining areas with complete permafrost cover, implies that warming - and hence permafrost thawing - will lead to progressively higher DOC and POC loads for these rivers. Lignin composition in the organic matter (S/V and C/V ratios) reveals mixed sources of OC consistent with the dominant vegetation in the river basins. This vegetation is organized by latitude with southern regions below the tree line enriched by woody gymnosperm sources (boreal forest) and northern regions enriched with organic matter from non-woody angiosperms (flowering shrubs, tundra). Acid/Aldehyde composition together with Δ14C data for selected DOC samples suggest that most of the lignin has undergone oxidative degradation, particularly the DOC component. However, high Δ14C ages

  7. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Salinity Patterns in Estero Bay, Lee County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Gabaldon, Jessica N.

    2008-01-01

    Estero Bay is an estuary (about 12 miles long and 3 miles wide) on the southwestern Florida coast, with several inlets connecting the bay to the Gulf of Mexico and numerous freshwater tributaries. Continuous stage and salinity data were recorded at eight gaging stations in Estero Bay estuary from October 2001 to September 2005. Continuous water velocity data were recorded at six of these stations for the purpose of measuring discharge. In addition, turbidity data were recorded at four stations, suspended sediment concentration were measured at three stations, and wind measurements were taken at one station. Salinity surveys, within and around Estero Bay, were conducted 15 times from July 2002 to January 2004. The average daily discharge ranged from 35,000 to -34,000 ft3/s (cubic feet per second) at Big Carlos Pass, 10,800 to -11,200 ft3/s at Matanzas Pass, 2,200 to -2,900 ft3/s at Big Hickory Pass, 680 to -700 ft3/s at Mullock Creek, 330 to -370 ft3/s at Estero River, and 190 to -180 ft3/s at Imperial River. Flood tide is expressed as negative discharge and ebb flow as positive discharge. Reduced salinity at Matanzas Pass was negatively correlated (R2 = 0.48) to freshwater discharge from the Caloosahatchee River at Franklin Locks (S-79). Matanzas Pass is hydrologically linked to Hell Peckney Bay; therefore, water-quality problems associated with the Caloosahatchee River also affect Hell Peckney Bay. Rocky Bay was significantly less saline than Coconut Point and Matanzas Pass was significantly less saline than Ostego Bay, based on data from the salinity surveys. The quality-checked and edited continuous data and the salinity maps have been compiled and are stored on the U.S. Geological Survey South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website (http://sofia.usgs.gov).

  8. Sources and transformations of dissolved lignin phenols and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Otsuchi Bay, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jung eLu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved lignin phenols and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured to investigate the sources and transformations of terrigenous DOM (tDOM in Otsuchi Bay, Japan. Three rivers discharge into the bay, and relatively high values of syringyl:vanillyl phenols (0.73 ± 0.07 and cinnamyl:vanillyl phenols (0.33 ± 0.10 indicated large contributions of non-woody angiosperm tissues to lignin and tDOM. The physical mixing of river and seawater played an important role in controlling the concentrations and distributions of lignin phenols and chromophoric DOM (CDOM optical properties in the bay. Lignin phenol concentrations and the CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm, a(350, were strongly correlated in river and bay waters. Measurements of lignin phenols and CDOM in bay waters indicated a variety of photochemical and biological transformations of tDOM, including oxidation reactions, photobleaching and a decrease in molecular weight. Photodegradation and biodegradation of lignin and CDOM were investigated in decomposition experiments with river water and native microbial assemblages exposed to natural sunlight or kept in the dark. There was a rapid and substantial removal of lignin phenols and CDOM during the first few days in the light treatment, indicating transformations of tDOM and CDOM can occur soon after discharge of buoyant river water into the bay. The removal of lignin phenols was slightly greater in the dark (34% than in the light (30% during the remaining 59 days of the incubation. Comparison of the light and dark treatments indicated biodegradation was responsible for 67% of total lignin phenol removal during the 62-day incubation exposed to natural sunlight, indicating biodegradation is a dominant removal process in Otsuchi Bay.

  9. Sustainable development in the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    An overview is presented of projects planned for the James Bay/Hudson Bay region, and the expected environmental impacts of these projects. The watershed of James Bay and Hudson Bay covers well over one third of Canada, from southern Alberta to central Ontario to Baffin Island, as well as parts of north Dakota and Minnesota in the U.S.A. Hydroelectric power developments that change the timing and rate of flow of fresh water may cause changes in the nature and duration of ice cover, habitats of marine mammals, fish and migratory birds, currents into and out of Hudson Bay/James Bay, seasonal and annual loads of sediments and nutrients to marine ecosystems, and anadromous fish populations. Hydroelectric projects are proposed for the region by Quebec, Ontario and Manitoba. In January 1992, the Canadian Arctic Resources Committee (CARC), the Environmental Committee of Sanikuluaq, and the Rawson Academy of Arctic Science will launch the Hudson Bay/James Bay Bioregion Program, an independent initiative to apply an ecosystem approach to the region. Two main objectives are to provide a comprehensive assessment of the cumulative impacts of human activities on the marine and freshwater ecosystems of the Hudson Bay/James Bay bioregion, and to foster sustainable development by examining and proposing cooperative processes for decision making among governments, developers, aboriginal peoples and other stakeholders. 1 fig

  10. Topobathymetric model of Mobile Bay, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Brock, John C.; Howard, Daniel M.; Gesch, Dean B.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.; Travers, Laurinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Topobathymetric Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are a merged rendering of both topography (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) that provides a seamless elevation product useful for inundation mapping, as well as for other earth science applications, such as the development of sediment-transport, sea-level rise, and storm-surge models. This 1/9-arc-second (approximately 3 meters) resolution model of Mobile Bay, Alabama was developed using multiple topographic and bathymetric datasets, collected on different dates. The topographic data were obtained primarily from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED) (http://ned.usgs.gov/) at 1/9-arc-second resolution; USGS Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) data (2 meters) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/400/); and topographic lidar data (2 meters) and Compact Hydrographic Airborne Rapid Total Survey (CHARTS) lidar data (2 meters) from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) (http://www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/data/coastallidar/). Bathymetry was derived from digital soundings obtained from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/geodas/geodas.html) and from water-penetrating lidar sources, such as EAARL and CHARTS. Mobile Bay is ecologically important as it is the fourth largest estuary in the United States. The Mobile and Tensaw Rivers drain into the bay at the northern end with the bay emptying into the Gulf of Mexico at the southern end. Dauphin Island (a barrier island) and the Fort Morgan Peninsula form the mouth of Mobile Bay. Mobile Bay is 31 miles (50 kilometers) long by a maximum width of 24 miles (39 kilometers) with a total area of 413 square miles (1,070 square kilometers). The vertical datum of the Mobile Bay topobathymetric model is the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). All the topographic datasets were originally referenced to NAVD 88 and no transformations

  11. Rapid population decline in red knots : fitness consequences of decreased refuelling rates and late arrival in Delaware Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, AJ; Gonzalez, PM; Piersma, T; Niles, LJ; do Nascimento, IDS; Atkinson, PW; Clark, NA; Minton, CDT; Peck, MK; Aarts, G

    2004-01-01

    Most populations of migrant shorebirds around the world are in serious decline, suggesting that vital condition-dependent rates such as fecundity and annual survival are being affected globally. A striking example is the red knot (Calidris canutus rufa) population wintering in Tierra del Fuego,

  12. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  13. Sedimentation processes in a coral reef embayment: Hanalei Bay, Kauai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, C.D.; Field, M.E.; Bothner, Michael H.; Presto, M.K.; Draut, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Oceanographic measurements and sediment samples were collected during the summer of 2006 as part of a multi-year study of coastal circulation and the fate of terrigenous sediment on coral reefs in Hanalei Bay, Kauai. The goal of this study was to better understand sediment dynamics in a coral reef-lined embayment where winds, ocean surface waves, and river floods are important processes. During a summer period that was marked by two wave events and one river flood, we documented significant differences in sediment trap collection rates and the composition, grain size, and magnitude of sediment transported in the bay. Sediment trap collection rates were well correlated with combined wave-current near-bed shear stresses during the non-flood periods but were not correlated during the flood. The flood's delivery of fine-grained sediment to the bay initially caused high turbidity and sediment collection rates off the river mouth but the plume dispersed relatively quickly. Over the next month, the flood deposit was reworked by mild waves and currents and the fine-grained terrestrial sediment was advected around the bay and collected in sediment traps away from the river mouth, long after the turbid surface plume was gone. The reworked flood deposits, due to their longer duration of influence and proximity to the seabed, appear to pose a greater long-term impact to benthic coral reef communities than the flood plumes themselves. The results presented here display how spatial and temporal differences in hydrodynamic processes, which result from variations in reef morphology and orientation, cause substantial variations in the deposition, residence time, resuspension, and advection of both reef-derived and fluvial sediment over relatively short spatial scales in a coral reef embayment.

  14. Spatial and temporal characterizations of water quality in Kuwait Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mutairi, N; Abahussain, A; El-Battay, A

    2014-06-15

    The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay have been investigated using data from six stations between 2009 and 2011. The results showed that most of water quality parameters such as phosphorus (PO4), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) fluctuated over time and space. Based on Water Quality Index (WQI) data, six stations were significantly clustered into two main classes using cluster analysis, one group located in western side of the Bay, and other in eastern side. Three principal components are responsible for water quality variations in the Bay. The first component included DO and pH. The second included PO4, TSS and NO3, and the last component contained seawater temperature and turbidity. The spatial and temporal patterns of water quality in Kuwait Bay are mainly controlled by seasonal variations and discharges from point sources of pollution along Kuwait Bay's coast as well as from Shatt Al-Arab River. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 137Cs and 210Pb distribution in Manila Bay sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sta. Maria, Efren J.; Madrid, Jordan F.; Olivares, Ryan U.; Bulos, Adelina DM; Dayaon, Jennyvi P.; Asa, Anie Day DC; Sombrito, Elvira Z.

    2011-01-01

    Two radionuclides were measured in surface sediment samples taken from geographically distributed sections of Manila Bay, namely cesium-137 ( 137 Cs) and lead-210 ( 210 Pb). Results indicated a noticeable change in the radioactivity concentration levels in sediments collected in 2005 and 2010, with a median concentration of 1.0 and 2.64 Bq kg -1 , respectively. Higher levels of 137 Cs radioactivity were measured in the northern and inner portion of the bay adjacent to major river systems, agricultural and highly industrialized urban areas. 137 Cs isotope increased in activity in most of the samples especially in the northwestern areas of Bataan and Pampanga with five times more than the activity from the first sampling measurements. Nevertheless, radioactivity concentrations observed in surface sediments along the bay are within the range of radioactivity in several areas monitored in the Northern Hemisphere. The country has been frequented by tropical cyclones and storms that have caused erosion, which may have introduced elevated material input in the bay. In addition, wind-driven circulation especially in the shallower areas of the bay is a possibility for the substantial sediment movement and accumulation along this coast. Conversely, areas with higher 137 Cs have lower values of 210 Pb. In an undisturbed environment, 210 Pb deposition values are assumed nearly constant. Hence, changes in the radioactivity concentration levels of these radionuclides can be an indicator of pollution input from land-based sources, sediment movement and reworking in the coastal areas. At present, there is very limited information on the radioactivity level of various radioisotopes in Manila Bay.The data obtained are benchmark values against which changes that will be occurring in the bay can be assessed. (author)

  16. Ganga-Brahmaputra river discharge from Jason-2 radar altimetry: An update to the long-term satellite-derived estimates of continental freshwater forcing flux into the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Papa, F.; Bala, S.K.; Pandey, R.K.; Durand, F.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Rahman, A.; Rossow, W.B.

    EGM2008 [Pavlis et al., 2008] with respect to WGS 84 reference (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, The World Geo- detic System 1984, http://earth-info.nga.mil/GandG/wgs84/). [17] It is important to point out here that, in terms of single river.... These fac- tors include the dynamics of the riverbed itself, but also anthropogenic factors such as land use change, withdrawal for water use, or new contributions from artificial water storage reservoirs. In general, the reinstallation of gauges and related...

  17. The University of Delaware Carlson International Polar Year Events: Collaborative and Educational Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, F. E.; Bryant, T.; Wellington, P.; Dooley, J.; Bird, M.

    2008-12-01

    Delaware is a small state with, by virtue of its coastal location, a large stake in climatic change in the polar regions. The University of Delaware has maintained a strong presence in cold-regions research since the mid-1940s, when William Samuel Carlson, a highly accomplished Arctic explorer, military strategist, and earth scientist, was named 20th President (1946-50) of the University. Carlson played a leading role in two of the University of Michigan's Greenland expeditions in the late 1920s and early 1930s. As Director of the Arctic, Desert, and Tropic Branch of the US Army Air Forces Tactical Center during World War II, Colonel Carlson played a role in developing several air transportation routes through the Arctic that helped to facilitate the Allied victory in Europe. Carlson authored many scientific and popular publications concerned with the Arctic, including the books Greenland Lies North (1940) and Lifelines Through the Arctic (1962). Although the University of Delaware has maintained a vigorous and continuous program of polar research since Carlson's tenure, the faculty, staff, and students involved are diffused throughout the University's colleges and departments, without an institutional focal point. Consequently, although many of these individuals are well known in their respective fields, the institution has not until recently been perceived widely as a center of polar-oriented research. The goals of the Carlson International Polar Year Events are to: (a) develop a sense of community among UD's diffuse polar-oriented researchers and educators; (b) create a distinctive and highly visible role for UD in the milieu of IPY activities; (c) promote interest in and knowledge about the polar regions in the State of Delaware, at all educational levels; (d) forge a close relationship between UD and the American Geographical Society, a national organization involved closely with previous International Polar Years; and (e) create a new basis for development

  18. National Dam Safety Program. Lake Como Dam (DE 00028), Delaware River Basin, Mill Creek, Kent County, Delaware. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    STATEMENT (of the abstract antarod in Block 20, It different frm Report) III. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Copies are obtainable from National Technical...should employ a professional engineer experienced in operation and maintanance of darns to develop written operating procedures and a periodic...100 YEAR FLOOD WOULD CAUSE A DAM TO bE OVERTOPPED THEREFORE THE OWNER SHOULD ENGAGE A QUALIFIED PkOFEbSIONAL CONSULTANT USING MORE PERCISE METHODS

  19. DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Watershed Hydrology - UAV Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, S. D.; Baruah, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, with a watershed extending through six states and the nation's capital. Urbanization and agriculture practices have led to an excess runoff of nutrients and sediment into the bay. Nutrients and sediment loading stimulate the growth of algal blooms associated with various problems including localized dissolved oxygen deficiencies, toxic algal blooms and death of marine life. The Chesapeake Bay Program, among other stakeholder organizations, contributes greatly to the restoration efforts of the Chesapeake Bay. These stakeholders contribute in many ways such as monitoring the water quality, leading clean-up projects, and actively restoring native habitats. The first stage of the DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Coastal Management project, relating to water quality, contributed to the restoration efforts by introducing NASA satellite-based water quality data products to the stakeholders as a complement to their current monitoring methods. The second stage, to be initiated in the fall 2008 internship term, will focus on the impacts of land cover variability within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Multiple student led discussions with members of the Land Cover team at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office in the DEVELOP GSFC 2008 summer term uncovered the need for remote sensing data for hydrological mapping in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Program expressed in repeated discussions on Land Cover mapping that significant portions of upper river areas, streams, and the land directly interfacing those waters are not accurately depicted in the watershed model. Without such hydrological mapping correlated with land cover data the model will not be useful in depicting source areas of nutrient loading which has an ecological and economic impact in and around the Chesapeake Bay. The fall 2008 DEVELOP team will examine the use of UAV flown sensors in connection with in-situ and Earth Observation satellite data. To maximize the

  20. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  1. Meteorological and surface water observations from the Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System from 2007-04-25 to 2016-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0159578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Meteorological and surface water observations from the Chesapeake Bay Interpretive Buoy System. Ten stations are located from the mouth of the Susquehanna river near...

  2. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  3. Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

    1985-09-01

    Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs

  4. Preliminary targeting of geothermal resources in Delaware. Progress report, July 15, 1978-July 14, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, K.D.

    1979-07-01

    Results of temperature logging the five DOE 1000 foot test wells in Delaware indicate that the potential is good for a relatively low temperature geothermal resource (temperatures less than about 80/sup 0/C). A preliminary Bouguer gravity map was made for portions of Kent and Sussex counties in order to detect gravity anomalies possibly related to granitic plutons. The map indicates a gravity low trending northeast-southwest across Sussex County that could be indicative of other structural features within the basement rocks beneath the Coastal Plain. Other logging activities and study of the cores and drill cuttings in the DOE test holes were useful in better defining the stratigraphic framework and in determining the fresh-salt water interface in southern Delaware.

  5. Successful implementation of controlled aerobic bioremediation technology at hydrocarbon contaminated sites in the state of Delaware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, C.D.; Hiller, A.V.; Carberry, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    WIK Associates, Inc. of New Castle, Delaware, has been working over the last two years to improve and advance a cost effective method of treating hydrocarbon contaminated soils. The first section of this paper describes treatment methods and associated benefits such as increased control over environmental parameters. The second part of this paper describes work performed in attempting to predict degradation rates for varying types of hydrocarbon contamination under varying conditions. This research is based on data gathered in performing on-site bioremediation as described. A third section included in this paper describes the unique perspective of a State regulator responsible for overseeing remediation efforts evolving from leaking underground storage tanks. This section describes regulatory issues and procedures in Delaware and how the Department handles the submission and implementation of corrective action work plans, through project closure with thorough documentation of the remediation

  6. Relationships between precipitation and surface water chemistry in three Carolina bays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monegue, R.L.; Jagoe, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Carolina Bays are shallow freshwater wetlands, the only naturally occurring lentic systems on the southeastern coastal plain. Bays are breeding sites for many amphibian species, but data on precipitation/surface water relationships and long-term chemical trends are lacking. Such data are essential to interpret major fluctuations in amphibian populations. Surface water and bulk precipitation were sampled bi-weekly for over two years at three bays along a 25 km transect on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. Precipitation chemistry was similar at all sites; average pH was 4.56, and the major ions were H + (30.8 % of total), and SO 4 (50.3% of total). H + was positively correlated with SO 4 , suggesting the importance of anthropogenic acids to precipitation chemistry. All three bays, Rainbow Bay (RB), Thunder Bay (TB), and Ellenton Bay (EB), contained soft (specific conductivity 5--90 microS/cm), acidic water (pH 4.0--5.9) with DOM from 4--40 mg/L. The major cation for RB, TB, and EB, respectively, was: Mg (30.8 % of total); Na (27% of total); and Ca (34.2% of total). DOM was the major anion for all bays, and SO 4 represented 13 to 28 % of total anions. H + was not correlated to DOM or SO, in RB; H + was positively correlated to DOM and SO 4 in TB, and negatively correlated to DOM and SO 4 in EB. Different biogeochemical processes probably control pH and other chemical variables in each bay. While surface water H + was not directly correlated with precipitation H + , NO 3 , or SO 4 , precipitation and shallow groundwater are dominant water sources for these bays. Atmospheric inputs of anthropogenic acids and other chemicals are important factors influencing bay chemistry

  7. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell 3H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect 3H-leucine incorporation in light–dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance. PMID:24824666

  8. Leucine incorporation by aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the Delaware estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegman, Monica R; Cottrell, Matthew T; Kirchman, David L

    2014-11-01

    Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria are well known to be abundant in estuaries, coastal regions and in the open ocean, but little is known about their activity in any aquatic ecosystem. To explore the activity of AAP bacteria in the Delaware estuary and coastal waters, single-cell (3)H-leucine incorporation by these bacteria was examined with a new approach that combines infrared epifluorescence microscopy and microautoradiography. The approach was used on samples from the Delaware coast from August through December and on transects through the Delaware estuary in August and November 2011. The percent of active AAP bacteria was up to twofold higher than the percentage of active cells in the rest of the bacterial community in the estuary. Likewise, the silver grain area around active AAP bacteria in microautoradiography preparations was larger than the area around cells in the rest of the bacterial community, indicating higher rates of leucine consumption by AAP bacteria. The cell size of AAP bacteria was 50% bigger than the size of other bacteria, about the same difference on average as measured for activity. The abundance of AAP bacteria was negatively correlated and their activity positively correlated with light availability in the water column, although light did not affect (3)H-leucine incorporation in light-dark experiments. Our results suggest that AAP bacteria are bigger and more active than other bacteria, and likely contribute more to organic carbon fluxes than indicated by their abundance.

  9. Humic Substances from Manila Bay and Bolinao Bay Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Llaguno

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The C,H,N composition of sedimentary humic acids (HA extracted from three sites in Manila Bay and six sites in Bolinao Bay yielded H/C atomic ratios of 1.1-1.4 and N/C atomic ratios of 0.09 - 0.16. The Manila Bay HA's had lower H/C and N/C ratios compared to those from Bolinao Bay. The IR spectra showed prominent aliphatic C-H and amide I and II bands. Manila Bay HA's also had less diverse molecular composition based on the GC-MS analysis of the CuO and alkaline permanganate oxidation products of the humic acids.

  10. Influence of urbanization and industrialization on metal enrichment of sediment cores from Shantou Bay, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao, Yongmin; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Jiangang; Tao, Ran; Xu, Ronghua

    2013-01-01

    Four sediment cores were collected to investigate geochemical sources and to assess enrichment and pollution of metals in sediments from Shantou Bay, an area experiencing rapid economic development on the Southeastern Coast of China. The results indicated that the concentrations of the majority of metals showed a decrease with depth, with overall maximum values in the top layers, and that different sampling locations in the Bay received slightly different types of inputs. Three major sources were identified by correlation analysis and principal component analysis: river inputs, metropolitan, and port facilities discharge. Calculation of a pollution load index revealed overall low values, but the enrichment factor values for Pb and Cd were typically high for all cores. The mean concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn and to some extent Cd exceeded the Effects-Range-Low values in the majority of the cases, indicating that there were possible ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Highlights: •Metals had downward decrease with overall maximum value at top layers. •River input, metropolitan and port facilities discharge are identified as major sources. •Pb and Cd are mainly enriched metals. •Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd had potential ecotoxicological risks to organisms in Shantou Bay. -- Shantou Bay was polluted by Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, and showed an increase trend along time. River input, metropolitan and port facilities were identified as their sources based on multi-analysis

  11. Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in riverine and marine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Xiaohui; Tang Jianhui; Chen Yingjun; Li Jun; Zhang Gan

    2011-01-01

    PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g -1 dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - Highlights: → We investigated the PCN levels both in the riverine and marine surface sediments of Laizhou Bay. → PCN concentrations in the river sediments of industrial group were ten times higher than in the rural group. → Leakage from industrial materials and thermal processes were the major sources. → PCNs in the coastal sites were more influenced by the river discharge. → In the centre bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors. - A systematic sampling of riverine and marine sediments was conducted in Laizhou Bay area to investigate the distribution and possible sources of PCNs.

  12. Electric rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutcheon, S.

    1992-04-01

    James Bay II, the projected Canadian hydroelectric power plant of gigantic dimensions, is to deliver its electricity to Europe: in the USA, opposition to power imports from James Bay is growing. Its realization means the flooding of an area as big as the Federal Republic of Germany; the native territory and hunting grounds of the Cree indians would be inundated. The interests of the European power industry in the James Bay project and the consequences for Europe are described in an appendix (EQHHPP project, project management Hydro-Quebec and Ludwig Boelkow Foundation, hydrogen production through electrolysis, methods for transporting hydrogen to Hamburg). (orig./HP) [de

  13. Colored dissolved organic matter in Tampa Bay, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Hu, C.; Conmy, R.N.; Muller-Karger, F.; Swarzenski, P.

    2007-01-01

    Absorption and fluorescence of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chlorophyll and total suspended solids in Tampa Bay and its adjacent rivers were examined in June and October of 2004. Except in Old Tampa Bay (OTB), the spatial distribution of CDOM showed a conservative relationship with salinity in June, 2004 (aCDOM(400) = − 0.19 × salinity + 6.78, R2 = 0.98, n = 17, salinity range = 1.1–32.5) with little variations in absorption spectral slope and fluorescence efficiency. This indicates that CDOM distribution was dominated by mixing. In October, 2004, CDOM distribution was nonconservative with an average absorption coefficient (aCDOM(400), ∼ 7.76 m-1) about seven times higher than that in June (∼ 1.11 m-1). The nonconservative behavior was caused largely by CDOM removal at intermediate salinities (e.g., aCDOM(400) removal > 15% at salinity ∼ 13.0), which likely resulted from photobleaching due to stronger stratification. The spatial and seasonal distributions of CDOM in Tampa Bay showed that the two largest rivers, the Alafia River (AR) and Hillsborough River (HR) were dominant CDOM sources to most of the bay. In OTB, however, CDOM showed distinctive differences: lower absorption coefficient, higher absorption spectral slopes, and lower ratios of CDOM absorption to DOC and higher fluorescence efficiency. These differences may have stemmed from (1) changes in CDOM composition by more intensive photobleaching due to the longer residence time of water mass in OTB; (2) other sources of CDOM than the HR/AR inputs, such as local creeks, streams, groundwater, and/or bottom re-suspension. Average CDOM absorption in Tampa Bay at 443 nm, aCDOM(443), was about five times higher in June and about ten times higher in October than phytoplankton pigment absorption, aph(443), indicating that blue light attenuation in the water column was dominated by CDOM rather than by phytoplankton absorption throughout the

  14. Effects of waves on water dispersion in a semi-enclosed estuarine bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpey, M. T.; Ardhuin, F.; Otheguy, P.

    2012-04-01

    The bay of Saint Jean de Luz - Ciboure is a touristic destination located in the south west of France on the Basque coast. This small bay is 1.5km wide for 1km long. It is semi-enclosed by breakwaters, so that the area is mostly protected from waves except in its eastern part, where wave breaking is regularly observed over a shallow rock shelf. In the rest of the area the currents are generally weak. The bay receives fresh water inflows from two rivers. During intense raining events, the rivers can introduce pollutants in the bay. The input of pollutants combined with the low level dynamic of the area can affect the water quality for several days. To study such a phenomenon, mechanisms of water dispersion in the bay are investigated. The present paper focuses on the effects of waves on bay dynamics. Several field experiments were conducted in the area, combining wave and current measurements from a set of ADCP and ADV, lagrangian difter experiments in the surfzone, salinity and temperature profile measurements. An analysis of this set of various data is provided. It reveals that the bay combines remarkable density stratification due to fresh water inflows and occasionally intense wave-induced currents in the surfzone. These currents have a strong influence on river plume dynamics when the sea state is energetic. Moreover, modifications of hydrodynamics in the bay passes are found to be remarkably correlated with sea state evolutions. This result suggests a significant impact of waves on the bay flushing. To further analyse these phenomena, a three dimensional numerical model of bay hydrodynamics is developed. The model aims at reproducing fresh water inflows combined with wind-, tide- and wave-induced currents and mixing. The model of the bay is implemented using the code MOHID , which has been modified to allow the three dimensional representation of wave-current interactions proposed by Ardhuin et al. [2008b] . The circulation is forced by the wave field modelled

  15. The movement and implications of the Ganges-Bramhaputra runoff on entering the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra rivers discharge annually approximately 10 sup(2) m sup(3) of freshwater into the Bay of Bengal at its northern end. We propose that the spread of this water, accompaniEd. by mixing with the ambient waters, occurs in three...

  16. Mississippi River Hydrodynamic and Delta Management Study (MRHDM) - Geomorphic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Mississippi River @ Venice Daily stage 1960–present MVN Grand Pass Measured Q 1960–present MVN West Bay Diversion Measured Q 2004–present MVN...frequency during the study time period. The dredge history for the crossing locations was used to qualitatively inform the interpretation of the...pattern of deposition downstream of Venice , Louisiana, that was similarly identified by Sharp et al (2013) as part of the West Bay Sediment Diversion

  17. Hydrodynamic Aspects at Vitória Bay Mouth, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA A.A. GARONCE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Understading the hydrodynamic behavior and suspended particulated matter (SPM transport are of great importance in port regions such as Vitória Harbor, which is located at Vitória Bay, Vitória – ES, Brazil. Vitória Bay is an estuary that has not been systematically assessed through a temporal analysis in order to identify its hydrodynamics characteristics and SPM exchange. This study aims to investigate salt and suspended particulate matter flux at the estuarine mouth of Vitória Bay by understanding the temporal variation of salinity, temperature and tidal currents within the water column and at the channel crosssection. Results showed that the estuarine mouth tended to present partial stratification periods during neap tides and little stratification in spring tides. The circulation pattern was mainly influenced by the tide, with little influence from river discharge. With regard to the SPM, the mouth of the estuary tended to show low concentrations, with the highest values occurring during the dry season. A close relationship between momentary discharge, SPM and salt fluxes was observed. Despite all the data was collected at the mouth of the estuary, the system showed an importation trend of salt in all cycles and SPM importation for three of the four studied tidal cycles. Thus, Vitoria Bay is not exporting SPM to the adjacent inner shelf.

  18. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    From 1966 to 2002, activities at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware chemical facility in New Castle County, Delaware resulted in the contamination of groundwater, soils, and wetland sediment. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, and the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control began a multi-year investigation of the hydrogeologic framework and hydrology of the confined aquifer system. The goals of the ongoing study at the site (the Potomac Aquifer Study) are to determine the hydraulic connection between the Columbia and Potomac aquifers, determine the direction of groundwater flow in the Potomac aquifer, and identify factors affecting the fate of contaminated groundwater. This report describes progress made towards these goals based on available data collected through September 2012.

  19. Integrating Salmon Recovery, Clean Water Act Compliance, Restoration, and Climate Change Impacts in the South Fork Nooksack River

    Science.gov (United States)

    "The South Fork Nooksack River (SFNR) is an important tributary to the Nooksack River, Bellingham Bay, and the Salish Sea. The South Fork Nooksack River comprises one of the 22 independent populations of spring Chinook in the Puget Sound Chinook Evolutionarily Significant Un...

  20. Bay of Fundy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The highest tides on Earth occur in the Minas Basin, the eastern extremity of the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia, Canada, where the tide range can reach 16 meters when the various factors affecting the tides are in phase. The primary cause of the immense tides of Fundy is a resonance of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine system. The system is effectively bounded at this outer end by the edge of the continental shelf with its approximately 40:1 increase in depth. The system has a natural period of approximately 13 hours, which is close to the 12h25m period of the dominant lunar tide of the Atlantic Ocean. Like a father pushing his daughter on a swing, the gentle Atlantic tidal pulse pushes the waters of the Bay of Fundy-Gulf of Maine basin at nearly the optimum frequency to cause a large to-and-fro oscillation. The greatest slosh occurs at the head (northeast end) of the system. The high tide image (top) was acquired April 20, 2001, and the low tide image (bottom) was acquired September 30, 2002. The images cover an area of 16.5 by 21 km, and are centered near 64 degrees west longitude and 45.5 degrees north latitude. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying

  1. Historical sediment budget and present-day catchment-shoreline coupling at Twofold Bay, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, T.; Oliver, T.; Hudson, J.; Woodroffe, C. D.

    2017-12-01

    Considering projected impacts of sea-level rise in the 21st century on sandy shorelines, an understanding of long-term sediment budget for individual beaches or coastal compartments supports assessments of shoreline stability. We examined a low-lying coastal beach-ridge barrier in Twofold Bay using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating , airborne LiDAR, sedimentological analysis and seismic data to assess changes in rates of sediment supply to this shoreline through time. Calculations of barrier volume, Twofold Bay bay-floor sediment volume and estimates of sediment delivery from a proximal river system provide a broad-scale assessment of past-sediment budget. Between ca. 7500 years ago and 1500 years ago, sources of sediment for shoreline progradation at Boydtown were bay-floor sediments either inherited or moved into the embayment during late-stage transgression. Progradation rate between ca. 7500-1500 years ago was 0.16 m/yr with subaerial barrier volume accumulating at 0.46 m3/m/yr. Between ca. 1500 years and present day, the Towamba River to the south has delivered additional sediment to the Boydtown shoreline more than doubling shoreline progradation rate to 0.65 m/yr and subaerial barrier accumulation has risen to 1.83 m3/m/yr. The delivery of fluvial sediment from the Towamba River was restricted to the past ca. 1500 years as prior to this, estuary infilling prevented floods delivering sediments to the bay. This recent historical coupling of river sand supply and shoreline progradation rate implies that anthropogenic modifications to the Towamba River catchment such as river damming, or climatic changes reducing rainfall or runoff, would negatively impact the Boydtown Beach shoreline. Conversely increased rainfall or deforestation may increase sediment discharge due to upstream erosion. The Boydtown shoreline within Twofold Bay may be able to maintain its current position in the coming century if fluvial sediment delivery continues. The fact that

  2. Wind effect on salt transport variability in the Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, K. K.; Pant, V.

    2017-12-01

    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) exhibits large spatial variability in sea surface salinity (SSS) pattern caused by its unique hydrological, meteorological and oceanographical characteristics. This SSS variability is largely controlled by the seasonally reversing monsoon winds and the associated currents. Further, the BoB receives substantial freshwater inputs through excess precipitation over evaporation and river discharge. Rivers like Ganges, Brahmaputra, Mahanadi, Krishna, Godavari, and Irawwady discharge annually a freshwater volume in range between 1.5 x 1012 and 1.83 x 1013 m3 into the bay. A major volume of this freshwater input to the bay occurs during the southwest monsoon (June-September) period. In the present study, a relative role of winds in the SSS variability in the bay is investigated by using an eddy-resolving three dimensional Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) numerical model. The model is configured with realistic bathymetry, coastline of study region and forced with daily climatology of atmospheric variables. River discharges from the major rivers are distributed in the model grid points representing their respective geographic locations. Salt transport estimate from the model simulation for realistic case are compared with the standard reference datasets. Further, different experiments were carried out with idealized surface wind forcing representing the normal, low, high, and very high wind speed conditions in the bay while retaining the realistic daily varying directions for all the cases. The experimental simulations exhibit distinct dispersal patterns of the freshwater plume and SSS in different experiments in response to the idealized winds. Comparison of the meridional and zonal surface salt transport estimated for each experiment showed strong seasonality with varying magnitude in the bay with a maximum spatial and temporal variability in the western and northern parts of the BoB.

  3. Production and Field Planting of Vegetative Propagules for Restoration of Redhead Grass and Sago Pondweed in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) have been lost from shallow waters of Chesapeake Bay (Orth and Moore 1983) and other coastal ecosystems worldwide...a mixture of ambient estuarine water from the Choptank River (a tributary of Chesapeake Bay) and freshwater (tap) needed to maintain a salinity of 7...with a mixture of freshwater and ambient estuarine water (to maintain a salinity of 10) that was circulated through a closed- loop recirculation system

  4. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  5. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  6. USGS Tampa Bay Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, K.K.; Cronin, T. M.; Crane, M.; Hansen, M.; Nayeghandi, A.; Swarzenski, P.; Edgar, T.; Brooks, G.R.; Suthard, B.; Hine, A.; Locker, S.; Willard, D.A.; Hastings, D.; Flower, B.; Hollander, D.; Larson, R.A.; Smith, K.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the nation's estuaries have been environmentally stressed since the turn of the 20th century and will continue to be impacted in the future. Tampa Bay, one the Gulf of Mexico's largest estuaries, exemplifies the threats that our estuaries face (EPA Report 2001, Tampa Bay Estuary Program-Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan (TBEP-CCMP)). More than 2 million people live in the Tampa Bay watershed, and the population constitutes to grow. Demand for freshwater resources, conversion of undeveloped areas to resident and industrial uses, increases in storm-water runoff, and increased air pollution from urban and industrial sources are some of the known human activities that impact Tampa Bay. Beginning on 2001, additional anthropogenic modifications began in Tampa Bat including construction of an underwater gas pipeline and a desalinization plant, expansion of existing ports, and increased freshwater withdrawal from three major tributaries to the bay. In January of 2001, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program (TBEP) and its partners identifies a critical need for participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in providing multidisciplinary expertise and a regional-scale, integrated science approach to address complex scientific research issue and critical scientific information gaps that are necessary for continued restoration and preservation of Tampa Bay. Tampa Bay stakeholders identified several critical science gaps for which USGS expertise was needed (Yates et al. 2001). These critical science gaps fall under four topical categories (or system components): 1) water and sediment quality, 2) hydrodynamics, 3) geology and geomorphology, and 4) ecosystem structure and function. Scientists and resource managers participating in Tampa Bay studies recognize that it is no longer sufficient to simply examine each of these estuarine system components individually, Rather, the interrelation among system components must be understood to develop conceptual and

  7. Spatial distribution of pollen grains and spores in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Cintia F; Vilela, Claudia G; Baptista-Neto, José A; Barth, Ortrud M

    2012-09-01

    Aiming to investigate the deposition of pollen grains and spores in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, 61 surface sediment samples were analyzed. The results showed that the current deposition of palynomorphs in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay represents the regional vegetation of this hydrographic basin. The differential distribution of palynomorphs followed a pattern influenced by bathymetry, tidal currents speed, discharge of numerous rivers, and by human activity. The dominance of representatives of Field Vegetation reflects the changes of the original flora caused by intense human activities in the region. The continued presence and richness of pollen types of rain forest in the samples indicates that their source area might be the vegetation from riparian border of rivers in the western sector of the Bay, where the mangrove vegetation is being preserved. The large amount of damaged palynomorphs may be related to abrasion that occurs during river transport, indicating removal or reworking from their areas of origin.

  8. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  9. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkney, Alfred E., E-mail: Fred_Pinkney@fws.gov [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Chesapeake Bay Field Office, 177 Admiral Cochrane Drive, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Harshbarger, John C., E-mail: jcharshbarger@verizon.net [Department of Pathology, George Washington University Medical Center, 2300 I Street, NW, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Karouna-Renier, Natalie K., E-mail: nkarouna@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Jenko, Kathryn [U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, BARC, Bldg. 308, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Balk, Lennart, E-mail: lennart.balk@itm.su.se [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Skarphe Latin-Small-Letter-Eth insdottir, Halldora; Liewenborg, Birgitta [Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University SE-106 91, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutter, Michael A., E-mail: mar36@psu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Penn State Erie, The Behrend College, 5091 Station Road, Erie, PA 16563 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and {sup 32}P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. {sup 32}P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors

  10. Tumor prevalence and biomarkers of genotoxicity in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) in Chesapeake Bay tributaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkney, Alfred E.; Harshbarger, John C.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Jenko, Kathryn; Balk, Lennart; Skarphéðinsdóttir, Halldóra; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Rutter, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed four Chesapeake Bay tributaries for skin and liver tumors in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus). We focused on the South River, where the highest skin tumor prevalence (53%) in the Bay watershed had been reported. The objectives were to 1) compare tumor prevalence with nearby rivers (Severn and Rhode) and a more remote river (Choptank); 2) investigate associations between tumor prevalence and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylating agents; and 3) statistically analyze Chesapeake Bay bullhead tumor data from 1992 through 2008. All four South River collections exhibited high skin tumor prevalence (19% to 58%), whereas skin tumor prevalence was 2%, 10%, and 52% in the three Severn collections; 0% and 2% in the Choptank collections; and 5.6% in the Rhode collection. Liver tumor prevalence was 0% to 6% in all but one South River collection (20%) and 0% to 6% in the three other rivers. In a subset of samples, PAH-like biliary metabolites and 32 P-DNA adducts were used as biomarkers of exposure and response to polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Adducts from alkylating agents were detected as O6-methyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6Me-dG) and O6-ethyl-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6Et-dG) modified DNA. Bullheads from the contaminated Anacostia River were used as a positive control for DNA adducts. 32 P-DNA adduct concentrations were significantly higher in Anacostia bullhead livers compared with the other rivers. We identified alkyl DNA adducts in bullhead livers from the South and Anacostia, but not the Choptank. Neither the PAH-like bile metabolite data, sediment PAH data, nor the DNA adduct data suggest an association between liver or skin tumor prevalence and exposure to PACs or alkylating agents in the South, Choptank, Severn, or Rhode rivers. Logistic regression analysis of the Chesapeake Bay database revealed that sex and length were significant covariates for liver tumors and length was a significant covariate for skin tumors. - Highlights: ► We

  11. Chlorophyll-a Concentrations Affected by Discharge and Climate Conditions in Galveston Bay, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, X.; Gao, H.; Zhang, S.

    2017-12-01

    As the transition zones between river and ocean, estuaries face increasing pressure on their ecosystem health due to changes of freshwater quantity and quality—especially under the impacts of population growth, land use/land cover change, and climate change. Located at the northeast of Houston, Galveston Bay is of particular social economic importance for the State of Texas. Its freshwater inflow primarily arises from two rivers, the San Jacinto and the Trinity. While it is well recognized that Chlorophyll a (chla) concentration—an indicator of ecosystem health—is closely linked to river inflows and other environmental factors, no quantitative relationships have been established. The objectives of this study are to identify the spatial-temporal variations of chla, and to investigate the impacts of freshwater inflow and climatic factors on chla variability—so that prediction models can be developed for chla forecasting to provide scientific support for ecological management (in Galveston Bay). A 10-year validated remote sensing dataset is used in this analysis. The results show that chla has higher concentrations near the shoreline, as compared to the center of the bay. Temporally, chla tends to be higher in wet years than in dry years. Similarly, the seasonal fluctuations of chla are more significant during the wet months (from February to May) than the dry months (especially from August to December). Chla in the bay is primarily determined by discharge from the Trinity River in AMJ (April, May, June) and JAS (July, August, September). However, the driving factor is mainly water temperature in OND (October, November, December). In JFM (January, February, March), almost all of the factors (except discharge from the San Jacinto River) show significant correlation with chla. Based on these analyses, a chla prediction model is developed and tested. This result can provide scientific support for coastal environmental management in Galveston Bay, maintaining the

  12. Characterizing surf zone injuries from the five most populated beaches on the Atlantic-fronting Delaware coast: Delaware surf zone injury demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelp, Matthew B; Puleo, Jack A; Cowan, Paul; Arford-Granholm, Michelle

    2017-12-24

    Beaches are a popular destination for recreation activities. Surf zone injuries (SZI) can occur resulting from a variety of in-water activities. Little is known regarding the sustained injury types, or demographics of injured persons and activities leading to injuries. This study examines the distribution of SZI types, activities and populations occurring on Delaware Beaches as recorded by a local level III trauma center (Department of Emergency Medicine at Beebe Healthcare in Lewes, Delaware). There were 2021 injuries over the eight study years (2010-2017). The relative demographics of the injured population are similar despite fluctuating injury totals (mean [SD], 253.1 [104.4]). Non-locals (n=1757) were 6.7 times more likely to be injured as their local (n=264) counterparts (RR, 2.62; 95% CI, 2.08-3.31). Males (n=1258) were 1.7 times more likely to be injured than their female (n=763) counterparts (RR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.21-1.37). Serious injuries, defined as patients requiring admission to a trauma service, represented 9.1% (n=184) of injuries. Fatal SZI (n=6) were categorized as serious injuries. Wading (50.1%) was found to be the dominant activity associated with injury followed by body surfing (18.4%), and body boarding (13.3%). To the authors' knowledge, this study is one of the first to investigate long-term trends in SZI data, injury activity, and demographics. Better understanding of the characteristics of injuries will allow for improved awareness techniques, targeted at populations with higher injury rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The influence of data characteristics on detecting wetland/stream surface-water connections in the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Distler, Hayley; Lang, Megan W.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2018-01-01

    The dependence of downstream waters on upstream ecosystems necessitates an improved understanding of watershed-scale hydrological interactions including connections between wetlands and streams. An evaluation of such connections is challenging when, (1) accurate and complete datasets of wetland and stream locations are often not available and (2) natural variability in surface-water extent influences the frequency and duration of wetland/stream connectivity. The Upper Choptank River watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula in eastern Maryland and Delaware is dominated by a high density of small, forested wetlands. In this analysis, wetland/stream surface water connections were quantified using multiple wetland and stream datasets, including headwater streams and depressions mapped from a lidar-derived digital elevation model. Surface-water extent was mapped across the watershed for spring 2015 using Landsat-8, Radarsat-2 and Worldview-3 imagery. The frequency of wetland/stream connections increased as a more complete and accurate stream dataset was used and surface-water extent was included, in particular when the spatial resolution of the imagery was finer (i.e., watershed contributing direct surface water runoff to streamflow. This finding suggests that our interpretation of the frequency and duration of wetland/stream connections will be influenced not only by the spatial and temporal characteristics of wetlands, streams and potential flowpaths, but also by the completeness, accuracy and resolution of input datasets.

  14. Stormwater impact in Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro): Evidences of seasonal variability in the dynamic of the sediment heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, E. M.; Baptista Neto, J. A.; Silva, C. G.; McAlister, J. J.; Smith, B. J.; Fernandez, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    Guanabara Bay is one of the most prominent coastal bays in Brazil. This environment is an estuary of 91 rivers and channels, surrounded by the metropolis of Rio de Janeiro. The bay receives considerable amounts of contaminants introduced from sewage effluents, industrial discharge, urban and agricultural runoff, atmospheric fallout, and the combined inputs from the rivers, making Guanabara Bay one of the most polluted coastal environments on the Brazilian coastline. The aim of this work is to study the concentration and fractionation of the heavy metals within the sediments of the bay. In order to understand the possible seasonal influence on the heavy metal fractionation, two campaigns were carried out in two different seasons of the year (rainy and dry). Twelve stations, in four different areas, with different oceanographic characteristics, where chosen. To assess the bioavailability of the metals a selective extraction procedure was used to study the geochemical fractionation and bioavailability of Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni and Pb. The rainy season was very important with respect to variation in the total concentrations of Cr, Ni and Pb and their fractionation within different "operational" phases present in Guanabara Bay sediments. The water-soluble phase showed little importance, with respect to metal adsorption and this would suggest very low mobility of metals in the water column. Nevertheless, the potentially available metals within these sediments showed a high probability for their release and therefore cause contamination of the water column, since different parts of the bay are constantly subjected to dredging projects promoted by the harbor authorities.

  15. A comparative study on the heavy metals distribution in sediment profiles from Ribeira and Sepetiba Bays, RJ - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Franciane; Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    A set of sediment cores was sampled at Sepetiba bay and Ribeira bay, in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sedimentation rates were determined by geochronological evaluation of sediments by Pb-210. In Ribeira Bay, the sedimentation rate increases from the sampling point RB1 (0.15 cm y -1 ), in the inner part of the bay, towards the sampling point RB4, close to its entrance (0.34 cm y -1 ). For Sepetiba Bay, two well-defined sedimentation rates were observed, a lower value of 0.3 cm y -1 for the period before the 1960s, and a more recent rate of 0.75 cm y -1 . These measurements are consistent to the construction of the Santa Cecilia impoundment in 1955, which brings water from the Paraiba do Sul Basin into the Guandu River, increasing the river flow from 20 m 3 s -1 to 160 m 3 s -1 . The metal concentrations were determined by ICP-MS. It could be seen that the reliability of Ribeira bay as a reference database for metal concentrations in the neighboring Sepetiba Bay is valid for a specific set of elements, such as K, Ti, Mn, Zn, Ga, Rb and Sr, but not for V, Cr and Cd. Applying to the mean elemental concentration, of the upper contaminated 45 cm sediment layer, and to the elemental concentration of the deepest analysed sediment layer a normalization to iron, a double ratio was calculated and it was concluded that the Sepetiba Bay sediments are, particularly, contaminated with Cr, may be, from a leather tanning plant existing in this region and Cd and Zn from the former Inga Metais. The overall results can be used to confirm the reliability of the utilization of Ribeira bay as a reference database to the evaluation of metal pollution profile of Sepetiba bay, by an intercomparison methodology. (author)

  16. Infection of the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma Maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia Parkeri: First Report from the State of Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    0279276E-D761-4A27-BFF7-7329E05E0F66 Infection of the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum (Acari: Ixodidae), with Rickettsia parkeri: first report from...Spring, MD 20910-1230, U.S.A. Abstract The molecular detection of Rickettsia parkeri in a Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum, collected in Delaware...near Smyrna, Delaware. All specimens were tested for the presence of Rickettsia with a genus-specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain

  17. Lavaca Bay 1985-1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Samples were collected from October 15, 1985 through June 12, 1987 in emergent marsh and non-vegetated habitats throughout the Lavaca Bay system to characterize...

  18. FL BAY SPECTROUT-DIET

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile spotted seatrout and other sportfish are being monitored annually over a 6-mo period in Florida Bay to assess their abundance over time relative to...

  19. Estimation of potential runoff-contributing areas in the Kansas-Lower Republican River Basin, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    1999-01-01

    Digital soils and topographic data were used to estimate and compare potential runoff-contributing areas for 19 selected subbasins representing soil, slope, and runoff variability within the Kansas-Lower Republican (KLR) River Basin. Potential runoff-contributing areas were estimated separately and collectively for the processes of infiltration-excess and saturation-excess overland flow using a set of environmental conditions that represented high, moderate, and low potential runoff. For infiltration-excess overland flow, various rainfall intensities and soil permeabilities were used. For saturation-excess overland flow, antecedent soil-moisture conditions and a topographic wetness index were used. Results indicated that the subbasins with relatively high potential runoff are located in the central part of the KLR River Basin. These subbasins are Black Vermillion River, Clarks Creek, Delaware River upstream from Muscotah, Grasshopper Creek, Mill Creek (Wabaunsee County), Soldier Creek, Vermillion Creek (Pottawatomie County), and Wildcat Creek. The subbasins with relatively low potential runoff are located in the western one-third of the KLR River Basin, with one exception, and are Buffalo Creek, Little Blue River upstream from Barnes, Mill Creek (Washington County), Republican River between Concordia and Clay Center, Republican River upstream from Concordia, Wakarusa River downstream from Clinton Lake (exception), and White Rock Creek. The ability to distinguish the subbasins as having relatively high or low potential runoff was possible mostly due to the variability of soil permeability across the KLR River Basin.

  20. Flood of May 23, 2004, in the Turkey and Maquoketa River basins, northeast Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eash, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred on May 23, 2004, in the Turkey River Basin in Clayton County and in the Maquoketa River Basin in Delaware County following intense thunderstorms over northeast Iowa. Rain gages at Postville and Waucoma, Iowa, recorded 72-hour rainfall of 6.32 and 6.55 inches, respectively, on May 23. Unofficial rainfall totals of 8 to 10 inches were reported in the Turkey River Basin. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Turkey River at Garber streamflow-gaging station was 66,700 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval greater than 500 years) and is the largest flood on record in the Turkey River Basin. The timing of flood crests on the Turkey and Volga Rivers, and local tributaries, coincided to produce a record flood on the lower part of the Turkey River. Three large floods have occurred at the Turkey River at Garber gaging station in a 13-year period. Peak discharges of the floods of June 1991 and May 1999 were 49,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 150 years) and 53,900 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 220 years), respectively. The peak discharge on May 23 at the Maquoketa River at Manchester gaging station was 26,000 cubic feet per second (recurrence interval about 100 years) and is the largest known flood in the upper part of the Maquoketa River Basin.

  1. Recent results from Daya Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chua Ming-chung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing powerful nuclear reactors as antineutrino sources, high mountains to provide ample shielding from cosmic rays in the vicinity, and functionally identical detectors with large target volume for near-far relative measurement, the Daya Bay Reactor Neutrino Experiment has achieved unprecedented precision in measuring the neutrino mixing angle θ13 and the neutrino mass squared difference |Δm2ee|. I will report the latest Daya Bay results on neutrino oscillations and light sterile neutrino search.

  2. Solar energy system demonstration project at Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    A solar energy system located at the Wilmington Swim School, New Castle, Delaware is described. The system was designed for a 40 percent heating and a 30 percent hot water solar contribution serving the heat loads in the following order: space heat - new addition, domestic water - entire facility, and pool heating - entire facility. On a cost basis for 2920 hours of operation, the heat reclaimed would cost $969.66 annually if provided by gas at 3.79 per million Btu's. At 5.5 centers per kwh, heat recovery costs of $481.80 percent a net savings of $487.86 annually.

  3. Distribution characteristics of volatile methylsiloxanes in Tokyo Bay watershed in Japan: Analysis of surface waters by purge and trap method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yuichi; Minomo, Kotaro; Ohtsuka, Nobutoshi; Motegi, Mamoru; Nojiri, Kiyoshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2017-05-15

    Surface waters including river water and effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) were collected from Tokyo Bay watershed, Japan, and analyzed for seven cyclic and linear volatile methylsiloxanes (VMSs), i.e., D3, D4, D5, D6, L3, L4, and L5 by an optimized purge and trap extraction method. The total concentrations of seven VMSs (ΣVMS) in river water ranged from watershed was estimated at 2300kg. Our results indicate widespread distribution of VMSs in Tokyo Bay watershed and the influence of domestic wastewater discharges as a source of VMSs in the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Predominant Nearshore Sediment Dispersal Patterns in Manila Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Siringan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in sediment cores from San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, M.I.; De Leon, R. P.; VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment cores of known chronology from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay, CA, were analyzed for a suite of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls to reconstruct a historic record of inputs. Total DDTs (DDT = 2,4'- and 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the metabolites, 2,4'- and 4,4'-DDE, -DDD) range in concentration from 4-21 ng/g and constitute a major fraction (> 84%) of the total pesticides in the top 70 cm of Richardson Bay sediment. A subsurface maximum corresponds to a peak deposition date of 1969-1974. The first measurable DDT levels are found in sediment deposited in the late 1930's. The higher DDT inventory in the San Pablo relative to the Richardson Bay core probably reflects the greater proximity of San Pablo Bay to agricultural activities in the watershed of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occur at comparable levels in the two Bays (inventories in San Pablo Bay are about a factor of four higher in the last four decades than in Richardson Bay, suggesting a distribution of inputs not as strongly weighed towards the upper reaches of the estuary as DDTs. The shallower subsurface maximum in PCBs compared to DDT in the San Pablo Bay core is consistent with the imposition of drastic source control measures four these constituents in 1970 and 1977 respectively. The observed decline in DDT and PCB levels towards the surface of both cores is consistent with a dramatic drop in the input of these pollutants once the effect of sediment resuspension and mixing is taken into account.

  6. Contribution of chronic petroleum inputs to Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Vleet, E S; Quin, J G

    1978-05-01

    Sediment cores from Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound have been analyzed for petroleum hydrocarbons and compared with a relatively unpolluted sediment core from the Gulf of Maine. The sediments were analyzed for unbound hydrocarbons, hydrocarbons bound or closely associated with humic substances, and residual hydrocarbons bound or closely associated with the clay mineral or kerogen matrix. Results indicated that in general 90-100% of the hydrocarbons were in the unbound form and could be easily extracted with organic solvents. The petroleum hydrocarbons decreased with depth at all stations. Biogenic hydrocarbons (nC/sub 25/, nC/sub 27/, nC/sub 29/, and nC/sub 31/) made up an increasingly greater percentage of the total with increasing depth. The hydrocarbons in the Narragansett Bay sediments and near surface Rhode Island Sound sediments strongly resembled the hydrocarbons previously reported for the Providence River and upper Narragansett Bay. These petroleum-like hydrocarbons were shown to be largely introduced to the river and bay through chronic inputs from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. These hydrocarbons then undergo sedimentation throughout the entire bay and into Rhode Island Sound. Preliminary calculations indicate that over 0.2 million t (tonne) of petroleum hydrocarbons may be transported to the marine environment annually from municipal treatment plants. Most of these hydrocarbons appear to accumulate in estuarine and coastal sediments.

  7. Mercury-contaminated hydraulic mining debris in San Francisco Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouse, Robin M.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Smith, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The hydraulic gold-mining process used during the California Gold Rush and in many developing countries today contributes enormous amounts of sediment to rivers and streams. Commonly, accompanying this sediment are contaminants such as elemental mercury and cyanide used in the gold extraction process. We show that some of the mercurycontaminated sediment created by hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, between 1852 and 1884, ended up over 250 kilometers (km) away in San Francisco Bay; an example of the far-reaching extent of contamination from such activities.

  8. Relative contributions of external forcing factors to circulation and hydrographic properties in a micro-tidal bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokjin; Kasai, Akihide

    2017-11-01

    The dominant external forcing factors influencing estuarine circulation differ among coastal environments. A three-dimensional regional circulation model was developed to estimate external influence indices and relative contributions of external forcing factors such as external oceanic forcing, surface heat flux, wind stress, and river discharge to circulation and hydrographic properties in Tango Bay, Japan. Model results show that in Tango Bay, where the Tsushima Warm Current passes offshore of the bay, under conditions of strong seasonal winds and river discharge, the water temperature and salinity are strongly influenced by surface heat flux and river discharge in the surface layer, respectively, while in the middle and bottom layers both are mainly controlled by open boundary conditions. The estuarine circulation is comparably influenced by all external forcing factors, the strong current, surface heat flux, wind stress, and river discharge. However, the influence degree of each forcing factor varies with temporal variations in external forcing factors as: the influence of open boundary conditions is higher in spring and early summer when the stronger current passes offshore of the bay, that of surface heat flux reflects the absolute value of surface heat flux, that of wind stress is higher in late fall and winter due to strong seasonal winds, and that of river discharge is higher in early spring due to snow-melting and summer and early fall due to flood events.

  9. Development of a Hydrodynamic and Transport model of Bellingham Bay in Support of Nearshore Habitat Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang

    2010-04-22

    In this study, a hydrodynamic model based on the unstructured-grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) was developed for Bellingham Bay, Washington. The model simulates water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity in a three-dimensional domain that covers the entire Bellingham Bay and adjacent water bodies, including Lummi Bay, Samish Bay, Padilla Bay, and Rosario Strait. The model was developed using Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s high-resolution Puget Sound and Northwest Straits circulation and transport model. A sub-model grid for Bellingham Bay and adjacent coastal waters was extracted from the Puget Sound model and refined in Bellingham Bay using bathymetric light detection and ranging (LIDAR) and river channel cross-section data. The model uses tides, river inflows, and meteorological inputs to predict water surface elevations, currents, salinity, and temperature. A tidal open boundary condition was specified using standard National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) predictions. Temperature and salinity open boundary conditions were specified based on observed data. Meteorological forcing (wind, solar radiation, and net surface heat flux) was obtained from NOAA real observations and National Center for Environmental Prediction North American Regional Analysis outputs. The model was run in parallel with 48 cores using a time step of 2.5 seconds. It took 18 hours of cpu time to complete 26 days of simulation. The model was calibrated with oceanographic field data for the period of 6/1/2009 to 6/26/2009. These data were collected specifically for the purpose of model development and calibration. They include time series of water-surface elevation, currents, temperature, and salinity as well as temperature and salinity profiles during instrument deployment and retrieval. Comparisons between model predictions and field observations show an overall reasonable agreement in both temporal and spatial scales. Comparisons of

  10. Epidemiologic, Racial and Healthographic Mapping of Delaware Pediatric Cancer: 2004–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Holmes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer remains the leading cause of disease-related death among children 0 to 14 years and incidence varies by race, ethnicity, sex, geographic locale, and age at onset. However, data are unavailable in some regions, indicative of a need for such information for cancer awareness, education and prevention program. We utilized retrospective epidemiologic design to assess and characterize pediatric tumors in the Nemours Electronic Medical Records, between 2004 and 2014. Tumor frequency and children population size were used to determine the period prevalence as cumulative incidence (CI proportion, as well as chi-square and Poisson Regression. The CI for overall childhood cancer in Delaware was 234 per 100,000 children, and varied by race, black (273 per 100,000, white (189 per 100,000. Similarly, sex variability was observed in CI, boys (237 per 100,000 and girls (230 per 100,000. The most commonly diagnosed malignancies were acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, Central Nervous System (CNS/brain and renal cancer. The geographic locales with relatively higher cancer CI in the state of DE were zip codes 19804 and 19960, but this does not imply cancer clustering. Differences in overall childhood cancer distribution occurred by race, sex, geography, and age. These findings are indicative of the need for cancer-specific health education, awareness and prevention programs in reducing the observed disparities in Delaware.

  11. The Importance of Inclusion for Cardiovascular Health Promotion Programs in Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Mia A; Stolz, Nicole; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Sparling, Eileen; Freedman, Brian

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with disabilities experience greater rates of cardiovascular disease than individuals without disabilities. This increase can be attributed to decreased levels of physical activity, poor eating habits, and increased levels of diabetes, smoking, and obesity. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from surveillance, treatment, and prevention efforts. Consequently, there is little known about their participation rates in health promotion and disease prevention programs. The aims of this investigation are (1) to examine time trends in cardiovascular disease and risk factors over a 10-year period by disability status and (2) to assess the inclusiveness of health promotion programs in Delaware. The percentage of individuals with disabilities increased from 18% in 2001 to 28% in 2011. Individuals with disabilities had higher rates of cardiovascular disease (t = 80.45; degrees of freedom [df] = 198; p 30 kg/m2) than individuals without disabilities (t = 33.0; df = 198; p promotion programs. Making adaptations within cardiovascular disease prevention programs in Delaware is imperative to improving the health of individuals with disabilities. Ensuring cardiovascular disease programs are accessible and provide disability-specific trained staff will reduce barriers to participation so that all individuals can benefit.

  12. Advanced reservoir characterization for improved oil recovery in a New Mexico Delaware basin project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.D.; Kendall, R.P.; Whitney, E.M. [Dave Martin and Associates, Inc., Socorro, NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The Nash Draw Brushy Canyon Pool in Eddy County, New Mexico is a field demonstration site in the Department of Energy Class III program. The basic problem at the Nash Draw Pool is the low recovery typically observed in similar Delaware fields. By comparing a control area using standard infill drilling techniques to a pilot area developed using advanced reservoir characterization methods, the goal of the project is to demonstrate that advanced technology can significantly improve oil recovery. During the first year of the project, four new producing wells were drilled, serving as data acquisition wells. Vertical seismic profiles and a 3-D seismic survey were acquired to assist in interwell correlations and facies prediction. Limited surface access at the Nash Draw Pool, caused by proximity of underground potash mining and surface playa lakes, limits development with conventional drilling. Combinations of vertical and horizontal wells combined with selective completions are being evaluated to optimize production performance. Based on the production response of similar Delaware fields, pressure maintenance is a likely requirement at the Nash Draw Pool. A detailed reservoir model of pilot area was developed, and enhanced recovery options, including waterflooding, lean gas, and carbon dioxide injection, are being evaluated.

  13. Carbon Monoxide Photoproduction from Particles and Solutes in the Delaware Estuary under Contrasting Hydrological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guisheng; Richardson, John D; Werner, James P; Xie, Huixiang; Kieber, David J

    2015-12-15

    Full-spectrum, ultraviolet (UV), and visible broadband apparent quantum yields (AQYs) for carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) were determined in the Delaware Estuary in two hydrologically contrasting seasons in 2012: an unusually low flow in August and a storm-driven high flow in November. Average AQYs for CDOM and POM in November were 10 and 16 times the corresponding AQYs in August. Maximum AQYs in November occurred in a midestuary particle absorption maximum zone. Although POM AQYs were generally smaller than CDOM AQYs, the ratio of the former to the latter increased substantially from the UV to the visible. In both seasons, UV solar radiation was the primary driver for CO photoproduction from CDOM whereas visible light was the principal contributor to POM-based CO photoproduction. CDOM dominated CO photoproduction in the uppermost water layer while POM prevailed at deeper depths. On a depth-integrated basis, the Delaware Estuary shifted from a CDOM-dominated system in August to a POM-dominated system in November with respect to CO photoproduction. This study reveals that flood events may enhance photochemical cycling of terrigenous organic matter and switch the primary photochemical driver from CDOM to POM.

  14. Isotope shifts in the late Permian of the Delaware Basin, Texas, precisely timed by varved sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magaritz, M.; Oregon Univ., Eugene; Anderson, R.Y.; Holser, W.T.; Saltzmann, E.S.; Garber, J.

    1983-01-01

    Closely spaced samples (285 in number) of varved sediments from the Upper Permian in Delaware Basin, Texas, have been analyzed for delta 13 Csub(carb), delta 13 Csub(org), delta 18 Osub(carb), Csub(org), Csub(carb) and calcite/dolomite. delta 13 C records a dramatic rise from -2.8 to + 5.7per mille in only 4400 years, detected in three sections across the basin, extrapolating smoothly through a 600-year interruption by a local (west side of the basin) fresh-water inflow evidenced by low delta 18 O. This continuity and low Csub(org) within the basin, both indicate that the excess net deposition of Csub(org), necessary to generate the rise in delta 13 C, took place in the ocean external to the Delaware Basin, Correlation with similar records from the Zechstein Basin suggest that the event was world-wide, although this poses obvious difficulties for the carbon cycle. The rate of rise of delta 13 C, and its sustained high level, must imply conversions of oxidized carbon to reduced carbon that are very large depending on which reservoirs were involved. (orig.)

  15. Deep-seated salt dissolution in the Delaware basin, Texas and New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Patterns of salt dissolution in the Delaware Basin are related to the bedrock geometry and hydrology that developed following uplift, tilting, and erosion in the late Cenozoic, and the greatest volume of salt has been removed since that time. During the Permian, some salt was dissolved from the top of the Castile Formation before deposition of the Salado Formation and from the top of the Salado before deposition of the Rustler Formation. In addition, some salt dissolution occurred after the Permian and before the Cretaceous. Post-uplift surface dissolution has progressed across the Delaware Basin from south to north and west to east and generally down the regional dip. Deep-seated dissolution has occurred around the margin of the basin where the Capitan Limestone aquifer is in contact with the Permian evaporites and within the basin where selective dissolution in the lower Salado has undercut the overlying salt beds of the middle and upper Salado. Dissolution has not advanced down regional dip uniformly but has left outliers of salt and has progressed selectively into structurally predisposed areas. This selective advance has significance for the stability of the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site

  16. Hydrology and morphology of two river mouth regions (temperate Vistula Delta and subtropical Red River Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pruszak

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparative analysis of two different river mouths from two different geographical zones (subtropical and temperate climatic regions. One is the multi-branch and multi-spit mouth of the Red River on the Gulf of Tonkin (Vietnam, the other is the smaller delta of the river Vistula on a bay of the Baltic Sea (Poland. The analysis focuses on the similarities and differences in the hydrodynamics between these estuaries and the adjacent coastal zones, the features of sediment transport, and the long-term morphodynamics of the river outlets. Salinity and water level are also discussed, the latter also in the context of the anticipated global effect of accelerated sea level rise. The analysis shows that the climatic and environmental conditions associated with geographical zones give rise to fundamental differences in the generation and dynamic evolution of the river mouths.

  17. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for

  18. Herbicide contamination and the potential impact to seagrass meadows in Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; Bengtson Nash, Susan; Eaglesham, Geoff; Müller, Jochen F; Duke, Norman C; Winderlich, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Low concentrations of herbicides (up to 70 ng l(-1)), chiefly diuron (up to 50 ng l(-1)) were detected in surface waters associated with inter-tidal seagrass meadows of Zostera muelleri in Hervey Bay, south-east Queensland, Australia. Diuron and atrazine (up to 1.1 ng g(-1) dry weight of sediment) were detected in the sediments of these seagrass meadows. Concentration of the herbicides diuron, simazine and atrazine increased in surface waters associated with seagrass meadows during moderate river flow events indicating herbicides were washed from the catchment to the marine environment. Maximum herbicide concentration (sum of eight herbicides) in the Mary River during a moderate river flow event was 4260 ng l(-1). No photosynthetic stress was detected in seagrass in this study during low river flow. However, with moderate river flow events, nearshore seagrasses are at risk of being exposed to concentrations of herbicides that are known to inhibit photosynthesis.

  19. Oceanographic data collected from Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3) by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2000-07-02 to 2016-11-09 (NCEI Accession 0161822)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0161822 contains navigational and physical data collected at Cathlamet Bay North Channel (USCG day mark green 3), a fixed station in the Columbia...

  20. Geomorphic change in Dingzi Bay, East China since the 1950s: impacts of human activity and fluvial input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qing; Wang, Qing; Liu, Yalong

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the geomorphic evolution of Dingzi Bay, East China in response to human activity and variations in fluvial input since the 1950s. The analysis is based on data from multiple mathematical methods, along with information obtained from Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System and Global Position System technology. The results show that the annual runoff and sediment load discharged into Dingzi Bay display significant decreasing trends overall, and marked downward steps were observed in 1966 and 1980. Around 60%-80% of the decline is attributed to decreasing precipitation in the Wulong River Basin. The landform types in Dingzi Bay have changed significantly since the 1950s, especially over the period between 1981 and 1995. Large areas of tidal flats, swamp, salt fields, and paddy fields have been reclaimed, and aquaculture ponds have been constructed. Consequently, the patterns of erosion and deposition in the bay have changed substantially. Despite a reduction in sediment input of 65.68% after 1966, low rates of sediment deposition continued in the bay. However, deposition rates changed significantly after 1981 owing to large-scale development in the bay, with a net depositional area approximately 10 times larger than that during 1961-1981. This geomorphic evolution stabilized following the termination of large-scale human activity in the bay after 1995. Overall, Dingzi Bay has shown a tendency towards silting-up during 1952-2010, with the bay head migrating seaward, the number of channels in the tidal creek system decreasing, and the tidal inlet becoming narrower and shorter. In conclusion, largescale development and human activity in Dingzi Bay have controlled the geomorphic evolution of the bay since the 1950s.

  1. Improved Storm Monitoring and Prediction for the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifelli, R.; Chandrasekar, V.; Anderson, M.; Davis, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Advanced Quantitative Precipitation Information (AQPI) System is a multi-faceted project to improve precipitation and hydrologic monitoring, prediction, and decision support for the San Francisco Bay Area. The Bay Area faces a multitude of threats from extreme events, including disrupted transportation from flooded roads and railroad lines, water management challenges related to storm water, river and reservoir management and storm-related damage demanding emergency response. The threats occur on spatial scales ranging from local communities to the entire region and time scales ranging from hours to days. These challenges will be exacerbated by future sea level rise, more extreme weather events and increased vulnerabilities. AQPI is a collaboration of federal, state and local governments with assistance from the research community. Led by NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, in partnership with the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, USGS, and Scripps, AQPI is a four-year effort funded in part by a grant from the California Department of Water Resource's Integrated Regional Water Management Program. The Sonoma County Water Agency is serving as the local sponsor of the project. Other local participants include the Santa Clara Valley Water District, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission, and the Bay Area Flood Protection Agencies Association. AQPI will provide both improved observing capabilities and a suite of numerical forecast models to produce accurate and timely information for benefit of flood management, emergency response, water quality, ecosystem services, water supply and transportation management for the Bay Area. The resulting information will support decision making to mitigate flood risks, secure water supplies, minimize water quality impacts to the Bay from combined sewer overflows, and have improved lead-time on coastal and Bay inundation from extreme storms like Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The project is expected to

  2. Integrating Engineering into Delaware's K-5 Classrooms: A Study of Pedagogical and Curricular Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusenmeyer, Linda Huey

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the personal and curricular resources available to Delaware's elementary teachers during a time of innovative curriculum change, i.e., their knowledge, goals and beliefs regarding elementary engineering curriculum and the pedagogical support to teach two Science and Engineering Practices provided by science teaching materials.…

  3. The Development of a Competency Based Food Preparations Curriculum for High School Special Needs Students in New Castle County, Delaware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Richard Lee

    A competency-based culinary arts food preparation curriculum for Delaware high school students with special needs was developed during a project that included the following activities: review of the state's existing culinary arts curriculum for regular education students; incumbent worker survey administered to 24 restaurant…

  4. Development and implications of a sediment budget for the upper Elk River watershed, Humboldt County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee H. MacDonald; Michael W. Miles; Shane Beach; Nicolas M. Harrison; Matthew R. House; Patrick Belmont; Ken L. Ferrier

    2017-01-01

    A number of watersheds on the North Coast of California have been designated as sediment impaired under the Clean Water Act, including the 112 km2 upper Elk River watershed that flows into Humboldt Bay just south of Eureka. The objectives of this paper are to: 1) briefly explain the geomorphic context and anthropogenic uses of the Elk River...

  5. Monitoring winter flow conditions on the Ivishak River, Alaska : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The Sagavanirktok River, a braided river on the Alaska North Slope, flows adjacent to the trans-Alaska pipeline for approximately 100 miles south of Prudhoe Bay. During an unprecedented flooding event in mid-May 2015, the pipeline was exposed in an a...

  6. Application of Advanced Reservoir Characterization, Simulation, and Production Optimization Strategies to Maximize Recovery in Slope and Basin Clastic Reservoirs, West Texas (Delaware Basin), Class III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Shirley P.; Flanders, William A.

    2001-11-04

    The objective of this Class III project was demonstrate that reservoir characterization and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by CO2 flood can increase production from slope and basin clastic reservoirs in sandstones of the Delaware Mountain Group in the Delaware Basin of West Texas and New Mexico. Phase 1 of the project, reservoir characterization, focused on Geraldine Ford and East Ford fields, which are Delaware Mountain Group fields that produce from the upper Bell Canyon Formation (Ramsey sandstone). The demonstration phase of the project was a CO2 flood conducted in East Ford field, which is operated by Orla Petco, Inc., as the East Ford unit.

  7. Organochlorine residues in sediments from selected tributaries to Manila Bay, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajet, C.M.; Varca, L.M.; Navarro, M.P.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment borne pesticides are the major route of transport of pesticides in the marine environment and benthic dwellers, filter feeders and the flora/fauna closely associated with the sediments could greatly be affected. This paper focuses on the monitoring of organochlorine pesticides in sediments collected from the mouth of rivers draining to Manila Bay and relate to the contribution of inland activities to the overall pollution of the Bay. Sediments from 14-25 tributaries were collected in 1996 to 1998 and analyzed for the presence of HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, lindane, DDT, DDE, DDD, endosulfan I, endosulfan II and endosulfan sulfate using GLC-ECD

  8. The geochemistry of coprostanol in waters and surface sediments from Narragansett Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Lawrence A.; Latimer, James S.; Ellis, John T.; Quinn, James G.

    1992-05-01

    A geochemical study of coprostanol (5β-Cholestan-3β-ol) was undertaken, to examine the transport and fate of a compound of moderate polarity and reactivity in the marine environment, and also because of the interest in coprostanol for use as a sewage tracer. During 1985-86, 20 sites in Narragansett Bay, including the major point sources and rivers discharging into the bay estuary, were sampled at four different times. In addition, surface sediments from 26 stations in the bay were collected. The large number and diversity of samples allowed for an assessment of major inputs of sewage into the bay as well as the recent fate of sewage-derived particles in surface sediments. Results from the study revealed that 50% of the total particulate coprostanol entering the bay was discharged into the Providence River, primarily due to inputs from the wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) at Fields Point, as well as input from the Pawtuxet and Blackstone Rivers. In the lower bay, the Newport WWTF was the largest single source of coprostanol (37% of the total particulate coprostanol) to the bay. Effluent concentrations of coprostanol from secondary WWTFs were consistently lower than those of primary treatment facilities, demonstrating the usefulness of corporstanol as an indicator of treatment plant efficiency. The distribution of coprostanol in waters and surface sediments showed a gradient of decreasing concentration downbay. When coprostanol concentrations in surface sediments were normalized to organic carbon (OC) concentrations, elevated levels were seen only in the Providence River, with a more or less even distribution throughout the rest of the bay. Results also suggest that coprostanol degrades more rapidly in the water column compared to the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), however, it is relatively stable once it is buried in the sediments. Coprostanol concentrations in waters (0·02-0·22

  9. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Tom

    2002-01-01

    As of the time of this writing, the San Francisco Bay region is home to about 6.8 million people, ranking fifth among population centers in the United States. Most of these people live on the coastal lands along San Francisco Bay, the Sacramento River delta, and the Pacific coast. The region straddles the tectonic boundary between the Pacific and North American Plates and is crossed by several strands of the San Andreas Fault system. These faults, which are stressed by about 4 cm of relative plate motion each year, pose an obvious seismic hazard.

  10. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brant, H.A.; Jagoe, C.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Bryan, A.L.; Gariboldi, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Fish mercury levels from some Carolina bays pose risk to wood stork. - Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchus pomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands

  11. Community-based observations on sustainable development in southern Hudson Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arragutainaq, L.; Fleming, B.

    1991-01-01

    Inuit residents of the Belcher Islands in Hudson Bay practice sustainable development over a wide region, and are heavily dependent on fish and wildlife for food. Large-scale hydroelectric developments on rivers emptying into Hudson Bay and James Bay threaten both the environment and the traditional economy and culture of those residents. The main focus of concern is the James Bay hydroelectric project, part 1 of which (La Grande) is now operational. In addition, hydroelectric projects in Manitoba and Ontario may also affect the region. The residents feel that the subdivision of each project into components, each subject to a separate environmental review and assessment, works in favor of the project proponents and does not address the issues of interest to those affected by the project. Neither does such a review process address questions related to the cumulative development of many projects over a long term. The Belcher Islands are remote from the territorial and national governments, neither of which seem to be giving the James Bay developments as much attention as seems necessary. The island community has identified its primary ecological concerns on part 2 of the James Bay project and presented them at a public hearing. These concerns include the long-term impacts of the project on the marine environment and the kinds of compensation, if any, for such impacts. 7 refs., 2 figs

  12. Hydrological and geochemical consequences of river regulation - hyporheic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siergieiev, Dmytro; Lundberg, Angela; Widerlund, Anders

    2014-05-01

    River-aquifer interfaces, essential for ecosystem functioning in terms of nutrient exchange and biological habitat, appear greatly threatened worldwide. Although river regulation is a vast pressure on river-aquifer interaction, influencing entire watersheds, knowledge about hyporheic exchange in regulated rivers is rather limited. In this study, we combine two decades of research on hydrological and geochemical impacts of hydropower regulation on river water and hyporheic zone in two large boreal rivers, unregulated Kalix River and regulated Lule River. Altered river discharge, with reduced spring peaks, daily summer fluctuations and elevated winter base flow severely modified Lule River water geochemistry and thus the transport of solutes to the Bothnian Bay (Baltic Sea). Further, these river modifications changed the river-aquifer exchange on both daily and seasonal scale, which resulted in deteriorated hyporheic conditions with reduced riverbed hydraulic conductivity (formation of a clogging layer) reflected in a declined hyporheic flux. Altered hydrological regime of the hyporheic zone created quasi-stagnant conditions beneath the river-aquifer interface and promoted the formation of geochemically suboxic environment. Taken that hyporheic water is a mixture of river water and groundwater, mixing models for the regulated site demonstrate a considerable addition of Fe, Mn, Al, NH4 and removal of dissolved oxygen and nitrate, which suggests the hyporheic zone in the Lule River to be a source of solutes. This contradicts the observations from the hyporheic zone in the unregulated river, with opposite behaviour functioning as a barrier. These results suggest that the hyporheic zone function is dependent on the river discharge and the state of the river-aquifer connectivity. Improved knowledge about the latter on a watershed scale will substantially increase our understanding about the status and potential pressures of riverine ecosystems and assist management and

  13. 77 FR 2972 - Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Thunder Bay Power Company, Thunder Bay Power, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application for Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene Thunder Bay Power Company Project No. 2404-095 Thunder Bay Power, LLC Midwest Hydro, Inc...

  14. 33 CFR 162.125 - Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Wisc. 162.125 Section 162.125 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.125 Sturgeon Bay and the Sturgeon Bay Ship...

  15. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  16. Humboldt Bay Benthic Habitats 2009 Aquatic Setting

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  17. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  18. South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about the SFBWQP South Bay Salt Pond Mercury Studies Project, part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  19. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...

  20. Humboldt Bay, California Benthic Habitats 2009 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Humboldt Bay is the largest estuary in California north of San Francisco Bay and represents a significant resource for the north coast region. Beginning in 2007 the...