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Sample records for river basin china

  1. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

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    Boekhorst, D.G.J. te; Smits, A.J.M.; Yu, X.; Lifeng, L.; Lei, G.; Zhang, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are

  2. Implementing Integrated River Basin Management in China

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    Dorri G. J. te Boekhorst

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of the World Wildlife Fund for Nature China as policy entrepreneur in China. It illustrates the ways in which the World Wildlife Fund for Nature is active in promoting integrated river basin management in the Yangtze River basin and how the efforts at basin level are matched with the advice of the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development task force on integrated river basin management to the national government of China. This article demonstrates that the World Wildlife Fund for Nature uses various strategies of different types to support a transition process towards integrated river basin management. Successful deployment of these strategies for change in environmental policy requires special skills, actions, and attitudes on the part of the policy entrepreneur, especially in China, where the government has a dominant role regarding water management and the position of policy entrepeneurs is delicate.

  3. [Health assessment of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin, China].

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    Hao, Li-Xia; Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding

    2014-10-01

    With the development of economy, the health of river ecosystem is severely threatened because of the increasing effects of human activities on river ecosystem. In this paper, the authors assessed the river ecosystem health in aspects of chemical integrity and biological integrity, using the criterion in water quality, nutrient, and benthic macroinvertebrates of 73 samples in Haihe River Basin. The research showed that the health condition of river ecosystem in Haihe River Basin was bad overall since the health situation of 72. 6% of the samples was "extremely bad". At the same time, the health situation in Haihe River Basin exhibited obvious regional gathering effect. We also found that the river water quality was closely related to human activities, and the eutrophication trend of water body was evident in Haihe River Basin. The biodiversity of the benthic animal was low and lack of clean species in the basin. The indicators such as ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were the key factors that affected the river ecosystem health in Haihe River Basin, so the government should start to curb the deterioration of river ecosystem health by controlling these nutrients indicators. For river ecosystem health assessment, the multi-factors comprehensive evaluation method was superior to single-factor method.

  4. Spatial Preference Heterogeneity for Integrated River Basin Management: The Case of the Shiyang River Basin, China

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    Fanus Asefaw Aregay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated river basin management (IRBM programs have been launched in most parts of China to ease escalating environmental degradation. Meanwhile, little is known about the benefits from and the support for these programs. This paper presents a case study of the preference heterogeneity for IRBM in the Shiyang River Basin, China, as measured by the Willingness to Pay (WTP, for a set of major restoration attributes. A discrete choice analysis of relevant restoration attributes was conducted. The results based on a sample of 1012 households in the whole basin show that, on average, there is significant support for integrated ecological restoration as indicated by significant WTP for all ecological attributes. However, residential location induced preference heterogeneities are prevalent. Generally, compared to upper-basin residents, middle sub-basin residents have lower mean WTP while lower sub-basin residents express higher mean WTP. The disparity in utility is partially explained by the difference in ecological and socio-economic status of the residents. In conclusion, estimating welfare benefit of IRBM projects based on sample responses from a specific sub-section of the basin only may either understate or overstate the welfare estimate.

  5. Simulating Water Resource Disputes of Transboundary River: A Case Study of the Zhanghe River Basin, China

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    Yuan, Liang; He, Weijun; Liao, Zaiyi; Mulugeta Degefu, Dagmawi; An, Min; Zhang, Zhaofang

    2018-01-01

    Water resource disputes within transboundary river basin has been hindering the sustainable use of water resources and efficient management of environment. The problem is characterized by a complex information feedback loop that involves socio-economic and environmental systems. This paper presents a system dynamics based model that can simulate the dynamics of water demand, water supply, water adequacy and water allocation instability within a river basin. It was used for a case study in the Zhanghe River basin of China. The base scenario has been investigated for the time period between 2000 and 2050. The result shows that the Chinese national government should change the water allocation scheme of downstream Zhanghe River established in 1989, more water need to be allocated to the downstream cities and the actual allocation should be adjusted to reflect the need associated with the socio-economic and environmental changes within the region, and system dynamics improves the understanding of concepts and system interactions by offering a comprehensive and integrated view of the physical, social, economic, environmental, and political systems.

  6. Assessment of River Habitat Quality in the Hai River Basin, Northern China

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    Yuekui Ding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We applied a river habitat quality (RHQ assessment method to the Hai River Basin (HRB; an important economic centre in China; to obtain baseline information for water quality improvement; river rehabilitation; and watershed management. The results of the assessment showed that the river habitat in the HRB is seriously degraded. Specifically; 42.41% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 3.31 × 104 km; were designated poor and bad. Habitat in the plain areas is seriously deteriorated; and nearly 50% of the sites; accounting for a river length of 1.65 × 104 km; had either poor or bad habitats. River habitat degradation was attributable to the limited width of the riparian zone (≤5 m; lower coverage of riparian vegetation (≤40%; artificial land use patterns (public and industrial land; frequent occurrence of farming on the river banks and high volumes of solid waste (nearly 10 m3; single flow channels; and rare aquatic plants (≤1 category. At the regional scale; intensive artificial land use types caused by urbanization had a significant impact on the RHQ in the HRB. RHQ was significantly and negatively correlated with farmland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01 and urban land (r = 0.998; p < 0.05; and was significantly and positively correlated with grassland and woodland (r = 1.000; p < 0.01. Intensive artificial land use; created through urbanization processes; has led to a loss of the riparian zone and its native vegetation; and has disrupted the lateral connectivity of the rivers. The degradation of the already essentially black rivers is exacerbated by poor longitudinal connectivity (index of connectivity is 2.08–16.56; caused by reservoirs and sluices. For river habitat rehabilitation to be successful; land use patterns need to be changed and reservoirs and sluices will have to be regulated.

  7. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

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    Jingjing, F.; Qiang, H.; Shen, C.; Aijun, G.

    2015-05-01

    Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  8. Detecting runoff variation in Weihe River basin, China

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    F. Jingjing

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dramatic changes in hydrological factors in the Weihe River basin are analysed. These changes have exacerbated ecological problems and caused severe water shortages for agriculture, industries and the human population in the region, but their drivers are uncertain. The Mann-Kendall test, accumulated departure analysis, sequential clustering and the sliding t-test methods were used to identify the causes of changes in precipitation and runoff in the Weihe basin. Change-points were identified in the precipitation and runoff records for all sub-catchments. For runoff, the change in trend was most pronounced during the 1990s, whereas changes in precipitation were more prominent earlier. The results indicate that human activities have had a greater impact than climate change on the hydrology of the Weihe basin. These findings have significant implications for the establishment of effective strategies to counter adverse effects of hydrological changes in the catchment.

  9. Investigating the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China

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    Wu, S.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Human's innovative abilities do not only enable rapid expansion of civilization, but also lead to enormous modifications on the natural environment. Technology, while a key factor embedded in socioeconomic developments, its impacts have been rarely appropriately considered in river basin management. This research aims to examine the evolutionary history of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe River Basin, China, and how its characteristics interacted with the river basin environment. It adopts a content analysis approach to collect and summarize quantitative technological information in the Heihe River Basin across a time span of more than 2000 years from the Han Dynasty (206 BC) to 2015. Two Chinese academic research databases: Wan Fang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were chosen as data sources. The results show that irrigated agricultural technologies in Heihe River Basin have shifted from focusing on developing new farming tools and cultivation methods to adapting modernized, water-saving irrigation methods and water diversion infrastructures. In additions, the center of irrigated agricultural technology in the Heihe river basin has moved from downstream to middle stream since the Ming Dynasty (1368AD) as a result of degraded natural environment. The developing trend of technology in the Heihe River Basin thus coincides with the change of societal focus from agricultural production efficiency to the human-water balance and environmental remediation. This research demonstrates that irrigated agricultural technologies had a twisted evolutionary history in the Heihe River Basin, influenced by a diverse range of environmental and socioeconomic factors. It provides insights into the fact that technology exhibits a co-evolutionary characteristic with the social development history in the region, pointing towards the urgent need to maintain the balance between human and environment.

  10. Evaluation of ecological instream flow considering hydrological alterations in the Yellow River basin, China

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    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Zongjiao; Shi, Peijun; Singh, Vijay P.; Gu, Xihui

    2018-01-01

    The Yellow River is the second largest river in China and is the important source for water supply in the northwestern and northern China. It is often regarded as the mother river of China. Owing to climatic change and intensifying human activities, such as increasing withdrawal of water for meeting growing agricultural irrigation needs since 1986, the flow of Yellow River has decreased, with serious impacts on the ecological environment. Using multiple hydrological indicators and Flow Duration Curve (DFC)-based ecodeficit and ecosurplus, this study investigates the impact of hydrological alterations, such as the impact of water reservoirs or dams, on downstream ecological instream flow. Results indicate that: (1) due to the impoundment and hydrological regulations of water reservoirs, occurrence rates and magnitudes of high flow regimes have decreased and the decrease is also found in the magnitudes of low flow events. These changes tend to be more evident from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin; (2) human activities tend to enhance the instream flow variability, particularly after the 1980s;(3) the ecological environment in different parts of the Yellow River basin is under different degrees of ecological risk. In general, lower to higher ecological risk can be detected due to hydrological alterations from the upper to the lower Yellow River basin. This shows that conservation of ecological environment and river health is facing a serious challenge in the lower Yellow River basin; (4) ecological instream flow indices, such as ecodeficit and ecosurplus, and IHA32 hydrological indicators are in strong relationships, suggesting that ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be regarded as appropriate ecological indicators for developing measures for mitigating the adverse impact of human activities on the conservation of ecological environment in the Yellow River basin.

  11. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

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    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-05-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  12. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

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    C. Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second largest inland river basin in the arid and semi-arid northwest of China where surface water and groundwater undergoes dynamic exchanges. The spatially continuous river-surface temperature of the midstream section of the Heihe River was obtained by using an airborne pushbroom hyperspectral thermal sensor system. By using the hot spot analysis toolkit in the ArcGIS software, abnormally cold water zones were identified as indicators of the spatial pattern of groundwater discharge to the river.

  13. Potential relationships between the river discharge and the precipitation in the Jinsha River basin, China

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    Wang, Gaoxu; Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; He, Qifang; Bai, Yiran; Zhang, Ruoyu

    2018-02-01

    The relationships between the river discharge and the precipitation in the Jinsha River basin are discussed in this study. In addition, the future precipitation trend from 2011-2050 and its potential influence on the river discharge are analysed by applying the CCLM-modelled precipitation. According to the observed river discharge and precipitation, the annual river discharge at the two main hydrological stations displays good correlations with the annual precipitation in the Jinsha River basin. The predicted future precipitation tends to change similarly as the change that occurred during the observation period, whereas the monthly distributions over a year could be more uneven, which is unfavourable for water resources management.

  14. River habitat assessment for ecological restoration of Wei River Basin, China.

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    Yang, Tao; Wang, Shuo; Li, Xiaoping; Wu, Ting; Li, Li; Chen, Jia

    2018-04-11

    As an important composition component of river ecosystems, river habitats must undergo quality assessment to potentially provide scientific basis for river ecological restoration. Substrate composition, habitat complexity, bank erosion degree, river meandering degree, human activity intensity, vegetation buffer width, water quality, and water condition were determined as indicators for river habitat assessment. The comprehensive habitat quality index (CHQI) was established for the Wei River Basin. In addition, the indicator values were determined on the basis of a field investigation at 12 national hydrological stations distributed across the Wei, Jing, and Beiluo Rivers. The analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the indicator weights and thus distinguish the relative importance of the assessment indicator system. Results indicated that the average CHQIs for the Wei, Jing, and Beiluo Rivers were 0.417, 0.508, and 0.304, respectively. The river habitat quality for the three rivers was well. As for the whole river basin, the river habitat quality for 25% of the cross section was very well, the other 25% was well, and the 50% remaining was in critical state. The river habitat quality of the Jing River was better than that of the Wei and Beiluo Rivers.

  15. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

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    Z. Xu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain, one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  16. Hydrological long-term dry and wet periods in the Xijiang River basin, South China

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    T. Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydrological long-term dry and wet periods are analyzed for the Xijiang River basin in South China. Daily precipitation data of 118 stations and data on daily discharge at Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of the Xijiang River for the period 1961–2007 are used. At a 24-month timescale, the standardized precipitation index (SPI-24 for the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River and the standardized discharge index (SDI-24 for Gaoyao station are applied. The monthly values of the SPI-24 averaged for the Xijiang River basin correlate highly with the monthly values of the SDI-24. Distinct long-term dry and wet sequences can be detected.

    The principal component analysis is applied and shows spatial disparities in dry and wet periods for the six sub-basins. The correlation between the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins and the first principal component score shows that 67% of the variability within the sub-basins can be explained by dry and wet periods in the east of the Xijiang River basin. The spatial dipole conditions (second and third principal component explain spatiotemporal disparities in the variability of dry and wet periods. All sub-basins contribute to hydrological dry periods, while mainly the northeastern sub-basins cause wet periods in the Xijiang River. We can also conclude that long-term dry events are larger in spatial extent and cover all sub-basins while long-term wet events are regional phenomena.

    A spectral analysis is applied for the SPI-24 and the SDI-24. The results show significant peaks in periodicities of 11–14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4–3.7 yr, and 6.3–7.3 yr. The same periodic cycles can be found in the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins but with some variability in the mean magnitude. A wavelet analysis shows that significant periodicities have been stable over time since the 1980s. Extrapolations of the reconstructed SPI-24 and SDI-24 represent the continuation of observed significant periodicities

  17. Systematic impact assessment on inter-basin water transfer projects of the Hanjiang River Basin in China

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    Zhou, Yanlai; Guo, Shenglian; Hong, Xingjun; Chang, Fi-John

    2017-10-01

    China's inter-basin water transfer projects have gained increasing attention in recent years. This study proposes an intelligent water allocation methodology for establishing optimal inter-basin water allocation schemes and assessing the impacts of water transfer projects on water-demanding sectors in the Hanjiang River Basin of China. We first analyze water demands for water allocation purpose, and then search optimal water allocation strategies for maximizing the water supply to water-demanding sectors and mitigating the negative impacts by using the Standard Genetic Algorithm (SGA) and Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA), respectively. Lastly, the performance indexes of the water supply system are evaluated under different scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects. The results indicate that: the AGA with adaptive crossover and mutation operators could increase the average annual water transfer from the Hanjiang River by 0.79 billion m3 (8.8%), the average annual water transfer from the Changjiang River by 0.18 billion m3 (6.5%), and the average annual hydropower generation by 0.49 billion kW h (5.4%) as well as reduce the average annual unmet water demand by 0.40 billion m3 (9.7%), as compared with the those of the SGA. We demonstrate that the proposed intelligent water allocation schemes can significantly mitigate the negative impacts of inter-basin water transfer projects on the reliability, vulnerability and resilience of water supply to the demanding sectors in water-supplying basins. This study has a direct bearing on more intelligent and effectual water allocation management under various scenarios of inter-basin water transfer projects.

  18. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

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    Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhao, Na; Sun, Huaiwei; Ye, Lei; Zhai, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.

  19. Changes and Relationships of Climatic and Hydrological Droughts in the Jialing River Basin, China.

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    Xiaofan Zeng

    Full Text Available The comprehensive assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts in terms of their temporal and spatial evolutions is very important for water resources management and social development in the basin scale. To study the spatial and temporal changes of climatic and hydrological droughts and the relationships between them, the SPEI and SDI are adopted to assess the changes and the correlations of climatic and hydrological droughts by selecting the Jialing River basin, China as the research area. The SPEI and SDI at different time scales are assessed both at the entire Jialing River basin and at the regional levels of the three sub basins. The results show that the SPEI and SDI are very suitable for assessing the changes and relationships of climatic and hydrological droughts in large basins. Based on the assessment, for the Jialing River basin, climatic and hydrological droughts have the increasing tendency during recent several decades, and the increasing trend of climatic droughts is significant or extremely significant in the western and northern basin, while hydrological drought has a less significant increasing trend. Additionally, climatic and hydrological droughts tend to increase in the next few years. The results also show that on short time scales, climatic droughts have one or two months lag impact on hydrological droughts in the north-west area of the basin, and have one month lag impact in south-east area of the basin. The assessment of climatic and hydrological droughts based on the SPEI and SDI could be very useful for water resources management and climate change adaptation at large basin scale.

  20. Spatio-temporal variation analysis of hydrochemical characteristics in the Luanhe River Basin, China.

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    Xie, Ying; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Huiliang; Li, Wenzan

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of river pollution and assessment of spatial and temporal variation in hydrochemistry are essential to river water pollution control in the context of rapid economic growth and growing pollution threats in China. In this study, we focused on hydrochemical characteristics of the Luanhe River Basin (China) and evaluation of 12 hydrochemical variables obtained from 32 monitoring stations during 2001-2010. In each study year, the streams were monitored in the three hydrological periods (April, August, and October) to observe differences in the impacts of agricultural activity and rainfall pattern. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to the data set, and the river water hydrochemical characteristics were assessed using the water quality identification index (WQIIM). The results showed that parameters had variable contribution to water quality status in different months except for ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), which were the most important parameters in contributing to water quality variations for all three periods. Results of WQIIM revealed that 18 sites were classified as 'meeting standard' while the other 14 sites were classified as 'not meeting standard', with most of the seriously polluted sites located in urban area, mainly due to discharge of wastewater from domestic and industrial sources. Sites with low pollution level were located primarily in smaller tributaries, whereas sites of medium and high pollution levels were in the main river channel and the larger tributaries. Our findings provide valuable information and guidance for water pollution control and water resource management in the Luanhe River Basin.

  1. Multi-tracer investigation of river and groundwater interactions: a case study in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China

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    Xu, Wei; Su, Xiaosi; Dai, Zhenxue; Yang, Fengtian; Zhu, Pucheng; Huang, Yong

    2017-11-01

    Environmental tracers (such as major ions, stable and radiogenic isotopes, and heat) monitored in natural waters provide valuable information for understanding the processes of river-groundwater interactions in arid areas. An integrated framework is presented for interpreting multi-tracer data (major ions, stable isotopes (2H, 18O), the radioactive isotope 222Rn, and heat) for delineating the river-groundwater interactions in Nalenggele River basin, northwest China. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were undertaken to estimate the bidirectional water exchange associated with small-scale interactions between groundwater and surface water. Along the river stretch, groundwater and river water exchange readily. From the high mountain zone to the alluvial fan, groundwater discharge to the river is detected by tracer methods and end-member mixing models, but the river has also been identified as a losing river using discharge measurements, i.e. discharge is bidirectional. On the delta-front of the alluvial fan and in the alluvial plain, in the downstream area, the characteristics of total dissolved solids values, 222Rn concentrations and δ18O values in the surface water, and patterns derived from a heat-tracing method, indicate that groundwater discharges into the river. With the environmental tracers, the processes of river-groundwater interaction have been identified in detail for better understanding of overall hydrogeological processes and of the impacts on water allocation policies.

  2. Modeled effects of irrigation on surface climate in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

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    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xiong, Zhe; Tang, Qiuhong

    2017-08-01

    In Northwest China, water originates from the mountain area and is largely used for irrigation agriculture in the middle reaches. This study investigates the local and remote impact of irrigation on regional climate in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. An irrigation scheme was developed and incorporated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with the Noah-MP land surface scheme (WRF/Noah-MP). The effects of irrigation is assessed by comparing the model simulations with and without consideration of irrigation (hereafter, IRRG and NATU simulations, respectively) for five growth seasons (May to September) from 2009 to 2013. As consequences of irrigation, daily mean temperature decreased by 1.7°C and humidity increased by 2.3 g kg-1 (corresponding to 38.5%) over irrigated area. The temperature and humidity of IRRG simulation matched well with the observations, whereas NATU simulation overestimated temperature and underestimated humidity over irrigated area. The effects on temperature and humidity are generally small outside the irrigated area. The cooling and wetting effects have opposing impacts on convective precipitation, resulting in a negligible change in localized precipitation over irrigated area. However, irrigation may induce water vapor convergence and enhance precipitation remotely in the southeastern portion of the Heihe River Basin.

  3. Stationarity of annual flood peaks during 1951-2010 in the Pearl River basin, China

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    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Xu, Chong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    The assumption of stationarity of annual peak flood (APF) records at 28 hydrological stations across the Pearl River basin, China, is tested. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are tested using the Pettitt technique and the Loess method. Trends of APFs are analyzed using the Mann-Kendall method and the Spearman technique. And then the stationarity of the APF series is further investigated by GAMLSS models and long-term persistence. Results indicate that: (1) abrupt changes in mean and variance have similar influences on the changing properties of APFs, such as stationarity. Abrupt changes in mean and variance are only field significant in the East River basin; (2) the change points have a considerable impact on the detection of trends, and these may be attributed to the fact that a abrupt increase or decrease in mean values will affect the trend variations. Besides, for the APF series being free of change points and trend, the GAMLSS models also corroborate stationarity of the APF series; (3) the nonstationarity in the Pearl River basin is mainly due to the existence of the change point. However, the APF series with change points in mean and/or variance are also characterized by long-term persistence, and thus it is infeasible to assert that the abrupt behaviors and/or trends of the APF series are the result of human activities or long-term persistence, especially in the East River basin. Results of this study will provide information for management of water resources and design of hydraulic facilities in the Pearl River basin in a changing environment.

  4. The Implication of Climate Signal for Precipitation in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

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    Fei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the stochastic dynamic variability of precipitation, for the upper, middle, and lower reaches of the Heihe River basin in Northwest China, by employing Mann-Kendall statistic, Pettitt test, and wavelet transform methods. The possible associations with three prominent climatic patterns, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO, Artic Oscillation (AO, and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD, are examined by using multiscale wavelet coherence method. No significant trend is identified for the interannual precipitation variability. However, about 2-year significant variability is detected for the lower reach of the Heihe River basin, and this dominating precipitation variability is essentially depicted by AO. The possible influences of ENSO are exerted on long-term timescale, 8–16 years. The obtained knowledge is helpful for the predications of extreme hydroclimatological events and better reservoir operations for regional water resources.

  5. Detecting Variation Trends of Temperature and Precipitation for the Dadu River Basin, China

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    Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the variation trends of temperature and precipitation in the Dadu River Basin of China based on observed records from fourteen meteorological stations. The magnitude of trends was estimated using Sen’s linear method while its statistical significance was evaluated using Mann-Kendall’s test. The results of analysis depict increase change from northwest to southeast of annual temperature and precipitation in space. In temporal scale, the annual temperature showed significant increase trend and the annual precipitation showed increase trend. For extreme indices, the trends for temperature are more consistent in the region compared to precipitation. This paper has practical meanings for an effective management of climate risk and provides a foundation for further study of hydrological situation in this river basin.

  6. How to allocate water resources under climate change in the arid endorheic river basin, Northwest China

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    Zhang, A.; Feng, D.; Tian, Y.; Zheng, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Water resource is of fundamental importance to the society and ecosystem in arid endorheic river basins, and water-use conflicts between upstream and downstream are usually significant. Heihe river basin (HRB) is the second largest endorheic river basin in china, which is featured with dry climate, intensively irrigated farmlands in oases and significant surface water-groundwater interaction. The irrigation districts in the middle HRB consume a large portion of the river flow, and the low HRB, mainly Gobi Desert, has an extremely vulnerable ecological environment. The water resources management has significantly altered the hydrological processes in HRB, and is now facing multiple challenges, including decline of groundwater table in the middle HRB, insufficient environmental flow for the lower HRB. Furthermore, future climate change adds substantial uncertainty to the water system. Thus, it is imperative to have a sustainable water resources management in HRB in order to tackle the existing challenges and future uncertainty. Climate projection form a dynamical downscaled climate change scenario shows precipitation will increase at a rate of approximately 3 millimeter per ten years and temperature will increase at a rate of approximately 0.2 centigrade degree per ten years in the following 50 years in the HRB. Based on an integrated ecohydrological model, we evaluated how the climate change and agricultural development would collaboratively impact the water resources and ecological health in the middle and lower HRB, and investigated how the water management should cope with the complex impact.

  7. Assessment of gamma radiation levels and natural radioactivity in soils along a subtropical river basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Dekun; Yu, Tao [Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen (China). Lab. of Marine Isotopic Technology and Environmental Risk Assessment

    2017-07-01

    The activities of natural radionuclides in the environment can be used to assess radiological effects. Monitoring the radiation level in soils is important for public health. It also has important geochemical implications as most of the sediment eroded from river basins is from soil. Therefore, we carried out a soil sampling campaign along a subtropical river basin in southeastern China (Jiulong River). Surface and depth profile soils were collected, and the natural radionuclide activities were measured. The activities of the natural radionuclides {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K in the surface soils varied from 31.6 to 132.1 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, 37.8 to 174.0 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and 52.3 to 596.2 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, with average values of 56.7±30.3 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, 86.7±41.3 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, and 352.8±190.6 Bq kg-dry{sup -1}, respectively. The absorbed gamma dose in air and the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) in surface soils along the river basin were both higher than the world average. In the depth profiles, excess {sup 210}Pb ({sup 210}Pbex) decreased with depth and significant correlation between {sup 210}Pbex and TOC was observed, suggesting that they are affected by similar processes (leaching and sorption).

  8. Water geochemistry of the Xijiang basin rivers, South China: Chemical weathering and CO2 consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhifang; Liu Congqiang

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The Xijiang River is the second largest river in China and flows through a large carbonate rock region in South China. → Sulfuric acid, which emanate from acid precipitation and the oxidation of sulfide minerals, is involved as a proton donor in weathering reactions in the Xijiang basin. → Calculated results show that the contribution of cations from rock weathering induced by sulfuric acid accounts for approximately 11.2%. → The flux of CO 2 released into the atmosphere is approximately 0.41 x 10 12 gC yr -1 produced by sulfuric acid-induced carbonate weathering in the Xijiang basin. → Sulfuric acid-induced carbonate weathering could counterbalance a significant part of the CO 2 consumed by silicate weathering. - Abstract: The Xijiang River, the mainstream of the Zhujiang (Pearl) River, which is the second largest river in China in terms of discharge, flows through a large carbonate rock region in South China. The chemical and Sr isotopic compositions of the Xijiang waters were determined during the high-flow season in order to understand the chemical weathering processes, associated CO 2 consumption and anthropogenic influences within the carbonate-dominated basin. The major ion compositions of the river waters are characterized by the dominance of Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , HCO 3 - and are significantly rich in SO 4 2- . The SO 4 2- is mainly derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals and acid precipitation caused by coal combustion. Chemical and Sr isotopic compositions of the river waters indicate that four reservoirs (carbonates, silicates, evaporites and anthropogenic inputs) contribute to the total dissolved loads. The chemical weathering rates of carbonates and silicates for the Xijiang basin are estimated to be approximately 78.5 and 7.45 ton km -2 a -1 , respectively. The total chemical weathering rate of rocks for the Xijiang basin is approximately 86.1 ton km -2 a -1 or 42 mm ka -1 , which is much higher than global mean

  9. Preliminary investigation on the occurrence of several sulfonamide antibiotics in the Haihe River Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. L.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z. G.; Wang, Y. Z.; Liang, S. T.; Liu, C.; Wang, Z.

    2017-08-01

    Several samples collected from lakes, rivers and reservoirs in Haihe river basin of China were analyzed for 8 sulfonamide antibiotics by using solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). All water samples were enriched with HLB extraction cartridges. The antibiotics were separated by gradient elution with methanol as the mobile phase adding 0.1% formic acid. The eluate was then analyzed by the mode of multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.4-1.0 ng/L and 1.0-3.0 ng/L respectively. The method was used for the analysis of 13 samples from Haihe river basin in China. The results showed that sulfamethoxazole was present in all water samples with maximum concentration of 107.59 ng/L. Sulfadiazine was also frequently detected, concentrations ranging from 2.81 ng/L to 85.35 ng/L. Other sulfonamide antibiotics were not detected in most water samples, especially for those samples from drinking water resources.

  10. Analysis of the evolution of precipitation in the Haihe river basin of China under changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangyi; Liu, Jiahong; Gong, Jiaguo

    2018-02-01

    Precipitation is one of the important factors of water cycle and main sources of regional water resources. It is of great significance to analyze the evolution of precipitation under changing environment for identifying the evolution law of water resources, thus can provide a scientific reference for the sustainable utilization of water resources and the formulation of related policies and measures. Generally, analysis of the evolution of precipitation consists of three levels: analysis the observed precipitation change based on measured data, explore the possible factors responsible for the precipitation change, and estimate the change trend of precipitation under changing environment. As the political and cultural centre of China, the climatic conditions in the Haihe river basin have greatly changed in recent decades. This study analyses the evolution of precipitation in the basin under changing environment based on observed meteorological data, GCMs and statistical methods. Firstly, based on the observed precipitation data during 1961-2000 at 26 meteorological stations in the basin, the actual precipitation change in the basin is analyzed. Secondly, the observed precipitation change in the basin is attributed using the fingerprint-based attribution method, and the causes of the observed precipitation change is identified. Finally, the change trend of precipitation in the basin under climate change in the future is predicted based on GCMs and a statistical downscaling model. The results indicate that: 1) during 1961-2000, the precipitation in the basin showed a decreasing trend, and the possible mutation time was 1965; 2) natural variability may be the factor responsible for the observed precipitation change in the basin; 3) under climate change in the future, precipitation in the basin will slightly increase by 4.8% comparing with the average, and the extremes will not vary significantly.

  11. Sunshine Duration Variability in Haihe River Basin, China, during 1966–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sunshine can have a profound impact on the systematic change in climate elements, such as temperature and wind speed, and in turn affects many aspects of the human society. In recent years, there has been a substantial interest in the variation of sunshine duration due to the dramatic global climate change. Hence, there is a need to better understand the variation of sunshine duration in order to cope with climate change. This study aimed to analyze the variation of sunshine duration in Haihe River basin, China, and its relationship with temperature, wind speed and low-level cloudiness. The annual, seasonal and monthly changes of sunshine duration were analyzed based on the data collected from 33 meteorological stations over the Haihe River basin during 1966–2015. It is evident that the annual, seasonal and monthly sunshine duration shows a decreasing trend over time. In addition, the annual sunshine duration is lower with a higher climate tendency rate in the southern and eastern coastal regions than that in the northwestern regions. It is negatively correlated with temperature (r = −0.50 and low-level cloudiness (r = −0.29, but positively with wind speed (r = 0.61. Wind speed may be one of the important causes of the decrease of sunshine duration in the Haihe River basin during 1966–2015. These changes may have significant implications for the hydrological cycle in the area.

  12. Drought Trends and Temperature Influence in Zhanghe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawar Wagan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Our study area is one of the semiarid region of the China with under water stress condition that causes economic damage. The main objective of this study is to apply standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI and to use linear regression to calculate drought conditions in the study area. For this purpose, data from 1980 to 2010 was analyzed at different (1, 6, 12, and 24 months time scales. Results depicted both dry and wet periods in the study area; occurrence of dry span with different frequency and magnitude was increased over last decades (2000–2010 at most of the stations. Statistical results demonstrated that temperature was decreased in the 1st decade in most of stations but in two decades from 1990 to 2000 and 2001 to 2010, temperature was increased except in Changzhi station. These results could be a future reference for developing information programs about monitoring and early drought information, planning of existing reservoirs, and management of water resources under climate conditions.

  13. Regime Shift Identification of Runoff and Sediment Loads in the Yellow River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Runoff and sediment loads have exhibited significant changes over the past six decades in the Yellow River Basin, China. The current study evaluates the changing trends and regime shifts in runoff and sediment loads at both the annual and monthly time scales. The associated spatial and temporal variations are analyzed by a sequential t-test analysis of the regime shifts (STARS approach and the “breaks for additive seasonal and trend” (BFAST model using hydrological data at eight stations from the 1950s to 2011. Both runoff and sediment loads exhibit significant declines (p < 0.05, except in the upper reaches of the river near the Tangnaihai station. The regime shifts detected by the STARS approach are not completely consistent with the results from the BFAST method. In most cases, the regime shifts occurred in 1969 and 1986, due to the construction of large reservoirs. Climate change and other human activities, such as large-scale soil and water conservation measures, can result in abrupt changes in hydrological series at some stations. The trapping effects of reservoirs not only cause regime shifts of runoff and sediment loads, but also adjust their inter-annual and seasonal distributions. Various soil and water conservation measures are responsible for the significant reduction in runoff and sediment loads in the mid-lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin. In addition, water withdrawals from both river runoff and ground water play a critical role in the changing trends in runoff and indirectly alter the sediment loads. The findings provide a good reference for the effective promotion of climate change adaptation, water resources planning and river basin management.

  14. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yping; Chen, Ji

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide.

  15. Modeling of soil erosion and sediment transport in the East River Basin in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2012-12-15

    Soil erosion is a major global environmental problem that has caused many issues involving land degradation, sedimentation of waterways, ecological degradation, and nonpoint source pollution. Therefore, it is significant to understand the processes of soil erosion and sediment transport along rivers, and this can help identify the erosion prone areas and find potential measures to alleviate the environmental effects. In this study, we investigated soil erosion and identified the most seriously eroded areas in the East River Basin in southern China using a physically-based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). We also introduced a classical sediment transport method (Zhang) into SWAT and compared it with the built-in Bagnold method in simulating sediment transport process along the river. The derived spatial soil erosion map and land use based erosion levels can explicitly illustrate the identification and prioritization of the critical soil erosion areas in this basin. Our results also indicate that erosion is quite sensitive to soil properties and slope. Comparison of Bagnold and Zhang methods shows that the latter can give an overall better performance especially in tracking the peak and low sediment concentrations along the river. We also found that the East River is mainly characterized by sediment deposition in most of the segments and at most times of a year. Overall, the results presented in this paper can provide decision support for watershed managers about where the best management practices (conservation measures) can be implemented effectively and at low cost. The methods we used in this study can also be of interest in sediment modeling for other basins worldwide. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Probability Modeling of Precipitation Extremes over Two River Basins in Northwest of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanling Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the probability modeling with a range of distribution models over two inland river basins in China, together with the estimations of return levels on various return periods. Both annual and seasonal maximum precipitations (MP are investigated based on daily precipitation data at 13 stations from 1960 to 2010 in Heihe River and Shiyang River basins. Results show that GEV, Burr, and Weibull distributions provide the best fit to both annual and seasonal MP. Exponential and Pareto 2 distributions show the worst fit. The estimated return levels for spring MP show decreasing trends from the upper to the middle and then to the lower reaches totally speaking. Summer MP approximates to annual MP both in the quantity and in the spatial distributions. Autumn MP shows a little higher value in the estimated return levels than Spring MP, while keeping consistent with spring MP in the spatial distribution. It is also found that the estimated return levels for annual MP derived from various distributions differ by 22%, 36%, and 53% on average at 20-year, 50-year, and 100-year return periods, respectively.

  17. Sustainability of Water Resources in Arid Ecosystems: A View from Hei River Basin, China (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, C.; Cheng, G.; Xiao, H.; Ma, R.

    2009-12-01

    The northwest of China is characterized by an arid climate and fragile ecosystems. With irrigated agriculture, the region is a prolific producer of cotton, wheat, and maize with some of the highest output per acre in the country. The region is also rich in ore deposits, with the reserves of numerous minerals ranked at or near the top in the country. However, the sustainability of irrigated agriculture and economic development in the region is threaten by severe eco-environmental problems resulting from both global changes and human activities, such as desertification, salinization, groundwater depletion, and dust storms. All these problems are a direct consequence of water scarcity. As global warming accelerates and rapid economic growth continues, the water shortage crisis is expected to worsen. To improve the bleak outlook for the health of ecosystem and environment in northwest China, the Chinese government has invested heavily in ecosystem restoration and watershed management in recent years. However, the effectiveness of such measures and actions depends on scientific understanding of the complex interplays among ecological, hydrological and socioeconomic factors. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of a major new research initiative supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China to study the integration of ecological principles, hydrological processes and socioeconomic considerations toward more sustainable exploitation of surface water and groundwater resources in the Hei River Basin in northwest China. The Hei River Basin is an inland watershed located at the center of the arid region in East Asia, stretching from Qilianshan Mountains in the south to the desert in the north bordering China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and Mongolia. The total area of Hei River Basin is approximately 130,000 km2. The research initiative builds on existing research infrastructure and ecohydrological data and seeks to reveal complex

  18. Spatio-temporal distribution of fecal indicators in three rivers of the Haihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yawei; Chen, Yanan; Zheng, Xiang; Gui, Chengmin; Wei, Yuansong

    2017-04-01

    Because of their significant impact on public health, waterborne pathogens, especially bacteria and viruses, are frequently monitored in surface water to assess microbial quality of water bodies. However, more than one billion people worldwide currently lack access to safe drinking water, and a diversity of waterborne outbreaks caused by pathogens is reported in nations at all levels of economic development. Spatio-temporal distribution of conventional pollutants and five pathogenic microorganisms were discussed for the Haihe River Basin. Land use and socio-economic assessments were coupled with comprehensive water quality monitoring. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters were measured at 20 different sites in the watershed for 1 year, including pH, temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand, ammonia-N, total and fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus. The results highlighted the high spatio-temporal variability in pathogen distribution at watershed scale: high concentration of somatic coliphages and fecal indicator bacteria in March and December and their very low concentration in June and September. All pathogens were positively correlated to urban/rural residential/industrial land and negatively correlated to other four land use types. Microbial pollution was greatly correlated with population density, urbanization rate, and percentage of the tertiary industry in the gross domestic product. In the future, river microbial risk control strategy should focus more on the effective management of secondary effluent of wastewater treatment plant and land around rivers.

  19. Hydrological and pollution processes in mining area of Fenhe River Basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonggang; Meng, Zhilong; Jiao, Wentao

    2018-03-01

    The hydrological and pollution processes are an important science problem for aquatic ecosystem. In this study, the samples of river water, reservoir water, shallow groundwater, deep groundwater, and precipitation in mining area are collected and analyzed. δD and δ 18 O are used to identify hydrological process. δ 15 N-NO 3 - and δ 18 O-NO 3 - are used to identify the sources and pollution process of NO 3 - . The results show that the various water bodies in Fenhe River Basin are slightly alkaline water. The ions in the water mainly come from rock weathering. The concentration of SO 4 2- is high due to the impact of coal mining activity. Deep groundwater is significantly less affected by evaporation and human activity, which is recharged by archaic groundwater. There are recharge and discharge between reservoir water, river water, soil water, and shallow groundwater. NO 3 - is the main N species in the study area, and forty-six percent of NO 3 - -N concentrations exceed the drinking water standard of China (NO 3 - -N ≤ 10 mg/L content). Nitrification is the main forming process of NO 3 - . Denitrification is also found in river water of some river branches. The sources of NO 3 - are mainly controlled by land use type along the riverbank. NO 3 - of river water in the upper reaches are come from nitrogen in precipitation and soil organic N. River water in the lower reaches is polluted by a mixture of soil organic N and fertilizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low Flow Regimes of the Tarim River Basin, China: Probabilistic Behavior, Causes and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Droughts are a frequent occurrence in Xinjiang, China, and therefore fundamental to determining their hydrologic characteristics is low flow analysis. To that end, 11 probability distribution functions and 26 copulas functions were employed to analyze the changing characteristics of low flow regime (defined as seven-day low flow of the Tarim River Basin. Results indicated that: (1 The Wakeby distribution satisfactorily described the probabilistic behavior of the low flow regime. According to Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, Bayesian Information Criterions (BIC, maximum likelihood, and other residual-based metrics, Tawn copula, Farlie–Gumbel–Morgenstern copula and Frank copula were the best choice and used in this current study. (2 After 1987, hydrological droughts of longer return periods were prone to higher occurrence frequency. (3 The low flow volume has been increasing in recent years due to the temperature-induced increase of snowmelt and increasing precipitation. However, hydrological droughts can be expected to occur due to the massive increase in water demand from the development of irrigated agriculture, increasing arable land and livestock farming. As a result, the water shortage in the lower Tarim River Basin will be increasingly severe under the influence of climate change and human activities. To alleviate the shortage would call for the development of water-saving agricultural irrigation, water-saving technology, conservation of eco-environment and sustainable development of local socio-economy.

  1. Multimedia fate modeling and risk assessment of a commonly used azole fungicide climbazole at the river basin scale in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Ying, Guang-Guo; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Wang-Rong; Zhao, Jian-Liang

    2015-07-01

    Climbazole is an antidandruff active ingredient commonly used in personal care products, but little is known about its environmental fate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of climbazole in water, sediment, soil and air compartments of the whole China by using a level III multimedia fugacity model. The usage of climbazole was calculated to be 345 t in the whole China according to the market research data, and after wastewater treatment a total emission of 245 t was discharged into the receiving environment with approximately 93% into the water compartment and 7% into the soil compartment. The developed fugacity model was successfully applied to estimate the contamination levels and mass inventories of climbazole in various environmental compartments of the river basins in China. The predicted environmental concentration ranges of climbazole were: 0.20-367 ng/L in water, and 0.009-25.2 ng/g dry weight in sediment. The highest concentration was mainly found in Haihe River basin and the lowest was in basins of Tibet and Xinjiang regions. The mass inventory of climbazole in the whole China was estimated to be 294 t, with 6.79% in water, 83.7% in sediment, 9.49% in soil, and 0.002% in air. Preliminary risk assessment showed high risks in sediment posed by climbazole in 2 out of 58 basins in China. The medium risks in water and sediment were mostly concentrated in north China. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on the emissions and multimedia fate of climbazole in the river basins of the whole China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of vegetation condition and its relationship with meteorological variables in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Han

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is located in the southwest border of China, which is of great significance to the socioeconomic development and ecological environment of Southwest China. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is an important index for investigating the change of vegetation cover, which is widely used as the representation value of vegetation cover. In this study, the NDVI is adopted to explore the vegetation condition in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin during the recent 17 years, and the relationship between NDVI and meteorological variables has also been discussed. The results show that the annual maximum value of NDVI usually appears from July to September, in which August occupies a large proportion. The minimum value of NDVI appears from January to March, in which February takes up most of the percentage. The higher values of NDVI are generally located in the lower elevation area. When the altitude is higher than 3250 m, NDVI began to decline gradually, and the NDVI became gradual stabilization as the elevation is up to 6000 m. The correlation coefficient between NDVI and precipitation in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin is greater than that with temperature. The Hurst index of the whole basin is 0.51, indicating that the NDVI of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin shows a weak sustainability.

  3. A new framework to evaluate ecosystem health: a case study in the Wei River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Zongxue; Zhan, Chesheng; Yin, Xuwang; Yu, Songyan

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid growth of the population and the development of economies in the Guanzhong district, central China, the river ecosystem is gradually deteriorating, which makes it important to assess the aquatic ecosystem health and take measures to restore the damaged ecosystem. An index of catchment ecosystem health has been developed to assist large-scale management of watersheds by providing an integrated measure of ecosystem health, including aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem. Most researches focus on aquatic ecosystem or terrestrial ecosystem, but little research integrates both of them to assess the catchment ecosystem health. In this paper, we combine these two aspects into catchment ecosystem health. Ecosystem indicators derived from field samples and modeling are identified to integrate into ecosystem health. These included indicators of ecological landscape pattern (based on normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), vegetation cover, dominance index, Shannon's diversity index, Shannon's evenness index, and fragmentation index), hydrology regime (based on 33 hydrological parameters), physical form condition (based on substrate, habitat complexity, velocity/depth regimes, bank stability, channel alteration), water quality (based on electrical conductivity (Cond), dissolved oxygen (DO), NH3_N, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand-permanganate (CODMn)), and biological quality (based on fish abundance). The index of ecosystem health is applied in the Guanzhong district, and the ecosystem health was fair. The ecosystem health in the upstream to Linjiacun (U-L) and Linjiacun to Weijiabao (L-W) reaches was in good situation, while that in Weijiabao to Xianyang (W-X), Xianyang-Weijiabao (X-W), and Weijiabao to Tongguan (W-T) reaches was in fair situation. There is a trend that the ecosystem health in the upstream was better than that in the downstream. The ecosystem health assessment is expected to play a key role in future

  4. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  5. Hydroclimate-driven changes in the landscape structure of the terminal lakes and wetlands of the China's Heihe River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shengchun; Xiao, Honglang; Peng, Xiaomei; Song, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the landscape structure of terminal lakes and wetlands along inland rivers in arid areas are determined by the water balance in the river basins under the impacts of climate change and human activities. Studying the evolution of these landscapes and the mechanisms driving these changes is critical to the sustainable development of river basins. The terminal lakes and wetlands along the lower reaches of the Heihe River, an inland river in arid northwestern China, can be grouped into three types: runoff-recharged, groundwater-recharged, and precipitation-recharged. These water-recharge characteristics determine the degree to which the landscape structure of a terminal lake or wetland is impacted by climate change and human activities. An analysis of seven remote-sensing and hydroclimatic data sets for the Heihe River basin during the last 50 years indicates that hydrological changes in the basin caused by regional human activities were the primary drivers of the observed changes in the spatial and temporal landscape-structure patterns of the terminal lakes and wetlands of the Heihe River. In this warm, dry climatic context, the lakes and wetlands gradually evolved toward and maintained a landscape dominated by saline-alkaline lands and grasslands.

  6. Vegetation Carbon Storage, Spatial Patterns and Response to Altitude in Lancang River Basin, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation plays a very important role of carbon (C sinks in the global C cycle. With its complex terrain and diverse vegetation types, the Lancang River Basin (LRB of southwest China has huge C storage capacity. Therefore, understanding the spatial variations and controlling mechanisms of vegetation C storage is important to understand the regional C cycle. In this study, data from a forest inventory and field plots were used to estimate and map vegetation C storage distribution in the LRB, to qualify the quantitative relationships between vegetation C density and altitude at sublot and township scale, and a linear model or polynomial model was used to identify the relationship between C density and altitude at two spatial scales and two statistical scales. The results showed that a total of 300.32 Tg C was stored in the LRB, an important C sink in China. The majority of C storage was contributed by forests, notably oaks. The vegetation C storage exhibited nonlinear variation with latitudinal gradients. Altitude had tremendous influences on spatial patterns of vegetation C storage of three geomorphological types in the LRB. C storage decreased with increasing altitude at both town and sublot scales in the flat river valley (FRV region and the mid-low mountains gorge (MMG region, and first increased then decreased in the alpine gorge (AG region. This revealed that, in southwest China, altitude changes the latitudinal patterns of vegetation C storage; especially in the AG area, C density in the mid-altitude (3100 m area was higher than that of adjacent areas.

  7. [Spatiotemporal variation characteristics and related affecting factors of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xue; Cai, Yan-Cong; Guan, De-Xin; Jin, Chang-Jie; Wang, An-Zhi; Wu, Jia-Bing; Yuan, Feng-Hui

    2014-10-01

    Based on the meteorological and hydrological data from 1970 to 2006, the advection-aridity (AA) model with calibrated parameters was used to calculate evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin in Northeast China. The original parameter of the AA model was tuned according to the water balance method and then four subbasins were selected to validate. Spatiotemporal variation characteristics of evapotranspiration and related affecting factors were analyzed using the methods of linear trend analysis, moving average, kriging interpolation and sensitivity analysis. The results showed that the empirical parameter value of 0.75 of AA model was suitable for the Hun-Taizi River Basin with an error of 11.4%. In the Hun-Taizi River Basin, the average annual actual evapotranspiration was 347.4 mm, which had a slightly upward trend with a rate of 1.58 mm · (10 a(-1)), but did not change significantly. It also indicated that the annual actual evapotranspiration presented a single-peaked pattern and its peak value occurred in July; the evapotranspiration in summer was higher than in spring and autumn, and it was the smallest in winter. The annual average evapotranspiration showed a decreasing trend from the northwest to the southeast in the Hun-Taizi River Basin from 1970 to 2006 with minor differences. Net radiation was largely responsible for the change of actual evapotranspiration in the Hun-Taizi River Basin.

  8. Evolution of the Lian River coastal basin in response to Quaternary marine transgressions in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongjie; Zheng, Zhuo; Chen, Cong; Wang, Mengyuan; Chen, Bishan

    2018-04-01

    The coastal basin deposit in the Lian River plain is among the thickest Quaternary sequences along the southeastern coast of China. The clastic sediment accumulated in a variety of environmental settings including fluvial, channel, estuary/coastal and marine conditions. Detailed investigation of lithofacies, grain-size distributions, magnetic susceptibility, microfossils and chronology of marine core CN01, compared with regional cores, and combined with offshore seismic reflection profiles, has allowed us to correlate the spatial stratigraphy in the inner and outer plain and the seismic units. Grain size distribution analysis of core CN-01 through compositional data analysis and multivariate statistics were applied to clastic sedimentary facies and sedimentary cycles. Results show that these methods are able to derive a robust proxy information for the depositional environment of the Lian River plain. We have also been able to reconstruct deltaic evolution in response to marine transgressions. On the basis of dating results and chronostratigraphy, the estimated age of the onset of deposition in the Lian River coastal plain was more than 260 kyr BP. Three transgressive sedimentary cycles revealed in many regional cores support this age model. Detailed lithological and microfossil studies confirm that three marine (M3, M2 and M1) and three terrestrial (T3, T2 and T1) units can be distinguished. Spatial correlation between the inner plain, outer plain (typical cores characterized by marine transgression cycles) and offshore seismic reflectors reveals coherent sedimentary sequences. Two major boundaries (unconformity and erosion surfaces) can be recognized in the seismic profiles, and these correspond to weathered reddish and/or variegated clay in the study core, suggesting that Quaternary sediment changes on the Lian River plain were largely controlled by sea-level variations and coastline shift during glacial/interglacial cycles.

  9. Drought Characteristic Analysis Based on an Improved PDSI in the Wei River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to improve the efficiency of the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI_original, we coupled the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT and PDSI_original to construct a drought index called PDSI_SWAT. The constructed PDSI_SWAT is applied in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China during 1960–2012. The comparison of the PDSI_SWAT with four other commonly used drought indices reveals the effectiveness of the PDSI_SWAT in describing the drought propagation processes in WRB. The whole WRB exhibits a dry trend, with more significant trends in the northern, southeastern and western WRB than the remaining regions. Furthermore, the drought frequencies show that drought seems to occur more likely in the northern part than the southern part of WRB. The principle component analysis method based on the PDSI_SWAT reveals that the whole basin can be further divided into three distinct sub-regions with different drought variability, i.e., the northern, southeastern and western part. Additionally, these three sub-regions are also consistent with the spatial pattern of drought shown by the drought frequency. The wavelet transform analysis method indicates that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO events have strong impacts on inducing droughts in the WRB. The results of this study could be beneficial for a scientific water resources management and drought assessment in the current study area and also provide a valuable reference for other areas with similar climatic characteristics.

  10. Simulation of hydrological processes in the Zhalong wetland within a river basin, Northeast China

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    X. Q. Feng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhalong National Nature Preserve is a large wetland reserve on the Songnen Plain in Northeast China. Wetlands in the preserve play a key role in maintaining regional ecosystem function and integrity. Global climate change and intensified anthropogenic activities in the region have raised great concerns over the change of natural flow regime, wetland degradation and loss. In this study, two key hydrologic components in the preserve, water surface area and water volume, as well as their variations during the period 1985–2006, were investigated with a spatially-distributed hydrologic modeling system (SWAT. A wetland module was incorporated into the SWAT model to represent hydrological linkages between the wetland and adjacent upland areas. The modified modeling system was calibrated with streamflow measurements from 1987 to 1989 and was validated for the period 2005–2006. The calibration achieved a Nash efficiency coefficient (Ens of 0.86, and the validation yielded an Ens of 0.66. In the past 20 yr, water surface area in the Zhalong wetland fluctuated from approximately 200 km2 to 1145 km2 with a rapid decreasing trend through the early 2000s. Consequently, water volume decreased largely in the preserve, especially in the dry seasons. The situation changed following the implementation of a river diversion in 2001. Overall, the modeling yielded plausible estimates of hydrologic changes in this large wetland reserve, building a foundation for assessing ecological water requirements and developing strategies and plans for future water resources management within the river basin.

  11. Evaluation on uncertainty sources in projecting hydrological changes over the Xijiang River basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fei; Zhao, Chongxu; Jiang, Yong; Ren, Liliang; Shan, Hongcui; Zhang, Limin; Zhu, Yonghua; Chen, Tao; Jiang, Shanhu; Yang, Xiaoli; Shen, Hongren

    2017-11-01

    Projections of hydrological changes are associated with large uncertainties from different sources, which should be quantified for an effective implementation of water management policies adaptive to future climate change. In this study, a modeling chain framework to project future hydrological changes and the associated uncertainties in the Xijiang River basin, South China, was established. The framework consists of three emission scenarios (ESs), four climate models (CMs), four statistical downscaling (SD) methods, four hydrological modeling (HM) schemes, and four probability distributions (PDs) for extreme flow frequency analyses. Direct variance method was adopted to analyze the manner by which uncertainty sources such as ES, CM, SD, and HM affect the estimates of future evapotranspiration (ET) and streamflow, and to quantify the uncertainties of PDs in future flood and drought risk assessment. Results show that ES is one of the least important uncertainty sources in most situations. CM, in general, is the dominant uncertainty source for the projections of monthly ET and monthly streamflow during most of the annual cycle, daily streamflow below the 99.6% quantile level, and extreme low flow. SD is the most predominant uncertainty source in the projections of extreme high flow, and has a considerable percentage of uncertainty contribution in monthly streamflow projections in July-September. The effects of SD in other cases are negligible. HM is a non-ignorable uncertainty source that has the potential to produce much larger uncertainties for the projections of low flow and ET in warm and wet seasons than for the projections of high flow. PD contributes a larger percentage of uncertainty in extreme flood projections than it does in extreme low flow estimates. Despite the large uncertainties in hydrological projections, this work found that future extreme low flow would undergo a considerable reduction, and a noticeable increase in drought risk in the Xijiang

  12. Recognition of key regions for restoration of phytoplankton communities in the Huai River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changsen; Liu, Changming; Xia, Jun; Zhang, Yongyong; Yu, Qiang; Eamus, Derek

    2012-02-01

    SummaryHealthy phytoplankton communities are the basis of healthy water ecosystems, and form the foundation of many freshwater food webs. Globally many freshwater ecosystems are degraded because of intensive human activities, so water ecosystem restoration is a burning issue worldwide. Selection of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration is crucial for an effective aquatic eco-restoration. This paper presents a practical method for identification of key regions for phytoplankton-related restoration, using random forests (RFs) method to cluster sites based on dominance, biodiversity, water chemistry and ecological niche. We sampled phytoplankton for species richness and relative abundance and water quality in the Huai River basin (HRB), China to determine the phytoplankton communities' composition and structure and characterize of their ecological niches. A wider mean niche breadth of a species usually leads to a greater overlap with the niche of other species. Using these data and water quality indices, we identified the key regions for phytoplankton-related river restoration activities. Results indicate that our method for recognition of key regions is effective and practical and its application to the HRB identified the Northern Plain area as the key region for restoration. This area is severely polluted and contributes significantly to the HRB phytoplankton communities. Phytoplankton in this region is highly adaptable to environmental change and therefore will be relatively unharmed by environmental instability induced by restoration measures. During restoration, indices of water temperature, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand can be altered with little negative influence on phytoplankton communities, but measures that increase ammonia-nitrogen concentration would be highly detrimental. These results will provide valuable information for policy makers and stakeholders in water ecosystem restoration and sustainable basin management in the HRB.

  13. Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming to Support Water Resources Management in the Ziya River Basin, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Cardenal, Silvio Javier Pereira; Liu, Suxia

    2015-01-01

    of stochastic dynamic programming, to optimize water resources management in the Ziya River basin. Natural runoff from the upper basin was estimated with a rainfall-runoff model autocalibrated using in situ measured discharge. The runoff serial correlation was described by a Markov chain and used as input...

  14. Relationship between ancient bridges and population dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Jia, Xin; Lee, Harry F; Zhao, Hongqiang; Cai, Shuliang; Huang, Xianjin

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that population growth dynamics may be revealed by the geographic distribution and the physical structure of ancient bridges. Yet, this relationship has not been empirically verified. In this study, we applied the archaeological records for ancient bridges to reveal the population growth dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin in late imperial China. We investigated 89 ancient bridges in Yixing that were built during the Ming and Qing dynasties (AD1368-1911). Global Position System information and structure (length, width, and span) of those bridges was measured during our field investigations. Their distribution density was calculated by ArcGIS. The historical socio-economic dynamics of Yixing was inferred from the distribution and structure of ancient bridges. Based on the above information, the population growth dynamics in Yixing was projected. Our results show that 77 bridges were built in Yixing during the Qing dynasty, which is 6.41 times more than the number built during the Ming dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, bridges were built on pivotal routes; in the Qing dynasty, bridges were scattered across various places. Over the period, the density distribution of bridges shifted northwestward, while the average length and width of bridges decreased. The increasing number of bridges corresponded to population growth, largely attributable to massive clan migration from northern China during the Little Ice Age. The shift in the density distribution of bridges corresponded to the formation of settlements of large clans and the blossoming of Yixing Teapot handicrafts. The scattering and the reduction in average length and width of bridges was due to the dispersal of population and the associated formation of small settlements in the latter period. Our approach is innovative and robust, and could be employed to recover long-term historical population growth dynamics in other parts of China.

  15. Relationship between ancient bridges and population dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that population growth dynamics may be revealed by the geographic distribution and the physical structure of ancient bridges. Yet, this relationship has not been empirically verified. In this study, we applied the archaeological records for ancient bridges to reveal the population growth dynamics in the lower Yangtze River Basin in late imperial China. We investigated 89 ancient bridges in Yixing that were built during the Ming and Qing dynasties (AD1368-1911. Global Position System information and structure (length, width, and span of those bridges was measured during our field investigations. Their distribution density was calculated by ArcGIS. The historical socio-economic dynamics of Yixing was inferred from the distribution and structure of ancient bridges. Based on the above information, the population growth dynamics in Yixing was projected. Our results show that 77 bridges were built in Yixing during the Qing dynasty, which is 6.41 times more than the number built during the Ming dynasty. In the Ming dynasty, bridges were built on pivotal routes; in the Qing dynasty, bridges were scattered across various places. Over the period, the density distribution of bridges shifted northwestward, while the average length and width of bridges decreased. The increasing number of bridges corresponded to population growth, largely attributable to massive clan migration from northern China during the Little Ice Age. The shift in the density distribution of bridges corresponded to the formation of settlements of large clans and the blossoming of Yixing Teapot handicrafts. The scattering and the reduction in average length and width of bridges was due to the dispersal of population and the associated formation of small settlements in the latter period. Our approach is innovative and robust, and could be employed to recover long-term historical population growth dynamics in other parts of China.

  16. Prediction of hydrological responds to climate changes in the Upper Yangtze River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Ren, L.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Liu, Y.; Jiang, S.; Yuan, F.

    2017-12-01

    Climate changes have direct effects on hydrological cycle, with the increasing temperature and seasonal shift of precipitation. Therefore, understanding of how climate change may affect the population and water resources and economic development is critical to the water and food security for China. This study aims to evaluate the potential impacts of future climate changes on water resources of the upper basin of Yangtze River (the area controlled by the Yichang hydrological station) using the variable infiltration capacity (VIC) model driven by composite observations (1961-2005) and projections of eight CMIP5 models under scenarios RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 from 2006 to 2099. The raw eight CMIP5 models have been downscaled by the equidistant cumulative distribution functions (EDCDF) statistical downscaling approach from 1961 to 2099. The assessment of the performance of model simulated precipitation and temperature were calculated by comparing to the observations during the historical period (1961-2005). For the same variables, eight CMIP5 models for RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 downscaled by EDCDF method were generated during the future period (2006-2099). Overall, the VIC model performed well in monthly streamflow simulation, with the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (NSCE) 0.92 and 0.97 for calibration and validation, respectively. The annual precipitation is projected to increase by 6.3mm and 8.6mm per decade and the annual temperature will increase by 0.22 °C and 0.53°C per decade (2006-2099) for RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. In the future period, The total runoff of the study basins would either remain stable or moderately increase by 2.7% and 22.4% per decade, the evapotranspiration increase by 2mm and 13mm per decade, and the soil moisture will reduce by -0.1% and -7.4% per decade under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively. The changes of model-simulated soil moisture, runoff, and evapotranspiration suggest that there probably be an increasing risk of drought in

  17. Impact of climate change and anthropogenic activities on stream flow and sediment discharge in the Wei River basin, China

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    P. Gao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Reduced stream flow and increased sediment discharge are a major concern in the Yellow River basin of China, which supplies water for agriculture, industry and the growing populations located along the river. Similar concerns exist in the Wei River basin, which is the largest tributary of the Yellow River basin and comprises the highly eroded Loess Plateau. Better understanding of the drivers of stream flow and sediment discharge dynamics in the Wei River basin is needed for development of effective management strategies for the region and entire Yellow River basin. In this regard we analysed long-term trends for water and sediment discharge during the flood season in the Wei River basin, China. Stream flow and sediment discharge data for 1932 to 2008 from existing hydrological stations located in two subcatchments and at two points in the Wei River were analysed. Precipitation and air temperature data were analysed from corresponding meteorological stations. We identified change-points or transition years for the trends by the Pettitt method and, using double mass curves, we diagnosed whether they were caused by precipitation changes, human intervention, or both. We found significant decreasing trends for stream flow and sediment discharge during the flood season in both subcatchments and in the Wei River itself. Change-point analyses further revealed that transition years existed and that rapid decline in stream flow began in 1968 (P P P P P < 0.05, respectively. The impact of precipitation or human activity on the reduction amount after the transition years was estimated by double mass curves of precipitation vs. stream flow (sediment. For reductions in stream flow and sediment discharge, the contribution rate of human activity was found to be 82.80 and 95.56%, respectively, and was significantly stronger than the contribution rate of precipitation. This evidence clearly suggests that, in the absence of significant decreases in precipitation

  18. Towards a digital watershed, with a case study in the Heihe River Basin of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.-D.; Ma, M.-G.; Lu, L.; Ge, Y.-C.

    2003-04-01

    Integrated watershed study and river basin management needs integrated database and integrated hydrological and water resource models. We define digital watershed as a web-based information system that integrates data from different sources and in different scales through both information technology and hydrological modeling. In the last two years, a “digital basin” of the Heihe River Basin, which is a well-studied in-land catchment in China’s arid region was established. More than 6 Gb of in situ observation data, GIS maps, and remotely sensed data have been uploaded to the Heihe web site. Various database and dynamic web techniques such as PHP, ASP, XML, VRML are being used for data service. In addition, the DIAL (Data and Information Access Link), IMS (Internet Map Server) and other Web-GISs are used to make GIS and remote sensing datasets of the Heihe River Basin available and accessible on the Internet. We also have developed models for estimating the evapotranspiration, bio-physical parameters, and snow runoff. These methods can be considered as the elements to build up the integrated watershed model that can be used for integrated management of the Heihe River Basin. The official domain name of the digital Heihe River Basin is heihe.westgis.ac.cn

  19. Distribution and migration mechanism of fluoride in groundwater in the Manas River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yalei; Jin, Menggui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Jianjun

    2018-04-01

    Elevated fluoride (F) concentration in groundwater is posing a public health risk in the Manas River Basin (MRB), Northwest China. Based on the characterization of regional groundwater flow, 90 groundwater samples from aquifers were analyzed, along with top-soil leachate and pore-water samples from aquitards. Stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen isotopes, radiocarbon and hydrochemical analyses of the groundwater and pore-water samples were conducted to trace groundwater hydrological and hydrochemical processes and thereby understand the distribution and migration mechanism of F. The groundwater is recharged by meteoric precipitation through vapor condensation processes in the Tianshan Mountains. The F concentration in groundwater samples from this basin ranged from 0.11 to 48.15 mg/L (mean 2.56 mg/L). In 37 of the 90 groundwater samples, the F concentrations were above the safe level for drinking water. The F concentrations progressively increased with the residence time and well depths in the northwest of the alluvial-fluvial plain, where groundwater is overexploited for agricultural and domestic use. Positive correlations between F and sodium (Na)/calcium (Ca) indicate that the enrichment and migration of F are influenced by cation exchange processes under high-Na and alkaline pH conditions. The relationships between δ18O and F and chloride (Cl) concentrations were nonlinear due to leaching and mixing processes. This shows that vertical leaching by irrigation return flow and mixing with pore water are the dominant processes driving the migration of F in the groundwater flow system of MRB, in addition to geochemical processes.

  20. Effects of climate change on spring wheat phenophase and water requirement in Heihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Yan, Denghua; Xu, Xinyi; Gao, Yu

    2017-02-01

    Climate change has significantly altered the temperature rhythm which is a key factor for the growth and phenophase of the crop. And temperature change further affects crop water requirement and irrigation system. In the north-west of China, one of the most important crop production bases is Heihe River basin where the observed phenological data is scarce. This study thus first adopted accumulated temperature threshold (ATT) method to define the phenological stages of the crop, and analysed the effect of climate change on phenological stages and water requirement of the crop during growing season. The results indicated the ATT was available for the determination of spring wheat phenological stages. The start dates of all phenological stages became earlier and the growing season length (days) was reduced by 7 days under climate change. During the growing season, water requirement without consideration of phenophase change has been increased by 26.1 mm, while that with consideration of phenophase change was featured in the decrease of water requirement by 50 mm. When temperature increased by 1°C on average, the changes were featured in the 2 days early start date of growing season, 2 days decrease of growing season length, and the 1.4 mm increase of water requirement, respectively.

  1. Possible Future Climate Change Impacts on the Hydrological Drought Events in the Weihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of future climate change impacts on hydrological drought characteristics is one of important measures for implementing sustainable water resources management and effective disaster mitigation in drought-prone regions under the changing environment. In this study, a modeling system for projecting the potential future climate change impacts on hydrological droughts in the Weihe River basin (WRB in North China is presented. This system consists of a large-scale hydrological model driven by climate outputs from three climate models (CMs for future streamflow projections, a probabilistic model for univariate drought assessment, and a copula-based bivariate model for joint drought frequency analysis under historical and future climates. With the observed historical climate data as the inputs, the Variable Infiltration Capacity hydrological model projects an overall runoff reduction in the WRB under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change A1B scenario. The univariate drought assessment found that although fewer hydrological drought events would occur under A1B scenario, drought duration and severity tend to increase remarkably. Moreover, the bivariate drought assessment reveals that future droughts in the same return period as the baseline droughts would become more serious. With these trends in the future, the hydrological drought situation in the WRB would be further deteriorated.

  2. Regional Frequency Analysis of Extreme Dry Spells during Rainy Season in the Wei River Basin, China

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    Dunxian She

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research analyzes the regional changes of extreme dry spell, represented by the annual maximum dry spell length (noted as AMDSL during the rainy season in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China for 1960–2014 using the L-moments method. The mean AMDSL values increase from the west to the east of the WRB, suggesting a high dry risk in the east compared to the west in the WRB. To investigate the regional frequency more reasonably, the WRB is clustered into four homogenous subregions via the K-means method and some subjective adjustments. The goodness-of-fit test shows that the GEV, PE3, and GLO distribution can be accepted as the “best-fit” model for subregions 1 and 4, subregion 2, and subregion 3, respectively. The quantiles of AMDSL under various return levels figure out a similar spatial distribution with mean AMDSL. We also find that the dry risk in subregion 2 and subregion 4 might be higher than that in subregion 1. The relationship between ENSO events and extreme dry spell events in the rainy season with cross wavelet analysis method proves that ENSO events play a critical role in triggering extreme dry events during rainy season in the WRB.

  3. Floristic Characteristics and Biodiversity Patterns in the Baishuijiang River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Zhao, Wenzhi; Wen, Zijuan; Teng, Jirong; Li, Xiaohong

    2009-07-01

    A case study was conducted on the forest ecosystem in the Baishuijiang River basin of China to reveal the influences of environmental factors and human disturbance on the floristic characteristics and biodiversity patterns. Field surveys of the floristic composition, environmental factors, and disturbance factors were conducted along an elevation gradient, and the relationships between biodiversity pattern and environmental factors were analyzed using CCA (canonical correspondence analysis). The results showed that the floristic composition of higher plants consisted of 197 families, 796 genera, 2165 species, 19 subspecies, 239 varietas, and 12 forma, and it was characterized by the multi-geographic composition and by the transition from tropical to temperate zones. Along an elevation gradient, the variations in α and β diversity were best described by a bimodal curve, and the peak values occurred at middle elevations. The CCA indicated that the elevation had the greatest influence on the biodiversity pattern, followed by the topographic index, slope direction, slope, slope position, slope shape, and vegetation coverage. In addition, human disturbance has greatly impacted the floristic composition and biodiversity patterns, and the biodiversity indices were higher with intermediate disturbance at middle elevations compared to higher and lower disturbances at low and high elevations, respectively. This reflected a disturbance-diversity pattern and thus revealed the obvious importance to maintain the intermediate disturbance for biodiversity conservation.

  4. Multivariate Regression Analysis and Statistical Modeling for Summer Extreme Precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme precipitation is likely to be one of the most severe meteorological disasters in China; however, studies on the physical factors affecting precipitation extremes and corresponding prediction models are not accurately available. From a new point of view, the sensible heat flux (SHF and latent heat flux (LHF, which have significant impacts on summer extreme rainfall in Yangtze River basin (YRB, have been quantified and then selections of the impact factors are conducted. Firstly, a regional extreme precipitation index was applied to determine Regions of Significant Correlation (RSC by analyzing spatial distribution of correlation coefficients between this index and SHF, LHF, and sea surface temperature (SST on global ocean scale; then the time series of SHF, LHF, and SST in RSCs during 1967–2010 were selected. Furthermore, other factors that significantly affect variations in precipitation extremes over YRB were also selected. The methods of multiple stepwise regression and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV were utilized to analyze and test influencing factors and statistical prediction model. The correlation coefficient between observed regional extreme index and model simulation result is 0.85, with significant level at 99%. This suggested that the forecast skill was acceptable although many aspects of the prediction model should be improved.

  5. WRF model for precipitation simulation and its application in real-time flood forecasting in the Jinshajiang River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Jianyun; Zeng, Xiaofan; Ye, Lei; Liu, Yi; Tayyab, Muhammad; Chen, Yufan

    2017-07-01

    An accurate flood forecasting with long lead time can be of great value for flood prevention and utilization. This paper develops a one-way coupled hydro-meteorological modeling system consisting of the mesoscale numerical weather model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Chinese Xinanjiang hydrological model to extend flood forecasting lead time in the Jinshajiang River Basin, which is the largest hydropower base in China. Focusing on four typical precipitation events includes: first, the combinations and mode structures of parameterization schemes of WRF suitable for simulating precipitation in the Jinshajiang River Basin were investigated. Then, the Xinanjiang model was established after calibration and validation to make up the hydro-meteorological system. It was found that the selection of the cloud microphysics scheme and boundary layer scheme has a great impact on precipitation simulation, and only a proper combination of the two schemes could yield accurate simulation effects in the Jinshajiang River Basin and the hydro-meteorological system can provide instructive flood forecasts with long lead time. On the whole, the one-way coupled hydro-meteorological model could be used for precipitation simulation and flood prediction in the Jinshajiang River Basin because of its relatively high precision and long lead time.

  6. Baseflow simulation using SWAT model in an inland river basin in Tianshan Mountains, Northwest China

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    Y. Luo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Baseflow is an important component in hydrological modeling. The complex streamflow recession process complicates the baseflow simulation. In order to simulate the snow and/or glacier melt dominated streamflow receding quickly during the high-flow period but very slowly during the low-flow period in rivers in arid and cold northwest China, the current one-reservoir baseflow approach in SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool model was extended by adding a slow- reacting reservoir and applying it to the Manas River basin in the Tianshan Mountains. Meanwhile, a digital filter program was employed to separate baseflow from streamflow records for comparisons. Results indicated that the two-reservoir method yielded much better results than the one-reservoir one in reproducing streamflow processes, and the low-flow estimation was improved markedly. Nash-Sutcliff efficiency values at the calibration and validation stages are 0.68 and 0.62 for the one-reservoir case, and 0.76 and 0.69 for the two-reservoir case. The filter-based method estimated the baseflow index as 0.60, while the model-based as 0.45. The filter-based baseflow responded almost immediately to surface runoff occurrence at onset of rising limb, while the model-based responded with a delay. In consideration of watershed surface storage retention and soil freezing/thawing effects on infiltration and recharge during initial snowmelt season, a delay response is considered to be more reasonable. However, a more detailed description of freezing/thawing processes should be included in soil modules so as to determine recharge to aquifer during these processes, and thus an accurate onset point of rising limb of the simulated baseflow.

  7. Public perception of an ecological rehabilitation project in inland river basins in northern China: Success or failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Qi; Miao, Zheng; Li, Zongxing; Li, Jianguo; Si, Jianhua; S, Yonghong; Chang, Zongqiang

    2015-05-01

    The need for environmental protection challenges societies to deal with difficult problems because strategies designed by scientists to protect the environment often create negative effects on impoverished local residents. We investigated the effects of China's national and regional policies related to environmental protection and rehabilitation projects in inland river basins, by studying the effect of projects in the Heihe and Shiyang river basins, in northwest China. Interviews and surveys were conducted at 30 sites in the lower reaches of these two arid basins, an area that has experienced severe ecological degradation. The survey results show the ecological rehabilitation projects adversely affected the livelihoods of 70.35% of foresters, 64.89% of farmers and 62.24% of herders in the Minqing region in the lower Shiyang River Basin; also, the projects negatively affected 51.9% of residents in the Ejin Qi in the lower Heihe River Basin. This caused 16.33% of foresters, 39.90% of farmers and 45.32% of herders in the Minqing region to not support the project and 37.5% of residents in the Ejin Qi region said they will deforest and graze again after the project ends. The negative impacts of the policies connected to the projects cause these attitudes. The projects prohibit felling and grazing and require residents to give up groundwater mining; this results in a great amount of uncompensated economic loss to them. Extensive survey data document the concerns of local residents, concerns that are supported by the calculation of actual incomes. In addition, the surveys results show poorer interviewees believe the projects greatly affected their livelihoods. While citizens in this region support environment protection work, the poor require considerable assistance if one expects them to support this type of work. Governmental assistance can greatly improve their living conditions, and hence encourage them to participate in and support the implementation of the projects

  8. Studying groundwater and surface water interactions using airborne remote sensing in Heihe River basin, northwest China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, C.; Liu, J.; Hu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2015-01-01

    Managing surface water and groundwater as a unified system is important for water resource exploitation and aquatic ecosystem conservation. The unified approach to water management needs accurate characterization of surface water and groundwater interactions. Temperature is a natural tracer for identifying surface water and groundwater interactions, and the use of remote sensing techniques facilitates basin-scale temperature measurement. This study focuses on the Heihe River basin, the second...

  9. River basin administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  10. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Droughts in the Xijiang River Basin, China and Its Responses to Global Climatic Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhong Qiu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Xijiang River is a main branch of the Pearl River, the largest river in South China. Droughts in this area have seriously influenced local water resource utilization, and socio-economic development. The spatiotemporal distribution of droughts and its responses to global climatic events are of critical significance for the assessment and early warning of drought disasters. In this paper, the spatiotemporal patterns of droughts characterized by Rotated Empirical Orthogonal Function/Rotated Principal Components (REOF/RPC in the Xijiang River Basin, China were evaluated using the Self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (Sc-PDSI. The drought responses to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO, Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO, India Ocean Dipole (IOD, and North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO were analysed by Pearson correlation and multiple stepwise regression. The results showed that one year earlier NAO was the dominant factor impacting the droughts in the Xijiang Basin. Its contribution for the RPC2s of the annual, the first and second half years, winter, summer, autumn, and February were −0.556, −0.419, 0.597, −0.447, 0.542, 0.600, and −0.327, respectively. Besides the two adjacent Pacific and India oceans, the droughts seem be influenced by distant Atlantic climatic events. These results offer new reference insights into the early warning of droughts as well as the planning and management of water resources in the study area.

  11. Multisource Data-Based Integrated Agricultural Drought Monitoring in the Huai River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Wen, Qingzhi; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun

    2017-10-01

    Drought monitoring is critical for early warning of drought hazard. This study attempted to develop an integrated remote sensing drought monitoring index (IRSDI), based on meteorological data for 2003-2013 from 40 meteorological stations and soil moisture data from 16 observatory stations, as well as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data using a linear trend detection method, and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. The objective was to investigate drought conditions across the Huai River basin in both space and time. Results indicate that (1) the proposed IRSDI monitors and describes drought conditions across the Huai River basin reasonably well in both space and time; (2) frequency of drought and severe drought are observed during April-May and July-September. The northeastern and eastern parts of Huai River basin are dominated by frequent droughts and intensified drought events. These regions are dominated by dry croplands, grasslands, and highly dense population and are hence more sensitive to drought hazards; (3) intensified droughts are detected during almost all months except January, August, October, and December. Besides, significant intensification of droughts is discerned mainly in eastern and western Huai River basin. The duration and regions dominated by intensified drought events would be a challenge for water resources management in view of agricultural and other activities in these regions in a changing climate.

  12. Hydrological impacts of precipitation extremes in the Huaihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mangen; Chen, Xing; Cheng, Chad Shouquan

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation extremes play a key role in flooding risks over the Huaihe River Basin, which is important to understand their hydrological impacts. Based on observed daily precipitation and streamflow data from 1958 to 2009, eight precipitation indices and three streamflow indices were calculated for the study of hydrological impacts of precipitation extremes. The results indicate that the wet condition intensified in the summer wet season and the drought condition was getting worse in the autumn dry season in the later years of the past 50 years. The river basin had experienced higher heavy rainfall-related flooding risks in summer and more severe drought in autumn in the later of the period. The extreme precipitation events or consecutive heavy rain day events led to the substantial increases in streamflow extremes, which are the main causes of frequent floods in the Huaihe River Basin. The large inter-annual variation of precipitation anomalies in the upper and central Huaihe River Basin are the major contributor for the regional frequent floods and droughts.

  13. Are recent severe floods in Xiang River basin of China linked with the increase extreme precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L.; Du, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Xiang River, a main tributary of the Yangtze River, is subjected to high floods frequently in recent twenty years. Climate change, including abrupt shifts and fluctuations in precipitation is an important factor influencing hydrological extreme conditions. In addition, human activities are widely recognized as another reasons leading to high flood risk. With the effects of climate change and human interventions on hydrological cycle, there are several questions that need to be addressed. Are floods in the Xiang River basin getting worse? Whether the extreme streamflow shows an increasing tendency? If so, is it because the extreme rainfall events have predominant effect on floods? To answer these questions, the article detected existing trends in extreme precipitation and discharge using Mann-Kendall test. Continuous wavelet transform method was employed to identify the consistency of changes in extreme precipitation and discharge. The Pearson correlation analysis was applied to investigate how much degree of variations in extreme discharge can be explained by climate change. The results indicate that slightly upward trends can be detected in both extreme rainfalls and discharge in the upper region of Xiang River basin. For the most area of middle and lower river basin, the extreme rainfalls show significant positive trends, but the extreme discharge displays slightly upward trends with no significance at 90% confidence level. Wavelet transform analysis results illustrate that highly similar patterns of signal changes can be seen between extreme precipitation and discharge in upper section of the basin, while the changes in extreme precipitation for the middle and lower reaches do not always coincide with the extreme streamflow. The correlation coefficients of the wavelet transforms for the precipitation and discharge signals in most area of the basin pass the significance test. The conclusion may be drawn that floods in recent years are not getting worse in

  14. Hydrological responses to climatic changes in the Yellow River basin, China: Climatic elasticity and streamflow prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Jianyu; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Sun, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Prediction of streamflow of the Yellow River basin was done using downscaled precipitation and temperature based on outputs of 12 GCMs under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Streamflow changes of 37 tributaries of the Yellow River basin during 2070-2099 were predicted related to different GCMs and climatic scenarios using Budyko framework. The results indicated that: (1) When compared to precipitation and temperature during 1960-1979, increasing precipitation and temperature are dominant during 2070-2099. Particularly, under RCP8.5, increase of 10% and 30% can be detected for precipitation and temperature respectively; (2) Precipitation changes have larger fractional contribution to streamflow changes than temperature changes, being the major driver for spatial and temporal patterns of water resources across the Yellow River basin; (3) 2070-2099 period will witness increased streamflow depth and decreased streamflow can be found mainly in the semi-humid regions and headwater regions of the Yellow River basin, which can be attributed to more significant increase of temperature than precipitation in these regions; (4) Distinctly different picture of streamflow changes can be observed with consideration of different outputs of GCMs which can be attributed to different outputs of GCMs under different scenarios. Even so, under RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios, 36.8% and 71.1% of the tributaries of the Yellow River basin are dominated by increasing streamflow. The results of this study are of theoretical and practical merits in terms of management of water resources and also irrigated agriculture under influences of changing climate.

  15. Climate and Hydrological Change Characteristics and Applicability of GLDAS Data in the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological cycle is particularly sensitive to and is greatly affected by global climate change. In addition, runoff change has a strong influence on the hydrological cycle and migration of biogenic substances. The Yarlung Zangbo River basin in China is a typical basin for which climate and hydrological data are lacking. Land surface models can provide data for studying land surface substance and energy circulation, which are meaningful to face climate change. The midstream region of the Yarlung Zangbo River basin, which is strongly affected by climate change, was selected as the study area. First, the observed mean temperature, precipitation and runoff characteristics were analysed. Second, after combining the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS and the water balance equation, we simulated climate and hydrological processes for the same time period. Finally, the correlation and error between GLDAS and observed data were analysed to verify applicability of the GLDAS data, and the impacts of climate factors on runoff were discussed. The results revealed that under the background of global warming, precipitation, temperature, and runoff changed significantly and showed strong consistency during the research period. Mean monthly precipitation, temperature and runoff exhibited clear cyclical fluctuations of approximately 12 months, and they all tended to increase. GLDAS is not a good system to describe the land surface conditions of the Yarlung Zangbo River basin all the time. However, within a certain time period, GLDAS data have a good applicability in the basin. Thereinto, the GLDAS mean monthly precipitation was moderately correlated with observed precipitation, with a correlation coefficient of 0.75. GLDAS mean monthly temperature was highly correlated with observed data, with a correlation coefficient of 0.94. Based on the Brunke ranking method, it indicates that GLDAS-Noah-based runoff data were closer to observed runoff data

  16. Socio-hydrologic Perspectives of the Co-evolution of Humans and Water in the Tarim River Basin, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Heping; Liu, Dengfeng; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2013-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the co-evolution of coupled human-water systems, which is of great importance for long-term sustainable water resource management in basins suffering from serious eco-environmental degradation. Process socio-hydrology can benefit from the exploring the patterns of historical co-evolution of coupled human-water systems as a way to discovering the organizing principles that may underpin their co-evolution. As a self-organized entity, the human-water system in a river basin would evolve into certain steady states over a sufficiently long time but then could also experience sudden shifts due to internal or external disturbances that exceed system thresholds. In this study, we discuss three steady states (also called stages in the social sciences, including natural, human exploitation and recovery stages) and transitions between these during the past 1500 years in the Tarim River Basin of Western China, which a rich history of civilization including its place in the famous Silk Road that connected China to Europe. Specifically, during the natural stage with a sound environment that existed before the 19th century, shifts in the ecohydrological regime were mainly caused by environmental changes such river channel migration and climate change. During the human exploitation stages in the 5th and again in the 19th-20th centuries, however, humans gradually became the main drivers for system evolution, during which the basin experienced rapid population growth, fast socio-economic development and intense human activities. By the 1970s, after 200 years of colonization, the Tarim River Basin evolved into a new regime with vulnerable ecosystem and water system, and suffered from serious water shortages and desertification. Human society then began to take a critical look into the effects of their activities and reappraise the impact of human development on the ecohydrological system, which eventually led the basin into a treatment and recovery stage

  17. Preliminary results of water quality assessment using phytoplankton and physicochemical approaches in the Huai River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zuo, Qi-Ting; Zhang, Yong-Yong

    2017-11-01

    Water pollution has been a significant issue in the Huai River Basin (HRB) of China since the late 1970s. In July and December 2013, two field investigations were carried out at 10 sites along the main streams of the basin. The monitoring indices contained both physicochemical variables and the structure and composition of phytoplankton communities. The correlations between communities and physicochemical variables were analyzed using cluster analysis and redundancy analysis. Moreover, water quality was evaluated using the comprehensive nutrition state index (TLI) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H). Results indicated that more phytoplankton species were present in December than in July, but total density was less in December. Phytoplankton communities in the midstream of the Shaying River were affected by the same physicochemical factors throughout the year, but ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus had the greatest influence on these sites in July and December, respectively. The water pollution status of the sampling sites was much greater in the Shaying River midstream than at other sites. TLI was more suitable than H for assessing water quality in the study area. These results provide valuable information for policy makers and stakeholders in water quality assessment, water ecosystem restoration, and sustainable basin management in the HRB.

  18. Synchronism of runoff response to climate change in Kaidu River Basin in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Xue; JiaQiang Lei; DongWei Gui; JianPing Zhao; DongLei Mao; Jie Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The runoff in alpine river basins where the runoff is formed in nearby mountainous areas is mainly affected by temperature and precipitation. Based on observed annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and runoff time-series datasets during 1958–2012 within the Kaidu River Basin, the synchronism of runoff response to climate change was analyzed and iden-tified by applying several classic methods, including standardization methods, Kendall's W test, the sequential version of the Mann-Kendall test, wavelet power spectrum analysis, and the rescaled range (R/S) approach. The concordance of the nonlinear trend variations of the annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and runoff was tested significantly at the 0.05 level by Kendall's W method. The sequential version of the Mann-Kendall test revealed that abrupt changes in annual runoff were synchronous with those of annual mean temperature. The periodic characteristics of annual runoff were mainly consistent with annual precipitation, having synchronous 3-year significant periods and the same 6-year, 10-year, and 38-year quasi-periodicities. While the periodic characteristics of annual runoff in the Kaidu River Basin tracked well with those of annual precipitation, the abrupt changes in annual runoff were synchronous with the annual mean temperature, which directly drives glacier- and snow-melt processes. R/S analysis indicated that the annual mean temperature, annual precipitation, and runoff will continue to increase and remain synchronously persistent in the future. This work can im-prove the understanding of runoff response to regional climate change to provide a viable reference in the management of water resources in the Kaidu River Basin, a regional sustainable socio-economic development.

  19. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to meteorological factors in Heihe River Basin, China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jie; Xu, Zong-xue; Zuo, De-peng; Wang, Xu-ming

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of daily meteorological data from 15 meteorological stations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB) during the period from 1959 to 2012, long-term trends of reference evapotranspiration (ET0) and key meteorological factors that affect ET0 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The evaporation paradox was also investigated at 15 meteorological stations. In order to explore the contribution of key meteorological factors to the temporal variation of ET0, a sensitivity coefficient method...

  20. Distributed modeling of landsurface water and energy budgets in the inland Heihe river basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Jia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A distributed model for simulating the land surface hydrological processes in the Heihe river basin was developed and validated on the basis of considering the physical mechanism of hydrological cycle and the artificial system of water utilization in the basin. Modeling approach of every component process was introduced from 2 aspects, i.e., water cycle and energy cycle. The hydrological processes include evapotranspiration, infiltration, runoff, groundwater flow, interaction between groundwater and river water, overland flow, river flow and artificial cycle processes of water utilization. A simulation of 21 years from 1982 to 2002 was carried out after obtaining various input data and model parameters. The model was validated for both the simulation of monthly discharge process and that of daily discharge process. Water budgets and spatial and temporal variations of hydrological cycle components as well as energy cycle components in the upper and middle reach Heihe basin (36 728 km2 were studied by using the distributed hydrological model. In addition, the model was further used to predict the water budgets under the future land surface change scenarios in the basin. The modeling results show: (1 in the upper reach watershed, the annual average evapotranspiration and runoff account for 63% and 37% of the annual precipitation, respectively, the snow melting runoff accounts for 19% of the total runoff and 41% of the direct runoff, and the groundwater storage has no obvious change; (2 in the middle reach basin, the annual average evapotranspiration is 52 mm more than the local annual precipitation, and the groundwater storage is of an obvious declining trend because of irrigation water consumption; (3 for the scenario of conservation forest construction in the upper reach basin, although the evapotranspiration from interception may increase, the soil evaporation may reduce at the same time, therefore the total evapotranspiration may not

  1. Differentiating climate- and human-induced drivers of grassland degradation in the Liao River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunyang; Tian, Jie; Gao, Bin; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Quantitatively distinguishing grassland degradation due to climatic variations from that due to human activities is of great significance to effectively governing degraded grassland and realizing sustainable utilization. The objective of this study was to differentiate these two types of drivers in the Liao River Basin during 1999-2009 using the residual trend (RESTREND) method and to evaluate the applicability of the method in semiarid and semihumid regions. The relationship between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and each climatic factor was first determined. Then, the primary driver of grassland degradation was identified by calculating the change trend of the normalized residuals between the observed and the predicted NDVI assuming that climate change was the only driver. We found that the RESTREND method can be used to quantitatively and effectively differentiate climate and human drivers of grassland degradation. We also found that the grassland degradation in the Liao River Basin was driven by both natural processes and human activities. The driving factors of grassland degradation varied greatly across the study area, which included regions having different precipitation and altitude. The degradation in the Horqin Sandy Land, with lower altitude, was driven mainly by human activities, whereas that in the Kungl Prairie, with higher altitude and lower precipitation, was caused primarily by climate change. Therefore, the drivers of degradation and local conditions should be considered in an appropriate strategy for grassland management to promote the sustainability of grasslands in the Liao River Basin.

  2. The Spatial Distributions and Variations of Water Environmental Risk in Yinma River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Hui; Liu, Xingpeng; Zhang, Jiquan; Tong, Zhijun; Ji, Meichen

    2018-03-15

    Water environmental risk is the probability of the occurrence of events caused by human activities or the interaction of human activities and natural processes that will damage a water environment. This study proposed a water environmental risk index (WERI) model to assess the water environmental risk in the Yinma River Basin based on hazards, exposure, vulnerability, and regional management ability indicators in a water environment. The data for each indicator were gathered from 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015 to assess the spatial and temporal variations in water environmental risk using particle swarm optimization and the analytic hierarchy process (PSO-AHP) method. The results showed that the water environmental risk in the Yinma River Basin decreased from 2000 to 2015. The risk level of the water environment was high in Changchun, while the risk levels in Yitong and Yongji were low. The research methods provide information to support future decision making by the risk managers in the Yinma River Basin, which is in a high-risk water environment. Moreover, water environment managers could reduce the risks by adjusting the indicators that affect water environmental risks.

  3. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xue

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.

  4. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.

  5. Effect of land use on the seasonal variation of streamwater quality in the Wei River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S.; Xu, Z.; Wu, W.; Zuo, D.

    2015-05-01

    The temporal effect of land use on streamwater quality needs to be addressed for a better understanding of the complex relationship between land use and streamwater quality. In this study, GIS and Pearson correlation analysis were used to determine whether there were correlations of land-use types with streamwater quality at the sub-basin scale in the Wei River basin, China, during dry and rainy seasons in 2012. Temporal variation of these relations was observed, indicating that relationships between water quality variables and proportions of different land uses were weaker in the rainy season than that in the dry season. Comparing with other land uses, agriculture and urban lands had a stronger relationship with water quality variables in both the rainy and dry seasons. These results suggest that the aspect of temporal effects should be taken into account for better land-use management.

  6. Analysis and prediction of reference evapotranspiration with climate change in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-e Tao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ET0 is often used to estimate actual evapotranspiration in water balance studies. In this study, the present and future spatial distributions and temporal trends of ET0 in the Xiangjiang River Basin (XJRB in China were analyzed. ET0 during the period from 1961 to 2010 was calculated with historical meteorological data using the FAO Penman-Monteith (FAO P-M method, while ET0 during the period from 2011 to 2100 was downscaled from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 outputs under two emission scenarios, representative concentration pathway 4.5 and representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP45 and RCP85, using the statistical downscaling model (SDSM. The spatial distribution and temporal trend of ET0 were interpreted with the inverse distance weighted (IDW method and Mann-Kendall test method, respectively. Results show that: (1 the mean annual ET0 of the XJRB is 1 006.3 mm during the period from 1961 to 2010, and the lowest and highest values are found in the northeast and northwest parts due to the high latitude and spatial distribution of climatic factors, respectively; (2 the SDSM performs well in simulating the present ET0 and can be used to predict the future ET0 in the XJRB; and (3 CMIP5 predicts upward trends in annual ET0 under the RCP45 and RCP85 scenarios during the period from 2011 to 2100. Compared with the reference period (1961–1990, ET0 increases by 9.8%, 12.6%, and 15.6% under the RCP45 scenario and 10.2%, 19.1%, and 27.3% under the RCP85 scenario during the periods from 2011 to 2040, from 2041 to 2070, and from 2071 to 2100, respectively. The predicted increasing ET0 under the RCP85 scenario is greater than that under the RCP45 scenario during the period from 2011 to 2100.

  7. More frequent flooding? Changes in flood frequency in the Pearl River basin, China, since 1951 and over the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Sun, Peng

    2018-05-01

    Flood risks across the Pearl River basin, China, were evaluated using a peak flood flow dataset covering a period of 1951-2014 from 78 stations and historical flood records of the past 1000 years. The generalized extreme value (GEV) model and the kernel estimation method were used to evaluate frequencies and risks of hazardous flood events. Results indicated that (1) no abrupt changes or significant trends could be detected in peak flood flow series at most of the stations, and only 16 out of 78 stations exhibited significant peak flood flow changes with change points around 1990. Peak flood flow in the West River basin increased and significant increasing trends were identified during 1981-2010; decreasing peak flood flow was found in coastal regions and significant trends were observed during 1951-2014 and 1966-2014. (2) The largest three flood events were found to cluster in both space and time. Generally, basin-scale flood hazards can be expected in the West and North River basins. (3) The occurrence rate of floods increased in the middle Pearl River basin but decreased in the lower Pearl River basin. However, hazardous flood events were observed in the middle and lower Pearl River basin, and this is particularly true for the past 100 years. However, precipitation extremes were subject to moderate variations and human activities, such as building of levees, channelization of river systems, and rapid urbanization; these were the factors behind the amplification of floods in the middle and lower Pearl River basin, posing serious challenges for developing measures of mitigation of flood hazards in the lower Pearl River basin, particularly the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region.

  8. Landscape Ecological Risk Responses to Land Use Change in the Luanhe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use change has large effects on natural ecosystems, which is considered to be the main factor in eco-environment change. We analyzed the future characters of land use change by the CLUE-S model and explored landscape ecological risk responses to land use change by the landscape ecological risk index method. Using the Luanhe River Basin as a case study, we simulated future land use change from 2010 to 2030 under 3 scenarios (i.e., trend, high economic growth, and ecological security, and identified the hotspots of land use change. Afterward, we quantitatively investigated the degree of land use development and landscape ecological risk patterns that have occured since 2000 and that are expected to occur until 2030. Results revealed that, under the three scenarios, construction land and forest are expanding mainly at the expense of agriculture land and grassland. The hotspots of land use change are located in the vicinity of Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District of Chengde City in the midstream of the Luanhe River Basin, where urbanization has been strong since 2000 and is projected to continue that way until 2030. During this time period, hotspots of land use development have been gradually transferring from the downstream to the midstream since 2000 and, again, is expected to continue that way until 2030, which will impact the spatial distribution of landscape ecological risk. We found that the landscape ecological risk of the entire basin has shown a negative trend. However, a few areas still have serious ecological risk, which are mainly located in the east of upstream (Duolun County and Weichang County, the middle region (Shuangluan and Shuangqiao District, Chengde County, and Xinglong County, and the downstream (Qinglong County. These can provide key information for land use management, and for helping to prepare future eco-environmental policies in the Luanhe River Basin.

  9. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows under natural conditions in inland river basins in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Zang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Furthermore, in data poor regions hydrological flows under natural conditions are poorly characterised but are a prerequisite to inform future water resources management. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows that can be expected under natural conditions as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.05–25.51 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and a large amount of snow and melting water in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 87%–89% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80%–90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 90% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficients in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficients were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. snow cover upstream and desert downstream and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation upstream and low precipitation downstream. There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and the green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments under natural conditions for the entire

  10. The Hei River Basin in northwestern China - tectonics, sedimentary processes and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudersdorf, Andreas; Nottebaum, Veit; Schimpf, Stefan; Yu, Kaifeng; Hartmann, Kai; Stauch, Georg; Wünnemann, Bernd; Reicherter, Klaus; Diekmann, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The Hei River Basin (catchment area of c. 130,000 km²) is situated at the transition between the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southern slopes of Gobi-Tien-Shan. As part of the northwestern Chinese deserts, the Ejina Basin (Gaxun Nur Basin) constitutes the endorheic erosion base of the drainage system. The basin - hosting the second largest continental alluvial fans in the world, is tectonically strongly shaped by the Gobi belt of left-lateral transpression. The tectonic setting in combination with competing climatic driving forces (Westerlies and summer/winter monsoon currents) has supported the formation of a valuable long-time sediment archive comprises at least the last 250,000 yrs. of deposition. It is composed by the interplay of eolian, fluvial and lacustrine sedimentation cycles and today is dominated by widespread (gravel) gobi surfaces, insular dune fields and shallow evaporitic playa areas. Thus, it provides excellent conditions to investigate tectonic evolution and Quaternary environmental changes. Recently, geomorphological, geophysical, neotectonic and mineralogical studies have enhanced the understanding of the environmental history and the modern depositional environment. Moreover, the role of the Hei River Basin as an important source area of silt particles which were later deposited on the Chinese Loess Plateau is evaluated. Therefore, a 230 m long drill core, sediment sections and ca. 700 surface samples throughout the whole catchment and basin were analyzed. Instrumental and historical seismicity are very low, but the proximity to active fault zones and dating irregularities in earlier publications indicate evidence for deformation in the study area. Despite flat topography, indications of active tectonics such as fault-related large-scale lineations can be observed. Seismically deformed unconsolidated lacustrine deposits (seismites), presumably of Holocene age, are evident and must be related to the nearby faults. The upper

  11. Hydrologic Evaluation of TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis for Nanliu River Basin in Humid Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjun; Xie, Qiongying; Lu, Yuan; Hu, Baoqing

    2017-06-01

    The accuracy of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) daily accumulated precipitation products (3B42RTV7 and 3B42V7) was evaluated for a small basin (the Nanliu river basin). A direct comparison was performed against gauge observations from a period of 9 years (2000-2009) at temporal and spatial scales. The results show that the temporal-spatial precipitation characteristics of the Nanliu river basin are highly consistent with 3B42V7 relative to 3B42RTV7, with higher correlation coefficient (CC) approximately 0.9 at all temporal scales except for the daily scale and a lower relative bias percentage. 3B42V7 slightly overestimates precipitation at all temporal scales except the yearly scale; it slightly underestimates the precipitation at the daily spatial scale. The results also reveal that the precision of TMPA products increases with longer time-aggregated data, and the detection capability of daily TMPA precipitation products are enhanced by augmentation with daily precipitation rates. In addition, daily TMPA products were input into the Xin'anjiang hydrologic model; the results show that 3B42V7-based simulated outputs were well in line with actual stream flow observations, with a high CC (0.90) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE, 0.79), and the results adequately captured the pattern of the observed flow curve.

  12. Responses of snowmelt runoff to climatic change in an inland river basin, Northwestern China, over the past 50 years

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    J. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal variations of snowcover distribution, and snowmelt runoff are considered as sensitive indicators for climatic change. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and forecast the responses of snowmelt runoff to climate change in an inland river basin. The upper basin of Heihe River in Northwestern China was chose as the study area, and the observation data from the meteorological and hydrological stations were utilized to analyze the status and regularity of the climatic change over the past 50 years. Snow cover area was obtained by an optimized technology using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data with Normalized Difference Snow Index adjustment and topographic correction. A concept of potential snowmelt was suggested to illustrate the response of spatial snowmelt to climate change. The results show that the annual SCA proportion and the potential snowmelt keep an increasing trend since 2000. There is a negative relationship between annual air temperature and SCA proportion from 2000 to 2008. Snowmelt Runoff Model was chose to simulate snowmelt runoff and scenario forecast the change trend of snowmelt runoff in this region. The results show that climatic warming was apparent in the upper basin of Heihe River over the past 50 a. Annual average air temperature of three different weather stations located in the basin has increased 2.1 °C, 2.6 °C and 2.9 °C respectively from 1956 to present. The snowmelt runoff has increased obviously from 1970 to present. With different warming climate scenarios, the results by using SRM simulating showed that the first occurred time of snowmelt runoff shift ahead and discharge become larger as responses of snowmelt runoff to air temperature increasing, and the influence of temperature rising on average discharge of the whole snow season is not obvious.

  13. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995–2014) and near future (2015–2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses. PMID:27348224

  14. Hydrological Impacts of Land Use Change and Climate Variability in the Headwater Region of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Nan, Zhuotong; Xu, Yi; Li, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Land use change and climate variability are two key factors impacting watershed hydrology, which is strongly related to the availability of water resources and the sustainability of local ecosystems. This study assessed separate and combined hydrological impacts of land use change and climate variability in the headwater region of a typical arid inland river basin, known as the Heihe River Basin, northwest China, in the recent past (1995-2014) and near future (2015-2024), by combining two land use models (i.e., Markov chain model and Dyna-CLUE) with a hydrological model (i.e., SWAT). The potential impacts in the near future were explored using projected land use patterns and hypothetical climate scenarios established on the basis of analyzing long-term climatic observations. Land use changes in the recent past are dominated by the expansion of grassland and a decrease in farmland; meanwhile the climate develops with a wetting and warming trend. Land use changes in this period induce slight reductions in surface runoff, groundwater discharge and streamflow whereas climate changes produce pronounced increases in them. The joint hydrological impacts are similar to those solely induced by climate changes. Spatially, both the effects of land use change and climate variability vary with the sub-basin. The influences of land use changes are more identifiable in some sub-basins, compared with the basin-wide impacts. In the near future, climate changes tend to affect the hydrological regimes much more prominently than land use changes, leading to significant increases in all hydrological components. Nevertheless, the role of land use change should not be overlooked, especially if the climate becomes drier in the future, as in this case it may magnify the hydrological responses.

  15. [Seasonal changes of optical absorption properties of river and lake in East Liaohe River basin, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan Yan; Su, Dong Hui; Shao, Tian Tian

    2017-06-18

    The absorption characteristics of optically active constituents (OACs) in water column are important optical properties and basic parameters of establishing the inverse analysis model. Comparative analyses about seasonal variability of the optical absorption characteristics (phytoplankton, non-algal particles and chromophoric dissolved organic matter absorption characteristics) and water quality status of East Liaohe River basin were conducted based on the water samples in Erlong-hu Reservoir collected in June, September and October of 2011 and samples in East Liaohe River in October of 2012. The results demonstrated that the eutrophication status of Erlonghu Reservoir was lower in June, eutrophic in September and moderately eutrophic in October. Some of the sampling points of the East Liaohe River belonged to the middle trophic level and the other part belonged to the eutrophic level. The absorption coefficient of each component of water increased with increasing nutrient level. Besides, the absorption spectra of total suspended particulate of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and October were similar to that of non-algal particles, and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) contributed most to the total absorption of water. The absorption spectra of total suspended particulate matter in September were similar to that of phytoplankton and phytoplankton was the dominant contributor to the total absorption. For samples of Erlonghu Reservoir in June and September, a ph (440) and total phosphorus (TP) were correlated closely with each other. Significant correlation between a ph (440) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of Erlonghu Reservoir in June was observed, while a d (440) was only correlated with Chla. There were positive correlations between a ph (675) and Chla, Carlson index (TLI) in Erlonghu Reservoir (September) and East Liaohe River. Obvious differences of water optical properties were found between river and lake located in the East Liaohe River basin as

  16. Water-ecosystem-economy nexus under human intervention and climate change: a study in the Heihe River Basin (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Tian, Y.; Wu, X.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Recently, "One Belt and One Road" initiative, namely, building the "Silk Road Economic Belt" and "21st Century Maritime Silk Road", has become a global strategy of China and has been discussed as China's "Marshall Plan". The overland route of "One Belt" comes across vast arid lands, where the local population and ecosystem compete keenly for limited water resources. Water and environmental securities represent an important constraint of the "One Belt" development, and therefore understanding the complex water-ecosystem-economy nexus in the arid inland areas is very important. One typical case is Heihe River Basin (HRB), the second largest inland river basin of China, where the croplands in its middle part sucked up the river flow and groundwater, causing serious ecological problems in its lower part (Gobi Desert). We have developed an integrated hydrological-ecological model for the middle and lower HRB (the modeling domain has an area of 90,589 km2), which served as a platform to fuse multi-source data and provided a coherent understanding on the regional water cycle. With this physically based model, we quantitatively investigated how the nexus would be impacted by human intervention, mainly the existing and potential water regulations, and what would be the uncertainty of the nexus under the climate change. In studying the impact of human intervention, simulation-optimization analyses based on surrogate modeling were performed. In studying the uncertainty resulted from the climate change, outputs of multiple GCMs were downscaled for this river basin to drive ecohydrological simulations. Our studies have demonstrated the significant tradeoffs among the crop production in the middle HRB, the water and environmental securities of the middle HRB, and the ecological health of the lower HRB. The underlying mechanisms of the tradeoffs were also systematically addressed. The climate change would cause notable uncertainty of the nexus, which makes the water resources

  17. Sedimentary record and luminescence chronology of palaeoflood events along the Gold Gorge of the upper Hanjiang River, middle Yangtze River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongqiang; Huang, Chun Chang; Zhou, Yali; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Fan, Longjiang; Mao, Peini

    2018-05-01

    Palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) along the river banks have important implications for the reconstruction of the past hydro-climatic events. Two palaeoflood SWD beds were identified in the Holocene loess-soil sequences on the cliff river banks along the Gold Gorge of the upper Hanjiang River by field investigation and laboratory analysis. They have recorded two palaeoflood events which were dated by optically stimulated luminescence to 3.2-2.8 ka and 2.1-1.8 ka, respectively. The reliability of the ages obtained for the two events are further confirmed by the presence of archaeological remains and good regional pedostratigraphic correlation. The peak discharges of two palaeoflood events at the studied sites were estimated to be 16,560-17,930 m3/s. A correlation with the palaeoflood events identified in the other reaches shows that great floods occurred frequently during the episodes of 3200-2800 and 2000-1700 a BP along the upper Hanjiang River valley during the last 4000 years. These phases of palaeoflood events in central China are well correlated with the climatic variability identified by δ18O record in the stalagmites from the middle Yangtze River Basin and show apparent global linkages. Palaeoflood studies in a watershed scale also imply that strengthened human activities during the Shang dynasty (BCE 1600-1100) and Han dynasty (BCE206-CE265) may have caused accelerated soil erosion along the upper Hanjiang River valley.

  18. Standardized Water Budget Index and Validation in Drought Estimation of Haihe River Basin, North China

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    Shaohua Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The physical-based drought indices such as the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI with the fixed time scale is inadequate for the multiscalar drought assessment, and the multiscalar drought indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, Reconnaissance Drought Index (RDI, and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI based on the meteorological factors are lack of physical mechanism and cannot depict the actual water budget. To fill this gap, the Standardized Water Budget Index (SWBI is constructed based on the difference between areal precipitation and actual evapotranspiration (AET, which can describe the actual water budget but also assess the drought at multiple time scales. Then, sc-PDSI was taken as the reference drought index to compare with multiscalar drought indices at different time scale in Haihe River basin. The result shows that SWBI correlates better with sc-PDSI and the RMSE of SWBI is less than other multiscalar drought indices. In addition, all of drought indices show a decreasing trend in Haihe River Basin, possibly due to the decreasing precipitation from 1961 to 2010. The decreasing trends of SWBI were significant and consistent at all the time scales, while the decreasing trends of other multiscalar drought indices are insignificant at time scale less than 3 months.

  19. Simulating and predicting snow and glacier meltwater to the runoff of the Upper Mekong River basin in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Z.; Long, D.; Hong, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Snow and glacier meltwater in cryospheric regions replenishes groundwater and reservoir storage and is critical to water supply, hydropower development, agricultural irrigation, and ecological integrity. Accurate simulating and predicting snow and glacier meltwater is therefore fundamental to develop a better understanding of hydrological processes and water resource management for alpine basins and its lower reaches. The Upper Mekong River (or the Lancang River in China) as one of the most important transboundary rivers originating from the Tibetan Plateau (TP), features active dam construction and complicated water resources allocation of the stakeholders. Confronted by both climate change and significant human activities, it is imperative to examine contributions of snow and glacier meltwater to the total runoff and how it will change in the near future. This will greatly benefit hydropower development in the upper reach of the Mekong and better water resources allocation and management across the relevant countries. This study aims to improve snowfall and snow water equivalent (SWE) simulation using improved methods, and combines both modeling skill and remote sensing (i.e., passive microwave-based SWE, and satellite gravimetry-based total water storage) to quantify the contributions of snow and glacier meltwater there. In addition, the runoff of the Lancang River under a range of climate change scenarios is simulated using the improved modeling scheme to evaluate how climate change will impact hydropower development in the upper reaches.

  20. Spatial and temporal characteristics of droughts in Luanhe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Xu; Li, Jianzhu; Feng, Ping

    2018-02-01

    The spatial and temporal characteristics of drought are investigated for Luanhe River basin, using monthly precipitation data from 26 stations covering the common period of 1958-2011. The spatial pattern of drought was assessed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) computed on 3- and 12-month time scales. In addition, annual SPI and seasonal SPIs (including spring SPI, summer SPI, autumn SPI, and winter SPI) were also defined and considered in this study to characterize seasonal and annual drought conditions, respectively. For all seven SPI cases, three distinctive sub-regions with different temporal evolutions of droughts are well identified, respectively, representing the southeast, middle, and northwest of the Luanhe River basin. The Mann-Kendall (MK) trend test with a trend-free pre-whitening (TFPW) procedure and Sen's method were used to determine the temporal trends in the annual and seasonal SPI time series. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was employed for further detecting the periodical features of drought condition in each sub-region. Results of MK and Sen's tests show a general tendency of intensification in summer drought over the entire basin, while a significant mitigating trend in spring drought. On the whole, an aggravating trend of inter-annual drought is discovered across the basin. Based on the CWT, the drought variability in the basin is generally dominated by 16- to 64-month cycles, and the 2- to 6-year cycles appear to be obvious when concerned with annual and seasonal droughts. Furthermore, a cross wavelet analysis was performed to examine the possible links between the drought conditions and large-scale climate patterns. The teleconnections of ENSO, NAO, PDO, and AMO show significant influences on the regional droughts principally concentrated in the 16- to 64-month period, maybe responsible for the physical causes of the cyclical behavior of drought occurrences. PDO and AMO also

  1. Responses of Vegetation Growth to Climatic Factors in Shule River Basin in Northwest China: A Panel Analysis

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    Jinghui Qi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation response to climatic factors is a hot topic in global change research. However, research on vegetation in Shule River Basin, which is a typical arid region in northwest China, is still limited, especially at micro scale. On the basis of Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI data and daily meteorological data, employing panel data models and other mathematical models, the aim of this paper is to reveal the interactive relationship between vegetation variation and climatic factors in Shule River Basin. Results show that there is a widespread greening trend in the whole basin during 2000–2015, and 80.28% of greening areas (areas with vegetation improvement are distributed over upstream region, but the maximum vegetation variation appears in downstream area. The effects of climate change on NDVI lag about half to one month. The parameters estimated using panel data models indicate that precipitation and accumulated temperature have positive contribution to NDVI. With every 1-mm increase in rainfall, NDVI increases by around 0.223‰ in upstream area and 0.6‰ in downstream area. With every 1-°C increase in accumulated temperature, NDVI increases by around 0.241‰ in upstream area and 0.174‰ in downstream area. Responses of NDVI to climatic factors are more sensitive when these factors are limiting than when they are not limiting. NDVI variation has performance in two seasonal and inter-annual directions, and the range of seasonal change is far more than that of inter-annual change. The inverted U-shaped curve of the variable intercepts reflects the seasonal change. Our results might provide some scientific basis for the comprehensive basin management.

  2. Integrated water resources management : A case study in the Hehei river basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Siqi; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2017-04-01

    The lack of water resources experienced in different parts of the world has now been recognized and analyzed by different international organizations such as WHO, the World Bank, etc. Add to this the growing urbanization and the fast socio-economic development, the water supply of many urban areas is already or will be severely threatened. Recently published documents from the UN Environmental Program confirms that severe water shortage affects 400 million people today and will affect 4 billion people by 2050. Water nowadays is getting scarce, and access to clean drinking water and water for agricultural usage is unequally distributed. The biggest opportunity and challenge for future water management is how to achieve water sustainability to reduce water consumption. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a process which promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources in order to maximize economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. We take the Heibe river basin where agriculture water there accounted for 90% of total water consumption as an example to study the impacts of IWRM on regional water resources. We calculated the elasticity of substitution values between labor and land, water by each irrigation areas to find the variable elastic value among irrigation areas, and the water-use efficiency based on NPP estimation with the C-fix model and WUE estimation with NPP and ET. The empirical analysis indicated that the moderate scale of farmland is 0.27-0.53hm2 under the condition of technical efficiency of irrigation water and production. Agricultural water use accounted for 94% of the social and economic water consumption in 2012, but water efficiency and water productivity were both at a low stage. In conclusion, land use forms at present in Heihe river basin have a detrimental impact on the availability of ecological water use. promoting water

  3. Assessing the influence of climate change and inter-basin water diversion on Haihe River basin, eastern China: a coupled model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Rui; She, Dunxian

    2018-04-01

    The modeling of changes in surface water and groundwater in the areas of inter-basin water diversion projects is quite difficult because surface water and groundwater models are run separately most of the time and the lack of sufficient data limits the application of complex surface-water/groundwater coupling models based on physical laws, especially for developing countries. In this study, a distributed surface-water and groundwater coupling model, named the distributed time variant gain model-groundwater model (DTVGM-GWM), was used to assess the influence of climate change and inter-basin water diversion on a watershed hydrological cycle. The DTVGM-GWM model can reflect the interaction processes of surface water and groundwater at basin scale. The model was applied to the Haihe River Basin (HRB) in eastern China. The possible influences of climate change and the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) on surface water and groundwater in the HRB were analyzed under various scenarios. The results showed that the newly constructed model DTVGM-GWM can reasonably simulate the surface and river runoff, and describe the spatiotemporal distribution characteristics of groundwater level, groundwater storage and phreatic recharge. The prediction results under different scenarios showed a decline in annual groundwater exploitation and also runoff in the HRB, while an increase of groundwater storage and groundwater level after the SNWDP's operation. Additionally, as the project also addresses future scenarios, a slight increase is predicted in the actual evapotranspiration, soil water content and phreatic recharge. This study provides valuable insights for developing sustainable groundwater management options for the HRB.

  4. Discriminating the precipitation phase based on different temperature thresholds in the Songhua River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Keyuan; Zheng, Fenli; Xu, Ximeng; Qin, Chao

    2018-06-01

    Different precipitation phases (rain, snow or sleet) differ greatly in their hydrological and erosional processes. Therefore, accurate discrimination of the precipitation phase is highly important when researching hydrologic processes and climate change at high latitudes and mountainous regions. The objective of this study was to identify suitable temperature thresholds for discriminating the precipitation phase in the Songhua River Basin (SRB) based on 20-year daily precipitation collected from 60 meteorological stations located in and around the basin. Two methods, the air temperature method (AT method) and the wet bulb temperature method (WBT method), were used to discriminate the precipitation phase. Thirteen temperature thresholds were used to discriminate snowfall in the SRB. These thresholds included air temperatures from 0 to 5.5 °C at intervals of 0.5 °C and the wet bulb temperature (WBT). Three evaluation indices, the error percentage of discriminated snowfall days (Ep), the relative error of discriminated snowfall (Re) and the determination coefficient (R2), were applied to assess the discrimination accuracy. The results showed that 2.5 °C was the optimum threshold temperature for discriminating snowfall at the scale of the entire basin. Due to differences in the landscape conditions at the different stations, the optimum threshold varied by station. The optimal threshold ranged 1.5-4.0 °C, and 19 stations, 17 stations and 18 stations had optimal thresholds of 2.5 °C, 3.0 °C, and 3.5 °C respectively, occupying 90% of all stations. Compared with using a single suitable temperature threshold to discriminate snowfall throughout the basin, it was more accurate to use the optimum threshold at each station to estimate snowfall in the basin. In addition, snowfall was underestimated when the temperature threshold was the WBT and when the temperature threshold was below 2.5 °C, whereas snowfall was overestimated when the temperature threshold exceeded 4

  5. Nonstationarity in the occurrence rate of floods in the Tarim River basin, China, and related impacts of climate indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xihui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xi; Liu, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Amplification of floods in the Xinjiang, China, has been observed, but reports on their changing properties and underlying mechanisms are not available. In this study, occurrence rates of floods in the Tarim River basin, the largest inland arid river basin in China, were analyzed using the Kernel density estimation technique and bootstrap resampling method. Also analyzed were the occurrence rates of precipitation extremes using the POT (Peak over Threshold)-based sampling method. Both stationary and non-stationary models were developed using GAMLSS (Generalized Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape) to model flood frequency with time, climate index, precipitation and temperature as major predictors. Results indicated: (1) two periods with increasing occurrence of floods, i.e., the late 1960s and the late 1990s with considerable fluctuations around 2-3 flood events during time intervals between the late 1960s and the late 1990s; (2) changes in the occurrence rates of floods were subject to nonstationarity. A persistent increase of flood frequency and magnitude was observed during the 1990s and reached a peak value; (3) AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) and AO (Atlantic Oscillation) in winter were the key influencing climate indices impacting the occurrence rates of floods. However, NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and SOI (South Oscillation Index) are two principle factors that influence the occurrence rates of regional floods. The AIC (Akaike Information Criterion) values indicated that compared to the influence of climate indices, occurrence rates of floods seemed to be more sensitive to temperature and precipitation changes. Results of this study are important for flood management and development of mitigation measures.

  6. Characterization of gas hydrate distribution using conventional 3D seismic data in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Qiang, Jin; Collett, Timothy S.; Shi, Hesheng; Yang, Shengxiong; Yan, Chengzhi; Li, Yuanping; Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Duanxin

    2016-01-01

    A new 3D seismic reflection data volume acquired in 2012 has allowed for the detailed mapping and characterization of gas hydrate distribution in the Pearl River Mouth Basin in the South China Sea. Previous studies of core and logging data showed that gas hydrate occurrence at high concentrations is controlled by the presence of relatively coarse-grained sediment and the upward migration of thermogenic gas from the deeper sediment section into the overlying gas hydrate stability zone (BGHSZ); however, the spatial distribution of the gas hydrate remains poorly defined. We used a constrained sparse spike inversion technique to generate acoustic-impedance images of the hydrate-bearing sedimentary section from the newly acquired 3D seismic data volume. High-amplitude reflections just above the bottom-simulating reflectors (BSRs) were interpreted to be associated with the accumulation of gas hydrate with elevated saturations. Enhanced seismic reflections below the BSRs were interpreted to indicate the presence of free gas. The base of the BGHSZ was established using the occurrence of BSRs. In areas absent of well-developed BSRs, the BGHSZ was calculated from a model using the inverted P-wave velocity and subsurface temperature data. Seismic attributes were also extracted along the BGHSZ that indicate variations reservoir properties and inferred hydrocarbon accumulations at each site. Gas hydrate saturations estimated from the inversion of acoustic impedance of conventional 3D seismic data, along with well-log-derived rock-physics models were also used to estimate gas hydrate saturations. Our analysis determined that the gas hydrate petroleum system varies significantly across the Pearl River Mouth Basin and that variability in sedimentary properties as a product of depositional processes and the upward migration of gas from deeper thermogenic sources control the distribution of gas hydrates in this basin.

  7. Temporal variation of streamflow, sediment load and their relationship in the Yellow River basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangju Zhao

    Full Text Available Variation of streamflow and sediment load in the Yellow River basin has received considerable attention due to its drastic reduction during the past several decades. This paper presents a detailed investigation on the changes of streamflow and sediment load from 1952 to 2011 using monthly observations at four gauging stations along the Yellow River. The results show significant decreasing trends for both streamflow and sediment load at all four gauging stations over the past 60 years. The wavelet transform demonstrated discontinuous periodicities from 1969 to 1973 and after 1986 due to the construction of large reservoirs and implementation of numerous soil and water conservations practices. The sediment rating curves with the power-law function was applied to investigate the relationship between discharge and sediment load. The results indicate distinct variations of the relationship between streamflow and sediment and implied significant hydro-morphological changes within different periods. The reducing sediment supply from the source region and the increased erosive power of the river are detected at Lanzhou station, while the decrease of the transport capacity at Toudaoguai is caused by severe siltation. Significant changes in the relationship between streamflow and sediment load are found at Huayuankou and Gaocun stations, which are largely induced by evident sediment income and trapping effects of large reservoirs. It is estimated that numerous reservoirs have strongly altered the regime and magnitude of streamflow and trapped large amount of sediment, leading to severe siltation and evident reduction of their total volumes. A decrease in precipitation, incoming water from the upper reaches, soil and water conservation measures as well as water consumption contribute most to the significant reduction of streamflow. The decrease of sediment load mainly resulted from various soil and water conservation measures and trapping in reservoirs

  8. Spatio-temporal variability of evapotranspiration and energy fluxes over Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Z.; Liu, S.; Xu, T.; Song, L.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is an essential component of energy and water budgets and is an important process in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPAC). Some important ecosystem parameters and processes, such as soil moisture, vegetation productivity, ecosystem energy, water, and nutrient budgets, are influenced by ET. The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is the second largest inland river, with an area of approximately 140,000 km2. A diverse land covers are distributing in HRB, which is characterized by distinct cold and arid landscapes, glaciers, frozen soil, alpine meadow, forest, irrigated crops, riparian ecosystem, and desert from upstream to downstream. Up to now, there was not a quantitative characterization of ET and energy flux over HRB; therefore, special attention should be paid on this term. A comprehensive hydrometeorological observatory was established since 2008 and completed in 2013. The network included 3 superstations and 18 ordinary stations, covering the main underlying surfaces in the basin, including alpine meadow, cropland, desert, wetland, frozen soil, Tamarix chinensis, and Populus euphratica, etc. Reliable data were obtained after the routine instrument maintenance and carefully data processing. ET and energy flux observations were made more than 5 years (2012-2017) using eddy covariance (EC) systems and large aperture scintillometers (LAS), and the seasonal and interannual variability of ET and its influencing factors were quantitatively analyzed with ET in main underlying surfaces of 400-580 mm in alpine meadow (upstream), 600-700 mm in cropland (midstream), 500-650 mm in riparian forest (downstream), 40 mm in desert (downstream). Meanwhile, the spatial distributions of ET were investigated based on site observations using machine learning techniques. Further, ET partitioning (evaporation (E) and transpiration (T)) was acquired through a method of underlying water use efficiency based on EC observations. The spatial variations of E and T were

  9. Watershed prioritization in the upper Han River basin for soil and water conservation in the South-to-North Water Transfer Project (middle route) of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haibing

    2018-01-01

    Watershed prioritization with the objective of identifying critical areas to undertake soil and water conservation measures was conducted in the upper Han River basin, the water source area of approximately 95,000 km 2 for the middle route of China's South-to-North Water Transfer Project. Based on the estimated soil erosion intensity in uplands and clustering analysis of measured nutrient concentrations in rivers, the basin was grouped into very-high-, high-, moderate-, and low-priority regions for water and soil conservation, respectively. The results indicated that soil erosion was primarily controlled by topography, and nutrients in rivers were associated with land use and land cover in uplands. Also, there was large spatial disparity between soil erosion intensity in the uplands and nutrient concentrations in the rivers across the basin. Analysis was then performed to prioritize the basin by the integration of the soil erosion intensity and water quality on a GIS platform in order to identify critical areas for water and soil conservation in the basin. The identified high-priority regions which occupy 5.74% of the drainage areas need immediate attention for soil and water conservation treatments, of which 5.28% is critical for soil erosion prevention and 0.46% for water conservation. Understandings of the basin environment and pollutant loading with spatial explicit are critical to the soil and water resource conservation for the interbasin water transfer project.

  10. A systematic approach for watershed ecological restoration strategy making: An application in the Taizi River Basin in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengdi; Fan, Juntao; Zhang, Yuan; Guo, Fen; Liu, Lusan; Xia, Rui; Xu, Zongxue; Wu, Fengchang

    2018-05-15

    Aiming to protect freshwater ecosystems, river ecological restoration has been brought into the research spotlight. However, it is challenging for decision makers to set appropriate objectives and select a combination of rehabilitation acts from numerous possible solutions to meet ecological, economic, and social demands. In this study, we developed a systematic approach to help make an optimal strategy for watershed restoration, which incorporated ecological security assessment and multi-objectives optimization (MOO) into the planning process to enhance restoration efficiency and effectiveness. The river ecological security status was evaluated by using a pressure-state-function-response (PSFR) assessment framework, and MOO was achieved by searching for the Pareto optimal solutions via Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II) to balance tradeoffs between different objectives. Further, we clustered the searched solutions into three types in terms of different optimized objective function values in order to provide insightful information for decision makers. The proposed method was applied in an example rehabilitation project in the Taizi River Basin in northern China. The MOO result in the Taizi River presented a set of Pareto optimal solutions that were classified into three types: I - high ecological improvement, high cost and high benefits solution; II - medial ecological improvement, medial cost and medial economic benefits solution; III - low ecological improvement, low cost and low economic benefits solution. The proposed systematic approach in our study can enhance the effectiveness of riverine ecological restoration project and could provide valuable reference for other ecological restoration planning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Deriving Scaling Factors Using a Global Hydrological Model to Restore GRACE Total Water Storage Changes for China's Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Di; Yang, Yuting; Yoshihide, Wada; Hong, Yang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yaning; Yong, Bin; Hou, Aizhong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study used a global hydrological model (GHM), PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface water storage changes, natural and human induced groundwater storage changes, and the interactions between surface water and subsurface water, to generate scaling factors by mimicking low-pass filtering of GRACE signals. Signal losses in GRACE data were subsequently restored by the scaling factors from PCR-GLOBWB. Results indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in scaling factor from PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0 than that from GLDAS-1 Noah due to comprehensive simulation of surface and subsurface water storage changes for PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0. Filtered GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes applied with PCR-GLOBWB scaling factors show closer agreement with water budget estimates of TWS changes than those with scaling factors from other land surface models (LSMs) in China's Yangtze River basin. Results of this study develop a further understanding of the behavior of scaling factors from different LSMs or GHMs over hydrologically complex basins, and could be valuable in providing more accurate TWS changes for hydrological applications (e.g., monitoring drought and groundwater storage depletion) over regions where human-induced interactions between surface water and subsurface water are intensive.

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of reference evapotranspiration and influenced meteorological factors in the Jialing River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Imali Kaushalya; Ye, Xuchun; Wang, Jianli; Bouraima, Abdel-Kabirou

    2018-02-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ETr) is one of the important parameters in the hydrological cycle. The spatio-temporal variation of ETr and other meteorological parameters that influence ETr were investigated in the Jialing River Basin (JRB), China. The ETr was estimated using the CROPWAT 8.0 computer model based on the Penman-Montieth equation for the period 1964-2014. Mean temperature (MT), relative humidity (RH), sunshine duration (SD), and wind speed (WS) were the main input parameters of CROPWAT while 12 meteorological stations were evaluated. Linear regression and Mann-Kendall methods were applied to study the spatio-temporal trends while the inverse distance weighted (IDW) method was used to identify the spatial distribution of ETr. Stepwise regression and partial correlation methods were used to identify the meteorological variables that most significantly influenced the changes in ETr. The highest annual ETr was found in the northern part of the basin, whereas the lowest rate was recorded in the western part. In the autumn, the highest ETr was recorded in the southeast part of JRB. The annual ETr reflected neither significant increasing nor decreasing trends. Except for the summer, ETr is slightly increasing in other seasons. The MT significantly increased whereas SD and RH were significantly decreased during the 50-year period. Partial correlation and stepwise regression methods found that the impact of meteorological parameters on ETr varies on an annual and seasonal basis while SD, MT, and RH contributed to the changes of annual and seasonal ETr in the JRB.

  13. Identification of the Impacts of Climate Changes and Human Activities on Runoff in the Jinsha River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the impacts of climate changes and human activities on runoff has received extensive attention, especially for the regions with significant elevation difference. The contributions of climate changes and human activities to runoff were analyzed using rainfall-runoff relationship, double mass curve, slope variation, and water balance method during 1961–2010 at the Jinsha River basin, China. Results indicate that runoff at upstream and runoff at midstream are both dominated by climate changes, and the contributions of climate changes to runoff are 63%~72% and 53%~68%, respectively. At downstream, climate changes account for only 13%~18%, and runoff is mainly controlled by human activities, contributing 82%~87%. The availability and stability of results were compared and analyzed in the four methods. Results in slope variation, double mass curve, and water balance method except rainfall-runoff relationship method are of good agreement. And the rainfall-runoff relationship, double mass curve, and slope variation method are all of great stability. The four methods and availability evaluation of them could provide a reference to quantification in the contributions of climate changes and human activities to runoff at similar basins in the future.

  14. Mapping Ecosystem Service Bundles to Detect Distinct Types of Multifunctionality within the Diverse Landscape of the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingqiao Kong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The tradeoffs and synergies of ecosystem services are widely discussed and recognized. However, explicit information for understanding and managing the complex relationships of multiple ecosystem services at regional scales is still lacking, which often leads to the degradation of important ecosystem services due to one ecosystem service being enhanced over another. We assessed the biodiversity and the production of nine ESs (ecosystem services across 779 counties in the Yangtze River Basin, the largest basin in China. Then, we mapped the distribution of ES for each county and used correlations and “partitioning around medoids” clustering analysis to assess the existence of ES bundles. We found five distinct types of bundles of ecosystem services spatially agglomerated in the landscape, which could be mainly explained by land use, slope and altitude gradients. Our results also show landscape-scale tradeoffs between provisioning and almost all regulating services (and biodiversity, and synergies among almost all regulating services (and biodiversity. Mapping ecosystem service bundles can identify areas in a landscape where ecosystem management has produced exceptionally desirable or undesirable sets of ecosystem services, and can also provide explicit, tailored information on landscape planning for ecosystem service conservation and the design of payment policies for ecosystem services within diverse landscapes at watershed scales.

  15. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2017-05-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  16. Association between Changing Mortality of Digestive Tract Cancers and Water Pollution: A Case Study in the Huai River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Ren

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG, biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD, chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD, and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight with high FSPWQG (>50% distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS, gross domestic product (GDP, and population (POP. Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  17. Association between changing mortality of digestive tract cancers and water pollution: a case study in the Huai River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongyan; Wan, Xia; Yang, Fei; Shi, Xiaoming; Xu, Jianwei; Zhuang, Dafang; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-12-23

    The relationship between the ever-increasing cancer mortality and water pollution is an important public concern in China. This study aimed to explore the association between serious water pollution and increasing digestive cancer mortality in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in China. A series of frequency of serious pollution (FSP) indices including water quality grade (FSPWQG), biochemical oxygen demand (FSPBOD), chemical oxygen demand (FSPCOD), and ammonia nitrogen (FSPAN) were used to characterize the surface water quality between 1997 and 2006. Data on the county-level changing mortality (CM) due to digestive tract cancers between 1975 and 2006 were collected for 14 counties in the study area. Most of investigated counties (eight) with high FSPWQG (>50%) distributed in the northern region of the HRB and had larger CMs of digestive tract cancers. In addition to their similar spatial distribution, significant correlations between FSP indices and CMs were observed by controlling for drinking water safety (DWS), gross domestic product (GDP), and population (POP). Furthermore, the above-mentioned partial correlations were clearly increased when only controlling for GDP and POP. Our study indicated that county-level variations of digestive cancer mortality are remarkably associated with water pollution, and suggested that continuous measures for improving surface water quality and DWS and hygienic interventions should be effectively implemented by local governments.

  18. Hydrological simulation and uncertainty analysis using the improved TOPMODEL in the arid Manas River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lianqing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Changbing; Wei, Guanghui; Li, Wenqian; He, Xinlin

    2018-01-11

    Understanding the mechanism of complicated hydrological processes is important for sustainable management of water resources in an arid area. This paper carried out the simulations of water movement for the Manas River Basin (MRB) using the improved semi-distributed Topographic hydrologic model (TOPMODEL) with a snowmelt model and topographic index algorithm. A new algorithm is proposed to calculate the curve of topographic index using internal tangent circle on a conical surface. Based on the traditional model, the improved indicator of temperature considered solar radiation is used to calculate the amount of snowmelt. The uncertainty of parameters for the TOPMODEL model was analyzed using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. The proposed model shows that the distribution of the topographic index is concentrated in high mountains, and the accuracy of runoff simulation has certain enhancement by considering radiation. Our results revealed that the performance of the improved TOPMODEL is acceptable and comparable to runoff simulation in the MRB. The uncertainty of the simulations resulted from the parameters and structures of model, climatic and anthropogenic factors. This study is expected to serve as a valuable complement for widely application of TOPMODEL and identify the mechanism of hydrological processes in arid area.

  19. Temporal variations of reference evapotranspiration and its sensitivity to meteorological factors in Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of daily meteorological data from 15 meteorological stations in the Heihe River Basin (HRB during the period from 1959 to 2012, long-term trends of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 and key meteorological factors that affect ET0 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall test. The evaporation paradox was also investigated at 15 meteorological stations. In order to explore the contribution of key meteorological factors to the temporal variation of ET0, a sensitivity coefficient method was employed in this study. The results show that: (1 mean annual air temperature significantly increased at all 15 meteorological stations, while the mean annual ET0 decreased at most of sites; (2 the evaporation paradox did exist in the HRB, while the evaporation paradox was not continuous in space and time; and (3 relative humidity was the most sensitive meteorological factor with regard to the temporal variation of ET0 in the HRB, followed by wind speed, air temperature, and solar radiation. Air temperature and solar radiation contributed most to the temporal variation of ET0 in the upper reaches; solar radiation and wind speed were the determining factors for the temporal variation of ET0 in the middle-lower reaches.

  20. The Synergic Characteristics of Surface Water Pollution and Sediment Pollution with Heavy Metals in the Haihe River Basin, Northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiru Kong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic environmental deterioration is becoming a serious problem due to rapid urbanization and economic development, particularly in developing countries. As two important components of the aquatic environment, water quality and sediment pollution are widely considered to be concerns; however, they are considered separately in most cases. The relationship between water quality and sediment pollution with heavy metals has been little addressed. In this study, the Haihe River Basin (HRB, one of the most polluted areas in China, was used as a case study, and the eutrophication index (EI and the potential ecological risk index (RI were employed to evaluate water quality and sediment pollution of heavy metals, respectively. The results showed that generally in the HRB, the water quality was poor, while the risk of heavy metal pollution was relatively low. Surface water quality was mainly influenced by sewage discharges from human daily life, and heavy metal pollution was affected by industry structure, in that the areas with resource/energy consumption industries and high-pollution industries often have high risks of heavy metal pollution Synergic pollution from water eutrophication and sediment pollution with heavy metals was found, especially in the central areas of the HRB, and it was largely dependent on the type of human activities. In the places with intensive human activities, such as secondary industry, eutrophication occurred simultaneously with heavy metal pollution, other than in less human-affected areas. These findings are useful for planning aquatic environment protections and river ecosystem management.

  1. Study on Variations in Climatic Variables and Their Influence on Runoff in the Manas River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change in Northwest China could lead to the change of the hydrological cycle and water resources. This paper assessed the influence of climate change on runoff in the Manas River basin as follows. First, the temporal trends and abrupt change points of runoff, precipitation, and mean, lowest and highest temperature in yearly scale during the period of 1961–2015 were analyzed using the Mann-Kendall (MK test. Then the correlation between runoff and climatic variables was characterized in a monthly, seasonal and yearly scale using the partial correlation method. Furthermore, three global climate models (GCMs from Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 were bias-corrected using Equidistant Cumulative Distribution Functions (EDCDF method to reveal the future climate change during the period from 2021 to 2060 compared with the baseline period of 1961–2000. The influence of climate change on runoff was studied by simulating the runoff with the GCMs using a modified TOPMODEL considering the future snowmelt during the period from 2021 to 2060. The results showed that the runoff, precipitation, and mean, lowest and highest temperature all presented an increasing trend in yearly scale during the period of 1961–2015, and their abrupt change points were at a similar time; the runoff series was more strongly related to temperature than to precipitation in the spring, autumn and yearly scales, and the opposite was true in winter. All GCMs projected precipitation and temperature, and the runoff simulated with these GCMs were predicted to increase in the period from 2021 to 2060 compared with the baseline period of 1961–2000. These findings provide valuable information for assessing the influence of climate change on water resources in the Manas River basin, and references for water management in such regions.

  2. Developing Efficient Coordination Schemes to Control Over-Pumping in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, G.

    2015-12-01

    attractive. The payback of the tax in form of subsidies to the farmers reduces the losses due to higher expenses. Findings will be presented to the local decision makers and have the potential to improve water governance in the Heihe River Basin in the coming years.

  3. Petroleum migration and mixing in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chunming Zhang [Jianghan Petroleum Univ., Geochemistry Research Center, Jingzhou, Hubei (China); China Univ. of Geosciences, Dept. of Energy Resources, Beijing (China); Sitian Li [China Univ. of Geosciences, Dept. of Energy Resources, Beijing (China); Jiaming Yang [China National Offshore Oil Corp., Beijing (China); Shaokun Yang; Jianrong Wang [Nanhai East Oil Co., Research Inst., Guangzhou (China)

    2004-02-01

    Two oil groups have been investigated in the Pearl River Mouth Basin using their geochemical characteristics. In combination with source data, the two oil groups may be extrapolated into two end-member oils: petroleum populations A and B. The oil population A with abundant 4-methylsteranes, derived from the deeper Wenchang source rocks, migrated and accumulated earlier. The oil population B with absent 4-methylsteranes was expelled from the Enping source rocks and is associated with a relatively later phase of migration and accumulation. The two distinctive oil populations migrated updip through the marine blanket-like sandstone carriers within the Zhuhai Formation to accumulate in a series of traps along the main migration pathways at different times. Most of the accumulations are mixtures of the two end-member oils. The variations of 4-methylsterane concentrations in the accumulations can be related to the contributions from the two sources: the oils, which migrated furthest, contain greater contributions from the Wenchang source rocks, whereas those with shorter migration paths have greater contributions from the Enping sources. The later migrated oils closer to the depression areas are highly mature and the former oils in the Liuhua oil fields are of relatively low maturity, which may indicate the main migration direction along the Hui-Liu Structure Ridge (HLSR). Oils with abnormally high maturity in the middle of the HLSR may suggest oil-filling points, from which branch conduits connected the source kitchens to the main migration pathway. Oils with abnormally low maturities may reveal minor contributions from some small sags in the Dongsha Massif in a later phase. (Author)

  4. Exposure risk of young population to lead: A case study in Le'an River Basin in Jiangxi Province, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yanxin; Li, Qi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Bin; Lu, Qun; Yan, Zhenghong; Ding, Aizhong

    2016-01-01

    Blood lead (Pb) level of children has widely been attracting public concern in China, particularly in the sites near mining or industrial areas. However, the policies about how to efficiently reduce the Pb intake of children are still under discussion. We collected six food types based on the local dietary habits and soils from Dexing, Leping, and Poyang Counties situated along the Le'an River Basin from upstream to downstream, and their Pb contents were analyzed. A Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the dietary chronic daily intake of Pb (CDI_P_b) from various foods and ingested soil by hand-to-mouth activities and its non-carcinogenic risk to children indicated by hazard quotient (HQ). Only in the rural area of Dexing, its soil and vegetables both had higher Pb content than the national tolerance limits of China, resulting its the highest CDI_P_b among all the areas. The Pb contents of the six food types and soils in other sites were overall below the limits. Vegetables and rice accounted for from 63% (Leping, urban) to 85% (Dexing, rural) of the total CDI_P_b and ingested soil overall took up ∼6%. In the rural area, Dexing had the highest proportion (82.8%) of children with HQ > 1, followed by Leping (36.1%) and Poyang (27.7%). Different order was found in the urban areas, i.e. Dexing (46.7%) > Poyang (41.0%) > Leping (26.4%). Vegetables and rice were overall the two major contributors to the total CDI of Pb, which should be focused on to control the Pb intake by the local children, especially for those living in the rural area of Dexing County. - Highlights: • Lead (Pb) contents of the local foods and soils in the Le'an River Basin were analyzed. • The exposure risk of children to Pb was estimated by a Monte Carlo simulation. • Ingested soil by hand-to-mouth activities took up ∼5.9% to their total chronic Pb intake. • Vegetables and rice were the two major contributors to the total intake of Pb. • Children in the rural area near the

  5. Partitioning Evapotranspiration for Three Typical Ecosystems in the Heihe River Basin, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S.; Yu, B.; Zhang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    It is crucial to improve water use efficiency (WUE) and the transpiration fraction of evapotranspiration (T/ET) for water conservation in arid regions. As a link between carbon and water cycling, WUE is defined as the ratio of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ET at the ecosystem scale. By incorporating the effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), two underlying WUE (uWUE) formulations, i.e. a potential uWUE (uWUEp=GPP·VPD0.5/T) and an apparent uWUE (uWUEa=GPP·VPD0.5/ET), were proposed. uWUEp is nearly constant for a given vegetation type, while uWUEa varies with T/ET. The ratio of uWUEa and uWUEp was then used to estimate T/ET. This new method for ET partitioning was applied to three typical ecosystems in the Heihe River Basin. Growing season T/ET at the Daman site (0.63) was higher than that at the Arou and Huyanglin sites (0.55) due to the application of plastic film mulching. The effect of leaf area index (LAI) on seasonal variations in T/ET was strong for Arou (R2=0.74) and Daman (R2=0.76) sites, but weak for Huyanglin (R2=0.44) site. Daily T/ET derived using the uWUE method agreed with that using the isotope and lysimeter/eddy covariance methods during the peak growth season at the Daman site. The estimated T using the uWUE method showed consistent seasonal and diurnal patterns and magnitudes with that using the sap flow method at the Huyanglin site. In addition, the uWUE method is scale-independent, and can effectively capture T/ET variations in relation to LAI changes and the abrupt T/ET changes in response to individual irrigation events. These advantages make the uWUE method more effective for ET partitioning at the ecosystem scale, and can be used for water resources management by predicting seasonal pattern of irrigation water requirements in arid regions.

  6. Genomic evidence for the population genetic differentiation of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus in the Yangtze River basin of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shaokui; Wang, Weimin; Zhou, Xiaoyun

    2018-02-21

    Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, an important aquatic species, is mainly distributed in the Yangtze River basin. To reveal the population genetic structure of M. anguillicaudatus distributed in the Yangtze River basin, genotyping by sequencing (GBS) technique was employed to detect the genome wide genetic variations of M. anguillicaudatus. A total of 30.03 Gb raw data were yielded from 70 samples collected from 15 geographic sites located in the Yangtze River basin. Subsequently, 2092 high quality SNPs were genotyped across these samples and used for a series of genetic analysis. The results of genetic analysis showed that high levels of genetic diversity were observed and the populations from upper reaches (UR) were significantly differentiated from the middle and lower reaches (MLR) of Yangtze River basin. Meanwhile, no significant isolation by distance was detected among the populations. Ecological factors (e.g. complicated topography and climatic environment) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. aquaculture and agriculture cultivation) might account for the genetic disconnectivity between UR and MLR populations. This study provided valuable genetic data for the future breeding program and also for the conversation and scientific utilization of those abundant genetic resources stored in the Yangtze River basin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Searching for the optimal drought index and timescale combination to detect drought: a case study from the lower Jinsha River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Pan, Deng; Fischer, Luzia; Orlowsky, Boris; García-Hernández, Javier; Jordan, Frédéric; Haemmig, Christoph; Zhang, Fangwei; Xu, Jijun

    2018-02-01

    Drought indices based on precipitation are commonly used to identify and characterize droughts. Due to the general complexity of droughts, the comparison of index-identified events with droughts at different levels of the complete system, including soil humidity or river discharges, relies typically on model simulations of the latter, entailing potentially significant uncertainties. The present study explores the potential of using precipitation-based indices to reproduce observed droughts in the lower part of the Jinsha River basin (JRB), proposing an innovative approach for a catchment-wide drought detection and characterization. Two indicators, namely the Overall Drought Extension (ODE) and the Overall Drought Indicator (ODI), have been defined. These indicators aim at identifying and characterizing drought events on the basin scale, using results from four meteorological drought indices (standardized precipitation index, SPI; rainfall anomaly index, RAI; percent of normal precipitation, PN; deciles, DEC) calculated at different locations of the basin and for different timescales. Collected historical information on drought events is used to contrast results obtained with the indicators. This method has been successfully applied to the lower Jinsha River basin in China, a region prone to frequent and severe droughts. Historical drought events that occurred from 1960 to 2014 have been compiled and cataloged from different sources, in a challenging process. The analysis of the indicators shows a good agreement with the recorded historical drought events on the basin scale. It has been found that the timescale that best reproduces observed events across all the indices is the 6-month timescale.

  8. Hydrologic Evaluation of Integrated Multi-satellite Retrivals for GPM over Nanliu River Basin in Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenqing, L.; Sheng, C.; Chaoying, H.

    2017-12-01

    The core satellite of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched on 27 February2014 with two core sensors dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) and microwave imager (GMI). The algorithm of Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission (IMERG) blends the advantages of currently most popular satellite-based quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) algorithms, i.e. TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA), Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH) ADDIN EN.CITE ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA , Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks-Cloud Classification System (PERSIANN-CCS).Therefore, IMERG is deemed to be the state-of-art precipitation product with high spatio-temporal resolution of 0.1°/30min. The real-time and post real-time IMERG products are now available online at https://stormpps.gsfc.nasa.gov/storm. Early studies about assessment of IMERG with gauge observations or analysis products show that the current version GPM Day-1 product IMERG demonstrates promising performance over China [1], Europe [2], and United States [3]. However, few studies are found to study the IMERG' potentials of hydrologic utility.In this study, the real-time and final run post real-time IMERG products are hydrologically evaluated with gauge analysis product as reference over Nanliu River basin (Fig.1) in Southern China since March 2014 to February 2017 with Xinanjiang model. Statistics metrics Relative Bias (RB), Root-Mean-Squared Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CC), Probability Of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), Critical Success Index (CSI), and Nash-Sutcliffe (NSCE) index will be used to compare the stream flow simulated with IMERG to the observed stream flow. This timely hydrologic evaluation is expected to offer insights into IMERG' potentials in hydrologic utility and thus provide useful feedback to the IMERG algorithm developers and

  9. Groundwater Depletion in the West Liaohe River Basin, China and Its Implications Revealed by GRACE and In Situ Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Zhong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The West Liaohe River Basin (WLRB is one of the most sensitive areas to climate change in China and an important grain production base in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. Groundwater depletion in this region is becoming a critical issue. Here, we used the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite data and in situ well observations to estimate groundwater storage (GWS variations and discussed the driving factors of GWS changes in the WLRB. GRACE detects a GWS decline rate of −0.92 ± 0.49 km3/yr in the WLRB during 2005–2011, consistent with the estimate from in situ observations (−0.96 ± 0.19 km3/yr. This long-term GWS depletion is attributed to reduced precipitation and extensive groundwater overexploitation in the 2000s. Long-term groundwater level observations and reconstructed total water storage variations since 1980 show favorable agreement with precipitation anomalies at interannual timescales, both of which are significantly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO. Generally, the WLRB receives more/less precipitation during the El Niño/La Niña periods. One of the strongest El Niño events on record in 1997–1998 and a subsequent strong La Niña drastically transform the climate of WLRB into a decade-long drought period, and accelerate the groundwater depletion in the WLRB after 1998. This study demonstrates the significance of integrating satellite observations, ground-based measurements, and climatological data for interpreting regional GWS changes from a long-term perspective.

  10. Shifts in production of perfluoroalkyl acids affect emissions and concentrations in the environment of the Xiaoqing River Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Pei [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Lu, Yonglong, E-mail: yllu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang, Tieyu [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Meng, Jing; Li, Qifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyun [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Sun, Yajun [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Ruoshi [State Key Lab of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Mass loads demonstrated a greater pattern of increasing PFAAs emissions. • High levels of PFOA were identified near a fluoropolymer facility. • Production activities that could generate PFOA emissions were analyzed. • Partitioning coefficients decreased with high levels of short-chain PFCAs in water. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in surfactant applications, especially as processing acids for fluoropolymer production. This study provides an analysis of sources of certain PFAAs emitted from the intensive fluoropolymer facilities in the Xiaoqing River Basin of China. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as great as 0.97 mg/L in surface water and 10.5 μg/g dry weight in surface sediment have been detected near the effluent of one facility (F1) that produces polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and other fluoropolymers with massive capacity. With the great emission of PFAAs to water in natural conditions, the log K{sub OC} values decreased for short-chain PFCAs. Mass loads of PFAAs indicated that emissions of PFAAs from other facilities or sources were much less than those from F1, which emitted 174 kg/d of PFAAs including 159 kg/d of PFOA to the rivers. Even though production and emissions of PFOA have been strictly controlled in other countries since 2006, production of PFOA as well as several other fluoropolymers that use PFOA as processing aids has been increasing at F1 in recent years. We recommended that production shift should be taken into consideration in PFOA elimination actions.

  11. Behavior of Agricultural water users induced hydro-climatic cycle change in Heihe River Basin, in the northwest of china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Deng, X.; Cai, X.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Water allocation unbalance is the most important driving force of ecological degradation in the Heihe River Basin, where it seems the lifeblood of environment and human society. Water commute complex and frequent in soil, atmosphere, surface and ground face. The balance analysis of Water's transformation based on the WRF (Weather Research Forecasting) and SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) simulations, puts forward the application of land governance in arid and semi-arid region. In this study, we designed an irrigation scheme using local field experiences and incorporated the irrigation scheme into WRF/Noah-MP model. Then, to test the effects of irrigation scheme on performance of WRF/Noah-MP model, we carried out two simulations with the Heihe watershed, Northwest China, as a case study area. Firstly, the irrigation simulation is meanly about 860 mm across all of 671 cropland grid cells within the Heihe watershed and gradually increases from about 500 mm nearby the foot of Qilian Mountain to the maximum about 1500 mm in the middle and lower reach of Heihe River. Both of regional mean value and spatial heterogeneity are close to ground measurements. Secondly, the irrigation simulation dramatically reduced the mean bias of specified humidity to -0.47 g kg-1 (accounting for 6.0% of observation) and RMSE of temperature to 0.47 °C, respectively, since the irrigation enhanced the surface latent heat and weakened sensible heat to atmosphere. Thirdly, Across the 8 agricultural sites, the correlation coefficient and RMSE increased from 0.75 to 0.80. Finally, we found the surface runoff will increase by 0.46% with SWAT model at irrigation months. Therefore, the irrigation may led to expansion of cultivated land through transformation from groundwater to surface water at some degree. Water authorities should strengthen the tough water management measures to implement measures of total quantity control and raise the efficiency of water resources.

  12. Shifts in production of perfluoroalkyl acids affect emissions and concentrations in the environment of the Xiaoqing River Basin, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Meng, Jing; Li, Qifeng; Zhu, Zhaoyun; Sun, Yajun; Wang, Ruoshi; Giesy, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Mass loads demonstrated a greater pattern of increasing PFAAs emissions. • High levels of PFOA were identified near a fluoropolymer facility. • Production activities that could generate PFOA emissions were analyzed. • Partitioning coefficients decreased with high levels of short-chain PFCAs in water. - Abstract: Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) have been widely used in surfactant applications, especially as processing acids for fluoropolymer production. This study provides an analysis of sources of certain PFAAs emitted from the intensive fluoropolymer facilities in the Xiaoqing River Basin of China. Concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as great as 0.97 mg/L in surface water and 10.5 μg/g dry weight in surface sediment have been detected near the effluent of one facility (F1) that produces polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and other fluoropolymers with massive capacity. With the great emission of PFAAs to water in natural conditions, the log K_O_C values decreased for short-chain PFCAs. Mass loads of PFAAs indicated that emissions of PFAAs from other facilities or sources were much less than those from F1, which emitted 174 kg/d of PFAAs including 159 kg/d of PFOA to the rivers. Even though production and emissions of PFOA have been strictly controlled in other countries since 2006, production of PFOA as well as several other fluoropolymers that use PFOA as processing aids has been increasing at F1 in recent years. We recommended that production shift should be taken into consideration in PFOA elimination actions.

  13. Estimating Vegetation Primary Production in the Heihe River Basin of China with Multi-Source and Multi-Scale Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxiang Cui

    Full Text Available Estimating gross primary production (GPP and net primary production (NPP are significant important in studying carbon cycles. Using models driven by multi-source and multi-scale data is a promising approach to estimate GPP and NPP at regional and global scales. With a focus on data that are openly accessible, this paper presents a GPP and NPP model driven by remotely sensed data and meteorological data with spatial resolutions varying from 30 m to 0.25 degree and temporal resolutions ranging from 3 hours to 1 month, by integrating remote sensing techniques and eco-physiological process theories. Our model is also designed as part of the Multi-source data Synergized Quantitative (MuSyQ Remote Sensing Production System. In the presented MuSyQ-NPP algorithm, daily GPP for a 10-day period was calculated as a product of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR and its fraction absorbed by vegetation (FPAR using a light use efficiency (LUE model. The autotrophic respiration (Ra was determined using eco-physiological process theories and the daily NPP was obtained as the balance between GPP and Ra. To test its feasibility at regional scales, our model was performed in an arid and semi-arid region of Heihe River Basin, China to generate daily GPP and NPP during the growing season of 2012. The results indicated that both GPP and NPP exhibit clear spatial and temporal patterns in their distribution over Heihe River Basin during the growing season due to the temperature, water and solar influx conditions. After validated against ground-based measurements, MODIS GPP product (MOD17A2H and results reported in recent literature, we found the MuSyQ-NPP algorithm could yield an RMSE of 2.973 gC m(-2 d(-1 and an R of 0.842 when compared with ground-based GPP while an RMSE of 8.010 gC m(-2 d(-1 and an R of 0.682 can be achieved for MODIS GPP, the estimated NPP values were also well within the range of previous literature, which proved the reliability of

  14. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Hydrologic Extremes in the Upper Basin of the Yellow River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To reveal the revolution law of hydrologic extremes in the next 50 years and analyze the impact of climate change on hydrologic extremes, the following main works were carried on: firstly, the long duration (15 d, 30 d, and 60 d rainfall extremes according to observed time-series and forecast time-series by dynamical climate model product (BCC-CSM-1.1 were deduced, respectively, on the basis that the quantitative estimation of the impact of climate change on rainfall extremes was conducted; secondly, the SWAT model was used to deduce design flood with the input of design rainfall for the next 50 years. On this basis, quantitative estimation of the impact of climate change on long duration flood volume extremes was conducted. It indicates that (1 the value of long duration rainfall extremes for given probabilities (1%, 2%, 5%, and 10% of the Tangnaihai basin will rise with slight increasing rate from 1% to 6% in the next 50 years and (2 long duration flood volume extremes of given probabilities of the Tangnaihai basin will rise with slight increasing rate from 1% to 6% in the next 50 years. The conclusions may provide technical supports for basin level planning of flood control and hydropower production.

  16. Evolution of the alluvial fans of the Luo River in the Weihe Basin, central China, controlled by faulting and climate change - A reevaluation of the paleogeographical setting of Dali Man site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rits, Daniël S.; van Balen, Ronald T.; Prins, Maarten A.; Zheng, Hongbo

    2017-01-01

    The Luo River is located in the southern part of the Chinese Loess Plateau and the northern part of the Weihe Basin, in Central China. In the basin it flows proximal to the site of the Luyang Wetland core, which is an important archive of climate change over the past 1 Myr in this region. In this

  17. Trends and variability of daily precipitation extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trends and variability of extreme precipitation events are important for water-related disaster prevention and mitigation as well as water resource management. Based on daily precipitation dataset from 143 meteorological stations in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB), a suite of precipitation indices rec...

  18. Post-rift magmatism in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Zhao, F.; Xia, S.; Sun, J.; Fan, C.

    2017-12-01

    Multi-beam, 2D seismic reflection and borehole data reveal that post-rift magmatism are widespread in the northern margin of South China Sea. A large-scale volcanic complex was identified at water depths of 500 to 3000 m, covering an area of ca. 8000 km2. This volcanic complex includes seamounts, igneous sills, dykes and intruded volcanic bodies. Combining data from exploration wells BY7-1 and BY2 with published seismic stratigraphic data, we can highlight multiple extrusive events from the Early Oligocene to Early Miocene, reflecting progressive continental breakup in the South China Sea. Most intruded magma through the continental crust also uplifted sediments up to the T6 unconformity. Given the evidence in this work that Early Miocene magmatic bodies were developed above or along faults, we suggest that post-rift magmatism in the northern margin of the South China Sea was largely controlled by the faults. Reactivation events in the faults are suggested to have generated preferential vertical pathways for the ascent of magma within a context of progressive continental breakup and thinned continental crust, as the South China Sea was being formed.

  19. Effects of land-use patterns on in-stream nitrogen in a highly-polluted river basin in Northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei; Song, Xianfang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of land-use patterns on nitrogen pollution in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China during 2010 by conducting statistical and spatial analyses and by analyzing the isotopic composition of nitrate. Correlation and stepwise regressions indicated that land-use types and landscape metrics were correlated well with most river nitrogen variables and significantly predicted them during different sampling seasons. Built-up land use and shape metrics dominated in predicting nitrogen variables over seasons. According to the isotopic compositions of river nitrate in different zones, the nitrogen sources of the river principally originated from synthetic fertilizer, domestic sewage/manure, soil organic matter, and atmospheric deposition. Isotope mixing models indicated that source contributions of river nitrogen significantly varied from forested headwaters to densely populated towns of the river basin. Domestic sewage/manure was a major contributor to river nitrogen with the proportions of 76.4 ± 6.0% and 62.8 ± 2.1% in residence and farmland-residence zones, respectively. This research suggested that regulating built-up land uses and reducing discharges of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater would be effective methods for river nitrogen control. - Highlights: • Land-use types were correlated well with most nitrogen variables over seasons. • Built-up land dominated in predicting nitrogen variables during different seasons. • Shape metrics predicted most nitrogen variables in different seasons. • Nitrogen sources and their contributions were estimated using nitrate isotopes. • Domestic sewage mainly contributed to river nitrogen pollution in residence zone.

  20. Effects of land-use patterns on in-stream nitrogen in a highly-polluted river basin in Northeast China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Hongmei, E-mail: buhm2004@163.com [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Song, Xianfang [Key Laboratory of Water Cycle and Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of land-use patterns on nitrogen pollution in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China during 2010 by conducting statistical and spatial analyses and by analyzing the isotopic composition of nitrate. Correlation and stepwise regressions indicated that land-use types and landscape metrics were correlated well with most river nitrogen variables and significantly predicted them during different sampling seasons. Built-up land use and shape metrics dominated in predicting nitrogen variables over seasons. According to the isotopic compositions of river nitrate in different zones, the nitrogen sources of the river principally originated from synthetic fertilizer, domestic sewage/manure, soil organic matter, and atmospheric deposition. Isotope mixing models indicated that source contributions of river nitrogen significantly varied from forested headwaters to densely populated towns of the river basin. Domestic sewage/manure was a major contributor to river nitrogen with the proportions of 76.4 ± 6.0% and 62.8 ± 2.1% in residence and farmland-residence zones, respectively. This research suggested that regulating built-up land uses and reducing discharges of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater would be effective methods for river nitrogen control. - Highlights: • Land-use types were correlated well with most nitrogen variables over seasons. • Built-up land dominated in predicting nitrogen variables during different seasons. • Shape metrics predicted most nitrogen variables in different seasons. • Nitrogen sources and their contributions were estimated using nitrate isotopes. • Domestic sewage mainly contributed to river nitrogen pollution in residence zone.

  1. Development and application of a short- /long-term composited drought index in the upper Huaihe River basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable drought monitoring is of primary importance for drought mitigation and reduction of social-ecological vulnerability. The aim of the paper was to propose a short-term/long-term composited drought index (CDI which could be widely used for drought monitoring and early warning in China. In the study, the upper Huaihe River basin above the Xixian gauge station, which has been hit by severe droughts frequently in recent decades, was selected as the case study site. The short-term CDI was developed by the Principle Component Analysis of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI, the 1- and 3-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI, Z Index (ZIND, the Soil Moisture Index (SMI with the long-term CDI being formulated by use of the self-calibrating Palmer Hydrology Drought Index (sc-PHDI, the 6-, 12-, 18- and 24-month SPEI, the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI, the SMI. The sc-PDSI, the PHDI, the ZIND, the SPEI on a monthly time scale were calculated based on the monthly air temperature and precipitation, and the monthly SMI and SSI were computed based on the simulated soil moisture and runoff by the distributed Xinanjiang model. The thresholds of the short-term/long-term CDI were determined according to frequency statistics of different drought indices. Finally, the feasibility of the two CDIs was investigated against the scPDSI, the SPEI and the historical drought records. The results revealed that the short-term/long-term CDI could capture the onset, severity, persistence of drought events very well with the former being better at identifying the dynamic evolution of drought condition while the latter better at judging the changing trend of drought over a long time period.

  2. Spatial-temporal changes of maximum and minimum temperatures in the Wei River Basin, China: Changing patterns, causes and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Saiyan; Huang, Shengzhi; Xie, Yangyang; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Hou, Beibei; Zhang, Ying; Wei, Xiu

    2018-05-01

    Due to the important role of temperature in the global climate system and energy cycles, it is important to investigate the spatial-temporal change patterns, causes and implications of annual maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures. In this study, the Cloud model were adopted to fully and accurately analyze the changing patterns of annual Tmax and Tmin from 1958 to 2008 by quantifying their mean, uniformity, and stability in the Wei River Basin (WRB), a typical arid and semi-arid region in China. Additionally, the cross wavelet analysis was applied to explore the correlations among annual Tmax and Tmin and the yearly sunspots number, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and soil moisture with an aim to determine possible causes of annual Tmax and Tmin variations. Furthermore, temperature-related impacts on vegetation cover and precipitation extremes were also examined. Results indicated that: (1) the WRB is characterized by increasing trends in annual Tmax and Tmin, with a more evident increasing trend in annual Tmin, which has a higher dispersion degree and is less uniform and stable than annual Tmax; (2) the asymmetric variations of Tmax and Tmin can be generally explained by the stronger effects of solar activity (primarily), large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, and soil moisture on annual Tmin than on annual Tmax; and (3) increasing annual Tmax and Tmin have exerted strong influences on local precipitation extremes, in terms of their duration, intensity, and frequency in the WRB. This study presents new analyses of Tmax and Tmin in the WRB, and the findings may help guide regional agricultural production and water resources management.

  3. A new index for identifying socioeconomic drought events under climate change over the East River basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Chen, J.; Wang, K.; Niu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drought, which means severe water deficiencies, is a complex natural hazard that may have destructive damages on societal properties and lives. Generally, socioeconomic drought occurs when the water resources systems cannot meet the water demands due to a weather-related shortfall in water supply to societies. This paper aims to propose a new index (i.e., socioeconomic drought index (SEDI)) for identifying socioeconomic drought events on different levels (i.e., slight, moderate, severe and extreme) under climate change through considering the gap between water supply and demand. First, the minimum in-stream water requirement (MWR) is determined through comprehensively considering the requirements of water quality, ecology, navigation and water supply. Second, according to the monthly water deficit calculated as the monthly streamflow data minus the MWR, drought month can be identified. Third, according to the cumulative water deficit derived from the monthly water deficit, drought duration (i.e., the number of continuous drought months) can be detected. Fourth, the SEDI of each socioeconomic drought event can be calculated through integrating the impacts of the cumulative water deficit and drought duration. The study area is the East River basin in South China, and the impact of a multi-year reservoir (i.e., the Xinfengjiang Reservoir) on drought is also analyzed. For historical and future drought analysis, it is concluded that the proposed SEDI is feasible to identify socioeconomic drought events. The results show that a number of socioeconomic drought events (including some extreme ones) may occur during 2020-2099, and the appropriate reservoir operation can significantly ease such situation.

  4. Dynamic analysis of pan evaporation variations in the Huai River Basin, a climate transition zone in eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Chu, Ronghao; Shen, Shuanghe; Islam, Abu Reza Md Towfiqul

    2018-06-01

    Pan evaporation (E pan ), which we examine in this study to better understand atmospheric evaporation demand, represents a pivotal indicator of the terrestrial ecosystem and hydrological cycle, particularly in the Huai River Basin (HRB) in eastern China, where high potential risks of drought and flooding are commonly observed. In this study, we examine the spatiotemporal trend patterns of climatic factors and E pan by using the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen estimator based on a daily meteorological dataset from 89 weather stations during 1965-2013 in the HRB. Furthermore, the PenPan model is employed to estimate E pan at a monthly time scale, and a differential equation method is applied to quantify contributions from four meteorological variables to E pan trends. The results show that E pan significantly decreased (P<0.001) at an average rate of -8.119mm·a -2 at annual time scale in the whole HRB, with approximately 90% of stations occupied. Meanwhile, the generally higher E pan values were detected in the northern HRB. The values of the aerodynamic components in the PenPan model were much greater than those of the radiative components, which were responsible for the variations in the E pan trend. The significantly decreasing wind speed (u 2 ) was the most dominant factor that controlled the decreasing E pan trend at each time scale, followed by the notable decreasing net radiation (R n ) at the annual time scale also in growing season and summer. However, the second dominant factor shifted to the mean temperature (T a ) during the spring and winter and the vapor pressure deficit (vpd) during the autumn. These phenomena demonstrated a positive link between the significance of climate variables and their control over the E pan trend. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Joint pattern of seasonal hydrological droughts and floods alternation in China's Huai River Basin using the multivariate L-moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, ShaoFei; Zhang, Xiang; She, DunXian

    2017-06-01

    Under the current condition of climate change, droughts and floods occur more frequently, and events in which flooding occurs after a prolonged drought or a drought occurs after an extreme flood may have a more severe impact on natural systems and human lives. This challenges the traditional approach wherein droughts and floods are considered separately, which may largely underestimate the risk of the disasters. In our study, the sudden alternation of droughts and flood events (ADFEs) between adjacent seasons is studied using the multivariate L-moments theory and the bivariate copula functions in the Huai River Basin (HRB) of China with monthly streamflow data at 32 hydrological stations from 1956 to 2012. The dry and wet conditions are characterized by the standardized streamflow index (SSI) at a 3-month time scale. The results show that: (1) The summer streamflow makes the largest contribution to the annual streamflow, followed by the autumn streamflow and spring streamflow. (2) The entire study area can be divided into five homogeneous sub-regions using the multivariate regional homogeneity test. The generalized logistic distribution (GLO) and log-normal distribution (LN3) are acceptable to be the optimal marginal distributions under most conditions, and the Frank copula is more appropriate for spring-summer and summer-autumn SSI series. Continuous flood events dominate at most sites both in spring-summer and summer-autumn (with an average frequency of 13.78% and 17.06%, respectively), while continuous drought events come second (with an average frequency of 11.27% and 13.79%, respectively). Moreover, seasonal ADFEs most probably occurred near the mainstream of HRB, and drought and flood events are more likely to occur in summer-autumn than in spring-summer.

  6. The Human Threat to River Ecosystems at the Watershed Scale: An Ecological Security Assessment of the Songhua River Basin, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Shen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Human disturbances impact river basins by reducing the quality of, and services provided by, aquatic ecosystems. Conducting quantitative assessments of ecological security at the watershed scale is important for enhancing the water quality of river basins and promoting environmental management. In this study, China’s Songhua River Basin was divided into 204 assessment units by combining watershed and administrative boundaries. Ten human threat factors were identified based on their significant influence on the river ecosystem. A modified ecological threat index was used to synthetically evaluate the ecological security, where frequency was weighted by flow length from the grids to the main rivers, while severity was weighted by the potential hazard of the factors on variables of river ecosystem integrity. The results showed that individual factors related to urbanization, agricultural development and facility construction presented different spatial distribution characteristics. At the center of the plain area, the provincial capital cities posed the highest level of threat, as did the municipal districts of prefecture-level cities. The spatial relationships between hot spot locations of the ecological threat index and water quality, as well as the distribution areas of critically endangered species, were analyzed. The sensitivity analysis illustrated that alteration of agricultural development largely changed the ecological security level of the basin. By offering a reference for assessing ecological security, this study can enhance water environmental planning and management.

  7. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  8. Estimates of long-term water total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in three large shallow lakes in the Yangtze River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pan; Qin, Boqiang; Yu, Ge

    2016-03-01

    The shallow lakes in the eastern China developed on alluvial plains with high-nutrient sediments, and most overflow into the Yangtze River with short hydraulic residence times, whereas they become eutrophic over long time periods. Assuming strong responses to hydrogeological changes in the basin, we attempted to determine the dynamic eutrophication history of these lakes. Although evaluation models for internal total phosphorus (TP) loading are widely used for deep lakes in Europe and North America, the accuracy of these models for shallow lakes that have smaller water volumes controlled by the geometrical morphology and greater basin area of alluvial plains is unknown. To describe the magnitude of changes in velocity of trophic state for the studied shallow lakes, we first evaluated the P retention model in relation to the major forces driving lake morphology, basin climate, and external discharge and then used the model to estimate changes in TP in three large shallow lakes (Taihu, Chao, and Poyang) over 60 years (1950-2009 AD). The observed levels of TP were verified against the relative error of the three lakes (Yangtze River basin. This work will contribute to the development of an internal P loading model for further evaluating trophic states.

  9. Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff for Kaidu River Basin in arid region of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Chen, Yaning; Li, Baofu

    2013-02-01

    Much attention has recently been focused on the effects that climate variability and human activities have had on runoff. In this study, data from the Kaidu River Basin in the arid region of northwest China were analyzed to investigate changes in annual runoff during the period of 1960-2009. The nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and the Mann-Kendall-Sneyers test were used to identify trend and step change point in the annual runoff. It was found that the basin had a significant increasing trend in annual runoff. Step change point in annual runoff was identified in the basin, which occurred in the year around 1993 dividing the long-term runoff series into a natural period (1960-1993) and a human-induced period (1994-2009). Then, the hydrologic sensitivity analysis method was employed to evaluate the effects of climate variability and human activities on mean annual runoff for the human-induced period based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. In 1994-2009, climate variability was the main factor that increased runoff with contribution of 90.5 %, while the increasing percentage due to human activities only accounted for 9.5 %, showing that runoff in the Kaidu River Basin is more sensitive to climate variability than human activities. This study quantitatively distinguishes the effects between climate variability and human activities on runoff, which can do duty for a reference for regional water resources assessment and management.

  10. The Impact of Climate Change on the Duration and Division of Flood Season in the Fenhe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hejia Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the duration and division of the flood season in the Fenhe River Basin over the period of 1957–2014 based on daily precipitation data collected from 14 meteorological stations. The Mann–Kendall detection, the multiscale moving t-test, and the Fisher optimal partition methods are used to evaluate the impact of climate change on flood season duration and division. The results show that the duration of the flood season has extended in 1975–2014 compared to that in 1957–1974. Specifically, the onset date of the flood season has advanced 15 days, whereas the retreat date of the flood season remains almost the same. The flood season of the Fenhe River Basin can be divided into three stages, and the variations in the onset and retreat dates of each stage are also examined. Corresponding measures are also proposed to better utilize the flood resources to adapt to the flood season variations.

  11. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  12. Significance and effect of ecological rehabilitation project in inland river basins in northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Feng, Qi; Chen, Lijuan; Yu, Tengfei

    2013-07-01

    The Ecological Water Transfer and Rehabilitation Project in the arid inland area of northwest China is an important measure in restoring a deteriorated ecosystem. However, the sustainability of the project is affected by many socio-economic factors. This article examines the attitudes of the local populace toward the project, its impact on the livelihood of the people, and the positive effects of water-efficient agricultural practices in Ejina County. Related data were collected through questionnaire surveys and group discussions. The results identified three critical issues that may influence the sustainability of the project in the study area. The first issue relates to the impact of the project on the livelihood of local herdsmen. The potential for the sustainability of the project is compromised because the livelihood of the herdsmen greatly depends on the compensation awarded by the project. The second issue is that the project did not raise the water resource utilization ratio, which may undermine its final purpose. Finally, the compensation provided by the project considers losses in agriculture, but neglects the externalities and public benefit of eco-water. Thus, appropriate compensation mechanisms should be established and adopted according to local economic, environmental, and social conditions. Some recommendations for improving the sustainability of the project are provided based on the results of this study.

  13. Spatiotemporal Changes in Rural Settlement Land and Rural Population in the Middle Basin of the Heihe River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjiang Shi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between the spatiotemporal expansion of rural settlement land and the variation of rural population is the foundation of rational and specific planning for sustainable development. Based on the integration of Landsat TM, ETM+, and OLI images and demographic data, using mathematical models, landscape indexes, and a decoupling model, the spatiotemporal changes of the rural settlement land area and its decoupling relationship with the rural registered population were analyzed for the middle basin of the Heihe River in China. During the period 1986–2014, the following changes occurred: (1 The study area experienced increases of 124.94%, 55.16%, and 1.56% in rural settlement land area, number of patches, and rural registered population, respectively; (2 Edge-expansion, dispersion, and urban encroachment were the dominant patterns of dynamic changes in the studied rural settlement land. Among these, edge-expansion was the most prevalent development pattern; it contributed more than half of the total increase in the number of patches and the total area growth; (3 The annual growth rate of the rural registered population increased from 0.7% in 1986–2002 to −0.5% in 2002–2014. By that time the rural settlement land area had undergone a gentle increase from 3.4% to 3.6%. Generally, the rural registered population and rural settlement land has experienced a shift from weakly decoupled in 1986–2009 to strongly decoupled in 2009–2014; (4 From 1986 to 2014, rural urbanization and modernization were the main causes that led to the decline in the rural registered population; however, economic growth promoted the expansion of rural settlement land during this same period. We believe that with the rapid development of urbanization, the decoupling relationship between the rural settlement land area and the reduction in the rural registered population cannot be completely reversed in the short term. It is recommended that

  14. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10"−"7 ≤ RQ_t_o_t_a_ls ≤ 4.24 × 10"−"4) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. - Highlights: • VOCs with various polarities were screened in typical water sources of China. • Ecological, human health and olfactory assessments were simultaneously performed. • The risk assessments were used to identify the major hazards by VOCs. • The detected VOCs posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks. • Odor problems occurred extensively in source water of China. - Detected VOCs with various polarities caused odor problems and posed potential ecological risks but little human health risks in drinking water sources in China.

  15. Scenario-Based Impact Assessment of Land Use/Cover and Climate Changes on Watershed Hydrology in Heihe River Basin of Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated hydrological impacts of potential climate and land use changes in Heihe River Basin of Northwest China. The future climate data for the simulation with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT were prepared using a dynamical downscaling method. The future land uses were simulated with the Dynamic Land Use System (DLS model by establishing Multinomial Logistic Regression (MNL model for six land use types. In 2006–2030, land uses in the basin will experience a significant change with a prominent increase in urban areas, a moderate increase in grassland, and a great decrease in unused land. Besides, the simulation results showed that in comparison to those during 1981–2005 the temperature and precipitation during 2006–2030 will change by +0.8°C and +10.8%, respectively. The land use change and climate change will jointly make the water yield change by +8.5%, while they will separately make the water yield change by −1.8% and +9.8%, respectively. The predicted large increase in future precipitation and the corresponding decrease in unused land will have substantial impacts on the watershed hydrology, especially on the surface runoff and streamflow. Therefore, to mitigate negative hydrological impacts and utilize positive impacts, both land use and climate changes should be considered in water resource planning for the Heihe River Basin.

  16. Will urban expansion lead to an increase in future water pollution loads?--a preliminary investigation of the Haihe River Basin in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; Liu, Yi; Chen, Jining

    2014-01-01

    Urban expansion is a major driving force changing regional hydrology and nonpoint source pollution. The Haihe River Basin, the political, economic, and cultural center of northeastern China, has undergone rapid urbanization in recent decades. To investigate the consequences of future urban sprawl on nonpoint source water pollutant emissions in the river basin, the urban sprawl in 2030 was estimated, and the annual runoff and nonpoint source pollution in the Haihe River basin were simulated. The Integrated Model of Non-Point Sources Pollution Processes (IMPULSE) was used to simulate the effects of urban sprawl on nonpoint source pollution emissions. The outcomes indicated that the urban expansion through 2030 increased the nonpoint source total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorous (TP), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions by 8.08, 0.14, and 149.57 kg/km(2), respectively. Compared to 2008, the total nonpoint emissions rose by 15.33, 0.57, and 12.39 %, respectively. Twelve percent of the 25 cities in the basin would increase by more than 50 % in nonpoint source TN and COD emissions in 2030. In particular, the nonpoint source TN emissions in Xinxiang, Jiaozuo, and Puyang would rise by 73.31, 67.25, and 58.61 %, and the nonpoint source COD emissions in these cities would rise by 74.02, 51.99, and 53.27 %, respectively. The point source pollution emissions in 2008 and 2030 were also estimated to explore the effects of urban sprawl on total water pollution loads. Urban sprawl through 2030 would bring significant structural changes of total TN, TP, and COD emissions for each city in the area. The results of this study could provide insights into the effects of urbanization in the study area and the methods could help to recognize the role that future urban sprawl plays in the total water pollution loads in the water quality management process.

  17. Assessment of heavy metals in sediment in a heavily polluted urban river in the Chaohu Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shiguang; Xue, Lianqing; Liu, Cheng; Shang, Jingge; Wang, Zhaode; He, Xiang; Fan, Chengxin

    2016-05-01

    The Nanfei River (Anhui Province, China) is a severely polluted urban river that flows into Chaohu Lake. In the present study, sediments were collected from the river and analyzed for their heavy metal contents. Multivariate statistics and the fuzzy comprehensive assessment method were used to determine the sources of pollution, the current pollution status, and spatial and temporal variations in heavy metal pollution in sediments. The concentrations of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in sediments ranged from 5.67-113, 0.08-40.2, 41.6-524, 15.5-460, 0.03-4.84, 13.5-180, 18.8-250, and 47.9-1 996 mg/kg, and the average concentrations of each metal were 1.7, 38.7, 1.8, 5.5, 18.8, 1.3, 2.5, and 11.1 times greater than the background values, respectively. Multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that Hg, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Ni may have originated from industrial activities, whereas As and Pb came from agricultural activities. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment method, based on the fuzzy mathematics theory, was used to obtain a detailed assessment of the sediment quality in the Nanfei River watershed. The results indicated that the pollution was moderate in the downstream tributaries of the Nianbu and Dianbu Rivers, but was severe in the main channel of the Nanfei River and in the upstream tributaries of the Sili and Banqiao Rivers. Therefore, sediments in the Nanfei River watershed are heavily polluted and urgent measures should be taken to remedy the status.

  18. Analyzing the water budget and hydrological characteristics and responses to land use in a monsoonal climate river basin in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Chen, Ji

    2013-01-01

    Hydrological models have been increasingly used by hydrologists and water resource managers to understand natural processes and human activities that affect watersheds. In this study, we use the physically based model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), to investigate the hydrological processes in the East River Basin in South China, a coastal area dominated by monsoonal climate. The SWAT model was calibrated using 8-year (1973–1980) record of the daily streamflow at the basin outlet (Boluo station), and then validated using data collected during the subsequent 8 years (1981–1988). Statistical evaluation shows that SWAT can consistently simulate the streamflow of the East River with monthly Nash–Sutcliffe efficiencies of 0.93 for calibration and 0.90 for validation at the Boluo station. We analyzed the model simulations with calibrated parameters, presented the spatiotemporal distribution of the key hydrological components, and quantified their responses to different land uses. Watershed managers can use the results of this study to understand hydrological features and evaluate water resources of the East River in terms of sustainable development and effective management.

  19. The role of deuterium excess in determining the water salinisation mechanism: A case study of the arid Tarim River Basin, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the water salinisation mechanism is the basis for regional salt management. Mineral dissolution, evaporation and transpiration are the main factors controlling natural water salinity in arid inland basins; however, the two are difficult to differentiate. Because deuterium excess decreases during evaporation and is unrelated to the isotopic composition of the initial water, it is a potential tool for determining the contribution of the evapoconcentration of a given water body using the relationship between deuterium excess and salinity rather than between δ 18 O (or δ 2 H) and salinity. In this paper, the relationship between the residual water fraction and deuterium excess was derived from the Rayleigh distillation equation. The contribution of evapoconcentration and mineral dissolution and/or transpiration for a given water body can be determined by comparing the residual water fraction and salinity between the initial water and the evapoconcentrated water. The extremely arid Tarim River Basin in NW China is taken as an example to demonstrate deuterium excess and salinity evolution from the source stream to river water, lake/reservoir water and groundwater. The results show that mineral dissolution contributes most of the salinity (67–77%) for Boston Lake and the Kongque and Tarim rivers relative to the source stream. Mineral dissolution and/or transpiration contribute greater salinity (73–99.6%) to the groundwater recharged by the river water in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River. The study provides a method for determining the salinisation mechanism and is important for salt movement and management.

  20. Misrepresenting the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Messerschmid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article advances a critique of the UN Economic and Social Commission for West Asia’s (ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan River Basin, as contained in its recently published Inventory of Shared Water Resources in Western Asia. We argue that ESCWA’s representation of the Jordan Basin is marked by serious technical errors and a systematic bias in favour of one riparian, Israel, and against the Jordan River’s four Arab riparians. We demonstrate this in relation to ESCWA’s account of the political geography of the Jordan River Basin, which foregrounds Israel and its perspectives and narratives; in relation to hydrology, where Israel’s contribution to the basin is overstated, whilst that of Arab riparians is understated; and in relation to development and abstraction, where Israel’s transformation and use of the basin are underplayed, while Arab impacts are exaggerated. Taken together, this bundle of misrepresentations conveys the impression that it is Israel which is the main contributor to the Jordan River Basin, Arab riparians its chief exploiters. This impression is, we argue, not just false but also surprising, given that the Inventory is in the name of an organisation of Arab states. The evidence discussed here provides a striking illustration of how hegemonic hydro-political narratives are reproduced, including by actors other than basin hegemons themselves.

  1. Water Footprint Calculation on the Basis of Input–Output Analysis and a Biproportional Algorithm: A Case Study for the Yellow River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the Yellow River basin, China, ecosystems suffer from the overexploitation and utilization of water resources, resulting in various environmental impacts. Consideration must be given to both human and ecosystem water requirements in water resources management. A water footprint (WF is a tool for estimating industrial, agricultural, commercial and household water requirements and for examining the impact of consumption on water resources. The study attempts to establish an approach to analyse the dynamic processes and driving forces that result in certain WFs. Using input–output tables for provinces and municipalities, we calculate water use coefficients, the total WF and the net external WF of consumption in China’s Yellow River Basin. A biproportional algorithm is employed to revise the input–output tables for analysing the temporal dynamics of the WF. The factor analysis and linear regression were used to analyse the main influencing factors of WF. Results indicate that the coefficient for water use by primary industries is highest and that coefficients for provincial water use differ significantly. Second, household consumption and residuals from capital accumulation constituted approximately half of the total WF of the Yellow River basin in 2002 and also differed significantly among provinces. Third, the ratio of the net external WF to the total WF increased, and the ratio of final consumption to the total WF declined during the period examined. Fourth, output by secondary industries correlated most strongly with the WF, followed by area under irrigation, per capita meat consumption, water consumption per 10,000-yuan increase in added value and population.

  2. Analysis on biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors in the Gufu River basin, Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiwen; Wu, Shuyuan; Touré, Dado; Cheng, Lamei; Miao, Wenjie; Cao, Huafen; Pan, Xiaoying; Li, Jianfeng; Yao, Minmin; Feng, Liang

    2017-12-01

    The main purpose of this study conducted from August 2010 was to find biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors and try to explore the restrictive factors affecting the growth of algae in the Gufu River, the one of the branches of Xiangxi River located in the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River, Hubei Province, Central China. An improved method of in situ primary productivity measurement was utilized to estimate the primary production of the epilithic algae. It was shown that in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, algae are the main primary producers and have a central role in the ecosystem. Chlorophyll a concentration and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) were estimated for epilithic algae of the Gufu River basin in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Environmental factors in the Gufu River ecosystem highlighted differences in periphyton chlorophyll a ranging from 1.49 mg m -2 (origin) to 69.58 mg m -2 (terminal point). The minimum and maximum gross primary productivity of epilithic algae were 96.12 and 1439.89 mg C m -2  day -1 , respectively. The mean net primary productivity was 290.24 mg C m -2  day -1 . The mean autotrophic index (AFDM:chlorophyll a) was 407.40. The net primary productivity, community respiration ratio (P/R ratio) ranged from 0.98 to 9.25 with a mean of 2.76, showed that autotrophic productivity was dominant in the river. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics and biomass was discussed through cluster and stepwise regression analysis which indicated that altitude, total nitrogen (TN), NO 3 - -N, and NH 4 + -N were significant environmental factors affecting the biomass of epilithic algae. However, a negative logarithmic relationship between altitude and the chlorophyll a of epilithic algae was high. The results also highlighted the importance of epilithic algae in maintaining the Gufu River basin ecosystems health.

  3. Modelling spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic impacts under climate changes over the Nenjiang River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Wanchang

    2017-10-01

    The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model was adopted for investigating spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic impacts of climate change over the Nenjiang River Basin (NRB) based on a set of gridded forcing dataset at 1/12th degree resolution from 1970 to 2013. Basin-scale changes in the input forcing data and the simulated hydrological variables of the NRB, as well as station-scale changes in discharges for three major hydrometric stations were examined, which suggested that the model was performed fairly satisfactory in reproducing the observed discharges, meanwhile, the snow cover and evapotranspiration in temporal and spatial patterns were simulated reasonably corresponded to the remotely sensed ones. Wetland maps produced by multi-sources satellite images covering the entire basin between 1978 and 2008 were also utilized for investigating the responses and feedbacks of hydrological regimes on wetland dynamics. Results revealed that significant decreasing trends appeared in annual, spring and autumn streamflow demonstrated strong affection of precipitation and temperature changes over the study watershed, and the effects of climate change on the runoff reduction varied in the sub-basin area over different time scales. The proportion of evapotranspiration to precipitation characterized several severe fluctuations in droughts and floods took place in the region, which implied the enhanced sensitiveness and vulnerability of hydrologic regimes to changing environment of the region. Furthermore, it was found that the different types of wetlands undergone quite unique variation features with the varied hydro-meteorological conditions over the region, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration and soil moisture. This study provided effective scientific basis for water resource managers to develop effective eco-environment management plans and strategies that address the consequences of climate changes.

  4. Thermal-history reconstruction of the Baiyun Sag in the deep-water area of the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyin; Yang, Shuchun; Hu, Shengbiao

    2017-11-01

    The Baiyun Sag, located in the deep-water area of the northern South China Sea, is the largest and deepest subbasin in the Pearl River Mouth Basin and one of the most important hydrocarbon-accumulation depression areas in China. Thermal history is widely thought to be of great importance in oil and gas potential assessment of a basin as it controls the timing of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion from the source rock. In order to unravel the paleo-heat flow of the Baiyun Sag, we first analyzed tectonic subsidence of 55 pseudo-wells constructed based on newly interpreted seismic profiles, along with three drilled wells. We then carried out thermal modeling using the multi-stage finite stretching method and calibrated the results using collected present-day vitrinite reflectance data and temperature data. Results indicate that the first and second heating of the Baiyun Sag after 49 Ma ceased at 33.9 Ma and 23 Ma. Reconstructed average basal paleoheat flow values at the end of the rifting periods are 57.7-86.2 mW/m2 and 66.7-97.3 mW/m2, respectively. Following the last heating period at 23 Ma, the study area has undergone a persistent thermal attenuation phase, and basal heat flow has cooled down to 64.0-79.2 mW/m2 at present.

  5. Simultaneous assessments of occurrence, ecological, human health, and organoleptic hazards for 77 VOCs in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Wang, Donghong; Gao, Jijun; Wei, Zi; Wang, Zijian; Zhou, Huaidong; Mazumder, Asit

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the growing public awareness on the safety and aesthetics in water sources, more attention has been given to the adverse effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on aquatic organisms and human beings. In this study, 77 target VOCs (including 54 common VOCs, 13 carbonyl compounds, and 10 taste and odor compounds) were detected in typical drinking water sources from 5 major river basins (the Yangtze, the Huaihe, the Yellow, the Haihe and the Liaohe River basins) and their occurrences were characterized. The ecological, human health, and olfactory assessments were performed to assess the major hazards in source water. The investigation showed that there existed potential ecological risks (1.30 × 10 ≤ RQtotals ≤ 8.99 × 10) but little human health risks (6.84 × 10(-7) ≤ RQtotals ≤ 4.24 × 10(-4)) by VOCs, while that odor problems occurred extensively. The priority contaminants in drinking water sources of China were also listed based on the present assessment criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Spatio-temporal variations of origin, distribution and diffusion of Oncomelania hupensis in Yangtze River Basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chen; Li-Yong, Wen

    2017-10-24

    As the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, Oncomelania hupensis in China is mainly distributed in the Yangtze River Basin. The origin of the O. hupensis and the spatio-temporal variations of its distribution and diffusion in the Yangtze River Basin and the influencing factors, as well as significances in schistosomiasis elimination in China are reviewed in this paper.

  7. Impacts of Rainfall and Land Use on Sediment Regime in a Semi-Arid Region: Case Study of the Wuqi Catchment in the Upper Beiluo River Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, J.; Gao, P.; Geissen, V.; Maroulis, J.; Ritsema, C.J.; Mu, X.; Zhao, G.

    2015-01-01

    The middle reaches of the Yellow River Basin transport the vast majority of sediment (>85% of the basin's total available sediment load), which has had profound effects on the characteristics of the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River. With recent land use and land cover change, the

  8. Multi-model ensemble hydrological simulation using a BP Neural Network for the upper Yalongjiang River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhanjie; Yu, Jingshan; Xu, Xinyi; Sun, Wenchao; Pang, Bo; Yue, Jiajia

    2018-06-01

    Hydrological models are important and effective tools for detecting complex hydrological processes. Different models have different strengths when capturing the various aspects of hydrological processes. Relying on a single model usually leads to simulation uncertainties. Ensemble approaches, based on multi-model hydrological simulations, can improve application performance over single models. In this study, the upper Yalongjiang River Basin was selected for a case study. Three commonly used hydrological models (SWAT, VIC, and BTOPMC) were selected and used for independent simulations with the same input and initial values. Then, the BP neural network method was employed to combine the results from the three models. The results show that the accuracy of BP ensemble simulation is better than that of the single models.

  9. Impact of phosphate mining and separation of mined materials on the hydrology and water environment of the Huangbai River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kang; Lin, Zhongbing; Zhang, Renduo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of large-scale phosphate mining (PM) on hydrology and water quality in the Huangbai River basin, China. Rainfall and runoff data were used to analyze hydrological changes of the basin before (from 1978 to 2002) and during (from 2003 to 2014) the PM period. From 2009 to 2014, flow rate and concentrations of ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)), nitrate (NO3(-)), fluoride (F(-)), suspended solids (SS), total nitrogen (TN), soluble phosphorus (SP), and total phosphorus (TP) were measured at the outfalls of PM as well as at outlets of sub-basins with and without PM practices. Results showed that the PM activities generally reduced runoff (i.e., the runoff coefficient and runoff peak). The sequential Mann Kendall test revealed a decrease trend of runoff during wet seasons after 2008 in the PM regions. For a mining scale of one unit of PM productivity (i.e., 10(8)kg phosphate ore per year or 2.74×10(5) kg d(-1)), TN, SS, and TP of 0.633, 1.46 to 5.22, and 0.218 to 0.554 kg d(-1) were generated, respectively. The NH4(+) and TN loads in the sub-basins with PM were significantly higher than these in the sub-basins without PM; however, the NH4(+) and TN loads that discharged into rivers from the background non-point sources discharged were less in the sub-basins with PM than those without PM. The result was attributed to the reduction of runoff volume by PM. The annual mean concentrations of TN in reservoir water increased with the scales of PM, whereas the mean concentrations of SP were low. Nevertheless, the SP concentrations in the reservoirs greatly increased after 2012, mainly related to the dissolution of apatite in the sediment. The information from this study should improve the understanding of changes in hydrology and water quality in regions with large-scale PM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of climate change on water requirements and phenological period of major crops in Heihe River basin, China - Based on the accumulated temperature threshold method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dongmei; Xu, Xinyi; Yan, Denghua

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, global climate change has significantly caused a serious crisis of water resources throughout the world. However, mainly through variations in temperature, climate change will affect water requirements of crop. It is obvious that the rise of temperature affects growing period and phenological period of crop directly, then changes the water demand quota of crop. Methods including accumulated temperature threshold and climatic tendency rate were adopted, which made up for the weakness of phenological observations, to reveal the response of crop phenological change during the growing period. Then using Penman-Menteith model and crop coefficients from the United Nations Food& Agriculture Organization (FAO), the paper firstly explored crop water requirements in different growth periods, and further forecasted quantitatively crop water requirements in Heihe River Basin, China under different climate change scenarios. Results indicate that: (i) The results of crop phenological change established in the method of accumulated temperature threshold were in agreement with measured results, and (ii) there were many differences in impacts of climate warming on water requirement of different crops. The growth periods of wheat and corn had tendency of shortening as well as the length of growth periods. (ii)Results of crop water requirements under different climate change scenarios showed: when temperature increased by 1°C, the start time of wheat growth period changed, 2 days earlier than before, and the length of total growth period shortened 2 days. Wheat water requirements increased by 1.4mm. However, corn water requirements decreased by almost 0.9mm due to the increasing temperature of 1°C. And the start time of corn growth period become 3 days ahead, and the length of total growth period shortened 4 days. Therefore, the contradiction between water supply and water demands are more obvious under the future climate warming in Heihe River Basin, China.

  11. Development and validation of a bacteria-based index of biotic integrity for assessing the ecological status of urban rivers: A case study of Qinhuai River basin in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Yi; Qian, Bao; Niu, Lihua; Zhang, Wenlong; Cai, Wei; Wu, Hainan; Wang, Peifang; Wang, Chao

    2017-07-01

    With the increasing human disturbance to urban rivers, the extinction and biodiversity losses of some macroorganism species decreased the accuracy of bioassessment. In this study, a novel index of biotic integrity based on bacteria (Ba-IBI) was first developed for Qinhuai River in Nanjing city, China. Thirty-two biofilm samples were collected along the river bank and the bacterial communities were identified by high-throughput sequencing. By the range, responsive, and redundancy tests, four core metrics were selected from the dataset of 78 candidate metrics, including Pielou's evenness index, proportion of Paenibacillus, proportion of OTUs tolerant to organic pollution and proportion of Nitrosomonas. The results showed that the Ba-IBI was able to effectively discriminate different impaired site groups, and had a good correlation with the index of water quality (r = 0.79, p river. Our study revealed that the Ba-IBI is an effective and reliable approach for assessing the ecological status of Qinhuai River basin, which can complement the existing ecological assessment approaches for urban rivers. Meanwhile, repeted surveys and field validations are still needed to further improve the applicability of the index in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sedimentary characteristics and controlling factors of shelf sand ridges in the Pearl River Mouth Basin, northeast of South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangtao Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Shelf sand ridge is a significant type of reservoir in the continental marginal basin, and it has drawn so much attention from sedimentologists and petroleum geologists. We were able to investigate the morphology, distribution, and sedimentary structures of shelf sand ridges systematically in this study based on the integration of high-resolution 3D seismic data, well logging, and cores. These shelf sand ridges are an asymmetrical mound-like structure in profiles, and they developed on an ancient uplift in the forced regression system tract and are onlapped by the overlying strata. In the plane, shelf sand ridges present as linear-shaped, which is different from the classical radial pattern; not to mention, they are separated into two parts by low amplitude tidal muddy channels. Corrugated bedding, tidal bedding, and scouring features are distinguished in cores of shelf sand ridges together with the coarsening up in lithology. All of these sedimentary characteristics indicate that shelf sand ridges deposited in the Pearl River Mouth Basin are reconstructed by the tidal and coastal current.

  13. Quantifying uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in sub-catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins, China

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    H. Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative evaluations of the impacts of climate change on water resources are primarily constrained by uncertainty in climate projections from GCMs. In this study we assess uncertainty in the impacts of climate change on river discharge in two catchments of the Yangtze and Yellow River Basins that feature contrasting climate regimes (humid and semi-arid. Specifically we quantify uncertainty associated with GCM structure from a subset of CMIP3 AR4 GCMs (HadCM3, HadGEM1, CCSM3.0, IPSL, ECHAM5, CSIRO, CGCM3.1, SRES emissions scenarios (A1B, A2, B1, B2 and prescribed increases in global mean air temperature (1 °C to 6 °C. Climate projections, applied to semi-distributed hydrological models (SWAT 2005 in both catchments, indicate trends toward warmer and wetter conditions. For prescribed warming scenarios of 1 °C to 6 °C, linear increases in mean annual river discharge, relative to baseline (1961–1990, for the River Xiangxi and River Huangfuchuan are +9% and 11% per +1 °C respectively. Intra-annual changes include increases in flood (Q05 discharges for both rivers as well as a shift in the timing of flood discharges from summer to autumn and a rise (24 to 93% in dry season (Q95 discharge for the River Xiangxi. Differences in projections of mean annual river discharge between SRES emission scenarios using HadCM3 are comparatively minor for the River Xiangxi (13 to 17% rise from baseline but substantial (73 to 121% for the River Huangfuchuan. With one minor exception of a slight (−2% decrease in river discharge projected using HadGEM1 for the River Xiangxi, mean annual river discharge is projected to increase in both catchments under both the SRES A1B emission scenario and 2° rise in global mean air temperature using all AR4 GCMs on the CMIP3 subset. For the River Xiangxi, there is substantial uncertainty associated with GCM structure in the magnitude of the rise in flood (Q05 discharges (−1 to 41% under SRES A1B and −3 to 41% under 2

  14. Association analysis between spatiotemporal variation of vegetation greenness and precipitation/temperature in the Yangtze River Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifang; Wang, Lunche; Singh, Ramesh P; Lai, Zhongping; Jiang, Liangliang; Yao, Rui

    2018-05-23

    The variation in vegetation greenness provides good understanding of the sustainable management and monitoring of land surface ecosystems. The present paper discusses the spatial-temporal changes in vegetation and controlling factors in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) using Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 2001-2013. Theil-Sen Median trend analysis, Pearson correlation coefficients, and residual analysis have been used, which shows decreasing trend of the annual mean NDVI over the whole YRB. Spatially, the regions with significant decreasing trends were mainly located in parts of central YRB, and pronounced increasing trends were observed in parts of the eastern and western YRB. The mean NDVI during spring and summer seasons increased, while it decreased during autumn and winter seasons. The seasonal mean NDVI shows spatial heterogeneity due to the vegetation types. The correlation analysis shows a positive relation between NDVI and temperature over most of the YRB, whereas NDVI and precipitation show a negative correlation. The residual analysis shows an increase in NDVI in parts of eastern and western YRB and the decrease in NDVI in the small part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the mid-western YRB due to human activities. In general, climate factors were the principal drivers of NDVI variation in YRB in recent years.

  15. Analysis of Water Resources Supply and Demand and Security of Water Resources Development in Irrigation Regions of the Middle Reaches of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Xi-bin; KANG Er-si; CHEN Ren-sheng; ZHAO Wen-zhi; XIAO Sheng-chun; JIN Bo-wen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data for meteorology, hydrology, soil, planting, vegetation, and socio-economic development of the irrigation region in the middle reaches of the Heihe River basin, Northwest China, the model of balance of water supply and demand in the region was established, and the security of water resource was assessed, from which the results that the effects of unified management of water resources in the Heihe River basin between Gansu Province and Inner Mongolia on regional hydrology are significant with a decrease in water supply diverted from Heihe River and an increase in groundwater extracted. In addition, it was found that the groundwater level has been steadily decreasing due to over pumping and decrease in recharges. In present year (2003), the volume of potential groundwater in the irrigation districts is far small because of the groundwater overdraft; even in the particular regions, there is no availability of groundwater resources for use. By 2003, water supply is not sufficient to meet the water demand in the different irrigation districts, the sustainable development and utilization of water resources are not secured, and the water supply crisis occurs in Pingchuan irrigation district. Achieving water security for the sustainable development of society, agriculture, economy, industry, and livelihoods while maintaining or improving the abilities of the management and planning of water resources, determining of the reasonable percentage between water supply and groundwater utilization and water saving in agricultural irrigation are taken into account. If this does not occur, it is feared that the present performance of water development and planning may further aggravate the problem of scarcities of water resources and further damage the fragile ecological system.

  16. Assessing the evolution of oases in arid regions by reconstructing their historic spatio-temporal distribution: a case study of the Heihe River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yaowen; Wang, Guisheng; Wang, Xueqiang; Fan, Peilei

    2017-12-01

    Oasis evolution, one of the most obvious surface processes in arid regions, affects various aspects of the regional environment, such as hydrological processes, ecological conditions, and microclimates. In this paper, the historical spatio-temporal evolution of the cultivated oases in the Heihe River Basin, the second largest inland watershed in the northwest of China, was assessed using multidisciplinary methods and data from multiple sources, including historical literature, ancient sites, maps and remotely sensed images. The findings show that cultivated oases were first developed on a large scale during the Han Dynasty (121 BC-220) and then gradually decreased in extent from the Six Dynasties period (220-581) to the Sui-Tang period (581-907), reaching a minimum in the Song-Yuan period (960-1368). An abrupt revival occurred during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and continued through the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), and during the period of the Republic of China (1912-1949), oasis development reached its greatest peak of the entire historical period. The oasis areas during seven major historical periods, i.e., Han, Six Dynasties, Sui-Tang, Song-Yuan, Ming, Qing, and Republic of China, are estimated to have been 1703 km2, 1115 km2, 629 km2, 614 km2, 964 km2, 1205 km2, and 1917 km2, respectively. The spatial distribution generally exhibited a continuous sprawl process, with the center of the oases moving gradually from the downstream region to the middle and even upstream regions. The oases along the main river remained stable during most periods, whereas those close to the terminal reaches were subject to frequent variations and even abandonment. Socio-economic factors were the main forces driving the evolution of cultivated oases in the area; among them, political and societal stability, national defense, agricultural policy, population, and technological progress were the most important.

  17. Integrated Application of Multivariate Statistical Methods to Source Apportionment of Watercourses in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China

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    Jiabo Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Source apportionment of river water pollution is critical in water resource management and aquatic conservation. Comprehensive application of various GIS-based multivariate statistical methods was performed to analyze datasets (2009–2011 on water quality in the Liao River system (China. Cluster analysis (CA classified the 12 months of the year into three groups (May–October, February–April and November–January and the 66 sampling sites into three groups (groups A, B and C based on similarities in water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA determined that temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn, 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, NH4+–N, total phosphorus (TP and volatile phenols were significant variables affecting temporal variations, with 81.2% correct assignments. Principal component analysis (PCA and positive matrix factorization (PMF identified eight potential pollution factors for each part of the data structure, explaining more than 61% of the total variance. Oxygen-consuming organics from cropland and woodland runoff were the main latent pollution factor for group A. For group B, the main pollutants were oxygen-consuming organics, oil, nutrients and fecal matter. For group C, the evaluated pollutants primarily included oxygen-consuming organics, oil and toxic organics.

  18. Using Detrital Zircon Geochronology to Constrain Paleogene Provenance and Its Relationship to Rifting in the Zhu 1 Depression, Pearl River Mouth Basin, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ye, Jiaren; Bidgoli, Tandis; Yang, Xianghua; Shi, Hesheng; Shu, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Paleogene syn-rift successions in the South China Sea are poorly understood and systematic provenance analysis, which could provide clues to their history, is lacking. Here we report 409 new concordant U-Pb ages from detrital zircons separated from the Paleogene Wenchang, Enping, and Zhuhai formations in the Zhu 1 depression, Pearl River Mouth Basin. The new data, combined with the published age data from the region, document changes in the provenance of syn-rift successions. Detrital zircons from the Eocene Wenchang Formation are unimodal, with Jurassic-Cretaceous (180-80 Ma) ages making up >80% of grains. The ages are consistent with the geochronology of intrabasinal highs, dominated by igneous rocks emplaced during the Yanshanian orogeny, and suggest local provenance. By contrast, detrital zircons from the upper Eocene to lower Oligocene Enping Formation form three well-recognized age-clusters, with peaks at 150, 254, and 438 Ma that match documented tectonomagmatism in South China Block (SCB). Combined with increasing numbers of Precambrian zircons, the data suggest increasing influence of regional provenance of the SCB. Similar age peaks are also recognized from the limited number of zircons analyzed from the upper Oligocene Zhuhai Formation and comparability with modern shelf and river sediment indicates the unit was mainly sourced from the SCB and likely transported by a paleo-Pearl River. We infer that the change in provenance, from local uplifts within the Zhu 1 to the SCB, is related to distinct phases of PRMB rift development; however, later changes are best explained by SCB drainage evolution.

  19. Applying the input-output method to account for water footprint and virtual water trade in the Haihe River basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Yang, Hong; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Qin, Yan

    2010-12-01

    The virtual water strategy which advocates importing water intensive products and exporting products with low water intensity is gradually accepted as one of the options for solving water crisis in severely water scarce regions. However, if we count the virtual water embodied in imported products as the water saved for a region, we might overestimate the saving by including the virtual water that is later re-exported in association with the proceeded products made from the originally imported products. This problem can be avoided by accounting for the saved water through calculating water footprint (WF) in domestic final consumptive products. In this paper, an input-output analysis (IOA) based on the water footprint accounting framework is built to account for WF and virtual water trade of final consumptive products in the water stressed Haihe River basin in China for the year 1997, 2000, and 2002. The input-output transaction tables of the three years are constructed. The results show WF of 46.57, 44.52, and 42.71 billion m(3) for the three years, respectively. These volumes are higher than the water used directly in the corresponding years in the basin. A WF intensity (WFI) indicator is then used to assess if the economic activities in the basin are consistent with the virtual water strategy. The temporal change of the WFI is also decomposed by the index number analysis method. The results showed that the basin was silently importing virtual water through the trade of raw and processed food commodities under the background of the whole economic circulation.

  20. Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Extreme Precipitation Regimes in the Eastern Inland River Basin of Inner Mongolian Plateau, China

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    Wei Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we use the gridded precipitation dataset (with a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° of the eastern part of inland river basin of Inner Mongolian Plateau from 1961–2015 as the basis and adopt the methods of climatic diagnosis (e.g., the Modified Mann-Kendall method, principal component analysis, and correlation analysis to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of six extreme precipitation indices. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO events and the observed extreme precipitation. The results indicated that the gridded dataset can be used to describe the precipitation distribution in our study area. In recent 55 years, the inter-annual variation trends of extreme precipitation indices are generally dominated by declination except for the maximum precipitation over five days (RX5DAY and the heavy precipitation (R95P, in particular, the decreasing regions of consecutive dry days (CDD accounts for 91% of the entire basin, 17.28% of which is showing the significant downward trend. Contrary to CDD, the spatial distribution of the other five indices is gradually decreasing from northeast to southwest, and the precipitation intensity (SDII ranges from 3.8–5.3 mm·d−1, with relatively small spatial differences. To some extent, CDD and R95P can used to characterize the extreme precipitation regimes. Moreover, the number of days with heavy precipitation (RR10, SDII, and R95P are more susceptible to the ENSO events. In addition, the moderate El Niño event may increase the probability of CDD, while the La Niña events may increase the risk of the heavy rainfall regime in the study area.

  1. Estimating and Predicting Metal Concentration Using Online Turbidity Values and Water Quality Models in Two Rivers of the Taihu Basin, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhuang, Wei; Qian, Yu; Xia, Bisheng; Yang, Yang; Qian, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Turbidity (T) has been widely used to detect the occurrence of pollutants in surface water. Using data collected from January 2013 to June 2014 at eleven sites along two rivers feeding the Taihu Basin, China, the relationship between the concentration of five metals (aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti), nickel (Ni), vanadium (V), lead (Pb)) and turbidity was investigated. Metal concentration was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The linear regression of metal concentration and turbidity provided a good fit, with R(2) = 0.86-0.93 for 72 data sets collected in the industrial river and R(2) = 0.60-0.85 for 60 data sets collected in the cleaner river. All the regression presented good linear relationship, leading to the conclusion that the occurrence of the five metals are directly related to suspended solids, and these metal concentration could be approximated using these regression equations. Thus, the linear regression equations were applied to estimate the metal concentration using online turbidity data from January 1 to June 30 in 2014. In the prediction, the WASP 7.5.2 (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program) model was introduced to interpret the transport and fates of total suspended solids; in addition, metal concentration downstream of the two rivers was predicted. All the relative errors between the estimated and measured metal concentration were within 30%, and those between the predicted and measured values were within 40%. The estimation and prediction process of metals' concentration indicated that exploring the relationship between metals and turbidity values might be one effective technique for efficient estimation and prediction of metal concentration to facilitate better long-term monitoring with high temporal and spatial density.

  2. The Assessment of Green Water Based on the SWAT Model: A Case Study in the Hai River Basin, China

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    Kui Zhu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Green water accounts for two-thirds of precipitation, and the proportion could be even higher in dry years. Conflicts between water supply and demand have gradually become severe in the Hai River Basin (HRB due to the socio-economic development. Thus, the exploitation and the utilization of green water have attracted increasing attention. By gathering the related hydrological, meteorological, and geographic data, the spatiotemporal distribution of green water in HRB and the impacts of land use types on green water are analyzed based on the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool model in this study. Furthermore, three new indices are proposed for evaluation, including the maximum possible storage of green water (MSGW, the consumed green water (CGW, and the utilizable green water (UGW. The results show that (1 the MSGW is relatively low in plain areas and its spatial distribution is significantly associated with the soil type; (2 according to the evaluation results of CGW and UGW in HRB, a further improvement of utilization efficiency of green water could be achieved; (3 in general, the utilization efficiency of precipitation in farmlands is higher than other land use types, which means that the planting of appropriate plants could be helpful to enhance the utilization efficiency of green water. Our results summarize the spatiotemporal distribution of green water resource and provide a reference for water resources management in other water-short agricultural areas.

  3. Assessment of perception and adaptation to climate-related glacier changes in the arid Rivers Basin in northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guofeng, Zhu; Dahe, Qin; Jiawen, Ren; Feng, Liang; Huali, Tong

    2017-06-01

    In many mountainous areas of the world, glaciers serve as a source of fresh water that is of critical importance and contributes to the sustainability of agriculture and other socio-economic activities. An enhanced understanding of socio-economic consequences of the climate-related glacier changes is essential to the identification of vulnerable entities and the development of well-targeted environmental adaptation policies. A questionnaire and interviews of farmers in the Heihe River Basin were used to analyze their perception of cryospheric changes, attitudes towards mitigation of cryospheric changes, and the ways in which they perceived their responsibility. Preferred responses and interventions for cryospheric change and views on responsible parties were also collected and evaluated. Our investigation revealed that most rural residents were concerned about glacier changes and believed they would bring harm to present society, individuals, and families, as well as to future generations. The respondents' perceptions were mainly influenced by the mass media. Most respondents tended to favor adaptation measures implemented by the government and other policy-making departments. An integrated approach will be needed to deal with the challenges to tackling climate-related glacier change.

  4. [Relationships among leaf traits and their expression in different vegetation zones in Yanhe River basin, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ru; Wen, Zhong-ming; Wang, Hong-xia; Qi, De-hui

    2015-12-01

    This article selected zonal plant communities as the research objects in different vegetation zones in Yanhe River basin. We measured six leaf traits of the dominant species and main accompanying species in each community, and then analyzed the relationships and their changes along with environmental gradients between these traits in order to understand the plant adaptation strategies to the environment changes. The results showed that the specific leaf area was significantly negatively correlated to leaf tissue density, area-based leaf nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations, and significantly positively correlated to mass-based leaf phosphorus concentration. Both the scaling relationships among these traits and plant life strategies were different among the three vegetation zones, the scaling-dependent relationship between leaf tissue density and specific leaf area was stronger in steppe and forest-steppe zones than in forest zone, but the correlations among area-based leaf nitrogen/phosphorus concentrations and specific leaf area and leaf tissue density were more significant in forest zone than in steppe zone. In the arid grassland and forest-steppe zone, plants give priority to defensive and stress resistance strategies, and in relatively moist nutrient-rich forest zone, plants give priority to fast growth and resource optimization allocation strategies.

  5. Detection of Anomalies and Changes of Rainfall in the Yellow River Basin, China, through Two Graphical Methods

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    Hao Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal rainfall anomalies and changes over the Yellow River Basin due to the fragile ecosystem and rainfall-related disasters. Common trend analyses relate to overall trends in mean values. Therefore, we used two graphical methods: the quantile perturbation method (QPM was used to investigate anomalies over time in extreme rainfall, and the partial trend method (PTM was used to analyze rainfall changes at different intensities. A nonparametric bootstrap procedure is proposed in order to identify significant PTM indices. The QPM indicated prevailing positive anomalies in extreme daily rainfall 50 years ago and in the middle reaches during the 1970s and 1980s. The PTM detected significant decreases in annual rainfall mainly in the latter half of the middle reaches, two-thirds of which occurred in high and heavy rainfall. Most stations in the middle and lower reaches showed significant decreases in rainy days. Daily rainfall intensity had a significant increase at 13 stations, where rainy days were generally decreasing. The combined effect of these opposing changes explains the prevailing absence of change in annual rainfall, and the observed decreases in annual rainfall can be attributed to the decreasing number of rainy days. The changes in rainy days and rainfall intensity were dominated by the wet season and dry season, respectively.

  6. Impacts of lake water environmental condition on bioavailable-phosphorus of surface sediments in Lixia River basin, China

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    Y. Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bioavailable-phosphorus (BAP fractions of the lake surface sediments (the upper 0−5cm depth and environmental indicators of the related lake water column were investigated in five lakes in Lixia River basin during three seasons in order to evaluate the impacts of environmental indicators of the water column on the BAP fractions of surface sediments. The concentration of BAP varied significantly in different seasons. Factor analysis was used to identify the factors which influence sedimentary BAP significantly in the different seasons. The results showed that AAP and Olsen-P were significantly affected by the chemical oxygen demand through the bacterial activity in summer. The high intensity of bacterial activity and density of algae, and low concentrations of NO3-N and dissolved oxygen under high temperature enhanced the BAP released from anaerobic sediment and significantly contributed to the eutrophication of the lake, especially in summer. In addition, macrophyte roots were beneficial to absorption of AAP and Olsen-P.

  7. Identification of potential impacts of climate change and anthropogenic activities on streamflow alterations in the Tarim River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lianqing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Changbing; Chen, Xinfang; Zhang, Luochen; Chi, Yixia; Yang, Guang

    2017-08-15

    Understanding contributions of climate change and human activities to changes in streamflow is important for sustainable management of water resources in an arid area. This study presents quantitative analysis of climatic and anthropogenic factors to streamflow alteration in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) using the double mass curve method (DMC) and the Budyko methods. The time series (1960~2015) are divided into three periods: the prior impacted period (1960~1972) and the two post impacted periods, 1973~1986 and 1987~2015 with trend analysis. Our results suggest that human activities played a dominant role in deduction in the streamflow in TRB with contribution of 144.6% to 120.68% during the post impacted period I and 228.68% to 140.38% during the post impacted period II. Climatic variables accounted for 20.68%~44.6% of the decrease during the post impacted period I and 40.38% ~128.68% during the post impacted period II. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the streamflow alteration was most sensitive to changes in landscape parameters. The aridity index and all the elasticities showed an obvious increasing trend from the upstream to the downstream in the TRB. Our study suggests that it is important to take effective measures for sustainable development of eco-hydrological and socio-economic systems in the TRB.

  8. Analysis on the adaptive countermeasures to ecological management under changing environment in the Tarim River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Xue, Lianqing; Zhang, Luochen; Chen, Xinfang; Chi, Yixia

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to explore the adaptive utilization strategies of flow regime versus traditional practices in the context of climate change and human activities in the arid area. The study presents quantitative analysis of climatic and anthropogenic factors to streamflow alteration in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) using the Budyko method and adaptive utilization strategies to eco-hydrological regime by comparing the applicability between autoregressive moving average model (ARMA) model and combined regression model. Our results suggest that human activities played a dominant role in streamflow deduction in the mainstream with contribution of 120.7%~190.1%. While in the headstreams, climatic variables were the primary determinant of streamflow by 56.5~152.6% of the increase. The comparison revealed that combined regression model performed better than ARMA model with the qualified rate of 80.49~90.24%. Based on the forecasts of streamflow for different purposes, the adaptive utilization scheme of water flow is established from the perspective of time and space. Our study presents an effective water resources scheduling scheme for the ecological environment and provides references for ecological protection and water allocation in the arid area.

  9. Spatial-temporal variability of soil water content in a cropland-shelterbelt-desert site in an arid inland river basin of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qin; Gao, Guangyao; Hu, Wei; Fu, Bojie

    2016-09-01

    Knowledge of the spatial-temporal variability of soil water content (SWC) is critical for understanding a range of hydrological processes. In this study, the spatial variance and temporal stability of SWC were investigated in a cropland-shelterbelt-desert site at the oasis-desert ecotone in the middle of the Heihe River Basin, China. The SWC was measured on 65 occasions to a depth of 2.8 m at 45 locations during two growing seasons from 2012 to 2013. The standard deviation of the SWC versus the mean SWC exhibited a convex upward relationship in the shelterbelt with the greatest spatial variation at the SWC of around 22.0%, whereas a linearly increasing relationship was observed for the cropland, desert, and land use pattern. The standard deviation of the relative difference was positively linearly correlated with the SWC (p < 0.05) for the land use pattern, whereas such a relationship was not found in the three land use types. The spatial pattern of the SWC was more time stable for the land use pattern, followed by desert, shelterbelt, and cropland. The spatial pattern of SWC changed dramatically among different soil layers. The locations representing the mean SWC varied with the depth, and no location could represent the whole soil profile due to different soil texture, root distribution and irrigation management. The representative locations of each soil layer could be used to estimate the mean SWC well. The statistics of temporal stability of the SWC could be presented equally well with a low frequency of observation (30-day interval) as with a high frequency (5-day interval). Sampling frequency had little effect on the selection of the representative locations of the field mean SWC. This study provides useful information for designing the optimal strategy for sampling SWC at the oasis-desert ecotone in the arid inland river basin.

  10. New evidence for the catastrophic demise of a prehistoric settlement (the Lajia Ruins) in the Guanting Basin, upper Yellow River, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Chun Chang; Zheng, Zixing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yuzhu; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The Lajia Ruins in the Guanting Basin, NW China, are a product of the prehistoric Qijia Culture. Like Pompeii, they are a rare example of an archaeological site preserved by a natural disaster and are therefore important in archaeology, anthropology and geology. However, the nature of the disaster(s) responsible for the destruction of the site remains controversial. Most studies have focused on an earthquake and a red clay layer directly overlying the site and a detailed stratigraphic study of the mid-Holocene sedimentary strata combined with other intervals of red clay deposition (hence possible disasters) is lacking. We identified a mid-Holocene paleosol sequence (the Shanglajia section) at the site which contains two layers of red clay, dated to 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, intercalated within the mid-Holocene paleosol (S0). Subsequent multi-proxy analysis indicated that the characteristics of the two red clay layers resemble those of typical Tertiary red clay deposits and the modern gully deposit at the foot of the Great Red Hills, but are distinctly different from those of the slackwater deposits of the Yellow River and the mid-Holocene paleosol. Our results suggest that, at 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, two large-scale rainstorm-induced mudflow events, originating from the gullies to the north, flooded the Lajia area on the second terrace of the Yellow River, devastating and burying the human settlements. We infer that the intensified erosion and mass wasting were caused by human activity; in addition, natural factors such as rainstorms and earthquakes, may also have played an important role in triggering catastrophic mudflow events in the Tertiary Red Clay deposits. Overall, our results provide further insights into prehistoric man-land relationships in this environmentally sensitive region which may have implications for modern land use in this region of China and elsewhere.

  11. Spatiotemporal changes in precipitation extremes over Yangtze River basin, China, considering the rainfall shift in the late 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tao; Xie, Lian

    2016-12-01

    Precipitation extremes are the dominated causes for the formation of severe flood disasters at regional and local scales under the background of global climate change. In the present study, five annual extreme precipitation events, including 1, 7 and 30 day annual maximum rainfall and 95th and 97.5th percentile threshold levels, are analyzed relating to the reference period 1960-2011 from 140 meteorological stations over Yangtze River basin (YRB). A generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is applied to fit annual and percentile extreme precipitation events at each station with return periods up to 200 years. The entire time period is divided into preclimatic (preceding climatic) period 1960-1980 and aftclimatic (after climatic) period 1981-2011 by considering distinctly abrupt shift of precipitation regime in the late 1970s across YRB. And the Mann-Kendall trend test is adopted to conduct trend analysis during pre- and aftclimatic periods, respectively, for the purpose of exploring possible increasing/decreasing patterns in precipitation extremes. The results indicate that the increasing trends for return values during aftclimatic period change significantly in time and space in terms of different magnitudes of extreme precipitation, while the stations with significantly positive trends are mainly distributed in the vicinity of the mainstream and major tributaries as well as large lakes, this would result in more tremendous flood disasters in the mid-lower reaches of YRB, especially in southeast coastal regions. The increasing/decreasing linear trends based on annual maximum precipitation are also investigated in pre- and aftclimatic periods, respectively, whereas those changes are not significantly similar to the variations of return values during both subperiods. Moreover, spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation extremes become more uneven and unstable in the second half period over YRB.

  12. High-resolution precipitation data derived from dynamical downscaling using the WRF model for the Heihe River Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhen; Xiong, Zhe; Zheng, Jingyun; Ge, Quansheng

    2018-02-01

    The community of climate change impact assessments and adaptations research needs regional high-resolution (spatial) meteorological data. This study produced two downscaled precipitation datasets with spatial resolutions of as high as 3 km by 3 km for the Heihe River Basin (HRB) from 2011 to 2014 using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model nested with Final Analysis (FNL) from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) (hereafter referred to as FNLexp and ERAexp, respectively). Both of the downscaling simulations generally reproduced the observed spatial patterns of precipitation. However, users should keep in mind that the two downscaled datasets are not exactly the same in terms of observations. In comparison to the remote sensing-based estimation, the FNLexp produced a bias of heavy precipitation centers. In comparison to the ground gauge-based measurements, for the warm season (May to September), the ERAexp produced more precipitation (root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 295.4 mm, across the 43 sites) and more heavy rainfall days, while the FNLexp produced less precipitation (RMSE = 115.6 mm) and less heavy rainfall days. Both the ERAexp and FNLexp produced considerably more precipitation for the cold season (October to April) with RMSE values of 119.5 and 32.2 mm, respectively, and more heavy precipitation days. Along with simulating a higher number of heavy precipitation days, both the FNLexp and ERAexp also simulated stronger extreme precipitation. Sensitivity experiments show that the bias of these simulations is much more sensitive to micro-physical parameterizations than to the spatial resolution of topography data. For the HRB, application of the WSM3 scheme may improve the performance of the WRF model.

  13. A Multi-Scale Validation Strategy for Albedo Products over Rugged Terrain and Preliminary Application in Heihe River Basin, China

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    Xingwen Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue for the validation of land surface remote sensing albedo products over rugged terrain is the scale effects between the reference albedo measurements and coarse scale albedo products, which is caused by the complex topography. This paper illustrates a multi-scale validation strategy specified for coarse scale albedo validation over rugged terrain. A Mountain-Radiation-Transfer-based (MRT-based albedo upscaling model was proposed in the process of multi-scale validation strategy for aggregating fine scale albedo to coarse scale. The simulated data of both the reference coarse scale albedo and fine scale albedo were used to assess the performance and uncertainties of the MRT-based albedo upscaling model. The results showed that the MRT-based model could reflect the albedo scale effects over rugged terrain and provided a robust solution for albedo upscaling from fine scale to coarse scale with different mean slopes and different solar zenith angles. The upscaled coarse scale albedos had the great agreements with the simulated coarse scale albedo with a Root-Mean-Square-Error (RMSE of 0.0029 and 0.0017 for black sky albedo (BSA and white sky albedo (WSA, respectively. Then the MRT-based model was preliminarily applied for the assessment of daily MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Albedo Collection V006 products (MCD43A3 C6 over rugged terrain. Results showed that the MRT-based model was effective and suitable for conducting the validation of MODIS albedo products over rugged terrain. In this research area, it was shown that the MCD43A3 C6 products with full inversion algorithm, were generally in agreement with the aggregated coarse scale reference albedos over rugged terrain in the Heihe River Basin, with the BSA RMSE of 0.0305 and WSA RMSE of 0.0321, respectively, which were slightly higher than those over flat terrain.

  14. Comparative Research on River Basin Management in the Sagami River Basin (Japan and the Muda River Basin (Malaysia

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    Lay Mei Sim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the world, river basins often interwoven into two or more states or prefectures and because of that, disputes over water are common. Nevertheless, not all shared river basins are associated with water conflicts. Rivers in Japan and Malaysia play a significant role in regional economic development. They also play a significant role as water sources for industrial, domestic, agricultural, aquaculture, hydroelectric power generation, and the environment. The research aim is to determine the similarities and differences between the Sagami and Muda River Basins in order to have a better understanding of the governance needed for effectively implementing the lessons drawn from the Sagami River Basin for improving the management of the Muda River Basin in Malaysia. This research adopts qualitative and quantitative approaches. Semi-structured interviews were held with the key stakeholders from both basins and show that Japan has endeavored to present policy efforts to accommodate the innovative approaches in the management of their water resources, including the establishment of a river basin council. In Malaysia, there is little or no stakeholder involvement in the Muda River Basin, and the water resource management is not holistic and is not integrated as it should be. Besides that, there is little or no Integrated Resources Water Management, a pre-requisite for sustainable water resources. The results from this comparative study concluded that full support and participation from public stakeholders (meaning the non-government and non-private sector stakeholders is vital for achieving sustainable water use in the Muda River Basin. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM approaches such as the introduction of payments for ecosystems services and the development of river basin organization in the Muda River Basin should take place in the spirit of political willingness.

  15. Identification of long-term trends and seasonality in high-frequency water quality data from the Yangtze River basin, China

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    He, Bin; Chen, Yaning; Zou, Shan; Wang, Yi; Nover, Daniel; Chen, Wen; Yang, Guishan

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the long-term trends and seasonality of water quality is important for controlling water pollution. This study focuses on spatio-temporal distributions, long-term trends, and seasonality of water quality in the Yangtze River basin using a combination of the seasonal Mann-Kendall test and time-series decomposition. The used weekly water quality data were from 17 environmental stations for the period January 2004 to December 2015. Results show gradual improvement in water quality during this period in the Yangtze River basin and greater improvement in the Uppermost Yangtze River basin. The larger cities, with high GDP and population density, experienced relatively higher pollution levels due to discharge of industrial and household wastewater. There are higher pollution levels in Xiang and Gan River basins, as indicated by higher NH4-N and CODMn concentrations measured at the stations within these basins. Significant trends in water quality were identified for the 2004–2015 period. Operations of the three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) enhanced pH fluctuations and possibly attenuated CODMn, and NH4-N transportation. Finally, seasonal cycles of varying strength were detected for time-series of pollutants in river discharge. Seasonal patterns in pH indicate that maxima appear in winter, and minima in summer, with the opposite true for CODMn. Accurate understanding of long-term trends and seasonality are necessary goals of water quality monitoring system efforts and the analysis methods described here provide essential information for effectively controlling water pollution. PMID:29466354

  16. Identification of long-term trends and seasonality in high-frequency water quality data from the Yangtze River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin; Chen, Yaning; Zou, Shan; Wang, Yi; Nover, Daniel; Chen, Wen; Yang, Guishan

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the long-term trends and seasonality of water quality is important for controlling water pollution. This study focuses on spatio-temporal distributions, long-term trends, and seasonality of water quality in the Yangtze River basin using a combination of the seasonal Mann-Kendall test and time-series decomposition. The used weekly water quality data were from 17 environmental stations for the period January 2004 to December 2015. Results show gradual improvement in water quality during this period in the Yangtze River basin and greater improvement in the Uppermost Yangtze River basin. The larger cities, with high GDP and population density, experienced relatively higher pollution levels due to discharge of industrial and household wastewater. There are higher pollution levels in Xiang and Gan River basins, as indicated by higher NH4-N and CODMn concentrations measured at the stations within these basins. Significant trends in water quality were identified for the 2004-2015 period. Operations of the three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) enhanced pH fluctuations and possibly attenuated CODMn, and NH4-N transportation. Finally, seasonal cycles of varying strength were detected for time-series of pollutants in river discharge. Seasonal patterns in pH indicate that maxima appear in winter, and minima in summer, with the opposite true for CODMn. Accurate understanding of long-term trends and seasonality are necessary goals of water quality monitoring system efforts and the analysis methods described here provide essential information for effectively controlling water pollution.

  17. Scale effect and value criterion of the permeability of the interlayer staggered zones in the basalt of Jinsha River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhifang; Lin, Mu; Guo, Qiaona; Chen, Meng

    2018-05-01

    The hydrogeological characteristics of structural planes are different to those of the associated bedrock. The permeability, and therefore hydraulic conductivity (K), of a structural plane can be significantly different at different scales. The interlayer staggered zones in the Emeishan Basalt of early Late Permian were studied; this formation is located in the Baihetan hydropower project area in Jinsha River Basin, China. The seepage flow distribution of a solid model and two generalized models (A and B) were computed using COMSOL. The K values of the interlayer staggered zones for all three models were calculated by both simulation and analytical methods. The results show that the calculated K results of the generalized models can reflect the variation trend of permeability in each section of the solid model, and the approximate analytical calculation of K can be taken into account in the calculation of K in the generalized models instead of that found by simulation. Further studies are needed to investigate permeability variation in the interlayer staggered zones under the condition of different scales, considering the scaling variation in each section of an interlayer staggered zone. The permeability of each section of an interlayer staggered zone presents a certain degree of dispersivity at small scales; however, the permeability values tends to converge to a similar value as the scale of each section increases. The regularity of each section of the interlayer staggered zones under the condition of different scales can provide a scientific basis for reasonable selection of different engineering options.

  18. Hybrid optimal design of the eco-hydrological wireless sensor network in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Li, Xin; Jin, Rui; Ge, Yong; Wang, Jinfeng; Wang, Jianghao

    2014-10-14

    The eco-hydrological wireless sensor network (EHWSN) in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in China is designed to capture the spatial and temporal variability and to estimate the ground truth for validating the remote sensing productions. However, there is no available prior information about a target variable. To meet both requirements, a hybrid model-based sampling method without any spatial autocorrelation assumptions is developed to optimize the distribution of EHWSN nodes based on geostatistics. This hybrid model incorporates two sub-criteria: one for the variogram modeling to represent the variability, another for improving the spatial prediction to evaluate remote sensing productions. The reasonability of the optimized EHWSN is validated from representativeness, the variogram modeling and the spatial accuracy through using 15 types of simulation fields generated with the unconditional geostatistical stochastic simulation. The sampling design shows good representativeness; variograms estimated by samples have less than 3% mean error relative to true variograms. Then, fields at multiple scales are predicted. As the scale increases, estimated fields have higher similarities to simulation fields at block sizes exceeding 240 m. The validations prove that this hybrid sampling method is effective for both objectives when we do not know the characteristics of an optimized variables.

  19. Development of a High Resolution BRDF/Albedo Product by Fusing Airborne CASI Reflectance with MODIS Daily Reflectance in the Oasis Area of the Heihe River Basin, China

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    Dongqin You

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A land-cover-based linear BRDF (bi-directional reflectance distribution function unmixing (LLBU algorithm based on the kernel-driven model is proposed to combine the compact airborne spectrographic imager (CASI reflectance with the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS daily reflectance product to derive the BRDF/albedo of the two sensors simultaneously in the foci experimental area (FEA of the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER, which was carried out in the Heihe River basin, China. For each land cover type, an archetypal BRDF, which characterizes the shape of its anisotropic reflectance, is extracted by linearly unmixing from the MODIS reflectance with the assistance of a high-resolution classification map. The isotropic coefficients accounting for the differences within a class are derived from the CASI reflectance. The BRDF is finally determined by the archetypal BRDF and the corresponding isotropic coefficients. Direct comparisons of the cropland archetypal BRDF and CASI albedo with in situ measurements show good agreement. An indirect validation which compares retrieved BRDF/albedo with that of the MCD43A1 standard product issued by NASA and aggregated CASI albedo also suggests reasonable reliability. LLBU has potential to retrieve the high spatial resolution BRDF/albedo product for airborne and spaceborne sensors which have inadequate angular samplings. In addition, it can shorten the timescale for coarse spatial resolution product like MODIS.

  20. Estimating Time Series Soil Moisture by Applying Recurrent Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Networks to Passive Microwave Data over the Heihe River Basin, China

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    Zheng Lu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A method using a nonlinear auto-regressive neural network with exogenous input (NARXnn to retrieve time series soil moisture (SM that is spatially and temporally continuous and high quality over the Heihe River Basin (HRB in China was investigated in this study. The input training data consisted of the X-band dual polarization brightness temperature (TB and the Ka-band V polarization TB from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer II (AMSR2, Global Land Satellite product (GLASS Leaf Area Index (LAI, precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM, and a global 30 arc-second elevation (GTOPO-30. The output training data were generated from fused SM products of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA and the Land Surface Parameter Model (LPRM. The reprocessed fused SM from two years (2013 and 2014 was inputted into the NARXnn for training; subsequently, SM during a third year (2015 was estimated. Direct and indirect validations were then performed during the period 2015 by comparing with in situ measurements, SM from JAXA, LPRM and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS, as well as precipitation data from TRMM and GPM. The results showed that the SM predictions from NARXnn performed best, as indicated by their higher correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.85 for the whole year of 2015, lower Bias values (absolute value of Bias ≤ 0.02 and root mean square error values (RMSE ≤ 0.06, and their improved response to precipitation. This method is being used to produce the NARXnn SM product over the HRB in China.

  1. Coupling the WRF model with a temperature index model based on remote sensing for snowmelt simulations in a river basin in the Altay Mountains, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Shen, Y.; Wang, N.; Pan, X.; Zhang, W.; He, J.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Snowmelt water is an important freshwater resource in the Altay Mountains in northwest China, and it is also crucial for local ecological system, economic and social sustainable development; however, warming climate and rapid spring snowmelt can cause floods that endanger both eco-environment and public and personal property and safety. This study simulates snowmelt in the Kayiertesi River catchment using a temperature-index model based on remote sensing coupled with high-resolution meteorological data obtained from NCEP reanalysis fields that were downscaled using Weather Research Forecasting model, then bias-corrected using a statistical downscaled model. Validation of the forcing data revealed that the high-resolution meteorological fields derived from downscaled NCEP reanalysis were reliable for driving the snowmelt model. Parameters of temperature-index model based on remote sensing were calibrated for spring 2014, and model performance was validated using MODIS snow cover and snow observations from spring 2012. The results show that the temperature-index model based on remote sensing performed well, with a simulation mean relative error of 6.7% and a Nash-Sutchliffe efficiency of 0.98 in spring 2012 in the river of Altay Mountains. Based on the reliable distributed snow water equivalent simulation, daily snowmelt runoff was calculated for spring 2012 in the basin. In the study catchment, spring snowmelt runoff accounts for 72% of spring runoff and 21% of annual runoff. Snowmelt is the main source of runoff for the catchment and should be managed and utilized effectively. The results provide a basis for snowmelt runoff predictions, so as to prevent snowmelt-induced floods, and also provide a generalizable approach that can be applied to other remote locations where high-density, long-term observational data is lacking.

  2. Analysis of Land Use and Land Cover Changes and Their Impacts on Future Runoff in the Luanhe River Basin in North China Using Markov and SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Long, D.

    2017-12-01

    Both land use/cover change (LUCC) and climate change exert significant impacts on runoff, which needs to be thoroughly examined in the context of urbanization, population growth, and climate change. The majority of studies focus on the impacts of either LUCC or climate on runoff in the upper reaches of the Panjiakou Reservoir in the Luanhe River basin, North China. In this study, first, two land use change matrices for periods 1970‒1980 and 1980‒2000 were constructed based on the theory of the Markov Chain which were used to predict the land use scenario of the basin in year 2020. Second, a distributed hydrological model, Soil Water Assessment Tools (SWAT), was set up and driven mainly by the China Gauge-based Daily Precipitation Analysis (CGDPA) product and outputs from three general circulation models (GCMs) of the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Inter-comparison Project (ISI-MIP). Third, under the land use scenario in 2000, streamflow at the Chengde gauging station for the period 1998‒2014 was simulated with the CGDPA as input, and streamflow for the period 2015‒2025 under four representative concentration pathways (RCPs) was simulated using the outputs from GCMs and compared under the land use scenarios in 2000 and 2020. Results show that during 2015‒2025, the ensemble average precipitation in summer (i.e., from June to August) may increase up to 20% but decrease by -16% in fall (i.e., from September to November). The streamflow may increase in all the seasons, particularly in spring (i.e., from March to May) and summer reaching 150% and 142%, respectively. Furthermore, the streamflow may increase even more when the land use scenario for the period 1998‒2025 remains the same as that in 2000. The minimum (61mm) and maximum (77mm) mean annual runoff depth occur under the RCP4.5 and RCP6 scenarios, respectively, compared with the mean annual observed streamflow of 33 mm from 1998 to 2014. Finally, we analyzed the correlation among the main land use types

  3. Transboundary water pollution management
    Lessons learned from river basin management in China, Europe and the Netherlands

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    Xia Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary water pollution management is a challenge for China at this moment in time. By introducing relevant legal arrangements, we mainly discuss the competent authorities, the legal instruments and dispute settlement procedures concerning this issue in China. The experiences from international, EU and Dutch water law gives us a comparative perspective. As a conclusion, we agree that China has set up a basic legal system to solve the problem, but a greater effort can still be made, for instance including more public opinion, clearly defining the competent authorities, and enacting more legislation. At the same time, the Chinese experience, such as a new model for a monitoring system and a target responsibility system, also provides the rest of the world with a new approach.

  4. Evaluating the applicability of four recent satellite–gauge combined precipitation estimates for extreme precipitation and streamflow predictions over the upper Yellow river basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to statistically and hydrologically assess the performance of four latest and widely used satellite–gauge combined precipitation estimates (SGPEs), namely CRT, BLD, 3B42CDR, and 3B42 for the extreme precipitation and stream'ow scenarios over the upper Yellow river basin (UYRB) in ch...

  5. Trends and variability of daily temperature extremes during 1960-2012 in the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variability of temperature extremes has been the focus of attention during the past few decades, and may exert a great influence on the global hydrologic cycle and energy balance through thermal forcing. Based on daily minimum and maximum temperature observed by the China Meteorological Administ...

  6. Mapping Daily Evapotranspiration based on Spatiotemporal Fusion of ASTER and MODIS Images over Irrigated Agricultural Areas in the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; LI, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of daily evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial for allocating and managing water resources in irrigated agricultural areas in arid regions. In this study, continuous daily ET at a 90-m spatial resolution was estimated using the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) by fusing Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images with high temporal resolution and Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) images with high spatial resolution. The spatiotemporal characteristics of these sensors were obtained using the Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (STARFM). The performance of this approach was validated over a heterogeneous oasis-desert region covered by cropland, residential, woodland, water, Gobi desert, sandy desert, desert steppe, and wetland areas using in situ observations from automatic meteorological systems (AMS) and eddy covariance (EC) systems in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China. The error introduced during the data fusion process based on STARFM is within an acceptable range for predicted LST at a 90-m spatial resolution. The surface energy fluxes estimated using SEBS based on predicted remotely sensed data that combined the spatiotemporal characteristics of MODIS and ASTER agree well with the surface energy fluxes observed using EC systems for all land cover types, especially for vegetated area with MAP values range from 9% to 15%, which are less than the uncertainty (18%) of the observed in this study area. Time series of daily ET modelled from SEBS were compared to that modelled from PT-JPL (one of Satellite-based Priestley-Taylor ET model) and observations from EC systems. SEBS performed generally better than PT-JPL for vegetated area, especially irrigated cropland with bias, RMSE, and MAP values of 0.29 mm/d, 0.75 mm/d, 13% at maize site, -0.33 mm/d, 0.81 mm/d, and 14% at vegetable sites.

  7. River Basin Standards Interoperability Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquer, Lluís; Masó, Joan; Stasch, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    There is a lot of water information and tools in Europe to be applied in the river basin management but fragmentation and a lack of coordination between countries still exists. The European Commission and the member states have financed several research and innovation projects in support of the Water Framework Directive. Only a few of them are using the recently emerging hydrological standards, such as the OGC WaterML 2.0. WaterInnEU is a Horizon 2020 project focused on creating a marketplace to enhance the exploitation of EU funded ICT models, tools, protocols and policy briefs related to water and to establish suitable conditions for new market opportunities based on these offerings. One of WaterInnEU's main goals is to assess the level of standardization and interoperability of these outcomes as a mechanism to integrate ICT-based tools, incorporate open data platforms and generate a palette of interchangeable components that are able to use the water data emerging from the recently proposed open data sharing processes and data models stimulated by initiatives such as the INSPIRE directive. As part of the standardization and interoperability activities in the project, the authors are designing an experiment (RIBASE, the present work) to demonstrate how current ICT-based tools and water data can work in combination with geospatial web services in the Scheldt river basin. The main structure of this experiment, that is the core of the present work, is composed by the following steps: - Extraction of information from river gauges data in OGC WaterML 2.0 format using SOS services (preferably compliant to the OGC SOS 2.0 Hydrology Profile Best Practice). - Model floods using a WPS 2.0, WaterML 2.0 data and weather forecast models as input. - Evaluation of the applicability of Sensor Notification Services in water emergencies. - Open distribution of the input and output data as OGC web services WaterML, / WCS / WFS and with visualization utilities: WMS. The architecture

  8. Are calanco landforms similar to river basins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo-Arias, N A; Ferro, V

    2017-12-15

    In the past badlands have been often considered as ideal field laboratories for studying landscape evolution because of their geometrical similarity to larger fluvial systems. For a given hydrological process, no scientific proof exists that badlands can be considered a model of river basin prototypes. In this paper the measurements carried out on 45 Sicilian calanchi, a type of badlands that appears as a small-scale hydrographic unit, are used to establish their morphological similarity with river systems whose data are available in the literature. At first the geomorphological similarity is studied by identifying the dimensionless groups, which can assume the same value or a scaled one in a fixed ratio, representing drainage basin shape, stream network and relief properties. Then, for each property, the dimensionless groups are calculated for the investigated calanchi and the river basins and their corresponding scale ratio is evaluated. The applicability of Hack's, Horton's and Melton's laws for establishing similarity criteria is also tested. The developed analysis allows to conclude that a quantitative morphological similarity between calanco landforms and river basins can be established using commonly applied dimensionless groups. In particular, the analysis showed that i) calanchi and river basins have a geometrically similar shape respect to the parameters Rf and Re with a scale factor close to 1, ii) calanchi and river basins are similar respect to the bifurcation and length ratios (λ=1), iii) for the investigated calanchi the Melton number assumes values less than that (0.694) corresponding to the river case and a scale ratio ranging from 0.52 and 0.78 can be used, iv) calanchi and river basins have similar mean relief ratio values (λ=1.13) and v) calanchi present active geomorphic processes and therefore fall in a more juvenile stage with respect to river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Responses of Surface Runoff to Climate Change and Human Activities in the Arid Region of Central Asia: A Case Study in the Tarim River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changchun; Chen, Yaning; Chen, Yapeng; Zhao, Ruifeng; Ding, Hui

    2013-04-01

    Based on hydrological and climatic data and land use/cover change data covering the period from 1957 to 2009, this paper investigates the hydrological responses to climate change and to human activities in the arid Tarim River basin (TRB). The results show that the surface runoff of three headstreams (Aksu River, Yarkant River and Hotan River) of the Tarim River exhibited a significant increasing trend since 1960s and entered an even higher-runoff stage in 1994. In the contrary, the surface runoff of Tarim mainstream displayed a persistent decreasing trend since 1960s. The increasing trend of surface runoff in the headstreams can be attributed to the combined effects of both temperature and precipitation changes during the past five decades. But, the decreasing trend of surface runoff in the mainstream and the observed alterations of the temporal and spatial distribution patterns were mainly due to the adverse impacts of human activities. Specifically, increasingly intensified water consumption for irrigation and the associated massive constructions of water conservancy projects were responsible for the decreasing trend of runoff in the mainstream. And, the decreasing trend has been severely jeopardizing the ecological security in the lower reaches. It is now unequivocally clear that water-use conflicts among different sectors and water-use competitions between upper and lower reaches are approaching to dangerous levels in TRB that is thus crying for implementing an integrated river basin management scheme.

  10. A conceptual socio-hydrological model of the co-evolution of humans and water: case study of the Tarim River basin, western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Tian, F.; Lin, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2015-02-01

    The complex interactions and feedbacks between humans and water are critically important issues but remain poorly understood in the newly proposed discipline of socio-hydrology (Sivapalan et al., 2012). An exploratory model with the appropriate level of simplification can be valuable for improving our understanding of the co-evolution and self-organization of socio-hydrological systems driven by interactions and feedbacks operating at different scales. In this study, a simplified conceptual socio-hydrological model based on logistic growth curves is developed for the Tarim River basin in western China and is used to illustrate the explanatory power of such a co-evolutionary model. The study area is the main stream of the Tarim River, which is divided into two modeling units. The socio-hydrological system is composed of four sub-systems, i.e., the hydrological, ecological, economic, and social sub-systems. In each modeling unit, the hydrological equation focusing on water balance is coupled to the other three evolutionary equations to represent the dynamics of the social sub-system (denoted by population), the economic sub-system (denoted by irrigated crop area ratio), and the ecological sub-system (denoted by natural vegetation cover), each of which is expressed in terms of a logistic growth curve. Four feedback loops are identified to represent the complex interactions among different sub-systems and different spatial units, of which two are inner loops occurring within each separate unit and the other two are outer loops linking the two modeling units. The feedback mechanisms are incorporated into the constitutive relations for model parameters, i.e., the colonization and mortality rates in the logistic growth curves that are jointly determined by the state variables of all sub-systems. The co-evolution of the Tarim socio-hydrological system is then analyzed with this conceptual model to gain insights into the overall system dynamics and its sensitivity to the

  11. Land use changes and socio-economic development strongly deteriorate river ecosystem health in one of the largest basins in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xian; Chen, Liding; Sun, Ranhao; Kong, Peiru

    2018-03-01

    It is important to assess river ecosystem health in large-scale basins when considering the complex influence of anthropogenic activities on these ecosystems. This study investigated the river ecosystem health in the Haihe River Basin (HRB) by sampling 148 river sites during the pre- and post-rainy seasons in 2013. A model was established to assess the river ecosystem health based on water physicochemical, nutrient, and macroinvertebrate indices, and the health level was divided into "very poor," "poor," "fair," "good," and "excellent" according to the health score calculated from the assessment model. The assessment results demonstrated that the river ecosystem health of the HRB was "poor" overall, and no catchments were labeled "excellent." The percentages of catchments deemed to have "very poor," "poor," "fair," or "good" river ecosystem health were 12.88%, 40.91%, 40.15%, and 6.06%, respectively. From the pre- to the post-rainy season, the macroinvertebrate health levels improved from "poor" to "fair." The results of a redundancy analysis (RDA), path analysis of the structural equation model (SEM), and X-Y plots indicated that the land use types of forest land and grassland had positive relationships with river ecosystem health, whereas arable land, urban land, gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, and population density had negative relationships with river ecosystem health. The variance partitioning (VP) results showed that anthropogenic activities (including land use and socio-economy) together explained 30.9% of the variations in river ecosystem health in the pre-rainy season, and this value increased to 35.9% in the post-rainy season. Land use intensity was the first driver of river ecosystem health, and socio-economic activities was the second driver. Land use variables explained 20.5% and 25.7% of the variations in river ecosystem health in the pre- and post-rainy season samples, respectively, and socio-economic variables explained 12.3% and 17.2% of

  12. Klamath River Basin water-quality data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra D.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2018-05-29

    The Klamath River Basin stretches from the mountains and inland basins of south-central Oregon and northern California to the Pacific Ocean, spanning multiple climatic regions and encompassing a variety of ecosystems. Water quantity and water quality are important topics in the basin, because water is a critical resource for farming and municipal use, power generation, and for the support of wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, and endangered species. Upper Klamath Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Oregon (112 square miles) and is known for its seasonal algal blooms. The Klamath River has dams for hydropower and the upper basin requires irrigation water to support agriculture and grazing. Multiple species of endangered fish inhabit the rivers and lakes, and the marshes are key stops on the Pacific flyway for migrating birds. For these and other reasons, the water resources in this basin have been studied and monitored to support their management distribution.

  13. [Dynamic coupling and spatial disparity of economic development and water environmental quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Hua; Tong, Lian-Jun

    2013-02-01

    By using coupling model, this paper analyzed the relationships between the economic development and water environment quality in Songhua River Basin of Jilin Province from 1991 to 2010. During the study period, both the economic development index and the water environment index in the Basin showed an uptrend, basically in a coordination state. From the perspective of coupling coordination degree, the economic development and the water environment system were in interactive coupling, with the features of complexity, nonlinearity, and time-variation. As a whole, the coupling experienced three stages, i.e., low level stage, antagonistic stage, and breaking-in stage. As for the coupling degree, the coupling of the economic development and the water environment system was in the first quadrant, i.e., at a development stage of basic coordination. From the perspective of spatial disparity, the coupling degree of the economic development and the water environment system was higher in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin, including Changchun and Jilin, than in the lower reaches, including Songyuan and Baicheng. The coupling degree was not only significantly positively correlated with regional economic development, but also affected by the links between the regions as well as the industrial structure within the regions. The economic development of the cities in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was obviously higher than that in the lower reaches, and, due to the adopting of more strict and effective measures for environmental protection and pollution emissions reduction, the water environment quality in the upper reaches of the Songhua River Basin was better.

  14. Susquehanna River Basin Flood Control Review Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    and made recommendations for an intergrated water plan for the Basin and included a specific Early Action Plan. Concerning flood damage reduction, the...transportation and by agriculture as a source of income and occupation. The river served as a source of transportation for trade and commerce and also as a... trade patterns, and labor market areas. The Susquehanna River Basin is largely comprised of BEA economic areas 011, 012, 013, and 016. Figure II shows the

  15. 14C as a tool for evaluating riverine POC sources and erosion of the Zhujiang (Pearl River) drainage basin, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Xiuguo; Yi Weixi; Shen Chengde; Yechieli, Yoseph; Li Ningli; Ding Ping; Wang Ning; Liu Kexin

    2010-01-01

    Radiocarbon can serve as a powerful tool for identifying sources of organic carbon and evaluating the erosion intensity in river drainage basins. In this paper we present 14 C-AMS measurements of particulate organic carbon (POC) collected from the three major tributaries of the Zhujiang (Pearl River) system: the Xijiang (Western River), Beijiang (Northern River) and Dongjiang (Eastern River) rivers. Furthermore, we discuss the distribution of POC 14 C apparent ages and the related watersheds erosion of these rivers. Results yield Δ 14 C values of -425 per mille to -65 per mille which indicate that the 14 C apparent ages of suspended POC in the entire area are in the range of 540-4445 years. The POC apparent ages from Xijiang are mostly between 2000 and 4000 years, while in Dongjiang they mostly range from 540 to 1010 years. These 14 C apparent ages indicate that the watershed erosion of the Xijiang is more severe than that of the Dongjiang. This is in agreement with other data showing deeper erosion in Xijiang due to human activities.

  16. Assessments and market design for the water market at Xiying Irrigation, Shiyang River Basin, Gansu Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, H.

    2016-12-01

    As one of the pilot water markets in China, the market in Xiying Irrigation was built in 2008. Based on the historical trading data, it can be concluded that the studied market is growing but facing quite a few challenges. To solve these challenges, the first step we have done is assessment on the market. Some comparable indices were introduced from network science by us. These indices straightforwardly show the status and major problems in the market. One main problem we have found from surveys and our assessment is that there are barriers between distant seller and buyer. This discovery incentives us to develop a new mechanism for matching sellers and buyers to reduce the loss on social welfare. By modelling the trading barriers between a buyer and a seller as an indicator -- tradable or nontradable, the authors propose a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm to optimize the social welfare. According to the theories on competitive equilibrium, the authors are able to extend the programming to compute a reasonable price profile for each pair of tradable seller and buyer. It can be proved that given the price profile, the optimal strategy for each seller or buyer is to follow the optimal assignment. This mechanism significantly reduces the social welfare loss. However, this study shows that removing the trading barriers can brings more social welfare increments.

  17. Policy and Practice – River Basins

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ms Suruchi Bhadwal

    nature of rivers in the northern belt- inextricably linked. Exacerbated water stress in some areas. Increasing demands – food and drinking water needs. Socioeconomics. CC Impacts. Glacier-fed basins in the. North. Glacier melt and river flooding,. GLOFs, landslides. Unique socio-cultural settings and political differences.

  18. Research on Nonpoint Source Pollution Assessment Method in Data Sparse Regions: A Case Study of Xichong River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The NPS pollution is difficult to manage and control due to its complicated generation and formation mechanism, especially in the data sparse area. Thus the ECM and BTOPMC were, respectively, adopted to develop an easy and practical assessment method, and a comparison between the outputs of them is then conducted in this paper. The literature survey and field data were acquired to confirm the export coefficients of the ECM, and the loads of TN and TP were statistically analyzed in the study area. Based on hydrological similarity, runoff data from nearby gauged sites were pooled to compensate for the lack of at-site data and the water quality submodel of BTOPMC was then applied to simulate the monthly pollutant fluxes in the two sections from 2010 to 2012. The results showed agricultural fertilizer, rural sewage, and livestock and poultry sewage were the main pollution sources, and under the consideration of self-purification capacity of river, the outputs of the two models were almost identical. The proposed method with a main thought of combining and comparing an empirical model and a mechanistic model can assess the water quality conditions in the study area scientifically, which indicated it has a good potential for popularization in other regions.

  19. Transboundary water issues: The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Debasri; Goswami, A.B.; Bose, Balaram

    2004-01-01

    Sharing of water of transboundary rivers among riparian nations has become a cause of major concern in different parts of the globe for quite sometime. The issue in the recent decades has been transformed into a source of international tensions and disputes resulting in strained relationships between riparian nations. Conflicts over sharing of water of the international rivers, like the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan in the Middle East, the Nile in Northern Africa, the Mekong in South-East Asia, the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna in the Indian subcontinent are widely known. The present paper discusses the water sharing -issue in the Ganga- Brahmaputra-Meghna basin located in the Indian sub continent covering five sovereign countries (namely India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Bangladesh). Rapidly growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial activities besides the impacts of climate change have resulted in stressed condition in the arena of fresh water availability in the basin. Again occurrence of arsenic in sub-surface water in the lower reaches of the basin in India and Bangladesh has also added a new dimension to the problem. All the rivers of the GBM system exhibit wide variations between peak and lean flows as major part of the basin belongs to the monsoon region, where 80%-90 % of annual rainfall is concentrated in 4-5 months of South -West monsoon in the subcontinent. Over and above, the rivers in GBM system carry huge loads of sediments along with the floodwater and receive huge quantum of different kinds of wastes contaminating the water of the rivers. Again high rate of sedimentation of the major rivers and their tributaries have been affecting not only the carrying capacity of the rivers but also drastically reduced their retention capacity. Almost every year during monsoon about 27% and nearly 60% of the GBM basin lying in India and Bangladesh respectively experience flood. The year round navigation in many rivers has also been affected. All these have

  20. Integrated Hydrographical Basin Management. Study Case - Crasna River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visescu, Mircea; Beilicci, Erika; Beilicci, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Hydrographical basins are important from hydrological, economic and ecological points of view. They receive and channel the runoff from rainfall and snowmelt which, when adequate managed, can provide fresh water necessary for water supply, irrigation, food industry, animal husbandry, hydrotechnical arrangements and recreation. Hydrographical basin planning and management follows the efficient use of available water resources in order to satisfy environmental, economic and social necessities and constraints. This can be facilitated by a decision support system that links hydrological, meteorological, engineering, water quality, agriculture, environmental, and other information in an integrated framework. In the last few decades different modelling tools for resolving problems regarding water quantity and quality were developed, respectively water resources management. Watershed models have been developed to the understanding of water cycle and pollution dynamics, and used to evaluate the impacts of hydrotechnical arrangements and land use management options on water quantity, quality, mitigation measures and possible global changes. Models have been used for planning monitoring network and to develop plans for intervention in case of hydrological disasters: floods, flash floods, drought and pollution. MIKE HYDRO Basin is a multi-purpose, map-centric decision support tool for integrated hydrographical basin analysis, planning and management. MIKE HYDRO Basin is designed for analyzing water sharing issues at international, national and local hydrographical basin level. MIKE HYDRO Basin uses a simplified mathematical representation of the hydrographical basin including the configuration of river and reservoir systems, catchment hydrology and existing and potential water user schemes with their various demands including a rigorous irrigation scheme module. This paper analyzes the importance and principles of integrated hydrographical basin management and develop a case

  1. Fishes of the White River basin, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Charles G.; Lydy, Michael J.; Frey, Jeffrey W.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1875, researchers have reported 158 species of fish belonging to 25 families in the White River Basin. Of these species, 6 have not been reported since 1900 and 10 have not been reported since 1943. Since the 1820's, fish communities in the White River Basin have been affected by the alteration of stream habitat, overfishing, the introduction of non-native species, agriculture, and urbanization. Erosion resulting from conversion of forest land to cropland in the 1800's led to siltation of streambeds and resulted in the loss of some silt-sensitive species. In the early 1900's, the water quality of the White River was seriously degraded for 100 miles by untreated sewage from the City of Indianapolis. During the last 25 years, water quality in the basin has improved because of efforts to control water pollution. Fish communities in the basin have responded favorably to the improved water quality.

  2. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI) and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Wu, Xianhua; Zhao, Bin; Qin, Jie; Peng, Tingchun

    2015-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI), Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season). Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites) and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites) based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium) is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  3. Combined multivariate statistical techniques, Water Pollution Index (WPI and Daniel Trend Test methods to evaluate temporal and spatial variations and trends of water quality at Shanchong River in the Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Wang

    Full Text Available Understanding spatial and temporal variations in river water quality and quantitatively evaluating the trend of changes are important in order to study and efficiently manage water resources. In this study, an analysis of Water Pollution Index (WPI, Daniel Trend Test, Cluster Analysis and Discriminant Analysis are applied as an integrated approach to quantitatively explore the spatial and temporal variations and the latent sources of water pollution in the Shanchong River basin, Northwest Basin of Lake Fuxian, China. We group all field surveys into 2 clusters (dry season and rainy season. Moreover, 14 sampling sites have been grouped into 3 clusters for the rainy season (highly polluted, moderately polluted and less polluted sites and 2 clusters for the dry season (highly polluted and less polluted sites based on their similarities and the level of pollution during the two seasons. The results show that the main trend of pollution was aggravated during the transition from the dry to the rainy season. The Water Pollution Index of Total Nitrogen is the highest of all pollution parameters, whereas the Chemical Oxygen Demand (Chromium is the lowest. Our results also show that the main sources of pollution are farming activities alongside the Shanchong River, soil erosion and fish culture at Shanchong River reservoir area and domestic sewage from scattered rural residential area. Our results suggest that strategies to prevent water pollutionat the Shanchong River basin need to focus on non-point pollution control by employing appropriate fertilizer formulas in farming, and take the measures of soil and water conservation at Shanchong reservoir area, and purifying sewage from scattered villages.

  4. Planning the development of the Mekong river basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomchai, P [Mekong Secretariat, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1992-10-01

    In planning to develop the vast potential of the Mekong river in Southeast Asia, a number of institutional aspects need to be addressed, and the sometimes diverging interests of the riparian countries need to be carefully balanced. The Mekong river is an extremely valuable natural resource: its potential for irrigation, hydropower, navigation, fisheries and related development is more than adequate to raise significantly the standards of living of the people of the lower Mekong basin and in the riparian countries outside the river's catchment area. The Mekong's catchment area of 795 000 km[sup 2] encompasses parts of China and Myanmar, the whole of Laos and Cambodia, one third of Thailand and one fifth of Viet Nam. The population of the Mekong basin is around 100 million, about half of whom live in the lower basin. It could be said that these impoverished inhabitants of the basin depend significantly on the Mekong for an improvement in their livelihood, and this places a heavy responsibility on those involved in developing its water resources. The Mekong Committee, since its establishment in 1957 and in its present interim status since 1977, is dedicated to the co-ordinated development of the basin's resources, on the basis of reasonable and equitable sharing between the riparian states as stated in the Committee's declaration of principles. With the establishment of the Mekon Committee, serious efforts have been made aimed at rational management of water resources use. (author).

  5. A proposal for an administrative set up of river basin management in the Sittaung River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Tun, Zaw Lwin; Ni, Bo; Tun, Sein; Nesheim, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a proposal for how an administrative approach based on River Basin Management can be implemented in Myanmar. The Sittaung River Basin has been used as an example area to investigate how the basin can be administered according to the IWRM principles of cooperation between the different sectors and the administrative units, including stakeholder involvement. Ministry of Natural Resource and Environmental Conservation, Myanmar Norwegian Ministry of For...

  6. Evolution of the alluvial fans of the Luo River in the Weihe Basin, central China, controlled by faulting and climate change - A reevaluation of the paleogeographical setting of Dali Man site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rits, Daniël S.; van Balen, Ronald T.; Prins, Maarten A.; Zheng, Hongbo

    2017-06-01

    The Luo River is located in the southern part of the Chinese Loess Plateau and the northern part of the Weihe Basin, in Central China. In the basin it flows proximal to the site of the Luyang Wetland core, which is an important archive of climate change over the past 1 Myr in this region. In this paper, the contribution of the Luo River to the sedimentary record is analyzed by reconstructing the evolution of this river during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. It is argued that an alluvial fan of the Luo River has contributed to the sedimentary archive until approximately 200-240 ka. From this moment onwards, the fan became incised and terraces began to form. The formation of a new alluvial fan further downstream led to the disconnection of the Luo River from the Luyang Wetland core site. We propose that this series of events was caused by the displacement of an intra-basinal fault and the resultant faulting-forced folding, which caused increased relative subsidence, and thus increased sedimentation rates at the core site. Therefore, a complete sediment record in the 'Luyang Wetland' was preserved, despite the disconnection from the Luo River. The chronology of the fans and terraces was established using existing age control (U-series, ESR, OSL, pIRIR290 and magnetic susceptibility correlation), and through correlation of the loess-paleosol cover to marine isotope stages. Based on sedimentological characteristics of the fluvial sequence, we suggest that incision of the Luo River occurred in two steps. Small incisions took place at transitions to interglacials and the main incision phases occur at the transition from an interglacial to glacial climate. Due to the incision, basal parts of the oldest Luo River alluvial fan are exposed, and it is in one of these exposures that the famous Dali Man skull was retrieved. This study shows that the Dali Man did not live on a river terrace as previously thought, but on an aggrading alluvial fan, during wet, glacial conditions.

  7. Hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.; Woodhouse, Connie A.; McCabe, Gregory; Pederson, Gregory T.; St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie

    2018-01-01

    Despite the importance of the Missouri River for navigation, recreation, habitat, hydroelectric power, and agriculture, relatively little is known about the basic hydroclimatology of the Missouri River basin (MRB). This is of particular concern given the droughts and floods that have occurred over the past several decades and the potential future exacerbation of these extremes by climate change. Here, observed and modeled hydroclimatic data and estimated natural flow records in the MRB are used to 1) assess the major source regions of MRB flow, 2) describe the climatic controls on streamflow in the upper and lower basins , and 3) investigate trends over the instrumental period. Analyses indicate that 72% of MRB runoff is generated by the headwaters in the upper basin and by the lowest portion of the basin near the mouth. Spring precipitation and temperature and winter precipitation impacted by changes in zonal versus meridional flow from the Pacific Ocean play key roles in surface water supply variability in the upper basin. Lower basin flow is significantly correlated with precipitation in late spring and early summer, indicative of Atlantic-influenced circulation variability affecting the flow of moisture from the Gulf of Mexico. Although increases in precipitation in the lower basin are currently overriding the effects of warming temperatures on total MRB flow, the upper basin’s long-term trend toward decreasing flows, reduction in snow versus rain fraction, and warming spring temperatures suggest that the upper basin may less often provide important flow supplements to the lower basin in the future.

  8. South Fork Holston River basin 1988 biomonitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saylor, C.F.; Ahlstedt, S.A.

    1990-06-01

    There is concern over the effects of shifts in land use use practices on the aquatic fauna of streams in the South Fork Holston River basin in northwestern North Carolina and southwestern Virginia. Trout reproduction has noticeably declined in the Watauga River subbasin. The Watauga River and Elk River subbasins have been subjected to commercial and resort development. The Middle fork Holston River and the upper South Fork Holston River subbasins have been affected by agricultural and mining activities, respectively (Cox, 1986). To aid reclamation and management of the South Fork Holston basin, Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) biologists conducted biomonitoring--including index of biotic integrity and macroinvertebrate sampling--on the Middle Fork Holston, South Fork Holston, Watauga, and Elk Rivers to assess cumulative impairment related to changes in habitat and pollutant loading in these subbasins. Biomonitoring can detect environmental degradation, help document problem areas, and assist in development of strategies for managing water quality. This report discusses the methods and materials and results of the biomonitoring of South Fork Holston River Basin. 13 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. A low-angle normal fault and basement structures within the Enping Sag, Pearl River Mouth Basin: Insights into late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the South China Sea area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Mei, Lianfu; Shi, Hesheng; Shu, Yu; Camanni, Giovanni; Wu, Jing

    2018-04-01

    The basement structure of the Cenozoic Enping Sag, within the Pearl River Mouth Basin on the northern margin of South China Sea, is revealed by borehole-constrained high-quality 3D seismic reflection data. Such data suggest that the Enping Sag is bounded in the north by a low-angle normal fault. We interpret this low-angle normal fault to have developed as the result of the reactivation of a pre-existing thrust fault part of a pre-Cenozoic thrust system. This is demonstrated by the selective reactivation of the pre-existing thrust and by diffuse contractional deformation recognized from the accurate analysis of basement reflections. Another significant result of this study is the finding of some residual rift basins within the basement of the Enping Sag. Both the thrust system and the residual basins are interpreted to have developed after the emplacement of continental margin arc-related granitoids (J3-K1) that define the basement within the study area. Furthermore, seismic sections show that the pre-existing residual rift basins are offset by the main thrust fault and they are both truncated by the Tg unconformity. These structural relationships, interpreted in the frame of previous studies, help us to reconstruct a six-event structural evolution model for the Enping Sag from the late Mesozoic to the early Cenozoic. In particular, we interpret the residual rift basins to have formed as the result of back-arc extension due to the slab roll-back of the Paleo-Pacific Plate subduction in the early K2. The thrust system has recorded a compressional event in the late K2 that followed the back-arc extension in the SCS area. The mechanism of this compressional event is still to be clarified, and might be related to continuous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate or to the continent-continent collision between a micro-continental block and the South China margin.

  10. Variations in annual water-energy balance and their correlations with vegetation and soil moisture dynamics: A case study in the Wei River Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shengzhi; Huang, Qiang; Leng, Guoyong; Zhao, Menglong; Meng, Erhao

    2017-03-01

    It is of importance to investigate watershed water-energy balance variations and to explore their correlations with vegetation and soil moisture dynamics, which helps better understand the interplays between underlying surface dynamics and the terrestrial water cycle. The heuristic segmentation method was adopted to identify change points in the parameter to series in Fu's equation belonging to the Budyko framework in the Wei River Basin (WRB) and its sub-basins aiming to examine the validity of stationary assumptions. Additionally, the cross wavelet analysis was applied to explore the correlations between vegetation and soil moisture dynamics and to variations. Results indicated that (1) the omega variations in the WRB are significant, with some change points identified except for the sub-basin above Zhangjiashan, implying that the stationarity of omega series in the WRB is invalid except for the sub-basin above Zhangjiashan; (2) the correlations between soil moisture series and to series are weaker than those between Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) series and omega series; (3) vegetation dynamics show significantly negative correlations with omega variations in 1983-2003 with a 4-8 year signal in the whole WRB, and both vegetation and soil moisture dynamics exert strong impacts on the parameter omega changes. This study helps understanding the interactions between underlying land surface dynamics and watershed water-energy balance. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Water security evaluation in Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guiqin; He, Liyuan; Jing, Juan

    2018-03-01

    Water security is an important basis for making water security protection strategy, which concerns regional economic and social sustainable development. In this paper, watershed water security evaluation index system including 3 levels of 5 criterion layers (water resources security, water ecological security and water environment security, water disasters prevention and control security and social economic security) and 24 indicators were constructed. The entropy weight method was used to determine the weights of the indexes in the system. The water security index of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 in Yellow River basin were calculated by linear weighting method based on the relative data. Results show that the water security conditions continue to improve in Yellow River basin but still in a basic security state. There is still a long way to enhance the water security in Yellow River basin, especially the water prevention and control security, the water ecological security and water environment security need to be promoted vigorously.

  12. [Simulation for balanced effect of soil and water resources on cultivated land in Naoli River Basin, Northeast China under the RCPs climate scene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Lei, Guo Ping; Yang, Xue Xin; Zhao, Yu Hui; Zhang, Ji Xin

    2018-04-01

    Under the scenarios of climate change, balancing the land and water resources is one of the key problems needed to be solved in land development. To reveal the water dynamics of the cultivated land in Naoli River Basin, we simulated the future scenarios by using the future land use simulation model based on Landsat Satellite images, the DEM data and the meteorological data. Results showed that the growth rate of cultivated land gradually decreased. It showed different changing characteristics in different time periods, which led to different balancing effect between land and water resources. In 1990, the water dynamics of the cultivated land resources was in good state, At the same time, the adjustment of crops structure caused the paddy fields increased dramatically. During 2002 to 2014, the cultivated land that in moderate and serious moisture shortage state increased slightly, the water deficit was deteriorating to a certain degree, and maintained sound development of water profit and loss situation gradually. By comparing the simulation accuracy with different spatial resolutions and time scales, we selected 200 m as the spatial resolution of the simulation, and simulated the land use status in 2038. The simulation results showed that the cultivated land's water profit and loss degree in the river basin showed significant polarization characteristic, in that the water profit and loss degree of the cultivated land would be further intensified, the area with the higher grades of moisture profit and loss degree would distribute more centralized, and partially high evaluated grades for the moisture shortage would expand. It is needed to develop the cultivated land irrigation schemes and adjust the cultivated land in Naoli River Basin to balance soil and water resources.

  13. Wind tunnel experiments of air flow patterns over nabkhas modeled after those from the Hotan River basin,Xinjiang,China(Ⅱ):vegetated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhizhong LI; Rong MA; ShengLi WU; Janis DALE; Lin GE; Mudan HE; Xiaofeng WANG; Jianhui JIN; Jinwei LIU; Wanjuan LI

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the results of wind tunnel experiments on models of nabkha,based on those studied in the Hotan River basin.Semi-spherical and conical models of nabkhas were constructed at a ratio of 40:1 in light of the on-site observation.Artificial vegetation of simulated Tamarix spp.was put on top of each model.Parameters of the shape,including height,width,and diameter of vegetated semi-spherical and conical nabkha.were measured in the Hotan River basin.Wind tunnel experiments on the semi-spherical and conical nabkha used clean air devoid of additional sediments at five different wind speeds (6-14 m/s)to study the influence of vegetation on airflow patterns.Results of the experiments indicate that vegetation at the top of the nabkhas enhances the surface roughness of the sand mounds,retards airflow over the sand mounds,reduces airflow energy,eliminates erosional pits occurring on the top surface of non-vegetated sand mounds and enhances the range of influence of the vortex that forms on the leeward slope.Vegetation changes the airflow pattern upwind and downwind of the sand mound and reduces the transport of sand away from the nabkha.This entrapment of sediment by the vegetation plays an important role in sustaining the nabkha landscape of the study area.The existence of vegetation makes fine materials in wind-sand flow to possibly deposit,and promotes nabkha formation.The imitative flow patterns Of different morphological nabkhas have also been verified by on-site observation in the river basin.

  14. A comparison of integrated river basin management strategies: A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunhong; Wang, Pei; Zhang, Guanghong

    In order to achieve the integrated river basin management in the arid and rapid developing region, the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwestern China, one of critical river basins were selected as a representative example, while the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB) in Australia and the Colorado River Basin (CRB) in the USA were selected for comparative analysis in this paper. Firstly, the comparable characters and hydrological contexts of these three watersheds were introduced in this paper. Then, based on comparative studies on the river basin challenges in terms of the drought, intensive irrigation, and rapid industrialization, the hydrological background of the MDB, the CRB and the HRB was presented. Subsequently, the river management strategies were compared in three aspects: water allocation, water organizations, and water act and scientific projects. Finally, we proposed recommendations for integrated river basin management for the HRB: (1) Water allocation strategies should be based on laws and markets on the whole basin; (2) Public participation should be stressed by the channels between governance organizations and local communities; (3) Scientific research should be integrated into river management to understand the interactions between the human and nature.

  15. Health benefit from decreasing exposure to heavy metals and metalloid after strict pollution control measures near a typical river basin area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Ma, Yingqun; Zhao, Xiuge; Qin, Yanwen; Liu, Yan; Li, Sai; Zheng, Binghui; Wei, Fusheng

    2017-10-01

    The metal(loid) pollution still is a great concern due to the effects from urbanization and industrialization. While, the health risks from the toxic metal(loid)s could decrease if strict pollution control measures were adopted. However, few studies to date investigate the health risks of heavy metal(loid)s in a systematic river basin for the dependent residents, after taking pollution control measures. Thus, the contents of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, As) in surface water along a typical river basin were investigated in this study, and the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks posed to the residents were assessed. Although the soluble contents of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd exceeded the respective thresholds in two sites located downstream the mine area, they were greatly decreased in comparison with previous contamination levels, and the soluble concentrations of all the metal(loid)s were within the relevant thresholds in the sites far away from the mining area. Moreover, the closer to the mining area, the higher the pollution levels of metal(loid)s. The total hazard index for non-carcinogenic risks of metal(loid)s were basically lower than the threshold (1) for the local population. Whereas, although the content of metal(loid)s were low (such as As), they could pose relative higher non-carcinogenic health risks. The result illustrated that pollution levels, toxicity of the contaminants and exposure behavior patterns all could contribute to the potential detrimental health risks. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from ingestion exposure were ∼2-∼4 orders of magnitude higher than those from dermal contact. The total carcinogenic risks were basically lower than the maximum tolerable levels (1.0 × 10 -4 ), indicating carcinogenic risks from most areas of the river could also be accepted. Among different population groups, heavy metal(loid)s posed relative higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the children in

  16. Regulating N application for rice yield and sustainable eco-agro development in the upper reaches of Yellow River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aiping; Liu, Ruliang; Gao, Ji; Yang, Shiqi; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    High N fertilizer and flooding irrigation applied to rice on anthropogenic-alluvial soil often result in N leaching and low recovery of applied fertilizer N from the rice fields in Ningxia irrigation region in the upper reaches of the Yellow River, which threatens ecological environment, food security, and sustainable agricultural development. This paper reported the regulating N application for rice yield and sustainable Eco-Agro development in the upper reaches of Yellow River basin. The results showed that reducing and postponing N application could maintain crop yields while substantially reducing N leaching losses to the environment and improving the nitrogen use efficiency. Considering the high food production, the minimum environmental threat, and the low labor input, we suggested that regulating N application is an important measure to help sustainable agricultural development in this region.

  17. Identification of basin characteristics influencing spatial variation of river flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazvimavi, D.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Stein, A.

    2006-01-01

    The selection of basin characteristics that explain spatial variation of river flows is important for hydrological regionalization as this enables estimation of flow statistics of ungauged basins. A direct gradient analysis method, redundancy analysis, is used to identify basin characteristics,

  18. The "normal" elongation of river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelltort, Sebastien

    2013-04-01

    The spacing between major transverse rivers at the front of Earth's linear mountain belts consistently scales with about half of the mountain half-width [1], despite strong differences in climate and rock uplift rates. Like other empirical measures describing drainage network geometry this result seems to indicate that the form of river basins, among other properties of landscapes, is invariant. Paradoxically, in many current landscape evolution models, the patterns of drainage network organization, as seen for example in drainage density and channel spacing, seem to depend on both climate [2-4] and tectonics [5]. Hovius' observation [1] is one of several unexplained "laws" in geomorphology that still sheds mystery on how water, and rivers in particular, shape the Earth's landscapes. This narrow range of drainage network shapes found in the Earth's orogens is classicaly regarded as an optimal catchment geometry that embodies a "most probable state" in the uplift-erosion system of a linear mountain belt. River basins currently having an aspect away from this geometry are usually considered unstable and expected to re-equilibrate over geological time-scales. Here I show that the Length/Width~2 aspect ratio of drainage basins in linear mountain belts is the natural expectation of sampling a uniform or normal distribution of basin shapes, and bears no information on the geomorphic processes responsible for landscape development. This finding also applies to Hack's [6] law of river basins areas and lengths, a close parent of Hovius' law. [1]Hovius, N. Basin Res. 8, 29-44 (1996) [2]Simpson, G. & Schlunegger, F. J. Geophys. Res. 108, 2300 (2003) [3]Tucker, G. & Bras, R. Water Resour. Res. 34, 2751-2764 (1998) [4]Tucker, G. & Slingerland, R. Water Resour. Res. 33, 2031-2047 (1997) [5]Tucker, G. E. & Whipple, K. X. J. Geophys. Res. 107, 1-1 (2002) [6]Hack, J. US Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 294-B (1957)

  19. Vegetation greenness modelling in response to interannual precipitation and temperature changes between 2001 and 2012 in Liao River Basin in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Sheng; Tang, Jie; Li, Zhao-Yang; Li, Hai-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Liao River basin in Jilin Province is the place of origin of the Dongliao River. This study gives a comprehensive analysis of the vegetation coverage in the region and provides a potential theoretical basis for ecological restoration. The seasonal variation of vegetation greenness and dynamics based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in major land cover types in the region was studied. Analyzing the relationship NDVI, temperature and rainfall, we derived a set of predictor variables from 2001 to 2012 using the MODIS Terra level 1 Product (MOD02QKM). The results showed a general increasing trend in NDVI value in the region, while 34.63 % of the region showed degradation. NDVI values begin to rise from April when plants are regreening and they drop in September when temperature are decreasing and the leaves are falling in the study area and temperature was found decreasing during the period of 2001-2012 while rainfall showed an increasing trend. This model could be used to observe the change in vegetation greenness and the dynamic effects of temperature and rainfall. This study provided important data for the environmental protection of the basin area. And we hope to provide scientific analysis for controlling water and soil erosion, maintaining the sustainable productivity of land resources, enhancing the treatment of water pollution and stimulating the virtuous cycle of the ecological system.

  20. An Eco-Hydrological Model-Based Assessment of the Impacts of Soil and Water Conservation Management in the Jinghe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Many soil and water conservation (SWC measures have been applied in the Jinghe River Basin to decrease soil erosion and restore degraded vegetation cover. Analysis of historical streamflow records suggests that SWC measures may have led to declines in streamflow, although climate and human water use may have contributed to observed changes. This paper presents an application of a watershed-scale, physically-based eco-hydrological model—the Regional Hydro-Ecological Simulation System (RHESSys—in the Jinghe River Basin to study the impacts of SWC measures on streamflow. Several extensions to the watershed-scale RHESSys model were made in this paper to support the model application at larger scales (>10,000 km2 of the Loess Plateau. The extensions include the implementation of in-stream routing, reservoir sub-models and representation of soil and water construction engineering (SWCE. Field observation data, literature values and remote sensing data were used to calibrate and verify the model parameters. Three scenarios were simulated and the results were compared to quantify both vegetation recovery and SWCE impacts on streamflow. Three scenarios respectively represent no SWC, vegetation recovery only and both vegetation recovery and SWCE. The model results demonstrate that the SWC decreased annual streamflow by 8% (0.1 billion m3, with the largest decrease occurring in the 2000s. Model estimates also suggest that SWCE has greater impacts than vegetation recovery. Our study provides a useful tool for SWC planning and management in this region.

  1. Quantifying water and energy budgets and the impacts of climatic and human factors in the Haihe River Basin, China: 1. Model and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Shen, Yanjun

    2015-09-01

    We have developed an operational model to simulate water and energy fluxes in the Haihe River Basin (231,800 km2 in size) for the past 28 years. This model is capable of estimating water and energy fluxes of irrigated croplands and heterogeneous grids. The model was validated using actual evapotranspiration (ETa) measured by an eddy covariance system, measured soil moisture in croplands, groundwater level measurements over the piedmont plain and runoff observations in a mountainous catchment. A long-term time series of water and energy balance components were then simulated at a daily time step by integrating remotely sensed information and meteorological data to examine the spatial and temporal distribution and changes in water and energy fluxes in the basin over the past 28 years. The results show that net radiation (Rn) in the mountainous regions is generally higher than that in the plain regions. ETa in the plain regions is higher than that in the mountainous regions mostly because of higher air temperature and larger areas of irrigated farmland. Higher sensible heat flux (H) and lower ETa in the urban areas are possibly due to less vegetation cover, an impervious surface, rapid drainage, and the heat island effect of cities. During the study period, a water deficit continuously occurred in the plain regions because of extensive pumping of groundwater for irrigation to meet the crop water requirements. Irrigation has led to significant groundwater depletion, which poses a substantial challenge to the sustainability of water resources in this basin.

  2. [Variation characteristics and influencing factors of actual evapotranspiration under various vegetation types: A case study in the Huaihe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong Jun; Xing, Xiao Yong

    2016-06-01

    The actual evapotranspiration was modelled utilizing the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS) in Huaihe River Basin from 2001 to 2012. In the meantime, the quantitative analyses of the spatial-temporal variations of actual evapotranspiration characteristics and its influencing factors under different vegetation types were conducted. The results showed that annual evapotranspiration gradually decreased from southeast to northwest, tended to increase annually, and the monthly change for the average annual evapotranspiration was double-peak curve. The differences of evapotranspiration among vegetation types showed that the farmland was the largest contributor for the evapotranspiration of Huaihe Basin. The annual actual evapotranspiration of the mixed forest per unit area was the largest, and that of the bare ground per unit area was the smallest. The changed average annual evapotranspiration per unit area for various vegetation types indicated an increased tendency other than the bare ground, with a most significant increase trend for the evergreen broadleaf forest. The thermodynamic factors (such as average temperature) were the dominant factors affecting the actual evapotranspiration in the Huaihe Basin, followed by radiation and moisture factors.

  3. Dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load in the Huangfuchuan Basin of the Middle Yellow River, China: historical records and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, E.; Li, D.; Wang, Y.; Fu, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Yellow River is well known for its high sediment load and serious water shortage. The long-term averaged sediment load is about 1.6´103 million tons per year, resulting in aggrading and perched lower reaches. In recent years, however, dramatic decreases in runoff and sediment load have been observed. The annual sediment load has been less than 150 million tons in the last ten years. Extrapolation of this trend into the future would motivate substantial change in the management strategies of the Lower Yellow River. To understand the possible trend and its coevolving drivers, we performed a case study of the Huangfuchuang River, which is a tributary to the Middle Yellow River, with a drainage area of 3246 km2 and an annual precipitation of 365 mm. Statistical analysis of historical data from 1960s to 2015 showed a significantly decreasing trend in runoff and sediment load since 1984. As potential drivers, the precipitation does not show an obvious change in annual amount, while the vegetation cover and the number of check dams have been increased gradually as a result of the national Grain for Green project. A simulation with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) reproduced the historical evolution processes, and showed that human activities dominated the reduction in runoff and sediment load, with a contribution of around 80%. We then projected the runoff and sediment load for the next 50 years (2016-2066), considering typical scenarios of climate change and accounting for vegetation cover development subject to climate conditions and storage capacity loss of check dams due to sediment deposition. The differences between the projected trend and the historical record were analyzed, so as to highlight the coevolving processes of climate, vegetation, and check dam retention on a time scale of decades. Keywords: Huangfuchuan River Basin, sediment load, vegetation cover, check dams, annual precipitation, SWAT.

  4. Radiocesium dynamics in the Hirose River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Arai, H.; Onuma, S.; Onishi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    A significant amount of radiocesium was deposited in Fukushima Prefecture during the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. In river systems, radiocesium is transported to downstream in rivers. For the safe use of river and its water, it is needed to clarify the dynamics of radiocesium in river systems. We started the monitoring of the Hirose River from December 2015. The Hirose River is a tributary of the Abukuma River flowing into the Pacific Ocean, and its catchment is close to areas where a large amount of radiocesium was deposited. We set up nine monitoring points in the Hirose River watershed. The Water level and turbidity data are continuously observed at each monitoring point. We regularly collected about 100 liters of water at each monitoring point. Radiocesium in water samples was separated into two forms; the one is the dissolved form, and the other is the suspended particulate form. Radionuclide concentrations of radiocesium in both forms were measured by a germanium semiconductor detector. Furthermore, we applied the TODAM (Time-dependent One-dimensional Degradation And Migration) code to the Hirose River basin using the monitoring data. The objectives of the modeling are to understand a redistribution pattern of radiocesium adsorbed by sediments during flooding events and to determine the amount of radiocesium flux into the Abukuma River.

  5. Climatology of the interior Columbia River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue A. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    This work describes climate means and trends in each of three major ecological zones and 13 ecological reporting units in the interior Columbia River basin. Widely differing climates help define each major zone and reporting unit, the pattern of which is controlled by three competing air masses: marine, continental, and arctic. Paleoclimatic evidence and historical...

  6. Climate change adaptation in European river basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huntjens, P.; Pahl-Wostl, C.; Grin, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains an assessment and standardized comparative analysis of the current water management regimes in four case-studies in three European river basins: the Hungarian part of the Upper Tisza, the Ukrainian part of the Upper Tisza (also called Zacarpathian Tisza), Alentejo Region

  7. Raptors of the Izdrevaya River Basin, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira G. Nikolenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article compiles the results of episodic visits of the aurhoes to the basin of the Izdrevaya river during 2012–2016. The main goals of those visits were: to figure out the species composition of nesting fauna of birds of prey, estabishing the manner of nesting pairs’ distribution and designing a system of nestboxes for different species of birds of prey and owls. 8 species of Falconiformes are present in the Izdrevaya river basin, 4 of which are nesting, and 3 species of Strigiformes, 2 of which are nesting. The Black Kite (Milvus migrans has maximum density in the Izdrevaya river basin – 51.83 ind./100km2 (n=93. The Common Buzzard (Buteo buteo is the second in number after the Black Kite, its density being 8.88 ind/100km2 of the total area. The Ural Owl (Strix uralensis, encountered only on two territories in 2012, inhabited 4 nestboxes in 2013 as the result of biotechnical measures taken, and its number increased to 8 pairs successfully breeding in the nextboxes in 2016. Main negative factors for birds of prey in the Izdrevaya river basin were established: electrocution on power lines, illegal logging, illegal construction of dams and the construction of waste-sorting plant with a range of solid municipal waste.

  8. Environmental education for river-basin planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, S K

    1980-08-01

    Harmonious intervention in land use, a result of environmental education and good planning, can increase the social and economic benefits without precluding development. Modern river basin planning began as a US innovation in 1874 over the subject of water regulation in the west. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) was devised as a state tool for comprehensive river basin planning and development. The TVA example was not repeated in the other 10 US basins by the Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation, although the concept of unified development has survived as a three-part relationship of physical,biological, and human forces in which any malfunctioning of one subsystem affects the others. This is evident in problems of water transfer from agricultural to industrial functions and changes to drainage patterns. The potential damage from ignoring these relationships can be avoided with true interdisciplinary communications. 24 references, 2 tables. (DCK)

  9. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... Basin Conservation Advisory Group, Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project, established by the... Water Conservation Program. DATES: The meeting will be held on Tuesday, August 21, 2012, from 1 p.m. to... the implementation of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation...

  10. The spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their influencing factors in the downstream Heihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jingyi; Zhao, Wenwu; Daryanto, Stefani; Wang, Lixin; Fan, Hao; Feng, Qiang; Wang, Yaping

    2017-05-01

    Desert riparian forests are the main restored vegetation community in Heihe River basin. They provide critical habitats and a variety of ecosystem services in this arid environment. Since desert riparian forests are also sensitive to disturbance, examining the spatial distribution and temporal variation of these forests and their influencing factors is important to determine the limiting factors of vegetation recovery after long-term restoration. In this study, field experiment and remote sensing data were used to determine the spatial distribution and temporal variation of desert riparian forests and their relationship with the environmental factors. We classified five types of vegetation communities at different distances from the river channel. Community coverage and diversity formed a bimodal pattern, peaking at the distances of 1000 and 3000 m from the river channel. In general, the temporal normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) trend from 2000 to 2014 was positive at different distances from the river channel, except for the region closest to the river bank (i.e. within 500 m from the river channel), which had been undergoing degradation since 2011. The spatial distribution of desert riparian forests was mainly influenced by the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture, bulk density and soil particle composition). Meanwhile, while the temporal variation of vegetation was affected by both the spatial heterogeneity of soil properties (e.g. soil moisture and soil particle composition) and to a lesser extent, the temporal variation of water availability (e.g. annual average and variability of groundwater, soil moisture and runoff). Since surface (0-30 cm) and deep (100-200 cm) soil moisture, bulk density and the annual average of soil moisture at 100 cm obtained from the remote sensing data were regarded as major determining factors of community distribution and temporal variation, conservation measures that protect the soil structure

  11. Documented changes in annual runoff and attribution since the 1950s within selected rivers in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lü-Liu Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To enable local water resource management and maintenance of ecosystem integrity and to protect and mitigate against flood and drought, it is necessary to determine changes in long-term series of streamflow and to distinguish the roles that climate change and human disturbance play in these changes. A review of previous research on the detection and attribution of observed changes in annual runoff in China shows a decrease in annual runoff since the 1950s in northern China in areas such as the Songhuajiang River water resources zone, the Liaohe River water resources zone, the Haihe River water resources zone, the Yellow River water resources zone, and the Huaihe River water resources Zone. Furthermore, abrupt changes in annual runoff occurred mostly in the 1970s and 1980s in all the above zones, except for some of the sub-basins in the middle Yellow River where abrupt change occurred in the 1990s. Changes in annual runoff are found to be mainly caused by climate change in the western Songhuajiang River basin, the upper mainstream of the Yangtze River, and the western Pearl River basin, which shows that studies on the impact of climate change on future water resources under different climate change scenarios are required to enable planning and management by agencies in these river basins. However, changes in annual runoff were found to be mainly caused by human activities in most of the catchments in northern China (such as the southern Songhuajiang River, Liaohe River, Haihe River, the lower reach and some of the catchments within the middle Yellow River basin and in middle-eastern China, such as the Huaihe River and lower mainstream of the Yangtze River. This suggests that current hydro-climatic data can continue to be used in water-use planning and that policymakers need to focus on water resource management and protection.

  12. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education).

  13. Applying a Multi-Model Ensemble Method for Long-Term Runoff Prediction under Climate Change Scenarios for the Yellow River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Given the substantial impacts that are expected due to climate change, it is crucial that accurate rainfall–runoff results are provided for various decision-making purposes. However, these modeling results often generate uncertainty or bias due to the imperfect character of individual models. In this paper, a genetic algorithm together with a Bayesian model averaging method are employed to provide a multi-model ensemble (MME and combined runoff prediction under climate change scenarios produced from eight rainfall–runoff models for the Yellow River Basin. The results show that the multi-model ensemble method, especially the genetic algorithm method, can produce more reliable predictions than the other considered rainfall–runoff models. These results show that it is possible to reduce the uncertainty and thus improve the accuracy for future projections using different models because an MME approach evens out the bias involved in the individual model. For the study area, the final combined predictions reveal that less runoff is expected under most climatic scenarios, which will threaten water security of the basin.

  14. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies

  15. Water Quality Evaluation of the Yellow River Basin Based on Gray Clustering Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X. Q.; Zou, Z. H.

    2018-03-01

    Evaluating the water quality of 12 monitoring sections in the Yellow River Basin comprehensively by grey clustering method based on the water quality monitoring data from the Ministry of environmental protection of China in May 2016 and the environmental quality standard of surface water. The results can reflect the water quality of the Yellow River Basin objectively. Furthermore, the evaluation results are basically the same when compared with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. The results also show that the overall water quality of the Yellow River Basin is good and coincident with the actual situation of the Yellow River basin. Overall, gray clustering method for water quality evaluation is reasonable and feasible and it is also convenient to calculate.

  16. Colorado River basin sensitivity to disturbance impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. E.; Urrego-Blanco, J. R.; Jonko, A. K.; Vano, J. A.; Newman, A. J.; Bohn, T. J.; Middleton, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Colorado River basin is an important river for the food-energy-water nexus in the United States and is projected to change under future scenarios of increased CO2emissions and warming. Streamflow estimates to consider climate impacts occurring as a result of this warming are often provided using modeling tools which rely on uncertain inputs—to fully understand impacts on streamflow sensitivity analysis can help determine how models respond under changing disturbances such as climate and vegetation. In this study, we conduct a global sensitivity analysis with a space-filling Latin Hypercube sampling of the model parameter space and statistical emulation of the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model to relate changes in runoff, evapotranspiration, snow water equivalent and soil moisture to model parameters in VIC. Additionally, we examine sensitivities of basin-wide model simulations using an approach that incorporates changes in temperature, precipitation and vegetation to consider impact responses for snow-dominated headwater catchments, low elevation arid basins, and for the upper and lower river basins. We find that for the Colorado River basin, snow-dominated regions are more sensitive to uncertainties. New parameter sensitivities identified include runoff/evapotranspiration sensitivity to albedo, while changes in snow water equivalent are sensitive to canopy fraction and Leaf Area Index (LAI). Basin-wide streamflow sensitivities to precipitation, temperature and vegetation are variable seasonally and also between sub-basins; with the largest sensitivities for smaller, snow-driven headwater systems where forests are dense. For a major headwater basin, a 1ºC of warming equaled a 30% loss of forest cover, while a 10% precipitation loss equaled a 90% forest cover decline. Scenarios utilizing multiple disturbances led to unexpected results where changes could either magnify or diminish extremes, such as low and peak flows and streamflow timing

  17. Interdecadal changes of summer aerosol pollution in the Yangtze River Basin of China, the relative influence of meteorological conditions and the relation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoye; Li, Duo; Yang, Yuanqin; Zhong, Junting; Wang, Yaqiang; Che, Haochi; Che, Huizheng; Zhang, Yangmei

    2018-07-15

    Winter is a season of much concern for aerosol pollution in China, but less concern for pollution in the summertime. There are even less concern and larger uncertainty about interdecadal changes in summer aerosol pollution, relative influence of meteorological conditions, and their links to climate change. Here we try to reveal the relation among interdecadal changes in summer's most important circulation system affecting China (East Asian Summer Monsoon-EASM), an index of meteorological conditions (called PLAM, Parameter Linking Air Quality and Meteorological Elements, which is almost linearly related with aerosol pollution), and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River (M-LYR) in central eastern China during summertime since the 1960's. During the weak monsoon years, the aerosol pollution load was heavier in the M-LYR and opposite in the strong monsoon years mainly influenced by EASM and associated maintenance position of the anti-Hadley cell around 115°E. The interdecadal changes in meteorological conditions and their associated aerosol pollution in the context of such climate change have experienced four periods since the 1960's, which were a relatively large decreased period from 1961 to 1980, a large rise between 1980 and 1999, a period of slow rise or maintenance from 1999 to 2006, and a relatively rapid rise between 2006 and 2014. Among later three pollution increased periods, about 51%, 25% and 60% of the aerosol pollution change respectively come from the contribution of worsening weather conditions, which are found to be greatly affected by changes in EASM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs.

  19. Water utilization in the Snake River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, William Glenn; Stabler, Herman

    1935-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the present utilization of the water in the Snake River Basin with special reference to irrigation and power and to present essential facts concerning possible future utilization. No detailed plan of development is suggested. An attempt has been made, however, to discuss features that should be taken into account in the formulation of a definite plan of development. On account of the size of the area involved, which is practically as large as the New England States and New York combined, and the magnitude of present development and future possibilities, considerable details have of necessity been omitted. The records of stream flow in the basin are contained in the reports on surface water supply published annually by the Geological Survey. These records are of the greatest value in connection with the present and future regulation and utilization of the basin's largest asset water.

  20. 75 FR 38833 - Walker River Basin Acquisition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Walker River Basin Acquisition Program AGENCY... (Reclamation) is canceling work on the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Walker River Basin... Walker River, primarily for irrigated agriculture, have resulted in a steadily declining surface...

  1. Human activities and its Responses to Glacier Melt Water Over Tarim River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai; Zhou, Shenbei; Bai, Minghao

    2017-04-01

    Tarim River Basin lies in the south area of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the north-west area of China. It is the longest inland river of China. Being far away from ocean and embraced by high mountains, Tarim River Basin is the typical arid region in the world. The intensity of human activities increased rapidly in Tarim River Basin since 1980's and water resources lacking is the major issue restricting the development of social economy. The glacier melt water plays an important role for the regional social and economic development, and it accounts for 40% of mountain-pass runoff. It is a fragile mutual-dependent relationship between local sustainable development and runoff. Under the background of global change glacier melt water process has also changed especially in the arid and semi-arid region. Due to climate change, glacier in Tarim River Basin has melted in an observed way since 1980s, together with increasing trend of annual rainfall and virgin flow in mountain basins. Correspondingly, human activity gets more frequent since 1970s, resulting into the obvious fragile mutual-dependent relationship between basin runoff and water use amount. Through an analysis of meteorological, hydrological and geographical observation data from 1985 to 2015, this thesis make a multi-factor variance analysis of population, cultivation area, industrial development and runoff in upstream and mid-stream of Tarim River under changing conditions. Furthermore, the regulation function of natural factors and water demand management factors on relationship between runoff and water using amount are discussed, including temperature, rainfall, and evaporation, water conservation technology and soil-water exploitation administrative institutions. It concludes that: first, increase in glacier runoff, rainfall amount, and virgin flow haven't notably relieved ecological issue in Tarim River Basin, and even has promoted water use behaviour in different flowing areas and noticeably reduced

  2. Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, P. M.; Duffy, C. J.; Dressler, K. A.

    2004-12-01

    In response to the NSF-CUAHSI initiative for a national network of Hydrologic Observatories, we propose to initiate the Susquehanna River Basin Hydrologic Observing System (SRBHOS), as the northeast node. The Susquehanna has a drainage area of 71, 410 km2. From the headwaters near Cooperstown, NY, the river is formed within the glaciated Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, crossing the Valley and Ridge, then the Piedmont, before finishing its' 444 mile journey in the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay. The Susquehanna is the major source of water and nutrients to the Chesapeake. It has a rich history in resource development (logging, mining, coal, agriculture, urban and heavy industry), with an unusual resilience to environmental degradation, which continues today. The shallow Susquehanna is one of the most flood-ravaged rivers in the US with a decadal regularity of major damage from hurricane floods and rain-on-snow events. As a result of this history, it has an enormous infrastructure for climate, surface water and groundwater monitoring already in place, including the nations only regional groundwater monitoring system for drought detection. Thirty-six research institutions have formed the SRBHOS partnership to collaborate on a basin-wide network design for a new scientific observing system. Researchers at the partner universities have conducted major NSF research projects within the basin, setting the stage and showing the need for a new terrestrial hydrologic observing system. The ultimate goal of SRBHOS is to close water, energy and solute budgets from the boundary layer to the water table, extending across plot, hillslope, watershed, and river basin scales. SRBHOS is organized around an existing network of testbeds (legacy watershed sites) run by the partner universities, and research institutions. The design of the observing system, when complete, will address fundamental science questions within major physiographic regions of the basin. A nested

  3. Regional vegetation dynamics and its response to climate change—a case study in the Tao River Basin in Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changbin; Yang, Linshan; Wang, Shuaibing; Yang, Wenjin; Zhu, Gaofeng; Qi, Jiaguo; Zou, Songbing; Zhang, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The 30-year normalized-difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series from AVHRR/MODIS satellite sensors was used in this study to assess the regional vegetation dynamic changes in the Tao River Basin, which cuts across the Eastern Tibetan Plateau (ETP) and the Southwestern Loess Plateau (SLP). First, principal component and correlation analyses were carried out to determine the key climatic variables driving ecological change in the region. Then, regression models were tested to correlate NDVI with the selected climatic variables to determine their predictive power. Finally, Sen’s slope method was used to determine how terrestrial vegetation has responded to regional climate change in the region. The results indicated an average winter season NDVI value of 0.14 in the ETP but only 0.04 in the SLP. Primarily driven by increasing temperature, vegetation growth has generally been enhanced since 1981; spring NDVI increased by 0.03 every 10 years in the ETP and 0.02 in the SLP. Further, results from trend analyses suggest vegetation growth in the ETP shifted to earlier-start and earlier-end dates, however in the SLP, the growing season has been extended with an earlier-start and later-end date. The precipitation threshold for vegetation germination, measured by the cumulative spring rainfall, was found to be 44 mm for both the ETP and SLP. (paper)

  4. Effect of Land Use Change on Soil Carbon Storage over the Last 40 Years in the Shi Yang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shurong Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for one quarter of China’s land area, the endorheic Shiyang River basin is a vast semi-arid to arid region in China’s northwest. Exploring the impact of changes in land use on this arid area’s carbon budget under global warming is a key component to global climate change research. Variation in the region’s soil carbon storage due to land use changes occurring between 1973 and 2012 was estimated. The results show that land use change has a significant impact on the soil carbon budget, with soil carbon storage having decreased by 3.89 Tg between 1973 and 2012. Grassland stored the greatest amount of soil carbon (114.34 Mg ha−1, whereas considerably lower carbon storage occurred in woodland (58.53 Mg ha−1, cropland (26.75 Mg ha−1 and unused land (13.47 Mg ha−1. Grasslands transformed into cropland, and woodlands degraded into grassland have substantially reduced soil carbon storage, suggesting that measures should be adopted to reverse this trend to improve soil productivity.

  5. Application of GPS Trajectory Data for Investigating the Interaction between Human Activity and Landscape Pattern: A Case Study of the Lijiang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between human activity and landscape pattern has been a hot research topic during the last few decades. However, scholars used to measure human activity by social, economic and humanistic indexes. These indexes cannot directly reflect human activity and are not suitable for fine-grained analysis due to the coarse spatial resolution. In view of the above problems, this paper proposes a method that obtains the intensity of human activity from GPS trajectory data, collects landscape information from remote sensing images and further analyzes the interaction between human activity and landscape pattern at a fine-grained scale. The Lijiang River Basin is selected as the study area. Experimental results show that human activity and landscape pattern interact synergistically in this area. Built-up land and water boost human activity, while woodland restrains human activity. The effect of human activity on landscape pattern differs by the land cover category. Overall, human activities make natural land, such as woodland and water, scattered and fragmented, but cause man-built land, such as built-up land and farmland, clustered and regular. Nevertheless, human activities inside and outside urban areas are the opposite. The research findings in this paper are helpful for designing and implementing sustainable management plans.

  6. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangxin Fan

    Full Text Available Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use and cultural backgrounds (age, education.

  7. Multi–Model Ensemble Approaches to Assessment of Effects of Local Climate Change on Water Resources of the Hotan River Basin in Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Luo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global climate change threaten the availability of water resources worldwide and modify their tempo-spatial pattern. Properly quantifying the possible effects of climate change on water resources under different hydrological models is a great challenge in ungauged alpine regions. By using remote sensing data to support established models, this study aimed to reveal the effects of climate change using two models of hydrological processes including total water resources, peak flows, evapotranspiration, snowmelt and snow accumulation in the ungauged Hotan River Basin under future representative concentration pathway (RCP scenarios. The results revealed that stream flow was much more sensitive to temperature variation than precipitation change and increased by 0.9–10.0% according to MIKE SHE or 6.5–10.5% according to SWAT. Increased evapotranspiration was similar for both models with a range of 7.6–31.3%. The snow-covered area shrank from 32.5% to 11.9% between the elevations of 4200–6400 m, respectively, and snow accumulation increased when the elevation exceeded 6400 m above sea level (asl. The results also suggested that the fully distributed and semi-distributed structures of these two models strongly influenced the responses to climate change. The study proposes a practical approach to assess the climate change effect in ungauged regions.

  8. Quantification of the impacts of climate change and human agricultural activities on oasis water requirements in an arid region: a case study of the Heihe River basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingran; Shen, Yanjun

    2018-03-01

    Ecological deterioration in arid regions caused by agricultural development has become a global issue. Understanding water requirements of the oasis ecosystems and the influences of human agricultural activities and climate change is important for the sustainable development of oasis ecosystems and water resource management in arid regions. In this study, water requirements of the main oasis in Heihe River basin during 1986-2013 were analyzed and the amount showed a sharp increase from 10.8 × 108 m3 in 1986 to 19.0 × 108 m3 in 2013. Both human agricultural activities and climate change could lead to the increase in water requirement. To quantify the contributions of agricultural activities and climate change to the increase in water requirements, partial derivative and slope method were used. Results showed that climate change and human agricultural activities, such as oasis expansion and changes in land cropping structure, has contributed to the increase in water requirement at rates of 6.9, 58.1, and 25.3 %, respectively. Overall, human agricultural activities were the dominant forces driving the increase in water requirement. In addition, the contribution of oasis expanding to the increased water requirement was significantly greater than that of other concerned variables. This reveals that controlling the oasis scale is extremely important and effective for balancing water for agriculture and ecosystems and to achieving a sustainable oasis development in arid regions.

  9. Exploring Future Water Shortage for Large River Basins under Different Water Allocation Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Dan; Yao, Mingtian; Ludwig, Fulco; Kabat, Pavel; Huang, He Qing; Hutjes, Ronald W.A.; Werners, Saskia E.

    2018-01-01

    Climate change and socio-economic development increase variations in water availability and water use in the Pearl River Basin (PRB), China. This can potentially result in conflicts over water resources between water users, and cause water shortage in the dry season. To assess and manage water

  10. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought from the hydrological viewpoint is a continuation of the meteorological drought that cause of the lack of surface water such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. This analysis, which is generally on the surface streams, reservoirs, lakes and groundwater, takes place as hydrological drought considered and studied. So the data on the quantity of flow of the rivers in this study is of fundamental importance. This data are included, level, flow, river flow is no term (5. Overall the hydrological drought studies are focused on annual discharges, maximum annual discharge or minimum discharge period. The most importance of this analysis is periodically during the course of the analysis remains a certain threshold and subthresholdrunoff volume fraction has created. In situations where water for irrigation or water of a river without any reservoir, is not adequate, the minimum flow analysis, the most important factor to be considered (4. The aim of this study is evaluatingthe statistical distributions of drought volume rivers data from the Urmia Lake’s rivers and its return period. Materials and Methods: Urmia Lake is a biggest and saltiest continued lake in Iran. The Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important basins in Iran region which is located in the North West of Iran. With an extent of 52700 square kilometers and an area equivalent to 3.21% of the total area of the country, This basin is located between the circuit of 35 degrees 40 minutes to 38 degrees 29 minutes north latitude and the meridian of 44 degrees 13 minutes to 47 degrees 53 minutes east longitude. In this study used the daily discharge data (m3s-1 of Urmia Lake Rivers. Extraction of river drought volume The drought durations were extracted from the daily discharge of 13 studied stations. The first mean year was calculated for each 365 days using the Eq 1 (14. (1 (For i=1,2,3,…,365 That Ki is aith mean year, Yijis ith day discharge in jth

  11. Scaling issues in sustainable river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Jos; Froebich, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable river basin management implies considering the whole river basin when managing the water resources. Management measures target at dividing the water over different uses (nature, agriculture, industry, households) thereby avoiding calamities like having too much, too little or bad quality water. Water management measures are taken at the local level, usually considering the sub-national and sometimes national effects of such measures. A large part of the world's freshwater resources, however, is contained in river basins and groundwater systems that are shared by two or more countries. Sustainable river basin management consequently has to encompass local, regional, national and international scales. This requires coordination over and cooperation between these levels that is currently compressed into the term 'water governance' . Governance takes into account that a large number of stakeholders in different regimes (the principles, rules and procedures that steer management) contribute to policy and management of a resource. Governance includes the increasing importance of basically non-hierarchical modes of governing, where non-state actors (formal organizations like NGOs, private companies, consumer associations, etc.) participate in the formulation and implementation of public policy. Land use determines the run-off generation and use of irrigation water. Land use is increasingly determined by private sector initiatives at local scale. This is a complicating factor in the governance issue, as in comparison to former developments of large scale irrigation systems, planning institutions at state level have then less insight on actual water consumption. The water management regime of a basin consequently has to account for the different scales of water management and within these different scales with both state and non-state actors. The central elements of regimes include the policy setting (the policies and water management strategies), legal setting

  12. Phenological response of vegetation to upstream river flow in the Heihe Rive basin by time series analysis of MODIS data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, L.; Shang, H.L.; Hu, G.; Menenti, M.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid and solid precipitation is abundant in the high elevation, upper reach of the Heihe River basin in northwestern China. The development of modern irrigation schemes in the middle reach of the basin is taking up an increasing share of fresh water resources, endangering the oasis and traditional

  13. Frost risks in the Mantaro river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Trasmonte

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available As part of the study on the Mantaro river basin's (central Andes of Perú current vulnerability to climate change, the temporal and spatial characteristics of frosts were analysed. These characteristics included intensity, frequency, duration, frost-free periods, area distribution and historical trends. Maps of frost risk were determined for the entire river basin, by means of mathematical algorithms and GIS (Geographic Information Systems tools, using minimum temperature – 1960 to 2002 period, geomorphology, slope, land-use, types of soils, vegetation and life zones, emphasizing the rainy season (September to April, when the impacts of frost on agriculture are most severe. We recognized four categories of frost risks: low, moderate, high and critical. The critical risks (with a very high probability of occurrence were related to high altitudes on the basin (altitudes higher than 3800 m a.s.l., while the low (or null probability of occurring risks were found in the lower zones (less than 2500 m a.s.l.. Because of the very intense agricultural activity and the high sensitivity of the main crops (Maize, potato, artichoke in the Mantaro valley (altitudes between 3100 and 3300 m a.s.l., moderate to high frost risks can be expected, with a low to moderate probability of occurrence. Another significant result was a positive trend of 8 days per decade in the number of frost days during the rainy season.

  14. Mapping the Soil Texture in the Heihe River Basin Based on Fuzzy Logic and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Lu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mapping soil texture in a river basin is critically important for eco-hydrological studies and water resource management at the watershed scale. However, due to the scarcity of in situ observation of soil texture, it is very difficult to map the soil texture in high resolution using traditional methods. Here, we used an integrated method based on fuzzy logic theory and data fusion to map the soil texture in the Heihe River basin in an arid region of Northwest China, by combining in situ soil texture measurement data, environmental factors, a previous soil texture map, and other thematic maps. Considering the different landscape characteristics over the whole Heihe River basin, different mapping schemes have been used to extract the soil texture in the upstream, middle, and downstream areas of the Heihe River basin, respectively. The validation results indicate that the soil texture map achieved an accuracy of 69% for test data from the midstream area of the Heihe River basin, which represents a much higher accuracy than that of another existing soil map in the Heihe River basin. In addition, compared with the time-consuming and expensive traditional soil mapping method, this new method could ensure greater efficiency and a better representation of the explicitly spatial distribution of soil texture and can, therefore, satisfy the requirements of regional modeling.

  15. A Simulation-Based Linear Fractional Programming Model for Adaptable Water Allocation Planning in the Main Stream of The Songhua River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential influence of natural variations in a climate system on global warming can change the hydrological cycle and threaten current strategies of water management. A simulation-based linear fractional programming (SLFP model, which integrates a runoff simulation model (RSM into a linear fractional programming (LFP framework, is developed for optimal water resource planning. The SLFP model has multiple objectives such as benefit maximization and water supply minimization, balancing water conflicts among various water demand sectors, and addressing complexities of water resource allocation system. Lingo and Excel programming solutions were used to solve the model. Water resources in the main stream basin of the Songhua River are allocated for 4 water demand sectors in 8 regions during two planning periods under different scenarios. Results show that the increase or decrease of water supply to the domestic sector is related to the change in population density at different regions in different target years. In 2030, the water allocation in the industrial sector decreased by 1.03–3.52% compared with that in 2020, while the water allocation in the environmental sector increased by 0.12–1.29%. Agricultural water supply accounts for 54.79–77.68% of total water supply in different regions. These changes in water resource allocation for various sectors were affected by different scenarios in 2020; however, water resource allocation for each sector was relatively stable under different scenarios in 2030. These results suggest that the developed SLFP model can help to improve the adjustment of water use structure and water utilization efficiency.

  16. Influences of the land use pattern on water quality in low-order streams of the Dongjiang River basin, China: A multi-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiao; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Hou, Zhaojiang; Liao, Jianyu; Fu, Lan; Peng, Qiuzhi

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between land use patterns and water quality in low-order streams is useful for effective landscape planning to protect downstream water quality. A clear understanding of these relationships remains elusive due to the heterogeneity of land use patterns and scale effects. To better assess land use influences, we developed empirical models relating land use patterns to the water quality of low-order streams at different geomorphic regions across multi-scales in the Dongjiang River basin using multivariate statistical analyses. The land use pattern was quantified in terms of the composition, configuration and hydrological distance of land use types at the reach buffer, riparian corridor and catchment scales. Water was sampled under summer base flow at 56 low-order catchments, which were classified into two homogenous geomorphic groups. The results indicated that the water quality of low-order streams was most strongly affected by the configuration metrics of land use. Poorer water quality was associated with higher patch densities of cropland, orchards and grassland in the mountain catchments, whereas it was associated with a higher value for the largest patch index of urban land use in the plain catchments. The overall water quality variation was explained better by catchment scale than by riparian- or reach-scale land use, whereas the spatial scale over which land use influenced water quality also varied across specific water parameters and the geomorphic basis. Our study suggests that watershed management should adopt better landscape planning and multi-scale measures to improve water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. SEA of river basin management plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Kørnøv, Lone

    2009-01-01

    In, 2000 the European Parliament and the European Council passed the Water Framework Directive (WFD) to be implemented in all Member States. The consequence of the directive is that river basin management plans (RBMPs) shall be prepared which are legally subject to a strategic environmental...... assessment (SEA). An important environmental factor for the water sector is climate change, especially the changes it causes to the water environment. However, based on an argument of an inadequate knowledge base regarding climate change impacts, the prospect of Danish authorities including climate change...

  18. Numerical assessment of water-saving irrigation on the water cycle at the oasis of the Manas River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    he

    2018-01-01

    As the birthplace of water-saving technology under mulch drip irrigation in China, the Manas River Basin (MRB) has developed into the largest oasis farming area in Xinjiang and the fourth largest irrigated agricultural area in China. This study presents systematic evaluation the effect of water-saving technologies on precipitation, runoff, infiltration and evapotranspiration in this basin. A model of the regional water cycle was developed for quantitatively assessing groundwater balance and g...

  19. Hydrological Process Simulation of Inland River Watershed: A Case Study of the Heihe River Basin with Multiple Hydrological Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the hydrological processes of an inland river basin can help provide the scientific guidance to the policies of water allocation among different subbasins and water resource management groups within the subbasins. However, it is difficult to simulate the hydrological processes of an inland river basin with hydrological models due to the non-consistent hydrological characteristics of the entire basin. This study presents a solution to this problem with a case study about the hydrological process simulation in an inland river basin in China, Heihe River basin. It is divided into the upper, middle, and lower reaches based on the distinctive hydrological characteristics in the Heihe River basin, and three hydrological models are selected, applied, and tested to simulate the hydrological cycling processes for each reach. The upper reach is the contributing area with the complex runoff generation processes, therefore, the hydrological informatic modeling system (HIMS is utilized due to its combined runoff generation mechanisms. The middle reach has strong impacts of intensive human activities on the interactions of surface and subsurface flows, so a conceptual water balance model is applied to simulate the water balance process. For the lower reach, as the dissipative area with groundwater dominating the hydrological process, a groundwater modeling system with the embedment of MODFLOW model is applied to simulate the groundwater dynamics. Statistical parameters and water balance analysis prove that the three models have excellent performances in simulating the hydrological process of the three reaches. Therefore, it is an effective way to simulate the hydrological process of inland river basin with multiple hydrological models according to the characteristics of each subbasin.

  20. Spatiotemporal extremes of temperature and precipitation during 1960-2015 in the Yangtze River Basin (China) and impacts on vegetation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifang; Wang, Lunche; Qu, Sai; Singh, Ramesh P.; Lai, Zhongping; Yao, Rui

    2018-05-01

    Recently, extreme climate variation has been studied in different parts of the world, and the present study aims to study the impacts of climate extremes on vegetation. In this study, we analyzed the spatiotemporal variations of temperature and precipitation extremes during 1960-2015 in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) using the Mann-Kendall (MK) test with Sen's slope estimator and kriging interpolation method based on daily precipitation (P), maximum temperature (T max), and minimum temperature (T min). We also analyzed the vegetation dynamics in the YRB during 1982-2015 using Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) datasets and investigated the relationship between temperature and precipitation extremes and NDVI using Pearson correlation coefficients. The results showed a pronounced increase in the annual mean maximum temperature (T nav) and mean minimum temperature (T xav) at the rate of 0.23 °C/10 years and 0.15 °C/10 years, respectively, during 1960-2015. In addition, the occurrence of warm days and warm nights shows increasing trends at the rate of 1.36 days/10 years and 1.70 days/10 years, respectively, while cold days and cold nights decreased at the rate of 1.09 days/10 years and 2.69 days/10 years, respectively, during 1960-2015. The precipitation extremes, such as very wet days (R95, the 95th percentile of daily precipitation events), very wet day precipitation (R95p, the number of days with rainfall above R95), rainstorm (R50, the number of days with rainfall above 50 mm), and maximum 1-day precipitation (RX1day), all show pronounced increasing trends during 1960-2015. In general, annual mean NDVI over the whole YRB increased at the rate of 0.01/10 years during 1982-2015, with an increasing transition around 1994. Spatially, annual mean NDVI increased in the northern, eastern, and parts of southwestern YRB, while it decreased in the YRD and parts of southern YRB during 1982-2015. The correlation

  1. Time still to restore the polluted Piracicaba river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, P.C.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Falotico, M.H.B.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last decades the acceleration of the industrialization and urbanization processes together with the intensive agricultural practices have resulted in an impact on the Piracicaba river basin, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The source rivers drain from an area of low population density, absence of heavy industries, non-significant agriculture, native forest and reforestation, the opposite is found in the middle part of the basin. Samples of riverbed sediments were collected along the basin for chemical analysis. Results showed that the source rivers still preserve their natural characteristics, while the Atibaia river in the middle part shows signs of pollution from the agricultural activity, industrial effluents and urban sewage. (author)

  2. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  3. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanham, D; Bidoglio, G

    2014-01-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WF prod, agr ) and consumption (WF cons, agr ) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVW i, agr ) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WF cons, agr, tot exceeds the WF prod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVW i, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WF prod, agr, tot exceeds the WF cons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WF cons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max −32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max −46%) in WF cons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed. (letters)

  4. Monitoring micropollutants in the Swist river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffels, Ekkehard; Brunsch, Andrea; Wunderlich-Pfeiffer, Jens; Mertens, Franz Michael

    2016-11-01

    Micropollutant pathways were studied for the Swist river basin (Western Germany). The aim was to verify the effectiveness of a monitoring approach to detect micropollutants entering the river. In a separate sewer system, water was frequently found to be contaminated with micropollutants. Improper connections of sewage canals to the stormwater network seemed to be the cause of pollution. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) exerted the largest influence on micropollutants for the receiving river. During a flu outbreak, antibiotics in the Swist stemming from WWTPs increased remarkably. Elevated levels of pharmaceuticals were measured in discharges from a combined sewer overflow (CSO). The study showed that the pharmaceutical load of a CSO was significantly reduced by advanced treatment with a retention soil filter. Painkillers, an anticonvulsant and beta blockers were the most often detected pharmaceuticals in the sewage of urban areas. Herbicides, flame retardants and industrial compounds were also observed frequently. On cropland, Chloridazon and Terbuthylazine compounds were often found in landscape runoff. Fungicides and insecticides were the most frequent positive findings in runoff from orchards. The paper shows that a coherent approach to collecting valid information regarding micropollutants and to addressing relevant pathways as a basis for appropriate management strategies could be established.

  5. Use of the RHS method in Golijska Moravica river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Ana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available River Habitat Survey (RHS is terrain method developed in UK in 1994. for determination of physical character of rivers and river basin. This method is applied for the first time in Golijska Moravica river basin. Two indices which broadly describe the diversity of river habitat and landscape features (Habitat Quality Assessment (HQA and extent and severity of artificial modification to the channel (Habitat Modification Class (HMC has been developed for reporting purposes. These are based on simple scoring systems which have been agreed by technical experts.

  6. Analysis on Heavy Metal Distribution in Overlying Deposit and Pollution Characteristics in Drainage Basin of Xiaojiang River in Dongchuan District, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qianrui; Cheng, Xianfeng; Xu, Jun; Qi, Wufu; Yang, Shuran; Dong, Tao; Zhang, Xiangqun

    2017-12-01

    The distribution characteristics of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd) content in overlying deposit in Xiaojiang River is analyzed in this thesis, and potential ecological risk index is adopted to evaluate the potential ecological risk of heavy metal pollution in the overlying deposit. Results indicate that the heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd) content in overlying deposit in Xiaojiang River all has exceeded standard, especially the content near diggings which is much higher than the national first standard value. And this will affect the bottom mud and river system of Jinsha River to some extent. Cu and Cd are the key pollutants and should be taken as the key object of study. It can be seen from comparison between samples in wet season and that in dry season that pollutants in bottom mud will be released due to the effect of pH value, and secondary pollution of the river will be caused.

  7. Developing a Science-based River Basin Management Plan for the Kharaa River Basin, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthe, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The Kharaa River Basin (KRB), which is located north of Mongolia's capital Ulaanbaatar and south of Lake Baikal, was chosen as a model region for the development and implementation of an integrated water resources management consisting of a monitoring concept, technical measures and a capacity development program (Karthe et al. 2012a). The basin of the Kharaa River covers an area of 14534 km² that is partly mountaineous and largely covered by taiga and steppe. At its outlet, the 362 km Kharaa River has a mean long-term annual discharge of 12.1 m³/s (MoMo Consortium 2009). A highly continental climate results in limited water resources, and rising water consumption coupled with the effects of climate and land use change may in the future exacerbate this water scarcity (Malsy et al. 2012; Karthe et al. 2013). Whereas the environment in the upper part of the catchment is in a relatively pristine state, the mid- and downstream sections of the river are characterized by nearby industry, mining activities and intensive agriculture (Menzel et al. 2011), resulting in declining water quality and ultimately a degradation of aquatic ecosystems (Hofmann et al. 2010; Hartwig et al. 2012). Moreover, it is a problem for the supply of major cities like Darkhan which largely rely on alluvial aquifers containing shallow-depth groundwater (Mun et al. 2008). Currently, there are alarming signs of water quality deterioration. With regard to water provision, a major problem is the poor state of distribution infrastructures which were often built in the 1960s and 70s (Scharaw & Westerhoff 2011). Rather little is currently known about the water quality supplied to end users; the latter is even more dubious in the city's informal ger districts (Karthe et al. 2012b). One important goal of the research and development project "Integrated Water Resources Management in Central Asia: Model Region Mongolia" lies in the implementation of a holistic concept for water resources monitoring and

  8. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  9. Spatio-temporal patterns of soil erosion and suspended sediment dynamics in the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suif, Zuliziana; Fleifle, Amr; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Saavedra, Oliver

    2016-10-15

    Understanding of the distribution patterns of sediment erosion, concentration and transport in river basins is critically important as sediment plays a major role in river basin hydrophysical and ecological processes. In this study, we proposed an integrated framework for the assessment of sediment dynamics, including soil erosion (SE), suspended sediment load (SSL) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), and applied this framework to the Mekong River Basin. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model was adopted with a geographic information system to assess SE and was coupled with a sediment accumulation and a routing scheme to simulate SSL. This framework also analyzed Landsat imagery captured between 1987 and 2000 together with ground observations to interpolate spatio-temporal patterns of SSC. The simulated SSL results from 1987 to 2000 showed the relative root mean square error of 41% and coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.89. The polynomial relationship of the near infrared exoatmospheric reflectance and the band 4 wavelength (760-900nm) to the observed SSC at 9 sites demonstrated the good agreement (overall relative RMSE=5.2%, R(2)=0.87). The result found that the severe SE occurs in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower (western part of Vietnam) regions. The SSC in the rainy season (June-November) showed increasing and decreasing trends longitudinally in the upper (China and Lao PDR) and lower regions (Cambodia), respectively, while the longitudinal profile of SSL showed a fluctuating trend along the river in the early rainy season. Overall, the results described the unique spatio-temporal patterns of SE, SSL and SSC in the Mekong River Basin. Thus, the proposed integrated framework is useful for elucidating complex process of sediment generation and transport in the land and river systems of large river basins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analytical framework for River Basin Management Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Frederiksen, Pia

    This paper proposes a framework for the analysis of the planning approach, and the processes and procedures, which have been followed in the preparation of the River Basin District Management Plans (RBMPs). Different countries have different policy and planning traditions and -styles. Developed...... over a range of years, institutional set-up and procedures have been adapted to these. The Water Framework Directive imposes a specific ecosystem oriented management approach, which directs planning to the fulfilment of objectives linked to specific water bodies, and an emphasis on the involvement...... of stakeholders and citizens. Institutional scholars point out that such an eco-system based approach superimposed on an existing institutional set-up for spatial planning and environmental management may create implementation problems due to institutional misfit (Moss 2004). A need for adaptation of procedures...

  11. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  12. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Endorheic Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong; Ge, Yingchun; Li, Hongyi; Han, Feng; Hu, Xiaoli; Tian, Wei; Tian, Yong; Pan, Xiaoduo; Nian, Yanyun; Zhang, Yanlin; Ran, Youhua; Zheng, Yi; Gao, Bing; Yang, Dawen; Zheng, Chunmiao; Wang, Xusheng; Liu, Shaomin; Cai, Ximing

    2018-01-01

    Endorheic basins around the world are suffering from water and ecosystem crisis. To pursue sustainable development, quantifying the hydrological cycle is fundamentally important. However, knowledge gaps exist in how climate change and human activities influence the hydrological cycle in endorheic basins. We used an integrated ecohydrological model, in combination with systematic observations, to analyze the hydrological cycle in the Heihe River Basin, a typical endorheic basin in arid region of China. The water budget was closed for different landscapes, river channel sections, and irrigation districts of the basin from 2001 to 2012. The results showed that climate warming, which has led to greater precipitation, snowmelt, glacier melt, and runoff, is a favorable factor in alleviating water scarcity. Human activities, including ecological water diversion, cropland expansion, and groundwater overexploitation, have both positive and negative effects. The natural oasis ecosystem has been restored considerably, but the overuse of water in midstream and the use of environmental flow for agriculture in downstream have exacerbated the water stress, resulting in unfavorable changes in surface-ground water interactions and raising concerns regarding how to fairly allocate water resources. Our results suggest that the water resource management in the region should be adjusted to adapt to a changing hydrological cycle, cropland area must be reduced, and the abstraction of groundwater must be controlled. To foster long-term benefits, water conflicts should be handled from a broad socioeconomic perspective. The findings can provide useful information on endorheic basins to policy makers and stakeholders around the world.

  13. Water equivalent of snow survey of the Red River Basin and Heart/Cannonball River Basin, March 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1979-10-01

    The water equivalent of accumulated snow was estimated in the Red River and Heart/Cannonball River basins and surrounding areas in North Dakota during the period 8 to 17 March 1978. A total of 570 km were flown, covering a 274 km section of the Red River Basin watershed. These lines had been surveyed in March 1974. Twelve flight lines were flown over the North Dakota side of the Red River from a point 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to the city of Fargo, North Dakota. The eight flight lines flown over the Minnesota side of the Red River extended from 23 km south of the Canadian border southward to Breckenridge, Minnesota. Using six flight lines, a total of 120 km were flown in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, an area southwest of the city of Bismark, North Dakota. This was the first such flight in the Heart/Cannonball River Basin area. Computed weighted average water equivalents on each flight line in the Red River Basin ranged from 4.8 cm to 12.7 cm of water, averaging 7.6 cm for all lines. In the Heart/Cannonball River Basin, the weighted water equivalent ranged from 8.9 cm to 19.1 cm of water, averaging 12.7 cm for all lines. The method used employs the measurement of the natural gamma rays both before and after snow covers the ground

  14. Analysis of temporal and spatial trends of hydro-climatic variables in the Wei River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Shengzhi; Shi, Xiaoyu

    2015-05-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China. The relationship between runoff and precipitation in the Wei River Basin has been changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensified human activities. In this paper, we determine abrupt changes in hydro-climatic variables and identify the main driving factors for the changes in the Wei River Basin. The nature of the changes is analysed based on data collected at twenty-one weather stations and five hydrological stations in the period of 1960-2010. The sequential Mann-Kendall test analysis is used to capture temporal trends and abrupt changes in the five sub-catchments of the Wei River Basin. A non-parametric trend test at the basin scale for annual data shows a decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the past fifty-one years. The temperature exhibits an increase trend in the entire period. The potential evaporation was calculated based on the Penman-Monteith equation, presenting an increasing trend of evaporation since 1990. The stations with a significant decreasing trend in annual runoff mainly are located in the west of the Wei River primarily interfered by human activities. Regression analysis indicates that human activity was possibly the main cause of the decline of runoff after 1970. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. LAND USE CHANGES IN THE TRANS-BOUNDARY AMUR RIVER BASIN IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ermoshin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All distinctions in the economic and nature protection policy of the neighboring states are well reflected and shown within trans-boundary river basins. The parts of trans-boundary geosystem of one country can experience an essential negative influence from rash decisions in the field of nature use and nature protection policy of the neighboring state. The Amur River Basin covers the territories of Russia, the Peoples Republic of China, Mongolia and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and occupies more than 2 million km2. The most intensive development of the basin territory has started since the middle of the 19th century. We compiled two maps of land use in the Amur River basin in the 1930–1940s and in the early 21st century. Results showed that, negative dynamics is marked for forest lands, meadows, wetlands and mountain tundra. The basic features in the change of land use within national parts of the basin in Russia, China and Mongolia are analyzed. The comparative analysis of land use peculiarities of the countries for the last 70 years has been done.

  16. 河西走廊流域治理的科学问题及其思考%The key problems and challenges on the river basin governance in the Hexi Corridor, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠静; 郑航; 耿国婷

    2011-01-01

    针对河西走廊三流域治理,从水资源承载能力、社会经济发展模式、水资源利用秩序等方面,剖析各流域产生生态问题的科学必然性,以及流域治理手段的针对性.从黑河、石羊河流域治理的效果及流域演化基本规律出发,提出河西走廊三流域后治理时代可持续发展在气候变化、经济转型和粮食安全等方面的科学思考.%The inevitability of the occurrence of ecological issues and targets of the governance of the Three River Basins in the Hexi Corridor (the Corridor West of the Yellow River) were analyzed in terms of water resources carrying capacity, socio-economic development patterns and the order of water resources use. Based on both the effects of governing the Heihe River and the Shiyang River Basin and on the basic rules of river evolution, the key problems and challenges on the sustainable development during the post-management period of the Three River Basins in the Hexi Corridor were proposed in terms of climate change, economic transition and food safety.

  17. Quantifying climatic impacts on peatland in the Zoige basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P.; Li, Z.; Hu, X.

    2017-12-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ET) of the Zoige basin in the Yellow River source region of China is a critical parameter for understanding water balance of peatland in the Zoige basin and hence the cause of the changing land cover. Using daily meteorological data sets of Zoige, Hongyuan, and Maqu stations from 1967 to 2011, the well-known FAO56 Penman-Monteith (P-M) formula was selected to calculate the reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) in combination with the crop coefficient method in which the crop coefficient Kc is modified in terms of local climatic conditions. By classifying land cover of the Zoige basin in to swamp, grassland, water surface, and desert, the actual ET cover time for each type was obtained. Since late 1990s, the ET0 increased along with the increased air temperature. Different from previous studies, the ET of the swamp was slightly lower than that of water surface, but was slightly larger than the difference between annual precipitation and runoff in the Zoige basin. The increase of ET in the past 45 years was small in comparison with the change of the annual precipitation. More specifically, the annual precipitation, which was about 560-860 mm, slightly decreased between 1967 and 1997, and increased 2.23% in the 1998-2011 period. These results allowed us to conclude that though the slightly increased ET might be a factor leading to the long-term swamp dewatering, it cannot be the primary cause of the degraded peatland swamp and grassland in the Zoige basin.

  18. The tritium balance of the Ems river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    For the Ems river basin, as a fine example of a Central European lowland basin, an inventory of the tritium distribution is presented for the hydrologic years 1951 to 1983. On the basis of a balance model, the tritium contents in surface waters and groundwater of the Ems river basin are calculated, using known and extrapolated tritium input data and comparing them with the corresponding values measured since 1974. A survey of tritium flows occurring in this basin is presented, taking meteorologic and hydrologic facts into account. (orig.)

  19. Glacial lakes in the Horgos river basin and their outbreak risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Medeu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The river Khorgos (in Kazakhstan – Korgas is a boundary river between Kazakhstan and China. Its basin is located in the central part of southern slope of Dzhungarskiy (Zhetysu Alatau range. According to agreement between Kazakhstan and China at the boundary transition of Khorgos in the floodplain of the river Khorgos the large Center of Frontier Cooperation is erected. Estimation of safety of the mentioned object including connection with possible glacial lakes outbursts has the importance of political-economical value. Nowadays development of glacial lakes in the overhead part of Khorgos river basin has reached apogee. As a roof we can mention the maximum of total glacial lakes area (1,7 million m² in 41 lakes and emptied kettles of former glacial lakes. Six lakes reached highly dangerous outburst stage: the volume of lakes reached some million m³, maximum depth up to 30–40 m. Focal ground filtration of the water from lakes takes place. Development of glacial lakes in Khorgos river basin will continue, and these lakes give and will give real danger for the Center of Frontier Cooperation in case of outburst of naturally dammed lake Kazankol with the similar mechanism of Issyk lake outburst, occurred in 1963 in ZailijskiyAlatau (Ile Alatau.

  20. Impact of LUCC on streamflow based on the SWAT model over the Wei River basin on the Loess Plateau in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wang

    2017-04-01

    impact on both soil flow and baseflow by compensating for reduced surface runoff, which leads to a slight increase in the streamflow in the Wei River with the mixed landscapes on the Loess Plateau that include earth–rock mountain area.

  1. Parameterization and Uncertainty Analysis of SWAT model in Hydrological Simulation of Chaohe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, M.; Zhang, J.; Guo, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    As a typical distributed hydrological model, the SWAT model also has a challenge in calibrating parameters and analysis their uncertainty. This paper chooses the Chaohe River Basin China as the study area, through the establishment of the SWAT model, loading the DEM data of the Chaohe river basin, the watershed is automatically divided into several sub-basins. Analyzing the land use, soil and slope which are on the basis of the sub-basins and calculating the hydrological response unit (HRU) of the study area, after running SWAT model, the runoff simulation values in the watershed are obtained. On this basis, using weather data, known daily runoff of three hydrological stations, combined with the SWAT-CUP automatic program and the manual adjustment method are used to analyze the multi-site calibration of the model parameters. Furthermore, the GLUE algorithm is used to analyze the parameters uncertainty of the SWAT model. Through the sensitivity analysis, calibration and uncertainty study of SWAT, the results indicate that the parameterization of the hydrological characteristics of the Chaohe river is successful and feasible which can be used to simulate the Chaohe river basin.

  2. Northern part, Ten Mile and Taunton River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1967-01-01

    The northern part of the Ten Mile and Taunton River basins is an area of about 195 square miles within Norfolk, Plymouth, and Bristol Counties in southeastern Massachusetts. The northern boundary of the area (plate 1) is the drainage divide separating these basins from that of the Charles, Neponset, and Weymouth River basins. The western boundary is, for the most part, the divide separating the basins from the Blackstone River basin. The eastern boundary is at the edge of the Brockton-Pembroke area (Petersen, 1962; Petersen and Shaw, 1961). The southern boundary in Seekonk is the northern limit of the East Providence quadrangle, for which a ground-water map was prepared by Allen and Gorman (1959); eastward, the southern boundaries of the city of Attleboro and the towns of Norton, Easton, and West Bridgewater form the southern boundary of the area.

  3. Appropriate modelling in DSSs for river basin management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, YuePing; Booij, Martijn J.; Pahl-Wostl, Claudia; Schmidt, Sonja; Rizzoli, Andrea E.; Jakeman, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the development of decision support systems (DSSs) for river basin management. Moreover, new ideas and techniques such as sustainability, adaptive management, Geographic Information System, Remote Sensing and participations of new stakeholders have stimulated their

  4. Water resource management model for a river basin

    OpenAIRE

    Jelisejevienė, Emilija

    2005-01-01

    The objective is to develop river basin management model that ensures integrated analysis of existing water resource problems and promotes implementation of sustainable development principles in water resources management.

  5. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  6. Drought forecasting in Luanhe River basin involving climatic indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weinan; Wang, Yixuan; Li, Jianzhu; Feng, Ping; Smith, Ronald J.

    2017-11-01

    Drought is regarded as one of the most severe natural disasters globally. This is especially the case in Tianjin City, Northern China, where drought can affect economic development and people's livelihoods. Drought forecasting, the basis of drought management, is an important mitigation strategy. In this paper, we evolve a probabilistic forecasting model, which forecasts transition probabilities from a current Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) value to a future SPI class, based on conditional distribution of multivariate normal distribution to involve two large-scale climatic indices at the same time, and apply the forecasting model to 26 rain gauges in the Luanhe River basin in North China. The establishment of the model and the derivation of the SPI are based on the hypothesis of aggregated monthly precipitation that is normally distributed. Pearson correlation and Shapiro-Wilk normality tests are used to select appropriate SPI time scale and large-scale climatic indices. Findings indicated that longer-term aggregated monthly precipitation, in general, was more likely to be considered normally distributed and forecasting models should be applied to each gauge, respectively, rather than to the whole basin. Taking Liying Gauge as an example, we illustrate the impact of the SPI time scale and lead time on transition probabilities. Then, the controlled climatic indices of every gauge are selected by Pearson correlation test and the multivariate normality of SPI, corresponding climatic indices for current month and SPI 1, 2, and 3 months later are demonstrated using Shapiro-Wilk normality test. Subsequently, we illustrate the impact of large-scale oceanic-atmospheric circulation patterns on transition probabilities. Finally, we use a score method to evaluate and compare the performance of the three forecasting models and compare them with two traditional models which forecast transition probabilities from a current to a future SPI class. The results show that the

  7. Application of the PRMS model in the Zhenjiangguan watershed in the Upper Minjiang River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The PRMS model was established for Zhenjiangguan watershed in the upper reach of the Minjiang River basin, China. The results showed that PRMS had an acceptable performance in simulating monthly runoff in the study area. The analysis on the impacts of precipitation changes on hydrological processes indicated that both runoff and evapotranspiration increased with the increase of precipitation. Moreover, evapotranspiration had larger sensitivity to the change of precipitation than runoff.

  8. Interlinking feasibility of five river basins of Rajasthan in India

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Gunwant; Mathur, Y.P.; Chandwani, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    The increasing population and large scale growth with the development of modern science and technology has indicated very high stress on water sector in Rajasthan in India. Availability of water and uniformity of rainfall distribution is changing day by day due to shifting of monsoon in Rajasthan. The spatial and temporal variations in the rainfall in different river basins in Rajasthan are drastic due to which flood situation arises in the tributaries of Chambal river basin every year. Simul...

  9. Reference Evapotranspiration Variation Analysis and Its Approaches Evaluation of 13 Empirical Models in Sub-Humid and Humid Regions: A Case Study of the Huai River Basin, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable estimations of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 are imperative in irrigation scheduling and water resource planning. This study aims to analyze the spatiotemporal trends of the monthly ET0 calculated by the Penman–Monteith FAO-56 (PMF-56 model in the Huai River Basin (HRB, eastern China. However, the use of the PMF-56 model is limited by the insufficiency of climatic input parameters in various sites, and the alternative is to employ simple empirical models. In this study, the performances of 13 empirical models were evaluated against the PMF-56 model by using three common statistical approaches: relative root-mean-square error (RRMSE, mean absolute error (MAE, and the Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient (NS. Additionally, a linear regression model was adopted to calibrate and validate the performances of the empirical models during the 1961–2000 and 2001–2014 time periods, respectively. The results showed that the ETPMF increased initially and then decreased on a monthly timescale. On a daily timescale, the Valiantzas3 (VA3 was the best alternative model for estimating the ET0, while the Penman (PEN, WMO, Trabert (TRA, and Jensen-Haise (JH models showed poor results with large errors. Before calibration, the determination coefficients of the temperature-based, radiation-based, and combined models showed the opposite changing trends compared to the mass transfer-based models. After calibration, the performance of each empirical model in each month improved greatly except for the PEN model. If the comprehensive climatic datasets were available, the VA3 would be the recommended model because it had a simple computation procedure and was also very well correlated linearly to the PMF-56 model. Given the data availability, the temperature-based, radiation-based, Valiantzas1 (VA1 and Valiantzas2 (VA2 models were recommended during April–October in the HRB and other similar regions, and also, the mass transfer-based models were

  10. Evaluation of Heavy Precipitation Simulated by the WRF Model Using 4D-Var Data Assimilation with TRMM 3B42 and GPM IMERG over the Huaihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To obtain independent, consecutive, and high-resolution precipitation data, the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var method was applied to directly assimilate satellite precipitation products into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The precipitation products of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission 3B42 (TRMM 3B42 and its successor, the Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM IMERG were assimilated in this study. Two heavy precipitation events that occurred over the Huaihe River basin in eastern China were studied. Before assimilation, the WRF model simulations were first performed with different forcing data to select more suitable forcing data and determine the control experiments for the subsequent assimilation experiments. Then, TRMM 3B42 and GPM IMERG were separately assimilated into the WRF. The simulated precipitation results in the outer domain (D01, with a 27-km resolution, and the inner domain (D02, with a 9-km resolution, were evaluated in detail. The assessments showed that (1 4D-Var with TRMM 3B42 or GPM IMERG could both significantly improve WRF precipitation predictions at a time interval of approximately 12 h; (2 the WRF simulated precipitation assimilated with GPM IMERG outperformed the one with TRMM 3B42; (3 for the WRF output precipitation assimilated with GPM IMERG over D02, which has spatiotemporal resolutions of 9 km and 50 s, the correlation coefficients of the studied events in August and November were 0.74 and 0.51, respectively, at the point and daily scales, and the mean Heidke skill scores for the two studied events both reached 0.31 at the grid and hourly scales. This study can provide references for the assimilation of TRMM 3B42 or GPM IMERG into the WRF model using 4D-Var, which is especially valuable for hydrological applications of GPM IMERG during the transition period from the TRMM era into the GPM era.

  11. Drainage divides, Massachusetts; Blackstone and Thames River basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejmas, Bruce E.; Wandle, S. William

    1982-01-01

    Drainage boundaries for selected subbasins of the Blackstone and Thames River basins in eastern Hampden, eastern Hampshire, western Norfolk, southern Middlesex, and southern Worcester Counties, Massachusetts, are delineated on 12 topographic quadrangle maps at a scale of 1:24,000. Drainage basins are shown for all U.S. Geological Survey data-collection sites and for mouths of major rivers. Drainage basins are shown for the outlets of lakes or ponds and for streams where the drainage area is greater than 3 square miles. Successive sites along watercourses are indicated where the intervening area is at least 6 miles on tributary streams or 15 square miles along the Blackstone River, French River, or Quinebaug River. (USGS)

  12. Adaptation of Arabidopsis thaliana to the Yangtze River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yu-Pan; Hou, Xing-Hui; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Jia-Fu; Li, Zi-Wen; Han, Ting-Shen; Niu, Xiao-Min; Yang, Li; Xu, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Min; Tan, Dunyan; Tian, Zhixi; Gu, Hongya; Guo, Ya-Long

    2017-12-28

    Organisms need to adapt to keep pace with a changing environment. Examining recent range expansion aids our understanding of how organisms evolve to overcome environmental constraints. However, how organisms adapt to climate changes is a crucial biological question that is still largely unanswered. The plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent system to study this fundamental question. Its origin is in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa, but it has spread to the Far East, including the most south-eastern edge of its native habitats, the Yangtze River basin, where the climate is very different. We sequenced 118 A. thaliana strains from the region surrounding the Yangtze River basin. We found that the Yangtze River basin population is a unique population and diverged about 61,409 years ago, with gene flows occurring at two different time points, followed by a population dispersion into the Yangtze River basin in the last few thousands of years. Positive selection analyses revealed that biological regulation processes, such as flowering time, immune and defense response processes could be correlated with the adaptation event. In particular, we found that the flowering time gene SVP has contributed to A. thaliana adaptation to the Yangtze River basin based on genetic mapping. A. thaliana adapted to the Yangtze River basin habitat by promoting the onset of flowering, a finding that sheds light on how a species can adapt to locales with very different climates.

  13. Morphometric analyses of the river basins in Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Morphometric analyses of seven river basins in Goa, India have been carried out. The linear and areal aspects of these basins are reported here. The plots of stream order versus stream numbers and stream orders versus mean stream lengths are found...

  14. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of ..... with equilibrium profile, where driving force is equivalent to the .... need attention for revival and sustenance by taking suitable artificial ...

  15. Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam. James

    2000-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status...

  16. Fractions and Distribution of Phosphorus in Sediments of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.; An, R.; Huang, Y.; Pu, X.; Li, R.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Yarlung Zangbo River is one of the highest rivers in the world. The ecological environment of the river basin has its specificity. It locates in the remote area of China, and the ecological environment is very fragile. The fundamental data of phosphorus content in sediments of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin are very scarce. In order to clarify the distribution law of phosphorus in the sediments of this area and provide the fundamental data for the study of phosphorus transport in the Yarlung Zangbo River, the authors collected the sediment samples from the mainstream and its tributaries in the research area. Their particle size distributions, specific surface areas, contents of total phosphorus, organic phosphorus and different forms of inorganic phosphorus were analyzed. Then, the fractions and spatial distribution of these forms phosphorus were studied. The results showed that the fractions and distribution characteristics of phosphorus in each form are significant different in the sediments of the Yarlung Zangbo River. The phosphorus contents in the soil erosion deposits and river bed sediment samples are also different. The phosphorus content in sediment is significantly correlated with the sediment characteristics. Keywords: the Yarlung Zangbo River; sediments; fractions of phosphorus; distribution characteristics

  17. Operational river discharge forecasting in poorly gauged basins: the Kavango River basin case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Jensen, Iris Hedegaard; Guzinski, R.

    2015-01-01

    in Africa. We present an operational probabilistic forecasting approach which uses public-domain climate forcing data and a hydrologic-hydrodynamic model which is entirely based on open-source software. Data assimilation techniques are used to inform the forecasts with the latest available observations......Operational probabilistic forecasts of river discharge are essential for effective water resources management. Many studies have addressed this topic using different approaches ranging from purely statistical black-box approaches to physically based and distributed modeling schemes employing data...... assimilation techniques. However, few studies have attempted to develop operational probabilistic forecasting approaches for large and poorly gauged river basins. The objective of this study is to develop open-source software tools to support hydrologic forecasting and integrated water resources management...

  18. Hydroclimatic variability in East Asia: A case study in the Yangtze river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Fok, H. S.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Klaus, J.; Mamet, S.

    2017-12-01

    New regional patterns of droughts and flooding are emerging at south and east Asia river basins, but the causal climatic mechanisms underlying these new hydrological extreme events are yet unknown. The Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures affect hydrological conditions in Asia at different spatiotemporal scales. During the negative phase of the Southern Oscillation, anticyclone systems occur more frequently and modulate precipitation patterns near the southeast coast of China. Monsoons related to the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) locations have been used to explain regional droughts and flooding. Moreover, sea surface temperatures affect wind anomalies and thermocline adjustments across the Pacific and Indian oceans. Here we propose using a major catchment in China, the Yangtze river basin, to understand regional modes of climate variability influencing local hydrological dynamics in Asia. By decomposing the variance of precipitation and hydrological time series, we are able to quantify the relative contributions of the Southern Oscillation, monsoons, and sea surface temperatures to the Yangtze river discharges. Our results suggest that the Southern Oscillation has a relatively weak effect on discharges, whereas the Indian and western North Pacific monsoons are important for the upstream and downstream Yangtze river, respectively. Furthermore, rising Pacific sea surface temperatures may be related to more intensive precipitation at the downstream basin. Based on the hydroclimatic relationships identified here, we discuss future scenarios of changing environmental conditions in the region.

  19. Struggling with scales: revisiting the boundaries of river basin management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.; Wester, P.; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews, illustrated by two case studies, how struggles around scales play out in three globally hegemonic trends in river governance: (1) stakeholder participation for (2) integrated water resources management (IWRM), conceived at (3) the watershed or river basin level. This ‘holy

  20. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  1. Emergence, concept, and understanding of Pan-River-Basin (PRB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concept of Pan-River-Basin (PRB for water resource management is proposed with a discussion on the emergence, concept, and application of PRB. The formation and application of PRB is also discussed, including perspectives on the river contribution rates, harmonious levels of watershed systems, and water resource availability in PRB system. Understanding PRB is helpful for reconsidering river development and categorizing river studies by the influences from human projects. The sustainable development of water resources and the harmonization between humans and rivers also requires PRB.

  2. Drainage basins features and hydrological behaviour river Minateda basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Sarria, F.

    1991-01-01

    Nine basin variables (shape, size and topology) have been analyzed in four small basins with non-permanent run off (SE of Spain). These geomorphological variables have been selected for their high correlation with the Instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters. It is shown that the variables can change from one small basin to another within a very short area; because of it, generalizations about the behaviour of the run off are not possible. In conclusion, it is stated that the variations in geomorphological aspects between different basins, caused mainly by geological constraints, are a very important factor to be controlled in a study of geoecological change derived from climatic change

  3. 33 CFR 207.10 - Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Charles River, Mass.; dam of Charles River Basin Commission. 207.10 Section 207.10 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 207.10 Charles River, Mass.; dam of...

  4. Suitability Evaluation of River Bank Filtration along the Second Songhua River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixue Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Second Songhua River is the biggest river system in Jilin Province, China. In recent years, the rapid economic development in this area has increased the prominence of water resources and water-related environmental problems; these include surface water pollution and the overexploitation of groundwater resources. Bank infiltration on the floodplains of the Second Songhua River is an important process of groundwater-surface water exchange under exploitation conditions. Understanding this process can help in the development of water resource management plans and strategies for the region. In this research, a multi-criteria evaluation index system was developed with which to evaluate the suitability of bank filtration along the Second Songhua River. The system was comprised of main suitability indexes for water quantity, water quality, the interaction intensity between surface water and groundwater, and the exploitation condition of groundwater resources. The index system was integrated into GIS (Geographic Information System to complete the evaluation of the various indicators. According to the weighted sum of each index, the suitability of river bank filtration (RBF in the study area was divided into five grades. Although the evaluation index system and evaluation method are applicable only to the Second Songhua River basin, the underlying principle and techniques it embodies can be applied elsewhere. For future generalization of the evaluation index system, the specific evaluation index and its scoring criteria should be modified appropriately based on local conditions.

  5. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  6. Forecasting domestic water demand in the Haihe river basin under changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-J. Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A statistical model has been developed for forecasting domestic water demand in Haihe river basin of China due to population growth, technological advances and climate change. Historical records of domestic water use, climate, population and urbanization are used for the development of model. An ensemble of seven general circulation models (GCMs namely, BCC-CSM1-1, BNU-ESM, CNRM-CM5, GISS-E2-R, MIROC-ESM, PI-ESM-LR, MRI-CGCM3 were used for the projection of climate and the changes in water demand in the Haihe River basin under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5. The results showed that domestic water demand in different sub-basins of the Haihe river basin will gradually increase due to continuous increase of population and rise in temperature. It is projected to increase maximum 136.22  ×  108 m3 by GCM BNU-ESM and the minimum 107.25  ×  108 m3 by CNRM-CM5 in 2030. In spite of uncertainty in projection, it can be remarked that climate change and population growth would cause increase in water demand and consequently, reduce the gap between water supply and demand, which eventually aggravate the condition of existing water stress in the basin. Water demand management should be emphasized for adaptation to ever increasing water demand and mitigation of the impacts of environmental changes.

  7. Forecasting domestic water demand in the Haihe river basin under changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Jian-Yun; Shahid, Shamsuddin; Xie, Yu-Xuan; Zhang, Xu

    2018-02-01

    A statistical model has been developed for forecasting domestic water demand in Haihe river basin of China due to population growth, technological advances and climate change. Historical records of domestic water use, climate, population and urbanization are used for the development of model. An ensemble of seven general circulation models (GCMs) namely, BCC-CSM1-1, BNU-ESM, CNRM-CM5, GISS-E2-R, MIROC-ESM, PI-ESM-LR, MRI-CGCM3 were used for the projection of climate and the changes in water demand in the Haihe River basin under Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5. The results showed that domestic water demand in different sub-basins of the Haihe river basin will gradually increase due to continuous increase of population and rise in temperature. It is projected to increase maximum 136.22 × 108 m3 by GCM BNU-ESM and the minimum 107.25 × 108 m3 by CNRM-CM5 in 2030. In spite of uncertainty in projection, it can be remarked that climate change and population growth would cause increase in water demand and consequently, reduce the gap between water supply and demand, which eventually aggravate the condition of existing water stress in the basin. Water demand management should be emphasized for adaptation to ever increasing water demand and mitigation of the impacts of environmental changes.

  8. M-area basin closure-Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway

  9. Responses of streamflow and sediment load to climate change and human activity in the Upper Yellow River, China: a case of the Ten Great Gullies Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Huang, He Qing; Shao, Mingan; Yao, Wenyi; Gu, Jing; Yu, Guoan

    2015-01-01

    Soil erosion and land desertification are the most serious environmental problems globally. This study investigated the changes in streamflow and sediment load from 1964 to 2012 in the Ten Great Gullies area of the Upper Yellow River. Tests for gradual trends (Mann-Kendall test) and abrupt changes (Pettitt test) identify that significant declines in streamflow and sediment load occurred in 1997-1998 in two typical gullies. A comparison of climatic variability before and after the change points shows no statistically significant trends in annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Human activities have been very active in the region and during 1990-2010, 146.01 and 197.62 km2 of land were converted, respectively, to forests and grassland, with corresponding increases of 87.56 and 77.05%. In addition, a large number of check dams have been built up in the upper reaches of the ten gullies. These measures were likely responsible for the significant decline in the annual streamflow and sediment load over the last 49 years.

  10. Study of southern CHAONAN sag lower continental slope basin deposition character in Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Northern South China Sea Margin locates in Eurasian plate,Indian-Australia plate,Pacific Plates.The South China Sea had underwent a complicated tectonic evolution in Cenozoic.During rifting,the continental shelf and slope forms a series of Cenozoic sedimentary basins,including Qiongdongnan basin,Pearl River Mouth basin,Taixinan basin.These basins fill in thick Cenozoic fluviolacustrine facies,transitional facies,marine facies,abyssal facies sediment,recording the evolution history of South China Sea Margin rifting and ocean basin extending.The studies of tectonics and deposition of depression in the Southern Chaonan Sag of lower continental slope in the Norther South China Sea were dealt with,based on the sequence stratigraphy and depositional facies interpretation of seismic profiles acquired by cruises of“China and Germany Joint Study on Marine Geosciences in the South China Sea”and“The formation,evolution and key issues of important resources in China marginal sea",and combining with ODP 1148 cole and LW33-1-1 well.The free-air gravity anomaly of the break up of the continental and ocean appears comparatively low negative anomaly traps which extended in EW,it is the reflection of passive margin gravitational effect.Bouguer gravity anomaly is comparatively low which is gradient zone extended NE-SW.Magnetic anomaly lies in Magnetic Quiet Zone at the Northern Continental Margin of the South China Sea.The Cenozoic sediments of lower continental slope in Southern Chaonan Sag can be divided into five stratum interface:SB5.5,SB10.5,SB16.5,SB23.8 and Hg,their ages are of Pliocene-Quaternary,late Miocene,middle Miocene,early Miocene,paleogene.The tectonic evolution of low continental slope depressions can be divided into rifting,rifting-depression transitional and depression stages,while their depositional environments change from river to shallow marine and abyssa1,which results in different topography in different stages.The topographic evolvement in the study

  11. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Yangtze River basin: Spatial pattern and source attribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wen; Zhao, Yuanhong; Liu, Xuejun; Dore, Anthony J.; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Lei; Cheng, Miaomiao

    2018-01-01

    The Yangtze River basin is one of the world's hotspots for nitrogen (N) deposition and likely plays an important role in China's riverine N output. Here we constructed a basin-scale total dissolved inorganic N (DIN) deposition (bulk plus dry) pattern based on published data at 100 observational sites between 2000 and 2014, and assessed the relative contributions of different reactive N (N r ) emission sectors to total DIN deposition using the GEOS-Chem model. Our results show a significant spatial variation in total DIN deposition across the Yangtze River basin (33.2 kg N ha −1 yr −1 on average), with the highest fluxes occurring mainly in the central basin (e.g., Sichuan, Hubei and Hunan provinces, and Chongqing municipality). This indicates that controlling N deposition should build on mitigation strategies according to local conditions, namely, implementation of stricter control of N r emissions in N deposition hotspots but moderate control in the areas with low N deposition levels. Total DIN deposition in approximately 82% of the basin area exceeded the critical load of N deposition for semi-natural ecosystems along the basin. On the basin scale, the dominant source of DIN deposition is fertilizer use (40%) relative to livestock (11%), industry (13%), power plant (9%), transportation (9%), and others (18%, which is the sum of contributions from human waste, residential activities, soil, lighting and biomass burning), suggesting that reducing NH 3 emissions from improper fertilizer (including chemical and organic fertilizer) application should be a priority in curbing N deposition. This, together with distinct spatial variations in emission sector contributions to total DIN deposition also suggest that, in addition to fertilizer, major emission sectors in different regions of the basin should be considered when developing synergistic control measures. - Highlights: • Total DIN deposition fluxes showed a significant spatial variation in the

  12. Recent tritium levels in environmental waters collected at the drainage basin of Changjiang (Yangtze River)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Osamu; Nakagawa, Takao; Hashimoto, Tetsuo [Niigata Univ. (Japan)

    1989-11-01

    This paper reports tritium levels in environmental waters in the China in comparison with those in Japan. Environmental water samples were collected in October-November 1987 from the drainage basin of Changjiang from Sichuan through Hubei districts. Tritium levels were 0.22 Bq/l-6.73 Bq/l (an average, 3.09{plus minus}1.18 Bq/l) in 50 ground water samples; 3.40 Bq/l-3.81 Bq/l (an average, 3.71{plus minus}0.81 Bq/l) in four river samples collected from the main course of the Changjiang River; 1.74 Bq/l-5.40 Bq/l (an average, 3.14{plus minus}1.52 Bq/l) in four river samples collected from the tributary river; and 0.63 Bq/l and 1.78 Bq/l in precipitation samples. Environmental waters contained a large quantity of Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} ions, irrespective of river and ground water samples. In comparing tritium levels in environmental waters in the China and Japan, tritium levels were higher in the ground water influenced by a landslide in the China than Japan. Tritium levels in precipitations collected from the drainage basin of the Changjiang were similar to those in Niigata (Japan), 0.63{plus minus}0.26 Bq/l and 1.78{plus minus}0.26 Bq/l vs 0.53{plus minus}0.36 Bq/l - 2.17{plus minus}0.40 Bq/l. The concentrations of Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} were higher in the Changjiang River (4 water samples) than the river waters, including the Shinano River in Japan. The concentrations of Na{sup +} and Cl{sup -} were higher in the Changjiang River than the average concentrations in the Japanese rivers, but lower than the Shinano River (Japan). A small quantity of precipitations and width of the Changjiang River, as well as nuclear explosion test performed up to 1980, seem to influence higher tritium levels in the Changjiang than those in Japan. (N.K.).

  13. A Basin Approach to a Hydrological Service Delivery System in the Amur River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Borsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the basin approach to the design, development, and operation of a hydrological forecasting and early warning system in a large transboundary river basin of high flood potential, where accurate, reliable, and timely available daily water-level and reservoir-inflow forecasts are essential for water-related economic and social activities (the Amur River basin case study. Key aspects of basin-scale system planning and implementation are considered, from choosing efficient forecast models and techniques, to developing and operating data-management procedures, to disseminating operational forecasts using web-GIS. The latter, making the relevant forecast data available in real time (via Internet, visual, and well interpretable, serves as a good tool for raising awareness of possible floods in a large region with transport and industrial hubs located alongside the Amur River (Khabarovsk, Komsomolsk-on-Amur.

  14. Expansion of the South China Sea basin: Constraints from magnetic anomaly stripes, sea floor topography, satellite gravity and submarine geothermics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhong Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The widely distributed E–W-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the central basin and the N–E-trending magnetic anomaly stripes in the southwest sub-basin provide the most important evidence for Neogene expansion of the South China Sea. The expansion mechanism remains, however, controversial because of the lack of direct drilling data, non-systematic marine magnetic survey data, and irregular magnetic anomaly stripes with two obvious directions. For example, researchers have inferred different ages and episodes of expansion for the central basin and southwest sub-basin. Major controversy centers on the order of basinal expansion and the mechanism of expansion for the entire South China Sea basin. This study attempts to constrain these problems from a comprehensive analysis of the seafloor topography, magnetic anomaly stripes, regional aeromagnetic data, satellite gravity, and submarine geothermics. The mapped seafloor terrain shows that the central basin is a north-south rectangle that is relatively shallow with many seamounts, whereas the southwest sub-basin is wide in northeast, gradually narrows to the southwest, and is relatively deeper with fewer seamounts. Many magnetic anomaly stripes are present in the central basin with variable dimensions and directions that are dominantly EW-trending, followed by the NE-, NW- and NS-trending. Conversely such stripes are few in the southwest sub-basin and mainly NE-trending. Regional magnetic data suggest that the NW-trending Ailaoshan-Red River fault extends into the South China Sea, links with the central fault zone in the South China Sea, which extends further southward to Reed Tablemount. Satellite gravity data show that both the central basin and southwest sub-basin are composed of oceanic crust. The Changlong seamount is particularly visible in the southwest sub-basin and extends eastward to the Zhenbei seamount. Also a low gravity anomaly zone coincides with the central fault zone in the sub-basin

  15. Dynamic water accounting in heavily committed river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Marques, Guilherme

    2014-05-01

    Many river basins throughout the world are increasingly under pressure as water demands keep rising due to population growth, industrialization, urbanization and rising living standards. In the past, the typical answer to meet those demands focused on the supply-side and involved the construction of hydraulic infrastructures to capture more water from surface water bodies and from aquifers. As river basins were being more and more developed, downstream water users and ecosystems have become increasingly dependant on the management actions taken by upstream users. The increased interconnectedness between water users, aquatic ecosystems and the built environment is further compounded by climate change and its impact on the water cycle. Those pressures mean that it has become increasingly important to measure and account for changes in water fluxes and their corresponding economic value as they progress throughout the river system. Such basin water accounting should provide policy makers with important information regarding the relative contribution of each water user, infrastructure and management decision to the overall economic value of the river basin. This paper presents a dynamic water accounting approach whereby the entire river basin is considered as a value chain with multiple services including production and storage. Water users and reservoirs operators are considered as economic agents who can exchange water with their hydraulic neighbors at a price corresponding to the marginal value of water. Effective water accounting is made possible by keeping track of all water fluxes and their corresponding transactions using the results of a hydro-economic model. The proposed approach is illustrated with the Eastern Nile River basin in Africa.

  16. Groundwater sustainability and groundwater/surface-water interaction in arid Dunhuang Basin, northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingjing; Ma, Rui; Hu, Yalu; Sun, Ziyong; Wang, Yanxin; McCarter, Colin P. R.

    2018-03-01

    The Dunhuang Basin, a typical inland basin in northwestern China, suffers a net loss of groundwater and the occasional disappearance of the Crescent Lake. Within this region, the groundwater/surface-water interactions are important for the sustainability of the groundwater resources. A three-dimensional transient groundwater flow model was established and calibrated using MODFLOW 2000, which was used to predict changes to these interactions once a water diversion project is completed. The simulated results indicate that introducing water from outside of the basin into the Shule and Danghe rivers could reverse the negative groundwater balance in the Basin. River-water/groundwater interactions control the groundwater hydrology, where river leakage to the groundwater in the Basin will increase from 3,114 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 11,875 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 17,039 × 104 m3/year in 2036. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the rivers will decrease from 3277 × 104 m3/year in 2017 to 1857 × 104 m3/year in 2021, and to 510 × 104 m3/year by 2036; thus, the hydrology will switch from groundwater discharge to groundwater recharge after implementing the water diversion project. The simulation indicates that the increased net river infiltration due to the water diversion project will raise the water table and then effectively increasing the water level of the Crescent Lake, as the lake level is contiguous with the water table. However, the regional phreatic evaporation will be enhanced, which may intensify soil salinization in the Dunhuang Basin. These results can guide the water allocation scheme for the water diversion project to alleviate groundwater depletion and mitigate geo-environmental problem.

  17. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    OpenAIRE

    D. Arjoon; A. Tilmant; M. Herrmann

    2016-01-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the cont...

  18. Hydrological balance of Chicu River basin, using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos P, R.T.; Valderrama B, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis made part of the ARCAL X III Project, referring to the groundwater study en the Bogota Plain (Sabana de Bogota, Colombia). In the Bogota plain, is found located the Chicu River basin, in such basin are located two towns Tabio and Tenjo, in this zone have been taken advantage the groundwater in the last years. The objective of this work was determined by means of isotopic techniques, the determination of the groundwater origin and its quality using physical and chemical parameters

  19. Agricultural land use doubled sediment yield of western China's rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A. H.; Bierman, P. R.; Sosa-Gonzalez, V.; Neilson, T. B.; Rood, D. H.; Martin, J.; Hill, M.

    2017-12-01

    Land use changes, such as deforestation and agriculture, increase soil erosion rates on the scale of hillslopes and small drainage basins; however, the effects of these changes on the sediment load in larger rivers is poorly quantified, with a few studies scattered globally, and only 10 data points in the world's most populous nation, China. At 20 different sites in western China, we compare contemporary (1945-1987) fluvial sediment yield data collected daily over 4 to 26 years (median = 19 years) to long-term measures of erosion (sediment generation) based on new isotopic measurements of in situ 10Be in river sediments. We find that median sediment transport at these sites exceeds background sediment generation rates by a factor of two (from 0.13 to 5.79 times, median 1.85 times) and that contemporary sediment yield is statistically significantly different from long-term sediment yield (p measured unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs in 130 detrital samples from throughout the region. We find that only 4 samples (those from high elevation, low relief watersheds) have detectable 137Cs and 31 samples have detectable unsupported 210Pb. The lack of 137Cs in most samples suggests high rates of erosion in the 1950s-1960s when 137Cs would have been delivered to the landscape. Detectable 210Pb in 25% of the watersheds suggests that in some areas erosion rates have slowed since that time allowing 210Pb to accumulate to measurable levels. Together, these data sets demonstrate that upstream agricultural land use has significantly increased sediment supply to rivers in western China, likely increasing turbidity and decreasing ecosystem services such as fisheries.

  20. [Effect of environmental factors on macroinvertebrate community structure in the Huntai River basin in the Huntai River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-li; Li, Yan-fen; Xu, Zong-xue

    2015-01-01

    In May-June 2012, macroinvertebrates were investigated at 66 sampling sites in the Huntai River basin in Northeast of China. A total of 72 macrobenthos species were collected, of which, 51 species (70.83%) were aquatic insects, 10 species (13.89%) were mollusks, 7 species (9.72%) were annelids, and 4 species (5.56%) were arthropods. First, 13 candidate metrics (EPT taxa, Dominant taxon%, Ephemeroptera%, Trichoptera%, mollusks%, Heptageniidae/Ephemeroptera; Hydropsychidae/ Trichoptera, Oligochaeta%, intolerant taxon% , tolerant taxon%, Collector%, Clingers%, Shannon-wiener index.) which belonged to six types were chosen to represent macroinvertebrate community structure by correlation analysis. Then, relationships between anthropogenic and physiography pressures and macroinvertebrate community structure variables were measured using redundancy analysis. Then, this study compared the relative influences of anthropogenic and physiographic pressures on macroinvertebrate community structure and the relative influences of anthropogenic pressures at reach, riparian and catchment scales by pRDA. The results showed all environmental factors explained 72.23% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. In addition, a large proportion of the explained variability in macroinvertebrate community structure was related to anthropogenic pressures (48.9%) and to physiographic variables (11.8%), anthropogenic pressures at reach scale influenced most significantly macroinvertebrate community structure which explained 35.3% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. pH, habitat, TN, CODMn, hardness, conductivity, total dissolved particle and ammonia influenced respectively explained 4%, 3.6%, 1.8%, 1.7%, 1.7%, 0.9%, 0.9% and 0.9% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. The land use at riparian and catchment scale respectively explained 10% and 7% of the variation of macroinvertebrate community structure. Finally, the relationships of

  1. Impact of Water Scarcity on the Fenhe River Basin and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study produced a drought map for the Fenhe River basin covering the period from 150 BC to 2012 using regional historical drought records. Based on meteorological and hydrological features, the characteristics and causes of water scarcity in the Fenhe River basin were examined, along with their impact on the national economy and ecological environment. The effects of water scarcity in the basin on the national economy were determined from agricultural, industrial, and domestic perspectives. The impact on aquatic ecosystems was ascertained through an evolution trend analysis of surface water systems, including rivers, wetlands, and slope ecosystems, and subterranean water systems, including groundwater and karst springs. As a result of these analyses, strategies are presented for coping with water scarcity in this basin, including engineering countermeasures, such as the construction of a water network in Shanxi, and the non-engineering approach of groundwater resource preservation. These comprehensive coping strategies are proposed with the aim of assisting the prevention and control of water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid areas of China.

  2. Valuing tradeoffs between agricultural production and ecosystem services in the Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Deng, X.; Wu, F.

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystem services are faced with multiple stress from complex driving factors, such as climate change and human interventions. The Heihe River Basin (HRB), as the second largest inland river basin in China, is a typical semi-arid and arid region with fragile and sensitive ecological environment. For the past decades, agricultural production activities in the basin has affected ecosystem services in different degrees, leading to complex relations among "water-land-climate-ecology-human", in which hydrological process and water resource management is the key. In this context, managing trade-offs among water uses in the river basin to sustain multiple ecosystem services is crucial for healthy ecosystem and sustainable socioeconomic development. In this study, we analyze the trade-offs between different water uses in agricultural production and key ecosystem services in the HRB by applying production frontier analysis, with the aim to explore the potential for managing them. This method traces out joint production frontiers showing the combinations of ecosystem services and agricultural production that can be generated in a given area, and it deals with the economic problem of the allocation of scarce water resources under presumed objective, which aims to highlight synergies and reduce trade-offs between alternative water uses. Thus, management schemes that targets to both sustain agricultural production and increase the provision of key ecosystem services have to consider not only the technological or biological nature of interrelationships, but also the economic interdependencies among them.

  3. Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Barbara J. Milby; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Four groundwater basins along the Colorado River make up one of the study areas being evaluated. The Colorado River study area is approximately 884 square miles (2,290 square kilometers) and includes the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, Palo Verde Valley, and Yuma groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The Colorado River study area has an arid climate and is part of the Sonoran Desert. Average annual rainfall is about 3 inches (8 centimeters). Land use in the study area is approximately 47 percent (%) natural (mostly shrubland), 47% agricultural, and 6% urban. The primary crops are pasture and hay. The largest urban area is the city of Blythe (2010 population of 21,000). Groundwater in these basins is used for public and domestic water supply and for irrigation. The main water-bearing units are gravel, sand, silt, and clay deposited by the Colorado River or derived from surrounding mountains. The primary aquifers in the Colorado River study area are defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells in the Colorado River basins are completed to depths between 230 and 460 feet (70 to 140 meters), consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of 130 of 390 feet (39 to 119 meters), and are screened or perforated below the solid casing. The main source of recharge to the groundwater systems in the Needles, Palo Verde Mesa, and Palo Verde Valley basins is the Colorado River; in the Yuma basin, the main source of recharge is from

  4. Water-energy-food nexus in Large Asian River Basins

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinen, Marko; Varis, Olli

    2016-01-01

    The water-energy-food nexus ("nexus") is promoted as an approach to look at the linkages between water, energy and food. The articles of Water's Special Issue "Water-Energy-Food Nexus in Large Asian River Basins" look at the applicability of the nexus approach in different regions and rivers basins in Asia. The articles provide practical examples of the various roles and importance of water-energy-food linkages, but also discuss the theoretical aspects related to the nexus. While it is eviden...

  5. Interlinking feasibility of five river basins of Rajasthan in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Vyas

    2016-09-01

    Annual surplus water of about 1437 MCM in the river Chambal is going waste and ultimately reaches to sea after creating flood situations in various places in India including Rajasthan, while on the other hand 1077 MCM water is a requirement in the four other basins in Rajasthan i.e. Banas, Banganga, Gambhir and Parbati at 75% dependability. Interlinking and water transfer from Chambal to these four river basins is the prime solution for which 372 km link channel including 9 km tunnel of design capacity of 300 cumec with 64 m lift is required.

  6. Collaboration in River Basin Management: The Great Rivers Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, S.; Vridhachalam, M.; Tomala-Reyes, A.; Guerra, A.; Chu, H.; Eckman, B.

    2008-12-01

    The health of the world's freshwater ecosystems is fundamental to the health of people, plants and animals around the world. The sustainable use of the world's freshwater resources is recognized as one of the most urgent challenges facing society today. An estimated 1.3 billion people currently lack access to safe drinking water, an issue the United Nations specifically includes in its recently published Millennium Development Goals. IBM is collaborating with The Nature Conservancy and the Center for Sustainability and the Global Environment (SAGE) at the University of Wisconsin, Madison to build a Modeling Collaboration Framework and Decision Support System (DSS) designed to help policy makers and a variety of stakeholders (farmers, fish and wildlife managers, hydropower operators, et al.) to assess, come to consensus, and act on land use decisions representing effective compromises between human use and ecosystem preservation/restoration efforts. Initially focused on Brazil's Paraguay-Parana, China's Yangtze, and the Mississippi Basin in the US, the DSS integrates data and models from a wide variety of environmental sectors, including water balance, water quality, carbon balance, crop production, hydropower, and biodiversity. In this presentation we focus on the collaboration aspects of the DSS. The DSS is an open environment tool that allows scientists, policy makers, politicians, land owners, and anyone who desires to take ownership of their actions in support of the environment to work together to that end. The DSS supports a range of features that empower such a community to collaboratively work together. Supported collaboration mediums include peer reviews, live chat, static comments, and Web 2.0 functionality such as tagging. In addition, we are building a 3-D virtual world component which will allow users to experience and share system results, first-hand. Models and simulation results may be annotated with free-text comments and tags, whether unique or

  7. An ecological compensation standard based on emergy theory for the Xiao Honghe River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xinjian; Chen, Moyu; Hu, Caihong

    2015-01-01

    The calculation of an ecological compensation standard is an important, but also difficult aspect of current ecological compensation research. In this paper, the factors affecting the ecological-economic system in the Xiao Honghe River Basin, China, including the flow of energy, materials, and money, were calculated using the emergy analysis method. A consideration of the relationships between the ecological-economic value of water resources and ecological compensation allowed the ecological-economic value to be calculated. On this basis, the amount of water needed for dilution was used to develop a calculation model for the ecological compensation standard of the basin. Using the Xiao Honghe River Basin as an example, the value of water resources and the ecological compensation standard were calculated using this model according to the emission levels of the main pollutant in the basin, chemical oxygen demand. The compensation standards calculated for the research areas in Xipin, Shangcai, Pingyu, and Xincai were 34.91 yuan/m3, 32.97 yuan/m3, 35.99 yuan/m3, and 34.70 yuan/m3, respectively, and such research output would help to generate and support new approaches to the long-term ecological protection of the basin and improvement of the ecological compensation system.

  8. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Yangtze River basin: Spatial pattern and source attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; Zhao, Yuanhong; Liu, Xuejun; Dore, Anthony J; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Lei; Cheng, Miaomiao

    2018-01-01

    The Yangtze River basin is one of the world's hotspots for nitrogen (N) deposition and likely plays an important role in China's riverine N output. Here we constructed a basin-scale total dissolved inorganic N (DIN) deposition (bulk plus dry) pattern based on published data at 100 observational sites between 2000 and 2014, and assessed the relative contributions of different reactive N (N r ) emission sectors to total DIN deposition using the GEOS-Chem model. Our results show a significant spatial variation in total DIN deposition across the Yangtze River basin (33.2 kg N ha -1 yr -1 on average), with the highest fluxes occurring mainly in the central basin (e.g., Sichuan, Hubei and Hunan provinces, and Chongqing municipality). This indicates that controlling N deposition should build on mitigation strategies according to local conditions, namely, implementation of stricter control of N r emissions in N deposition hotspots but moderate control in the areas with low N deposition levels. Total DIN deposition in approximately 82% of the basin area exceeded the critical load of N deposition for semi-natural ecosystems along the basin. On the basin scale, the dominant source of DIN deposition is fertilizer use (40%) relative to livestock (11%), industry (13%), power plant (9%), transportation (9%), and others (18%, which is the sum of contributions from human waste, residential activities, soil, lighting and biomass burning), suggesting that reducing NH 3 emissions from improper fertilizer (including chemical and organic fertilizer) application should be a priority in curbing N deposition. This, together with distinct spatial variations in emission sector contributions to total DIN deposition also suggest that, in addition to fertilizer, major emission sectors in different regions of the basin should be considered when developing synergistic control measures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Water Budget Closure Based on GRACE Measurements and Reconstructed Evapotranspiration Using GLDAS and Water Use Data over the Yellow River and Changjiang River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, M.; Ma, Z.; Yuan, X.

    2017-12-01

    It is important to evaluate the water budget closure on the basis of the currently available data including precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), runoff, and GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage change (TWSC) before using them to resolve water-related issues. However, it remains challenging to achieve the balance without the consideration of human water use (e.g., inter-basin water diversion and irrigation) for the estimation of other water budget terms such as the ET. In this study, the terrestrial water budget closure is tested over the Yellow River Basin (YRB) and Changjiang River Basin (CJB, Yangtze River Basin) of China. First, the actual ET is reconstructed by using the GLDAS-1 land surface models, the high quality observation-based precipitation, naturalized streamflow, and the irrigation water (hereafter, ETrecon). The ETrecon, evaluated using the mean annual water-balance equation, is of good quality with the absolute relative errors less than 1.9% over the two studied basins. The total basin discharge (Rtotal) is calculated as the residual of the water budget among the observation-based precipitation, ETrecon, and the GRACE-TWSC. The value of the Rtotal minus the observed total basin discharge is used to evaluate the budget closure, with the consideration of inter-basin water diversion. After the ET reconstruction, the mean absolute imbalance value reduced from 3.31 cm/year to 1.69 cm/year and from 15.40 cm/year to 1.96 cm/year over the YRB and CJB, respectively. The estimation-to-observation ratios of total basin discharge improved from 180.8% to 86.8% over the YRB, and from 67.0% to 101.1% over the CJB. The proposed ET reconstruction method is applicable to other human-managed river basins to provide an alternative estimation.

  10. An environmental streamflow assessment for the Santiam River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Wallick, J. Rose; Mangano, Joseph F.; Jones, Krista L.

    2012-01-01

    The Santiam River is a tributary of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon and drains an area of 1,810 square miles. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates four dams in the basin, which are used primarily for flood control, hydropower production, recreation, and water-quality improvement. The Detroit and Big Cliff Dams were constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River. The Green Peter and Foster Dams were completed in 1967 on the South Santiam River. The impacts of the structures have included a decrease in the frequency and magnitude of floods and an increase in low flows. For three North Santiam River reaches, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 42–50 percent because of regulated streamflow conditions. Likewise, for three reaches in the South Santiam River basin, the median of annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased 39–52 percent because of regulation. In contrast to their effect on high flows, the dams increased low flows. The median of annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased under regulated streamflow conditions between 60 and 334 percent. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows decreased from February to May and increased from September to January in all the reaches. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from dams because of cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater entering the North, South, and main-stem Santiam Rivers below the dams. A Wilcox rank-sum test of monthly precipitation data from Salem, Oregon, and Waterloo, Oregon, found no significant difference between the pre-and post-dam periods, which suggests that the construction and operation of the dams since the 1950s and 1960s are a primary cause of alterations to the Santiam River basin streamflow regime. In addition to the streamflow analysis, this report provides a geomorphic characterization of the Santiam River basin and the associated conceptual

  11. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  12. Grande Ronde Basin Supplementation Program; Lostine River, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onjukka, Sam T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR); Harbeck, Jim (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Enterprise, OR)

    2003-03-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) identified supplementation as a high priority to achieve its goal of increasing runs of anadromous fish in the Columbia Basin. Supplementation activities in the Lostine River and associated monitoring and evaluation conducted by the Nez Perce Tribe relate directly to the needs addressed in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Measure 7.4L.1 of the Program mandates that appropriate research accompany any proposed supplementation. In addition, measure 7.3B.2 of the Program stresses the need for evaluating supplementation projects to assess their ability to increase production. Finally, Section 7.4D.3 encourages the study of hatchery rearing and release strategies to improve survival and adaptation of cultured fish. In 1997, Oregon Department of Fisheries and Wildlife (ODFW) requested a modification of Permit 1011 to allow the take of adult spring chinook salmon. In 1998, the Nez Perce Tribe also requested a permit specific to activities on Lostine River. The permit was issued in 2000. A special condition in the permits required the development of a long term management plan for the spring chinook salmon of the Grande Ronde Basin. The Nez Perce Tribe, ODFW, and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) completed a formal long range plan entitled ''Grande Ronde Basin Endemic Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation Program''. The program proposes to increase the survival of spring chinook salmon in the Grand Ronde Basin through hatchery intervention. Adult salmon from the Lostine River, Catherine Creek, and the Upper Grande Ronde River are used for a conventional supplementation program in the basin. The Nez Perce program currently operates under the ESA Section 10 Permit 1149.

  13. The Influence of Water Conservancy Projects on River Network Connectivity, A Case of Luanhe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    Connectivity is one of the most important characteristics of a river, which is derived from the natural water cycle and determine the renewability of river water. The water conservancy project can change the connectivity of natural river networks, and directly threaten the health and stability of the river ecosystem. Based on the method of Dendritic Connectivity Index (DCI), the impacts from sluices and dams on the connectivity of river network are deeply discussed herein. DCI quantitatively evaluate the connectivity of river networks based on the number of water conservancy facilities, the connectivity of fish and geographical location. The results show that the number of water conservancy facilities and their location in the river basin have a great influence on the connectivity of the river network. With the increase of the number of sluices and dams, DCI is decreasing gradually, but its decreasing range is becoming smaller and smaller. The dam located in the middle of the river network cuts the upper and lower parts of the whole river network, and destroys the connectivity of the river network more seriously. Therefore, this method can be widely applied to the comparison of different alternatives during planning of river basins and then provide a reference for the site selection and design of the water conservancy project and facility concerned.

  14. Spatial and temporal stability of temperature in the first-level basins of China during 1951-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuting; Li, Peng; Xu, Guoce; Li, Zhanbin; Cheng, Shengdong; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Binhua

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, global warming has attracted great attention around the world. Temperature change is not only involved in global climate change but also closely linked to economic development, the ecological environment, and agricultural production. In this study, based on temperature data recorded by 756 meteorological stations in China during 1951-2013, the spatial and temporal stability characteristics of annual temperature in China and its first-level basins were investigated using the rank correlation coefficient method, the relative difference method, rescaled range (R/S) analysis, and wavelet transforms. The results showed that during 1951-2013, the spatial variation of annual temperature belonged to moderate variability in the national level. Among the first-level basins, the largest variation coefficient was 114% in the Songhuajiang basin and the smallest variation coefficient was 10% in the Huaihe basin. During 1951-2013, the spatial distribution pattern of annual temperature presented extremely strong spatial and temporal stability characteristics in the national level. The variation range of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was 0.97-0.99, and the spatial distribution pattern of annual temperature showed an increasing trend. In the national level, the Liaohe basin, the rivers in the southwestern region, the Haihe basin, the Yellow River basin, the Yangtze River basin, the Huaihe basin, the rivers in the southeastern region, and the Pearl River basin all had representative meteorological stations for annual temperature. In the Songhuajiang basin and the rivers in the northwestern region, there was no representative meteorological station. R/S analysis, the Mann-Kendall test, and the Morlet wavelet analysis of annual temperature showed that the best representative meteorological station could reflect the variation trend and the main periodic changes of annual temperature in the region. Therefore, strong temporal stability characteristics exist for

  15. Long-term tritium monitoring to study river basin dynamics: case of the Danube River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Pradeep; Araguas, Luis; Groening, Manfred; Newman, Brent; Kurttas, Turker; Papesch, Wolfgang; Rank, Dieter; Suckow, Axel; Vitvar, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    During the last five decades, isotope concentrations (O-18, D, tritium) have been extensively measured in precipitation, surface- and ground-waters to derive information on residence times of water in aquifers and rivers, recharge processes, and groundwater dynamics. The unique properties of the isotopes of the water molecule as tracers are especially useful for understanding the retention of water in river basins, which is a key parameter for assessing water resources availability, addressing quality issues, investigating interconnections between surface- and ground-waters, and for predicting possible hydrological shifts related to human activities and climate change. Detailed information of the spatial and temporal changes of isotope contents in precipitation at a global scale was one of the initial aims of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which has provided a detailed chronicle of tritium and stable isotope contents in precipitation since the 1960s. Accurate information of tritium contents resulting of the thermonuclear atmospheric tests in the 1950s and 1960s is available in GNIP for stations distributed world-wide. Use of this dataset for hydrological dating or as an indicator of recent recharge has been extensive in shallow groundwaters. However, its use has been more limited in surface waters, due to the absence of specific monitoring programmes of tritium and stable isotopes in rivers, lakes and other surface water bodies. The IAEA has recently been compiling new and archival isotope data measured in groundwaters, rivers, lakes and other water bodies as part of its web based Water Isotope System for Data Analysis, Visualization and Electronic Retrieval (WISER). Recent additions to the Global Network of Isotopes in Rivers (GNIR) contained within WISER now make detailed studies in rivers possible. For this study, we are re-examining residence time estimates for the Danube in central Europe. Tritium data are available in GNIR from 15

  16. Numerical representation of rainfall field in the Yarmouk River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shentsis, Isabella; Inbar, Nimrod; Magri, Fabien; Rosenthal, Eliyahu

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall is the decisive factors in evaluating the water balance of river basins and aquifers. Accepted methods rely on interpolation and extrapolation of gauged rain to regular grid with high dependence on the density and regularity of network, considering the relief complexity. We propose an alternative method that makes up to those restrictions by taking into account additional physical features of the rain field. The method applies to areas with (i) complex plain- and mountainous topography, which means inhomogeneity of the rainfall field and (ii) non-uniform distribution of a rain gauge network with partial lack of observations. The rain model is implemented in two steps: 1. Study of the rainfall field, based on the climatic data (mean annual precipitation), its description by the function of elevation and other factors, and estimation of model parameters (normalized coefficients of the Taylor series); 2. Estimation of rainfall in each historical year using the available data (less complete and irregular versus climatic data) as well as the a-priori known parameters (by the basic hypothesis on inter-annual stability of the model parameters). The proposed method was developed by Shentsis (1990) for hydrological forecasting in Central Asia and was later adapted to the Lake Kinneret Basin. Here this model (the first step) is applied to the Yarmouk River Basin. The Yarmouk River is the largest tributary of the Jordan River. Its transboundary basin (6,833 sq. km) extends over Syria (5,257 sq.km), Jordan (1,379 sq. km) and Israel (197 sq. km). Altitude varies from 1800 m (and more) to -235 m asl. The total number of rain stations in use is 36 (17 in Syria, 19 in Jordan). There is evidently lack and non-uniform distribution of a rain gauge network in Syria. The Yarmouk Basin was divided into five regions considering typical relationship between mean annual rain and elevation for each region. Generally, the borders of regions correspond to the common topographic

  17. Arsenic occurrence in water bodies in Kharaa river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzaya T

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of arsenic (As and its compound and related toxicology are serious concerns nowadays. Gold mining activity is one of the anthropogenic sources of environmental contamination regarding As and other heavy metals. In Mongolia, the most productive gold mining sites are placed in the Kharaa river basin. A hundred water samples were collected from river, spring and deep wells in this river basin. Along with total As and its species-As(III and As(V, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, 21 heavy metals with pH, total hardness, electric conductivity, anion and cations, was also carried out. In respect to the permissible limit formulated by the Mongolian National Drinking water quality standard (MNS 0900:2005, As10 µg/l, the present study showed that most of samples were found no contamination. In Kharaa river basin, an average concentration of total As in surface water was 4.04 µg/l with wide range in 0.07−30.30 µg/l whereas it was 2.24 µg/l in groundwater. As analysis in surface water in licensed area of Gatsuurt gold mining showed a mean concentration with 24.90 µg/l presenting higher value than that of value in river basin by 6 orders of magnitude and it was 2 times higher than permissible level as well. In Boroo river nearby Boroo gold mining area, As concentration in water was ranged in 6.05−6.25 µg/l. Ammonia pollution may have present at estuary of Zuunmod river in Mandal sum with above the permissible level described in national water quality standard. Geological formation of the rocks and minerals affected to change of heavy metal concentration, especially As and uranium (U at spring water nearby Gatsuurt-Boroo improved road.

  18. Relationship of Rainfall Distribution and Water Level on Major Flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Hishaam Sulaiman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change gives impact on extreme hydrological events especially in extreme rainfall. This article discusses about the relationship of rainfall distribution and water level on major flood 2014 in Pahang River Basin, Malaysia in helping decision makers to flood management system. Based on DID Malaysia rainfall station, 56 stations have being use as point in this research and it is including Pahang, Terengganu, Kelantan and Perak. Data set for this study were analysed with GIS analysis using interpolation method to develop Isohyet map and XLstat statistical software for PCA and SPC analyses. The results that were obtained from the Isohyet Map for three months was mid-November, rainfall started to increase about in range of 800mm-1200mm and the intensity keep increased to 2200mm at mid-December 2014. The high rainfall intensity sense at highland that is upstream of Pahang River. The PCA and SPC analysis also indicates the high relationship between rainfall and water level of few places at Pahang River. The Sg. Yap station and Kg. Serambi station obtained the high relationship of rainfall and water level with factor loading value at 0.9330 and 0.9051 for each station. Hydrological pattern and trend are extremely affected by climate such as north east monsoon season that occurred in South China Sea and affected Pahang during November to March. The findings of this study are important to local authorities by providing basic data as guidelines to the integrated river management at Pahang River Basin.

  19. Integrated river basin management of Južna Morava River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borisavljević Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade in particular, Serbia encountered the problems of drinking water supply, which influenced the perception of professional public about the water crisis but also started more intensive work on water resource perseverance as well as the implementation of European Water Directive. One of the main demands of the Directive focuses on integrated river basin management (IRBM, which is a complex and a large task. The need to collect data on water quality and quantity, specific and key issues of water management in Južna Morava river basin, pressures on river ecosystem, flood risks and erosion problems, cross-border issues, socioeconomic processes, agricultural development as well as protected areas, and also to give the measures for solving problems and pressures recognized in the basin, is undisputable. This paper focuses on detailed analysis of specific pressures on river ecosystem and composition of recommendations for integrated management of Južna Morava river basin as cross-border river basin, taking into the account European experiences in IRBM. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Istraživanje klimatskih promena na životnu sredinu - praćenje uticaja, adaptacija i ublažavanje, podprojekat br. 9: Učestalost bujičnih poplava, degradacija zemljišta i voda kao posledica globalnih promena

  20. Invertebrates of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine G. Niwa; Roger E. Sandquist; Rod Crawford; et al.

    2001-01-01

    A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed....

  1. Hydrogeological evolution of the Luni river basin, Rajasthan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    a vertical litho-column warrant further studies on fine resolution stratigraphy and high resolution ... the Luni river in Barmer region from Karna to .... are without flood plain development. Lesser ... basemen t ro ck a t differen t tub e w ell and dug w ell sites in the. Luni basin. ... together with drainage network flowing across the.

  2. River Basin Management Plans - Institutional framework and planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    2011-01-01

    The report it a deliverable to the Waterpraxis project, based on research carried out in WP3. It is based on country reports from analyses of water planning in one river basin district in each of the countries Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Denmark, and it compares the in...

  3. Placentation in dolphins from the Amazon River Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Vera M F; Carter, Anthony M; Ambrosio, Carlos E

    2007-01-01

    A recent reassessment of the phylogenetic affinities of cetaceans makes it timely to compare their placentation with that of the artiodactyls. We studied the placentae of two sympatric species of dolphin from the Amazon River Basin, representing two distinct families. The umbilical cord branched ...

  4. Stable isotope characteristics of precipitation of Pamba River basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    highly essential input function for isotope hydro- ... Wind speed in the Pamba River basin varies from 8.5 to. 13.6 km/hr (NWDA 2008). ... ets of low values in the hill stations of the Ghats ... reservoir for the hydroelectric power production in.

  5. Arthropods in Decomposing Wood of the Atchafalaya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.G. Lockaby; B.D. Keeland; John A. Stanturf; M.D. Rice; G. Hodges; R.M. Governo

    2002-01-01

    Changes in arthropod populations (numbers of individuals identified to the family level in most cases) were studied during the decomposition of coarse woody debris (CWD) in the Atchafalaya River Basin of Louisiana. The arthropod study was linked with a CWD decomposition study installed after disturbance by Hurricane Andrew. Arthropod numbers were compared between two...

  6. Flood Risk Index Assessment in Johor River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shakir Mohd Saudi; Hafizan Juahir; Azman Azid; Fazureen Azaman; Ahmad Shakir Mohd Saudi

    2015-01-01

    This study is focusing on constructing the flood risk index in the Johor river basin. The application of statistical methods such as factor analysis (FA), statistical process control (SPC) and artificial neural network (ANN) had revealed the most efficient flood risk index. The result in FA was water level has correlation coefficient of 0.738 and the most practicable variable to be used for the warning alert system. The upper control limits (UCL) for the water level in the river basin Johor is 4.423 m and the risk index for the water level has been set by this method consisting of 0-100.The accuracy of prediction has been evaluated by using ANN and the accuracy of the test result was R"2 = 0.96408 with RMSE= 2.5736. The future prediction for UCL in Johor river basin has been predicted and the value was 3.75 m. This model can shows the current and future prediction for flood risk index in the Johor river basin and can help local authorities for flood control and prevention of the state of Johor. (author)

  7. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  8. Changing climatic conditions in the Upper Thames River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, S.P.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Many climate change impact studies have been conducted using a top-down approach. First, outputs from Global Circulation Models (GCMs) are considered which are downscaled in a second step to the river basin scale using either a statistical/empirical or a dynamic approach. The local climatic signal that is obtained is then used as input into a hydrological model to assess the direct consequences in the basin. Problems related to this approach include: a high degree of uncertainty associated with GCM outputs; and an increase in uncertainty due to the downscaling approach. An original inverse approach is developed in this work in order to improve the understanding of the processes leading to hydrological hazards, including both flood and drought events. The developed approach starts with the analysis of existing guidelines and management practices in a river basin with respect to critical hydrological exposures that may lead to failure of the water resources system or parts thereof. This implies that vulnerable components of the river basin have to be identified together with the risk exposure. In the next step the critical hydrologic exposures (flood levels for example) are transformed into corresponding critical meteorological conditions (extreme precipitation events for example). These local weather scenarios are then be statistically linked to possible large-scale climate conditions that are available from the GCMs. The developed procedure allows for the assessment of the vulnerability of river basins with respect to climate forcing. It also provides a tool for identifying the spatial distribution of the vulnerability and risk. Vulnerability is here characterized by the incremental losses, expressed either quantitatively or qualitatively, due to a change in the probability and magnitude of hazard events driven by climatic forcing. Vulnerability is seen as the basis for risk mitigation measures for hydrologic extremes at the basin level. The

  9. A Water Resources Planning Tool for the Jordan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Bonzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Jordan River basin is subject to extreme and increasing water scarcity. Management of transboundary water resources in the basin is closely intertwined with political conflicts in the region. We have jointly developed with stakeholders and experts from the riparian countries, a new dynamic consensus database and—supported by hydro-climatological model simulations and participatory scenario exercises in the GLOWA (Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle Jordan River project—a basin-wide Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool, which will allow testing of various unilateral and multilateral adaptation options under climate and socio-economic change. We present its validation and initial (climate and socio-economic scenario analyses with this budget and allocation tool, and invite further adaptation and application of the tool for specific Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM problems.

  10. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  11. Priority targets for environmental research in the Sinos River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FR. Spilki

    Full Text Available The Sinos River Basin is often mentioned as a highly degraded watershed. A series of impacts on water quality, soil and air has been reported in this environment on a recurring basis over the years. This situation of environmental degradation has its origins in a process of huge economic development uncoupled from environmental conservation concerns. The intense consequent urbanization observed for the municipalities within the watershed was not preceded by urban planning proper zoning. The time has arrived for initiatives in scientific research in the Sinos River basin that are applicable to a more efficient and integrated management and recovery of the basin. In this article, a set of targets for research is suggested which the authors consider as the main priorities for the next few years, aiming for better knowledge and better management of the watershed. Some are still in course, while others have to be initiated as soon as possible.

  12. Isotopic fingerprint of the middle Olt River basin, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Axente, Damian

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important tributaries of the Danube River in Romania, the Olt River, was characterized in its middle catchment in terms of the isotopic composition using continuous flow-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS). Throughout a period of 10 months, from November 2010 to August 2011, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected in order to investigate the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the basin waters. The results revealed a significant difference between the Olt River and its tributaries, by the fact that the Olt River waters show smaller seasonal variations in the stable isotopic composition and are more depleted in (18)O and (2)H. The waters present an overall enrichment in heavy isotopes during the warm seasons.

  13. Case study on rehabilitation of a polluted urban water body in Yangtze River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Cheng, Shuiping; Li, Zhu; Guo, Weijie; Zhong, Fei; Yin, Daqiang

    2013-10-01

    In the past three decades, the fast development of economy and urbanization has caused increasingly severe pollutions of urban water bodies in China. Consequently, eutrophication and deterioration of aquatic ecosystem, which is especially significant for aquatic vegetation, inevitably became a pervasive problem across the Yangtze River Basin. To rehabilitate the degraded urban water bodies, vegetation replanting is an important issue to improve water quality and to rehabilitate ecosystem. As a case study, a representative polluted urban river, Nanfeihe River, in Hefei City, Anhui Province, was chosen to be a rehabilitation target. In October 2009 and May 2010, 13 species of indigenous and prevalent macrophytes, including seven species emergent, one species floating leaved, and five species submersed macrophytes, were planted along the bank slopes and in the river. Through 1.5 years' replanting practice, the water quality and biodiversity of the river had been improved. The concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4 (+)-N) declined by 46.0, 39.5, and 60.4 %, respectively. The species of macrophytes increased from 14 to 60, and the biodiversity of phytoplankton rose significantly in the river (purban waters restoration in the middle-downstream area of Yangtze River Base.

  14. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  15. Fishes of the Taquari-Antas river basin (Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG. Becker

    Full Text Available The aquatic habitats of the Taquari-Antas river basin (in the Patos Lagoon basin, southern Brazil are under marked environmental transformation because of river damming for hydropower production. In order to provide an information baseline on the fish fauna of the Taquari-Antas basin, we provide a comprehensive survey of fish species based on primary and secondary data. We found 5,299 valid records of fish species in the basin, representing 119 species and 519 sampling sites. There are 13 non-native species, six of which are native to other Neotropical river basins. About 24% of the total native species are still lacking a taxonomic description at the species level. Three native long-distance migratory species were recorded (Leporinus obtusidens, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis, as well as two potential mid-distance migrators (Parapimelodus nigribarbis and Pimelodus pintado. Although there is only one officially endangered species in the basin (S. brasiliensis, restricted range species (21.7% of total species should be considered in conservation efforts.

  16. Magnetic minerals in three Asian rivers draining into the South China Sea: Pearl, Red, and Mekong Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei; Li, Jinhua; Wandres, Camille

    2016-05-01

    The use of the marine sedimentary magnetic properties, as tracers for changes in precipitation rate and in oceanic water masses transport and exchanges, implies to identify and to characterize the different sources of the detrital fraction. This is of particular importance in closed and/or marginal seas such as the South China Sea. We report on the magnetic properties of sedimentary samples collected in three main Asian rivers draining into the South China Sea: the Pearl, Red, and Mekong Rivers. The geological formations as well as the present climatic conditions are different from one catchment to another. The entire set of performed magnetic analyses (low-field magnetic susceptibility, ARM acquisition and decay, IRM acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three-axes IRM, hysteresis parameters, FORC diagrams, and low-temperature magnetic measurements) allow us to identify the magnetic mineralogy and the grain-size distribution when magnetite is dominant. Some degree of variability is observed in each basin, illustrating different parent rocks and degree of weathering. On average it appears that the Pearl River is rich in magnetite along the main stream while the Mekong River is rich in hematite. The Red River is a mixture of the two. Compared to clay mineral assemblages and major element contents previously determined on the same samples, these new findings indicate that the magnetic fraction brings complementary information of great interest for environmental reconstructions based on marine sediments from the South China Sea.

  17. Geotemperature pattern and geothermal resources in North China Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Xiao; Chen Moxing; Xiong Liangping; Zhang Juming [Inst. of Geology. Academis Sinica, Beijing (China)

    1995-12-31

    Geotemperature pattern of the North China Basin has been studied. Results indicate that the geotemperature pattern of the Basin is in close correlation with its geological structure, mainly controlled by the structural form or the relief of the basement rock. Generally, high heat flow and high geotemperature zone correspond to basement uplifts whereas low heat flow and low geotemperature zone, to basement depressions. As a consequence, a `high-low-high` geotemperature pattern with NE and EW trending was thus formed and is observed in the North China Basin. This pattern has been validated and revealed by mathematical simulation. In the North China Basin, two main thermal water reservoirs are identified: porous type water in the Neogene system and fissure type water in Lower Paleozoic to Mid-Upper Proterozoic limestone bedrocks. The reserve of thermal water and recoverable resource are estimated. Results show that the North China Basin is an area with abundant low-medium temperature thermal water resources. 9 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs.

  18. Understanding Socio-Hydrology System in the Kissimmee River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Wang, D.; Tian, F.; Sivapalan, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is to develop a conceptual socio-hydrology model for the Kissimmee River Basin. The Kissimmee River located in Florida was channelized in mid-20 century for flood protection. However, the environmental issues caused by channelization led Floridians to conduct a restoration project recently, focusing on wetland recovery. As a complex coupled human-water system, Kissimmee River Basin shows the typical socio-hydrology interactions. Hypothetically, the major reason to drive the system from channelization to restoration is that the community sensitivity towards the environment has changed from controlling to restoring. The model developed in this study includes 5 components: water balance, flood risk, wetland area, crop land area, and community sensitivity. Furthermore, urban population and rural population in the basin have different community sensitivities towards the hydrologic system. The urban population, who live further away from the river are more sensitive to wetland restoration; while the rural population, who live closer to the river are more sensitive to flood protection. The power dynamics between the two groups and its impact on management decision making is described in the model. The model is calibrated based on the observed watershed outflow, wetland area and crop land area. The results show that the overall focus of community sensitivity has changed from flood protection to wetland restoration in the past 60 years in Kissimmee River Basin, which confirms the study hypothesis. There are two main reasons for the community sensitivity change. Firstly, people's flood memory is fading because of the effective flood protection, while the continuously shrinking wetland and the decreasing bird and fish population draw more and more attention. Secondly, in the last 60 years, the urban population in Florida drastically increased compared with a much slower increase of rural population. As a result, the community sensitivity of urban population towards

  19. VICIOUS CIRCULATION OF WATER DEFICIENCY AND WATER POLLUTION – “CANCER” OF THE RIVERS IN THE NORTH OF CHINA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liankang

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The North of China belongs to the basin of the Tarim River ,the Heihe River , the Yellow River , the Huaihe River ,the Haihe River ,the Liaohe River , the Heilongjiang River and other shorter rivers and other indraft areas. The total area of all river basin is about 3,200,000 sq. km., exceeds 3/5 of area of land of 13 provinces , municipalities and autonomous regions of the North of China (5, 220,000 sq. km. .Follow the growth of the economy and the population, lacking of water in the rivers of the northern China is serious,. Since the sixties and seventies of previous century, the blanking has taken place successively in numerous rivers, brought serious influence on the development of the economic, made the society to shake. Afterwards, through certain effort, although the blanking phenomenon is alleviated for the past several years, but the water quality of manyrivers has sharply worsened and was dropped to V, bad V grade in the numerous sections, fromthe situation that the water quality in a great part sections in the main stream was still rather good for past more than 20 years ago. It has become the first killer, influencing the life of river.Therefore, we must summarize the experiences on that the rivers of the northern China, especially the most influential Yellow River, have gone from blanking to resuming flow, we also must control the pollution and proportionate the development of the society and theeconomic, with the water yield and the water quality. These affair have already become task of top priority!

  20. Organizing cross-sectoral collaboration in river basin management : Case studies from the Rhine and the Zhujiang (Pearl River) basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silveira, André; Junier, S.J.; Hüesker, Frank; Qunfang, Fan; Rondorf, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: This paper analyses the drivers and constraints for effective cross-sectoral collaboration in river basin management and the extent to which factors identified in related literature determine success or failure of collaboration in selected case studies. Cases selected were from

  1. The Portland Basin: A (big) river runs through it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evarts, Russell C.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Wells, Ray E.; Madin, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan Portland, Oregon, USA, lies within a small Neogene to Holocene basin in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction system. Although the basin owes its existence and structural development to its convergent-margin tectonic setting, the stratigraphic architecture of basin-fill deposits chiefly reflects its physiographic position along the lower reaches of the continental-scale Columbia River system. As a result of this globally unique setting, the basin preserves a complex record of aggradation and incision in response to distant as well as local tectonic, volcanic, and climatic events. Voluminous flood basalts, continental and locally derived sediment and volcanic debris, and catastrophic flood deposits all accumulated in an area influenced by contemporaneous tectonic deformation and variations in regional and local base level.

  2. Hydrochemistry of the Densu River Basin of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, D.; Osae, S.; Fianko, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Planned hydrochemical assessment of groundwater quality have been carried out to understand the sources of dissolved ions in the aquifers supporting groundwater systems in the Densu River basin. The basin is underlain mainly by the proterozoic basin type granitoids with associated gnesis, with dominant mineral such as plagioclase feldspars. The groundwater is Ca-HCO 3 and Na-HCO 3 facies, due to weathering and ion-exchange of minerals underlying the aquifers. The enrichment of the cation and anions are Na>Ca>Mg>K and HCO 3 >Cl>SO 4 >NO 3 respectively. Some of the elevated values of both cations and anions may be due to seawater intrusions, ion-exchange, oxidation and anthropogenic activities. Based on these studies, proper management would be recommended to address groundwater quality in the basin. (au)

  3. Updating river basin models with radar altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michailovsky, Claire Irene B.

    suited for use in data assimilation frameworks which combine the information content from models and current observations to produce improved forecasts and reduce prediction uncertainty. The focus of the second and third papers of this thesis was therefore the use of radar altimetry as update data...... of political unwillingness to share data which is a common problem in particular in transboundary settings. In this context, remote sensing (RS) datasets provide an appealing alternative to traditional in-situ data and much research effort has gone into the use of these datasets for hydrological applications...... response of a catchment to meteorological forcing. While river discharge cannot be directly measured from space, radar altimetry (RA) can measure water level variations in rivers at the locations where the satellite ground track and river network intersect called virtual stations or VS. In this PhD study...

  4. On the water hazards in the trans-boundary Kosi River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N. Sh.; Hu, G. Sh.; Deng, W.; Khanal, N.; Zhu, Y. H.; Han, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Kosi River is an important tributary of the Ganges River, which passes through China, Nepal and India. With a basin area of 71 500 km2, the Kosi River has the largest elevation drop in the world (from 8848 m of Mt Everest to 60 m of the Ganges Plain) and covers a broad spectrum of climate, soil, vegetation and socioeconomic zones. The basin suffers from multiple water related hazards including glacial lake outburst, debris flow, landslides, flooding, drought, soil erosion and sedimentation. This paper describes the characteristics of water hazards in the basin, based on the literature review and site investigation covering hydrology, meteorology, geology, geomorphology and socio-economics. Glacial lake outbursts are a huge threat to the local population in the region and they usually further trigger landslides and debris flows. Floods are usually a result of interaction between man-made hydraulic structures and the natural environment. Debris flows are widespread and occur in clusters. Droughts tend to last over long periods and affect vast areas. Rapid population increase, the decline of ecosystems and climate change could further exacerbate various hazards in the region. The paper has proposed a set of mitigating strategies and measures. It is an arduous challenge to implement them in practice. More investigations are needed to fill in the knowledge gaps.

  5. A Preliminary Study of Water Quality Index in Terengganu River Basin, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suratman, S.; Mohd, S.M.I.; Hee, Y.Y.; Bedurus, E.A.; Latif, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The Malaysian Department of Environment-Water Quality Index (DOE-WQI) was determined for the Terengganu River basin which is located at the coastal water of the southern South China Sea between July and October 2008. Monthly samplings were carried out at ten sampling stations within the basin. Six parameters listed in DOE-WQI were measured based on standard methods: pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammonical nitrogen (AN). The results indicated the impact of various anthropogenic activities which contribute to high values of BOD, COD, TSS and AN at middle and downstream stations, as compared with the upstream of the basin. The reverses were true for the pH and DO values. The DOE-WQI ranged from 71.5-94.6 % (mean 86.9 %), which corresponded to a classification status range from slightly polluted to clean. With respect to the Malaysia National Water Quality Standards (NWQS), the level of most of the parameters measured remained at Class I which is suitable for the sustainable conservation of the natural environment, for water supply without treatment and as well as for very sensitive aquatic species. It is suggested that monitoring should be carried out continuously for proper management of this river basin. (author)

  6. The main factors of water pollution in Danube River basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Gasparotti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed herewith aims to give an overview on the pollution along the Danube River. Water quality in Danube River basin (DRB is under a great pressure due to the diverse range of the human activities including large urban center, industrial, agriculture, transport and mining activities. The most important aspects of the water pollution are: organic, nutrient and microbial pollution, , hazardous substances, and hydro-morphological alteration. Analysis of the pressures on the Danube River showed that a large part of the Danube River is subject to multiple pressures and there are important risks for not reaching good ecological status and good chemical status of the water in the foreseeable future. In 2009, the evaluation based on the results of the Trans National Monitoring Network showed for the length of water bodies from the Danube River basin that 22% achieved good ecological status or ecological potential and 45% river water bodies achieved good chemical status. Another important issue is related to the policy of water pollution.

  7. Environmental Setting of the Lower Merced River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Kratzer, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey began to study the effects of natural and anthropogenic influences on the quality of ground water, surface water, biology, and ecology as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. As part of this program, the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins study unit is assessing parts of the lower Merced River Basin, California. This report provides descriptions of natural and anthropogenic features of this basin as background information to assess the influence of these and other factors on water quality. The lower Merced River Basin, which encompasses the Mustang Creek Subbasin, gently slopes from the northeast to the southwest toward the San Joaquin River. The arid to semiarid climate is characterized by hot summers (highs of mid 90 degrees Fahrenheit) and mild winters (lows of mid 30 degrees Fahrenheit). Annual precipitation is highly variable, with long periods of drought and above normal precipitation. Population is estimated at about 39,230 for 2000. The watershed is predominately agricultural on the valley floor. Approximately 2.2 million pounds active ingredient of pesticides and an estimated 17.6 million pounds active ingredient of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer is applied annually to the agricultural land.

  8. Hydrological study of La Paz river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, German F.; Garcia Agudo, Edmundo; Quiroga, F.; Tarquino, W.; Diaz, J.; Suxo, Cl.; Mansilla, A.; Rojas, M.

    1998-01-01

    This work aims to determine the hydrological parameters for the La Paz river, by using tracer techniques and also the determination of the water quality parameters for the study of the behavior along the stream. This study intends the prediction and control of the water contamination by using mathematical modelling

  9. River basin closure: Processes, implications and responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molle, F.; Wester, P.; Hirsch, P.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing water withdrawals for urban, industrial, and agricultural use have profoundly altered the hydrology of many major rivers worldwide. Coupled with degradation of water quality, low flows have induced severe environmental degradation and water has been rendered unusable by downstream users.

  10. Quality of surface waters in the lower Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, John F.

    1965-01-01

    This report, made during 1959-60, provides reconnaissance data on the quality of waters in the lower Columbia River basin ; information on present and future water problems in the basin; and data that can be employed both in water-use studies and in planning future industrial, municipal, and agricultural expansion within this area. The lower Columbia River basin consists of approximately 46,000 square miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia Rivers The region can be divided into three geographic areas. The first is the heavily forested, sparsely populated mountain regions in which quality of water in general is related to geologic and climatological factors. The second is a semiarid plateau east of the Cascade Mountains; there differences in geology and precipitation, together with more intensive use of available water for irrigation, bring about marked differences in water quality. The third is the Willamette-Puget trough area in which are concentrated most of the industry and population and in which water quality is influenced by sewage and industrial waste disposal. The majority of the streams in the lower Columbia River basin are calcium magnesium bicarbonate waters. In general, the rivers rising in the. Coast Range and on the west slope of the Cascade Range contain less than 100 parts per million of dissolved solids, and hardness of the water is less than 50 parts per million. Headwater reaches of the streams on the east slope of the Cascade Range are similar to those on the west slope; but, downstream, irrigation return flows cause the dissolved-solids content and hardness to increase. Most of the waters, however, remain calcium magnesium bicarbonate in type. The highest observed dissolved-solids concentrations and also some changes in chemical composition occur in the streams draining the more arid parts of the area. In these parts, irrigation is chiefly responsible for increasing the dissolved-solids concentration and altering the

  11. Hazardous materials in aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Tulane and Xavier Universities have singled out the environment as a major strategic focus for research and training for now and by the year 2000. In December, 1992, the Tulane/Xavier CBR was awarded a five year grant to study pollution in the Mississippi River system. The ''Hazardous Materials in Aquatic Environments of the Mississippi River Basin'' project is a broad research and education program aimed at elucidating the nature and magnitude of toxic materials that contaminate aquatic environments of the Mississippi River Basin. Studies include defining the complex interactions that occur during the transport of contaminants, the actual and potential impact on ecological systems and health, and the mechanisms through which these impacts might be remediated. The Mississippi River Basin represents a model system for analyzing and solving contamination problems that are found in aquatic systems world-wide. These research and education projects are particularly relevant to the US Department of Energy's programs aimed at addressing aquatic pollution problems associated with DOE National Laboratories. First year funding supported seven collaborative cluster projects and twelve initiation projects. This report summarizes research results for period December 1992--December 1993

  12. Spatio-temporal trends of rainfall across Indian river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Deepak Singh; Chatterjee, Chandranath; Raghuwanshi, Narendra Singh; Sridhar, Venkataramana

    2018-04-01

    Daily gridded high-resolution rainfall data of India Meteorological Department at 0.25° spatial resolution (1901-2015) was analyzed to detect the trend in seasonal, annual, and maximum cumulative rainfall for 1, 2, 3, and 5 days. The present study was carried out for 85 river basins of India during 1901-2015 and pre- and post-urbanization era, i.e., 1901-1970 and 1971-2015, respectively. Mann-Kendall ( α = 0.05) and Theil-Sen's tests were employed for detecting the trend and percentage of change over the period of time, respectively. Daily extreme rainfall events, above 95 and 99 percentile threshold, were also analyzed to detect any trend in their magnitude and number of occurrences. The upward trend was found for the majority of the sub-basins for 1-, 2-, 3-, and 5-day maximum cumulative rainfall during the post-urbanization era. The magnitude of extreme threshold events is also found to be increasing in the majority of the river basins during the post-urbanization era. A 30-year moving window analysis further revealed a widespread upward trend in a number of extreme threshold rainfall events possibly due to urbanization and climatic factors. Overall trends studied against intra-basin trend across Ganga basin reveal the mixed pattern of trends due to inherent spatial heterogeneity of rainfall, therefore, highlighting the importance of scale for such studies.

  13. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 2: Shetucket River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mendall P.; Bednar, Gene A.; Thomas, Chester E.; Wilson, William E.

    1967-01-01

    The Shetucket River basin has a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from precipitation that has fallen on the basin. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 30 inches to 75 inches and has averaged about 45 inches over a 35-year period. Approximately 20 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the basin in the Shetucket River or as underflow through the deposits beneath. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the basins whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced streamflow and lowered groundwater levels. The mean monthly storage of water in the basin on an average is 3.5 inches higher in November than it is in June.

  14. Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in the Songhua River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengping Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Songhua River Basin (SRB in Northeast China is one of the areas most sensitive to global climate change because of its high-latitude location. In this study, we conducted a modeling assessment on the potential change of water resources in this region for the coming three decades using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT. First, we calibrated and validated the model with historical streamflow records in this basin. Then, we applied the calibrated model for the period from 2020 to 2049 with the projected and downscaled climatic data under two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The study results show: (1 The SWAT model performed very well for both the calibration and validation periods in the SRB; (2 The projected temperatures showed a steady, significant increase across the SRB under both scenarios, especially in two sub-basins, the Nenjiang River Basin (NRB and the Lower SRB (LSRB. With regard to precipitation, both scenarios showed a decreasing trend in the NRB and LSRB but an increasing trend in the Upper Songhua River Basin (USRB; and (3, generally, the hydrologic modeling suggested a decreasing trend of streamflow for 2020–2049. Compared to baseline conditions (1980–2009, the streamflow in the NRB and LSRB would decrease by 20.3%–37.8%, while streamflow in the USRB would experience an increase of 9.68%–17.7%. These findings provide relevant insights into future surface water resources, and such information can be helpful for resource managers and policymakers to develop effective eco-environment management plans and strategies in the face of climate change.

  15. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, 15771 Athens (Greece); Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Dept. of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, E-08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, C/ Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification.

  16. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/g d.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/g d.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04–0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. - Highlights: • First evidence of UV filters in fish from Iberian rivers • Biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) were always below 1. • Predator species presented higher UV-F concentrations suggesting trophic magnification

  17. Evaluation TRMM Rainfall Data In Hydrological Modeling For An Ungaged In Lhasa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, H. J.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation TRMM Rainfall Data In Hydrological Modeling For An Ungaged In Lhasa River BasinHaijuan Ji1* Jintao Liu1,2 Shanshan Xu1___________________ 1College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China 2State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, People's Republic of China ___________________ * Corresponding author. Tel.: +86-025-83786973; Fax: +86-025-83786606. E-mail address: Hhu201510@163.com (H.J. Ji). Abstract: The Tibetan Plateau plays an important role in regulating the regional hydrological processes due to its high elevations and being the headwaters of many major Asian river basins. If familiar with the distribution of hydrological characteristics, will help us improve the level of development and utilization the water resources. However, there exist glaciers and snow with few sites. It is significance for us to understand the glacier and snow hydrological process in order to recognize the evolution of water resources in the Tibetan. This manuscript takes Lhasa River as the study area, taking use of ground, remote sensing and assimilation data, taking advantage of high precision TRMM precipitation data and MODIS snow cover data, first, according to the data from ground station evaluation of TRMM data in the application of the accuracy of the Lhasa River, and based on MODIS data fusion of multi source microwave snow making cloudless snow products, which are used for discriminant and analysis glacier and snow regulation mechanism on day scale, add snow and glacier unit into xinanjing model, this model can simulate the study region's runoff evolution, parameter sensitivity even spatial variation of hydrological characteristics the next ten years on region grid scale. The results of hydrological model in Lhasa River can simulate the glacier and snow runoff variation in high cold region better, to enhance the predictive ability of the spring

  18. Adaptive Fusion of Information for Seeing into Ordos Basin, China: A China-Germany-US Joint Venture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, T. C. J.; Yin, L.; Sauter, M.; Hu, R.; Ptak, T.; Hou, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive fusion of information for seeing into geological basins is the theme of this joint venture. The objective of this venture is to initiate possible collaborations between scientists from China, Germany, and US to develop innovative technologies, which can be utilized to characterize geological and hydrological structures and processes as well as other natural resources in regional scale geological basins of hundreds of thousands of kilometers (i.e., the Ordos Basin, China). This adaptive fusion of information aims to assimilate active (manmade) and passive (natural) hydrologic and geophysical tomography surveys to enhance our ability of seeing into hydrogeological basins at the resolutions of our interests. The active hydrogeophysical tomography refers to recently developed hydraulic tomgoraphic surveys by Chinese and German scientists, as well as well-established geophysical tomography surveys (such as electrical resistivity tomography, cross-borehole radars, electrical magnetic surveys). These active hydrogeophysical tomgoraphic surveys have been proven to be useful high-resolution surveys for geological media of tens and hundreds of meters wide and deep. For basin-scale (i.e., tens and hundreds of kilometers) problems, their applicabilities are however rather limited. The passive hydrogeophysical tomography refers to unexplored technologies that exploit natural stimuli as energy sources for tomographic surveys, which include direct lightning strikes, groundwater level fluctuations due to earthquakes, river stage fluctuations, precipitation storms, barometric pressure variations, and long term climate changes. These natural stimuli are spatially varying, recurrent, and powerful, influencing geological media over great distances and depths (e.g., tens and hundreds of kilometers). Monitoring hydrological and geophysical responses of geological media to these stimuli at different locations is tantamount to collecting data of naturally occurring tomographic

  19. Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River drainage basin, southeast Minnesota, and the St. Louis River drainage basin, northeast Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erik A.; Sanocki, Chris A.; Lorenz, David L.; Jacobsen, Katrin E.

    2017-12-27

    Streamflow distribution maps for the Cannon River and St. Louis River drainage basins were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Legislative-Citizen Commission on Minnesota Resources, to illustrate relative and cumulative streamflow distributions. The Cannon River was selected to provide baseline data to assess the effects of potential surficial sand mining, and the St. Louis River was selected to determine the effects of ongoing Mesabi Iron Range mining. Each drainage basin (Cannon, St. Louis) was subdivided into nested drainage basins: the Cannon River was subdivided into 152 nested drainage basins, and the St. Louis River was subdivided into 353 nested drainage basins. For each smaller drainage basin, the estimated volumes of groundwater discharge (as base flow) and surface runoff flowing into all surface-water features were displayed under the following conditions: (1) extreme low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.95; (2) low-flow conditions, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.90; (3) a median condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.50; and (4) a high-flow condition, comparable to an exceedance-probability quantile of 0.02.Streamflow distribution maps were developed using flow-duration curve exceedance-probability quantiles in conjunction with Soil-Water-Balance model outputs; both the flow-duration curve and Soil-Water-Balance models were built upon previously published U.S. Geological Survey reports. The selected streamflow distribution maps provide a proactive water management tool for State cooperators by illustrating flow rates during a range of hydraulic conditions. Furthermore, after the nested drainage basins are highlighted in terms of surface-water flows, the streamflows can be evaluated in the context of meeting specific ecological flows under different flow regimes and potentially assist with decisions regarding groundwater and surface

  20. Groundwater quality in the Mohawk River Basin, New York, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.; Scott, Tia-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 21 production and domestic wells in the Mohawk River Basin in New York in July 2011 to characterize groundwater quality in the basin. The samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 148 physiochemical properties and constituents, including dissolved gases, major ions, nutrients, trace elements, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), radionuclides, and indicator bacteria. The Mohawk River Basin covers 3,500 square miles in New York and is underlain by shale, sandstone, carbonate, and crystalline bedrock. The bedrock is overlain by till in much of the basin, but surficial deposits of saturated sand and gravel are present in some areas. Nine of the wells sampled in the Mohawk River Basin are completed in sand and gravel deposits, and 12 are completed in bedrock. Groundwater in the Mohawk River Basin was typically neutral or slightly basic; the water typically was very hard. Bicarbonate, chloride, calcium, and sodium were the major ions with the greatest median concentrations; the dominant nutrient was nitrate. Methane was detected in 15 samples. Strontium, iron, barium, boron, and manganese were the trace elements with the highest median concentrations. Four pesticides, all herbicides or their degradates, were detected in four samples at trace levels; three VOCs, including chloroform and two solvents, were detected in four samples. The greatest radon-222 activity, 2,300 picocuries per liter, was measured in a sample from a bedrock well, but the median radon activity was higher in samples from sand and gravel wells than in samples from bedrock wells. Coliform bacteria were detected in five samples with a maximum of 92 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters. Water quality in the Mohawk River Basin is generally good, but concentrations of some constituents equaled or exceeded current or proposed Federal or New York State drinking-water standards. The standards

  1. Development of river flood model in lower reach of urbanized river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kouhei; Tajima, Yoshimitsu; Sanuki, Hiroshi; Shibuo, Yoshihiro; Sato, Shinji; Lee, SungAe; Furumai, Hiroaki; Koike, Toshio

    2014-05-01

    Japan, with its natural mountainous landscape, has demographic feature that population is concentrated in lower reach of elevation close to the coast, and therefore flood damage with large socio-economic value tends to occur in low-lying region. Modeling of river flood in such low-lying urbanized river basin is complex due to the following reasons. In upstream it has been experienced urbanization, which changed land covers from natural forest or agricultural fields to residential or industrial area. Hence rate of infiltration and runoff are quite different from natural hydrological settings. In downstream, paved covers and construct of sewerage system in urbanized areas affect direct discharges and it enhances higher and faster flood peak arrival. Also tidal effect from river mouth strongly affects water levels in rivers, which must be taken into account. We develop an integrated river flood model in lower reach of urbanized areas to be able to address above described complex feature, by integrating model components: LSM coupled distributed hydrological model that models anthropogenic influence on river discharges to downstream; urban hydrological model that simulates run off response in urbanized areas; Saint Venant's equation approximated river model that integrates upstream and urban hydrological models with considering tidal effect from downstream. These features are integrated in a common modeling framework so that model interaction can be directly performed. The model is applied to the Tsurumi river basin, urbanized low-lying river basin in Yokohama and model results show that it can simulate water levels in rivers with acceptable model errors. Furthermore the model is able to install miscellaneous water planning constructs, such as runoff reduction pond in urbanized area, flood control field along the river channel, levee, etc. This can be a useful tool to investigate cost performance of hypothetical water management plan against impact of climate change in

  2. Tritium in surface water of the Yenisei river Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondareva, L.G.; Bolsunovsky, A.Ya.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports an investigation of the tritium content in the surface waters of the Yenisei River basin near the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC). In 2001-2003 the maximum tritium concentration in the Yenisei River did not exceed 4±1 Bq/L. It has been found that there are surface waters containing enhanced tritium, up to 168 Bq/L, as compared with the background values for the Yenisei River. There are two possible sources of tritium input. First, the last operating reactor of the MCC, which still uses the Yenisei water as coolant. Second, tritium may come from the deep aquifers at the Severny testing site. For the first time tritium has been found in two aquatic plant species of the Yenisei River with maximal tritium concentration 304 Bq/Kg wet weight. Concentration factors of tritium for aquatic plants are much higher than 1

  3. A framework model for water-sharing among co-basin states of a river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, N. K.; Azad, Shambhu

    2018-05-01

    A new framework model is presented in this study for sharing of water in a river basin using certain governing variables, in an effort to enhance the objectivity for a reasonable and equitable allocation of water among co-basin states. The governing variables were normalised to reduce the governing variables of different co-basin states of a river basin on same scale. In the absence of objective methods for evaluating the weights to be assigned to co-basin states for water allocation, a framework was conceptualised and formulated to determine the normalised weighting factors of different co-basin states as a function of the governing variables. The water allocation to any co-basin state had been assumed to be proportional to its struggle for equity, which in turn was assumed to be a function of the normalised discontent, satisfaction, and weighting factors of each co-basin state. System dynamics was used effectively to represent and solve the proposed model formulation. The proposed model was successfully applied to the Vamsadhara river basin located in the South-Eastern part of India, and a sensitivity analysis of the proposed model parameters was carried out to prove its robustness in terms of the proposed model convergence and validity over the broad spectrum values of the proposed model parameters. The solution converged quickly to a final allocation of 1444 million cubic metre (MCM) in the case of the Odisha co-basin state, and to 1067 MCM for the Andhra Pradesh co-basin state. The sensitivity analysis showed that the proposed model's allocation varied from 1584 MCM to 1336 MCM for Odisha state and from 927 to 1175 MCM for Andhra, depending upon the importance weights given to the governing variables for the calculation of the weighting factors. Thus, the proposed model was found to be very flexible to explore various policy options to arrive at a decision in a water sharing problem. It can therefore be effectively applied to any trans-boundary problem where

  4. Ecosystem Services and Related Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disse, M.; Keilholz, P.; Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.

    2011-12-01

    Within the Taklimakan Desert of Northwestern China, an area renowned for its extreme climate and vulnerable ecosystems, lies one of the largest inland rivers in the world, the Tarim River. Because the Tarim River is located in a remote area from the oceans, rainfall is extremely rare (less than 50 mm per year) but potential evaporation is high (3000 mm). Thus, the major source of water discharge comes from snowmelt and glacier-melt in the mountains. Though the water discharge into the Tarim River has experienced an increase over the past ten years, global climate change forecasts predict this water supply to decline within the century. The Tarim River is the major source of water in Northwestern China, and has become the hub of many economic activities related to agriculture and urban life. Over the past 50 years increased activity in the area has led to a severe decline in river flow. Both human and natural ecosystems have been impacted by water diversions. Since rainfall is rare, the majority of vegetation in this area depends solely on groundwater for survival, and plants are experiencing stress caused by decreasing groundwater levels. Recently nearby cities have experienced severe dust storms caused by the shrinking of the vegetative region along the river. SuMaRiO (Sustainable Management of River Oases) is a bundle project between Germany and China working to contribute to a sustainable land management which explicitly takes into account ecosystem functions (ESF) and ecosystem services (ESS). In a transdisciplinary research process, SuMaRiO will identify realizable management strategies, considering social, economic and ecological criteria. SuMaRiO is developing tools to work with Chinese decision makers to implement sustainable land management strategies. In addition, research is being conducted to estimate climate change impacts, floodplain biodiversity, and water runoff characteristics. The overarching goal of SuMaRiO is to support oasis management along

  5. Coho Salmon Master Plan, Clearwater River Basin.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe; FishPro

    2004-10-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe has a desire and a goal to reintroduce and restore coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin at levels of abundance and productivity sufficient to support sustainable runs and annual harvest. Consistent with the Clearwater Subbasin Plan (EcoVista 2003), the Nez Perce Tribe envisions developing an annual escapement of 14,000 coho salmon to the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1994, the Nez Perce Tribe began coho reintroduction by securing eggs through U.S. v. Oregon; by 1998 this agreement provided an annual transfer of 550,000 coho salmon smolts from lower Columbia River hatchery facilities for release in the Clearwater River Subbasin. In 1998, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council authorized the Bonneville Power Administration to fund the development of a Master Plan to guide this reintroduction effort. This Master Plan describes the results of experimental releases of coho salmon in the Clearwater River Subbasin, which have been ongoing since 1995. These data are combined with results of recent coho reintroduction efforts by the Yakama Nation, general coho life history information, and historical information regarding the distribution and life history of Snake River coho salmon. This information is used to assess a number of alternative strategies aimed at restoring coho salmon to historical habitats in the Clearwater River subbasin. These data suggest that there is a high probability that coho salmon can be restored to the Clearwater River subbasin. In addition, the data also suggest that the re-establishment of coho salmon could be substantially aided by: (1) the construction of low-tech acclimation facilities; (2) the establishment of a 'localized' stock of coho salmon; and (3) the construction of hatchery facilities to provide a source of juvenile coho salmon for future supplementation activities. The Nez Perce Tribe recognizes that there are factors which may limit the success of coho reintroduction. As a result of these

  6. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  7. River and Reservoir Operations Model, Truckee River basin, California and Nevada, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berris, Steven N.; Hess, Glen W.; Bohman, Larry R.

    2001-01-01

    The demand for all uses of water in the Truckee River Basin, California and Nevada, commonly is greater than can be supplied. Storage reservoirs in the system have a maximum effective total capacity equivalent to less than two years of average river flows, so longer-term droughts can result in substantial water-supply shortages for irrigation and municipal users and may stress fish and wildlife ecosystems. Title II of Public Law (P.L.) 101-618, the Truckee?Carson?Pyramid Lake Water Rights Settlement Act of 1990, provides a foundation for negotiating and developing operating criteria, known as the Truckee River Operating Agreement (TROA), to balance interstate and interbasin allocation of water rights among the many interests competing for water from the Truckee River. In addition to TROA, the Truckee River Water Quality Settlement Agreement (WQSA), signed in 1996, provides for acquisition of water rights to resolve water-quality problems during low flows along the Truckee River in Nevada. Efficient execution of many of the planning, management, or environmental assessment requirements of TROA and WQSA will require detailed water-resources data coupled with sound analytical tools. Analytical modeling tools constructed and evaluated with such data could help assess effects of alternative operational scenarios related to reservoir and river operations, water-rights transfers, and changes in irrigation practices. The Truckee?Carson Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, to support U.S. Department of the Interior implementation of P.L. 101-618, is developing a modeling system to support efficient water-resources planning, management, and allocation. The daily operations model documented herein is a part of the modeling system that includes a database management program, a graphical user interface program, and a program with modules that simulate river/reservoir operations and a variety of hydrologic processes. The operations module is capable of simulating lake

  8. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  9. Determination of aquifer roof extending under the sea from variable-density flow modelling of groundwater response to tidal loading: case study of the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianmei; Chen, Chongxi; Ji, Menrui

    The main task of studies on salt-water intrusion into coastal confined aquifers is to predict the position of the fresh- salt-water interface, which can be determined from the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea. Records of groundwater level affected by tides can be used to infer hydrological conditions and determine hydraulic parameters of an aquifer extending under the sea. In this paper, a three-dimensional, variable-density groundwater flow model has been developed to determine the equivalent roof length of an aquifer extending under the sea from the tidal-effected data of groundwater level in the Jahe River Basin, Shandong Province, China. The seaward boundary is obtained by converging hydraulic head fluctuations observed in drill holes with calculated values, and the aquifer parameters in the extending zone are estimated. The impacts of aquifer roof length and aquifer parameters on the fluctuation of tidal groundwater are studied. It is concluded that the length of the aquifer roof extending under the sea should correspond with certain aquifer parameters in the extrapolation zone. Therefore, the seaward boundary determined from tidal-effect information is the equivalent boundary in hydrodynamic characteristics rather than the true boundary of the confined aquifer Les sujets principaux des études d'instrusion saline dans les aquifères confinés en zone côtière sont la prédiction de la position de l'interface entre l'eau salée et l'eau fraîche, qui peut être déterminée à partir de l'extention du toit de l'aquifère sous la mer. Les enregistrements des niveaux des eaux souterraines influencés par les marées peuvent être utilisés pour préciser les conditions hydrologiques et déterminer les paramètres hydrauliques d'un aquifère possédant une extension sous la mer. Dans cet article, un modèle tridimensionnel comprenant des eaux souterraines de densité variable a été développé pour déterminer la longueur équivalente du toit

  10. Variation of Probable Maximum Precipitation in Brazos River Basin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, N.; Singh, V. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Brazos River basin, the second-largest river basin by area in Texas, generates the highest amount of flow volume of any river in a given year in Texas. With its headwaters located at the confluence of Double Mountain and Salt forks in Stonewall County, the third-longest flowline of the Brazos River traverses within narrow valleys in the area of rolling topography of west Texas, and flows through rugged terrains in mainly featureless plains of central Texas, before its confluence with Gulf of Mexico. Along its major flow network, the river basin covers six different climate regions characterized on the basis of similar attributes of vegetation, temperature, humidity, rainfall, and seasonal weather changes, by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Our previous research on Texas climatology illustrated intensified precipitation regimes, which tend to result in extreme flood events. Such events have caused huge losses of lives and infrastructure in the Brazos River basin. Therefore, a region-specific investigation is required for analyzing precipitation regimes along the geographically-diverse river network. Owing to the topographical and hydroclimatological variations along the flow network, 24-hour Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) was estimated for different hydrologic units along the river network, using the revised Hershfield's method devised by Lan et al. (2017). The method incorporates the use of a standardized variable describing the maximum deviation from the average of a sample scaled by the standard deviation of the sample. The hydrometeorological literature identifies this method as more reasonable and consistent with the frequency equation. With respect to the calculation of stable data size required for statistically reliable results, this study also quantified the respective uncertainty associated with PMP values in different hydrologic units. The corresponding range of return periods of PMPs in different hydrologic units was

  11. Environment and society: the Sinos River Basin and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Pedde

    Full Text Available This study discusses the tensions and conflicts in the relationship between environment and society in the Sinos River Basin, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. An environmental disaster in 2006, which resulted in the death of 100 tons of fish in the Sinos River, is the dividing line for this study. A review of documents and field interviews with representatives of the municipal government and companies in the region were used to analyze the impact of public policies on the environment and which deficiencies remain11We thank Malcon Naor Voltz and Ana Arnoldo, undergraduate research grant holders, for their participation in data collection for this study..

  12. How different institutional arrangements promote integrated river basin management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Frederiksen, Pia; Saarikoski, Heli

    2013-01-01

    Management Planning processes in six countries around the Baltic Sea. We use theories on multi-level governance, regime interplay and institutional effectiveness. We find that, in most cases, central governments have played a dominant role in the formulation of river basin management plans, while local......, member states must therefore address both the roles of different institutional actors and the interplay among institutions. In this paper, we will explore strengths and weaknesses of different institutional arrangements for integrated water management through a comparative analysis of River Basin...... influence has been somewhat limited. The tight procedural deadlines of the di-rective appear to have pushed for more centralisation than originally intended by the countries. But the analysis also shows that interplay mechanisms such as norms, ideas and incentives do promote effective institutional...

  13. Pechora River basin integrated system management PRISM; biodiversity assessment for the Pechora River basin; Cluster B: biodiversity, land use & forestry modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the biodiversity for the Pechora River basin Integrated System Management (PRISM). The Pechora River Basin, situated just west of the Ural Mountains, Russia, consists of vast boreal forests and tundra landscapes, partly pristine and undisturbed. The concept of biodiversity is

  14. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  15. Integrated waste load allocation for river water pollution control under uncertainty: a case study of Tuojiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Hou, Shuhua; Yao, Liming; Li, Chaozhi

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a bi-level optimization waste load allocation programming model under a fuzzy random environment to assist integrated river pollution control. Taking account of the leader-follower decision-making in the water function zones framework, the proposed approach examines the decision making feedback relationships and conflict coordination between the river basin authority and the regional Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based on the Stackelberg-Nash equilibrium strategy. In the pollution control system, the river basin authority, as the leader, allocates equitable emissions rights to different subareas, and the then subarea EPA, as the followers, reallocates the limited resources to various functional zones to minimize pollution costs. This research also considers the uncertainty in the water pollution management, and the uncertain input information is expressed as fuzzy random variables. The proposed methodological approach is then applied to Tuojiang River in China and the bi-level linear programming model solutions are achieved using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker condition. Based on the waste load allocation scheme results and various scenario analyses and discussion, some operational policies are proposed to assist decision makers (DMs) cope with waste load allocation problem for integrated river pollution control for the overall benefits.

  16. UV filters bioaccumulation in fish from Iberian river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2015-06-15

    The occurrence of eight organic UV filters (UV-Fs) was assessed in fish from four Iberian river basins. This group of compounds is extensively used in cosmetic products and other industrial goods to avoid the damaging effects of UV radiation, and has been found to be ubiquitous contaminants in the aquatic ecosystem. In particular, fish are considered by the scientific community to be the most feasible organism for contamination monitoring in aquatic ecosystems. Despite that, studies on the bioaccumulation of UV-F are scarce. In this study fish samples from four Iberian river basins under high anthropogenic pressure were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Benzophenone-3 (BP3), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4MBC) and octocrylene (OC) were the predominant pollutants in the fish samples, with concentrations in the range of ng/g dry weight (d.w.). The results indicated that most polluted area corresponded to Guadalquivir River basin, where maximum concentrations were found for EHMC (241.7 ng/gd.w.). Sediments from this river basin were also analysed. Lower values were observed in relation to fish for OC and EHMC, ranging from below the limits of detection to 23 ng/gd.w. Accumulation levels of UV-F in the fish were used to calculate biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs). These values were always below 1, in the range of 0.04-0.3, indicating that the target UV-Fs are excreted by fish only to some extent. The fact that the highest concentrations were determined in predators suggests that biomagnification of UV-F may take place along the freshwater food web. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Kankakee River Basin: Evaluation of Sediment Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    basin, and development of a SIAM model from an existing US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center, River Analysis System ( HEC - RAS ...4 SIAM Model A SIAM model was developed from an existing calibrated HEC - RAS model provided by the Rock Island District. The limits of the HEC - RAS ...model are shown in Figure 4.1. No further effort was made to verify the calibration of the HEC - RAS model. The estimated sediment loads were used to

  18. Mercury pollution in the Upper Beni River, Amazonian basin : Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Quiroga, I.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Malm, O.

    1999-01-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small-scale gold mining is an environmental problem of increasing concern, particularly in tropical regions like the Amazon, where a new boom of such gold mining started in the 1970s. In Brazil, research into these problems has been carried out for many years, but there is no available data for Bolivia. The present paper surveys mercury contamination of a Bolivian river system in the Amazon drainage basin, measured in water, fish, an...

  19. Spatial heterogeneity study of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Zhong, Bo; Guo, Liyu; Zhao, Xiangwei

    2014-11-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the animal-landscape system has three major components: heterogeneity of resource distributions in the physical environment, heterogeneity of plant tissue chemistry, heterogeneity of movement modes by the animal. Furthermore, all three different types of heterogeneity interact each other and can either reinforce or offset one another, thereby affecting system stability and dynamics. In previous studies, the study areas are investigated by field sampling, which costs a large amount of manpower. In addition, uncertain in sampling affects the quality of field data, which leads to unsatisfactory results during the entire study. In this study, remote sensing data is used to guide the sampling for research on heterogeneity of vegetation coverage to avoid errors caused by randomness of field sampling. Semi-variance and fractal dimension analysis are used to analyze the spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin. The spherical model with nugget is used to fit the semivariogram of vegetation coverage. Based on the experiment above, it is found, (1)there is a strong correlation between vegetation coverage and distance of vegetation populations within the range of 0-28051.3188m at Heihe River Basin, but the correlation loses suddenly when the distance greater than 28051.3188m. (2)The degree of spatial heterogeneity of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium. (3)Spatial distribution variability of vegetation occurs mainly on small scales. (4)The degree of spatial autocorrelation is 72.29% between 25% and 75%, which means that spatial correlation of vegetation coverage at Heihe River Basin is medium high.

  20. Arima modelling of annual rainfalls in the Bregalnica River basin

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanovski, Vlatko; Delipetrov, Todor

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the hydrological characteristics have an impact on the environment. The reasons for the impact in the Bregalnica river basin are heavy rains and long droughts. Monitoring the undenstanding of hydrological impacts may provide useful assessment ingand forecast in several fields. This paper analysis hydrological processes, and offeres data processing of the monitor with ARIMA Modelling in STATISTICA packet like good techniques for estimation forecast of the hydrological caracterist...

  1. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabos, S.

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Water resources in the Blackstone River basin, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eugene H.; Krejmas, Bruce E.

    1983-01-01

    The Blackstone River heads in brooks 6 miles northwest of Worcester and drains about 330 square miles of central Massachusetts before crossing into Rhode Island at Woonsocket. The primary source of the Worcester water supply is reservoirs, but for the remaining 23 communities in the basin, the primary source is wells. Bedrock consists of granitic and metamorphic rocks. Till mantles the uplands and extends beneath stratified drift in the valleys. Stratified glacial drift, consisting of clay, silt, and fine sand deposited in lakes and coarse-textured sand and gravel deposited by streams, is found in lowlands and valleys. The bedrock aquifer is capable of sustaining rural domestic supplies throughout the Blackstone River basin. Bedrock wells yield an average of 10 gallons per minute, but some wells, especially those in lowlands where bedrock probably contains more fractures and receives more recharge than in the upland areas, yield as much as 100 gallons per minute. Glacial sand and gravel is the principal aquifer. It is capable of sustaining municipal supplies. Average daily pumpage from this aquifer in the Blackstone River basin was 10.4 million gallons per day in 1978. The median yield of large-diameter wells in the aquifer is 325 gallons per minute. The range of yields from these wells is 45 to 3,300 gallons per minute. The median specific capacity is about 30 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown.

  3. Northern Rivers Basins human health monitoring program : report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabos, S. [Alberta Health, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Health Surveillance

    1999-04-01

    The Northern River Basins Human Health Monitoring Program was established in 1994 to investigate the possible relationships between various environmental risk factors and the health of northern residents in the province. This report presents the initial analysis of the health program and examines the differences in health outcomes across the province and compares the Northern Rivers Basin Study (NRBS) area with the other areas of the province. A series of maps and graphs showed the prevalence of certain diseases and disorders within the Peace and Athabasca river basins. The focus of the report was on reproductive health, congenital anomalies, respiratory ailments, circulatory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine and metabolic disorders, and neurocognitive disorders. The study showed that compared to other areas of the province, the NRBS area had higher incidences of endometriosis, selected congenital anomalies, bronchitis, pneumonia, peptic ulcers and epilepsy. There were three potential exposure pathways to environmental contaminants. These were through ingestion of water or food, inhalation of air and through dermal exposure. refs., tabs., figs.

  4. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the San Miguel River basin, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, D.J.; Rush, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    The San Miguel River Basin encompasses 4,130 square kilometers of which about two-thirds is in the southeastern part of the Paradox Basin. The Paradox Basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Evaporite beds of mostly salt are both overlain and underlain by confining beds. Aquifers are present above and below the confining-bed sequence. The principal element of ground-water outflow from the upper aquifer is flow to the San Miguel River and its tributaries; this averages about 90 million cubic meters per year. A water budget for the lower aquifer has only two equal, unestimated elements, subsurface outflow and recharge from precipitation. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. No brines have been sampled and no brine discharges have been identified in the basin. Salt water has been reported for petroleum-exploration wells, but no active salt solution has been identified. (USGS)

  5. Sustainable Land Management in the Lim River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, Gordana; Petkovic, Sava; Tatomir, Uros

    2017-04-01

    In the cross-border belt between Serbia and Montenegro are located more than one hundred torrential water flows that belong to the Lim River Basin. Under extreme climate events they turned into floods of destructive power and great energy causing enormous damage on the environment and socio-economic development in the wider region of the Western Balkans. In addition, anthropogenic factors influence the land instability, erosion of river beds and loss of topsoil. Consequently, this whole area is affected by pluvial and fluvial erosion of various types and intensity. Terrain on the slopes over 5% is affected by intensive degree of erosion, while strong to medium degree covers 70% of the area. Moreover, in the Lim River Basin were built several hydro-energetic systems and accumulations which may to a certain extent successfully regulate the water regime downstream and to reduce the negative impact on the processes of water erosion. However, siltation of accumulation reduces their useful volume and threatens the basic functions (water reservoirs), especially those ones for water supply, irrigation and energy production that have lost a significant part of the usable volume due to accumulated sediments. Facing the negative impacts of climate change and human activities on the process of land degradation in the Lim River basin imposes urgent need of adequate preventive and protective measures at the local and regional level, which can be effectively applied only through enhanced cross-border cooperation among affected communities in the region. The following set of activities were analyzed to improve the actual management of river catchment: Identifying priorities in the spatial planning, land use and water resources management while respecting the needs of local people and the communities in the cross border region; development of cooperation and partnership between the local population, owners and users of real estate (pastures, agricultural land, forests, fisheries

  6. Evolution of the vegetation system in the Heihe River basin in the last 2000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The response of vegetation systems to the long-term changes in climate, hydrology, and social–economic conditions in river basins is critical for sustainable river basin management. This study aims to investigate the evolution of natural and crop vegetation systems in the Heihe River basin (HRB over the past 2000 years. Archived Landsat images, historical land use maps and hydrological records were introduced to derive the long-term spatial distribution of natural and crop vegetation and the corresponding biomass levels. The major findings are that (1 both natural and crop vegetation experienced three development stages: a pre-development stage (before the Republic of China, a rapid development stage (Republic of China – 2000, and a post-development stage (after 2000. Climate and hydrological conditions did not show significant impacts over crop vegetation, while streamflow presented synchronous changes with natural vegetation in the first stage. For the second stage, warmer temperature and increasing streamflow were found to be important factors for the increase in both natural and crop vegetation in the middle reaches of the HRB. For the third stage, positive climate and hydrological conditions, together with policy interventions, supported the overall vegetation increase in both the middle and lower HRB; (2 there was a significantly faster increase in crop biomass than that of native vegetation since 1949, which could be explained by the technological development; and (3 the ratio of natural vegetation to crop vegetation decreased from 16 during the Yuan Dynasty to about 2.2 since 2005. This ratio reflects the reaction of land and water development to a changing climate and altering social–economic conditions at the river basin level; therefore, it could be used as an indicator of water and land management at river basins.

  7. Range extension of Moenkhausia oligolepis (Günther,1864 to the Pindaré river drainage, of Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin of northeastern Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Cristofore Guimarães

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports range extansion of Moenkhausia oligolepis to the Pindaré river drainage, of the Mearim river basin, and Itapecuru river basin, Maranhão state, northeastern Brazil. This species was previously known only from Venezuela, Guianas, and the Amazon River basins. In addition, we present some meristic and morphometric data of the specimens herein examined and discuss on its diagnostic characters.

  8. Development of streamflow projections under changing climate conditions over Colorado River basin headwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Miller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The current drought over the Colorado River Basin has raised concerns that the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation may impose water shortages over the lower portion of the basin for the first time in history. The guidelines that determine levels of shortage are affected by relatively short-term (3 to 7 month forecasts determined by the Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC using the National Weather Service (NWS River Forecasting System (RFS hydrologic model. While these forecasts by the CBRFC are useful, water managers within the basin are interested in long-term projections of streamflow, particularly under changing climate conditions. In this study, a bias-corrected, statistically downscaled dataset of projected climate is used to force the NWS RFS utilized by the CBRFC to derive projections of streamflow over the Green, Gunnison, and San Juan River headwater basins located within the Colorado River Basin. This study evaluates the impact of changing climate to evapotranspiration rates and contributes to a better understanding of how hydrologic processes change under varying climate conditions. The impact to evapotranspiration rates is taken into consideration and incorporated into the development of streamflow projections over Colorado River headwater basins in this study. Additionally, the NWS RFS is modified to account for impacts to evapotranspiration due to changing temperature over the basin. Adjusting evapotranspiration demands resulted in a 6 % to 13 % average decrease in runoff over the Gunnison River Basin when compared to static evapotranspiration rates. Streamflow projections derived using projections of future climate and the NWS RFS provided by the CBRFC resulted in decreased runoff in 2 of the 3 basins considered. Over the Gunnison and San Juan River basins, a 10 % to 15 % average decrease in basin runoff is projected through the year 2099. However, over the Green River basin, a 5 % to 8

  9. THE CONFLUENCE RATIO OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN BASIN RIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞIAN GH.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many possibilities to assess the hydrological and geomorphological evolution of a territory. Among them, one remarks the confluence ratio of the rivers belonging to different catchment areas. The values of this indicator may provide information regarding the stage of evolution of the fluvial landforms in the Transylvanian Basin. Also, the values may serve for the calculation of other parameters of catchment areas like: the degree of finishing of the drainage basin for its corresponding order, the density of river segments within a catchment area etc. To calculate the confluence ratio, 35 catchment areas of different orders have been selected. The confluence ratio varies between 3.04 and 6.07. The large range of values demonstrates the existence of a heterogeneous lithology and of morphological and hydrographical contrasts from one catchment area to the other. The existence of values above 5, correlated also with observations in the field, reveals an accelerated dynamics of the geomorphological processes in those catchment areas. This dynamic is mainly supported by the high landform fragmentation due to the first order rivers. In contrast, the catchment areas that have a confluence ratio below 5 are in a more advanced stage of evolution with stable slopes, unable to initiate new first order river segments.

  10. Columbia River basin fish and wildlife program strategy for salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruff, J.; Fazio, J.

    1993-01-01

    Three species of Snake River salmon have been listed as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act. In response, the Northwest Power Planning Council worked with the states of Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington, Indian tribes, federal agencies and interest groups to address the status of Snake River salmon runs in a forum known as the Salmon Summit. The Summit met in 1990 and 1991 and reached agreement on specific, short-term actions. When the Summit disbanded in April 1991, responsibility for developing a regional recovery plan for salmon shifted to the Council. The Council responded with a four-phased process of amending its Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The first three phases. completed in September 1992, pertain to salmon and steelhead. Phase four, scheduled for completion in October 1993, will take up issues of resident fish and wildlife. This paper deals with the first three phases, collectively known as Strategy for Salmon

  11. The Role of Forests in Regulating the River Flow Regime of Large Basins of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, J. F.; Villegas, J. C.; Mercado-Bettin, D. A.; Rodríguez, E.

    2017-12-01

    Many natural and social phenomena depend on river flow regimes that are being altered by global change. Understanding the mechanisms behind such alterations is crucial for predicting river flow regimes in a changing environment. Here we explore potential linkages between the presence of forests and the capacity of river basins for regulating river flows. Regulation is defined here as the capacity of river basins to attenuate the amplitude of the river flow regime, that is to reduce the difference between high and low flows. We first use scaling theory to show how scaling properties of observed river flows can be used to classify river basins as regulated or unregulated. This parsimonious classification is based on a physical interpretation of the scaling properties (particularly the scaling exponents) that is novel (most previous studies have focused on the interpretation of the scaling exponents for floods only), and widely-applicable to different basins (the only assumption is that river flows in a given river basin exhibit scaling properties through well-known power laws). Then we show how this scaling framework can be used to explore global-change-induced temporal variations in the regulation capacity of river basins. Finally, we propose a conceptual hypothesis (the "Forest reservoir concept") to explain how large-scale forests can exert important effects on the long-term water balance partitioning and regulation capacity of large basins of the world. Our quantitative results are based on data analysis (river flows and land cover features) from 22 large basins of the world, with emphasis in the Amazon river and its main tributaries. Collectively, our findings support the hypothesis that forest cover enhances the capacity of large river basins to maintain relatively high mean river flows, as well as to regulate (ameliorate) extreme river flows. Advancing towards this quantitative understanding of the relation between forest cover and river flow regimes is

  12. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE R REACTOR DISASSEMBLY BASIN IN SITU DECOMMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Blankenship, J.; Griffin, W.; Serrato, M.

    2009-12-03

    The US DOE concept for facility in-situ decommissioning (ISD) is to physically stabilize and isolate in tact, structurally sound facilities that are no longer needed for their original purpose of, i.e., generating (reactor facilities), processing(isotope separation facilities) or storing radioactive materials. The 105-R Disassembly Basin is the first SRS reactor facility to undergo the in-situ decommissioning (ISD) process. This ISD process complies with the105-R Disassembly Basin project strategy as outlined in the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis for the Grouting of the R-Reactor Disassembly Basin at the Savannah River Site and includes: (1) Managing residual water by solidification in-place or evaporation at another facility; (2) Filling the below grade portion of the basin with cementitious materials to physically stabilize the basin and prevent collapse of the final cap - Sludge and debris in the bottom few feet of the basin will be encapsulated between the basin floor and overlying fill material to isolate if from the environment; (3) Demolishing the above grade portion of the structure and relocating the resulting debris to another location or disposing of the debris in-place; and (4) Capping the basin area with a concrete slab which is part of an engineered cap to prevent inadvertent intrusion. The estimated total grout volume to fill the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin is 24,424 cubic meters or 31,945 cubic yards. Portland cement-based structural fill materials were design and tested for the reactor ISD project and a placement strategy for stabilizing the basin was developed. Based on structural engineering analyses and work flow considerations, the recommended maximum lift height is 5 feet with 24 hours between lifts. Pertinent data and information related to the SRS 105-R-Reactor Disassembly Basin in-situ decommissioning include: regulatory documentation, residual water management, area preparation activities, technology needs, fill material designs

  13. Climate-driven disturbances in the San Juan River sub-basin of the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Katrina E.; Bohn, Theodore J.; Solander, Kurt; McDowell, Nathan G.; Xu, Chonggang; Vivoni, Enrique; Middleton, Richard S.

    2018-01-01

    Accelerated climate change and associated forest disturbances in the southwestern USA are anticipated to have substantial impacts on regional water resources. Few studies have quantified the impact of both climate change and land cover disturbances on water balances on the basin scale, and none on the regional scale. In this work, we evaluate the impacts of forest disturbances and climate change on a headwater basin to the Colorado River, the San Juan River watershed, using a robustly calibrated (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency 0.76) hydrologic model run with updated formulations that improve estimates of evapotranspiration for semi-arid regions. Our results show that future disturbances will have a substantial impact on streamflow with implications for water resource management. Our findings are in contradiction with conventional thinking that forest disturbances reduce evapotranspiration and increase streamflow. In this study, annual average regional streamflow under the coupled climate-disturbance scenarios is at least 6-11 % lower than those scenarios accounting for climate change alone; for forested zones of the San Juan River basin, streamflow is 15-21 % lower. The monthly signals of altered streamflow point to an emergent streamflow pattern related to changes in forests of the disturbed systems. Exacerbated reductions of mean and low flows under disturbance scenarios indicate a high risk of low water availability for forested headwater systems of the Colorado River basin. These findings also indicate that explicit representation of land cover disturbances is required in modeling efforts that consider the impact of climate change on water resources.

  14. Forecasting the Amount of Waste-Sewage Water Discharged into the Yangtze River Basin Based on the Optimal Fractional Order Grey Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuliang; Meng, Wei; Xie, Yufeng

    2017-12-23

    With the rapid development of the Yangtze River economic belt, the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into the Yangtze River basin increases sharply year by year, which has impeded the sustainable development of the Yangtze River basin. The water security along the Yangtze River basin is very important for China, It is something aboutwater security of roughly one-third of China's population and the sustainable development of the 19 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions among the Yangtze River basin. Therefore, a scientific prediction of the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into Yangtze River basin has a positive significance on sustainable development of industry belt along with Yangtze River basin. This paper builds the fractional DWSGM(1,1)(DWSGM(1,1) model is short for Discharge amount of Waste Sewage Grey Model for one order equation and one variable) model based on the fractional accumulating generation operator and fractional reducing operator, and calculates the optimal order of "r" by using particle swarm optimization(PSO)algorithm for solving the minimum average relative simulation error. Meanwhile, the simulation performance of DWSGM(1,1)model with the optimal fractional order is tested by comparing the simulation results of grey prediction models with different orders. Finally, the optimal fractional order DWSGM(1,1)grey model is applied to predict the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into the Yangtze River basin, and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward through analyzing and comparing the prediction results. This paper has positive significance on enriching the fractional order modeling method of the grey system.

  15. Framework for Assessing Water Resource Sustainability in River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, J.; Goodwin, P.; Swanson, D.

    2013-12-01

    As the anthropogenic footprint increases on Earth, the wise use, maintenance, and protection of freshwater resources will be a key element in the sustainability of development. Borne from efforts to promote sustainable development of water resources is Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM), which promotes efficiency of water resources, equity in water allocation across different social and economic groups, and environmental sustainability. Methodologies supporting IWRM implementation have largely focused on the overall process, but have had limited attention on the evaluation methods for ecologic, economic, and social conditions (the sustainability criterion). Thus, assessment frameworks are needed to support the analysis of water resources and evaluation of sustainable solutions in the IWRM process. To address this need, the River Basin Analysis Framework (RBAF) provides a structure for understanding water related issues and testing the sustainability of proposed solutions in river basins. The RBAF merges three approaches: the UN GEO 4 DPSIR approach, the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment approach, and the principles of sustainable development. Merging these approaches enables users to understand the spatiotemporal interactions between the hydrologic and ecologic systems, evaluate the impacts of disturbances (drivers, pressures) on the ecosystem goods and services (EGS) and constituents of human well-being (HWB), and identify and employ analyt