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Sample records for river analysis bergan

  1. Buck Creek River Flow Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapala, Yasas; George, Elizabeth; Ritter, John

    2009-04-01

    Buck Creek flowing through Springfield Ohio has a number of low-head dams currently in place that cause safety issues and sometimes make it impossible for recreational boaters to pass through. The safety issues include the back eddies created by the dams that are known as drowning machines and the hydraulic jumps. In this study we are modeling the flow of Buck Creek using topographical and flow data provided by the Geology Department of Wittenberg University. The flow is analyzed using Hydraulic Engineering Center - River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS). As the first step a model of the river near Snyder Park has been created with the current structure in place for validation purposes. Afterwards the low-head dam is replaced with four drop structures with V-notch overflow gates. The river bed is altered to reflect plunge pools after each drop structure. This analysis will provide insight to how the flow is going to behave after the changes are made. In addition a sediment transport analysis is also being conducted to provide information about the stability of these structures.

  2. Hydrological River Drought Analysis (Case Study: Lake Urmia Basin Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nazeri Tahrudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drought from the hydrological viewpoint is a continuation of the meteorological drought that cause of the lack of surface water such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and groundwater resources. This analysis, which is generally on the surface streams, reservoirs, lakes and groundwater, takes place as hydrological drought considered and studied. So the data on the quantity of flow of the rivers in this study is of fundamental importance. This data are included, level, flow, river flow is no term (5. Overall the hydrological drought studies are focused on annual discharges, maximum annual discharge or minimum discharge period. The most importance of this analysis is periodically during the course of the analysis remains a certain threshold and subthresholdrunoff volume fraction has created. In situations where water for irrigation or water of a river without any reservoir, is not adequate, the minimum flow analysis, the most important factor to be considered (4. The aim of this study is evaluatingthe statistical distributions of drought volume rivers data from the Urmia Lake’s rivers and its return period. Materials and Methods: Urmia Lake is a biggest and saltiest continued lake in Iran. The Lake Urmia basin is one of the most important basins in Iran region which is located in the North West of Iran. With an extent of 52700 square kilometers and an area equivalent to 3.21% of the total area of the country, This basin is located between the circuit of 35 degrees 40 minutes to 38 degrees 29 minutes north latitude and the meridian of 44 degrees 13 minutes to 47 degrees 53 minutes east longitude. In this study used the daily discharge data (m3s-1 of Urmia Lake Rivers. Extraction of river drought volume The drought durations were extracted from the daily discharge of 13 studied stations. The first mean year was calculated for each 365 days using the Eq 1 (14. (1 (For i=1,2,3,…,365 That Ki is aith mean year, Yijis ith day discharge in jth

  3. Columbia River Component Data Gap Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. C. Hulstrom

    2007-10-23

    This Data Gap Analysis report documents the results of a study conducted by Washington Closure Hanford (WCH) to compile and reivew the currently available surface water and sediment data for the Columbia River near and downstream of the Hanford Site. This Data Gap Analysis study was conducted to review the adequacy of the existing surface water and sediment data set from the Columbia River, with specific reference to the use of the data in future site characterization and screening level risk assessments.

  4. Multielement analysis of water in Yodo River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Matsuda, Yatsuka

    1980-01-01

    Yodo River is a major source of water supplies in the Osaka district. Three tributaries including Katsura River flow into this river at close positions. It is known that the Katsura River is considerably polluted due to the sewage treatment in Kyoto City. Following the previous survey in September, 1970, a similar survey by neutron activation has been carried out on the pollution of the Yodo River in October, 1977, by increasing the number of sampling points. Because it is reported that the pollution of the Katsura River has been largely lowered from that in the previous survey, the purpose was to grasp the present situation of the water pollution of the Yodo River due to metal elemens and others, and further to examine in relation of material balance. The procedures used were, first, the evaporation and solidification of sample water, and then neutron activation analysis. The correlation among the concentrations of elements, the pattern of the concentrations of elements, the material balance along the Yodo River, etc. are described in this paper. (J.P.N.)

  5. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  6. River Data Package for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2004-08-01

    Beginning in fiscal year 2003, the DOE Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support the 2004 Composite Analysis. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River.

  7. Habitat Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  8. Geomorphic Analysis - Trinity River Restoration Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Trinity River project is to identify the potential positive effects of large-scale restoration actions in a 63 kilometer reach of the Trinity River...

  9. Nonlinear analysis of river flow time sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porporato, Amilcare; Ridolfi, Luca

    1997-06-01

    Within the field of chaos theory several methods for the analysis of complex dynamical systems have recently been proposed. In light of these ideas we study the dynamics which control the behavior over time of river flow, investigating the existence of a low-dimension deterministic component. The present article follows the research undertaken in the work of Porporato and Ridolfi [1996a] in which some clues as to the existence of chaos were collected. Particular emphasis is given here to the problem of noise and to nonlinear prediction. With regard to the latter, the benefits obtainable by means of the interpolation of the available time series are reported and the remarkable predictive results attained with this nonlinear method are shown.

  10. Analysis of Cruise Tourism on Croatian Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Zekić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cruise trips have been rising in popularity since the 1970sand are currently a trend in the tourism market. This is particularly true of river cruises, which record a constant growth in the number of ship calls. The general upward trend in the number of river cruise passengers and dockings is also present in Croatia. Prerequisites for the development of cruising on Croatian rivers include, in addition to other geographical features, also the length of navigable water ways, but a systematic approach to this issue is needed for further development. The authors investigate the level of development of infrastructure on Croatian rivers and analyse the passenger and ship traffic on them. Special attention is given to the importance of cruises for tourism on European rivers and worldwide. In accordance with the Croatian Tourism Development Strategy until 2020, the authors explore geographical and other conditions necessary for the development of river cruise tourism. The aim of the paper is to point to the importance of building infrastructure for accommodation of vessels sailing on Croatian rivers, and in particular to the need to improve tourism offer in river destinations.

  11. The analysis of Stability reliability of Qian Tang River seawall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Xiong

    2017-11-01

    Qiantang River seawall due to high water soaking pond by foreshore scour, encountered during the low tide prone slope overall instability. Considering the seawall beach scour in front of random change, using the simplified Bishop method, combined with the variability of soil mechanics parameters, calculation and analysis of Qiantang River Xiasha seawall segments of the overall stability.

  12. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination using river sediment cores of Nankan River, northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, An-Sheng; Lu, Wei-Li; Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Chang, Queenie; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Lin, Chin-Jung; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Through the geology and climate characteristic in Taiwan, generally rivers carry a lot of suspended particles. After these particles settled, they become sediments which are good sorbent for heavy metals in river system. Consequently, sediments can be found recording contamination footprint at low flow energy region, such as estuary. Seven sediment cores were collected along Nankan River, northern Taiwan, which is seriously contaminated by factory, household and agriculture input. Physico-chemical properties of these cores were derived from Itrax-XRF Core Scanner and grain size analysis. In order to interpret these complex data matrices, the multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis) were introduced to this study. Through the statistical determination, the result indicates four types of sediment. One of them represents contamination event which shows high concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe, and low concentration of Si and Zr. Furthermore, three possible contamination sources of this type of sediment were revealed by Factor Analysis. The combination of sediment analysis and multivariate statistical techniques used provides new insights into the contamination depositional history of Nankan River and could be similarly applied to other river systems to determine the scale of anthropogenic contamination.

  13. Comparative analysis of the shape of the perch from Techa river and Miass river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, D.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine - URCRM (Russian Federation); Rudolfsen, G. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA) and University of Tromsoe (Norway); Yegoreichenkov, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The adaptation to environmental conditions can be accompanied by morphological changes. Description of morphological differences in animal populations could reveal differences habitat, both abiotic and biotic factors. In our study we examined if fish habituating river with different activity concentration of radionuclides differ in geometric morphometry. Geometric morphometry makes it possible to identify morphological differences between objects on the basis of the form, without influence of the 'size factor'. The approach is based on a multivariate analysis of the coordinates of marks, placed on the surface of the morphological object in accordance with certain rules. We used perch (Perca fluviatilis Linnaeus, 1758) as a study species as it is a common, and widespread species of freshwater fish in moderate and subarctic latitudes of Eurasia and North America. Perch is characterized by high flexibility of morphology in relation to environmental differences. We investigated body shape and its changes with the growth in perch that live in Techa River under chronic radiation exposure and perch in the control river Miass. The alignment of digital image tags that characterize the shape of the fish's body, was implemented in the program TPSdig. Further analysis was performed using the package geomorph for R statistical software. The study showed statistically significant (F{sub 1,95}=12.69, p=0.01) differences in body shape of perch from Techa river and Miass river. Perch living in the Techa River are relatively shorter and higher. Further, perch in Techa is characterized by a smaller size of the eyes. For both populations the contribution of allometric component to shape change was observed: smaller animals have a shape similar to the Miass river perch population. With increase of body size, shape of the perch becomes similar to that of the Techa's perch population. Significant differences were observed only for young animals from the two rivers

  14. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described

  15. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  16. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Optimal river monitoring network using optimal partition analysis: a case study of Hun River, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Chunyue; Rong, Luge; Wang, Xiaoxu; Sun, Lina; Luo, Qing; Wu, Hao

    2018-01-09

    River monitoring networks play an important role in water environmental management and assessment, and it is critical to develop an appropriate method to optimize the monitoring network. In this study, an effective method was proposed based on the attainment rate of National Grade III water quality, optimal partition analysis and Euclidean distance, and Hun River was taken as a method validation case. There were 7 sampling sites in the monitoring network of the Hun River, and 17 monitoring items were analyzed once a month during January 2009 to December 2010. The results showed that the main monitoring items in the surface water of Hun River were ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N), chemical oxygen demand, and biochemical oxygen demand. After optimization, the required number of monitoring sites was reduced from seven to three, and 57% of the cost was saved. In addition, there were no significant differences between non-optimized and optimized monitoring networks, and the optimized monitoring networks could correctly represent the original monitoring network. The duplicate setting degree of monitoring sites decreased after optimization, and the rationality of the monitoring network was improved. Therefore, the optimal method was identified as feasible, efficient, and economic.

  18. Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morphometric Analysis of Didessa River Catchment in Blue Nile Basin, Western Ethiopia. ... In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the morphometric characteristics of Didessa ... Stream networks and watersheds were delineated in ArcGIS 10.1 software environment by utilizing ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  20. Additional challenges for uncertainty analysis in river engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, Koen; Warmink, Jord; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2016-04-01

    the proposed intervention. The implicit assumption underlying such analysis is that both models are commensurable. We hypothesize that they are commensurable only to a certain extent. In an idealised study we have demonstrated that prediction performance loss should be expected with increasingly large engineering works. When accounting for parametric uncertainty of floodplain roughness in model identification, we see uncertainty bounds for predicted effects of interventions increase with increasing intervention scale. Calibration of these types of models therefore seems to have a shelf-life, beyond which calibration does not longer improves prediction. Therefore a qualification scheme for model use is required that can be linked to model validity. In this study, we characterize model use along three dimensions: extrapolation (using the model with different external drivers), extension (using the model for different output or indicators) and modification (using modified models). Such use of models is expected to have implications for the applicability of surrogating modelling for efficient uncertainty analysis as well, which is recommended for future research. Warmink, J. J.; Straatsma, M. W.; Huthoff, F.; Booij, M. J. & Hulscher, S. J. M. H. 2013. Uncertainty of design water levels due to combined bed form and vegetation roughness in the Dutch river Waal. Journal of Flood Risk Management 6, 302-318 . DOI: 10.1111/jfr3.12014

  1. Application of Multivariate Statistical Analysis in Evaluation of Surface River Water Quality of a Tropical River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the spatial variations of surface water quality in a tropical river using multivariate statistical techniques, including cluster analysis (CA and principal component analysis (PCA. Twenty physicochemical parameters were measured at 30 stations along the Batang Baram and its tributaries. The water quality of the Batang Baram was categorized as “slightly polluted” where the chemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids were the most deteriorated parameters. The CA grouped the 30 stations into four clusters which shared similar characteristics within the same cluster, representing the upstream, middle, and downstream regions of the main river and the tributaries from the middle to downstream regions of the river. The PCA has determined a reduced number of six principal components that explained 83.6% of the data set variance. The first PC indicated that the total suspended solids, turbidity, and hydrogen sulphide were the dominant polluting factors which is attributed to the logging activities, followed by the five-day biochemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, organic nitrogen, and nitrate-nitrogen in the second PC which are related to the discharges from domestic wastewater. The components also imply that logging activities are the major anthropogenic activities responsible for water quality variations in the Batang Baram when compared to the domestic wastewater discharge.

  2. Short-term variability of Johor River discharge based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, N.; Kamaruddin, S. A.; Heryansyah, A.

    2015-02-01

    River discharge provides a direct measure of water quantity and availability of water for specific uses. It also provides the basis for understanding river basin processes and is essential for interpreting and understanding river flow characteristics. This study investigates the temporal variability of river discharge records of Johor River. Wavelet analysis of discharge records for 30 years was carried out to characterize the river flow variability. Our results indicate that Johor River discharge data shows a significant short-term variability of between 0.6 to 2.5 years.

  3. Bedload transport from spectral analysis of seismic noise near rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, L.; Finnegan, N. J.; Brodsky, E. E.

    2010-12-01

    Channel change in rivers is driven by bedload sediment transport. However, the nonlinear nature of sediment transport combined with the difficulty of making direct observations in rivers at flood hinder prediction of the timing and magnitude of bedload movement. Recent studies have shown that spectral analysis of seismic noise from seismometers near rivers illustrate a correlation between the relative amplitude of high frequency (>1 Hz) seismic noise and conditions for bedload transport, presumably from the energy transferred from clast collisions with the channel. However, a previous study in the Himalayas did not contain extensive bedload transport or discharge measurements, and the correspondence of seismic noise with proxy variables such as regional hydrologic and meteorologic data was not exact. A more complete understanding of the relationship between bedload transport and seismic noise would be valuable for extending the spatial and temporal extent of bedload data. To explore the direct relationship between bedload transport and seismic noise, we examine data from several seismic stations near the Trinity River in California, where the fluvial morphodynamics and bedload rating curves have been studied extensively. We compare the relative amplitude of the ambient seismic noise with records of water discharge and sediment transport. We also examine the noise at hourly, daily, and seasonal timescales to determine other possible sources of noise. We report the influence of variables such as local river slope, adjacent geology, anthropogenic noise, and distance from the river. The results illustrate the feasibility of using existing seismic arrays to sense radiated energy from processes of bedload transport. In addition, the results can be used to design future seismic array campaigns to optimize information about bedload transport. This technique provides great spatial and temporal coverage, and can be performed where direct bedload measurements are difficult or

  4. Risk analysis on heavy metal contamination in sediments of rivers flowing into Nansi Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingqing; Song, Ying; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand the risk of heavy metals in sediments of the rivers flowing into Nansi Lake, 36 surface sediments were sampled from six rivers and seven heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, and Cd) were determined. Potential ecological risk index (RI) of the six rivers showed significant differences: Xinxue River, Jiehe River, and Guangfu River were at medium potential risk, whereas the risk of Chengguo River was the lowest. Jiehe River, Xuesha River, and Jiangji River were meeting the medium potential risk at river mouths. Geo-accumulation index (I geo ) of the seven heavy metals revealed that the contamination of Cu and Cd was more serious than most other metals in the studied areas, whereas Cr in most sites of our study was not polluted. Moreover, correlation cluster analysis demonstrated that the contamination of Cu, Ni, and Zn in six rivers was mainly caused by local emissions, whereas that of As, Pb, and Cd might come from the external inputs in different forms. Consequently, the contamination of Cu and Cd and the potential risk in Xinxue River, Jiehe River, and Guangfu River as well as the local emissions should be given more attention to safeguard the water quality of Nansi Lake and the East Route Project of South to North Water Transfer.

  5. The dynamic analysis facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argue, D.S.; Howatt, W.T.

    1979-10-01

    The Dynamic Analysis Facility at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) comprises a Hybrid Computer, consisting of two Applied Dynamic International AD/FIVE analog computers and a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) PDP-11/55 digital computer, and a Program Development System based on a DEC PDP-11/45 digital computer. This report describes the functions of the various hardware components of the Dynamic Analysis Facility and the interactions between them. A brief description of the software available to the user is also given. (auth)

  6. A study of environmental analysis of urban river sediments using activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Kuno, A.; Matsuo, M.

    2003-01-01

    Sediments of the Kitajukkengawa River (Sumida-ku, Tokyo, Japan) were analyzed by activation analyses. Concentrations of 36 elements for each sample were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and neutron induced prompt gamma-ray analysis (PGA). Based on the correlation matrix between the elements in vertical distribution, principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. The degree of chemical weathering of silicate minerals was highest in the middle layer of the Kitajukkengawa River sediment and that adsorbed amount of trace metals such as Cd and Cr was increased along with chemical weathering. (author)

  7. Dissolved oxygen analysis for hydropower additions on the Illinois River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundquist, M.J.; Elver, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Illinois Waterway is comprised of a system of eight locks along the Illinois River, the Des Plaines River, and the Chicago Sanitary Ship Canal which allow commercial barge traffic between the Mississippi River and Lake Michigan at the City of Chicago. Opportunities for production of hydroelectric power is present at several of these lock and dams. This paper presents the field study and computer simulation conducted to determine the feasibility of constructing hydroelectric powerhouses on two of these lock and dams. So as not to degrade recent improvements to water quality, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), in issuing the construction and operating licenses for these two hydroelectric facilities, requires the hydropower additions to not reduce the dissolved oxygen (D.O.) level downstream of the hydroelectric facilities below 6 parts per million (ppm). Presently, the waterway discharge passes through taintor gates at both of these lock and dam facilities which creates aeration. The addition of hydroelectric powerhouses would divert water from these spillways through generation equipment; consequently, the spillway aeration would not occur. The purpose of the study was to determine the amount of power generation from these facilities, given the existing waterway water quality and the FERC D.O. criteria. A computer simulation generation analysis was conducted to provide a database of the waterway water quality. A four-month extensive field collection survey was conducted over the 63 kilometer (39 mile) reach of the waterway which comprises the two downstream pools of the Brandon Road and Dresden Island projects, and 3 kilometers (2 miles) upstream of the Brandon Road Project. The analysis revealed that the hydroelectric additions were economically feasible and are an example of how the benefits of hydroelectric development can be balanced with environmental concerns

  8. Analysis of Hydraulic Flood Control Structure at Putat Boro River

    OpenAIRE

    Ruzziyatno, Ruhban

    2015-01-01

    Putat Boro River is one of the main drainage systems of Surakarta city which drains into Bengawan Solo river. The primary problem when flood occur is the higher water level of Bengawan Solo than Boro River and then backwater occur and inundates Putat Boro River. The objective of the study is to obtain operational method of Putat Boro River floodgate to control both inflows and outflows not only during flood but also normal condition. It also aims to know the Putat Boro rivers floodgate op...

  9. Hydropeaking in Nordic rivers - combined analysis from effects of changing climate conditions and energy demands to river regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Faisal Bin; Marttila, Hannu; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Alfredsen, Knut; Riml, Joakim; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-04-01

    Increasing national and international demands for more flexible management of the energy resources with more non-storable renewables being used in adapting to the ongoing climate change will influence hydropower operations. Damming and regulation practices of river systems causes homogenization of long term river dynamics but also higher temporal sub-daily flow variations i.e. hydropeaking. In Nordic countries, many major rivers and lakes are regulated for hydropower purposes, which have caused considerable changes in river biotic, hydrologic and morphologic structures. Due to rapidly changing energy markets in the Nordic countries (deregulation of the power market and adding of renewable but intermittent sources of energy like, wind, solar, etc.) sub-daily flow conditions are under change within regulated river systems due to the increased demand on hydropower for providing balancing power. However, holistic analysis from changes in energy markets and its effect on sub-daily river regimes is lacking. This study analyzes the effects of hydropeaking on river regime in Finland, Sweden and Norway using long term high resolution data (15 minutes to hourly time interval) from 72 pristine and 136 regulated rivers with large spatial coverage across Fennoscandia. Since the sub-daily discharge variation is masked through the monthly or daily analyzes, in order to quantify these changes high resolution data is needed. In our study we will document, characterize and classify the impacts of sub-daily flow variation due to regulation and climatic variation on various river systems in Fennoscandia. Further, with increasing social demands for ecosystem services in regulated rivers, it is important to evaluate the new demand and update hydropower operation plan accordingly. We will analyse ecological response relationships along gradients of hydrological alteration for the biological communities, processes of river ecosystems and climate boundaries together with considering the

  10. Chemometric investigations on the differentiated evaluation of element trace analysis in river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einax, J.; Geiss, S.

    1994-01-01

    The combination of sequential leaching methods for a first assessment of the kind of species in river sediments with multivariate-statistical methods (like factor analysis) for identifying anthropogenic and/or geogenic loading is useful for the differentiated characterization of the pollution state of a river. Electrochemical investigations, planned on the basis of statistical design and following empirical modelling, enables quantitative conclusions on the binding forms of heavy metals in river waters. Deposition-remobilisation effects of heavy metals in the complex system river water-river sediment can be described by PLS modelling. (orig.)

  11. Radiogenic leukemia risk analysis for the Techa River Cohort members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestinina, L.Y.; Epifanova, S.B.; Akleyev, A.V.; Preston, D.; Davis, F.; Ron, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Members of the Techa River Cohort have been exposed to a long-term external and internal irradiation due to releases of radioactive waste from the Mayak Production Association into the Techa River. Since internal exposure resulted primarily from incorporation of 90 Sr in the bone structure, the bone marrow was the principal target. The maximum dose to the red bone marrow accumulated over 50 years in cohort members reached 2 Gy, and the mean dose was 0.3 Gy. The epidemiological analysis of radiogenic risk of leukemia development was conducted based on the retrospective cohort study approach and regression analysis using the Epicure statistical packet. The extended Techa River Cohort (ETRC) includes about 30 thousand people of the two genders, various ages and different ethnicity (mostly Russians, Tartars and Bashkirs). The catchment area for leukemia mortality and incidence follow-up includes the whole Chelyabinsk and Kurgan Oblasts. The previous analysis of leukemia mortality risk for a 50-year follow-up period pointed out statistically significant dose dependence. The presentation will for the first time describe the results of leukemia incidence risk analyses for the period from 1953 through 2004. Over this 52-year follow-up period 92 leukemia cases (42 in men and 50 in women) were registered among ETRC members resident in the catchment area. Among those 92 cases there were 22 cases attributed to chronic lymphoid leukemia (12 in men and 10 in women). The preliminary analysis of leukemia incidence risk showed a statistically significant linear dependence on dose for total leukemias (p = 0.006), as well as for leukemias with CLL excluded (p < 0.001). The point value of the total leukemia incidence ERR was 2.0/Gy (95% CI: 0.4-15.4) and for leukemia with CLL excluded the ERR was 4.5/Gy (95% CI: 1.1-14.7). More than 57% of leukemia cases (excluding CLL) registered in ETRC members could be related to the radiogenic factor. Analyses of chronic lymphoid

  12. Analysis of rainfall distribution in Kelantan river basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Ros, Faizah; Tosaka, Hiroyuki

    2018-03-01

    Using rainfall gauge on its own as input carries great uncertainties regarding runoff estimation, especially when the area is large and the rainfall is measured and recorded at irregular spaced gauging stations. Hence spatial interpolation is the key to obtain continuous and orderly rainfall distribution at unknown points to be the input to the rainfall runoff processes for distributed and semi-distributed numerical modelling. It is crucial to study and predict the behaviour of rainfall and river runoff to reduce flood damages of the affected area along the Kelantan river. Thus, a good knowledge on rainfall distribution is essential in early flood prediction studies. Forty six rainfall stations and their daily time-series were used to interpolate gridded rainfall surfaces using inverse-distance weighting (IDW), inverse-distance and elevation weighting (IDEW) methods and average rainfall distribution. Sensitivity analysis for distance and elevation parameters were conducted to see the variation produced. The accuracy of these interpolated datasets was examined using cross-validation assessment.

  13. External events analysis for the Savannah River Site K reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Wingo, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    The probabilistic external events analysis performed for the Savannah River Site K-reactor PRA considered many different events which are generally perceived to be ''external'' to the reactor and its systems, such as fires, floods, seismic events, and transportation accidents (as well as many others). Events which have been shown to be significant contributors to risk include seismic events, tornados, a crane failure scenario, fires and dam failures. The total contribution to the core melt frequency from external initiators has been found to be 2.2 x 10 -4 per year, from which seismic events are the major contributor (1.2 x 10 -4 per year). Fire initiated events contribute 1.4 x 10 -7 per year, tornados 5.8 x 10 -7 per year, dam failures 1.5 x 10 -6 per year and the crane failure scenario less than 10 -4 per year to the core melt frequency. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime at the Slovak section of Danube. It is concluded and recommended: Suspended load transport at the Slovak section of Danube decreases in the downstream directions - annual averages: Utilize relation of the Water Research Institute in Medvedov, the relation of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute is probably slightly underestimated; Distribution of suspended load concentration in the cross-section is influenced mainly with local hydraulic and morphological conditions; Measured flow velocity in the range 0.6 - 2.65 m/sec -1 , influenced with water level slope; Silt particles the most numerous, less numerous sandy and clayey particles; Bratislava 3.54 mil. tonnes, Medvedov 2.22 mil. tonnes, and Komarno 1.96 mil. tonnes; Recommendation to measure actual volume of the Cunovo reservoir, in order to validate sediment transport balance; Recommendation to continue in a complex monitoring programme of sediment transport

  15. Collaborative environmental planning in river management: an application of multicriteria decision analysis in the White River Watershed in Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Caroline; Erickson, Jon; Noordewier, Tom; Sheldon, Amy; Kline, Mike

    2007-09-01

    Multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) provides a well-established family of decision tools to aid stakeholder groups in arriving at collective decisions. MCDA can also function as a framework for the social learning process, serving as an educational aid in decision problems characterized by a high level of public participation. In this paper, the framework and results of a structured decision process using the outranking MCDA methodology preference ranking organization method of enrichment evaluation (PROMETHEE) are presented. PROMETHEE is used to frame multi-stakeholder discussions of river management alternatives for the Upper White River of Central Vermont, in the northeastern United States. Stakeholders met over 10 months to create a shared vision of an ideal river and its services to communities, develop a list of criteria by which to evaluate river management alternatives, and elicit preferences to rank and compare individual and group preferences. The MCDA procedure helped to frame a group process that made stakeholder preferences explicit and substantive discussions about long-term river management possible.

  16. Low flow analysis of the lower Drava River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijuskovic-Svetinovic, T; Maricic, S

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the regime and the characteristics of low streamflows is of vital importance in several aspects. It is essential for the effective planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, using and managing different water management systems and structures. In addition, frequent running and assessing of estimates of low stream-flow statistics are especially important when different aspects of water quality are considered. This paper attempts to present the results of a stochastic analysis of the River Drava low flow from the gauging station, Donji Miholjac [located at rkm 77+700]. Currently, almost all specialists apply the truncation method in low-flows analysis. Taking this into consideration, it is possible to accept the definition of a low streamflow, as a period when the analysed characteristics are either, equal to or lower than the truncation level of drought. The same method has been applied in this analysis. The calculating method applied takes into account all the essential components of the afore-mentioned process. This includes a number of elements, such as the deficit, duration or the time of the occurrence of low flows, the number of times, the maximum deficit and the maximum duration of the low flows in the analysed time period. Moreover, this paper determines computational values for deficits and for the duration of low flow in different return periods.

  17. Hydraulic analysis, Mad River at State Highway 41, Springfield, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Ronald I.

    1977-01-01

    A hydraulic analysis of the lad River in a reach at Springfield, Ohio was made to determine the effects of relocating State Highway 41 in 1S76. The main channel was cleaned by dredging in the vicinity cf the new highway bridge and at the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge upstream. The new highway was placed on a high fill with relief structures for flood plain drainage consisting of a 12-foot corrugated metal pipe culvert and a bridge opening to accommodate the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway and a property access road. The effect of the new highway embankment on drainage from the flood plain was requested. Also requested was the effect that might be expected on the elevation of flood waters above the new highway embankment if the access road through the new highway embankment were raised.The study indicates that the improvement in the capacity of the main channel to carry water was such that, up to a discharge equivalent to a 25-year frequency flood, the water-surface elevation in the reach upstream from the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge would be about 0.6 foot lower than under conditions prior to the construction on State Highway 41. Diversion through the Mad River left bank levee break above the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway bridge to the flood Flain would be decreased about one-half in terms of rate of discharge in cubic feet per second. The maximum difference in elevation cf the flood water between the upstream and downstream side of the new State Highway 41 embankment would be about 0.2 foot, with an additional 0.4 foot to be expected if the access road were raised 1.5 feet.

  18. CRITICAL RADIONUCLIDE AND PATHWAY ANALYSIS FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2011-08-30

    This report is an update to the analysis, Assessment of SRS Radiological Liquid and Airborne Contaminants and Pathways, that was performed in 1997. An electronic version of this large original report is included in the attached CD to this report. During the operational history (1954 to the present) of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released to the environment from the various production facilities. However, as will be shown by this updated radiological critical contaminant/critical pathway analysis, only a small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to potential doses and risks to offsite people. The analysis covers radiological releases to the atmosphere and to surface waters, the principal media that carry contaminants offsite. These releases potentially result in exposure to offsite people. The groundwater monitoring performed at the site shows that an estimated 5 to 10% of SRS has been contaminated by radionuclides, no evidence exists from the extensive monitoring performed that groundwater contaminated with these constituents has migrated off the site (SRS 2011). Therefore, with the notable exception of radiological source terms originating from shallow surface water migration into site streams, onsite groundwater was not considered as a potential exposure pathway to offsite people. In addition, in response to the Department of Energy's (DOE) Order 435.1, several Performance Assessments (WSRC 2008; LWO 2009; SRR 2010; SRR 2011) and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis (SRNO 2010) have recently been completed at SRS. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in these extensive reports are discussed and, where applicable, included in this analysis.

  19. Situation analysis of water quality in the Umtata River catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Umtata River was characterised by using standard physico-chemical and microbiological methods to assess the present water quality in the river. The results indicated high turbidity, gross microbiological and cadmium pollution. Turbidity values ranged from 0.28 NTU to 1 899 NTU highlighting the known problem of ...

  20. Analysis of Sedimentation in the Guayas River at Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mosselman, E.; Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias Hidalgo, M.E.; Sanchez, D.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.

    2017-01-01

    The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding

  1. Analysis of Sedimentation in the Guayas River at Guayaquil, Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrera Crespo, P.; Becker, A; Ottevanger, W.; Nabi, M.; Giardino, A; de Keizer, O; Arias, M; Sanchez, D.; Pazmiño Nelson, N.; Mosselman, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Equatorian Daule and Babahoyo rivers combine into the tidal Guayas River with the largest estuary on the Pacific coast of South America. The city of Guayaquil, located along the Guayas, is the main port of Ecuador but at the same time the planet’s fourth most vulnerable city for future flooding

  2. Analysis of Sedimentation Rates in the Densu River Channel: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sediment is important in determining the morphology of river systems. The Densu basin has come under intense anthropogenic activities such as farming, sand winning, bushfires, among others, which are impacting on the fluvial processes, forms and channel morphology of the river. The study investigated sedimentation of ...

  3. Detection and Genetic Analysis of Human Sapoviruses in River Water in Japan▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Oka, Tomoichiro; Haramoto, Eiji; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Naokazu; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Ohgaki, Shinichiro

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of sapoviruses (SaVs) in the Tamagawa River in Japan from April 2003 to March 2004 and performed genetic analysis of the SaV genes identified in river water. A total of 60 river water samples were collected from five sites along the river, and 500 ml was concentrated using the cation-coated filter method. By use of a real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay, 12 (20%) of the 60 samples were positive for SaV. SaV sequences were obtained from 15 (25%) samples...

  4. EMergy analysis perspectives of Thailand and Mekong River dam proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.T.; McClanahan, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    Methods of EMergy analysis (a scientifically based measure of wealth with units of solar emjoules (sej)) are explained and illustrated, using the economy of Thailand and two proposed dams on the Mekong River. Thailand's EMergy/$ ratio is near the world average (3.46 ·10 12 sej/$), its EMergy per capita ratio (2.98·10 15 sej/capita) is low compared to developed economies (that of the United States is 29.3·10 15 sej/capita), and its EMergy balance of payments is negative (the EMergy in exports is almost twice the EMergy in imports). The calculated net yield ratios of the proposed dams were sensitive to the treatment of sediments. The analysis yielded high net yield ratios (12.3/1 and 20.3/1) if sediments were not included, but yielded ratios of only 1.4/1 and 1.3/1 if sediments were included. If the two dams were constructed as a cascade, the combined net yield ratio was 2.5/1 (sediments included). If compared to conventional fossil fuels as a primary source of energy to the economy, the net yield ratio of the electricity generated from the two-dam cascade expressed as fossil fuels was 7.4/1

  5. Elemental analysis of river sediments by PIXE and PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.J.; Augusthy, A.; Varier, K.M.; Magudapathy, P.; Panchapakesan, S.; Nair, K.G.M.; Vijayan, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Chaliyar river, located in Kerala, India has shown preoccupying pollution levels, that constitute a threat to public health and the ecological system. PIXE and PIGE techniques have been employed to measure the elemental concentrations in the river sediment samples. Thick targets were prepared out of the sediment samples collected from various sites along the course of the river. The measurements were carried out using 3 MeV proton beam obtained from 3 MV Tandem pelletron accelerator at Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar. The elemental concentrations, especially that of heavy metals, at different sites are discussed in detail. Our results show that sediments from a site where the industrial activities are high are significantly high in concentrations of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Hg and Pb) than those collected from non-industrial sites. The measured values are compared with the average composition of unpolluted river sediments and other national and international river sediments. (author)

  6. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of river sediments collected around phosphate fertilizer industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, M.C.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Mundi, M.; Respaldiza, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis has been carried out on sediments collected in an estuarine system formed by two major rivers in southern Spain. The results show clearly that important amounts of natural radioactivity are accumulating on the bed of both rivers. This radioactivity appears to originate from effluent from several phoshate fertilizer factories adjacent to the estuary. (author)

  7. Morphometric analysis of the Marmara Sea river basins, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaşı, Emre; Ozdemir, Hasan

    2014-05-01

    The drainage basin, the fundamental unit of the fluvial landscape, has been focus of research aimed at understanding the geometric characteristics of the master channel and its tributary network. This geometry is referred to as the basin morphometry and is nicely reviewed by Abrahams (1984). A great amount of research has focused on geometric characteristic of drainage basins, including the topology of the stream networks, and quantitative description of drainage texture, pattern, shape, and relief characteristics. Evaluation of morphometric parameters necessitates the analysis of various drainage parameters such as ordering of the various streams, measurement of basin area and perimeter, length of drainage channels, drainage density (Dd), stream frequency (Fs), bifurcation ratio (Rb), texture ratio (T), basin relief (Bh), Ruggedness number (Rn), time of concentration (Tc), hypsometric curve and integral (Hc and Hi) (Horton, 1932, Schumn, 1956, Strahler, 1957; Verstappen 1983; Keller and Pinter, 2002; Ozdemir and Bird, 2009). These morphometric parameters have generally been used to predict flood peaks, to assess sediment yield, and to estimate erosion rates in the basins. River basins of the Marmara Sea, has an area of approximately 40,000 sqkm, are the most important basins in Turkey based on their dense populations, industry and transportation systems. The primary aim of this study is to determine and analyse of morphometric characteristics of the Marmara Sea river basins using 10 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and to evaluate of the results. For these purposes, digital 10 m contour maps scaled 1:25000 and geological maps scaled 1:100000 were used as the main data sources in the study. 10 m resolution DEM data were created using the contour maps and then drainage networks and their watersheds were extracted using D8 pour point model. Finally, linear, areal and relief morphometries were applied to the river basins using Geographic Information Systems

  8. Analysis of River sediments from the Tigre river (Venezuela) by radioisotope excited x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Rosales, P.A.; Schorin, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes qualitative elemental scans by both energy dispersive (radioisotope excited) and conventional wavelength dispersive x-ray fluorescence of different grain size fractions of river sediments. An internal standard thin-film technique was used. The precision of Rb, Sr, Y and Zr determination for SY-3 standard reference rock and one real sample for five independently prepared samples is demonstrated

  9. RAINFALL ANALYSIS IN KLANG RIVER BASIN USING CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso A. G. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall characteristics within Klang River basin is analyzed by the continuous wavelet transform using monthly rainfall data (1997–2009 from a raingauge and also using daily rainfall data (1998–2013 from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM. The wavelet power spectrum showed that some frequency components were presented within the rainfall time series, but the observed time series is short to provide accurate information, thus the daily TRMM rainfall data were used. In such analysis, two main frequency components, i.e., 6 and 12 months, showed to be present during the entire period of 16 years. Such semiannual and annual frequencies were confirmed by the global wavelet power spectra. Finally, the modulation in the 8–16-month and 256– 512-day bands were examined by an average of all scales between 8 and 16 months, and 256 and 512 days, respectively, giving a measure of the average monthly/daily variance versus time, where the periods with low or high variance could be identified.

  10. Multielement analysis of water in the Yodo River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamuro, Tetsuo; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Matsuda, Yatsuka

    1979-01-01

    In 1970 we made multielement analysis of water samples collected at various points in the Yodo River, which is the main source of tap water supply in Osaka district, in order to know the extent of pollution especially by metallic elements. The analytical results were discussed from the standpoint of the material balance. In 1977 we again made a similar survey; the number of sampling points was increased. It was revealed that the pollution pattern was quite similar to that found formerly, but concentrations of the elements originating mainly from human activities somewhat decreased. The material balance was discussed in greater detail. It was attempted to explain the change of the elemental concentrations along the stream, taking into consideration the flow-in from small brooks and the take-out by water purification plants. In the down stream where the flow speed is very low, the concentrations of the elements originating mainly from soil was considerably low possibly due to the precipitation of particulates, and the concentrations of the soluble elements originating from human activities was also somewhat low possibly because of the take-out of relatively more polluted water by purification plants. (author)

  11. Hydraulic Geometry Analysis of the Lower Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soar, Philip J; Thorne, Colin R; Harmar, Oliver P

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic geometry of the Lower Mississippi River is primarily the product of the action of natural flows acting on the floodplain materials over centuries and millennia to form an alluvial forming a channel...

  12. Snake River Plain Play Fairway Analysis – Phase 1 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shervais, John W. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Geology; Glen, Jonathan M. [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Liberty, Lee M. [Boise State Univ., ID (United States). Center for Geophysical Investigation of the Shallow Subsurface; Dobson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Snake River volcanic province (SRP) overlies a thermal anomaly that extends deep into the mantle; it represents one of the highest heat flow provinces in North America. Our goals for this Phase 1 study are to: (1) adapt the methodology of Play Fairway Analysis for geothermal exploration to create a formal basis for its application to geothermal systems, (2) assemble relevant data for the SRP from publicly available and private sources, and (3) build a geothermal play fairway model for the SRP and identify the most promising plays, using software tools that are standard in the petroleum industry. The success of play fairway analysis in geothermal exploration depends critically on defining a systematic methodology that is grounded in theory (as developed within the petroleum industry over the last two decades) and within the geologic and hydrologic framework of real geothermal systems. Our preliminary assessment of the data suggests that important undiscovered geothermal resources may be located in several areas of the SRP, including the western SRP (associated with buried lineaments defined by gravity or magnetic anomalies, and capped by extensive deposits of lacustrine sediment), at lineament intersections in the central SRP (along the Banbury-Hagerman trend NW of Twin Falls, and along the northern margin of the Mt Bennett Hills-Camas Prairie area), and along the margins of the eastern SRP. Additional high temperature resources are likely associated with rhyolite domes and crypto-domes in the eastern SRP, but are masked by shallow groundwater flow leading to low upper crustal heat flow values. These blind resources may be exploitable with existing deep drilling technology. Groundwater modeling planned for later phases of the PFA project will address whether temperatures at viable producing depths are sufficient to support electricity production.

  13. Characterization of a Flood Event through a Sediment Analysis: The Tescio River Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Francesco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the hydrological analysis and grain size characteristics of fluvial sediments in a river basin and their combination to characterize a flood event. The overall objective of the research is the development of a practical methodology based on experimental surveys to reconstruct the hydraulic history of ungauged river reaches on the basis of the modifications detected on the riverbed during the dry season. The grain size analysis of fluvial deposits usually requires great technical and economical efforts and traditional sieving based on physical sampling is not appropriate to adequately represent the spatial distribution of sediments in a wide area of a riverbed with a reasonable number of samples. The use of photographic sampling techniques, on the other hand, allows for the quick and effective determination of the grain size distribution, through the use of a digital camera and specific graphical algorithms in large river stretches. A photographic sampling is employed to characterize the riverbed in a 3 km ungauged reach of the Tescio River, a tributary of the Chiascio River, located in central Italy, representative of many rivers in the same geographical area. To this end, the particle size distribution is reconstructed through the analysis of digital pictures of the sediments taken on the riverbed in dry conditions. The sampling has been performed after a flood event of known duration, which allows for the identification of the removal of the armor in one section along the river reach under investigation. The volume and composition of the eroded sediments made it possible to calculate the average flow rate associated with the flood event which caused the erosion, by means of the sediment transport laws and the hydrological analysis of the river basin. A hydraulic analysis of the river stretch under investigation was employed to verify the validity of the proposed procedure.

  14. Neutron activation analysis studies of selected portions of the Mahoning River system using 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abram, E.; Cordon, P.J.; Hazari, A.S.G.; Kline, R.; Mahadeviah, I.; Mooney, E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis study was conducted on portions of the Mahoning River located in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. This river occurs in a highly populated area and is used extensively by numerous industries, including four steel mills, located in the area. Detailed analysis of water and sediment samples indicates the presence of ten different elements. These are sodium, chlorine, bromine, copper, manganese, magnesium, calcium, vanadium, potassium and aluminum. (U.S.)

  15. Impact analysis of satellite rainfall products on flow simulations in the Magdalena River Basin, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Elgamal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Magdalena River is the most important river in Colombia in terms of economic activities and is home to about 77% of the country’s population. The river faces water resources allocation challenges, which require reliable hydrological assessments. However, hydrological analysis and model simulations are hampered by insufficient and uncertain knowledge of the actual rainfall fields. In this research the reliability of groundbased measurements, different satellite products of rainfall and their combinations are tested for their impact on the discharge simulations of the Magdalena River. Two different satellite rainfall products from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM, have been compared and merged with the ground-based measurements and their impact on the Magdalena river flows quantified using the Representative Elementary Watershed (REW distributed hydrological model.

  16. Global Bedload Flux Modeling and Analysis in Large Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M. T.; Cohen, S.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    Proper sediment transport quantification has long been an area of interest for both scientists and engineers in the fields of geomorphology, and management of rivers and coastal waters. Bedload flux is important for monitoring water quality and for sustainable development of coastal and marine bioservices. Bedload measurements, especially for large rivers, is extremely scarce across time, and many rivers have never been monitored. Bedload measurements in rivers, is particularly acute in developing countries where changes in sediment yields is high. The paucity of bedload measurements is the result of 1) the nature of the problem (large spatial and temporal uncertainties), and 2) field costs including the time-consuming nature of the measurement procedures (repeated bedform migration tracking, bedload samplers). Here we present a first of its kind methodology for calculating bedload in large global rivers (basins are >1,000 km. Evaluation of model skill is based on 113 bedload measurements. The model predictions are compared with an empirical model developed from the observational dataset in an attempt to evaluate the differences between a physically-based numerical model and a lumped relationship between bedload flux and fluvial and basin parameters (e.g., discharge, drainage area, lithology). The initial study success opens up various applications to global fluvial geomorphology (e.g. including the relationship between suspended sediment (wash load) and bedload). Simulated results with known uncertainties offers a new research product as a valuable resource for the whole scientific community.

  17. Uncertainty in river discharge observations: a quantitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Di Baldassarre

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a framework for analysing and quantifying the uncertainty of river flow data. Such uncertainty is often considered to be negligible with respect to other approximations affecting hydrological studies. Actually, given that river discharge data are usually obtained by means of the so-called rating curve method, a number of different sources of error affect the derived observations. These include: errors in measurements of river stage and discharge utilised to parameterise the rating curve, interpolation and extrapolation error of the rating curve, presence of unsteady flow conditions, and seasonal variations of the state of the vegetation (i.e. roughness. This study aims at analysing these sources of uncertainty using an original methodology. The novelty of the proposed framework lies in the estimation of rating curve uncertainty, which is based on hydraulic simulations. These latter are carried out on a reach of the Po River (Italy by means of a one-dimensional (1-D hydraulic model code (HEC-RAS. The results of the study show that errors in river flow data are indeed far from negligible.

  18. Elemental analysis of oum er rbia moroccan river-water Using icp-aes and chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; Labraimi, M.; Moutte, J.; Bilal, E.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 22 elements has been performed utilizing ICP-AES and chromatography methods. MPS samples were dissolved in nitric acid. The element analyzed are : Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Ba and Pb. The detection limits are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for the accuracy by the analysis of a multi-elemental standard. The results for most of the elements obtained were accurate to about 2-15%. The objective of the analysis were to determine the geochemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanisms of sediment transport and nevertheless, to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 48 samples were collected along the river, between its source in meddle atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city

  19. Study of environmental pollution by heavy metals in Sepetiba Bay and Paraiba do Sul River - Guandu River by analysis of critical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.; Malm, O.; Lima, N.R.W.; Azcue, J.M.

    The heavy metal pollution in Sepetiba Bay and Paraiba do Sul River - Guandu River is studied by analysis of critical parameters. This ones are employed in environmental impact determination of nuclear installations. Three critic metals (Cr, Zn, Cd) and four (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr) ones are lauched by the industrial park of Sepetiba Bay and Paraiba Vale respectively. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site, 2016 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, Tim [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hartman, Larry [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-08

    During the operational history of Savannah River Site, many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities. However, as shown in this analysis, only a relatively small number of the released radionuclides have been significant contributors to doses to the offsite public. This report is an update to the 2011 analysis, Critical Radionuclide and Pathway Analysis for the Savannah River Site. SRS-based Performance Assessments for E-Area, Saltstone, F-Tank Farm, H-Tank Farm, and a Comprehensive SRS Composite Analysis have been completed. The critical radionuclides and pathways identified in those extensive reports are also detailed and included in this analysis.

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of the oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) in Huaihe River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Yu, Yanyan; Bao, Fangyin; Wang, Song; Xiao, Ming Song

    2018-04-19

    The oriental river prawn (Macrobrachium nipponense) is an economically and nutritionally important species of decapod crustaceans in China. Genetic structure and demographic history of Macrobrachium nipponense were examined using sequence data from portions of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Samples of 191 individuals were collected from 10 localities in the upper to middle reaches of the Huaihe River. Variability was detected at a total of 42 nucleotide sites along 684 bp length of homologous sequence (6.14%), and base substitutions occurred mostly at the second codon position. Haplotype diversity (h) and nucleotide diversity (π) of all populations were 0.9136 ± 0.0116 and 0.0078 ± 0.0042, respectively. Phylogenetic tree constructed using the maximum-likelihood (ML) method showed that the 44 haplotypes were assigned to two obvious clades associated with geographic regions. Moreover, the median-joining network was similar to the topology of the phylogenetic tree with 44 haplotypes. The pairwise F ST values between the populations varied from -0.0298 to 0.2994. Generally, moderate genetic differentiation (F ST  = 0.1598, p = .0000) among different geographic populations was detected, with the significant differentiation between the Huaibin (HB) and other Macrobrachium nipponense populations. Both mismatch distribution analyses and neutrality tests suggested the early stage of Late Pleistocene population expansion 85,500 years before present for the species, which was consistent with the palaeoclimatic condition of the Huaihe River Basin.

  2. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of river habitants by the k(0)-standardization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Toyoshima, T.; Matsushita, R.; Fukuda, A.; Hibino, K.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of metal concentrations in samples use reference materials for determination, which means elements out of the references are not possible to be determined. The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with k(O)-standardization method makes possible to determine metals without use of reference materials, which is very attractive for environmental sample analysis, River habitants would be available as a bio-indicator from which river water quality or metal contamination level could be evaluated. We analyzed river fishes and river insects by INAA with k(O)-standardization to examine the possibility of these habitants as a bio-indicator of water system. Small fishes, Oryzias latipes and Gambusia affinis were collected at 3 different rivers every month and river insects, families of Heptageniidae, Baetidae, Perlidae, Hydropsychidae, Psephenidae were collected at a fixed point of the river. The dried samples were irradiated at the research reactor, JRR-4 (3.5MW), JAERI for 10 min and 3 h. 17 elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba, Ce and Sm) were determined by the NAA-k(0) method, showing effectiveness of the present method for environmental sample analysis. The metals observed in the fishes were the highest in Ca and the lowest in Sc, ranging from 10 5 mg/kg-dry weigh in Ca to 10 -2 mg/kg-dry weight in Sc. The differences in metal concentrations were examined by statistical analysis with t-test. Ca, Na and Br concentrations differ between species, Oryzias latipes and Gambusia, and Fe, Sc, Co, Zn and Se concentrations differ among rivers. No difference was observed on K, Rb and Sr concentrations.

  3. Remote sensing analysis of thermal plumes at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doak, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The nuclear reactors of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in Aiken, South Carolina, use cold water diverted from the Savannah River to dissipate unused thermal energy. This water is heated by heat exchangers of the reactors during the materials production process, and then returned to the natural drainage system. Thermal effluents were monitored by an airborne thermal infrared scanner during predawn overlights. Images were generated to show the surface temperature distribution of the thermal outfall plumes into the Savannah River. The thermal analysis provides information related to compliance with permit requirements of the regulatory agencies

  4. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of ..... with equilibrium profile, where driving force is equivalent to the .... need attention for revival and sustenance by taking suitable artificial ...

  5. Influence factors analysis of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Bao, Jingling; Zou, Di; Shi, Fang

    2018-01-01

    According to the evaluation results of the water environment quality of main rivers in Tianjin in 1986-2015, this paper analyzed the current situation of water environmental quality of main rivers in Tianjin retrospectively, established the index system and multiple factors analysis through selecting factors influencing the water environmental quality of main rivers from the economy, industry and nature aspects with the combination method of principal component analysis and linear regression. The results showed that water consumption, sewage discharge and water resources were the main factors influencing the pollution of main rivers. Therefore, optimizing the utilization of water resources, improving utilization efficiency and reducing effluent discharge are important measures to reduce the pollution of surface water environment.

  6. Review of advanced reactor transient analysis capabilities and applications for Savannah River Plant reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckner, M.R.; Hostetler, D.E.; Anderson, M.M.; Dodds, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    GRASS is a three-dimensional, coupled neutronic and engineering code for analysis of the radioisotope production reactors at the Savannah River Plant. The capabilities of GRASS are reviewed with emphasis on recent additions to model accident conditions involving the transport of molten fuel material and to accurately characterize neutronic and engineering feedback. The general application of GRASS to the Savannah River reactors is discussed, and results are presented for the analyses of severla reactor transient calculations

  7. Multivariate analysis for source identification of pollution in sediment of Linggi River, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Md Suhaimi; Ibrahim, Shariff; Samuding, Kamarudin; Rahman, Shamsiah Ab; Wo, Yii Mei; Daung, Jeremy Andy Dominic

    2018-03-29

    Rapid socioeconomic development in the Linggi River Basin has contributed to the significant increase of pollution discharge into the Linggi River and its adjacent coastal areas. The toxic element contents and distributions in the sediment samples collected along the Linggi River were determined using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques. The measured mean concentration of As, Cd, Pb, Sb, U, Th and Zn is relatively higher compared to the continental crust value of the respective element. Most of the elements (As, Cr, Fe, Pb, Sb and Zn) exceeded the freshwater sediment quality guideline-threshold effect concentration (FSQG-TEC) value. Downstream stations of the Linggi River showed that As concentrations in sediment exceeded the freshwater sediment quality guideline-probable effect concentration (FSQG-PEC) value. This indicates that the concentration of As will give an adverse effect to the growth of sediment-dwelling organisms. Generally, the Linggi River sediment can be categorised as unpolluted to strongly polluted and unpolluted to strongly to extremely polluted. The correlation matrix of metal-metal relationship, principle component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) indicates that the pollution sources of Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb in sediments of the Linggi River originated from the industry of electronics and electroplating. Elements of As, Cr, Sb and Fe mainly originated from motor-vehicle workshops and metal work, whilst U and Th originated from natural processes such as terrestrial runoff and land erosion.

  8. Real-Time Analysis and Forecasting of Multisite River Flow Using a Distributed Hydrological Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingdong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatial distributed hydrological forecasting system was developed to promote the analysis of river flow dynamic state in a large basin. The research presented the real-time analysis and forecasting of multisite river flow in the Nakdong River Basin using a distributed hydrological model with radar rainfall forecast data. A real-time calibration algorithm of hydrological distributed model was proposed to investigate the particular relationship between the water storage and basin discharge. Demonstrate the approach of simulating multisite river flow using a distributed hydrological model couple with real-time calibration and forecasting of multisite river flow with radar rainfall forecasts data. The hydrographs and results exhibit that calibrated flow simulations are very approximate to the flow observation at all sites and the accuracy of forecasting flow is gradually decreased with lead times extending from 1 hr to 3 hrs. The flow forecasts are lower than the flow observation which is likely caused by the low estimation of radar rainfall forecasts. The research has well demonstrated that the distributed hydrological model is readily applicable for multisite real-time river flow analysis and forecasting in a large basin.

  9. Long-term controls on continental-scale bedrock river terrace deposition from integrated clast and heavy mineral assemblage analysis: An example from the lower Orange River, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashole, Albertina N.; Hodgson, David M.; Chapman, Robert J.; Morgan, Dan J.; Jacob, Roger J.

    2018-02-01

    Establishing relationships between the long-term landscape evolution of drainage basins and the fill of sedimentary basins benefits from analysis of bedrock river terrace deposits. These fragmented detrital archives help to constrain changes in river system character and provenance during sediment transfer from continents (source) to oceans (sink). Thick diamondiferous gravel terrace deposits along the lower Orange River, southern Namibia, provide a rare opportunity to investigate controls on the incision history of a continental-scale bedrock river. Clast assemblage and heavy mineral data from seven localities permit detailed characterisation of the lower Orange River gravel terrace deposits. Two distinct fining-upward gravel terrace deposits are recognised, primarily based on mapped stratigraphic relationships (cross-cutting relationships) and strath and terrace top elevations, and secondarily on the proportion of exotic clasts, referred to as Proto Orange River deposits and Meso Orange River deposits. The older early to middle Miocene Proto Orange River gravels are thick (up to 50 m) and characterised by a dominance of Karoo Supergroup shale and sandstone clasts, whereas the younger Plio-Pleistocene Meso Orange River gravels (6-23 m thick) are characterised by more banded iron formation clasts. Mapping of the downstepping terraces indicates that the Proto gravels were deposited by a higher sinuosity river, and are strongly discordant to the modern Orange River course, whereas the Meso deposits were deposited by a lower sinuosity river. The heavy minerals present in both units comprise magnetite, garnet, amphibole, epidote and ilmenite, with rare titanite and zircon grains. The concentration of amphibole-epidote in the heavy minerals fraction increases from the Proto to the Meso deposits. The decrease in incision depths, recorded by deposit thicknesses above strath terraces, and the differences in clast character (size and roundness) and type between the two

  10. Analysis of Fluvial Bed Sediments Along the Apalachicola River, Florida through Field Reconnaissance Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeri, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Daranpob, A.; Smar, D. E.

    2011-12-01

    River competence is an important parameter in understanding sediment transport in fluvial systems. Competence is defined as the measure of a stream's ability to transport a certain maximum grain size of sediment. Studies have shown that bed sediment particle size in rivers and streams tends to vary spatially along the direction of stream flow. Over a river section several reaches long, variability of sediment particle sizes can be seen, often becoming finer downstream. This phenomenon is attributed to mechanisms such as local control of stream gradient, coarse tributary sediment supply or particle breakdown. Average particle size may also be smaller in tributary sections of rivers due to river morphology. The relationship between river mean velocity and particle size that can be transported has also been explored. The Hjulstrom curve classifies this relationship by relating particle size to velocity, dividing the regions of sedimentation, transportation, and erosion. The curve can also be used to find values such as the critical erosion velocity (the velocity required to transport particles of various sizes in suspension) and settling velocity (the velocity at which particles of a given size become too heavy to be transported and fall out of suspension, consequently causing deposition). The purpose of this research is to explore the principles of river competence through field reconnaissance collection and laboratory analysis of fluvial sediment core samples along the Apalachicola River, FL and its distributaries. Sediment core samples were collected in the wetlands and estuarine regions of the Apalachicola River. Sieve and hydrometer analyses were performed to determine the spatial distribution of particle sizes along the river. An existing high resolution hydrodynamic model of the study domain was used to simulate tides and generate river velocities. The Hjulstrom curve and the generated river velocities were used to define whether sediment was being transported

  11. Saprobiological analysis of water of the river Krivaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cikotić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available During one-year research of zoobenthos macroinvertebrates of the river Krivaja 133 taxons were found with total number of 12,766 entities. Sampling was conducted using kick sampling method that corresponded to the type of running waters such as the river Krivaja. For the purpose of water quality evaluation biotic and saprobity indexes were applied in accordance with taxon of collected organisms. The measured values of saprobity index indicated mild to medium water pollution, i.e. oligo-beta mezosaprobity water. The measured values of Shannon-Weaver diversity index indicated high diversity of organisms, thus good conditions of life in water of the Krivaja and its clean water flow.Applied saprobity and biotic indexes in this research should be aguideline for a future research of our water flows in standardization of waterbio-monitoring legislation in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. Trend analysis of a tropical urban river water quality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Faridah; M E, Alaa Eldin; Mohamed, Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Rivers play a significant role in providing water resources for human and ecosystem survival and health. Hence, river water quality is an important parameter that must be preserved and monitored. As the state of Selangor and the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, are undergoing tremendous development, the river is subjected to pollution from point and non-point sources. The water quality of the Klang River basin, one of the most densely populated areas within the region, is significantly degraded due to human activities as well as urbanization. Evaluation of the overall river water quality status is normally represented by a water quality index (WQI), which consists of six parameters, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen and pH. The objectives of this study are to assess the water quality status for this tropical, urban river and to establish the WQI trend. Using monthly WQI data from 1997 to 2007, time series were plotted and trend analysis was performed by employing the first-order autocorrelated trend model on the moving average values for every station. The initial and final values of either the moving average or the trend model were used as the estimates of the initial and final WQI at the stations. It was found that Klang River water quality has shown some improvement between 1997 and 2007. Water quality remains good in the upper stream area, which provides vital water sources for water treatment plants in the Klang valley. Meanwhile, the water quality has also improved in other stations. Results of the current study suggest that the present policy on managing river quality in the Klang River has produced encouraging results; the policy should, however, be further improved alongside more vigorous monitoring of pollution discharge from various point sources such as industrial wastewater, municipal sewers, wet markets, sand mining and landfills, as well as non-point sources such as

  13. Analysis of temporal and spatial trends of hydro-climatic variables in the Wei River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Huang, Qiang; Chang, Jianxia; Liu, Dengfeng; Huang, Shengzhi; Shi, Xiaoyu

    2015-05-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China. The relationship between runoff and precipitation in the Wei River Basin has been changed due to the changing climate and increasingly intensified human activities. In this paper, we determine abrupt changes in hydro-climatic variables and identify the main driving factors for the changes in the Wei River Basin. The nature of the changes is analysed based on data collected at twenty-one weather stations and five hydrological stations in the period of 1960-2010. The sequential Mann-Kendall test analysis is used to capture temporal trends and abrupt changes in the five sub-catchments of the Wei River Basin. A non-parametric trend test at the basin scale for annual data shows a decreasing trend of precipitation and runoff over the past fifty-one years. The temperature exhibits an increase trend in the entire period. The potential evaporation was calculated based on the Penman-Monteith equation, presenting an increasing trend of evaporation since 1990. The stations with a significant decreasing trend in annual runoff mainly are located in the west of the Wei River primarily interfered by human activities. Regression analysis indicates that human activity was possibly the main cause of the decline of runoff after 1970. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Trend Analysis of Pahang River Using Non-Parametric Analysis: Mann Kendalls Trend Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Hishaam Sulaiman; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa; Muhammad Azizi Amran; Fazureen Azaman; Ismail Zainal Abidin; Norsyuhada Hairoma

    2015-01-01

    Flood is common in Pahang especially during northeast monsoon season from November to February. Three river cross station: Lubuk Paku, Sg. Yap and Temerloh were selected as area of this study. The stream flow and water level data were gathered from DID record. Data set for this study were analysed by using non-parametric analysis, Mann-Kendall Trend Test. The results that obtained from stream flow and water level analysis indicate that there are positively significant trend for Lubuk Paku (0.001) and Sg. Yap (<0.0001) from 1972-2011 with the p-value < 0.05. Temerloh (0.178) data from 1963-2011 recorded no trend for stream flow parameter but negative trend for water level parameter. Hydrological pattern and trend are extremely affected by outside factors such as north east monsoon season that occurred in South China Sea and affected Pahang during November to March. There are other factors such as development and management of the areas which can be considered as factors affected the data and results. Hydrological Pattern is important to indicate the river trend such as stream flow and water level. It can be used as flood mitigation by local authorities. (author)

  15. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose O. dos [Coordenacao de Cursos Tecnicos e Superiores. Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sergipe, Lagarto, SE (Brazil); Munita, Casimiro S., E-mail: camunita@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Soares, Emilio A.A., E-mail: easores@ufam.edu.br [Departamento de Geociencias. Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  16. Chemical study of sediments from Solimoes and Negro rivers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose O. dos; Munita, Casimiro S.; Soares, Emilio A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The events of the last 70,000 yrs of the history of the Solimoes-Amazon river system are recorded in the fluvial terraces at region of confluence of the Negro and Solimoes rivers, and are markers of changes in the landscape of the Amazon region and it can be observed by analyzing the sedimentary deposits quaternary in Amazon fluvial system. The aim of this work was to contribute with the characterization sedimentological - stratigraphic of Pleistocene succession of the confluence zone of the Negro and Solimoes rivers by means of elemental chemical analysis. To provenance study, 24 elements were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis from sediment samples collected at confluence of Negro and Solimoes rivers and the results were interpreted using cluster and linear discriminant analysis, which classification to priori were samples previously defined according to Pleistocene stratigraphic units individualized at study area. According to discriminant analysis, one can infer that samples from the basin of the Solimoes River and Parana do Ariau grabens (GPA) are not significantly different, but there was a clear separation of sediments from Negro and GPA groups. It was also obtained that samples from highest and lowest terraces that the of the Solimoes river and Parana do Ariau are different, suggesting that it is a process that reflects the influence of chemical weathering on the uppermost terrace deposits. Thus, this work contributes to determine the contribution of the sediments deposited by the Solimoes and Negro rivers in the filling of tectonic depressions and in the variations of degree of weathering between younger and older units, and provides additional subsidies to build the geological evolution of the area. (author)

  17. Variability of Ecosystem State in Rivers Containing Natural Dams: A Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding, and the resulting economic damage to roads and property, is associated with natural dams such as beaver dams or log jams. For this reason, humans often remove natural dams; however, river reaches with natural dams provide very different ecosystem services in comparison with free-flowing river reaches. Therefore, the goal of this project is to assess the differences in ecosystem state between these different river reach types in the northeastern United States. We focused on differences in basic chemistry (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and organic carbon) to assess the impact of natural dams on river ecosystem state. Study sites include rivers in the White Mountains and southeastern New Hampshire at locations with beaver dams, beaver ponds, beaver meadows, log jams, and free-flowing reaches. Dissolved oxygen, ORP, pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured in the field with a YSI Professional Plus meter. Water samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis of total organic carbon with a Shimadzu TOC-L. Preliminary results show that the chemistry of river water varies with feature type. Most significantly, dissolved oxygen concentrations are highest in free-flowing reaches and lowest in beaver ponds. Although beaver ponds are often associated with lower pH, due the increased concentration of organic acids, some beaver ponds can increase pH when compared to free-flowing reaches on the same river. Early results also show that water chemistry returns quickly to the chemistry typical of the free-flowing river reaches after being altered by a natural dam. Overall, natural dams create a river system that has more heterogeneity, and therefore has opportunities to provide more ecosystem functions, than a purely free-flowing river; this can increase the number of supported instream and riparian species. By increasing the understanding of how natural dams affect the chemistry of river water, river engineers can improve their decisions on how

  18. Physical and Human Controls on the Carbon Composition of Organic Matter in Tropical Rivers: An Integrated Analysis of Landscape Properties and River Isotopic Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, M. V.R.; Victoria, R. L.; Krusche, A. V. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (Brazil); Bernardes, M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Neill, C.; Deegan, L. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Richey, J. E. [University of Washington, Seatle, WA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We applied an integrated analysis of landscape properties including soil properties, land cover and riverine isotopic composition. To evaluate physical and human controls on the carbon composition of organic matter in tropical rivers, we applied an integrated analysis of landscape properties including soil properties, land cover and riverine isotopic composition. Our main objective was to establish the relationship between basin attributes and forms, fluxes and composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter in river channels. A physical template was developed as a GIS-based comprehensive tool to support the understanding of the biogeochemistry of the surface waters of two tropical rivers: the Ji-Parana (Western Amazonia) and the Piracicaba (southeastern of Brazil). For each river we divided the basin into drainage units, organized according to river network morphology and degree of land use impact. Each sector corresponded to a sampling point where river isotopic composition was analysed. River sites and basin characteristics were calculated using datasets compiled as layers in ArcGis Geographical Information System and ERDAS-IMAGINE (Image Processing) software. Each delineated drainage area was individually characterized in terms of topography, soils, river network and land use. Carbon stable isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) was determined at several sites along the main tributaries and small streams. The effects of land use on fluvial carbon composition were quantified by a linear regression analysis, relating basin cover and river isotopic composition. The results showed that relatively recent land cover changes have already had an impact on the composition of the riverine DOM and POM, indicating that, as in natural ecosystems, vegetation plays a key role in the composition of riverine organic matter in agricultural ecosystems. (author)

  19. Detection and genetic analysis of human sapoviruses in river water in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Masaaki; Oka, Tomoichiro; Haramoto, Eiji; Katayama, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Naokazu; Katayama, Kazuhiko; Ohgaki, Shinichiro

    2010-04-01

    We investigated the prevalence of sapoviruses (SaVs) in the Tamagawa River in Japan from April 2003 to March 2004 and performed genetic analysis of the SaV genes identified in river water. A total of 60 river water samples were collected from five sites along the river, and 500 ml was concentrated using the cation-coated filter method. By use of a real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay, 12 (20%) of the 60 samples were positive for SaV. SaV sequences were obtained from 15 (25%) samples, and a total of 30 SaV strains were identified using six RT-PCR assays followed by cloning and sequence analysis. A newly developed nested RT-PCR assay utilizing a broadly reactive forward primer showed the highest detection efficiency and amplified more diverse SaV genomes in the samples. SaV sequences were frequently detected from November to March, whereas none were obtained in April, July, September, or October. No SaV sequences were detected in the upstream portion of the river, whereas the midstream portion showed high positive rates. Based on phylogenetic analysis, SaV strains identified in the river water samples were classified into nine genotypes, namely, GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/5, GI/untyped, GII/1, GII/2, GII/3, and GV/1. To our knowledge, this is the first study describing seasonal and spatial distributions and genetic diversity of SaVs in river water. A combination of real-time RT-PCR assay and newly developed nested RT-PCR assay is useful for identifying and characterizing SaV strains in a water environment.

  20. Global Analysis of River Planform Change using the Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, A.; Dietrich, W. E.; Gorelick, N.; Sargent, R.; Braudrick, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Geomorphologists have historically tracked river dynamics using a combination of maps, aerial photographs, and the stratigraphic record. Although stratigraphic records can extend into deep time, maps and aerial photographs often confine our record of change to sparse measurements over the last ~80 years and in some cases much less time. For the first time Google's Earth Engine (GEE) cloud based platform allows researchers the means to analyze quantitatively the pattern and pace of river channel change over the last 30 years with high temporal resolution across the entire planet. The GEE provides an application programing interface (API) that enables quantitative analysis of various data sets including the entire Landsat L1T archive. This allows change detection for channels wider than about 150 m over 30 years of successive, georeferenced imagery. Qualitatively, it becomes immediately evident that the pace of channel morphodynamics for similar planforms varies by orders of magnitude across the planet and downstream along individual rivers. To quantify these rates of change and to explore their controls we have developed methods for differentiating channels from floodplain along large alluvial rivers. We introduce a new metric of morphodynamics: the ratio of eroded area to channel area per unit time, referred to as "M". We also keep track of depositional areas resulting from channel shifting. To date our quantitative analysis has focused on rivers in the Andean foreland. Our analysis shows channel bank erosion rates, M, varies by orders of magnitude for these rivers, from 0 to ~0.25 yr-1, yet these rivers have essentially identical curvature and sinuosity and are visually indistinguishable. By tracking both bank paths in time, we find that, for some meandering rivers, a significant fraction of new floodplain is produced through outer-bank accretion rather than point bar deposition. This process is perhaps more important in generating floodplain stratigraphy than

  1. Spatio-temporal variation analysis of hydrochemical characteristics in the Luanhe River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Huiliang; Li, Wenzan

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of river pollution and assessment of spatial and temporal variation in hydrochemistry are essential to river water pollution control in the context of rapid economic growth and growing pollution threats in China. In this study, we focused on hydrochemical characteristics of the Luanhe River Basin (China) and evaluation of 12 hydrochemical variables obtained from 32 monitoring stations during 2001-2010. In each study year, the streams were monitored in the three hydrological periods (April, August, and October) to observe differences in the impacts of agricultural activity and rainfall pattern. Multivariate statistical methods were applied to the data set, and the river water hydrochemical characteristics were assessed using the water quality identification index (WQIIM). The results showed that parameters had variable contribution to water quality status in different months except for ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total nitrogen (TN), which were the most important parameters in contributing to water quality variations for all three periods. Results of WQIIM revealed that 18 sites were classified as 'meeting standard' while the other 14 sites were classified as 'not meeting standard', with most of the seriously polluted sites located in urban area, mainly due to discharge of wastewater from domestic and industrial sources. Sites with low pollution level were located primarily in smaller tributaries, whereas sites of medium and high pollution levels were in the main river channel and the larger tributaries. Our findings provide valuable information and guidance for water pollution control and water resource management in the Luanhe River Basin.

  2. Sensitivity analysis on the model to the DO and BODc of the Almendares river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.; Borroto, J.; Hernandez, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, the sensitivity analysis of the model was done, to compare and evaluate the influence of the kinetic coefficients and other parameters, on the DO and BODc. The effect of the BODc and the DO which the river arrives to the studied zone, the influence of the BDO of the discharges and the flow rate, on the DO was modeled. The sensitivity analysis is the base for developing a calibration optimization procedure of the Streeter Phelps model, in order to make easier the process and to increase the precision of predictions. In the other hand, it will contribute to the definition of the strategies to improve river water quality

  3. Process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics in a river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kabir

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of sediment dynamics for developing best management practices of reducing soil erosion and of sediment control has become essential for sustainable management of watersheds. Precise estimation of sediment dynamics is very important since soils are a major component of enormous environmental processes and sediment transport controls lake and river pollution extensively. Different hydrological processes govern sediment dynamics in a river basin, which are highly variable in spatial and temporal scales. This paper presents a process-based distributed modeling approach for analysis of sediment dynamics at river basin scale by integrating sediment processes (soil erosion, sediment transport and deposition with an existing process-based distributed hydrological model. In this modeling approach, the watershed is divided into an array of homogeneous grids to capture the catchment spatial heterogeneity. Hillslope and river sediment dynamic processes have been modeled separately and linked to each other consistently. Water flow and sediment transport at different land grids and river nodes are modeled using one dimensional kinematic wave approximation of Saint-Venant equations. The mechanics of sediment dynamics are integrated into the model using representative physical equations after a comprehensive review. The model has been tested on river basins in two different hydro climatic areas, the Abukuma River Basin, Japan and Latrobe River Basin, Australia. Sediment transport and deposition are modeled using Govers transport capacity equation. All spatial datasets, such as, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, land use and soil classification data, etc., have been prepared using raster "Geographic Information System (GIS" tools. The results of relevant statistical checks (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and R–squared value indicate that the model simulates basin hydrology and its associated sediment dynamics reasonably well. This paper presents the

  4. Remote Sensing Analysis of Temperature and Suspended Sediment Concentration in Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanda Ko, Nyein; Rutten, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Detailed spatial coverage of water quality parameters are crucial to better manage rivers. However, collection of water quality parameters is both time consuming and costly for large rivers. This study demonstrates that Operational Land Image (OLI) Sensor on board of Landsat 8 can be successfully applied for the detection of spatial patterns of water temperature as well as suspended sediment concentration (SSC) using the Ayeyarwady river, Myanmar as a case study. Water temperature estimation was obtained from the brightness thermal Band 10 by using the Split-Window algorithm. The study finds that there is a close agreement between the remote sensing temperature and in-situ temperature with relative error in the range from 4.5% to 8.2%. The sediment load of Ayeyarwady river is ranked as the third-largest sediment load among the world's rivers but there is very little known about this important parameter, due to a lack of adequate gauge data. The single band reflectance of Landsat image (Band 5) seems a good indicator for the estimation of SSC with relative error in the range of less than 10% but the developed empirical formula by the power relation with the only seven ground reference points is uncertain to apply for the entire river basin. It is to note that an important constraint for the sediment analysis is the availability of spatial and temporal ground reference data. Future studies should also focus on the improvement of ground reference data points to become more reliable, because most of the river in Asia, especially in Myanmar, don't have readily available continuous ground sediment data points due to lack of measurement gauge stations through the river.

  5. Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water Temperature Models Developed for the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    ER D C/ EL T R- 17 -1 8 Missouri River Recovery Program (MRRP) Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) Water...Zhonglong Zhang and Billy E. Johnson September 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research...and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and

  6. Tracers in measurement and analysis of river pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, R.M.; Castro, J.O.N.M. de

    1986-01-01

    Pollutant matter discharged into streams undergo, a process of dispersion caused by turbulence and shear dispersion. A physical dilution ensues, to which in some cases is added the decay of the pollutant. Hence, a natural process of self purification results and this characteristic of the stream has a most important ecological and economical meaning. Its evaluation allows the optimization of effluent treatment works, at the same time ensuring the compliance with established water quality criteria. The use of tracers, together with the calibration of mathematical models and with the information they afford, make possible the impact assessment and the adaptive control of the effects of pollutant disposal into streams. This paper classifies the models apropriate for each discharge type, discusses the calibration methods and presents an application fo these techniques to a real situation of a medium size river. (Author) [pt

  7. Tracers in measurement and analysis of river pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, R.M.; Castro, J.O.N.M. de.

    1986-01-01

    Pollutant matter discharged into streams undergo a process of dispersion caused by turbulence and shear dispersion. A physical dilution ensues, to which in some cases is added the decay of the pollutant. Hence, a natural process of self purification results and this characteristic of the stream has a most important ecological and economical meaning. Its evaluation allows the optimization of effluent treatment works, at the same time ensuring the compliance with established water quality criteria. The use of tracres, together with the calibration of mathematical models and with the information they afford, make possible the impact assessment and the adaptive control of the effects of pollutant disposal into streams. This paper classifies the models apropriate for each discharge type, discusses the calibration methods and presents an application of these techniques to a real situation of a medium size river. (Author) [pt

  8. Introduction of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS) For River Water Samples Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakirah Abd Shukor; Mohd Suhaimi Hamzah; Shamsiah Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Metal contamination in water is a major component in the determination of water quality monitoring. In spite of the viability of several other metal ion analysis techniques for river water, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) method is most commonly used due to the reproducibility results, short analysis time, cost effective, lower level detection and robust. Therefore, this article gives an overview on the principles, instrumentation techniques, sample preparations, instrument calibration and data analysis in a simple manner for beginner. (author)

  9. Hydraulic conductivity changes in river valley sediments caused by river bank filtration - an analysis of specific well capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Piotr M. J.

    2017-06-01

    Parameters from archive data of the Kalisz-Lis waterworks, located in the Prosna River valley south of Kalisz, have been analysed. Well barrier discharges groundwater from Quaternary sediments which is mixed with riverbank filtration water. The analysis focused on specific well capacity, a parameter that represents the technical and natural aspects of well life. To exclude any aging factor, an examination of specific well capacity acquired only in the first pumping tests of a new well was performed. The results show that wells drilled between 1961 and 2004 have similar values of specific well capacity and prove that > 40 years discharge has had little influence on hydrodynamic conditions of the aquifer, i.e., clogging has either not occurred or is of low intensity. This implies that, in the total water balance of the Kalisz- Lis well barrier, riverbank filtration water made little contribution. In comparison, a similar analysis of archive data on the Mosina-Krajkowo wells of two generations of well barriers located in the Warta flood plains was performed; this has revealed a different trend. There was a significant drop in specific well capacity from the first pumping test of substitute wells. Thus, long-term groundwater discharge in the Warta valley has had a great impact on the reduction of the hydraulic conductivity of sediments and has worsened hydrodynamic conditions due to clogging of river bed and aquifer, which implies a large contribution of riverbank filtration water in the total water well balance. For both well fields conclusions were corroborated by mathematical modeling; in Kalisz-Lis 16.2% of water comes from riverbank filtration, whereas the percentage for Mosina-Krajkowo is 78.9%.

  10. Addendum to the Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This document is an addendum to the Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (DOE 1993). The Department of Energy--Oak Ridge Operations (DOE-ORO) is proposing this addendum to the US Envianmental Protection Agency, Region IV (EPA-IV), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) as a reduced sampling program on the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir and on Poplar Creek. DOE-ORO is proposing to maximize the use of existing data and minimize the collection of new data for water, sediment, and biota during Phase 2 of the Clinch River Remedial Investigation. The existing data along with the additional data collected in Phase 2 would be used to perform a baseline risk assessment and make remedial decisions. DOE-ORO considers that the existing data, the additional data collected in Phase 2, and on-site remedial investigation data would be sufficient to understand the nature and extent of the contamination problem in the Clinch River, perform a baseline risk assessment,and make remedial decisions. This addendum is organized in three sections. The first section provides background information and describes a rationale for modifying the Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan. Section 2 presents a summary of the existing data for the Clinch River arm of Watts Bar Reservoir and an evaluation of the sufficiency of this data for a baseline human health and ecological risk assessment. Section 3 describes the revised Phase 2 Sampling and Analysis Plan for surface water, sediment, and biota in the Clinch River OU and in the Poplar Creek OU

  11. Four Common Simplifications of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis do not hold for River Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Simone D; Lienert, Judit

    2016-01-01

    River rehabilitation aims at alleviating negative effects of human impacts such as loss of biodiversity and reduction of ecosystem services. Such interventions entail difficult trade-offs between different ecological and often socio-economic objectives. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) is a very suitable approach that helps assessing the current ecological state and prioritizing river rehabilitation measures in a standardized way, based on stakeholder or expert preferences. Applications of MCDA in river rehabilitation projects are often simplified, i.e. using a limited number of objectives and indicators, assuming linear value functions, aggregating individual indicator assessments additively, and/or assuming risk neutrality of experts. Here, we demonstrate an implementation of MCDA expert preference assessments to river rehabilitation and provide ample material for other applications. To test whether the above simplifications reflect common expert opinion, we carried out very detailed interviews with five river ecologists and a hydraulic engineer. We defined essential objectives and measurable quality indicators (attributes), elicited the experts´ preferences for objectives on a standardized scale (value functions) and their risk attitude, and identified suitable aggregation methods. The experts recommended an extensive objectives hierarchy including between 54 and 93 essential objectives and between 37 to 61 essential attributes. For 81% of these, they defined non-linear value functions and in 76% recommended multiplicative aggregation. The experts were risk averse or risk prone (but never risk neutral), depending on the current ecological state of the river, and the experts´ personal importance of objectives. We conclude that the four commonly applied simplifications clearly do not reflect the opinion of river rehabilitation experts. The optimal level of model complexity, however, remains highly case-study specific depending on data and resource

  12. Deformation analysis and prediction of bank protection structure with river level fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Xing, Yixuan

    2017-04-01

    Bank structure is an important barrier to maintain the safety of the embankment. The deformation of bank protection structure is not only affected by soil pressure caused by the excavation of the riverway, but also by the water pressure caused river water level fluctuations. Thus, it is necessary to establish a coupled soil-water model to analyze the deformation of bank structure. Based on Druck-Prager failure criteria and groundwater seepage theory, a numerical model of bank protection structure with consideration of the pore water pressure of soil mass is established. According to the measured river level data with seasonal fluctuating, numerical analysis of the deformation of bank protection structure is implemented. The simulation results show that the river water level fluctuation has clear influence on the maximum lateral displacement of the pile. Meanwhile, the distribution of plastic zone is related to the depth of groundwater level. Finally, according to the river water level data of the recent ten years, we analyze the deformation of the bank structure under extreme river level. The result shows that, compared with the scenario of extreme high river level, the horizontal displacement of bank protection structure is larger (up to 65mm) under extreme low river level, which is a potential risk to the embankment. Reference Schweiger H F. On the use of drucker-prager failure criteria for earth pressure problems[J]. Computers and Geotechnics, 1994, 16(3): 223-246. DING Yong-chun,CHENG Ze-kun. Numerical study on performance of waterfront excavation[J]. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,2013,35(2):515-521. Wu L M, Wang Z Q. Three gorges reservoir water level fluctuation influents on the stability of the slope[J]. Advanced Materials Research. Trans Tech Publications, 2013, 739: 283-286.

  13. Determination of elements in cisadane river sediments by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamarz, H.

    1997-01-01

    Determination of elements in Cisadane river sediments by neutron activation analysis has been conducted. Samples of sediments were obtained from some location along Cisadane river, i.e. Leuranji, Karanggan, Cibigo, Cisauk, Warung Mangga Pintu Air and Estuary Teluk Naga. the elements analysed were Al, Mn, Mg, V, K, Na, Fe, Cr, Co, U and Zn, and the results were compared to the SRM of sediment sample from IAEA. Generally, the results showed that the mean concentration of elements were found in Cibogo, Cisauk, Pintu Air and Muara Teluk Naga which were higher than others. Concentration factor of elements in sediments were in between of 0,02 - 3,45, this factor indicated that Cisadane river sediments have not been contaminated. CRM sediments 2704 from IAEA used as NAA Quality Control (author)

  14. Lineament and Morphometric Analysis for Watershed Development of Tarali River Basin, Western India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Bartakke

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tarali river is major tributary of River Krishna, which is flowing in western India. The study area lies between latitude 17°23' to 17°38' N and longitude 73°48' to 74°7' E. The area has steep to moderate slope and elevation ranges from 584 - 1171m above mean sea level. Basin exhibits hilly and mountain terrain forming ridges and Western Ghats with deep valley, plateaus and plain. The whole area can be obtained in topographical maps i.e. 47 G/14, 47 G/15 47 K/2, 47 K/3 covering area of about 627 sq.km, acquired from Survey of India. Present study includes lineament and morphometric analysis of Tarali River basin for management and conservation of watershed.

  15. Mathematical models in the analysis of quality parameters to the Almendares river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.; Borroto, J.; Hernandez, A.; Santiago, J.F.; CU)

    2003-01-01

    The river Almendares, one of the most important water bodies of the Havana City, is very polluted. The analysis of parameters as dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand is very helpful for the studies aimed to the recovery of the river. There is a growing recognition around the word that the water quality models are very useful tools to plan sanitary strategies for the handling of the contamination. In the present work, the advective, steady- state Streeter and Phelps model was validated to simulate the effect of the multiple-point and distributed sources on the carbonaceous oxygen demand, NH4 and dissolved oxygen. For modeling purposes the section of the river located between the point where the waste water treatment station Maria del Carmen discharges to the river and the Bridge El Bosque, was divided in 11 segments. The use of the 99mTc and the Rodamine WT as tracers allowed determining the hydrodynamic parameters necessary for modeling purposes. The validated model allows to predict the effect of the sanitary strategies on the water quality of the river

  16. Analysis of thermal impact in tidal rivers and estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeuser, J.; Eppel, D.; Tanzer, F.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a far field mathematical model for numerical simulation of transient one or two-dimensional thermal distributions in regions with severe reversing flow conditions. The Eulerian formulation employs the integral form of the conservation principles for mass and thermal energy. The two-dimensional (2 D) solution area is spanned by discrete elements of variable size and shape. The three-dimensional geometry of the flow region is accounted for by spatially intergrating over the enclosure surfaces of the discrete element. The derivation of the two-dimensional depth-averaged temperatur equations includes the constributions of the vertical variations of velocity and temperature. Surface heat transfer as well as turbulent effects are taken into account. Important mathematical and computational features of the model are summarized. There is a discussion of the four main algorithms, necessary to treat flow regions with complex shoreline geometries, viz. (i) specification of the boundary (ii) determination of all discrete element midpoints lying within the (possibly multiconnected) solution area (iii) construction of discrete elements of irregular geometry exactly matching the (curved) boundary, (iv) treatment of boundary condiditons and numerical solution of the resulting mathematical system of weakly coupled, ordinary differential equations derived from the conservation principles. Preliminary results of a computer simulation are compared with the available data for a section of the Lower Elbe river. The calculation of the two-dimensional temperature distribution includes existing power plants and industrial sites. (orig.) [de

  17. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  18. Global Analysis of Climate Change Projection Effects on Atmospheric Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Vicky; Waliser, Duane E.; Guan, Bin; Lavers, David A.; Ralph, F. Martin

    2018-05-01

    A uniform, global approach is used to quantify how atmospheric rivers (ARs) change between Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 historical simulations and future projections under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 warming scenarios. The projections indicate that while there will be 10% fewer ARs in the future, the ARs will be 25% longer, 25% wider, and exhibit stronger integrated water vapor transports (IVTs) under RCP8.5. These changes result in pronounced increases in the frequency (IVT strength) of AR conditions under RCP8.5: 50% (25%) globally, 50% (20%) in the northern midlatitudes, and 60% (20%) in the southern midlatitudes. The models exhibit systematic low biases across the midlatitudes in replicating historical AR frequency ( 10%), zonal IVT ( 15%), and meridional IVT ( 25%), with sizable intermodel differences. A more detailed examination of six regions strongly impacted by ARs suggests that the western United States, northwestern Europe, and southwestern South America exhibit considerable intermodel differences in projected changes in ARs.

  19. Atmospheric deposition of nutrients to north Florida rivers: A multivariate statistical analysis. Final report. Master's thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, J.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric nutrient input to the Apalachicola Bay estuary was studied because it has been demonstrated that atmospheric deposition can be a major source of nutrients to eastern U.S. estuaries. Besides the Apalachicola River, the Sopchoppy and the Ochlockonee were also selected for a comparative analysis. Receptor model, absolute principal of component analysis (APCA), and mass balance methods were applied in the study. The results of the study show that nitrogen is probably not a limiting nutrient in the three rivers because their N:P mole ratios are nearly 3 times higher than the Redfield ratio for photosynthesis. The total atmospheric nitrogen depositions in the three river watershed are at least as great as their river fluxes. In the Apalachicola River, the atmospheric source of nitrogen is found to be several times higher than the largest possible input of urban sewage. Atmospheric deposition, therefore, might be the dominant nitrogen source entering the estuary. The results of APCA show that Apalachicola River water is mainly a mixture of components that correspond in their compositions to aged rain, ground water, and fresh rain. Atmospheric nitrate deposition is the result of the air pollution, i.e., acid rain. The studies also show that the annual average deposition of nitrate has a narrow range, mainly from 5.8 to 11.5 kg/ha/yr in most of the NADP sites in the 8 southeastern states. Since all the software and data sets employed in the study are accessible nationwide, the methods could be applied in other watersheds

  20. Elemental analysis of Oum er Rbia Moroccan river-water using TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahry, F.; Bounakhla, M.; El Hamdaoui, A.; Labraimi, M.

    2000-01-01

    The x-ray fluorescence analysis of water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from Oum er Rbia Moroccan river for the content of 17 elements has been performed utilizing the energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and total reflection excitation. SPM samples were dissolved in nitric acid. For all samples direct measurements are feasible by spiking a few ml of the sample with Ga as internal standard element, and drying an aliquot of 20 μl on a quartz glass carrier. The detection limits of 10 to 20 ppb are sufficient for most of the elements to be determined. Results were assessed for accuracy by the analysis of the 15474 ICP multi-elemental standard I. Some results were also compared with AAS and ICP-AES. The results for most of the elements obtained by TXRF were accurate to about 2-15 %. The objectives of the analysis were to determine the geo-chemical areas on this river, to explain the mechanism of sediment transport and to assess the pollution of the river by human activities. 36 samples had been collected along the river between its source in Middle Atlas and the Atlantic ocean at Azemour city. (author)

  1. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CE/CTM-SP), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analitica

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Br{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  2. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa; Cadore, Solange

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F - , Cl - , NO 2 - , Br - , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- , SO 4 2- by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  3. Summary of the Preliminary Analysis of Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary special analysis of the Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream (SVRSURANIUM03, Revision 2). The analysis is considered preliminary because a final waste profile has not been submitted for review. The special analysis is performed to determine the acceptability of the waste stream for shallow land burial at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The Savannah River Depleted Uranium Trioxide waste stream requires a special analysis because the waste stream's sum of fractions exceeds one. The 99Tc activity concentration is 98 percent of the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria and the largest single contributor to the sum of fractions.

  4. The analysis of precipitation conducted on the upper watershed of the West Morava river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jugoslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is one of the basic elements of the water balance and its analysis is of the crucial importance for many scientific areas. The analysis of precipitation, conducted on the upper part watershed of the West Morava River, was done in the complex way, with the use of the appropriate numerical model. In this way, among other things, orographic and dynamic effects on the explored terrain are taken into consideration.

  5. Simulation Tools for Forest Health Analysis: An Application in the Red River Watershed, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. McMahan; Eric L. Smith

    2006-01-01

    Software tools for landscape analyses--including FVS model extensions, and a number of FVS-related pre- and post-processing “tools”--are presented, using an analysis in the Red River Watershed, Nez Perce National Forest as an example. We present (1) a discussion of pre-simulation data analysis; (2) the Physiographic Information Extraction System (PIES), a tool that can...

  6. Analysis of impingement impacts on Hudson River fish populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; van Winkle, W.

    1988-01-01

    Impacts of impingement, expressed as reductions in year-class abundance, were calculated for six Hudson River fish populations. Estimates were made for the 1974 and 1975 year classes of white perch, striped bass, Atlantic tomcod, and American shad, and the 1974 year classes of alewife and blueback herring. The maximum estimated reductions in year-class abundance were less than 5% for all year classes except the 1974 and 1975 white perch year classes and the 1974 striped bass year class. Only for white perch were the estimates greater than 10% per year. For striped bass, the 146,000 fish from the 1974 year class that were killed by impingement could have produced 12,000-16,000 5-year-old fish or 270-300 10-year-olds. Also estimated were the reductions in mortality that could have been achieved had closed-cycle cooling systems been installed at one or more of three power plants (Bowline point, Indian Point, and Roseton) and had the screen-wash systems at Bowline Point and Indian Point been modified to improve the survival of impinged fish. Closed-cycle cooling at all three plants would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch, striped bass, and Atlantic tomcod by 75% or more; installation of closed-cycle cooling at Indian Point alone would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch and Atlantic tomcod by 50%-80%. Modified traveling screens would have been less effective than closed-cycle cooling, but still would have reduced impingement impacts on white perch by roughly 20%. 23 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  7. Population structure and genetic diversity of Sinibrama macrops from Ou River and Ling River based on mtDNA D-loop region analysis, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liangjie; Chenoweth, Erica L; Liu, Qigen

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the influence of human activities such as habitat fragmentation on freshwater fish population evolution, we investigated and compared the genetic diversity and phylogeography of Sinibrama macrops populations in the Oujiang River and Ling River. Mitochondrial control region sequences (D-loop region) of 131 specimens from six populations were obtained and analyzed. The diversity of main stream in the Ou River was lower than that in Ling River. Changtan population showed the lowest diversity (H = 0.646 ± 0.077; π = 0.00060 ± 0.00820). Pairwise F ST , gene flow (Nm), and genetic distance (Da) indicated that Longquan and Changtan significantly differentiate from other populations. Nested clade phylogeographical analysis (NCPA) showed some clades and total cladogram experienced isolation by distance. In conclusion, the populations from severely fragmented Ou River have the lower diversity and more intense differentiation than that from the mainstream of Ling River, Changtan population present the lowest diversity and were isolated by the dam construction.

  8. Temporal precipitation trend analysis at the Langat River Basin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    analysis showed that most of the stations during the northeast monsoon (NEM) and the inter monsoon. 1 (INT1) seasons and half of ..... mator and b in linear regression analysis for annual data ..... for the financial support given for the research.

  9. Hydrophysical conditions and periphyton in natural rivers. Analysis and predictive modelling of periphyton by changed regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokseth, S.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this thesis has been to examine the interaction between hydrodynamical and physical factors and the temporal and spatial dynamics of periphyton in natural steep rivers. The study strategy has been to work with quantitative system variables to be able to evaluate the potential usability of a predictive model for periphyton changes as a response to river regulations. The thesis is constituted by a theoretical and an empirical study. The theoretical study is aimed at presenting a conceptual model of the relevant factors based on an analysis of published studies. Effort has been made to evaluate and present the background material in a structured way. To concurrently handle the spatial and temporal dynamics of periphyton a new method for data collection has been developed. A procedure for quantifying the photo registrations has been developed. The simple hydrodynamical parameters were estimated from a set of standard formulas whereas the complex parameters were estimated from a three dimensional simulation model called SSIIM. The main conclusion from the analysis is that flood events are the major controlling factors wrt. periphyton biomass and that water temperature is of major importance for the periphyton resistance. Low temperature clearly increases the periphyton erosion resistance. Thus, to model or control the temporal dynamics the river periphyton, the water temperature and the frequency and size of floods should be regarded the most significant controlling factors. The data in this study has been collected from a river with a stable water quality and frequent floods. 109 refs., 41 figs., 34 tabs

  10. THE HORTON-STRAHLER RIVER ORDER IMPLEMENTATION RELEVANCE WITHIN THE ANALYSIS OF THE ALMAŞ BASIN RELIEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MĂDĂLINA-IOANA RUS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Horton-Strahler River Order Implementation Relevance within the Analysis of the Almaș Basin. The purpose of the present study/research aims at underlining the importance of the enforcement of the river order within the analysis of the Almaș basin relief. The topic was chosen based on the fact that the hydrographic networks hierarchy offers at the same time quality and quantity information, on the relief evolution tendency and also the chance to compare the Almaș tributary sub-basins ones with the others and also with other basins of the same order belonging to other morphological units. The results thus achieved offer information on the rivers order, the confluence report, the river segments density, the form/shape report. The values corresponding to the previously mentioned index, have led us to formulating the following conclusion: the evolution of the Almaș hydrographic network appears therefore strongly influenced by the lithologic sub-layer, by the presence of brittle rocks, by accentuated fragmentation and by the wide energy of the relief, nevertheless by the presence of the local subsidence area/region of Someș, from Jibou.

  11. Parameterization and Uncertainty Analysis of SWAT model in Hydrological Simulation of Chaohe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, M.; Zhang, J.; Guo, B. B.

    2017-12-01

    As a typical distributed hydrological model, the SWAT model also has a challenge in calibrating parameters and analysis their uncertainty. This paper chooses the Chaohe River Basin China as the study area, through the establishment of the SWAT model, loading the DEM data of the Chaohe river basin, the watershed is automatically divided into several sub-basins. Analyzing the land use, soil and slope which are on the basis of the sub-basins and calculating the hydrological response unit (HRU) of the study area, after running SWAT model, the runoff simulation values in the watershed are obtained. On this basis, using weather data, known daily runoff of three hydrological stations, combined with the SWAT-CUP automatic program and the manual adjustment method are used to analyze the multi-site calibration of the model parameters. Furthermore, the GLUE algorithm is used to analyze the parameters uncertainty of the SWAT model. Through the sensitivity analysis, calibration and uncertainty study of SWAT, the results indicate that the parameterization of the hydrological characteristics of the Chaohe river is successful and feasible which can be used to simulate the Chaohe river basin.

  12. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: Considering an Active Leech River Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukovica, J.; Molnar, S.; Ghofrani, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Leech River fault is situated on Vancouver Island near the city of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. The 60km transpressional reverse fault zone runs east to west along the southern tip of Vancouver Island, dividing the lithologic units of Jurassic-Cretaceous Leech River Complex schists to the north and Eocene Metchosin Formation basalts to the south. This fault system poses a considerable hazard due to its proximity to Victoria and 3 major hydroelectric dams. The Canadian seismic hazard model for the 2015 National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) considered the fault system to be inactive. However, recent paleoseismic evidence suggests there to be at least 2 surface-rupturing events to have exceeded a moment magnitude (M) of 6.5 within the last 15,000 years (Morell et al. 2017). We perform a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) for the city of Victoria with consideration of the Leech River fault as an active source. A PSHA for Victoria which replicates the 2015 NBCC estimates is accomplished to calibrate our PSHA procedure. The same seismic source zones, magnitude recurrence parameters, and Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) are used. We replicate the uniform hazard spectrum for a probability of exceedance of 2% in 50 years for a 500 km radial area around Victoria. An active Leech River fault zone is then added; known length and dip. We are determining magnitude recurrence parameters based on a Gutenberg-Richter relationship for the Leech River fault from various catalogues of the recorded seismicity (M 2-3) within the fault's vicinity and the proposed paleoseismic events. We seek to understand whether inclusion of an active Leech River fault source will significantly increase the probabilistic seismic hazard for Victoria. Morell et al. 2017. Quaternary rupture of a crustal fault beneath Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. GSA Today, 27, doi: 10.1130/GSATG291A.1

  13. A GRASS GIS application for vertical sorting of sediments analysis in River Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Minelli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The extreme versatility in different research fields of GRASS GIS is well known. A tool for the vertical sorting of sediments in river dynamics analysis is illustrated in this work.In particular, a GRASS GIS python module has been written which implements a forecasting sorting model by Blom&Parker (2006 to analyze river bed composition’s evolution in depth in terms of grainsize.The module takes a DEM and information relative to the bed load transport composition as input. It works in two different and consecutive phases: the first one uses the GRASS capabilities in analyzing geometrical features of the river bed along a chosen river reach, the second phase is the "numerical" one and implements the forecasting model itself, then executes statistical analyses and draws graphs, by the means of matplotlib library.Moreover, a specific procedure for the import of a laser scanner cloud of points is implemented, in case the raster DEM map is not available.At the moment, the module has been applied using flumes data from Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (Minneapolis, MN and some first results have been obtained, but the "testing" phase on other flume’s data is still in progress. Moreover the module has been written for GRASS 65 on a Ubuntu Linux machine, even if the debugging of a GRASS 64, Windowsversion, is also in progress.The final aim of this work is the application of the model on natural rivers, but there are still some drawbacks. First of all the need of a high resolution DEM in input, secondly the number and type of data in input (for example the bed load composition in volume fraction per each size considered which is not easily obtainable, so the best solution is represented by testing the model on a well instrumented river reach to export in future the forecasting method to un-instrumented reaches.

  14. Analysis on the Water Exchange between the Main Stream of the Yangtze River and the Poyang Lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Li, J.; Yan, H.; Zheng, L.; Dai, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis on the hydrologic characteristics of the main stream of the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake were studied to discuss the water exchange between the main stream of the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake before and after the operation of Three Gorges Reservoir, as well as in the typical dry year of

  15. Analysis of Sedimentation Rates in the Densu River Channel: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST USER

    West African Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 14, 2008. 1. Analysis of .... This vegetation is a degraded dry and open semi-deciduous forest (Dickson & Benneh, 1988). Data collection ..... American Society of Civil Engineers,. Bloom A. L. (1998) ...

  16. A study of the river velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Yang, Han; Lun Chiang, Jie

    2013-04-01

    Velocity measurement technology can be traced back to the pitot tube velocity measurement method in the 18th century and today's velocity measurement technology use the acoustic and radar technology, with the Doppler principle developed technology advances, in order to develop the measurement method is more suitable for the measurement of velocity, the purpose is to get a more accurate measurement data and with the surface velocity theory, the maximum velocity theory and the indicator theory to obtain the mean velocity. As the main research direction of this article is to review the literature of the velocity measurement techniques and analysis methods, and to explore the applicability of the measurement method of the velocity measurement instruments, and then to describe the advantages and disadvantages of the different mean velocity profiles analysis method. Adequate review of the references of this study will be able to provide a reference for follow-up study of the velocity measurement. Review velocity measurement literature that different velocity measurement is required to follow the different flow conditions measured be upgraded its accuracy, because each flow rate measurement method has its advantages and disadvantages. Traditional velocity instrument can be used at low flow and RiverRAD microwave radar or imaging technology measurement method may be applied in high flow. In the tidal river can use the ADCP to quickly measure river vertical velocity distribution. In addition, urban rivers may be used the CW radar to set up on the bridge, and wide rivers can be used RiverRAD microwave radar to measure the velocities. Review the relevant literature also found that using Ultrasonic Doppler Current Profiler with the Chiu's theory to the velocity of observing automation work can save manpower and resources to improve measurement accuracy, reduce the risk of measurement, but the great variability of river characteristics in Taiwan and a lot of drifting floating

  17. Flood Frequency Analysis For Partial Duration Series In Ganjiang River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhangli, Sun; xiufang, Zhu; yaozhong, Pan

    2016-04-01

    Accurate estimation of flood frequency is key to effective, nationwide flood damage abatement programs. The partial duration series (PDS) method is widely used in hydrologic studies because it considers all events above a certain threshold level as compared to the annual maximum series (AMS) method, which considers only the annual maximum value. However, the PDS has a drawback in that it is difficult to define the thresholds and maintain an independent and identical distribution of the partial duration time series; this drawback is discussed in this paper. The Ganjiang River is the seventh largest tributary of the Yangtze River, the longest river in China. The Ganjiang River covers a drainage area of 81,258 km2 at the Wanzhou hydrologic station as the basin outlet. In this work, 56 years of daily flow data (1954-2009) from the Wanzhou station were used to analyze flood frequency, and the Pearson-III model was employed as the hydrologic probability distribution. Generally, three tasks were accomplished: (1) the threshold of PDS by percentile rank of daily runoff was obtained; (2) trend analysis of the flow series was conducted using PDS; and (3) flood frequency analysis was conducted for partial duration flow series. The results showed a slight upward trend of the annual runoff in the Ganjiang River basin. The maximum flow with a 0.01 exceedance probability (corresponding to a 100-year flood peak under stationary conditions) was 20,000 m3/s, while that with a 0.1 exceedance probability was 15,000 m3/s. These results will serve as a guide to hydrological engineering planning, design, and management for policymakers and decision makers associated with hydrology.

  18. Streamflow profile classification using functional data analysis: A case study on the Kelantan River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, Suhaila

    2017-05-01

    Extreme rainfall events such as floods and prolonged dry spells have become common phenomena in tropical countries like Malaysia. Floods are regular natural disasters in Malaysia, and happen nearly every year during the monsoon season. Recently, the magnitude of streamflow seems to have altered frequently, both spatially and temporally. Therefore, in order to have effective planning and an efficient water management system, it is advisable that streamflow data are analysed continuously over a period of time. If the data are treated as a set of functions rather than as a set of discrete values, then this ensures that they are not restricted by physical time. In addition, the derivatives of the functions may themselves be treated as functional data, which provides new information. The objective of this study is to develop a functional framework for hydrological applications using streamflow as the functional data. The daily flow series from the Kelantan River Basin were used as the main input in this study. Seven streamflow stations were employed in the analysis. Classification between the stations was done using the functional principal component, which was based on the results of the factor scores. The results indicated that two stations, namely the Kelantan River (Guillemard Bridge) and the Galas River, have a different flow pattern from the other streamflow stations. The flow curves of these two rivers are considered as the extreme curves because of their different magnitude and shape.

  19. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  20. Fingerprinting analysis and characterization of hydrocarbons in sediments of the Pearl River Delta in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.; Hollebone, B.; Yang, Z.; Brown, C.; Landriault, M.; Peng, X.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported on a study that used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detection (GC-FID) to investigate and characterize the contamination in southern China's Pearl River Delta, with particular reference to contamination from petroleum,n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), biomarkers and diamondoid compounds. Forensic analysis of sediments was necessary in order to decode the contamination history and evaluate the contamination level of the aquatic ecosystem. The contamination of the Pearl River Delta sediment was derived from various inputs, including petrogenic, biogenic and pyrogenic sources. However, in addition to identifying PAHs and biomarker terpanes and steranes, the detection of trace diamondoid compounds in the sediments demonstrated that the pollution in the river was derived partially from petroleum sources. Diamondoids are a class of saturated hydrocarbons that consist of three-dimensionally fused cyclohexane rings. They occur naturally in source rocks, crude oils, intermediate petroleum distillates, and finished petroleum products. They are more resistant to biodegradation than most other petroleum compounds such as n-alkanes. As such, they can play an important role in identifying and characterizing petroleum contamination in the environment. It was concluded that the petroleum contamination in the Pearl River Delta is attributed to the mixture of medium to heavy petroleum residues. 31 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs

  1. 1992 Columbia River salmon flow measures Options Analysis/EIS: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices

  2. Science information to support Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was commissioned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to develop a foundation of understanding of how pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics are linked to management actions in the Missouri River. The EA consists of several steps: (1) development of comprehensive, conceptual ecological models illustrating pallid sturgeon population dynamics and links to management actions and other drivers; (2) compilation and assessment of available scientific literature, databases, and models; (3) development of predictive, quantitative models to explore the system dynamics and population responses to management actions; and (4) analysis and assessment of effects of system operations and actions on species’ habitats and populations. This report addresses the second objective, compilation and assessment of relevant information.

  3. Which lesson can be learnt from a historical contamination analysis of the most polluted river in Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lofrano, Giusy, E-mail: glofrano@unisa.it [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132-84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, National Research Council (CNR IMA), C. da S. Loja Z.I. Tito Scalo, I-85050 Potenza (Italy); Department of Environmental and Civil Engineering, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Claudio, 21, 80127 Naples (Italy); Libralato, Giovanni [Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, University Cà Foscari Venice, Campo della Celestia, 2737/B-30122 Venice (Italy); Institute of Marine Sciences, National Research Council (CNR ISMAR), Arsenale Tesa 104, Castello 2737/F-30122, Venice (Italy); Acanfora, Floriana Giuseppina [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132-84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Pucci, Luca [Legambiente Campania, Piazza Cavour, 168-80137 Naples (Italy); Carotenuto, Maurizio [Department of Chemistry and Biology, University of Salerno, via Giovanni Paolo II, 132-84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    The Sarno River trend analysis during the last 60 years was traced focusing on the socio-economic and environmental issues. The river, originally worshiped as a god by Romans, is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, being sadly reputed as the most polluted river in Europe. This is the “not to be followed” example of the worst way a European river can be managed. Data about water, sediment, soil, biota and air contamination were collected from scientific papers, monitoring surveys, and technical reports depicting a sick river. Originally, the river was reputed as a source of livelihood, now it is considered a direct threat for human health. Wastewater can still flow through the river partially or completely untreated, waste production associated with the manufacture of metal products and leather tanning continues to suffer from the historical inadequacy of regional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), associated with the partial or no reuse of effluents. All efforts should be devoted to solving the lack of wastewater and waste management, the gap in land planning, improving the capacity of existing WWTPs also via the construction of new sewer sections, restoring Sarno River minimum vital-flow, keeping to a minimum uncontrolled discharges as well as supporting river contracts. The 2015 goal stated by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is still far to be reached. The lesson has not been learnt yet. - Highlights: • Sarno River is far from reaching the 2015 goal of Water Framework Directive. • A full knowledge of the health status of Sarno River was provided. • Poor wastewater management and agricultural pressures as main weaknesses • Restoration of vital flow and river contracts as immediate and low cost solutions.

  4. Which lesson can be learnt from a historical contamination analysis of the most polluted river in Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Libralato, Giovanni; Acanfora, Floriana Giuseppina; Pucci, Luca; Carotenuto, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    The Sarno River trend analysis during the last 60 years was traced focusing on the socio-economic and environmental issues. The river, originally worshiped as a god by Romans, is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, being sadly reputed as the most polluted river in Europe. This is the “not to be followed” example of the worst way a European river can be managed. Data about water, sediment, soil, biota and air contamination were collected from scientific papers, monitoring surveys, and technical reports depicting a sick river. Originally, the river was reputed as a source of livelihood, now it is considered a direct threat for human health. Wastewater can still flow through the river partially or completely untreated, waste production associated with the manufacture of metal products and leather tanning continues to suffer from the historical inadequacy of regional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), associated with the partial or no reuse of effluents. All efforts should be devoted to solving the lack of wastewater and waste management, the gap in land planning, improving the capacity of existing WWTPs also via the construction of new sewer sections, restoring Sarno River minimum vital-flow, keeping to a minimum uncontrolled discharges as well as supporting river contracts. The 2015 goal stated by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is still far to be reached. The lesson has not been learnt yet. - Highlights: • Sarno River is far from reaching the 2015 goal of Water Framework Directive. • A full knowledge of the health status of Sarno River was provided. • Poor wastewater management and agricultural pressures as main weaknesses • Restoration of vital flow and river contracts as immediate and low cost solutions

  5. Loss-of-coolant accident analysis of the Savannah River new production reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, K.J.; Pryor, R.J.

    1990-11-01

    This document contains the loss-of-coolant accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. Included in this document are descriptions of the primary system, reactor vessel, and loss-of-coolant accident computer input models, the results of the cold leg and hot leg loss-of-coolant accident analyses, and the results of sensitivity calculations for the cold leg loss-of-coolant accident. 5 refs., 50 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Drought analysis and short-term forecast in the Aison River Basin (Greece)

    OpenAIRE

    Kavalieratou, S.; Karpouzos, D. K.; Babajimopoulos, C.

    2012-01-01

    A combined regional drought analysis and forecast is elaborated and applied to the Aison River Basin (Greece). The historical frequency, duration and severity were estimated using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) computed on variable time scales, while short-term drought forecast was investigated by means of 3-D loglinear models. A quasi-association model with homogenous diagonal effect was proposed to fit the observed frequencies of class transitions of the SPI values computed on t...

  7. Geomorphic and hydraulic controls on large-scale riverbank failure on a mixed bedrock-alluvial river system, the River Murray, South Australia: a bathymetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, E.; Hubble, T.

    2014-12-01

    During the peak of the Millennium Drought (1997-2010) pool-levels in the lower River Murray in South Australia dropped 1.5 metres below sea level, resulting in large-scale mass failure of the alluvial banks. The largest of these failures occurred without signs of prior instability at Long Island Marina whereby a 270 metre length of populated and vegetated riverbank collapsed in a series of rotational failures. Analysis of long-reach bathymetric surveys of the river channel revealed a strong relationship between geomorphic and hydraulic controls on channel width and downstream alluvial failure. As the entrenched channel planform meanders within and encroaches upon its bedrock valley confines the channel width is 'pinched' and decreases by up to half, resulting in a deepening thalweg and channel bed incision. The authors posit that flow and shear velocities increase at these geomorphically controlled 'pinch-points' resulting in complex and variable hydraulic patterns such as erosional scour eddies, which act to scour the toe of the slope over-steepening and destabilising the alluvial margins. Analysis of bathymetric datasets between 2009 and 2014 revealed signs of active incision and erosional scour of the channel bed. This is counter to conceptual models which deem the backwater zone of a river to be one of decelerating flow and thus sediment deposition. Complex and variable flow patterns have been observed in other mixed alluvial-bedrock river systems, and signs of active incision observed in the backwater zone of the Mississippi River, United States. The incision and widening of the lower Murray River suggests the channel is in an erosional phase of channel readjustment which has implications for riverbank collapse on the alluvial margins. The prevention of seawater ingress due to barrage construction at the Murray mouth and Southern Ocean confluence, allowed pool-levels to drop significantly during the Millennium Drought reducing lateral confining support to the

  8. A Physico-Chemical water quality and Microbial content Analysis in Upstream of Langat River, Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Barzani Gasim; Nazirah Zakaria; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Ahmad Dasuki Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Water quality study of the selected physico-chemical and microbial parameters of the Langat River were carried out to determine and classified their values. Sampling was carried out twice; first on 9 June 2011 and the second was on 22 February 2012. The sampling site consist of seven stations; five stations representing for Langat River branches while two stations are located in Langat River. The in-situ measurements are: dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH and temperature were performed using YSI 556 multiparameter, while the laboratory analysis were based on HACH and APHA methods. Result shows; temperature (23.4 - 27.7 degree Celsius), pH (5.07 to 6.15), EC (29.3 . 61.5 μS/ cm), TDS (19.7 - 47.0 mg/L), DO (3.68 - 5.72 mg/L), BOD (1.29 - 3.76 mg/L), COD (13.5 - 77.85 mg/L), TSS (9.5 - 86.5 mg/L), NH_3N (0.15 - 0.79 mg/L), NO_3 (0.8 - 4.9 mg/L), PO_4"3"- (0.15 - 0.7 mg/L), SO_4"2"- (0.5 - 12.5 mg/L) and biological parameters of faecal coliform (2.58 x 10"4 - 4.74 x 10"6 cfu/ 100 ml). Based on water quality index and the National Water Quality Standards classifications, they belong to the class I, II, III and V. One-way ANOVA for repeated measures and Pearson correlation test been used. The overall results showed the selected rivers in upstream of Langat River were classified as moderately polluted. (author)

  9. The Brahmaputra River: a stratigraphic analysis of Holocene avulsion and fluvial valley reoccupation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzog, T. R.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Brahmaputra River, one of the world's largest braided streams, is a major component of commerce, agriculture, and transportation in India and Bangladesh. Hence any significant change in course, morphology, or behavior would be likely to influence the regional culture and economy that relies on this major river system. The history of such changes is recorded in the stratigraphy deposited by the Brahmaputra River during the Holocene. Here we present stratigraphic analysis of sediment samples from the boring of 41 tube wells over a 120 km transect in the upper Bengal Basin of northern Bangladesh. The transect crosses both the modern fluvial valley and an abandoned fluvial valley about 60 km downstream of a major avulsion node. Although the modern Brahmaputra does not transport gravel, gravel strata are common below 20 m with fluvial sand deposits dominating most of the stratigraphy. Furthermore, the stratigraphy preserves very few floodplain mud strata below the modern floodplain mud cap. These preliminary findings will be assessed to determine their importance in defining past channel migration, avulsion frequency, and the reoccupation of abandoned fluvial valleys. Understanding the avulsion and valley reoccupation history of the Brahmaputra River is important to assess the risk involved with developing agriculture, business, and infrastructure on the banks of modern and abandoned channels. Based on the correlation of stratigraphy and digital surface elevation data, we hypothesize that the towns of Jamalpur and Sherpur in northern Bangladesh were once major ports on the Brahmaputra River even though they now lie on the banks of small underfit stream channels. If Jamalpur and Sherpur represent the outer extent of the Brahmaputra River braid-belt before the last major avulsion, these cities and any communities developed in the abandoned braid-belt assume a high risk of devastation if the next major avulsion reoccupies this fluvial valley. It is important to

  10. Spatial-temporal fluvial morphology analysis in the Quelite river: It's impact on communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Judith; Gracia, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    SummaryDuring 2008 and 2009 heavy rainfall took place around the Mazatlan County in the Sinaloa state, Mexico, with a return period (Tr) between 50 and 100 years. As a result, the region and its infrastructure, such as the railways and highways (designed for a Tr = 20 years) were severely exposed to floods and, as a consequence damage caused by debris and sediments dragged into the channel. One of the highest levels of damage to the infrastructure was observed in the columns of Quelite River railway's bridge. This is catastrophic as the railway is very important for trade within the state and also among other states in Mexico and in the USA. In order to understand the impact of the flooding and to avoid the rail system being damaged it is necessary to analyse how significant the changes in the river channel have been. This analysis looks at the definition of the main channel and its floodplain as a result of the sediment variability, not only at the bridge area, but also upstream and downstream. The Quelite River study considers the integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and remote sensing data to map, recognise and assess the spatio-temporal change channel morphology. This increases the effectiveness of using different types of geospatial data with in situ measurements such as hydrological data. Thus, this paper is an assessment of a 20 years study period carried out using historical Landsat images and aerial photographs as well as recent Spot images. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of local topography and flow volumes were also used. The results show the Quelite River is an active river with a high suspended sediment load and migration of meanders associated to heavy rainfall. The river also has several deep alluvial floodplain channels which modified the geometry and other morphological characteristics of the channel in the downstream direction. After the identification of the channel changes, their causes and solutions to control, the channel

  11. An analysis of effect of land use change on river flow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Yuting; Yang, Xinyue; Wang, Xiang

    2018-02-01

    Land use scenario analysis, SWAT model, flow characteristic indices and flow variability technology were used to analyze the effect of land use quantity and location change on river flow. Results showed that river flow variation caused by land use change from forest to crop was larger than that caused by land use change from forest to grass; Land use change neither from upstream to downstream nor from downstream to upstream had little effect on annual average discharge and maximum annual average discharge. But it had obvious effect on maximum daily discharge; Land use change which occurred in upstream could lead to producing larger magnitude flood more easily; Land use change from forest to crop or grass could increase the number of large magnitude floods and their total duration. And it also could increase the number of small magnitude floods but decrease their duration.

  12. Structural analysis of the Upper Internals Structure for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houtman, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    The Upper Internals Structure (UIS) of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) provides control of core outlet flow to prevent severe thermal transients from occuring at the reactor vessel and primary heat transport outlet piping, provides instrumentation to monitor core performance, provides support for the control rod drivelines, and provides secondary holddown of the core. All of the structural analysis aspects of assuring the UIS is structurally adequate are presented including simplified and rigorous inelastic analysis methods, elevated temperature criteria, environmental effects on material properties, design techniques, and manufacturing constraints

  13. INTELLIGENT COMPUTING SYSTEM FOR RESERVOIR ANALYSIS AND RISK ASSESSMENT OF THE RED RIVER FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Sippel; William C. Carrigan; Kenneth D. Luff; Lyn Canter

    2003-11-12

    Integrated software has been written that comprises the tool kit for the Intelligent Computing System (ICS). The software tools in ICS have been developed for characterization of reservoir properties and evaluation of hydrocarbon potential using a combination of inter-disciplinary data sources such as geophysical, geologic and engineering variables. The ICS tools provide a means for logical and consistent reservoir characterization and oil reserve estimates. The tools can be broadly characterized as (1) clustering tools, (2) neural solvers, (3) multiple-linear regression, (4) entrapment-potential calculator and (5) file utility tools. ICS tools are extremely flexible in their approach and use, and applicable to most geologic settings. The tools are primarily designed to correlate relationships between seismic information and engineering and geologic data obtained from wells, and to convert or translate seismic information into engineering and geologic terms or units. It is also possible to apply ICS in a simple framework that may include reservoir characterization using only engineering, seismic, or geologic data in the analysis. ICS tools were developed and tested using geophysical, geologic and engineering data obtained from an exploitation and development project involving the Red River Formation in Bowman County, North Dakota and Harding County, South Dakota. Data obtained from 3D seismic surveys, and 2D seismic lines encompassing nine prospective field areas were used in the analysis. The geologic setting of the Red River Formation in Bowman and Harding counties is that of a shallow-shelf, carbonate system. Present-day depth of the Red River formation is approximately 8000 to 10,000 ft below ground surface. This report summarizes production results from well demonstration activity, results of reservoir characterization of the Red River Formation at demonstration sites, descriptions of ICS tools and strategies for their application.

  14. A comparison of problem identification interviews conducted face-to-face and via videoconferencing using the consultation analysis record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Aaron J; Collier-Meek, Melissa A; Bloomfield, Bradley; Erchul, William P; Gresham, Frank M

    2017-08-01

    School psychologists who experience challenges delivering face-to-face consultation may utilize videoconferencing to facilitate their consultation activities. Videoconferencing has been found to be an effective method of service delivery in related fields and emerging research suggests that it may be effective for providing teacher training and support in school settings. In this exploratory investigation, we used the Consultation Analysis Record (Bergan & Tombari, 1975) and its four indices to assess the effectiveness of conducting problem identification interviews via videoconferencing versus face-to-face. Overall, findings indicated significant differences across these two conditions, with videoconference interviews coded as having higher indices of content relevance, process effectiveness, and message control, but lower content focus, compared to face-to-face interviews. As these indices have been positively associated with favorable consultation outcomes, the results provide initial support for the effectiveness of consultation delivered via videoconferencing. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparability of river suspended-sediment sampling and laboratory analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groten, Joel T.; Johnson, Gregory D.

    2018-03-06

    Accurate measurements of suspended sediment, a leading water-quality impairment in many Minnesota rivers, are important for managing and protecting water resources; however, water-quality standards for suspended sediment in Minnesota are based on grab field sampling and total suspended solids (TSS) laboratory analysis methods that have underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment in rivers compared to U.S. Geological Survey equal-width-increment or equal-discharge-increment (EWDI) field sampling and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) laboratory analysis methods. Because of this underrepresentation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, collected concurrent grab and EWDI samples at eight sites to compare results obtained using different combinations of field sampling and laboratory analysis methods.Study results determined that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis results were biased substantially low compared to EWDI sampling and SSC laboratory analysis results, respectively. Differences in both field sampling and laboratory analysis methods caused grab and TSS methods to be biased substantially low. The difference in laboratory analysis methods was slightly greater than field sampling methods.Sand-sized particles had a strong effect on the comparability of the field sampling and laboratory analysis methods. These results indicated that grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods fail to capture most of the sand being transported by the stream. The results indicate there is less of a difference among samples collected with grab field sampling and analyzed for TSS and concentration of fines in SSC. Even though differences are present, the presence of strong correlations between SSC and TSS concentrations provides the opportunity to develop site specific relations to address transport processes not captured by grab field sampling and TSS laboratory analysis methods.

  16. SRTXRF analysis in sediments from the Paraiba do Sul river (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareira, Marcelo O.; Calza, Cristiane; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos; Araujo, Francisco Gerson

    2005-01-01

    The Paraiba do Sul is a medium-sized river located in a region between the two most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil (Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo), with 1145 km in length and a drainage basin of 55400 km 2 . Formed by the junction of the Paraibuna and Paraitinga rivers, it arises in Serra da Bocaina (Sao Paulo state) and flows to the Atlantic Ocean until its mouth in Atafona (Rio de Janeiro State). In the last years, has been reported an increase in the water pollution, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction of the riverbed. Consequently, a decline in the diversity and abundance of the fish species has been observed. This work used the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence with Synchrotron Radiation (SRTXRF) technique to determine the heavy metals levels in the bioavailable and residual fractions from the surface sediment, in sampling points along the Paraiba do Sul River Basin. The samples were collected from November 2002 to April 2003. The analysis was performed at XRF beamline D09B of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), using a white beam for the excitation and a Si(Li) semiconductor detector with resolution of 165 eV. All samples were excited for 100 s. The elements found in the sediment samples were: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb. (author)

  17. Multitemporal analysis of the change of earth covering; high basin Guatiquia River - Low Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Gonzalez, Jose Luis

    1999-01-01

    One of the basic functions inside the environmental administration has been the record of the variables of the natural environment. The earth covering corresponds to one of the elements that to the registered being and analyzed, shows with more fidelity the evolution of the environment. At the present time, and from their creation in 1992, the project Guatiquia River - PRG that covers 90.000 approximately has. Located between the Cundinamarca and Meta Departments, it has looked for to obtain the necessary technical elements to achieve a sustainable handling in the area, for it, it intended to be ahead a study that allows to quantify and to analyze the changes of the earth covering, reason for which, it was ahead the present study: multitemporal analysis of the change of earth covering high basin of the Guatiquia River low sector, for a total surface of 13997.64 hectares (corresponding to 15.8% of the area of action of the Project Guatiquia River), and having as basic tools the remote perception and the geographical information systems, it was carried out the prosecution of the information of earth covering in the study area for the years 1993 and 1997 starting from which, were determined and analyzed the changes of earth covering, they were presented in cartographic documents to scale 1:25.000, corresponding to a detailed study

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of water hyacinth as a bioindicator along the Nile river, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf Aly Mohamed; Amer, H.A.; El-Tahawy, M.; Shawky, S.; Kandil, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is known to accumulate elements from rivers and a good tool for water monitoring. To test the usefulness of such an aquatic plant as a bioindicator, we have determined the levels of Na, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Rb, Zr, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U in water hyacinth around industrial facilities and along the studied area by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb were determined in upstream river water and effluent factories. Contamination factor, and pollution load index was calculated. The results show that higher concentrations as well as bioaccumulation factors of these elements were observed in water hyacinth samples around the industrial facilities. On the other hand a decrease in calcium concentration was observed as a result of the thermal pollution of Nile river water. The pollution load index for the studied area was estimated to be 4.2. (author)

  19. Bioanalytical and instrumental analysis of thyroid hormone disrupting compounds in water sources along the Yangtze River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Wei; Wang Xiaoyi; Hu Guanjiu; Hao Yingqun; Zhang Xiaowei; Liu Hongling; Wei Si; Wang Xinru; Yu Hongxia

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) agonist and antagonist activities of water sources along the Yangtze River in China were surveyed by a green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cell-based TH reporter gene assay. Instrumental analysis was conducted to identify the responsible thyroid-active compounds. Instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) equivalents (T 3 -EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to dibutyl phthalate (DBP-EQs) were calculated from the concentrations of individual congeners. The reporter gene assay demonstrated that three out of eleven water sources contained TR agonist activity equivalents (TR-EQs), ranging from 286 to 293 ng T 3 /L. Anti-thyroid hormone activities were found in all water sources with the TR antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (Ant-TR-EQs), ranging from 51.5 to 555.3 μg/L. Comparisons of the equivalents from instrumental and biological assays suggested that high concentrations of DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations along the Yangtze River. - Research highlights: → First of all, we indicated the instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) equivalents (T 3 -EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (DBP-EQs) for the very first time. → Secondly, high concentrations of DBP and DEHP might be responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations. → Finally, we found that thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activities were very common in Yangtze River. More attentions should be paid to the TR antagonist activities and the responsible compounds. - In vitro bioassay responses observed in Yangtze River source water extracts showed great TR antagonist activities, and DBP and DEHP were responsible.

  20. Bioanalytical and instrumental analysis of thyroid hormone disrupting compounds in water sources along the Yangtze River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi Wei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xiaoyi [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing 210036 (China); Hu Guanjiu; Hao Yingqun [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Monitoring and Analysis for Organic Pollutants in Surface Water, Jiangsu Provincial Environmental Monitoring Center, Nanjing 210036 (China); Zhang Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu Hongling, E-mail: hlliu@nju.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wei Si [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Xinru [Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine and Institute of Toxicology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Yu Hongxia, E-mail: hongxiayu@nju.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-02-15

    Thyroid hormone (TH) agonist and antagonist activities of water sources along the Yangtze River in China were surveyed by a green monkey kidney fibroblast (CV-1) cell-based TH reporter gene assay. Instrumental analysis was conducted to identify the responsible thyroid-active compounds. Instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) equivalents (T{sub 3}-EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to dibutyl phthalate (DBP-EQs) were calculated from the concentrations of individual congeners. The reporter gene assay demonstrated that three out of eleven water sources contained TR agonist activity equivalents (TR-EQs), ranging from 286 to 293 ng T{sub 3}/L. Anti-thyroid hormone activities were found in all water sources with the TR antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (Ant-TR-EQs), ranging from 51.5 to 555.3 {mu}g/L. Comparisons of the equivalents from instrumental and biological assays suggested that high concentrations of DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations along the Yangtze River. - Research highlights: First of all, we indicated the instrumentally derived L-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) equivalents (T{sub 3}-EQs) and thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activity equivalents referring to DBP (DBP-EQs) for the very first time. Secondly, high concentrations of DBP and DEHP might be responsible for the observed TR antagonist activities at some locations. Finally, we found that thyroid receptor (TR) antagonist activities were very common in Yangtze River. More attentions should be paid to the TR antagonist activities and the responsible compounds. - In vitro bioassay responses observed in Yangtze River source water extracts showed great TR antagonist activities, and DBP and DEHP were responsible.

  1. Remote sensing based deforestation analysis in Mahanadi and Brahmaputra river basin in India since 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, M D; Tripathi, P; Das, P; Srivastava, S K; Roy, P S; Joshi, C; Behera, P R; Deka, J; Kumar, P; Khan, M L; Tripathi, O P; Dash, T; Krishnamurthy, Y V N

    2018-01-15

    Land use and land cover (LULC) change has been recognized as a key driver of global climate change by influencing land surface processes. Being in constant change, river basins are always subjected to LULC changes, especially decline in forest cover to give way for agricultural expansion, urbanization, industrialization etc. We used on-screen digital interpretation technique to derive LULC maps from Landsat images at three decadal intervals i.e., 1985, 1995 and 2005 of two major river basins of India. Rain-fed, Mahanadi river basin (MRB) attributed to 55% agricultural area wherein glacier-fed, Brahmaputra river basin (BRB) had only 16% area under agricultural land. Though conversion of forest land for agricultural activities was the major LULC changes in both the basins, the rate was higher for BRB than MRB. While water body increased in MRB could be primarily attributed to creation of reservoirs and aquaculture farms; snow and ice melting attributed to creation of more water bodies in BRB. Scrub land acted as an intermediate class for forest conversion to barren land in BRB, while direct conversion of scrub land to waste land and crop land was seen in MRB. While habitation contributed primarily to LULC changes in BRB, the proximity zones around habitat and other socio-economic drivers contributed to LULC change in MRB. Comparing the predicted result with actual LULC of 2005, we obtained >97% modelling accuracy; therefore it is expected that the Dyna-CLUE model has very well predicted the LULC for the year 2025. The predicted LULC of 2025 and corresponding LULC changes in these two basins acting as early warning, and with the past 2-decadal change analysis this study is believed to help the land use planners for improved regional planning to create balanced ecosystem, especially in a changing climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An Enhanced K-Means Algorithm for Water Quality Analysis of The Haihe River in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Hui; Zou, Zhihong; Wang, Xiaojing

    2015-11-12

    The increase and the complexity of data caused by the uncertain environment is today's reality. In order to identify water quality effectively and reliably, this paper presents a modified fast clustering algorithm for water quality analysis. The algorithm has adopted a varying weights K-means cluster algorithm to analyze water monitoring data. The varying weights scheme was the best weighting indicator selected by a modified indicator weight self-adjustment algorithm based on K-means, which is named MIWAS-K-means. The new clustering algorithm avoids the margin of the iteration not being calculated in some cases. With the fast clustering analysis, we can identify the quality of water samples. The algorithm is applied in water quality analysis of the Haihe River (China) data obtained by the monitoring network over a period of eight years (2006-2013) with four indicators at seven different sites (2078 samples). Both the theoretical and simulated results demonstrate that the algorithm is efficient and reliable for water quality analysis of the Haihe River. In addition, the algorithm can be applied to more complex data matrices with high dimensionality.

  3. Analysis of the most important river plumes on the Atlantic and Mediterranean Iberian coast by means of satellite imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernandez Novoa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rivers discharges cause the formation of buoyant plumes in the adjacent coastal area at their mouths, which are characterized by low-salinity water and controlled by outflow inertia, rotation (Coriolis effects, buoyancy, wind, and tide forcing. The turbid plumes influence the adjacent coastal area, since they control the patterns of nutrients, sediments and/or pollutants of fluvial origin on the coastal ocean and can promote strong physical and chemical changes on seawater. These changes affect the biological characteristics of the area, such as primary production, species composition, abundance and distribution of existing microorganism, which demonstrates its high ecological importance. The characterization of the most important river plumes along the Atlantic Iberian coast and the influence of the main forcing drivers (river discharge, wind and tide on them, was carried out through the analysis of plume mean-state images calculated using water leaving radiance data (nLw555 obtained from the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer sensor onboard the Aqua satellite during 2003-2013. Satellite data are downloaded from Ocean Color web site (http://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov. Daily high-resolution L1 files from MODIS-Aqua were processed through SeaDAS software. Composite images, interpolated to a regular pixel grid with an approximate resolution of 500m, were built for different synoptic conditions of river discharge, wind regimes and tide, in order to obtain a representative average plume image of each situation and river for the posterior analysis. Results showed that the river discharge is the main forcing factor in the river plume extension. Wind effect is noticeable under high river discharge and tide is important for the estuarine outflow regimes although with some remarkable similarities and differences between the Atlantic rivers due to their intrinsic characteristics.

  4. Metal contamination budget at the river basin scale: an original Flux-Flow Analysis (F2A for the Seine River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lestel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Material flow analysis and environmental contamination analysis are merged into a Flux-Flow analysis (F2A as illustrated for the metal circulation in the Seine River catchment. F2A combines about 30 metal flows in the anthroposphere (14 million people and/or metal fluxes in the environment (atmosphere, soils, and aquatic system originating from two dozens of sources. The nature and quality of data is very heterogeneous going from downscaled national economic statistics to upscaled daily environmental surveys.

    A triple integration is performed: space integration over the catchment (65 000 km2, time integration for the 1950–2000 trend analysed at 5 year resolution, and a conceptual integration resulting in two F2A indicators.

    Despite the various data sources an average metal circulation is established for the 1994–2003 period and illustrated for zinc: (i metal circulation in the anthroposphere is now two orders of magnitude higher than river outputs, (ii long term metal storage, and their potential leaks, in soils, wastedumps and structures is also orders of magnitude higher than present river fluxes. Trend analysis is made through two F2A indicators, the per capita excess load at the river outlet and the leakage ratio (excess fluxes/metal demand. From 1950 to 2000, they both show a ten fold improvement of metal recycling while the metal demand has increased by 2.5 to 5 for Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn, and the population by 50%.

  5. Life cycle cost analysis changes mixed waste treatment program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.; England, J.L.; Martin, H.L.

    1992-01-01

    A direct result of the reduced need for weapons production has been a re-evaluation of the treatment projects for mixed (hazardous/radioactive) wastes generated from metal finishing and plating operations and from a mixed waste incinerator at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was conducted for two waste treatment projects to determine the most cost effective approach in response to SRS mission changes. A key parameter included in the LCC analysis was the cost of the disposal vaults required for the final stabilized wasteform(s) . The analysis indicated that volume reduction of the final stabilized wasteform(s) can provide significant cost savings. The LCC analysis demonstrated that one SRS project could be eliminated, and a second project could be totally ''rescoped and downsized.'' The changes resulted in an estimated Life Cycle Cost saving (over a 20 year period) of $270,000,000

  6. Landslides distribution analysis and role of triggering factors in the Foglia river basin (Central Itay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baioni, Davide; Gallerini, Giuliano; Sgavetti, Maria

    2013-04-01

    The present work is focused on the distribution of landslides in Foglia river basin area (northern Marche-Romagna), using a heuristic approach supported by GIS tools for the construction of statistical analysis and spatial data. The study area is located in the Adriatic side of the northern Apennine in the boundary that marks the transition between the Marche and Emilia-Romagna regions. The Foglia river basin extends from the Apennines to the Adriatic sea with NE-SE trend occupying an area of about 708 km2. The purpose of this study is to investigate any relationships between factors related to the territory, which were taken into account and divided into classes, and landslides, trying to identify any possible existence of relationships between them. For this aim the study of landslides distribution was performed by using a GIS approach superimposing each thematic map, previously created, with landslides surveyed. Furthermore, we tried to isolate the most recurrent classes, to detect if at the same conditions there is a parameter that affects more than others, so as to recognize every direct relationship of cause and effect. Finally, an analysis was conducted by applying the model of uncertainty CF (Certainity Factor). In the Foglia river basin were surveyed a total of 2821 landslides occupy a total area of 155 km2, corresponding to 22% areal extent of the entire basin. The results of analysis carried out highlighted the importance and role of individual factors that led to the development of landslides analyzed. Moreover, this methodology may be applied to all orders of magnitude and scale without any problem by not requiring a commitment important, both from the economic point of view, and of human resources.

  7. Sensitivity analysis for hydrology and pesticide supply towards the river in SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, K.; van Griensven, A.; Seuntjens, P.; Vanrolleghem, P. A.

    The dynamic behaviour of pesticides in river systems strongly depends on varying climatological conditions and agricultural management practices. To describe this behaviour at the river-basin scale, integrated hydrological and water quality models are needed. A crucial step in understanding the various processes determining pesticide fate is to perform a sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis for hydrology and pesticide supply in SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) will provide useful support for the development of a reliable hydrological model and will give insight in which parameters are most sensitive concerning pesticide supply towards rivers. The study was performed on the Nil catchment in Belgium. In this study we utilised an LH-OAT sensitivity analysis. The LH-OAT method combines the One-factor-At-a-Time (OAT) design and Latin Hypercube (LH) sampling by taking the Latin Hypercube samples as initial points for an OAT design. By means of the LH-OAT sensitivity analysis, the dominant hydrological parameters were determined and a reduction of the number of model parameters was performed. Dominant hydrological parameters were the curve number (CN2), the surface runoff lag (surlag), the recharge to deep aquifer (rchrg_dp) and the threshold depth of water in the shallow aquifer (GWQMN). Next, the selected parameters were estimated by manual calibration. Hereby, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency improved from an initial value of -22.4 to +0.53. In the second part, sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insight in which parameters or model inputs contribute most to variance in pesticide output. The results of this study show that for the Nil catchment, hydrologic parameters are dominant in controlling pesticide predictions. The other parameter that affects pesticide concentrations in surface water is ‘apfp_pest’, which meaning was changed into a parameter that controls direct losses to the river system (e.g., through the clean up of spray

  8. Field burial results and SIMS analysis of the Chalk River glass blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tait, J.C.; Hocking, W.H.; Betteridge, J.S.; Bart, G.

    1986-01-01

    In 1959, 25 2-kg hemispherical blocks of aluminosilicate glass, each containing ∼90 MBq/g of mixed fission products, were buried in a sandy soil aquifer in the waste management area at the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories. A second set of blocks, containing ∼260 MBq/g mixed fission products, was buried in 1960. One block from each test was retrieved in 1978 to undergo chemical and surface analysis. This report reviews the migration of the 90 Sr and 137 Cs plume in the soil and presents the results of SIMS depth profiling of the surface of a glass block. (author)

  9. GIS Analysis of Flood Vulnerable Areas In Benin- Owena River Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Oluwasegun Hezekiah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and intensity of flood disasters have become serious issues in the national development process of Nigeria as flood disasters have caused serious environmental damages, loss of human lives and other heavy economic losses;  putting the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments, multilateral agencies and NGOs. The starting point of concrete flood disaster mitigation efforts is to identify the areas with higher risk levels and fashion out appropriate preventive and response mechanisms. This research paper explored the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS in data capture, processing and analysis in identifying flood-prone areas for the purpose of planning for disaster mitigation and preparedness, using Benin-Owena river basin of Nigeria as a unit of analysis. The data used in this study were obtained from FORMECU and were entered and use to develop a flood risk information system. Analysis and capability of the developed system was illustrated and shown graphically. The research showed that over one thousand settlements harbouring over ten million people located in the study area are at grave risk of flooding.   Key words: Flood, Risk, Vulnerability, Geographical Information System (GIS, River -Basin

  10. Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness: A case study of Huangshui River, China and comparison to rivers in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, X.; Lindsey, D.A.; Lai, Z.; Liu, Xiuying

    2010-01-01

    Contingency table analysis of pebble lithology and roundness is an effective way to identify the source terrane of a drainage basin and to distinguish changes in basin size, piracy, tectonism, and other events. First, the analysis to terrace gravel deposited by the Huangshui River, northeastern Tibet Plateau, China, shows statistically contrasting pebble populations for the oldest terrace (T7, Dadongling, 1.2. Ma) and the youngest terraces (T0-T3, ?. 0.15. Ma). Two fluvial processes are considered to explain the contrast in correlation between lithology and roundness in T7 gravel versus T0-T3 gravel: 1) reworking of T7 gravel into T0-T3 gravel and 2) growth in the size of the river basin between T7 and T0-T3 times. We favor growth in basin size as the dominant process, from comparison of pebble counts and contingency tables. Second, comparison of results from Huangshui River of China to three piedmont streams of the Rocky Mountains, USA highlights major differences in source terrane and history. Like Rocky Mountain piedmont gravel from Colorado examples, the Huangshui gravels show a preference (observed versus expected frequency) for rounded granite. But unlike Rocky Mountain gravel, Huangshui gravel shows a preference for angular quartzite and for rounded sandstone. In conclusion, contrasting behavior of lithologies during transport, not always apparent in raw pebble counts, is readily analyzed using contingency tables to identify the provenance of individual lithologies, including recycled clasts. Results of the analysis may help unravel river history, including changes in basin size and lithology. ?? 2009.

  11. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  12. Development of method for evaluating estimated inundation area by using river flood analysis based on multiple flood scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-12-01

    Non-structural mitigation measures such as flood hazard map based on estimated inundation area have been more important because heavy rains exceeding the design rainfall frequently occur in recent years. However, conventional method may lead to an underestimation of the area because assumed locations of dike breach in river flood analysis are limited to the cases exceeding the high-water level. The objective of this study is to consider the uncertainty of estimated inundation area with difference of the location of dike breach in river flood analysis. This study proposed multiple flood scenarios which can set automatically multiple locations of dike breach in river flood analysis. The major premise of adopting this method is not to be able to predict the location of dike breach correctly. The proposed method utilized interval of dike breach which is distance of dike breaches placed next to each other. That is, multiple locations of dike breach were set every interval of dike breach. The 2D shallow water equations was adopted as the governing equation of river flood analysis, and the leap-frog scheme with staggered grid was used. The river flood analysis was verified by applying for the 2015 Kinugawa river flooding, and the proposed multiple flood scenarios was applied for the Akutagawa river in Takatsuki city. As the result of computation in the Akutagawa river, a comparison with each computed maximum inundation depth of dike breaches placed next to each other proved that the proposed method enabled to prevent underestimation of estimated inundation area. Further, the analyses on spatial distribution of inundation class and maximum inundation depth in each of the measurement points also proved that the optimum interval of dike breach which can evaluate the maximum inundation area using the minimum assumed locations of dike breach. In brief, this study found the optimum interval of dike breach in the Akutagawa river, which enabled estimated maximum inundation area

  13. Biomonitoring in rivers by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in macrozoobenthos samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miesbauer, H.; Koeck, G.; Fuereder, L.

    2000-01-01

    A widespread set of analytical methods is used to control the fate of toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems. However, monitoring of water and sediments by metal analysis is not sufficient because of fluctuating metal concentrations in the water and delayed responses of sediments. It also provides little information about metal bioavailability in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, aquatic organisms are increasingly used for biomonitoring the actual metal load of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects, in particular, satisfy some important criteria established for bioindicators, thus being valuable biomonitoring organisms of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems. The presented paper describes the investigation of the metal contents of several benthic insect species (e.g. caddisfly larvae) from an Austrian river by using TXRF. Due to it's high sensitivity TXRF allows multi-element analysis of very low metal concentrations even in single individuals of aquatic insect larvae. Our results confirm TXRF to be valuable tool in environmental analysis. (author)

  14. Biomonitoring in rivers by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence analysis in macrozoobenthos samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miesbauer, H.; Koeck, G.; Fuereder, L.

    2000-01-01

    A widespread set of analytical methods is used to control the fate of toxic metals in aquatic ecosystems. However, monitoring of water and sediments by metal analysis is not sufficient because of fluctuating metal concentrations in the water and delayed responses of sediments. It also provides little information about metal bio-availability in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, aquatic organisms are increasingly used for bio-monitoring the actual metal load of aquatic biota. Aquatic insects, in particular, satisfy some important criteria established for bio-indicators, thus being valuable bio-monitoring organisms of metal contamination in freshwater ecosystems. The presented paper describes the investigation of the metal contents of several benthic insect species (e.g. caddisfly larvae) from an Austrian river by using TXRF. Due to it's high sensitivity TXRF allows multi-element analysis of very low metal concentrations even in single individuals of aquatic insect larvae. Our results confirm TXRF to be valuable tool in environmental analysis. (author)

  15. Hydraulic analysis of river training cross-vanes as part of post-restoration monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Endreny

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available River restoration design methods are incrementally improved by studying and learning from monitoring data in previous projects. In this paper we report post-restoration monitoring data and simulation analysis for a Natural Channel Design (NCD restoration project along 1600 m of the Batavia Kill (14 km2 watershed in the Catskill Mountains, NY. The restoration project was completed in 2002 with goals to reduce bank erosion and determine the efficacy of NCD approaches for restoring headwater streams in the Catskill Mountains, NY. The NCD approach used a reference-reach to determine channel form, empirical relations between the project site and reference site bankfull dimensions to size channel geometry, and hydraulic and sediment computations based on a bankfull (1.3 yr return interval discharge to test channel capacity and sediment stability. The NCD project included 12 cross-vanes and 48 j-hook vanes as river training structures along 19 meander bends to protect against bank erosion and maintain scour pools for fish habitat. Monitoring data collected from 2002 to 2004 were used to identify aggradation of pools in meander bends and below some structures. Aggradation in pools was attributed to the meandering riffle-pool channel trending toward step-pool morphology and cross-vane arms not concentrating flow in the center of the channel. The aggradation subsequently caused flow splitting and 4 partial point bar avulsions during a spring 2005 flood with a 25-yr return interval. Processing the pre-flood monitoring data with hydraulic analysis software provided clues the reach was unstable and preventative maintenance was needed. River restoration and monitoring teams should be trained in robust hydraulic analytical methods that help them extend project restoration goals and structure stability.

  16. RCP8.5-Based Future Flood Hazard Analysis for the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edangodage Duminda Pradeep Perera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Climatic variations caused by the excessive emission of greenhouse gases are likely to change the patterns of precipitation, runoff processes, and water storage of river basins. Various studies have been conducted based on precipitation outputs of the global scale climatic models under different emission scenarios. However, there is a limitation in regional- and local-scale hydrological analysis on extreme floods with the combined application of high-resolution atmospheric general circulation models’ (AGCM outputs and physically-based hydrological models (PBHM. This study has taken an effort to overcome that limitation in hydrological analysis. The present and future precipitation, river runoff, and inundation distributions for the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB were analyzed to understand hydrological changes in the LMB under the RCP8.5 scenario. The downstream area beyond the Kratie gauging station, located in the Cambodia and Vietnam flood plains was considered as the LMB in this study. The bias-corrected precipitation outputs of the Japan Meteorological Research Institute atmospheric general circulation model (MRI-AGCM3.2S with 20 km horizontal resolution were utilized as the precipitation inputs for basin-scale hydrological simulations. The present climate (1979–2003 was represented by the AMIP-type simulations while the future (2075–2099 climatic conditions were obtained based on the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas scenario. The entire hydrological system of the Mekong basin was modelled by the block-wise TOPMODEL (BTOP hydrological model with 20 km resolution, while the LMB area was modelled by the rainfall-runoff-inundation (RRI model with 2 km resolution, specifically to analyze floods under the aforementioned climatic conditions. The comparison of present and future river runoffs, inundation distributions and inundation volume changes were the outcomes of the study, which can be supportive information for the LMB flood management, water policy

  17. Cost benefit analysis of remediation alternatives for controlling the flux of strontium-90 into the Columbia River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, F.W.; Todd, M.E.

    1993-09-01

    The release of large volumes of water to waste disposal cribs at the Hanford Site's 100-N Area caused contaminants, principally strontium-90, to be carried toward the Columbia River through the groundwater. Since shutdown of the N Reactor, these releases have been discontinued, although small water flows continue to be discharged to the 1325-N crib. Most of the contamination which is now transported to the river is occurring as a result of the natural groundwater movement. The contaminated groundwater at N Springs flows into the river through seeps and springs along the river's edge. An expedited response action (ERA) has been proposed to eliminate or restrict the flux of strontium-90 into the river. A cost benefit analysis of potential remedial alternatives was completed that recommends the alternative which best meets given selection criteria prescribed by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The methodology used for evaluation, cost analysis, and alternative recommendation is the engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA). Complete remediation of the contaminated groundwater beneath 100-N Area was not a principal objective of the analysis. The objective of the cost benefit analysis was to identify a remedial alternative that optimizes the degree of benefit produced for the costs incurred

  18. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  19. Environmental management of Siah-Rud River and economic analysis on sewage purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbassi, A. R.; Sarabi, M.; Kazemi, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Considering the water scarcity in Iran and the importance of environmental protection, it is appropriate to investigate the environmental management of Siah-Rud River. It is a small river being utilized as discharge channel by factories located in the vicinity of the river. The physico-chemical characteristics of river water at 10 different sampling locations along with coefficient of aeration (K 1 , K d ), and self purification of the river were determined. Using a linear computer programme, an optimization-model for the minimum treatment efficiency at each pollutant source, along with dissolved oxygen in the course of river was developed

  20. River network and watershed morphology analysis with potential implications towards basin classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaets, Andrey; Gartsman, Boris; Bugaets, Nadezhda

    2013-04-01

    Generally, the investigation of river network composition and watersheds morphology (fluvial geomorphology), constituting one of the key patterns of land surface, is a fundamental question of Earth Sciences. Recent ideas in this research field are the equilibrium and optimal, in the sense of minimum energy expenditure, river network evolution under constant or slowly varying conditions (Rodriguez-Iturbe, Rinaldo, 1997). It follows to such network behavior as self-similarity, self-affinity and self-organization. That is to say, under relatively stable conditions the river systems tend to some "good composed" form and vice-versa. Lately appearing global free available detailed DEM covers involve new possibilities in this research field. We develop new methodology and program package for river network structure and watershed morphology detailed analysis on the base of ArcMap tools. Different characteristics of river network (e.g. ordering, coefficients of Horton's laws, Shannon entropy, fractal dimension) and basin morphology (e.g. diagrams of average elevation, slope, width and energy index against distance to outlet along streams) could be calculated to find a good indicators of intensity and non-equilibrium of watershed evolution. Watersheds are non-conservative systems in which energy is dissipated by transporting water and sediment in geomorphic adjustment of the slopes and channels. The problem of estimating the amount of energy expenditure associated with overcoming surface and system resistance is extremely complicated to solve. A simplification on a river network scale is to consider energy expenditure to be primarily associated with friction of the fluid. We propose a new technique to analyze the catchment landforms based on so-called "energy function" that is a distribution of total energy index against distance from outlet. As potential energy of water on the hillslopes is transformed into kinetic energy of the flowing fluid-sediment mixture in the runoff

  1. River analysis and floodplain modeling using HEC-GeoRAS/RAS, GIS and ArcGIS: a case study for the Salinas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P. K.; Bernini Campos, H. E.

    2016-12-01

    The lower portion of the Salinas River in Monterey bay, California has a history of flood, lots of study has been made ab out the water quality since the river provides water for the crops around, but is still in need a detailed study about the river behavior and flood analysis. The floods did significant damage, affecting valuable landing farms, residences and businesses in Monterey County. The first step for this study is comprehend and collect the river bathymetry and surroundings and then analyze the discharge and how it is going to change with time. This thesis develops a model about the specific site, recruiting real data from GIS and performing a flow simulation according to flow data provided by USGS, to verify water surface elevation and floodplain. The ArcMap, developed by ESRI, was used along with an extension (HEC-GeoRAS) because it was indeed the most appropriate model to work with the Digital Elevation Model, develop the floodplain and characterizing the land surface accurately in the study site. The HEC-RAS software, developed by US Army Corp of Engineers, was used to compute one-dimension steady flow and two-dimension unsteady flow, providing flow velocity, water surface elevation and profiles, total surface area, head and friction loss and other characteristics, allowing the analysis of the flow. A mean discharge, a mean peak streamflow and a peak discharge were used for the steady flow and a Hydrograph was used for the unsteady flow, both are based on the 1995 flood and discharge history. This study provides important information about water surface elevation and water flow, allowing stakeholders and the government to analyze solutions to avoid damage to the society and landowners.

  2. Quantitative analysis and simulation of land use changes in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghui; Zeng, Yongnian; Zou, Bin; Xiao, Pengfeng; Hu, Deyong; Peng, Jianchao

    2007-06-01

    This paper analyzes and simulates the land use changes in the Pearl River Delta, China, using Longgang City as a case study. The region has pioneered the nation in economic development and urbanization process. Tremendous land use changes have been witnessed since the economic reform in 1978. Land use changes are analyzed and simulated by using stochastic cellular automata model, land use trajectories analysis, spatial indices and multi-temporal TM images of Longgang City (TM1987, TM1991, TM1995, TM1999, TM2003, TM2005) in order to understand how urbanization has transformed the non-urban land to urban land and estimate the consequent environment and ecological impacts in this region. The analysis and simulation results show that urban land continues to sprawl along road and fringe of towns, and concomitant to this development is the loss of agricultural land, orchards and fish ponds. This study provides new evidence with spatial details about the uneven land development in the Pearl River Delta.

  3. Statistical and trend analysis of water quality and quantity data for the Strymon River in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Z. Antonopoulos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Strymon is a transboundary river of Greece, Bulgaria and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM in southeastern Europe. Water quality parameters and the discharge have been monitored each month just 10 km downstream of the river’s entry into Greece. The data of nine water quality variables (T, ECw, DO, SO42-, Na++K+, Mg2+ , Ca2+, NO3‾, TP and the discharge for the period 1980-1997 were selected for this analysis. In this paper a the time series of monthly values of water quality parameters and the discharge were analysed using statistical methods, b the existence of trends and the evaluation of the best fitted models were performed and c the relationships between concentration and loads of constituents both with the discharge were also examined. Boxplots for summarising the distribution of a data set were used. The ◈-test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test were used to select the theoretical distribution which best fitted the data. Simple regression was used to examine the concentration-discharge and the load-discharge relationships. According to the correlation coefficient (r values the relation between concentrations and discharge is weak (r 0.902. Trends were detected using the nonparametric Spearman’s criterion upon the data for the variables: Q, ECw, DO, SO42-, Na++K+ and NO3‾ on which temporal trend analysis was performed. Keywords: Strymon river, water quality, discharge, concentration, load, statistics, trends

  4. Core melt progression and consequence analysis methodology development in support of the Savannah River Reactor PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Sharp, D.A.; Amos, C.N.; Wagner, K.C.; Bradley, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A three-level Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of production reactor operation has been underway since 1985 at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The goals of this analysis are to: Analyze existing margins of safety provided by the heavy-water reactor (HWR) design challenged by postulated severe accidents; Compare measures of risk to the general public and onsite workers to guideline values, as well as to those posed by commercial reactor operation; and Develop the methodology and database necessary to prioritize improvements to engineering safety systems and components, operator training, and engineering projects that contribute significantly to improving plant safety. PSA technical staff from the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) have performed the assessment despite two obstacles: A variable baseline plant configuration and power level; and a lack of technically applicable code methodology to model the SRS reactor conditions. This paper discusses the detailed effort necessary to modify the requisite codes before accident analysis insights for the risk assessment were obtained

  5. Scaling analysis for a Savannah River reactor scaled model integral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, T.J.; Larson, T.K.; McCreery, G.E.; Anderson, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    801The Savannah River Laboratory has requested that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory perform an analysis to help define, examine, and assess potential concepts for the design of a scaled integral hydraulics test facility representative of the current Savannah River Plant reactor design. In this report the thermal-hydraulic phenomena of importance (based on the knowledge and experience of the authors and the results of the joint INEL/TPG/SRL phenomena identification and ranking effort) to reactor safety during the design basis loss-of-coolant accident were examined and identified. Established scaling methodologies were used to develop potential concepts for integral hydraulic testing facilities. Analysis is conducted to examine the scaling of various phenomena in each of the selected concepts. Results generally support that a one-fourth (1/4) linear scale visual facility capable of operating at pressures up to 350 kPa (51 psia) and temperatures up to 330 K (134 degree F) will scale most hydraulic phenomena reasonably well. However, additional research will be necessary to determine the most appropriate method of simulating several of the reactor components, since the scaling methodology allows for several approaches which may only be assessed via appropriate research. 34 refs., 20 figs., 14 tabs

  6. [GIS and scenario analysis aid to water pollution control planning of river basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-ping; Cheng, Sheng-tong; Jia, Hai-feng; Ou, Zhi-dan; Tan, Bin

    2004-07-01

    The forward and backward algorithms for watershed water pollution control planning were summarized in this paper as well as their advantages and shortages. The spatial databases of water environmental function region, pollution sources, monitoring sections and sewer outlets were built with ARCGIS8.1 as the platform in the case study of Ganjiang valley, Jiangxi province. Based on the principles of the forward algorithm, four scenarios were designed for the watershed pollution control. Under these scenarios, ten sets of planning schemes were generated to implement cascade pollution source control. The investment costs of sewage treatment for these schemes were estimated by means of a series of cost-effective functions; with pollution source prediction, the water quality was modeled with CSTR model for each planning scheme. The modeled results of different planning schemes were visualized through GIS to aid decision-making. With the results of investment cost and water quality attainment as decision-making accords and based on the analysis of the economic endurable capacity for water pollution control in Ganjiang river basin, two optimized schemes were proposed. The research shows that GIS technology and scenario analysis can provide a good guidance to the synthesis, integrity and sustainability aspects for river basin water quality planning.

  7. GIS-based terrain analysis of linear infrastructure corridors in the Mackenzie River Valley, NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ednie, M.; Wright, J.F.; Duchesne, C.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of global warming on permafrost terrain was discussed with particular reference to the structural stability and performance reliability of the proposed pipelines and roads in the Mackenzie River Valley in the Northwest Territories. Engineers, regulators and decision makers responsible for the development of these networks must have access to information about current and future terrain conditions, both local and regional. The Geological Survey of Canada is developing an ArcGIS resident, multi-component terrain analysis methodology for evaluating permafrost terrain in terms of the probable geothermal and geomorphological responses to climate warming. A GIS-integrated finite-element transient ground thermal model (T-ONE) can predict local-regional permafrost conditions and future responses of permafrost to climate warming. The influences of surface and channel hydrology on local erosion potentials can be determined by analyzing the topographic and topologic characteristics of the terrain. A weights of evidence-based landscape-process model, currently under development, will consider multiple terrain factors for mapping terrain that is susceptible to slope failure, subsidence or erosion. This terrain analysis methodology is currently being applied to a 2 km buffer spanning the proposed Mackenzie Gas Pipeline right-of-way, and along winter and all-weather road networks in the Mackenzie River Valley. Initial ground thermal modeling has identified thermally sensitive terrain for which permafrost will either completely disappear or warm significantly to near isothermal conditions within the next 25 to 55 years

  8. Drought analysis in the Tons River Basin, India during 1969-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshram, Sarita Gajbhiye; Gautam, Randhir; Kahya, Ercan

    2018-05-01

    The primary focus of this study is the analysis of droughts in the Tons River Basin during the period 1969-2008. Precipitation data observed at four gauging stations are used to identify drought over the study area. The event of drought is derived from the standardized precipitation index (SPI) on a 3-month scale. Our results indicated that severe drought occurred in the Allahabad, Rewa, and Satna stations in the years 1973 and 1979. The droughts in this region had occurred mainly due to erratic behavior in monsoons, especially due to long breaks between monsoons. During the drought years, the deficiency of the annual rainfall in the analysis of annual rainfall departure had varied from -26% in 1976 to -60% in 1973 at Allahabad station in the basin. The maximum deficiency of annual and seasonal rainfall recorded in the basin is 60%. The maximum seasonal rainfall departure observed in the basin is in the order of -60% at Allahabad station in 1973, while maximum annual rainfall departure had been recorded as -60% during 1979 at the Satna station. Extreme dry events ( z score <-2) were detected during July, August, and September. Moreover, severe dry events were observed in August, September, and October. The drought conditions in the Tons River Basin are dominantly driven by total rainfall throughout the period between June and November.

  9. Benefits and Limitations of Real Options Analysis for the Practice of River Flood Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Jarl M.; Baayen, Jorn H.; Botzen, W. J. Wouter

    2018-04-01

    Decisions on long-lived flood risk management (FRM) investments are complex because the future is uncertain. Flexibility and robustness can be used to deal with future uncertainty. Real options analysis (ROA) provides a welfare-economics framework to design and evaluate robust and flexible FRM strategies under risk or uncertainty. Although its potential benefits are large, ROA is hardly used in todays' FRM practice. In this paper, we investigate benefits and limitations of a ROA, by applying it to a realistic FRM case study for an entire river branch. We illustrate how ROA identifies optimal short-term investments and values future options. We develop robust dike investment strategies and value the flexibility offered by additional room for the river measures. We benchmark the results of ROA against those of a standard cost-benefit analysis and show ROA's potential policy implications. The ROA for a realistic case requires a high level of geographical detail, a large ensemble of scenarios, and the inclusion of stakeholders' preferences. We found several limitations of applying the ROA. It is complex. In particular, relevant sources of uncertainty need to be recognized, quantified, integrated, and discretized in scenarios, requiring subjective choices and expert judgment. Decision trees have to be generated and stakeholders' preferences have to be translated into decision rules. On basis of this study, we give general recommendations to use high discharge scenarios for the design of measures with high fixed costs and few alternatives. Lower scenarios may be used when alternatives offer future flexibility.

  10. FLOODPLAIN PLANNING BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF TILPARA BARRAGE DISCHARGE: A CASE STUDY ON MAYURAKSHI RIVER BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhash Chandra Jha

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods in the West Bengal are responsible for colossal loss of human life, crops, and property. In recent years, various measures of flood control and management have been adopted. However, flooding in such rivers like Brahmani profoundly challenges flood-hazard management, because of the inadequacy of conventional data and high spatio-temporal variability of floods. To understand flood hazards and environmental change it is imperative that engineers and hydrologists utilize historical and paleoflood records to improve risk analyses as well as to estimate probable maximum flood on rivers such as these in a highly flood-prone region(Parkar,2000. The flood frequency analysis, probable peak discharge analysis, its return period analysis and floodplain zoning based on ancillary data will help better management of flood in the Mayurakshi River basin situated in the districts of Birbhum and Murshidabad.

  11. Identification of key factors affecting the water pollutant concentration in the sluice-controlled river reaches of the Shaying River in China via statistical analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhang, Yan; Zuo, Qiting; Mi, Qingbin

    2015-08-01

    The construction of sluices creates a strong disturbance in water environmental factors within a river. The change in water pollutant concentrations of sluice-controlled river reaches (SCRRs) is more complex than that of natural river segments. To determine the key factors affecting water pollutant concentration changes in SCRRs, river reaches near the Huaidian Sluice in the Shaying River of China were selected as a case study, and water quality monitoring experiments based on different regulating modes were implemented in 2009 and 2010. To identify the key factors affecting the change rates for the chemical oxygen demand of permanganate (CODMn) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations in the SCRRs of the Huaidian Sluice, partial correlation analysis, principal component analysis and principal factor analysis were used. The results indicate four factors, i.e., the inflow quantity from upper reaches, opening size of sluice gates, water pollutant concentration from upper reaches, and turbidity before the sluice, which are the common key factors for the CODMn and NH3-N concentration change rates. Moreover, the dissolved oxygen before a sluice is a key factor for the permanganate concentration from CODMn change rate, and the water depth before a sluice is a key factor for the NH3-N concentration change rate. Multiple linear regressions between the water pollutant concentration change rate and key factors were established via multiple linear regression analyses, and the quantitative relationship between the CODMn and NH3-N concentration change rates and key affecting factors was analyzed. Finally, the mechanism of action for the key factors affecting the water pollutant concentration changes was analyzed. The results reveal that the inflow quantity from upper reaches, opening size of sluice gates, permanganate concentration from CODMn from upper reaches and dissolved oxygen before the sluice have a negative influence and the turbidity before the sluice has a positive

  12. Accuracy and Uncertainty Analysis of Intelligent Techniques for Predicting the Longitudinal Dispersion Coefficient in Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Akbarzadeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of longitudinal dispersion coefficient (LDC can be useful for the determination of pollutants concentration distribution in natural rivers. However, the uncertainty associated with the results obtained from forecasting models has a negative effect on pollutant management in water resources. In this research, appropriate models are first developed using ANN and ANFIS techniques to predict the LDC in natural streams. Then, an uncertainty analysis is performed for ANN and ANFIS models based on Monte-Carlo simulation. The input parameters of the models are related to hydraulic variables and stream geometry. Results indicate that ANN is a suitable model for predicting the LDC, but it is also associated with a high level of uncertainty. However, results of uncertainty analysis show that ANFIS model has less uncertainty; i.e. it is the best model for forecasting satisfactorily the LDC in natural streams.

  13. Internal fluid flow management analysis for Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant sodium pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.M.; Zury, H.L.; Cook, M.E.; Fair, C.E.

    1978-12-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) sodium pumps are currently being designed and the prototype unit is being fabricated. In the design of these large-scale pumps for elevated temperature Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) service, one major design consideration is the response of the critical parts to severe thermal transients. A detailed internal fluid flow distribution analysis has been performed using a computer code HAFMAT, which solves a network of fluid flow paths. The results of the analytical approach are then compared to the test data obtained on a half-scale pump model which was tested in water. The details are presented of pump internal hydraulic analysis, and test and evaluation of the half-scale model test results

  14. Chemometric Analysis of Selected Organic Contaminants in Surface Water of Langat River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rafaie Mohamed Zubir; Rozita Osman; Norashikin Saim

    2016-01-01

    Chemometric techniques namely hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis (HACA), discriminant analysis (DA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) were applied to the distribution of selected organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sterols, pesticides (chloropyrifos), and phenol) to assess the potential of using these organic contaminants as chemical markers in Langat River Basin. Water samples were collected from February 2012 to January 2013 on a monthly basis for nine monitoring sites along Langat River Basin. HACA was able to classify the sampling sites into three clusters which can be correlated to the level of contamination (low, moderate and high contamination sites). DA was used to discriminate the sources of contamination using the selected organic contaminants and relate to the existing DOE local activities groupings. Forward and backward stepwise DA was able to discriminate two and five organic contaminants variables, respectively, from the original 13 selected variables. The five significant variables identified using backward stepwise DA were fluorene, pyrene, stigmastanol, stigmasterol and phenol. PCA and FA (varimax functionality) were used to identify the possible sources of each organic contaminant based on the inventory of local activities. Five principal components were obtained with 66.5 % of the total variation. Result from FA indicated that PAHs (pyrene, fluorene, acenaphthene, benzo[a]anthracene) originated from industrial activity and socio-economic activities; while sterols (coprostanol, stigmastanol and stigmasterol) were associated to domestic sewage and local socio-economic activities. The occurrence of chloropyrifos was correlated to agricultural activities, urban and domestic discharges. This study showed that the application of chemometrics on the distribution of selected organic contaminants was able to trace the sources of contamination in surface water. (author)

  15. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Water Quality data in Indian River Lagoon, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayemuzzaman, M.; Ye, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian River Lagoon, is part of the longest barrier island complex in the United States, is a region of particular concern to the environmental scientist because of the rapid rate of human development throughout the region and the geographical position in between the colder temperate zone and warmer sub-tropical zone. Thus, the surface water quality analysis in this region always brings the newer information. In this present study, multivariate statistical procedures were applied to analyze the spatial and temporal water quality in the Indian River Lagoon over the period 1998-2013. Twelve parameters have been analyzed on twelve key water monitoring stations in and beside the lagoon on monthly datasets (total of 27,648 observations). The dataset was treated using cluster analysis (CA), principle component analysis (PCA) and non-parametric trend analysis. The CA was used to cluster twelve monitoring stations into four groups, with stations on the similar surrounding characteristics being in the same group. The PCA was then applied to the similar groups to find the important water quality parameters. The principal components (PCs), PC1 to PC5 was considered based on the explained cumulative variances 75% to 85% in each cluster groups. Nutrient species (phosphorus and nitrogen), salinity, specific conductivity and erosion factors (TSS, Turbidity) were major variables involved in the construction of the PCs. Statistical significant positive or negative trends and the abrupt trend shift were detected applying Mann-Kendall trend test and Sequential Mann-Kendall (SQMK), for each individual stations for the important water quality parameters. Land use land cover change pattern, local anthropogenic activities and extreme climate such as drought might be associated with these trends. This study presents the multivariate statistical assessment in order to get better information about the quality of surface water. Thus, effective pollution control/management of the surface

  16. Understanding river dune splitting through flume experiments and analysis of a dune evolution model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmink, Jord Jurriaan; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Lansink, Jord; Naqshband, Suleyman; van Duin, Olav; Paarlberg, Andries; Termes, A.P.P.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Forecasts of water level during river floods require accurate predictions of the evolution of river dune dimensions, because the hydraulic roughness of the main channel is largely determined by the bed morphology. River dune dimensions are controlled by processes like merging and splitting of dunes.

  17. Modeling and Analysis of Sea-level Rise Impacts on Salinity in the Lower St. Johns River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacopoulos, P.

    2015-12-01

    There is deliberate attention being paid to studying sea-level rise impacts on the lower St. Johns River, a drowned coastal plain-type estuary with low topographic drive, located in northeastern Florida. One area of attention is salinity in the river, which influences the entire food web, including sea and marsh grasses, juvenile crustaceans and fishes, wading birds and migratory waterfowl, marine mammals and other predator animals. It is expected that elevated ocean levels will increase the salinity of the estuarine waters, leading to deleterious effects on dependent species of the river biology. The objective of the modeling and analysis was: 1) to establish baseline conditions of salinity for the lower St. Johns River; and 2) to examine future conditions of salinity, as impacted by sea-level rise. Establishing baseline conditions entailed validation of the model for present-day salinity in the lower St. Johns River via comparison to available data. Examining future conditions entailed application of the model for sea-level rise scenarios, with comparison to the baseline conditions, for evaluation of sea-level rise impacts on salinity. While the central focus was on the physics of sea-level rise impacts on salinity, some level of salinity-biological assessment was conducted to identify sea-level rise/salinity thresholds, as related to negatively impacting different species of the river biology.

  18. Integrated analysis of water quality parameters for cost-effective faecal pollution management in river catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane; Ebdon, James Edward; Taylor, Huw David

    2011-03-01

    In many parts of the world, microbial contamination of surface waters used for drinking, recreation, and shellfishery remains a pervasive risk to human health, especially in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDC). However, the capacity to provide effective management strategies to break the waterborne route to human infection is often thwarted by our inability to identify the source of microbial contamination. Microbial Source Tracking (MST) has potential to improve water quality management in complex river catchments that are either routinely, or intermittently contaminated by faecal material from one or more sources, by attributing faecal loads to their human or non-human sources, and thereby supporting more rational approaches to microbial risk assessment. The River Ouse catchment in southeast England (U.K.) was used as a model with which to investigate the integration and application of a novel and simple MST approach to monitor microbial water quality over one calendar year, thereby encompassing a range of meteorological conditions. A key objective of the work was to develop simple low-cost protocols that could be easily replicated. Bacteriophages (viruses) capable of infecting a human specific strain of Bacteroides GB-124, and their correlation with presumptive Escherichia coli, were used to distinguish sources of faecal pollution. The results reported here suggest that in this river catchment the principal source of faecal pollution in most instances was non-human in origin. During storm events, presumptive E. coli and presumptive intestinal enterococci levels were 1.1-1.2 logs higher than during dry weather conditions, and levels of the faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) were closely associated with increased turbidity levels (presumptive E. coli and turbidity, r = 0.43). Spatio-temporal variation in microbial water quality parameters was accounted for by three principal components (67.6%). Cluster Analysis, reduced the fourteen monitoring sites to six

  19. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant H-Canyon operations. Supplement 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M M; Collier, C D; Fairobent, L A; Graham, R F; Mason, C L; McDuffee, W T; Owen, T L; Walker, D H [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The H-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the HM process to separate uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and fission products. Irradiated uranium fuels containing {sup 235}U at enrichments from 1.1% to 94% are processed and recovered, along with neptunium and plutonium isotopes. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. This SAR documents an analysis of the H-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the Conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some H-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the H-Carbon can be operated without due risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined an the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological does are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of alternative waste forms at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    A remotely controlled system for neutron activation of candidate high-level waste (HLW) isolation forms was built by the Savannah River Laboratory at a Savannah River Plant reactor. With this system, samples can be irradiated for up to 24 hours and transferred through pneumatic tubing to a shielded repository unitl their activity is low enough for them to be handled in a radiobench. The principal use of the system is to support the Alternative Waste Forms Leach Testing (AWFLT) Program in which the comparative leachability of the various waste forms will be determined. The experimental method used in this work is based on neutron activation analysis techniques. Neutron irradiation of the solid waste form containing simulated HLW sludge activates elements in the sample. After suitable leaching of the solid matrix in standard solutions, the leachate and solid are assayed for gamma-emitting nuclides. From these measurements, the fraction of a specific element leached can be determined al half-lives with experimental ones, over a range of 24 orders of magnitude was obtained. This is a strong argument that the alpha decay could be considered a fission process with very high mass asymmetry and charge density asymmetry

  1. Statistical analysis of trends in monthly precipitation at the Limbang River Basin, Sarawak (NW Borneo), Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, M. V. Ninu; Prasanna, M. V.; Vijith, H.

    2018-05-01

    Effect of climate change in a region can be characterised by the analysis of rainfall trends. In the present research, monthly rainfall trends at Limbang River Basin (LRB) in Sarawak, Malaysia for a period of 45 years (1970-2015) were characterised through the non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Spearman's Rho tests and relative seasonality index. Statistically processed monthly rainfall of 12 well distributed rain gauging stations in LRB shows almost equal amount of rainfall in all months. Mann-Kendall and Spearman's Rho tests revealed a specific pattern of rainfall trend with a definite boundary marked in the months of January and August with positive trends in all stations. Among the stations, Limbang DID, Long Napir and Ukong showed positive (increasing) trends in all months with a maximum increase of 4.06 mm/year (p = 0.01) in November. All other stations showed varying trends (both increasing and decreasing). Significant (p = 0.05) decreasing trend was noticed in Ulu Medalam and Setuan during September (- 1.67 and - 1.79 mm/year) and October (- 1.59 and - 1.68 mm/year) in Mann-Kendall and Spearman's Rho tests. Spatial pattern of monthly rainfall trends showed two clusters of increasing rainfalls (maximas) in upper and lower part of the river basin separated with a dominant decreasing rainfall corridor. The results indicate a generally increasing trend of rainfall in Sarawak, Borneo.

  2. Statistical attribution analysis of the nonstationarity of the annual runoff series of the Weihe River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lihua; Jiang, Cong; Du, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Time-varying moments models based on Pearson Type III and normal distributions respectively are built under the generalized additive model in location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) framework to analyze the nonstationarity of the annual runoff series of the Weihe River, the largest tributary of the Yellow River. The detection of nonstationarities in hydrological time series (annual runoff, precipitation and temperature) from 1960 to 2009 is carried out using a GAMLSS model, and then the covariate analysis for the annual runoff series is implemented with GAMLSS. Finally, the attribution of each covariate to the nonstationarity of annual runoff is analyzed quantitatively. The results demonstrate that (1) obvious change-points exist in all three hydrological series, (2) precipitation, temperature and irrigated area are all significant covariates of the annual runoff series, and (3) temperature increase plays the main role in leading to the reduction of the annual runoff series in the study basin, followed by the decrease of precipitation and the increase of irrigated area.

  3. Analysis and dating of Sediments in Montevideo Bay and Silver river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odino, R.; Suarez Antola, R.; Cabral, W.

    1999-01-01

    The present work includes generalities on the River of the Silver, antecedents of studies carried out during the years 1992-1997, in the issuing sub aquatic of Tip Carts, studies about the contamination of silts carried out during the years 1993-1996, studies preliminary of the contamination of silts in the Bay,results obtain,treatment of the data and enrichment factors. In the description of the project it is looked for to obtain reliable data on the state of contamination for heavy metals sedimentation ,velocity and age of the silts of the Bay of Montevideo and the River of the Silver, describe geologic aspects in the area involved in the study, the sampling of silts is planned having present the purpose of the same one that is to say to take samples that represent the characteristics real of silts in the sampling area, X Ray Fluorescence dispersive Energy are used in the analysis of samples, for finish, results and discussion are presented

  4. Estimation of River Pollution Index in a Tidal Stream Using Kriging Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Wei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tidal streams are complex watercourses that represent a transitional zone between riverine and marine systems; they occur where fresh and marine waters converge. Because tidal circulation processes cause substantial turbulence in these highly dynamic zones, tidal streams are the most productive of water bodies. Their rich biological diversity, combined with the convenience of land and water transports, provide sites for concentrated populations that evolve into large cities. Domestic wastewater is generally discharged directly into tidal streams in Taiwan, necessitating regular evaluation of the water quality of these streams. Given the complex flow dynamics of tidal streams, only a few models can effectively evaluate and identify pollution levels. This study evaluates the river pollution index (RPI in tidal streams by using kriging analysis. This is a geostatistical method for interpolating random spatial variation to estimate linear grid points in two or three dimensions. A kriging-based method is developed to evaluate RPI in tidal streams, which is typically considered as 1D in hydraulic engineering. The proposed method efficiently evaluates RPI in tidal streams with the minimum amount of water quality data. Data of the Tanshui River downstream reach available from an estuarine area validate the accuracy and reliability of the proposed method. Results of this study demonstrate that this simple yet reliable method can effectively estimate RPI in tidal streams.

  5. Hydrologic Evaluation of TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis for Nanliu River Basin in Humid Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjun; Xie, Qiongying; Lu, Yuan; Hu, Baoqing

    2017-06-01

    The accuracy of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) multi-satellite precipitation analysis (TMPA) daily accumulated precipitation products (3B42RTV7 and 3B42V7) was evaluated for a small basin (the Nanliu river basin). A direct comparison was performed against gauge observations from a period of 9 years (2000-2009) at temporal and spatial scales. The results show that the temporal-spatial precipitation characteristics of the Nanliu river basin are highly consistent with 3B42V7 relative to 3B42RTV7, with higher correlation coefficient (CC) approximately 0.9 at all temporal scales except for the daily scale and a lower relative bias percentage. 3B42V7 slightly overestimates precipitation at all temporal scales except the yearly scale; it slightly underestimates the precipitation at the daily spatial scale. The results also reveal that the precision of TMPA products increases with longer time-aggregated data, and the detection capability of daily TMPA precipitation products are enhanced by augmentation with daily precipitation rates. In addition, daily TMPA products were input into the Xin'anjiang hydrologic model; the results show that 3B42V7-based simulated outputs were well in line with actual stream flow observations, with a high CC (0.90) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE, 0.79), and the results adequately captured the pattern of the observed flow curve.

  6. Remote sensing, planform, and facies analysis of the Plain of Tineh, Egypt for the remains of the defunct Pelusiac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanar, Jessica; Khan, Shuhab D.; Fathy, Mohamed S.; Zalat, Abdel-Fattah A.

    2013-11-01

    The Pelusiac Branch was a distributary river in the Nile Delta that splits off from the main trunk of the Nile River as it flowed toward the Mediterranean. At approximately 25 A.D., it was chocked by sand and silt deposits from prograding beach accretion processes. The lower course of the river and its bifurcation point from the trunk of the Nile have been hypothesized based on ancient texts and maps, as well as previous research, but results have been inconsistent. Previous studies partly mapped the lower course of the Pelusiac River in the Plain of Tineh, east of the Suez Canal, but rapid urbanization related to the inauguration of the Peace Canal mega-irrigation project has covered any trace of the linear feature reported by these previous studies. The present study used multispectral remote sensing data of GeoEYE-1 and Landsat-TM to locate and accurately map the course of the defunct Pelusiac River within the Plain of Tineh. Remote sensing analysis identified a linear feature that is 135 m wide at its maximum and approximately 13 km long. It extends from the Pelusium ruins to the Suez Canal, just north of the Peace Canal. This remotely located linear feature corresponds to the path of the Pelusiac River during Roman times. Planform geomorphology was applied to determine the hydrological regime and paleodischarge of the river prior to becoming defunct. Planform analysis derived a bankfull paleodischarge value of ~ 5700 m3 s- 1 and an average discharge of 650 m3 s- 1, using the reach average for the interpreted Pelusiac River. The derived values show a river distributary similar in discharge to the modern dammed Damietta river. Field work completed in April of 2012 derived four sedimentary lithofacies of the upper formation on the plain that included pro-delta, delta-front and delta-plain depositional environments. Diatom and fossil mollusk samples were also identified that support coastal beach and lagoonal environments of deposition. Measured section columns

  7. Application of CryoSat-2 altimetry data for river analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Raphael; Godiksen, Peter Nygaard; Villadsen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    , satellite altimeters are used in various ways to provide information about such river basins. Most missions provide virtual station time series of water levels at locations where their repeat orbits cross rivers. CryoSat-2 is equipped with a new type of altimeter, providing estimates of the actual ground....... This allowed extraction of river water levels over previously unmonitored narrow stretches of the river. In the Assam Valley section of the Brahmaputra River, CryoSat-2 data and Envisat virtual station data were combined to calibrate cross sections in a 1-D hydrodynamic model of the river. The hydrologic......Availability of in situ river monitoring data, especially of data shared across boundaries, is decreasing, despite growing challenges for water resource management across the entire globe. This is especially valid for the case study of this work, the Brahmaputra Basin in South Asia. Commonly...

  8. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  9. A Study on Regional Frequency Analysis using Artificial Neural Network - the Sumjin River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, C.; Ahn, J.; Ahn, H.; Heo, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    Regional frequency analysis means to make up for shortcomings in the at-site frequency analysis which is about a lack of sample size through the regional concept. Regional rainfall quantile depends on the identification of hydrologically homogeneous regions, hence the regional classification based on hydrological homogeneous assumption is very important. For regional clustering about rainfall, multidimensional variables and factors related geographical features and meteorological figure are considered such as mean annual precipitation, number of days with precipitation in a year and average maximum daily precipitation in a month. Self-Organizing Feature Map method which is one of the artificial neural network algorithm in the unsupervised learning techniques solves N-dimensional and nonlinear problems and be shown results simply as a data visualization technique. In this study, for the Sumjin river basin in South Korea, cluster analysis was performed based on SOM method using high-dimensional geographical features and meteorological factor as input data. then, for the results, in order to evaluate the homogeneity of regions, the L-moment based discordancy and heterogeneity measures were used. Rainfall quantiles were estimated as the index flood method which is one of regional rainfall frequency analysis. Clustering analysis using SOM method and the consequential variation in rainfall quantile were analyzed. This research was supported by a grant(2017-MPSS31-001) from Supporting Technology Development Program for Disaster Management funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security(MPSS) of the Korean government.

  10. GIS environmental information analysis of the Darro River basin as the key for the management and hydrological forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Paz; Delgado, Expectación; Lopez-Alonso, Mónica; Poyatos, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    This article presents analyses of soil and environmental information for the Darro River basin (Granada-Spain) preliminary to its hydrological and forestry restoration. These analyses were carried out using a geographical information system (GIS) and employing a new procedure that adapts hydrological forest-restoration methods. The complete analysis encompasses morphological conditions, soil and climate characteristics as well as vegetation and land use. The study investigates soil erosion in the basin by using Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and by mapping erosion fragility units. The results are presented in a set of maps and their analysis, providing the starting point for river basin management and the hydrological and forestry-restoration project that was approved at the end of 2015. The presence of soft substrates (e.g. gravel and sand) indicates that the area is susceptible to erosion, particularly the areas that are dominated by human activity and have little soil protection. Finally, land use and vegetation cover were identified as key factors in the soil erosion in the basin. According to the results, river authorities have included several measures in the restoration project aimed at reducing the erosion and helping to recover the environmental value of this river basin and to include it in recreation possibilities for the community of Granada. The presented analytical approach, designed by the authors, would be useful as a tool for environmental restoration in other small Mediterranean river basins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Flood-flow analysis for Kabul river at Warsak on the basis of flow-records of Kabul river at Nowshera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, B.

    2007-01-01

    High flows and stream discharge have long been measured and used by the engineers in the design of hydraulic structures and flood-protection works and in planning for flood-plain use. Probability-analysis is the basis for the engineering design of many projects and advance information about flood-forecasting. High-flow analysis or flood-frequency studies interpret a past record of events, to predict the future probability of occurrence. In many countries, including the author's country, the long term flow data required for design of hydraulic structures and flood-protection works are not available. In such cases, the only tool with hydrologists is to extend the short-term flow data available at some other site in the region. The present study is made to find a reliable estimation of maximum instantaneous flood for higher frequencies of Kabul River at Warsak weir. Kabul River, at Nowshera gaging station is used or the purpose and regression-analysis is performed to extend the instantaneous peak-flow record up to 29 years at Warsak. The frequency-curves of high-flows are plotted on the normal probability paper, using different probability distributions. The Gumbel distribution seemed to be the best fit for the observed data-points, and is used here for estimation of flood for different return periods. (author)

  12. Morphometrical Analysis and Peak Runoff Estimation for the Sub-Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Adebayo Wahab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized Spatial Information Technology (SIT such as Remote Sensing (RS, a Geographical Information System (GIS, the Global Positioning System (GPS and a high-resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM for a morphometrical analysis of five sub-basins within the Lower Niger River Basin, Nigeria. Morpho-metrical parameters, such as the total relief, relative relief, relief ratio, ruggedness number, texture ratio, elongation ratio, circularity ratio, form factor ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, sinuosity factor and bifurcation ratio, have been computed and analyzed. The study revealed that the contribution of the morphometric parameters to flooding suggest catchment No. 1 has the least concentration time and the highest runoff depth. Catchment No. 4 has the highest circularity ratio (0.35 as the most hazardous site where floods could reach a great volume over a small area.

  13. Virtual Crop Water Export Analysis: The Case of Greece at River Basin District Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mellios

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of virtual crop water export through international trade is conducted for Greece, downscaled to the River Basin District (RBD level, in order to identify critical “hotspots” of localized water shortage in the country. A computable general equilibrium model (MAGNET was used to obtain the export shares of crops and associated irrigation water was calculated for all major crops in Greece. A distinction between virtual crop water locally consumed and traded internationally was made for all Greek RBDs. Cotton was identified as a large water consumer and virtual water exporter, while GR08 and GR10 were identified as the RBDs mostly impacted. The value of virtual water exported was calculated for all crop types and fruits and vegetables were identified as the crop most beneficial, since they consume the least water for the obtained value.

  14. Rivers and streams in the media: a content analysis of ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Weber

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Although ecosystem services research has become common, few efforts are directed toward in-depth understanding of the specific ecological quantities people value. The theoretical framework of final ecosystem services focuses attention on such measurable attributes, as a common currency for social-ecological systems research. Environmental communications as well as ecological monitoring and analysis efforts could be enhanced through increased documentation of final ecosystem services. For example, small changes in the way ecosystems are described could strongly influence relevance to the public and improve the foundation for environmental decision making. Focusing on rivers and streams, we conducted a content analysis of existing publications to document the breadth and frequency with which various measurable attributes, such as flooding, water quality characteristics, and wildlife appeared in different news sources over a multiyear timeline. In addition to attributes, motivations for human interest in river-related resources were also coded, such as recreation or preservation for future generations. To allow testing of differences between materials written for different audiences, three sources were sampled: a blog hosted by National Geographic, New York Times articles, and Wall Street Journal articles. The coding approach was rigorously tested in a pilot phase, with measures developed to ensure high data quality, including use of two independent coders. Results show numerous similarities across sources with some notable differences in emphasis. Significant relationships between groups of attribute and motivation codes were also found, one outcome of which is further support for the importance of nonuse values for fish and wildlife. Besides offering insight on ecosystem services, the project demonstrates an in-depth quantitative approach to analyzing preexisting qualitative data.

  15. Morphodynamic change analysis of bedforms in the Lower Orinoco River, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yepez, Santiago Paul; Laraque, Alain; Gualtieri, Carlo; Christophoul, Frédéric; Marchan, Claudio; Castellanos, Bartolo; Azocar, Jose Manuel; Lopez, Jose Luis; Alfonso, Juan

    2018-04-01

    The Orinoco River has the third largest discharge in the world, with an annual mean flow of 37 600 m3 s-1 at its outlet to the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the presence of the Guiana Shield on the right bank, the lower reach of the Orinoco has a plan form characterized by contraction and expansion zones. Typical 1-1.5 km wide narrow reaches are followed by 7-8 km wide reaches. A complex pattern of bed aggradation and degradation processes takes place during the annual hydrological regime. A series of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) transects were collected on an expansion channel in the Orinoco River, specifically over a fluvial island, representative of the lower Orinoco. In this study, temporal series of bathymetric cartography obtained by ADCP profiles combined with Differential Global Position System (DGPS) measurements (with dual-frequency), were used to recover the local displacement of bed forms in this island. The principal aims of this analysis were: (1) to understand the dynamics and evolution of sand waves and bars at this section and (2) to quantify the volume (erosion vs. accretion) of a mid-channel bar with dunes by applying DEM of Difference (DoD) maps on time series of bathymetric data. This required sampling with ADCP transects during the months of: May 2016; November 2016 and April 2017. Each bathymetric transect was measured twice, 1 day apart and on the same trajectory obtained by a GPS receptor. The spatial analysis of these ADCP transects is presented as a novel tool in the acquisition of time series of bathymetry for a relatively deep section ( ˜ 20 m) and under variable flow conditions.

  16. Morphodynamic change analysis of bedforms in the Lower Orinoco River, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Yepez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Orinoco River has the third largest discharge in the world, with an annual mean flow of 37 600 m3 s−1 at its outlet to the Atlantic Ocean. Due to the presence of the Guiana Shield on the right bank, the lower reach of the Orinoco has a plan form characterized by contraction and expansion zones. Typical 1–1.5 km wide narrow reaches are followed by 7–8 km wide reaches. A complex pattern of bed aggradation and degradation processes takes place during the annual hydrological regime. A series of Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP transects were collected on an expansion channel in the Orinoco River, specifically over a fluvial island, representative of the lower Orinoco. In this study, temporal series of bathymetric cartography obtained by ADCP profiles combined with Differential Global Position System (DGPS measurements (with dual-frequency, were used to recover the local displacement of bed forms in this island. The principal aims of this analysis were: (1 to understand the dynamics and evolution of sand waves and bars at this section and (2 to quantify the volume (erosion vs. accretion of a mid-channel bar with dunes by applying DEM of Difference (DoD maps on time series of bathymetric data. This required sampling with ADCP transects during the months of: May 2016; November 2016 and April 2017. Each bathymetric transect was measured twice, 1 day apart and on the same trajectory obtained by a GPS receptor. The spatial analysis of these ADCP transects is presented as a novel tool in the acquisition of time series of bathymetry for a relatively deep section ( ∼ 20 m and under variable flow conditions.

  17. Bacterial flora analysis of coliforms in sewage, river water, and ground water using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yoshihiro; Niina, Kouki; Matsuwaki, Tomonori; Nukazawa, Kei; Iguchi, Atsushi

    2018-01-28

    The aim of this study was to rapidly and effectively analyze coliforms, which are the most fundamental indicators of water quality for fecal pollution, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Coliform bacteria were isolated from municipal sewage, river water, and groundwater. For each sample, 100 isolates were determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In addition, these same 100 isolates were also identified via 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Obtained MALDI-TOF MS data were compared with the 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, and the validity of MALDI-TOF MS for classification of coliform bacteria was examined. The concordance rate of bacterial identification for the 100 isolates obtained by MALDI-TOF MS analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis for sewage, river water, and ground water were 96%, 74%, and 62% at the genus level, respectively. Among the sewage, river water, and ground water samples, the coliform bacterial flora were distinct. The dominant genus of coliforms in sewage, river water, and groundwater were Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Serratia spp., respectively. We determined that MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate tool that can be used to identify coliforms. Therefore, without using conventional 16S rRNA sequencing, it is possible to rapidly and effectively classify coliforms in water using MALDI-TOF MS.

  18. Hydrologic classification of rivers based on cluster analysis of dimensionless hydrologic signatures: Applications for environmental instream flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praskievicz, S. J.; Luo, C.

    2017-12-01

    Classification of rivers is useful for a variety of purposes, such as generating and testing hypotheses about watershed controls on hydrology, predicting hydrologic variables for ungaged rivers, and setting goals for river management. In this research, we present a bottom-up (based on machine learning) river classification designed to investigate the underlying physical processes governing rivers' hydrologic regimes. The classification was developed for the entire state of Alabama, based on 248 United States Geological Survey (USGS) stream gages that met criteria for length and completeness of records. Five dimensionless hydrologic signatures were derived for each gage: slope of the flow duration curve (indicator of flow variability), baseflow index (ratio of baseflow to average streamflow), rising limb density (number of rising limbs per unit time), runoff ratio (ratio of long-term average streamflow to long-term average precipitation), and streamflow elasticity (sensitivity of streamflow to precipitation). We used a Bayesian clustering algorithm to classify the gages, based on the five hydrologic signatures, into distinct hydrologic regimes. We then used classification and regression trees (CART) to predict each gaged river's membership in different hydrologic regimes based on climatic and watershed variables. Using existing geospatial data, we applied the CART analysis to classify ungaged streams in Alabama, with the National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) catchment (average area 3 km2) as the unit of classification. The results of the classification can be used for meeting management and conservation objectives in Alabama, such as developing statewide standards for environmental instream flows. Such hydrologic classification approaches are promising for contributing to process-based understanding of river systems.

  19. Analysis of river Jiu water pollution due to operation of Rovinari, Turceni and Paroseni fossil fuel power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Aurel Ilie; Mitoiu, Corneliu; Constantinescu, Ana Maria; Ghigiu, Nicolae

    1995-01-01

    Important quantities of ash and breeze resulting from combustion of fossil fuels used in Rovinari, Turceni and Paroseni power plants were evacuated by hydraulic transport into decant ponds for the primary treatment. Waste waters resulting from hydrotransport have large suspension concentrations and, occasionally, strong alkaline pH values. Periodically, accidental pollutions affected the river Jiu and large areas of agricultural lands. The paper presents the analysis results of waste water pH, suspensions and fixed residue. The causes of river Jiu pollution are discussed and measures to reduce its effects are suggested. (authors)

  20. Analysis and Application of River Surface Line in Hilly Area based on Hec-ras Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Congshan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For example—Cixian Fuyang River Regulation Project. Due to the character that Fuyang River is located in hilly areas of Cixian, we use the Hex-ras software to calculate the status of the river water surface line for the goal of determining the final treatment plan. We maintain the present situation of the river channel design as principle, select the most appropriate pushed water level and roughnessas the basic, and we combine the classification calculation of crossing structures of backwater and the encryption calculation section to get the more accurate result. We compare the water level elevation and the calculation of cross strait, analyze the design parameters, calculate repeated the water line section, analyze the rationality of the design plan, and then finally determine the applicability of Hex-rac software in the large continuous variation of cross section of embankment of river river surface line.

  1. Hyporheic invertebrates as bioindicators of ecological health in temporary rivers: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, C; Stubbington, R; Sheldon, F; Boulton, AJ

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, many rivers cease flow and dry either naturally or owing to human activities such as water extraction. However, even when surface water is absent, diverse assemblages of aquatic invertebrates inhabit the saturated sediments below the river bed (hyporheic zone). In the absence of surface water or flow, biota of this zone may be sampled as an alternative to surface water-based ecological assessments. The potential of hyporheic invertebrates as ecological indicators of river health, h...

  2. GLUE Analysis and Optimal Operation for Diyala River Basin in Iraq Using Variable Infiltration Capacity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, S., Sr.; Ramirez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Uncertainty in both hydrologic behavior and model characterization is a concern for current and future water resource system planning, operation, and management. To develop optimal dam operation schemes under future uncertainty, the sensitivity of the precipitation-runoff response to changes in hydro-climatic forcing must be quantified. To achieve this purpose, accurate (observational and modeled) data should be implemented. Herein, many data sources were compared to representative hydrologic datasets. Due to limited availability of observed daily data, a random temporal cascade method was used to downscale the monthly precipitation into daily. Then, four interpolation methods were compared to transform the point into gridded data. Furthermore, a regression technique coupled with Kriging method was developed. The method is based on regressing modeled data (from VIC dataset) with the observed gridded temperature by relating the regression to the geometry of each grid. The sensitivity and identifiability of the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC) for the Diyala River basin in Iraq were evaluated using GLUE technique. Diyala River is a Tigris River tributary in eastern Iraq. Its total length and basin area are about 216.5 km and 16,763.7 km2, respectively. Seven candidate parameters of VIC model (b_infilt, Ds, Ws, Dsmax, and depths of soil layer 1, 2, and 3) associated with the infiltration and surface runoff production processes are examined for 14000 random sets. The comparison between the different data showed that neither the observations from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission nor the VIC modeled data is accurate for gridded precipitation; therefore, a downscaling technique was applied. Moreover, the comparison between four different interpolation techniques revealed that the Kriging method is the most accurate. The optimal model performance was found to be 0.731 NSCE. Also, the GLUE analysis results implied that the depth of the second soil layer depth

  3. Flood Discharge Analysis with Nakayasu Method Using Combination of HEC-RAS Method on Deli River in Medan City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harahap, Rumilla; Jeumpa, Kemala; Hadibroto, Bambang

    2018-03-01

    The problem in this research is how in the rainy season the water does not overflow, does not occur flood and during the dry season does not occur drought so it can adjust the condition or existence of Deli river which is around Medan city. Deli River floods often occur, either caused by a smaller capacity than the existing discharge, lack of maintenance and drainage and disposal systems that do not fit with the environment, resulting in flood subscriptions every year. The purpose of this research is to know flood discharge at Deli river as Flood control in Medan city. This research is analyzed on several methods such as log Pearson, Gumbel and hydrograph unit, while HEC-RAS method is modeling conducted in analyzing the water profile of the Deli River. Furthermore, the calculation of the periodic flood discharge using the Nakayasu Method. Calculation result at Deli River return period flood discharge 2 years with an area of 14.8 km2 annual flood hydrograph the total is 26.79 m3/sec on the hours at the 4th time. Return period flood discharge 5 years with an area of 14.8 km2 annual flood hydrograph the total is 73,44 m3/sec. While 25 annual return period total flood hydrograph is 146.50 m3/sec. With flood analysis can reduce and minimize the risk of losses and land can be mapped if in the area there is flooding.

  4. Analysis of Phenomenels with Hydrologic Large Risk in the Hydrographic Basin of the Trotuş River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avram Mihaela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the high hydrological risk phenomena formed in the hydrographic basin of the Trotuş River in the last period of time. The Trotuş River and the tributaries are monitored by 21 hydrometric stations. Precipitation volume processing indicated a number of risk factors that have prevailed over the last 20 years. The hydrological data processing revealed the presence of several flood flows in the same year. The effects of the floods have materialized through the excessive degradation of river bedside regulation and shore defence works. The floods of the past 25 years have resulted in the destruction of a large number of economic and social objectives in the Trotuş River area, as well as human losses. Parameters of hydroclimatic risk highlighted by research are represented by torrential precipitations, floods with high probability, high frequency of high-flow flows, formation of high erosion velocities of the bed, etc. Parameters of hydroclimatic risk impose special conditions for the design of river regularization and shore defence.

  5. Role of neutron activation analysis in the study of heavy metal pollution of a lake-river system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filby, R.H.; Shah, K.R.; Funk, W.H.

    1974-01-01

    Details of a study of combined organic and metallic pollution of the Coeur d'Alene Lake-River and Spokane River system and the role played by nuclear techniques in the investigation are presented. The Coeur d'Alene River drains through the N. Idaho Pb--Zn mining region of Kellogg and the mining industry is the major source of metallic pollution of the lake and river system. The first part of the study has involved the determination of Pb, Zn, Ag, Cd, As, Cu, Sb, Co, Cr, Cs, Rb, Sc, Ba, Eu, La, Tb, Y, Zr, Fe, Mn, Mo, by INAA in waters, sediments and organisms throughout the region. Extremely high values for Pb, Zn, Sb, Fe and other metals were found in the Coeur d'Alene River delta sediments and in the lake sediments. Results from the study of metals in an aquatic ecosystem show the value of combining nuclear techniques with other methods of trace analysis in practical pollution problems

  6. Selective analysis of power plant operation on the Hudson River with emphasis on the Bowline Point Generating Station. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Cannon, J.B.; Christensen, S.G.

    1977-07-01

    A comprehensive study of the effects of power plant operation on the Hudson River was conducted. The study included thermal, biological, and air quality effects of existing and planned electrical generating stations. This section on thermal impacts presents a comprehensive mathematical modeling and computer simulation study of the effects of heat rejection from the plants. The overall study consisted of three major parts: near-field analysis; far-field analysis; and zone-matched near-field/far-field analysis. Near-field analyses were completed for Roseton, Danskammer, and Bowline Point Generating Stations, and near-field dilution ratios range from a low of about 2 for Bowline Point and 3 for Roseton to a maximum of 6 for both plants. The far-field analysis included a critical review of existing studies and a parametric review of operating plants. The maximum thermal load case, based on hypothetical 1974 river conditions, gives the daily maximum cross-section-averaged and 2-mile-segment-averaged water temperatures as 83.80 0 F in the vicinity of the Indian Point Station and 83.25 0 F in the vicinity of the Bowline Station. This maximum case will be significantly modified if cooling towers are used at certain units. A full analysis and discussion of these cases is presented. A study of the Hudson River striped bass population is divided into the following eight subsections: distribution of striped bass eggs, larvae, and juveniles in the Hudson River; entrainment mortality factor; intake factor; impingement; effects of discharges; compensation; model estimates of percent reduction; and Hudson River striped bass stock

  7. Solid waste accident analysis in support of the Savannah River Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, W.J.; Crumm, A.T.; Kearnaghan, D.P.; Rabin, M.S.; Rossi, D.E.

    1994-07-01

    The potential for facility accidents and the magnitude of their impacts are important factors in the evaluation of the solid waste management addressed in the Environmental Impact Statement. The purpose of this document is to address the potential solid waste management facility accidents for comparative use in support of the Environmental Impact Statement. This document must not be construed as an Authorization Basis document for any of the SRS waste management facilities. Because of the time constraints placed on preparing this accident impact analysis, all accident information was derived from existing safety documentation that has been prepared for SRS waste management facilities. A list of facilities to include in the accident impact analysis was provided as input by the Savannah River Technology Section. The accident impact analyses include existing SRS waste management facilities as well as proposed facilities. Safety documentation exists for all existing and many of the proposed facilities. Information was extracted from this existing documentation for this impact analysis. There are a few proposed facilities for which safety analyses have not been prepared. However, these facilities have similar processes to existing facilities and will treat, store, or dispose of the same type of material that is in existing facilities; therefore, the accidents can be expected to be similar

  8. Numerical Analysis of Flood modeling of upper Citarum River under Extreme Flood Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, R. I.

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on how to approach the numerical method and computation to analyse flood parameters. Water level and flood discharge are the flood parameters solved by numerical methods approach. Numerical method performed on this paper for unsteady flow conditions have strengths and weaknesses, among others easily applied to the following cases in which the boundary irregular flow. The study area is in upper Citarum Watershed, Bandung, West Java. This paper uses computation approach with Force2 programming and HEC-RAS to solve the flow problem in upper Citarum River, to investigate and forecast extreme flood condition. Numerical analysis based on extreme flood events that have occurred in the upper Citarum watershed. The result of water level parameter modeling and extreme flood discharge compared with measurement data to analyse validation. The inundation area about flood that happened in 2010 is about 75.26 square kilometres. Comparing two-method show that the FEM analysis with Force2 programs has the best approach to validation data with Nash Index is 0.84 and HEC-RAS that is 0.76 for water level. For discharge data Nash Index obtained the result analysis use Force2 is 0.80 and with use HEC-RAS is 0.79.

  9. A water availability and low-flow analysis of the Tagliamento River discharge in Italy under changing climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Gunawardhana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the effects of projected variations in precipitation and temperature on snowfall-snowmelt processes and subsequent river discharge variations in the Tagliamento River in Italy. A lumped-parameter, non-linear, rainfall-runoff model with 10 general circulation model (GCM scenarios was used. Spatial and temporal changes in snow cover were assessed using 15 high-quality Landsat images. The 7Q10 low-flow probability distribution approximated by the Log-Pearson type III distribution function was used to examine river discharge variations with respect to climate extremes in the future. On average, the results obtained for 10 scenarios indicate a consistent warming rate for all time periods, which may increase the maximum and minimum temperatures by 2.3 °C (0.6–3.7 °C and 2.7 °C (1.0–4.0 °C, respectively, by the end of the 21st century compared to the present climate. Consequently, the exponential rate of frost day decrease for 1 °C winter warming in lower-elevation areas is approximately three-fold (262% higher than that in higher-elevation areas, revealing that snowfall in lower-elevation areas will be more vulnerable under a changing climate. In spite of the relatively minor changes in annual precipitation (−17.4 ~ 1.7% compared to the average of the baseline (1991–2010 period, snowfall will likely decrease by 48–67% during the 2080–2099 time period. The mean river discharges are projected to decrease in all seasons, except winter. The low-flow analysis indicated that while the magnitude of the minimum river discharge will increase (e.g. a 25% increase in the 7Q10 estimations for the winter season in the 2080–2099 time period, the number of annual average low-flow events will also increase (e.g. 16 and 15 more days during the spring and summer seasons, respectively, in the 2080–2099 time period compared to the average during the baseline period, leading to a future with a highly variable river discharge

  10. The analysis on the flood property of Weihe River in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Longqing; Jiang Xinhui

    2004-01-01

    From the end of Aug to Oct in 2003, it occurred a serious rainfall in the Weihe River --the largest tributary of Yellow River. The rainfall is rare in the history with long duration in the Weihe River valley so that 5 successive floods have formed at the controlling hydrological station-Huaxian station. Those floods overflow the beach, broke the dykes and flood the big area of Lower Weihe River. The natural adversity made near 200.000 populations leave their homeland the serious economic losses. The durations of the floods are long, the water levels are high and the volume of floods is largeness, which is rare in the history to a large extent. The flood peak at Huaxian station is up to 3570 m 3 /s, which is the first biggest peak since 1992. In recent years, owing to the fact that probability of the big flood on Weihe River was rare, the main river was withered clearly, propagation time of flood is lengthened and the discharge flowing over the floodplain was only 800-1000 m 3 /s. The water producing areas of those floods were in the area with little sediment production and the sediment content of the river is lower. As a result, the main river is eroded, the discharge ability of the river course becomes big gradually and the discharge flowing over the floodplain recovers above 2000 m 3 /s. From the analyses of flood components and flood progress, the conclusion is: the sediment deposit and the rising of channel bed, the withering of the main river, the decreasing of the discharge flowing over the floodplain, the increasing of the large peak whittling rate and the prolonging of the propagation duration, all have become the universal appearance of the rivers in arid and half arid districts. The appearance is extremely easily to create the serious calamity in the big flood and the flood law in local area should be researched further.(Author)

  11. Multivariate stochastic analysis for Monthly hydrological time series at Cuyahoga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    zhang, L.

    2011-12-01

    Copula has become a very powerful statistic and stochastic methodology in case of the multivariate analysis in Environmental and Water resources Engineering. In recent years, the popular one-parameter Archimedean copulas, e.g. Gumbel-Houggard copula, Cook-Johnson copula, Frank copula, the meta-elliptical copula, e.g. Gaussian Copula, Student-T copula, etc. have been applied in multivariate hydrological analyses, e.g. multivariate rainfall (rainfall intensity, duration and depth), flood (peak discharge, duration and volume), and drought analyses (drought length, mean and minimum SPI values, and drought mean areal extent). Copula has also been applied in the flood frequency analysis at the confluences of river systems by taking into account the dependence among upstream gauge stations rather than by using the hydrological routing technique. In most of the studies above, the annual time series have been considered as stationary signal which the time series have been assumed as independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables. But in reality, hydrological time series, especially the daily and monthly hydrological time series, cannot be considered as i.i.d. random variables due to the periodicity existed in the data structure. Also, the stationary assumption is also under question due to the Climate Change and Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) change in the fast years. To this end, it is necessary to revaluate the classic approach for the study of hydrological time series by relaxing the stationary assumption by the use of nonstationary approach. Also as to the study of the dependence structure for the hydrological time series, the assumption of same type of univariate distribution also needs to be relaxed by adopting the copula theory. In this paper, the univariate monthly hydrological time series will be studied through the nonstationary time series analysis approach. The dependence structure of the multivariate monthly hydrological time series will be

  12. Distribution and source analysis of aluminum in rivers near Xi'an City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqi; He, Yanling; Liang, Jidong; Liu, Pei; Zhuang, Pengyu

    2013-02-01

    To study the status and source of aluminum (Al) contamination, a total of 21 sampling sites along six rivers near Xi'an City (Shaanxi province, China) were investigated during 2008-2010. The results indicated that the average concentration of total Al (Al(t)) in the six rivers increased by 1.6 times from 2008 to 2010. The spatial distribution of Al(t) concentrations in the rivers near Xi'an City was significantly different, ranged from 367 μg/L (Bahe River) to 1,978 μg/L (Taiping River). The Al(t) concentration was highest near an industrial area for pulp and paper-making (2,773 μg/L), where the Al level greatly exceeded the water quality criteria of both the USA (Criterion Continuous Concentration, 87 μg/L) and Canada (100 μg/L). The average concentration of inorganic monometric aluminum (Al(im)) was 72 μg/L which would pose threats to fishes and other aquatic lives in the rivers. The concentrations of exchangeable Al (Al(ex)) in the sediment of the Taiping River sampled were relatively high, making it to be an alternative explanation of increasing Al concentrations in the rivers near Xi'an City. Furthermore, an increasing Al level has been detected in the upstream watershed near Xi'an City in recent years, which might indicate another notable pollution source of Al.

  13. Yield-reliability analysis and operating rules for run-of-river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient operation of water supply systems requires operating rules as decision support tools. ... Simulated runoff was used to derive unregulated river yield at different levels of assurance ... The results show that Nzhelele River can meet domestic and low-flow requirements at 50–80% (1:2-1:5) LAS. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  14. Reliability analysis of the Red River dikes system in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Quang, T.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents the applications of probabilistic-based frameworks in geotechnical and hydraulic engineering, for the assessment of the Red River dikes in Viet Nam. Dike along rivers often spread over the deltaic environment and its earthen structures are parts of a long civilian history,

  15. Phytolith analysis in fluvial quaternary sediment (San Salvador and Palmar formation) Uruguay river and Argentina eastern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterer, N.; Passeggi, E.; Zucol, A.; Brea, M.; Krohling, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about two microfossils fluvial units deposited by the Uruguay river during the Quaternary. These are San Salvador and Palmar formation (Plio-Pleistocene - Upper Pleistocene).The Palmar formation is a band of 4-15 km along the right bank of the Uruguay river outcropping from the eastern provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios, to Concepcion del Uruguay

  16. Scale orientated analysis of river width changes due to extreme flood hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Krapesch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the morphological effects of extreme floods (recurrence interval >100 years and examines which parameters best describe the width changes due to erosion based on 5 affected alpine gravel bed rivers in Austria. The research was based on vertical aerial photos of the rivers before and after extreme floods, hydrodynamic numerical models and cross sectional measurements supported by LiDAR data of the rivers. Average width ratios (width after/before the flood were calculated and correlated with different hydraulic parameters (specific stream power, shear stress, flow area, specific discharge. Depending on the geomorphological boundary conditions of the different rivers, a mean width ratio between 1.12 (Lech River and 3.45 (Trisanna River was determined on the reach scale. The specific stream power (SSP best predicted the mean width ratios of the rivers especially on the reach scale and sub reach scale. On the local scale more parameters have to be considered to define the "minimum morphological spatial demand of rivers", which is a crucial parameter for addressing and managing flood hazards and should be used in hazard zone plans and spatial planning.

  17. 100 mg 251Cf activation analysis facility at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurdo, K.W.; Bowman, W.W.

    1975-01-01

    The 252 Cf Activation Analysis Facility at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is used routinely for multielement analyses of a wide variety of solid and liquid samples (e.g., metal alloys, fly ash and other airborne particles, rocks, and aqueous and nonaqueous solutions). An automated absolute activation analysis technique, developed to use neutron transport codes to calculate multienergy group neutron spectra and fluxes, converts counting data directly into elemental concentrations expressed in parts per million. The facility contains four sources of 252 Cf totaling slightly over 100 mg. A pneumatic ''rabbit'' system permits automatic irradiation/decay/counting regimes to be performed unattended on up to 100 samples. Detection sensitivities of less than or equal to 400 ppb natural uranium and less than or equal to 0.5 nCi/g for 239 Pu are observed. Detection limits for over 65 elements have been determined. Over 40 elements are detectable at the one part per million level or less. Overall accuracies of +- 10 percent are observed for most elements. (auth)

  18. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution in the Kinta River Using Multivariate Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza Ahmad Isiyaka; Hafizan Juahir

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the spatial variation in the characteristics of water quality monitoring sites, identify the most significant parameters and the major possible sources of pollution, and apportion the source category in the Kinta River. 31 parameters collected from eight monitoring sites for eight years (2006-2013) were employed. The eight monitoring stations were spatially grouped into three independent clusters in a dendrogram. A drastic reduction in the number of monitored parameters from 31 to eight and nine significant parameters (P<0.05) was achieved using the forward stepwise and backward stepwise discriminate analysis (DA). Principal component analysis (PCA) accounted for more than 76 % in the total variance and attributes the source of pollution to anthropogenic and natural processes. The source apportionment using a combined multiple linear regression and principal component scores indicates that 41 % of the total pollution load is from rock weathering and untreated waste water, 26 % from waste discharge, 24 % from surface runoff and 7 % from faecal waste. This study proposes a reduction in the number of monitoring stations and parameters for a cost effective and time management in the monitoring processes and multivariate technique can provide a simple representation of complex and dynamic water quality characteristics. (author)

  19. Holistic uncertainty analysis in river basin modeling for climate vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, M. U.; Wi, S.; Brown, C.

    2017-12-01

    The challenges posed by uncertain future climate are a prominent concern for water resources managers. A number of frameworks exist for assessing the impacts of climate-related uncertainty, including internal climate variability and anthropogenic climate change, such as scenario-based approaches and vulnerability-based approaches. While in many cases climate uncertainty may be dominant, other factors such as future evolution of the river basin, hydrologic response and reservoir operations are potentially significant sources of uncertainty. While uncertainty associated with modeling hydrologic response has received attention, very little attention has focused on the range of uncertainty and possible effects of the water resources infrastructure and management. This work presents a holistic framework that allows analysis of climate, hydrologic and water management uncertainty in water resources systems analysis with the aid of a water system model designed to integrate component models for hydrology processes and water management activities. The uncertainties explored include those associated with climate variability and change, hydrologic model parameters, and water system operation rules. A Bayesian framework is used to quantify and model the uncertainties at each modeling steps in integrated fashion, including prior and the likelihood information about model parameters. The framework is demonstrated in a case study for the St. Croix Basin located at border of United States and Canada.

  20. Preliminary analysis of Stearoyl Co-A Desaturase gene transcripts in River buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramunno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs. In cattle, SCD gene extends over a DNA segment of ~17.0 Kb, and it is organized in 6 exons and 5 introns. The SCD gene has been indicated as the candidate gene to change the saturated/unsaturated FAs ratio and hence it has been suggested as the gene influencing the fat quality. In cattle, eight SNPs have been identified and one of them, (T→C at 231st nt of 5th exon, is responsible for the Val→Ala amino acid change. The C allele has been associated with higher content of MUFAs in carcasses, and it is positively related to a higher index of desaturation (C18:0/C18:1 and C16:0/C16:1 in the milk. In this study, we report on preliminary results of analysis of transcripts of the SCD encoding gene in river buffalo. The electrophoretic analysis of the RT-PCR products and the subsequent sequencing showed at least five different populations of mRNA. The most represented population is correctly assembled (~1300 bp, followed by the one which is deleted of ~750bp, corresponding to the 3rd, 4th and 5th exon and partially to the 2nd and 6th exon.

  1. Drought Characteristic Analysis Based on an Improved PDSI in the Wei River Basin of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to improve the efficiency of the original Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI_original, we coupled the Soil and Water Assessment tool (SWAT and PDSI_original to construct a drought index called PDSI_SWAT. The constructed PDSI_SWAT is applied in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China during 1960–2012. The comparison of the PDSI_SWAT with four other commonly used drought indices reveals the effectiveness of the PDSI_SWAT in describing the drought propagation processes in WRB. The whole WRB exhibits a dry trend, with more significant trends in the northern, southeastern and western WRB than the remaining regions. Furthermore, the drought frequencies show that drought seems to occur more likely in the northern part than the southern part of WRB. The principle component analysis method based on the PDSI_SWAT reveals that the whole basin can be further divided into three distinct sub-regions with different drought variability, i.e., the northern, southeastern and western part. Additionally, these three sub-regions are also consistent with the spatial pattern of drought shown by the drought frequency. The wavelet transform analysis method indicates that the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO events have strong impacts on inducing droughts in the WRB. The results of this study could be beneficial for a scientific water resources management and drought assessment in the current study area and also provide a valuable reference for other areas with similar climatic characteristics.

  2. Drought Analysis of the Haihe River Basin Based on GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Haihe river basin (HRB in the North China has been experiencing prolonged, severe droughts in recent years that are accompanied by precipitation deficits and vegetation wilting. This paper analyzed the water deficits related to spatiotemporal variability of three variables of the gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE derived terrestrial water storage (TWS data, precipitation, and EVI in the HRB from January 2003 to January 2013. The corresponding drought indices of TWS anomaly index (TWSI, precipitation anomaly index (PAI, and vegetation anomaly index (AVI were also compared for drought analysis. Our observations showed that the GRACE-TWS was more suitable for detecting prolonged and severe droughts in the HRB because it can represent loss of deep soil water and ground water. The multiyear droughts, of which the HRB has sustained for more than 5 years, began in mid-2007. Extreme drought events were detected in four periods at the end of 2007, the end of 2009, the end of 2010, and in the middle of 2012. Spatial analysis of drought risk from the end of 2011 to the beginning of 2012 showed that human activities played an important role in the extent of drought hazards in the HRB.

  3. Drought analysis and short-term forecast in the Aison River Basin (Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kavalieratou

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A combined regional drought analysis and forecast is elaborated and applied to the Aison River Basin (Greece. The historical frequency, duration and severity were estimated using the standardized precipitation index (SPI computed on variable time scales, while short-term drought forecast was investigated by means of 3-D loglinear models. A quasi-association model with homogenous diagonal effect was proposed to fit the observed frequencies of class transitions of the SPI values computed on the 12-month time scale. Then, an adapted submodel was selected for each data set through the backward elimination method. The analysis and forecast of the drought class transition probabilities were based on the odds of the expected frequencies, estimated by these submodels, and the respective confidence intervals of these odds. The parsimonious forecast models fitted adequately the observed data. Results gave a comprehensive insight on drought behavior, highlighting a dominant drought period (1988–1991 with extreme drought events and revealing, in most cases, smooth drought class transitions. The proposed approach can be an efficient tool in regional water resources management and short-term drought warning, especially in irrigated districts.

  4. Morphological analysis of Trichomycterus areolatus Valenciennes, 1846 from southern Chilean rivers using a truss-based system (Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Colihueque

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichomycterus areolatus Valenciennes, 1846 is a small endemic catfish inhabiting the Andean river basins of Chile. In this study, the morphological variability of three T. areolatus populations, collected in two river basins from southern Chile, was assessed with multivariate analyses, including principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant function analysis (DFA. It is hypothesized that populations must segregate morphologically from each other based on the river basin that they were sampled from, since each basin presents relatively particular hydrological characteristics. Significant morphological differences among the three populations were found with PCA (ANOSIM test, r = 0.552, p < 0.0001 and DFA (Wilks’s λ = 0.036, p < 0.01. PCA accounted for a total variation of 56.16% by the first two principal components. The first Principal Component (PC1 and PC2 explained 34.72 and 21.44% of the total variation, respectively. The scatter-plot of the first two discriminant functions (DF1 on DF2 also validated the existence of three different populations. In group classification using DFA, 93.3% of the specimens were correctly-classified into their original populations. Of the total of 22 transformed truss measurements, 17 exhibited highly significant (p < 0.01 differences among populations. The data support the existence of T. areolatus morphological variation across different rivers in southern Chile, likely reflecting the geographic isolation underlying population structure of the species.

  5. Stability Analysis of a Run-of-River Diversion Hydropower Plant with Surge Tank and Spillway in the Head Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Sarasúa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Run-of-river hydropower plants usually lack significant storage capacity; therefore, the more adequate control strategy would consist of keeping a constant water level at the intake pond in order to harness the maximum amount of energy from the river flow or to reduce the surface flooded in the head pond. In this paper, a standard PI control system of a run-of-river diversion hydropower plant with surge tank and a spillway in the head pond that evacuates part of the river flow plant is studied. A stability analysis based on the Routh-Hurwitz criterion is carried out and a practical criterion for tuning the gains of the PI controller is proposed. Conclusions about the head pond and surge tank areas are drawn from the stability analysis. Finally, this criterion is applied to a real hydropower plant in design state; the importance of considering the spillway dimensions and turbine characteristic curves for adequate tuning of the controller gains is highlighted.

  6. Analysis of Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Ammonia Nitrogen in the Huaihe River Basin from 1998 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Jin, G.; Tang, H.; Li, L.

    2016-12-01

    To assess the effectiveness of water pollution control measures taken in the Huaihe River Basin (HRB) in China, we analyzed the temporal and spatial distributions of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) in the river water from 1998 to 2014 (three Chinese Five-year Plan periods).Analysis of measured NH3-N concentrations from various monitoring stations using the STL (seasonal trend decomposition using loess) method and a modified log-linear model revealed that: (1) The rate of NH3-N concentration reduction over the whole period was 70% 81% in the main stream of Huaihe River, but reached 88% in two major tributaries - the Shaying River and Guo River. (2) The NH3-N concentrations decreased significantly particularly between the tenth Five-year Plan and eleventh Five-year Plan periods in the main stream. In comparison, significant NH3-N reduction occurred over all three Five-year Plan periods in the Shaying and Guo tributaries. The concentration in the first year of a Five-year Plan period tended to much higher than that in the last year of the same period, likely due to the difference in implementing the pollution control measures. (3) The NH3-N concentrations were higher in the spring (fertilization period) and winter (low discharge) than in the summer and autumn. (4) With the implementation of pollution control measures, the contribution rate of NH3-N in the two major tributaries from point sources has decreased from 74% 93% in earlier years to 3% 28% in later years. However, NH3-N input from non-point sources appeared to remain stable and largely depend on runoff. To further reduce the NH3-N concentration in the river, policies and control measures should focus on non-point sources.

  7. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail: franciscovc@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: gilsonn@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail: robsonf@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br, E-mail: franciscoj@cetesbnet.sp.gov.br [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica

    2011-07-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  8. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  9. Analysis and prediction of flow from local source in a river basin using a Neuro-fuzzy modeling tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqil, Muhammad; Kita, Ichiro; Yano, Akira; Nishiyama, Soichi

    2007-10-01

    Traditionally, the multiple linear regression technique has been one of the most widely used models in simulating hydrological time series. However, when the nonlinear phenomenon is significant, the multiple linear will fail to develop an appropriate predictive model. Recently, neuro-fuzzy systems have gained much popularity for calibrating the nonlinear relationships. This study evaluated the potential of a neuro-fuzzy system as an alternative to the traditional statistical regression technique for the purpose of predicting flow from a local source in a river basin. The effectiveness of the proposed identification technique was demonstrated through a simulation study of the river flow time series of the Citarum River in Indonesia. Furthermore, in order to provide the uncertainty associated with the estimation of river flow, a Monte Carlo simulation was performed. As a comparison, a multiple linear regression analysis that was being used by the Citarum River Authority was also examined using various statistical indices. The simulation results using 95% confidence intervals indicated that the neuro-fuzzy model consistently underestimated the magnitude of high flow while the low and medium flow magnitudes were estimated closer to the observed data. The comparison of the prediction accuracy of the neuro-fuzzy and linear regression methods indicated that the neuro-fuzzy approach was more accurate in predicting river flow dynamics. The neuro-fuzzy model was able to improve the root mean square error (RMSE) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values of the multiple linear regression forecasts by about 13.52% and 10.73%, respectively. Considering its simplicity and efficiency, the neuro-fuzzy model is recommended as an alternative tool for modeling of flow dynamics in the study area.

  10. Analysis of the Transport and Fate of Metals Released From the Gold King Mine in the Animas and San Juan Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project’s objectives were to provide analysis of water quality following the release of acid mine drainage in the Animas and San Juan Rivers in a timely manner to 1) generate a comprehensive picture of the plume at the river system level, 2) help inform future monitoring eff...

  11. Territorial analysis of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa María Huatulco, Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Rosalía Gómez Rojo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is an integrated analysis if the following: the physical and bio-geographic elements, the chronological history of the population’s place, types of land ownership, its uses that are parts of the micro-basin and bay of the Cacaluta River, Santa Maria Huatulco, Oaxaca. The 55% of the study zone, falls within the boundaries of the Huatulco National Park and the remaining along the river basin adjacent to the park. This entire region harbors high biodiversity and is made up of scenic landscapes, where different interests come into play which dispute the use of the natural resources and the appropriation of lands. Among the analysis techniques employed analysis in this investigation are map-like diagrams known as choremes, which demonstrates the relationship of the above mentioned aspects of the study.

  12. Environmental analysis of closure options for waste sites at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, D.E.; King, C.M.; Looney, B.B.; Stephenson, D.E.; Johnson, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    Previously acceptable waste management practices (e.g., the use of unlined seepage basins) for discarding of wastes from nuclear materials production has resulted in occasional cases of groundwater contamination beneath some disposal sites, mainly in water-table aquifers. Groundwater contaminants include volatile organic compounds, heavy metals, radionuclides, and other chemicals. The closure of active and inactive waste sites that have received hazardous and/or low-level radioactive materials at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is planned as part of an overall program to protect groundwater quality. DOE developed and submitted to Congress a groundwater protection plan for SRP. This initial plan and subsequent revisions provide the basis for closure of SRP waste sites to comply with applicable groundwater protection requirements. An environmental analysis of the closure options for the criteria waste sites that have received hazardous and/or low-level radioactive wastes was conducted to provide technical support. The several parts of this environmental analysis include description of geohydrologic conditions; determination of waste inventories; definition of closure options; modeling of environmental pathways; assessment of risk; and analysis of project costs. Each of these components of the overall analysis is described in turn in the following paragraphs. Production operations at SRP have generated a variety of solid, hazardous, and low-level radioactive waste materials. Several locations onplant have been used as waste disposal sites for solid and liquid wastes. Seventy-six individual waste sites at 45 distinct geographical locations on SRP have received hazardous, low-level radioactive, or mixed wastes. These waste sites can be categorized into 26 groupings according to the function of the waste disposed. 15 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Creation of of the National GIS system «The geography and geo-ecology of rivers and river basins of European Part of Russia: Spatial Analysis, Assessment and Modeling»

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolaev, Oleg; Gilyazov, Albert; Ivanov, Maksim; Kharchenko, Sergei; Maltsev, Kirill; Mozzherin, Vadim; Muharamova, Svetlana; Shynbergenov, Erlan

    2016-04-01

    Problem-oriented geographic information system and geoportal «The geography and geo-ecology of rivers and river basins of European Part of Russia» is proposed to form the base for investigations concerned to assessment and prognosis of geo-ecological state of river basins belonging to the European Russia (approx. 4 million of sq. km. in total). This large part of Russia concentrates the predominant part of country's population, industrial and agricultural potential. Actuality of assessment and prognosis of the environmental state for the chosen territory is caused by the increasing anthropogenic influence onto the basin geosystems of Russia and triggering negative riverbed-erosion processes, shifts of river runoff regimes, and lack of drinking water resources. These problems are demanding for examination of the response of the basin geosystems from various landscape zones to the anthropogenic impact, and the climate change, for understanding, predicting and managing streamflow. Assessment of river basins and changes occurring in them is based on a complex spatial-temporal analysis of long-term monitoring data, the use of remote sensing and maps of state surveys. All available geo-information will be integrated into the multi-function, problem-oriented GIS. Proposed approaches of investigation: cartographic and geoinformational methods, automated procedures of territory zoning, automated procedures of interpretation of remote sensing images, modern statistical methods of analysis (geostatistics, statistical and mathematical models). Study area: the European Part of Russia (except for mountainous areas). Scale studies (level of spatial detail): Regional (corresponding to a scale 1: 1 000 000). The object of study: Geosystems river basins. Subject of study: - The development of GIS; - Analysis of the spatial and temporal relationships of river runoff; - Quantitative assessment of the current geo-ecological state of European Russia river basins. Scientific novelty of

  14. Metagenomic analysis of planktonic microbial consortia from a non-tidal urban-impacted segment of James River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bonnie L; LePrell, Rebecca V; Franklin, Rima B; Rivera, Maria C; Cabral, Francine M; Eaves, Hugh L; Gardiakos, Vicki; Keegan, Kevin P; King, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the diversity and ecological function of the microbial consortia of James River in Virginia, USA, is essential to developing a more complete understanding of the ecology of this model river system. Metagenomic analysis of James River's planktonic microbial community was performed for the first time using an unamplified genomic library and a 16S rDNA amplicon library prepared and sequenced by Ion PGM and MiSeq, respectively. From the 0.46-Gb WGS library (GenBank:SRR1146621; MG-RAST:4532156.3), 4 × 10(6) reads revealed >3 × 10(6) genes, 240 families of prokaryotes, and 155 families of eukaryotes. From the 0.68-Gb 16S library (GenBank:SRR2124995; MG-RAST:4631271.3; EMB:2184), 4 × 10(6) reads revealed 259 families of eubacteria. Results of the WGS and 16S analyses were highly consistent and indicated that more than half of the bacterial sequences were Proteobacteria, predominantly Comamonadaceae. The most numerous genera in this group were Acidovorax (including iron oxidizers, nitrotolulene degraders, and plant pathogens), which accounted for 10 % of assigned bacterial reads. Polaromonas were another 6 % of all bacterial reads, with many assignments to groups capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Albidiferax (iron reducers) and Variovorax (biodegraders of a variety of natural biogenic compounds as well as anthropogenic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and endocrine disruptors) each accounted for an additional 3 % of bacterial reads. Comparison of these data to other publically-available aquatic metagenomes revealed that this stretch of James River is highly similar to the upper Mississippi River, and that these river systems are more similar to aquaculture and sludge ecosystems than they are to lakes or to a pristine section of the upper Amazon River. Taken together, these analyses exposed previously unknown aspects of microbial biodiversity, documented the ecological responses of microbes to urban

  15. Analysis of radiation monitoring data by distribution-free statistical methods (a case of river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh contamination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luneva, K.V.; Kryshev, A.I.; Nikitin, A.I.; Kryshev, I.I.

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the results of statistical analysis of radiation monitoring data of river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh contamination. A short description of analyzable data and the territory under consideration was given. The distribution-free statistic methods, used for comparative analysis, were described. Reasons of the methods selection and their application features were given. Comparative data analysis with traditional statistics methods was presented. Reliable decrease of 90 Sr specific activity in the river system object to object was determined, which is the evidence of the radionuclide transportation in the river system Techa-Iset'-Tobol-Irtysh [ru

  16. Comparative Analysis of River Flow Modelling by Using Supervised Learning Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Shuhaida; Mohamad Pandiahi, Siraj; Shabri, Ani; Mustapha, Aida

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the efficiency of three supervised learning algorithms for forecasting monthly river flow of the Indus River in Pakistan, spread over 550 square miles or 1800 square kilometres. The algorithms include the Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Wavelet Regression (WR). The forecasting models predict the monthly river flow obtained from the three models individually for river flow data and the accuracy of the all models were then compared against each other. The monthly river flow of the said river has been forecasted using these three models. The obtained results were compared and statistically analysed. Then, the results of this analytical comparison showed that LSSVM model is more precise in the monthly river flow forecasting. It was found that LSSVM has he higher r with the value of 0.934 compared to other models. This indicate that LSSVM is more accurate and efficient as compared to the ANN and WR model.

  17. An analysis of river bank slope and unsaturated flow effects on bank storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doble, Rebecca; Brunner, Philip; McCallum, James; Cook, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the underlying mechanisms of bank storage and return flow is important for understanding streamflow hydrographs. Analytical models have been widely used to estimate the impacts of bank storage, but are often based on assumptions of conditions that are rarely found in the field, such as vertical river banks and saturated flow. Numerical simulations of bank storage and return flow in river-aquifer cross sections with vertical and sloping banks were undertaken using a fully-coupled, surface-subsurface flow model. Sloping river banks were found to increase the bank infiltration rates by 98% and storage volume by 40% for a bank slope of 3.4° from horizontal, and for a slope of 8.5°, delay bank return flow by more than four times compared with vertical river banks and saturated flow. The results suggested that conventional analytical approximations cannot adequately be used to quantify bank storage when bank slope is less than 60° from horizontal. Additionally, in the unconfined aquifers modeled, the analytical solutions did not accurately model bank storage and return flow even in rivers with vertical banks due to a violation of the dupuit assumption. Bank storage and return flow were also modeled for more realistic cross sections and river hydrograph from the Fitzroy River, Western Australia, to indicate the importance of accurately modeling sloping river banks at a field scale. Following a single wet season flood event of 12 m, results showed that it may take over 3.5 years for 50% of the bank storage volume to return to the river. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Analysis of VIA and EbA in a River Bank Erosion Prone Area of Bangladesh Applying DPSIR Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to set up a comprehensive approach to the Vulnerability and Impact Assessment (VIA of river erosion and to suggest Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA practices. Based on the analysis of vulnerability using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework, this paper discusses some of the significant climatic (rainfall pattern, temperature, seasonal drift, cold wave and heat wave and non-climatic (river erosion, repetitive death of field crops and agrochemicals forces in the Kazipur Upazila (Sirajganj District—a river erosion-prone area of Bangladesh. Both primary (Key Informants Interview, Household Survey, and Focus Group Discussion and secondary (climatic, literature review data have been used in revealing the scenario of climatic stress. The analysis revealed a slightly increasing trend of mean annual temperature, and a decreasing trend of total annual rainfall from 1981 to 2015, which have been supported by people’s perception. This study found that river erosion, the increase of temperature and the late arrival of monsoon rain, excessive monsoon rainfall, high use of agrochemicals, and flow alterations are major drivers in the riverine ecosystem. These drivers are creating pressures on agricultural land, soil fertility, water availability and livelihood patterns of affected communities. Hence, floating bed cultivation, integrated pest management, use of cover crops, reforestation, the introduction of an agro-weather forecasting system, and a new variety of flood tolerant species have been suggested as potential EbA to cope with river bank erosion and to increase the capacity of the affected ecosystem.

  19. Technical analysis of a river basin-based model of advanced power plant cooling technologies for mitigating water management challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillwell, Ashlynn S; Clayton, Mary E; Webber, Michael E

    2011-01-01

    Thermoelectric power plants require large volumes of water for cooling, which can introduce drought vulnerability and compete with other water needs. Alternative cooling technologies, such as cooling towers and hybrid wet-dry or dry cooling, present opportunities to reduce water diversions. This case study uses a custom, geographically resolved river basin-based model for eleven river basins in the state of Texas (the Brazos and San Jacinto-Brazos, Colorado and Colorado-Brazos, Cypress, Neches, Nueces, Red, Sabine, San Jacinto, and Trinity River basins), focusing on the Brazos River basin, to analyze water availability during drought. We utilized two existing water availability models for our analysis: (1) the full execution of water rights-a scenario where each water rights holder diverts the full permitted volume with zero return flow, and (2) current conditions-a scenario reflecting actual diversions with associated return flows. Our model results show that switching the cooling technologies at power plants in the eleven analyzed river basins to less water-intensive alternative designs can potentially reduce annual water diversions by 247-703 million m 3 -enough water for 1.3-3.6 million people annually. We consider these results in a geographic context using geographic information system tools and then analyze volume reliability, which is a policymaker's metric that indicates the percentage of total demand actually supplied over a given period. This geographic and volume reliability analysis serves as a measure of drought susceptibility in response to changes in thermoelectric cooling technologies. While these water diversion savings do not alleviate all reliability concerns, the additional streamflow from the use of dry cooling alleviates drought concerns for some municipal water rights holders and might also be sufficient to uphold instream flow requirements for important bays and estuaries on the Texas Gulf coast.

  20. Geomorphic analysis of the river response to sedimentation downstream of Mount Rainier, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Curran, Christopher A.; Johnson, Kenneth H.; Olsen, Theresa D.; Kimball, Halley K.; Gish, Casey C.

    2012-01-01

    A study of the geomorphology of rivers draining Mount Rainier, Washington, was completed to identify sources of sediment to the river network; to identify important processes in the sediment delivery system; to assess current sediment loads in rivers draining Mount Rainier; to evaluate if there were trends in streamflow or sediment load since the early 20th century; and to assess how rates of sedimentation might continue into the future using published climate-change scenarios. Rivers draining Mount Rainier carry heavy sediment loads sourced primarily from the volcano that cause acute aggradation in deposition reaches as far away as the Puget Lowland. Calculated yields ranged from 2,000 tonnes per square kilometer per year [(tonnes/km2)/yr] on the upper Nisqually River to 350 (tonnes/km2)/yr on the lower Puyallup River, notably larger than sediment yields of 50–200 (tonnes/km2)/yr typical for other Cascade Range rivers. These rivers can be assumed to be in a general state of sediment surplus. As a result, future aggradation rates will be largely influenced by the underlying hydrology carrying sediment downstream. The active-channel width of rivers directly draining Mount Rainier in 2009, used as a proxy for sediment released from Mount Rainier, changed little between 1965 and 1994 reflecting a climatic period that was relatively quiet hydrogeomorphically. From 1994 to 2009, a marked increase in geomorphic disturbance caused the active channels in many river reaches to widen. Comparing active-channel widths of glacier-draining rivers in 2009 to the distance of glacier retreat between 1913 and 1994 showed no correlation, suggesting that geomorphic disturbance in river reaches directly downstream of glaciers is not strongly governed by the degree of glacial retreat. In contrast, there was a correlation between active-channel width and the percentage of superglacier debris mantling the glacier, as measured in 1971. A conceptual model of sediment delivery processes

  1. Phase 2 sampling and analysis plan, Quality Assurance Project Plan, and environmental health and safety plan for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: An addendum to the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Greeley, M.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Harris, R.A.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Howell, P.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    This document contains a three-part addendum to the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation Plan. The Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation began in 1989, as part of the comprehensive remediation of facilities on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The ORR was added to the National Priorities List in December 1989. The regulatory agencies have encouraged the adoption of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) terminology; therefore, the Clinch River activity is now referred to as the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI), not the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. Part 1 of this document is the plan for sampling and analysis (S A) during Phase 2 of the CRRI. Part 2 is a revision of the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the CRRI, and Part 3 is a revision of the Environmental Health and Safety Plan for the CRRI. The Clinch River RI (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds) released from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. The purpose of the Phase 2 S A Plan is to describe the proposed tasks and subtasks developed to meet the primary objectives of the CRRI.

  2. Phase 2 sampling and analysis plan, Quality Assurance Project Plan, and environmental health and safety plan for the Clinch River Remedial Investigation: An addendum to the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, R.B.; Adams, S.M.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Bevelhimer, M.S.; Blaylock, B.G.; Brandt, C.C.; Etnier, E.L.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Gentry, M.J.; Greeley, M.S.; Halbrook, R.S.; Harris, R.A.; Holladay, S.K.; Hook, L.A.; Howell, P.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Levine, D.A.; Skiles, J.L.; Suter, G.W.

    1992-12-01

    This document contains a three-part addendum to the Clinch River Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation Plan. The Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation began in 1989, as part of the comprehensive remediation of facilities on the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). The ORR was added to the National Priorities List in December 1989. The regulatory agencies have encouraged the adoption of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) terminology; therefore, the Clinch River activity is now referred to as the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI), not the Clinch River RCRA Facility Investigation. Part 1 of this document is the plan for sampling and analysis (S ampersand A) during Phase 2 of the CRRI. Part 2 is a revision of the Quality Assurance Project Plan for the CRRI, and Part 3 is a revision of the Environmental Health and Safety Plan for the CRRI. The Clinch River RI (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds) released from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. Primary areas of investigation are Melton Hill Reservoir, the Clinch River from Melton Hill Dam to its confluence with the Tennessee River, Poplar Creek, and Watts Bar Reservoir. The contaminants identified in the Clinch River/Watts Bar Reservoir (CR/WBR) downstream of the ORR are those associated with the water, suspended particles, deposited sediments, aquatic organisms, and wildlife feeding on aquatic organisms. The purpose of the Phase 2 S ampersand A Plan is to describe the proposed tasks and subtasks developed to meet the primary objectives of the CRRI

  3. Analysis of climate and anthropogenic impacts on runoff in the Lower Pra River Basin of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotwi, Alfred; Anornu, Geophrey Kwame; Quaye-Ballard, Jonathan; Annor, Thompson; Forkuo, Eric Kwabena

    2017-12-01

    The Lower Pra River Basin (LPRB), located in the forest zone of southern Ghana has experienced changes due to variability in precipitation and diverse anthropogenic activities. Therefore, to maintain the functions of the ecosystem for water resources management, planning and sustainable development, it is important to differentiate the impacts of precipitation variability and anthropogenic activities on stream flow changes. We investigated the variability in runoff and quantified the contributions of precipitation and anthropogenic activities on runoff at the LPRB. Analysis of the precipitation-runoff for the period 1970-2010 revealed breakpoints in 1986, 2000, 2004 and 2010 in the LPRB. The periods influenced by anthropogenic activities were categorized into three periods 1987-2000, 2001-2004 and 2005-2010, revealing a decrease in runoff during 1987-2000 and an increase in runoff during 2001-2004 and 2005-2010. Assessment of monthly, seasonal and annual runoff depicted a significant increasing trend in the runoff time series during the dry season. Generally, runoff increased at a rate of 9.98 × 10 7 m 3 yr -1 , with precipitation variability and human activities contributing 17.4% and 82.3% respectively. The dominant small scale alluvial gold mining activity significantly contributes to the net runoff variability in LPRB.

  4. Regional Frequency Analysis of Extreme Dry Spells during Rainy Season in the Wei River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunxian She

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research analyzes the regional changes of extreme dry spell, represented by the annual maximum dry spell length (noted as AMDSL during the rainy season in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China for 1960–2014 using the L-moments method. The mean AMDSL values increase from the west to the east of the WRB, suggesting a high dry risk in the east compared to the west in the WRB. To investigate the regional frequency more reasonably, the WRB is clustered into four homogenous subregions via the K-means method and some subjective adjustments. The goodness-of-fit test shows that the GEV, PE3, and GLO distribution can be accepted as the “best-fit” model for subregions 1 and 4, subregion 2, and subregion 3, respectively. The quantiles of AMDSL under various return levels figure out a similar spatial distribution with mean AMDSL. We also find that the dry risk in subregion 2 and subregion 4 might be higher than that in subregion 1. The relationship between ENSO events and extreme dry spell events in the rainy season with cross wavelet analysis method proves that ENSO events play a critical role in triggering extreme dry events during rainy season in the WRB.

  5. Analysis of impacts on hydrometeorological extremes in the Senegal River Basin from REMO RCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiano, Sandra Garcia; Osorio, Juan Diego Giraldo [Technical Univ. of Cartagena, Dept. of Thermal Engineering and Fluids, Cartagena (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    West Africa is highly vulnerable to climate variability. The precipitation latitudinal gradient determines agricultural activities. The cultivated area of the Sahel is a densely populated region, whereas flood recession agriculture is practiced in the Senegal River Valley. The present study analyses both spatial-temporal rainfall patterns of the REMO Regional Climate Model (RCM) and observed rainfall data, focusing in particular on extreme hydro-meteorological phenomena. An analysis of simulated daily rainfall data was performed to determine the frequency and magnitude of length of dry spells, as well as the extreme rainfall events. A projected annual decrease in rainfall on horizon 2050 could be explained by two factors: the decrease in the percentage of rainy days on both west and north sides of the basin, and the decrease of precipitation amount for rainy days in the southern basin. Finally, an increase in the frequency of dry spell in the monsoon season by 2050 is projected. Such findings are significant in a framework of strategies for water resources management and planning at basin scale, in order to build adaptive capacity. (orig.)

  6. Lower Columbia River and Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program Reference Site Study: 2011 Restoration Analysis - FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Kaufmann, Ronald M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Sagar, Jina; Buenau, Kate E.; Corbett, C.

    2012-05-31

    The Reference Site (RS) study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation (RME) effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration [BPA], U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District [USACE], and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinions (BiOp). While the RS study was initiated in 2007, data have been collected at relatively undisturbed reference wetland sites in the LCRE by PNNL and collaborators since 2005. These data on habitat structural metrics were previously summarized to provide baseline characterization of 51 wetlands throughout the estuarine and tidal freshwater portions of the 235-km LCRE; however, further analysis of these data has been limited. Therefore, in 2011, we conducted additional analyses of existing field data previously collected for the Columbia Estuary Ecosystem Restoration Program (CEERP) - including data collected by PNNL and others - to help inform the multi-agency restoration planning and ecosystem management work underway in the LCRE.

  7. River catchment rainfall series analysis using additive Holt-Winters method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puah, Yan Jun; Huang, Yuk Feng; Chua, Kuan Chin; Lee, Teang Shui

    2016-03-01

    Climate change is receiving more attention from researchers as the frequency of occurrence of severe natural disasters is getting higher. Tropical countries like Malaysia have no distinct four seasons; rainfall has become the popular parameter to assess climate change. Conventional ways that determine rainfall trends can only provide a general result in single direction for the whole study period. In this study, rainfall series were modelled using additive Holt-Winters method to examine the rainfall pattern in Langat River Basin, Malaysia. Nine homogeneous series of more than 25 years data and less than 10% missing data were selected. Goodness of fit of the forecasted models was measured. It was found that seasonal rainfall model forecasts are generally better than the monthly rainfall model forecasts. Three stations in the western region exhibited increasing trend. Rainfall in southern region showed fluctuation. Increasing trends were discovered at stations in the south-eastern region except the seasonal analysis at station 45253. Decreasing trend was found at station 2818110 in the east, while increasing trend was shown at station 44320 that represents the north-eastern region. The accuracies of both rainfall model forecasts were tested using the recorded data of years 2010-2012. Most of the forecasts are acceptable.

  8. EvoRiver: Visual Analysis of Topic Coopetition on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guodao; Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Peng, Tai-Quan; Zhu, Jonathan J H; Liang, Ronghua

    2014-12-01

    Cooperation and competition (jointly called "coopetition") are two modes of interactions among a set of concurrent topics on social media. How do topics cooperate or compete with each other to gain public attention? Which topics tend to cooperate or compete with one another? Who plays the key role in coopetition-related interactions? We answer these intricate questions by proposing a visual analytics system that facilitates the in-depth analysis of topic coopetition on social media. We model the complex interactions among topics as a combination of carry-over, coopetition recruitment, and coopetition distraction effects. This model provides a close functional approximation of the coopetition process by depicting how different groups of influential users (i.e., "topic leaders") affect coopetition. We also design EvoRiver, a time-based visualization, that allows users to explore coopetition-related interactions and to detect dynamically evolving patterns, as well as their major causes. We test our model and demonstrate the usefulness of our system based on two Twitter data sets (social topics data and business topics data).

  9. Rescaled range analysis of streamflow records in the São Francisco River Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Marcelo Vitor Oliveira; Celeste, Alcigeimes B.

    2018-01-01

    Hydrological time series are sometimes found to have a distinctive behavior known as long-term persistence, in which subsequent values depend on each other even under very large time scales. This implies multiyear consecutive droughts or floods. Typical models used to generate synthetic hydrological scenarios, widely used in the planning and management of water resources, fail to preserve this kind of persistence in the generated data and therefore may have a major impact on projects whose design lives span for long periods of time. This study deals with the evaluation of long-term persistence in streamflow records by means of the rescaled range analysis proposed by British engineer Harold E. Hurst, who first observed the phenomenon in the mid-twentieth century. In this paper, Hurst's procedure is enhanced by a strategy based on statistical hypothesis testing. The case study comprises the six main hydroelectric power plants located in the São Francisco River Basin, part of the Brazilian National Grid. Historical time series of inflows to the major reservoirs of the system are investigated and 5/6 sites show significant persistence, with values for the so-called Hurst exponent near or greater than 0.7, i.e., around 40% above the value 0.5 that represents a white noise process, suggesting that decision makers should take long-term persistence into consideration when conducting water resources planning and management studies in the region.

  10. Utilization of Neutron Activation Analysis for geochemical study of major and trace elements in Bouregreg river basin (Morocco)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounouira, H.; Bounakhla, M.; Embarch, K.; Choukri, A.; Cherkaoui, R.; Gaudry, A.; Treuil, M.; Chakiri, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Bouregreg river basin is located in the moroccan central massif which consists mainly of palaeozoic formations that were subject to the Hercynian orogeny. This study documents the backround geochemistry and hydrochemistry of the Bouregreg river basin, focusing on the distribution of major and trace elements, Rock samples were collected at 9 locations along the bouregreg river and its tributaries in the winter of 2005. Major (Al, fe, Mn, Na, K and Ti) and trace (Rb, Cs, Sr, Sc, Ba, Cr, V, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Sb, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Mo, Th and U) elements were anlysed using instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Data show that most of the geochemistry and hydrochemistry are related to regional and local geology. the geochemical heritage of geological environment in the Bouregreg river basin is very important, that results from the more compatible behaviour and the inertia of some elements during the weathering (3d transition elements (Co, Ni, Cr,...), interne transition elements f (lanthanides, Zr, Hf, Nb, Ta,...)). The geochemical homogeneity of the basin shows also heritage during the crustal accretion (magmatism-metamorphism-sedimention) and the typology of this continental area is the same that the Upper Continental Crust (UCC). Some anomalously high heavy metal analyses, particulary for As and Sb, may be related to anthropogenic activities

  11. Principal component analysis to assess the composition and fate of impurities in a large river-embedded reservoir: Qingcaosha Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Deng, Yang; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2013-08-01

    Qingcaosha Reservoir (QR) is the largest river-embedded reservoir in east China, which receives its source water from the Yangtze River (YR). The temporal and spatial variations in dissolved organic matter (DOM), chromophoric DOM (CDOM), nitrogen, phosphorus and phytoplankton biomass were investigated from June to September in 2012 and were integrated by principal component analysis (PCA). Three PCA factors were identified: (1) phytoplankton related factor 1, (2) total DOM related factor 2, and (3) eutrophication related factor 3. Factor 1 was a lake-type parameter which correlated with chlorophyll-a and protein-like CDOM (r = 0.793 and r = 0.831, respectively). Factor 2 was a river-type parameter which correlated with total DOC and humic-like CDOM (r = 0.668 and r = 0.726, respectively). Factor 3 correlated with total nitrogen and phosphorus (r = 0.864 and r = 0.621, respectively). The low flow speed, self-sedimentation and nutrient accumulation in QR resulted in increases in PCA factor 1 scores (phytoplankton biomass and derived CDOM) in the spatial scale, indicating a change of river-type water (YR) to lake-type water (QR). In summer, the water temperature variation induced a growth-bloom-decay process of phytoplankton combined with the increase of PCA factor 2 (humic-like CDOM) in the QR, which was absent in the YR.

  12. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Gula; Zhu, Yunqiang; Wu, Guozheng; Li, Jing; Li, Zhao-Liang; Sun, Jiulin

    2016-04-08

    In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of COD(Cr) and NH₃N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well.

  13. Modelling and Analysis of Hydrodynamics and Water Quality for Rivers in the Northern Cold Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gula Tang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the Mudan River, which is the most typical river in the northern cold region of China was selected as the research object; Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC was adopted to construct a new two-dimensional water quality model for the urban sections of the Mudan River, and concentrations of CODCr and NH3N during ice-covered and open-water periods were simulated and analyzed. Results indicated that roughness coefficient and comprehensive pollutant decay rate were significantly different in those periods. To be specific, the roughness coefficient in the ice-covered period was larger than that of the open-water period, while the decay rate within the former period was smaller than that in the latter. In addition, according to the analysis of the simulated results, the main reasons for the decay rate reduction during the ice-covered period are temperature drop, upstream inflow decrease and ice layer cover; among them, ice sheet is the major contributor of roughness increase. These aspects were discussed in more detail in this work. The model could be generalized to hydrodynamic water quality process simulation researches on rivers in other cold regions as well.

  14. Analysis of water, sediment and fish to detect contaminations with polychlorinated biphenyls (PVB) in the profile of the river Inde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwiening, S.; Schmidt, B.; Schuphan, I.

    1993-01-01

    Water, sediment and fish samples of the river Inde in the course from source to mouth were analysed for their contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (6 indicator-congeners). Analysis of the water samples showed no contents of PCB (detection limit: 10 ng/l). The resulting PCB concentration profile of the sediment showed at the upper part of the Inde uniform PCB values of 18 μg/kg dry weight sediment. In the middle part, after the tributary of an industrial influenced brook, the Vicht, the contents of PCB increased precipitously to about 110 μg/kg dry weight. In the further course - downstream near the mouth into the river Rur - the PCB contents in the sediment decreased steplike along a distance of about 20 km resulting in a level of 34 μg/kg dry weight. From the analysed fishes the brook trout (Salmo trutta forma fario) also showed PCB contents dependent on the position in the river where they were cought. In relation to muscle lipid content the averange values at the upper part of the river amounted to 6 mg/kg, in the middle part to ca 38 mg/kg and downstream to ca 8 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. Because of absence at some sampling points for the roach (Rutilus rutilus) and gudgeon (Gobio gobio) an analogues correlation could not be found. This fishes showed concentrations of PCB ranging from 3 to 5 mg/kg extractable lipid basis. (orig.) [de

  15. Spatio-temporal variational characteristics analysis of heavy metals pollution in water of the typical northern rivers, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongwei; Yu, Sen

    2018-04-01

    The rapid urbanization and industrialization in developing countries have increased pollution by heavy metals, which is a concern for human health and the environment. In this study, according to the data obtained from the monitoring stations in the Songhua River basin, the multivariate statistical analysis methods are applied to the hydrological data of the Songhua River basin in order to examine the relation between human activities and the spatio-temporal change of heavy metals (Pb and Cu) in water. By comparing the concentrations at different flow periods, the minimum Pb concentrations are found to have occurred most frequently in low flow periods while the maximum values mostly appeared in average flow periods. Moreover, the minimum Cu concentration in the water frequently occurred in high flow periods. The results show there are low Pb and Cu concentrations in upstream and downstream sections and high concentrations in mid-stream sections, and high concentrations are most frequently measured in the sections of Ashihe' downstream and estuary. Moreover, we have predicted the future (during 2018-2025) trend of the change for the heavy metals pollution in the rivers. The results demonstrated intense human activities are the most important factor causing jump features of typical heavy metal pollution in the different periods for different sections of this study area. The research would provide decision-making and planning for the Songhua River basin during the period of China's 13th Five-Year Plan.

  16. The relationship between survival of Columbia River fall chinook salmon and in-river environmental factors -- Analysis of historic data for juvenile and adult salmonid production: Phase 2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.; Townsend, R.L.; Donnelly, R.F.; Hilborn, R.W.

    1996-12-01

    This project analyzes in greater detail the coded-wire-tag (CWT) returns of Priest Rapids Hatchery fall chinook for the years 1976--1989 initially begun by Hilborn et al. (1993a). These additional analyses were prompted by suggestions made by peer reviews of the initial draft report. The initial draft and the peer review comments are included in this final report (Appendices A and B). The statistical analyses paired Priest Rapids stock with potential downriver reference stocks to isolate in-river survival rates. Thirty-three potential reference stocks were initially examined for similar ocean recovery rates; the five stocks with the most similar recovery patterns (i.e., Bonneville Brights, Cowlitz, Gray's River, Tanner Creek, and Washougal) to the Priest Rapids stock were used in the subsequent analysis of in-river survival. Three alternate forms of multiple regression models were used to investigate the relationship between predicted in-river survival and ambient conditions. Analyses were conducted with and without attempts to adjust for smolt transportation at McNary Dam. Independent variables examined in the analysis included river flows, temperature, turbidity, and spill along with the total biomass of hatchery releases in the Columbia-Snake River Basin

  17. ANALYSIS OF EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION PATTERNS USING SOFTWARE OF MIKE 21 HDFM-MT IN THE KAPUAS MURUNG RIVER MOUTH CENTRAL KALIMANTAN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franto Novico

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The public transportation system along the Kapuas River, Central Kalimantan are highly depend on water transportation. Natural condition gives high distribution to the smoothness of the vessel traffic along the Kapuas Murung River. The local government has planned to build specific port for stock pile at the Batanjung which would face with natural phenomena of sedimentation and erosion at a river mouth. Erosion and sedimentation could be predicted not only by field observing but it is also needed hypotheses using software analysis. Hydrodynamics and transport sediment models by Mike 21 HDFM-MT software will be applied to describe the position of sedimentations and erosions at a river mouth. Model is assumed by two different river conditions, wet and dry seasons. Based on two types of conditions the model would also describe the river flow and sediment transport at spring and neap periods. Tidal fluctuations and a river current as field observation data would be verified with the result of model simulations. Based on field observation and simulation results could be known the verification of tidal has an 89.74% correlation while the river current correlation has 43.6%. Moreover, based on the simulation the sediment patterns in flood period have a larger area than ebb period. Furthermore, the erosion patterns dominantly occur during wet and dry season within ebb period. Water depths and sediment patterns should be considered by the vessels that will use the navigation channel at a river mouth.

  18. Spatial and temporal analysis of natural resources degradation in the Likodra River watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Siniša

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil is an important natural resource whose proper use requires a good knowledge of all endogenous and exogenous factors that cause different types of degradation. Erosion is one of the forms of soil degradation. Erosion processes are characterized by a distinctive complexity and the factors affecting them are dynamics and change in space and time. A complex system degradation requires a multidisciplinary approach to the use of modern methods and techniques. Today, a large number of models are available for the assessment of soil loss through erosion as well as the levels of risk from erosion, today. Most of these are based on the logics of GIS thanks to its ability to sublimate heterogeneous information. In this paper, the analysis of spatial and temporal degradation of natural resources is carried out in the Likodra River watershed. The Likodra River is located in the northwestern part of the Republic of Serbia, and is positioned in the municipality of Krupanj. The main stream in the immediate vicinity of the town of Krupanj formed from four small streams that have expressed torrential character (the Bogoštica with the Kržava and the Čađavica with the Brštica. In May 2014, the urban area and rural parts of the municipality Krupanj were affected by catastrophic flash floods that resulted in the loss of human lives and enormous material damage. Soil degradation in the study area was analyzed using the Erosion Potential Method (EPM. The method is characterized by a high degree of reliability for determining the intensity of erosion, calculation of sediment yield and transport. The advantage of this method compared to other methods its lower complexity in terms of quantity of input parameters, simplicity and the possibility of application in GIS. In addition, the method has the advantage of choice, because it was developed in this area. The method is based on the analytical processing of data on factors affecting erosion. As the erosion

  19. Assessment and analysis of noise levels in and around Ib river coalfield, Orissa, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Haraprasad; Goswami, Shreerup

    2012-05-01

    Heavy earth moving machineries, different capacities of dumpers and loaders, blasting and drilling make the mining environment noisy. A study was carried out to assess the noise level in different opencast projects in and around Belpahar and Brajarajnagar areas of Ib river coalfield. Noise assessment was carried out in various residential, commercial and industrial places. The noise levels, especially L(eq) values of different wheel loaders, dumpers, shovel and crusher units were also assessed and were more than permissible limit (90dB) in some of their operating conditions. Sound ressure level measurements while drilling into coal and overburden at Lakhanpur opencast project yielded noise levels (L(eq)) of 81.33 to 96.2 dB. Thus, these L(eq) values of drilling machines in most of the operating conditions were above permissible limit. The average noise intensities (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 51.6-60.875dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 42.6-49.8dB) and L(eq) values (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 50.9-67.0dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 40.8-53.3dB) during both day and night time of the residential areas around the Ib river coalfield were in close proximity or beyond the permissible limit. The L(eq) values at some of the commercial and industrial places were beyond (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 61.6-88.3 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 55.4-64.8dB) permissible limit. However, in most of the cases, the L(max) noise values were more (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 68.5-91.4 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 69.3-76.4dB) than the permissible limit. Analysis of variance was also computed for heavy earth moving machineries in different operating conditions and also for different residential, commercial and industrial places to infer the level of significance. The difference of noise intensity produced by different wheel loaders at Lakhanpur and Lilari opencast projects, drilling machines at Lakhanpur opencast project, 50 tons capacity dumpers at various conditions of Ib river coalfield within the same operating condition was significant at both 5% and 1% levels

  20. Spatial Analysis of Large Woody Debris Arrangement in a Midwestern U.S. River System: Geomorphic Implications and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Large woody debris (LWD) is universally recognized as a key component of the geomorphological and ecological function of fluvial systems and has been increasingly incorporated into stream restoration and watershed management projects. However, 'natural' processes of recruitment and the subsequent arrangement of LWD within the river network are poorly understood and are thus, rarely a management consideration. Additionally, LWD research tends to be regionally biased toward mountainous regions, and scale biased toward the micro-scale. In many locations, the lack of understanding has led to the failure of restoration/rehabilitation projects that involved the use of LWD. This research uses geographic information systems and spatial analysis techniques to investigate longitudinal arrangement patterns of LWD in a low-gradient, Midwestern river. A large-scale GPS inventory of LWD was performed on the Big River, located in the eastern Missouri Ozarks resulting in over 5,000 logged positions of LWD along seven river segments covering nearly 100 km of the 237 km river system. A time series analysis framework was used to statistically identify longitudinal spatial patterns of LWD arrangement along the main stem of the river, and correlation analyses were performed to help identify physical controls of those patterns. Results indicate that upstream segments have slightly lower densities than downstream segments, with the exception of the farthest upstream segment. Results also show lack of an overall longitudinal trend in LWD density; however, periodogram analysis revealed an inherent periodicity in LWD arrangement. Periodicities were most evident in the downstream segments with frequencies ranging from 3 km to 7 km. Additionally, Pearson correlation analysis, performed within the segment displaying the strongest periodic behavior, show that LWD densities are correlated with channel sinuosity (r=0.25). Ongoing research is investigating further relationships between arrangement

  1. Comparative Analysis Of River Conservation In The United States And South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the United States and South Africa are recognized for their strong and innovative approaches to the conservation of river ecosystems. These national programs possess similar driving legislation and ecoregional classification schemes supported by comprehensive monitoring prog...

  2. Regional Sediment Analysis of Mississippi River Sediment Transport and Hydrographic Survey Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorne, Colin

    2002-01-01

    The cumulative impacts of human occupation and development of watersheds, combined with engineering works on river channels have significantly disrupted the dynamic equilibrium of many stream systems and ecosystem...

  3. Analysis of Prognosis of Lowland River Bed Erosion Based on Geotechnical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smaga Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The river erosion is a complex process, the dynamics of which is very difficult to predict. Its intensity largely depends on hydraulic conditions of the river channel. However, it is also thought that natural resistance of the subsoil has a great influence on the scale of the erosion process. Predicting the effects of this process is extremely important in the case of constructing a piling structure (for example, artificial reservoirs. The partition of the river channel causes significant lowering of the river channel bed downstream the dam which threatens the stability of hydro technical and engineering (bridges buildings. To stop this unwanted phenomenon, stabilizing thresholds are built. However, random location of thresholds significantly reduces their effectiveness. Therefore, taking under consideration natural geotechnical conditions of the subsoil appears to be extremely important.

  4. Application of the SAM Computer Program for Truckee River Stable Channel Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott, Stephen H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) is to demonstrate the utility of the SAM computer programs for evaluating the stability of a stream restoration design on the Truckee River...

  5. Habitat Erosion Protection Analysis, Missouri National Recreational River, Nebraska and South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    The Corps was tasked by the National Park Service to determine if erosion protection measures are needed to prevent further decline in cottonwood forest within the Missouri National Recreational River...

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES' IN FUNDING PROCESSING MILLS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Adinya, I.B; Odey S.O.; Oniah M.O; Umeh G.N; Agiopu, B.F; Ogbonna ,K.I.

    2008-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the role of agricultural co-operative societies as institutional source of finance to processing mills in Cross River State, Nigeria. Data were obtained from a random sample of 150 respondents in the study area by means of structured questionnaire. The first stage involved random selection of fifteen local government areas from eighteen local government areas in Cross River State. This was followed by random selection of one village in each of the fifteen l...

  7. Analysis of the high water wave volume for the Sava River near Zagreb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninic, Dusan

    2010-05-01

    The paper analyses volumes of the Sava River high water waves near Zagreb during the period: 1926-2008 (N = 83 years), which is needed for more efficient control of high and flood waters. The primary Sava flood control structures in the City of Zagreb are dikes built on both riverbanks, and the Odra Relief Canal with lateral spillway upstream from the City of Zagreb. Intensive morphological changes in the greater Sava area near Zagreb, and anthropological and climate variations and changes at the Sava catchment up to the Zagreb area require detailed analysis of the water wave characteristics. In one analysis, maximum annual volumes are calculated for high water waves with constant duration of: 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 days. Such calculations encompass total quantity of water (basic and surface runoff). The log Pearson III distribution is adapted for this series of maximum annual volumes. Based on the results obtained, the interrelations are established between the wave volume as function of duration and occurrence probability. In addition to the analysis of maximum volumes of constant duration, it is interesting to carry out the analyses of maximum volume in excess of the reference discharge since it is very important for the flood control. To determine the reference discharges, a discharge of specific duration is used from an average discharge duration curve. The adopted reference discharges have durations of 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10%. Like in the previous case, log Pearson III distribution is adapted to the maximum wave data series. For reference discharge Q = 604 m3/s (duration 10%), a linear trend is calculated of maximum annual volumes exceeding the reference discharge for the Sava near Zagreb during the analyzed period. The analysis results show a significant decrease trend. A similar analysis is carried out for the following three reference discharges: regular flood control measures at the Sava near Zagreb, which are proclaimed when the water level is 350 cm

  8. Characteristics and sources analysis of riverine chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Liaohe River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tiantian; Song, Kaishan; Jacinthe, Pierre-Andre; Du, Jia; Zhao, Ying; Ding, Zhi; Guan, Ying; Bai, Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in riverine systems can be affected by environmental conditions and land-use, and thus could provide important information regarding human activities in surrounding landscapes. The optical properties of water samples collected at 42 locations across the Liaohe River (LHR, China) watershed were examined using UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy to determine CDOM characteristics, composition and sources. Total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations at all sampling sites exceeded the GB3838-2002 (national quality standards for surface waters, China) standard for Class V waters of 2.0 mg N/L and 0.4 mg P/L respectively, while trophic state index (TSI M ) indicated that all the sites investigated were mesotrophic, 64% of which were eutrophic at the same time. Redundancy analysis showed that total suspended matter (TSM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and turbidity had a strong correlation with CDOM, while the other parameters (Chl a, TN, TP and TSI M ) exhibited weak correlations with CDOM absorption. High spectral slope values and low SUVA254 (the specific UV absorption) values indicated that CDOM in the LHR was primarily comprised of low molecular weight organic substances. Analysis of excitation-emission matrices contour plots showed that CDOM in water samples collected from upstream locations exhibited fulvic-acid-like characteristics whereas protein-like substances were most likely predominant in samples collected in estuarine areas and downstream from large cities. These patterns were interpreted as indicative of water pollution from urban and industrial activities in several downstream sections of the LHR watershed.

  9. Process analysis of regional aerosol pollution during spring in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qi; Lan, Jing; Liu, Yiming; Wang, Xuemei; Chan, Pakwai; Hong, Yingying; Feng, Yerong; Liu, Yexin; Zeng, Yanjun; Liang, Guixiong

    2015-12-01

    A numerical simulation analysis was performed for three air pollution episodes in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region during March 2012 using the third-generation air quality modeling system Models-3/CMAQ. The results demonstrated that particulate matter was the primary pollutant for all three pollution episodes and was accompanied by relatively low visibility in the first two episodes. Weather maps indicate that the first two episodes occurred under the influence of warm, wet southerly air flow systems that led to high humidity throughout the region. The liquid phase reaction of gaseous pollutants resulted in the generation of fine secondary particles, which were identified as the primary source of pollution in the first two episodes. The third pollution episode occurred during a warming period following a cold front. Relative humidity was lower during this episode, and coarse particles were the major pollution contributor. Results of process analysis indicated that emissions sources, horizontal transport and vertical transport were the primary factors affecting pollutant concentrations within the near-surface layer during all three episodes, while aerosol processes, cloud processes, horizontal transport and vertical transport had greater influence at approximately 900 m above ground. Cloud processes had a greater impact during the first two pollution episodes because of the higher relative humidity. In addition, by comparing pollution processes from different cities (Guangzhou and Zhongshan), the study revealed that the first two pollution episodes were the result of local emissions within the PRD region and transport between surrounding cities, while the third episode exhibited prominent regional pollution characteristics and was the result of regional pollutant transport.

  10. Analysis of the evolution of precipitation in the Haihe river basin of China under changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiangyi; Liu, Jiahong; Gong, Jiaguo

    2018-02-01

    Precipitation is one of the important factors of water cycle and main sources of regional water resources. It is of great significance to analyze the evolution of precipitation under changing environment for identifying the evolution law of water resources, thus can provide a scientific reference for the sustainable utilization of water resources and the formulation of related policies and measures. Generally, analysis of the evolution of precipitation consists of three levels: analysis the observed precipitation change based on measured data, explore the possible factors responsible for the precipitation change, and estimate the change trend of precipitation under changing environment. As the political and cultural centre of China, the climatic conditions in the Haihe river basin have greatly changed in recent decades. This study analyses the evolution of precipitation in the basin under changing environment based on observed meteorological data, GCMs and statistical methods. Firstly, based on the observed precipitation data during 1961-2000 at 26 meteorological stations in the basin, the actual precipitation change in the basin is analyzed. Secondly, the observed precipitation change in the basin is attributed using the fingerprint-based attribution method, and the causes of the observed precipitation change is identified. Finally, the change trend of precipitation in the basin under climate change in the future is predicted based on GCMs and a statistical downscaling model. The results indicate that: 1) during 1961-2000, the precipitation in the basin showed a decreasing trend, and the possible mutation time was 1965; 2) natural variability may be the factor responsible for the observed precipitation change in the basin; 3) under climate change in the future, precipitation in the basin will slightly increase by 4.8% comparing with the average, and the extremes will not vary significantly.

  11. Nutrient Reduction in Agricultural Green Infrastructure: An Analysis of the Raccoon River Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Canning

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification has had the undesirable effect of degrading water quality throughout the United States. Nitrate pollution presents a difficult problem for rural and urban communities, and it contributes to the immense Gulf of Mexico Hypoxia Zone. Current U.S. policy prohibits regulation of agricultural runoff because it is a nonpoint source. The Raccoon River Watershed upstream of Des Moines, Iowa, USA has some of the highest nitrate levels in the nation, and the drinking water utility in Des Moines unsuccessfully pursued litigation against drainage districts in the watershed. We propose a cooperative solution between urban residents and upstream rural residents—namely, the installation of agricultural green infrastructure in the form of riparian buffers throughout the watershed enabled by the principles of water quality trading. We compare this distributed, green approach with a centralized, gray approach (i.e., building a new nitrate removal facility at the drinking water utility. Using terrain analysis, we determined that first-order streams are the most fitting location for riparian buffers. We estimate the buffer installation to cost between $155–$185 million; maintenance of the current nitrate removal facility will cost $72 million, while a new facility could cost up to $184 million. Riparian buffer installation offers more indirect, non-quantified benefits than maintaining or building new centralized, gray treatment (e.g., living-wage jobs and in-stream water quality improvement. Our analysis could act as a model for water quality trading and distributed agricultural green infrastructure in other communities facing similar water quality challenges.

  12. Tornado risk analysis at Savannah River Plant using windspeed damage thresholds and single building strike frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.H.; McDonald, J.R.; Twisdale, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Tornado risk analysis at the Savannah River Plant has taken a two pronged approach: (1) developing a catalogue of damage thresholds as a function of windspeed for processing buildings and other representative site structures; (2) developing a method of estimating, for each building, the probability of a tornado exceeding each damage threshold. Wind resistance of building construction at SRP varies widely depending on the function of the structure. It was recognized that all tornadoes do not necessarily seriously damage buildings, but the damage thresholds were unknown. In order to evaluate the safety of existing structures and properly design new structures, an analysis of tornado resistance was conducted by J.R. McDonald on each process building at SRP and other buildings by type. Damage estimates were catalogued for each Fujita class windspeed interval and windspeeds were catalogued as a function of increased levels of damage. Tornado single point and structure specific strike probabilities for the SRP site were determined by L.A. Twisdale using the TORRISK computer code. To calculate the structure specific strike probability, a correction factor is determined from a set of curves using building area and aspect ratio (length/width relative to north) as parameters. The structure specific probability is then the product of the correction factor and the point probability. The correction factor increases as a function of building size and windspeed. For large buildings (10 5 ft 2 ) and very intense storms (250 mph), the correction factor is equal to or greater than 4. The cumulative probability of a tornado striking any building type (process, personnel, etc.) was also calculated

  13. Integrated Analysis of Flow, Form, and Function for River Management and Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, B. A. A.; Pasternack, G. B.; Sandoval Solis, S.

    2017-12-01

    Rivers are highly complex, dynamic systems that support numerous ecosystem functions including transporting sediment, modulating biogeochemical processes, and regulating habitat availability for native species. The extent and timing of these functions is largely controlled by the interplay of hydrologic dynamics (i.e. flow) and the shape and composition of the river corridor (i.e. form). This study applies synthetic channel design to the evaluation of river flow-form-function linkages, with the aim of evaluating these interactions across a range of flows and forms to inform process-driven management efforts with limited data and financial requirements. In an application to California's Mediterranean-montane streams, the interacting roles of channel form, water year type, and hydrologic impairment were evaluated across a suite of ecosystem functions related to hydrogeomorphic processes, aquatic habitat, and riparian habitat. Channel form acted as the dominant control on hydrogeomorphic processes considered, while water year type controlled salmonid habitat functions. Streamflow alteration for hydropower increased redd dewatering risk and altered aquatic habitat availability and riparian recruitment dynamics. Study results highlight critical tradeoffs in ecosystem function performance and emphasize the significance of spatiotemporal diversity of flow and form at multiple scales for maintaining river ecosystem integrity. The approach is broadly applicable and extensible to other systems and ecosystem functions, where findings can be used to characterize complex controls on river ecosystems, assess impacts of proposed flow and form alterations, and inform river restoration strategies.

  14. Analyzing Collaborative Governance Through Social Network Analysis: A Case Study of River Management Along the Waal River in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliervoet, J M; Geerling, G W; Mostert, E; Smits, A J M

    2016-02-01

    Until recently, governmental organizations played a dominant and decisive role in natural resource management. However, an increasing number of studies indicate that this dominant role is developing towards a more facilitating role as equal partner to improve efficiency and create a leaner state. This approach is characterized by complex collaborative relationships between various actors and sectors on multiple levels. To understand this complexity in the field of environmental management, we conducted a social network analysis of floodplain management in the Dutch Rhine delta. We charted the current interorganizational relationships between 43 organizations involved in flood protection (blue network) and nature management (green network) and explored the consequences of abolishing the central actor in these networks. The discontinuation of this actor will decrease the connectedness of actors within the blue and green network and may therefore have a large impact on the exchange of ideas and decision-making processes. Furthermore, our research shows the dependence of non-governmental actors on the main governmental organizations. It seems that the Dutch governmental organizations still have a dominant and controlling role in floodplain management. This challenges the alleged shift from a dominant government towards collaborative governance and calls for detailed analysis of actual governance.

  15. GIS methodology for geothermal play fairway analysis: Example from the Snake River Plain volcanic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelo, Jacob; Shervais, John W.; Glen, Jonathan; Nielson, Dennis L.; Garg, Sabodh; Dobson, Patrick; Gasperikova, Erika; Sonnenthal, Eric; Visser, Charles; Liberty, Lee M.; Siler, Drew; Evans, James P.; Santellanes, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Play fairway analysis in geothermal exploration derives from a systematic methodology originally developed within the petroleum industry and is based on a geologic and hydrologic framework of identified geothermal systems. We are tailoring this methodology to study the geothermal resource potential of the Snake River Plain and surrounding region. This project has contributed to the success of this approach by cataloging the critical elements controlling exploitable hydrothermal systems, establishing risk matrices that evaluate these elements in terms of both probability of success and level of knowledge, and building automated tools to process results. ArcGIS was used to compile a range of different data types, which we refer to as ‘elements’ (e.g., faults, vents, heatflow…), with distinct characteristics and confidence values. Raw data for each element were transformed into data layers with a common format. Because different data types have different uncertainties, each evidence layer had an accompanying confidence layer, which reflects spatial variations in these uncertainties. Risk maps represent the product of evidence and confidence layers, and are the basic building blocks used to construct Common Risk Segment (CRS) maps for heat, permeability, and seal. CRS maps quantify the variable risk associated with each of these critical components. In a final step, the three CRS maps were combined into a Composite Common Risk Segment (CCRS) map for analysis that reveals favorable areas for geothermal exploration. Python scripts were developed to automate data processing and to enhance the flexibility of the data analysis. Python scripting provided the structure that makes a custom workflow possible. Nearly every tool available in the ArcGIS ArcToolbox can be executed using commands in the Python programming language. This enabled the construction of a group of tools that could automate most of the processing for the project. Currently, our tools are repeatable

  16. The rSPA Processes of River Water-quality Analysis System for Critical Contaminate Detection, Classification Multiple-water-quality-parameter Values and Real-time Notification

    OpenAIRE

    Chalisa VEESOMMAI; Yasushi KIYOKI

    2016-01-01

    The water quality analysis is one of the most important aspects of designing environmental systems. It is necessary to realize detection and classification processes and systems for water quality analysis. The important direction is to lead to uncomplicated understanding for public utilization. This paper presents the river Sensing Processing Actuation processes (rSPA) for determination and classification of multiple-water- parameters in Chaophraya river. According to rSPA processes of multip...

  17. Assessment of water quality in the elbe river at flood water conditions based on cluster analysis, principle components analysis, and source apportionment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baborowski, Martina [Department of River Ecology, UFZ-Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Magdeburg (Germany); Simeonov, Vasil [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, Sofia (Bulgaria); Einax, Juergen W. [Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    An assessment of water quality measurements during a spring flood in the Elbe River is presented. Daily samples were taken at a site in the middle Elbe, which is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River (IKSE/MKOL). Cluster analysis (CA), principal components analysis (PCA), and source apportionment (APCS apportioning) were used to assess the flood-dependent matter transport. As a result, three main components could be extracted as important to the matter transport in the Elbe River basin during flood events: (i) re-suspended contaminated sediments, which led to temporarily increased concentrations of suspended matter and of most of the investigated heavy metals; (ii) water discharge related concentrations of pedogenic dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as preliminary diluted concentrations of uranium and chloride, parameters with stable pollution background in the river basin; and (iii) abandoned mines, i.e., their dewatering systems, with particular influence on nickel, manganese, and zinc concentrations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Assessment of water quality in the elbe river at flood water conditions based on cluster analysis, principle components analysis, and source apportionment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baborowski, Martina; Simeonov, Vasil; Einax, Juergen W.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment of water quality measurements during a spring flood in the Elbe River is presented. Daily samples were taken at a site in the middle Elbe, which is part of the network of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River (IKSE/MKOL). Cluster analysis (CA), principal components analysis (PCA), and source apportionment (APCS apportioning) were used to assess the flood-dependent matter transport. As a result, three main components could be extracted as important to the matter transport in the Elbe River basin during flood events: (i) re-suspended contaminated sediments, which led to temporarily increased concentrations of suspended matter and of most of the investigated heavy metals; (ii) water discharge related concentrations of pedogenic dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as preliminary diluted concentrations of uranium and chloride, parameters with stable pollution background in the river basin; and (iii) abandoned mines, i.e., their dewatering systems, with particular influence on nickel, manganese, and zinc concentrations. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Analysis and Mapping of Flood Line and Flood Zones within the Godavari River in Nasik Municipal Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakre, Deepak

    2010-05-01

    Analysis and Mapping of Flood Line within the Godavari River in Nasik(Municipal Corporation Area) Dr.Deepak N.Thakre Lecturer in Geography L.V.H.College, Nasik-3, Maharashtra, India A flood is an overflow or accumulation of an expanse of water that submerges land when the discharge of a river can not be accommodated within the margins of its normal channel so that water spreads over adjoining area and creates havoc. Problem: Since last few years there has been a sudden increase in rainfall,quite intense during a certain period in monsoon,as a result of which the discharge in river Godavari increases and creates problems in low lying areas on the banks of river Godavari like: submergence of houses,major loss of lives,management failure(due to unexpected dimension of floods)and the disruption of normal life. This paper attempts to analyse and draw an averege flood zone and sudden flood zone on the basis of : 1) Actual field work and survey with the help of Dumpy level and GPS 2) Field interviews of affected people 3) Data available from Meteorological and Irrigation department Among several districts that have flourished in the soils of Indian subcontinent the name of Nashik has drawn the attention of people all over the world. Geographical location of Nashik is 20° 01' to 20° 02' North and 73° 30' to 73° 50'East. Nashik city is situated on the banks of river Godavari and tributaries namely Nasardi, Waghadi, Darna and Walvadi.The total area of Nasik is 264.23 Sq.km (102 Sq.mt) and height from M.S.L is 3284 feet (1001 Mt). River Godavari originates in Western mountain range and flows towards East up to Bay of Bengal. On the upstream of Nasik city dams like Gangapur, Darna, Alandi, Kasyapi and Gautami-Godavari are constructed on river Godavari and its tributaries. Gangapur dam is the nearest storage dam constructed 15km away from Nasik city at source area in the year 1965. Due to moderation of floods and construction of dam there is encroachment in low lying areas

  20. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  1. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  2. Biofilm formation and microbial community analysis of the simulated river bioreactor for contaminated source water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang-Yang; Feng, Li-Juan; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Jing; Ding, Wei; Qi, Han-Ying

    2012-06-01

    The start-up pattern of biofilm remediation system affects the biofilm characteristics and operating performances. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performances of the contaminated source water remediation systems with different start-up patterns in view of the pollutants removal performances and microbial community succession. The operating performances of four lab-scale simulated river biofilm reactors were examined which employed different start-up methods (natural enrichment and artificial enhancement via discharging sediment with influent velocity gradient increase) and different bio-fillers (Elastic filler and AquaMats® ecobase). At the same time, the microbial communities of the bioreactors in different phases were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and sequencing. The pollutants removal performances became stable in the four reactors after 2 months' operation, with ammonia nitrogen and permanganate index (COD(Mn)) removal efficiencies of 84.41-94.21% and 69.66-76.60%, respectively. The biomass of mature biofilm was higher in the bioreactors by artificial enhancement than that by natural enrichment. Microbial community analysis indicated that elastic filler could enrich mature biofilm faster than AquaMats®. The heterotrophic bacteria diversity of biofilm decreased by artificial enhancement, which favored the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) developing on the bio-fillers. Furthermore, Nitrosomonas- and Nitrosospira-like AOB coexisted in the biofilm, and Pseudomonas sp., Sphaerotilus sp., Janthinobacterium sp., Corynebacterium aurimucosum were dominant in the oligotrophic niche. Artificial enhancement via the combination of sediment discharging and influent velocity gradient increasing could enhance the biofilm formation and autotrophic AOB enrichment in oligotrophic niche.

  3. Scenario analysis for integrated water resources planning and management under uncertainty in the Zayandehrud river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Hamid R.; Golmohammadi, Mohammad H.; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study is to develop and analyze three scenarios in the Zayandehrud river basin in Iran using a model already built and calibrated by Safavi et al. (2015) that has results for the baseline scenario. Results from the baseline scenario show that water demands will be supplied at the cost of depletion of surface and ground water resources, making this scenario undesirable and unsustainable. Supply Management, Demand Management, and Meta (supply and demand management) scenarios are the selected scenarios in this study. They are to be developed and declared into the Zayandehrud model to assess and evaluate the imminent status of the basin. Certain strategies will be employed for this purpose to improve and rectify the current management policies. The five performance criteria of time-based and volumetric reliability, resilience, vulnerability, and maximum deficit will be employed in the process of scenario analysis and evaluation. The results obtained from the performance criteria will be summed up into a so-called 'Water Resources Sustainability Index' to facilitate comparison among the likely trade-offs. Uncertainties arising from historical data, management policies, rainfall-runoff model, demand priorities, and performance criteria are considered in the proposed conceptual framework and modeled by appropriate approaches. Results show that the Supply Management scenario can be used to improve upon the demand supply but that it has no tangible effects on the improvement of the resources in the study region. In this regard, the Demand Management scenario is found to be more effective than the water supply one although it still remains unacceptable. Results of the Meta scenario indicate that both the supply and demand management scenarios must be applied if the water resources are to be safeguarded against degradation and depletion. In other words, the supply management scenario is necessary but not adequate; rather, it must be coupled to the demand

  4. 2 Dimensional Hydrodynamic Flood Routing Analysis on Flood Forecasting Modelling for Kelantan River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Wan Hazdy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood disaster occurs quite frequently in Malaysia and has been categorized as the most threatening natural disaster compared to landslides, hurricanes, tsunami, haze and others. A study by Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID show that 9% of land areas in Malaysia are prone to flood which may affect approximately 4.9 million of the population. 2 Dimensional floods routing modelling demonstrate is turning out to be broadly utilized for flood plain display and is an extremely viable device for evaluating flood. Flood propagations can be better understood by simulating the flow and water level by using hydrodynamic modelling. The hydrodynamic flood routing can be recognized by the spatial complexity of the schematization such as 1D model and 2D model. It was found that most of available hydrological models for flood forecasting are more focus on short duration as compared to long duration hydrological model using the Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM. The aim of this paper is to discuss preliminary findings on development of flood forecasting model using Probabilistic Distribution Moisture Model (PDM for Kelantan river basin. Among the findings discuss in this paper includes preliminary calibrated PDM model, which performed reasonably for the Dec 2014, but underestimated the peak flows. Apart from that, this paper also discusses findings on Soil Moisture Deficit (SMD and flood plain analysis. Flood forecasting is the complex process that begins with an understanding of the geographical makeup of the catchment and knowledge of the preferential regions of heavy rainfall and flood behaviour for the area of responsibility. Therefore, to decreases the uncertainty in the model output, so it is important to increase the complexity of the model.

  5. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yinqiu; Li, Hongjie; Ning, Chao; Zhang, Ye; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Hagelberg, Erika; Zhou, Hui

    2013-09-30

    The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations.

  6. Stochastic Spectral Analysis for Characterizing Hydraulic Diffusivity in an Alluvial Fan Aquifer with River Stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Zha, Y.; Yeh, T. C. J.; Wen, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Estimation of subsurface hydraulic diffusivity was carried out to understand the characteristics of Zhuoshui River alluvial fan, Taiwan. The fan, an important agricultural and industrial region with high water demand, is located at middle Taiwan with an area of 1800 km2. The prior geo-investigations suggest that the main recharge region of the fan is at an apex along the river. The distribution of soil hydraulic diffusivity was estimated by fusing naturally recurring stimulus provided by river and groundwater head. Specifically, the variance and power spectrum provided by temporal and spatial change of groundwater head in response to river stage variations are analyzed to estimate hydraulic diffusivity distribution. It is found that the hydraulic diffusivity of the fan is at the range from 0.08 to 16 m2/s. The average hydraulic diffusivity at the apex, middle, and tail of the fan along the river is about 0.4, 0.6, and 1.0 m2/s, respectively.

  7. Identification of heavy metals on vegetables at the banks of Kaligarang river using neutron analysis activation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, D.; Marwoto, P.; Fianti

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to determine the type, concentration, and distribution of heavy metals in vegetables on the banks river Kaligarang using Neutron Analysis Activation (NAA) Method. The result is then compared to its predefined threshold. Vegetable samples included papaya leaf, cassava leaf, spinach, and water spinach. This research was conducted by taking a snippet of sediment and vegetation from 4 locations of Kaligarang river. These snippets are then prepared for further irradiated in the reactor for radioactive samples emiting γ-ray. The level of γ-ray energy determines the contained elements of sample that would be matched to Neutron Activation Table. The results showed that vegetablesat Kaligarang are containing Cr-50, Co-59, Zn-64, Fe-58, and Mn-25, and well distributed at all research locations. Furthermore, the level of the detected metal elements is less than the predefined threshold.

  8. Flood Risk Analysis in Lower Part of Markham River Based on Multi-Criteria Decision Approach (MCDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sailesh Samanta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Papua New Guinea is blessed with a plethora of enviable natural resources, but at the same time it is also cursed by quite a few natural disasters like volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, landslide, floods, droughts etc. Floods happen to be a natural process of maintaining the health of the rivers and depth of its thalweg; it saves the river from becoming morbid while toning up the fertility of the riverine landscape. At the same time, from human perspective, all these ecological goodies are nullified when flood is construed overwhelmingly as one of the most devastating events in respect to social and economic consequences. The present investigation was tailored to assess the use of multi-criteria decision approach (MCDA in inland flood risk analysis. Categorization of possible flood risk zones was accomplished using geospatial data sets, like elevation, slope, distance to river, and land use/land cover, which were derived from digital elevation model (DEM and satellite image, respectively. A pilot study area was selected in the lower part of Markham River in Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea. The study area is bounded by 146°31′ to 146°58′ east and 6°33′ to 6°46′ south; covers an area of 758.30 km2. The validation of a flood hazard risk map was carried out using past flood records in the study area. This result suggests that MCDA within GIS techniques is very useful in accurate and reliable flood risk analysis and mapping. This approach is convenient for the assessment of flood in any region, specifically in no-data regions, and can be useful for researchers and planners in flood mitigation strategies.

  9. Analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices to evaluate water quality in rivers impacted by mining activities in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvial I.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Catchments in the semiarid regions are especially susceptible to environmental perturbation associated with water scarcity, hydrological variations and overuse by anthropogenic activities. Using multivariate analysis to relate environmental and biological data, and diversity and biotic indices (ChBMWP, ChIBF, we analyzed the macroinvertebrate composition of 12 rivers of the semiarid region of northern Chile. A non-metric multidimensional scaling for macroinvertebrate taxa and a principal component analysis for environmental variables strongly separated upstream sites (e.g. Vacas Heladas and Malo Rivers, which presented low pH and high dissolved metal concentrations, from other sites. Effectively, CCA showed that metals and low pH, associated with the altitudinal gradient, determined the distributional patterns of macroinvertebrates in the Elqui catchment. The causes of these particular conditions could be related to geological processes and human impact. The biotic indices applied to the sampling sites corroborated and reflected these characteristics, with La Laguna and Turbio Rivers showing a diverse macroinvertebrate community and moderate to good water quality, and the Claro River showing favorable conditions for the development of aquatic biota, indicating its better quality relative to other stations. To the middle and low part of the basin, a change in the composition of the community was observed, with species that suggest an impact by an increase in organic matter, due to agricultural activities and urban settlements concentrated in this area. Our results suggest that macroinvertebrate taxa in northern Chile may be exceptional species, adapted to unfavorable geochemical conditions, and emphasize the need for protection of the semiarid basins of the region.

  10. Analysis of persistence in fluctuation of the Cauca river through the Hurst coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, D. A.; Sanabria, M. P.; Torres, A. F.; Acevedo, A.; Gómez, J.

    2018-04-01

    Study the continuous changes in the fluctuations in the levels of watersheds, it is of great importance because it allows you to adjust predictions about behaviors that can lead to floods or droughts. The Cauca River is one of the most important rivers in Colombia due to its 1350km long, its drainage area of 59.074km 2 which represents 5% of the national territory. The Government entity Cormagdalena records daily levels of the Cauca River to the height of La Mojana in the rods. From these data, we developed a series of time on which normal test were applied to calculate the coefficient of Hurst and the fractal dimension to determine the persistence associated with this behavior.

  11. Analysis of trends in selected streamflow statistics for the Concho River Basin, Texas, 1916-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbie, Dana L.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.; May, Jayne E.

    2012-01-01

    The Concho River Basin is part of the upper Colorado River Basin in west-central Texas. Monotonic trends in streamflow statistics during various time intervals from 1916-2009 were analyzed to determine whether substantial changes in selected streamflow statistics have occurred within the Concho River Basin. Two types of U.S. Geological Survey streamflow data comprise the foundational data for this report: (1) daily mean discharge (daily discharge) and (2) annual instantaneous peak discharge. Trend directions are reported for the following streamflow statistics: (1) annual mean daily discharge, (2) annual 1-day minimum discharge, (3) annual 7-day minimum discharge, (4) annual maximum daily discharge, and (5) annual instantaneous peak discharge.

  12. Statistical and Spatial Analysis of Bathymetric Data for the St. Clair River, 1971-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, David

    2009-01-01

    To address questions concerning ongoing geomorphic processes in the St. Clair River, selected bathymetric datasets spanning 36 years were analyzed. Comparisons of recent high-resolution datasets covering the upper river indicate a highly variable, active environment. Although statistical and spatial comparisons of the datasets show that some changes to the channel size and shape have taken place during the study period, uncertainty associated with various survey methods and interpolation processes limit the statistically certain results. The methods used to spatially compare the datasets are sensitive to small variations in position and depth that are within the range of uncertainty associated with the datasets. Characteristics of the data, such as the density of measured points and the range of values surveyed, can also influence the results of spatial comparison. With due consideration of these limitations, apparently active and ongoing areas of elevation change in the river are mapped and discussed.

  13. Analysis of trends of low flow in river stations in eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Zeleňáková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The availability of using hypothesis test techniques to identify the long-term trends of hydrological time series is investigated in this study. The aim is to analyse trends of low flows at streams in eastern Slovakia, namely Poprad, Hornád, Bodva, Bodrog river basins. The article presents a methodology for prediction of hydrological drought based on statistical testing of low stream flows by non-parametric statistical test. The main objective is to identify low flow trends in the selected 63 river stations in eastern Slovakia. The stations with human impacts are also evaluated. The Mann-Kendall non-parametric test has been used to detect trends in hydrological time series. Statistically significant trends have been determined from the trend lines for the whole territory of eastern Slovakia. The results indicate that the observed changes in Slovakian river basins do not have a clearly defined trend.

  14. Analysis of stream quality in the Yampa River Basin, Colorado and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Steele, Timothy Doak

    1980-01-01

    Historic data show no significant water-temperature changes since 1951 for the Little Snake or Yampa Rivers, the two major streams of the Yampa River basin in Colorado and Wyoming. Regional analyses indicate that harmonic-mean temperature is negatively correlated with altitude. No change in specific conductance since 1951 was noted for the Little Snake River; however, specific conductance in the Yampa River has increaed 14 % since that time and is attributed to increased agricultural and municipal use of water. Site-specific relationships between major inorganic constituents and specific conductance for the Little Snake and Yampa Rivers were similar to regional relationships developed from both historic and recent (1975) data. These relationships provide a means for estimating concentrations of major inorganic constituents from specific conductance, which is easily measured. Trace-element and nutrient data collected from August 1975 through September 1976 at 92 sites in the Yampa River basin indicate that water-quality degradation occurred upstream from 3 sites. The degradation resulted from underground drainage from pyritic materials that probably are associated with coal at one site, discharge from powerplant cooling-tower blowdown water at a second site, and runoff from a small watershed containing a gas field at the third site. Ambient concentrations of dissolved and total iron and manganese frequently exceeded proposed Colorado water-quality standards. The concentrations of many dissolved and total trace elements and nutrients were greatest during March 1976. These were associated with larger suspended-sediment concentrations and smaller pH values than at other times of the year. (USGS)

  15. Preliminary uncertainty analysis for the doses estimated using the Techa River dosimetry system - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Shagina, N B.; Degteva, M O.; Tolstykh, E I.; Vorobiova, M I.; Anspaugh, L R.

    2000-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was the first facility in the former Soviet Union for the production of plutonium. As a result of failures in the technological processes in the late 1940's and early 1950's, members of the public were exposed via discharge of about 1017 Bq of liquid wastes into the Techa River (1949-1956). Residents of many villages downstream on the Techa River were exposed via a variety of pathways; the more significant included drinking of water from the river and external gamma exposure due to proximity to sediments and shoreline. The specific aim of this project is to enhance the reconstruction of external and internal radiation doses for individuals in the Extended Techa River Cohort. The purpose of this paper is to present the approaches being used to evaluate the uncertainty in the calculated individual doses and to provide example and representative results of the uncertainty analyses. The magnitude of the uncertainties varies depending on location and time of individual exposure, but the results from reference-individual calculations indicate that for external doses, the range of uncertainty is about factors of four to five. For internal doses, the range of uncertainty depends on village of residence, which is actually a surrogate for source of drinking water. For villages with single sources of drinking water (river or well), the ratio of the 97.5th percentile-to 2.5th percentile estimates can be a factor of 20 to 30. For villages with mixed sources of drinking water (river and well), the ratio of the range can be over two orders of magnitude

  16. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of

  17. Climate change impacts analysis on hydrological processes in the Weyib River basin in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serur, Abdulkerim Bedewi; Sarma, Arup Kumar

    2017-12-01

    The study aims to examine the variation of hydrological processes (in terms of mean annual, seasonal, and monthly) under changing climate within the Weyib River basin in Ethiopia at both basin and sub-basin level using ArcSWAT hydrologic model. The climate change impacts on temperature and precipitation characteristics within the basin have been studied using GFDL-ESM2M, CanESM2, and GFDL-ESM2G models for RCP8.5, RCP4.5, and RCP2.6 scenarios from coupled model inter-comparison project 5 (CMIP5) which have been downscaled by SDSM. The results revealed that the mean annual temperature and precipitation reveal a statistically significant (at 5% significant level) increasing trend in the nine ESM-RCP scenarios for all the future time slices. The mean annual actual evapotranspiration, baseflow, soil water content, percolation, and water availability in the stream exhibit a rise for all the ESMs-RCP scenarios in the entire basin and in all the sub-basins. However, surface runoff and potential evapotranspiration show a decreasing trend. The mean annual water availability increases between 9.18 and 27.97% (RCP8.5), 3.98 and 19.61% (RCP4.5), and 11.82 and 17.06% (RCP2.6) in the entire basin. The sub-basin level analysis reveals that the annual, seasonal, and monthly variations of hydrological processes in all the sub-basins are similar regarding direction but different in magnitude as compared to that of the entire basin analysis. In addition, it is observed that there is a larger monthly and seasonal variation in hydrological processes as compared to the variation in annual scale. The net water availability tends to decline in the dry season; this might cause water shortage in the lowland region and greater increases in an intermediate and rainy seasons; this might cause flooding to some flood prone region of the basin. Since the variation of water availability among the sub-basins in upcoming period is high, there is a scope of meeting agriculture water demand through

  18. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  19. Vene kinopravdast sai prantsuse cinema-verite / Ronald Bergan ; tõlk. Ene Jürna

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bergan, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    FIPRESCI asepresident meenutab 18. veebruaril 2004.a. surnud prantsuse dokumentalistika suurkuju Jean Rouchi (sünd. 31.05.1917). Lisatud Jaan Ruusi kommentaar Rouchi sidemetest Eesti kineastide Mark Soosaare ja Vladimir Karassev-Orgussaarega

  20. Multi-residues analysis of pre-emergence herbicides in fluvial sediments: application to the mid-Garonne River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devault, Damien A; Merlina, Georges; Lim, Puy; Probst, Jean-Luc; Pinelli, Eric

    2007-09-01

    Contamination of man and ecosystems by pesticides has become a major environmental concern. Whereas many studies exist on contamination from agriculture, the effects of urban sources are usually omitted. Fluvial sediment is a complex matrix of pollutants but little is known of its recent herbicide content. This study proposes a method for a fast and reliable analysis of herbicides by employing the accelerated solvent extractor (ASE). The aim of the study is to show the impact of a major town (Toulouse) on the herbicide content in the river. In this study, three herbicide families (i.e.s-triazine, substituted ureas and anilides) were analysed in fluvial sediment fractions at 11 sampling sites along the mid-Garonne River and its tributaries. River water contamination by herbicides is minor, except for at three sites located in urban areas. Among the herbicidal families studied, urban and suburban areas are distinguished from rural areas and were found to be the most contaminated sites during the study period, a winter low-water event. The herbicide content of the coarse sediment fractions is about one third of that found in the fine fractions and usually ignored. The distribution of pesticide concentrations across the whole range of particle sizes was investigated to clarify the role of plant remains on the significant accumulation in the coarse fractions.

  1. Collection and analysis of remotely sensed data from the Rhode River Estuary Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. W.; Williamson, F. S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The remote sensing study to survey the Rhode River watershed for spray irrigation with secondarily treated sewage is reported. The standardization of Autumn coloration changes with Munsell color chips is described along with the mapping of old field vegetation for the spray irrigation project. The interpretation and verification of salt marsh vegetation by remote sensing of the water shed is discussed.

  2. Heavy Metal Analysis of Cauvery River Water Around Krs Dam, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mahadev

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Water quality is an index of health and is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists, since Industrialization, urbanization and modern agriculture practices have a direct impact on the water resources. Hence, the study of the reservoirs and river water quality monitoring is most essential aspect of sustainable development and river conservation. The Upstream and KRS reservoir both are the important sources of potable water supply for the Mysore city. The study area were selected the Upstream and KRS reservoir of Mysore District of Karnataka, India. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate water quality parameter and heavy metal of upstream and KRS Dam during 2008. Ecological parameters like Dissolved Oxygen, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical parameters like Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate and physical parameters like Temperature, pH, Turbidity and heavy metals were analyzed and the results were compared with standard permissible limits, WHO and they were studied to ascertain the drinking water quality. Results revealed that in three rivers of upstream (Hemavathi, Cauvery and Laxmanatheertha carried high loads of Arsenic, Iron, Nickel in Upstream. In other word, Arsenic is a dominant risk to more than the maximum permissible standard of water quality and is a risk factor in this river

  3. Analysis of Removal Alternatives for the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, M.B.

    1996-08-01

    This engineering study was developed to evaluate different options for decommissioning of the Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) at the Savannah River Site. This document will be placed in the DOE-SRS Area reading rooms for a period of 30 days in order to obtain public input to plans for the demolition of HWCTR

  4. Analysis of wetland change in the Songhua River Basin from 1995 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, L H; Jiang, W G; Liu, Y H; Luo, Z L; He, X H

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands in the Songhua River Basin in both 1995 and 2008 were mapped from land use/land cover maps generated from Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery. These maps were then divided into two categories, i.e. artificial wetland and natural wetland. From 1995 to 2008, the total area of wetland in the Songhua River Basin increased from 93 072.3 km 2 to 99 179.6 km 2 a net increase of 6107.3 km 2 . The area of natural wetland decreased by 4043.7 km 2 while the area of artificial wetland increased by 10 166.2 km 2 . Swamp wetland and paddy field wetland became the dominant wetlands and the swamp wetland in the east of the Heilong River system and the north of the Wusuli River system disappeared, being transformed into paddy field wetland. The diversity of wetland landscape is worsening and the distribution of wetland landscape is becoming more unbalanced; the fragmentation of natural wetland has intensified whereas the patch connectivity of artificial wetland has increased. Changes in natural wetlands were primarily caused by climate and socio-economic changes, while changes in artificial wetland were mainly caused by the growth of population and gross domestic product

  5. Impact analysis of calcium hydroxide on the juveniles of the river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of inorganic chemicals to boost agro production has recently been extended to other environmental purposes. This study thus was carried out to assess the potential lethal impact of calcium hydroxide (Ca (OH)2) on aquatic environment using the brackish river prawn as the indicator organism. The prawns were ...

  6. Models for the detection and analysis of radioecological processes in rivers and oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldt, W.

    1984-01-01

    A short review is given in some examples on the research in the field of aquatic radioecology. The problems in calculating the sedimentation of radioactive materials are described. Measurements of the uptake of radionuclides in fishes of the rivers, the North Sea and in deep sea fish are given. (orig.) [de

  7. Analysis of relationships between land surface temperature and land use changes in the Yellow River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Jicai; Gao, Zhiqiang; Meng, Ran; Xu, Fuxiang; Gao, Meng

    2018-06-01

    This study analyzed land use and land cover changes and their impact on land surface temperature using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor imagery of the Yellow River Delta. Six Landsat images comprising two time series were used to calculate the land surface temperature and correlated vegetation indices. The Yellow River Delta area has expanded substantially because of the deposited sediment carried from upstream reaches of the river. Between 1986 and 2015, approximately 35% of the land use area of the Yellow River Delta has been transformed into salterns and aquaculture ponds. Overall, land use conversion has occurred primarily from poorly utilized land into highly utilized land. To analyze the variation of land surface temperature, a mono-window algorithm was applied to retrieve the regional land surface temperature. The results showed bilinear correlation between land surface temperature and the vegetation indices (i.e., Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Adjusted-Normalized Vegetation Index, Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index, and Modified Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Generally, values of the vegetation indices greater than the inflection point mean the land surface temperature and the vegetation indices are correlated negatively, and vice versa. Land surface temperature in coastal areas is affected considerably by local seawater temperature and weather conditions.

  8. Analysis on Physical Characteristics of Rural Solid Waste in Dongjiang River Source Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dongjiang river is the source of drinking water of Guangdong Province and Hongkong, and the source area includes three counties in Ganzhou city of Jiangxi Province: Xunwu, Anyuan and Dingnan. Three typical villages were chosen in Dongjiang river source area to investigate the producing quantity and physical characteristics of rural solid waste. Results of investigation showed that the dominant ingredient in rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was kitchen waste, taking over 60%, followed by dust, reaching 12%, while other components took less than 10%. The per-capita producing quantity of solid waste of county-level village was 0.2~0.47 kg·d -1 and averaged by 0.36 kg·d -1, while that of town-level village was 0.18~0.35 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.29 kg· d -1 and that of hamlet was 0.07~0.33 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.17 kg· d -1. Water content in rural mixed solid waste of investigated area was significantly linear with percentage of kitchen waste in the mixed waste(R 2 =0.626, P=0.019. The average calorie wasaround 2 329 kJ·kg -1, which indicated that the rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was not suitable for incineration disposal directly.

  9. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Shaber, C.R.; Thurow, T.L.

    1981-11-17

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  10. Internal Technical Report, Safety Analysis Report 5 MW(e) Raft River Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.S.; Homer, G.B.; Spencer, S.G.; Shaber, C.R.

    1980-05-30

    The Raft River Geothermal Site is located in Southern Idaho's Raft River Valley, southwest of Malta, Idaho, in Cassia County. EG and G idaho, Inc., is the DOE's prime contractor for development of the Raft River geothermal field. Contract work has been progressing for several years towards creating a fully integrated utilization of geothermal water. Developmental progress has resulted in the drilling of seven major DOE wells. Four are producing geothermal water from reservoir temperatures measured to approximately 149 C (approximately 300 F). Closed-in well head pressures range from 69 to 102 kPa (100 to 175 psi). Two wells are scheduled for geothermal cold 60 C (140 F) water reinjection. The prime development effort is for a power plant designed to generate electricity using the heat from the geothermal hot water. The plant is designated as the ''5 MW(e) Raft River Research and Development Plant'' project. General site management assigned to EG and G has resulted in planning and development of many parts of the 5 MW program. Support and development activities have included: (1) engineering design, procurement, and construction support; (2) fluid supply and injection facilities, their study, and control; (3) development and installation of transfer piping systems for geothermal water collection and disposal by injection; and (4) heat exchanger fouling tests.

  11. Hydro-Economic based Model of Damage and Loss Analysis of Winongo River Flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rifki Hardika

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Winongo River experienced considerably high flow that caused overflows along the downstream part of the river and some inundation at the surrounding area. The inundation has reached up to 1 m spread over the Tegalrejo Sub-district of Yogyakarta City and swept two houses. This paper analyses the damage and loss due to the flood by taking into account the hydraulics phenomena and the economic impact at the inundation area. A hydraulics model has been developed to study the flow characteristics during the flood of Winongo River, especially in the river reach in Tegalrejo Sub-district. The hazard-induced damages in the flooded area were identified and the economic impacts were studied. Several related software have been utilized to analyse the damage and loss of the disaster, including the HEC-RAS 5.0, ArcGIS, HEC-GeoRAS and InaSAFE. Through the integration of the characteristics of both flood phenomena and the economic factor, the damage and loss were then analysed and the Average Annual Damage (AAD of approximately IDR 88,750,000,000 was obtained.

  12. Computation of major solute concentrations and loads in German rivers using regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    Regression functions between concentrations of several inorganic solutes and specific conductance and between specific conductance and stream discharge were derived from intermittent samples collected for 2 rivers in West Germany. These functions, in conjunction with daily records of streamflow, were used to determine monthly and annual solute loadings. -from Author

  13. Yield-reliability analysis and operating rules for run-of-river ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... Location of Siloam Village in A80A quaternary catchment. CASE STUDY AREA. Siloam Village falls under the quaternary catchment A80A of the Nzhelele River Catchment which is located in the Limpopo. Province of South ..... This enables allocation of more water to domestic users during times of high ...

  14. Loss of the CNA I secured river water system: analysis and effect evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berra, Sandra; Guala, Mariana I.; Lorenzo, Andrea T.; Raffo Calderon, Maria C.; Urrutia, Guillermo

    1999-01-01

    In this work the evolution of the plant parameters is evaluated in the case of a loss of the secured circuit of river water (system UK). In particular the systems which are affected for this loss were studied. It was evaluated the functional degradation of these systems. (author)

  15. trend analysis of raw water parameters in river benue at the reach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    important element to man. It is essential to humanity and the largest source of fresh water lies underground. It constitutes the largest part of most living matters. The human body takes from. 55% to 70% water depending on ..... by surface runoff into the river should be discouraged. 4. Benue Brewery limited (BBL) and Nigeria.

  16. River flow prediction using hybrid models of support vector regression with the wavelet transform, singular spectrum analysis and chaotic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydaroğlu, Özlem; Koçak, Kasım; Duran, Kemal

    2018-06-01

    Prediction of water amount that will enter the reservoirs in the following month is of vital importance especially for semi-arid countries like Turkey. Climate projections emphasize that water scarcity will be one of the serious problems in the future. This study presents a methodology for predicting river flow for the subsequent month based on the time series of observed monthly river flow with hybrid models of support vector regression (SVR). Monthly river flow over the period 1940-2012 observed for the Kızılırmak River in Turkey has been used for training the method, which then has been applied for predictions over a period of 3 years. SVR is a specific implementation of support vector machines (SVMs), which transforms the observed input data time series into a high-dimensional feature space (input matrix) by way of a kernel function and performs a linear regression in this space. SVR requires a special input matrix. The input matrix was produced by wavelet transforms (WT), singular spectrum analysis (SSA), and a chaotic approach (CA) applied to the input time series. WT convolutes the original time series into a series of wavelets, and SSA decomposes the time series into a trend, an oscillatory and a noise component by singular value decomposition. CA uses a phase space formed by trajectories, which represent the dynamics producing the time series. These three methods for producing the input matrix for the SVR proved successful, while the SVR-WT combination resulted in the highest coefficient of determination and the lowest mean absolute error.

  17. Association analysis between spatiotemporal variation of vegetation greenness and precipitation/temperature in the Yangtze River Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lifang; Wang, Lunche; Singh, Ramesh P; Lai, Zhongping; Jiang, Liangliang; Yao, Rui

    2018-05-23

    The variation in vegetation greenness provides good understanding of the sustainable management and monitoring of land surface ecosystems. The present paper discusses the spatial-temporal changes in vegetation and controlling factors in the Yangtze River Basin (YRB) using Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) for the period 2001-2013. Theil-Sen Median trend analysis, Pearson correlation coefficients, and residual analysis have been used, which shows decreasing trend of the annual mean NDVI over the whole YRB. Spatially, the regions with significant decreasing trends were mainly located in parts of central YRB, and pronounced increasing trends were observed in parts of the eastern and western YRB. The mean NDVI during spring and summer seasons increased, while it decreased during autumn and winter seasons. The seasonal mean NDVI shows spatial heterogeneity due to the vegetation types. The correlation analysis shows a positive relation between NDVI and temperature over most of the YRB, whereas NDVI and precipitation show a negative correlation. The residual analysis shows an increase in NDVI in parts of eastern and western YRB and the decrease in NDVI in the small part of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the mid-western YRB due to human activities. In general, climate factors were the principal drivers of NDVI variation in YRB in recent years.

  18. Analysis of the Thermal and Hydraulic Stimulation Program at Raft River, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Jacob; McLennan, John; Moore, Joseph; Podgorney, Robert; Plummer, Mitchell; Nash, Greg

    2017-05-01

    The Raft River geothermal field, located in southern Idaho, roughly 100 miles northwest of Salt Lake City, is the site of a Department of Energy Enhanced Geothermal System project designed to develop new techniques for enhancing the permeability of geothermal wells. RRG-9 ST1, the target stimulation well, was drilled to a measured depth of 5962 ft. and cased to 5551 ft. The open-hole section of the well penetrates Precambrian quartzite and quartz monzonite. The well encountered a temperature of 282 °F at its base. Thermal and hydraulic stimulation was initiated in June 2013. Several injection strategies have been employed. These strategies have included the continuous injection of water at temperatures ranging from 53 to 115 °F at wellhead pressures of approximately 275 psi and three short-term hydraulic stimulations at pressures up to approximately 1150 psi. Flow rates, wellhead and line pressures and fluid temperatures are measured continuously. These data are being utilized to assess the effectiveness of the stimulation program. As of August 2014, nearly 90 million gallons have been injected. A modified Hall plot has been used to characterize the relationships between the bottom-hole flowing pressure and the cumulative injection fluid volume. The data indicate that the skin factor is decreased, and/or the permeability around the wellbore has increased since the stimulation program was initiated. The injectivity index also indicates a positive improvement with values ranging from 0.15 gal/min psi in July 2013 to 1.73 gal/min psi in February 2015. Absolute flow rates have increased from approximately 20 to 475 gpm by February 2 2015. Geologic, downhole temperature and seismic data suggest the injected fluid enters a fracture zone at 5650 ft and then travels upward to a permeable horizon at the contact between the Precambrian rocks and the overlying Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic deposits. The reservoir simulation program FALCON developed at the Idaho National

  19. Modeling and analysis of Soil Erosion processes by the River Basins model: The Case Study of the Krivacki Potok Watershed, Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujacic, Dusko; Barovic, Goran; Mijanovic, Dragica; Spalevic, Velibor; Curovic, Milic; Tanaskovic, Vjekoslav; Djurovic, Nevenka

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to study soil erosion processes in one of Northern Montenegrin watersheds, the Krivacki Potok Watershed of the Polimlje River Basin, using modeling techniques: the River Basins computer-graphic model, based on the analytical Erosion Potential Method (EPM) of Gavrilovic for calculation of runoff and soil loss. Our findings indicate a low potential of soil erosion risk, with 554 m³ yr-1 of annual sediment yield; an area-specific sediment yield of 180 m³km-2 yr-1. The calculation outcomes were validated for the entire 57 River Basins of Polimlje, through measurements of lake sediment deposition at the Potpec hydropower plant dam. According to our analysis, the Krivacki Potok drainage basin is with the relatively low sediment discharge; according to the erosion type, it is mixed erosion. The value of the Z coefficient was calculated on 0.297, what indicates that the river basin belongs to 4th destruction category (of five). The calculated peak discharge from the river basin was 73 m3s-1 for the incidence of 100 years and there is a possibility for large flood waves to appear in the studied river basin. Using the adequate computer-graphic and analytical modeling tools, we improved the knowledge on the soil erosion processes of the river basins of this part of Montenegro. The computer-graphic River Basins model of Spalevic, which is based on the EPM analytical method of Gavrilovic, is highly recommended for soil erosion modelling in other river basins of the Southeastern Europe. This is because of its reliable detection and appropriate classification of the areas affected by the soil loss caused by soil erosion, at the same time taking into consideration interactions between the various environmental elements such as Physical-Geographical Features, Climate, Geological, Pedological characteristics, including the analysis of Land Use, all calculated at the catchment scale.

  20. A time-series analysis of flood disaster around Lena river using Landsat TM/ETM+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toru; Hatta, Shigemi; Okumura, Makoto; Takeuchi, Wataru; Hiyama, Tetsuya; Inoue, Gen

    2010-05-01

    Landsat satellite has provided a continuous record of earth observation since 1972, gradually improving sensors (i.e. MSS, TM and ETM+). Already processed archives of Landsat image are now available free of charge from the internet. The Landsat image of 30 m spatial resolution with multiple spectral bands between 450 and 2350 nm is appropriate for detailed mapping of natural resource at wide geographical areas. However, one of the biggest concerns in the use of Landsat image is the uncertainty in the timing of acquisitions. Although detection of land cover change usually requires acquisitions before and after the change, the Landsat image is often unavailable because of the long-term intervals (16 days) and variation in atmosphere. Nearly cloud-free image is acquired at least once per year (total of 22 or 23 scenes per year). Therefore, it may be difficult to acquire appropriate images for monitoring natural disturbances caused at short-term intervals (e.g., flood, forest fire and hurricanes). Our objectives are: (1) to examine whether a time-series of Landsat image is available for monitoring a flood disaster, and (2) to evaluate the impact and timing of the flood disaster around Lena river in Siberia. A set of Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite images was used to enable acquisition of cloud-free image, although Landsat ETM+ images include failure of the Scan Line Corrector (SLC) from May 2003. The overlap area of a time series of 20 Landsat TM/ETM+ images (path 120-122, row 17) from April 2007 to August 2007 was clipped (approximately 33 km × 90 km), and the other area was excluded from the analyses. Image classification was performed on each image separately using an unsupervised ISODATA method, and each Landsat TM/ETM+ image was classified into three land cover types: (1) ice, (2) water, and (3) land. From three land cover types, the area of Lena river was estimated. The area of Lena river dramatically changed after spring breakup. The middle part of Lena river around

  1. Sediment budget analysis from Landslide debris and river channel change during the extreme event - example of Typhoon Morakot at Laonong river, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Huang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Mei-Jen; Chiang, Yi-Lin; Yeh, En-Chao; Chao, Yu-Jui

    2014-05-01

    Taiwan, due to the high seismicity and high annual rainfall, numerous landslides triggered every year and severe impacts affect the island. Typhoon Morakot brought extreme and long-time rainfall for Taiwan in August 2009. It further caused huge loss of life and property in central and southern Taiwan. Laonong River is the largest tributary of Gaoping River. It's length is 137 km, and the basin area is 1373 km2. More than 2000mm rainfall brought and maximum rainfall exceeded 100mm/hr in the region by Typhoon Morakot in Aug, 2009. Its heavy rains made many landslides and debris flew into the river and further brought out accumulation and erosion on river banks of different areas. It caused severe disasters within the Laonong River drainage. In the past, the study of sediment blockage of river channel usually relies on field investigation, but due to inconvenient transportation, topographical barriers, or located in remote areas, etc. the survey is hardly to be completed sometimes. In recent years, the rapid development of remote sensing technology improves image resolution and quality significantly. Remote sensing technology can provide a wide range of image data, and provide essential and precious information. Furthermore, although the amount of sediment transportation can be estimated by using data such as rainfall, river flux, and suspended loads, the situation of large debris migration cannot be studied via those data. However, landslides, debris flow and river sediment transportation model in catchment area can be evaluated easily through analyzing the digital terrain model (DTM) . The purpose of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of river migration and to evaluate the amount of migration along Laonong River by analyzing the DEM before and after the typhoon Morakot. The DEMs are built by using the aerial images taken by digital mapping camera (DMC) and by airborne digital scanner 40 (ADS 40) before and after typhoon event. The results show that lateral

  2. Distributed Leadership in Drainage Basin Management: A Critical Analysis of ‘River Chief Policy’ from a Distributed Leadership Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi

    2018-02-01

    Water resources management has been more significant than ever since the official file stipulated ‘three red lines’ to scrupulously control water usage and water pollution, accelerating the promotion of ‘River Chief Policy’ throughout China. The policy launches creative approaches to include people from different administrative levels to participate and distributes power to increase drainage basin management efficiency. Its execution resembles features of distributed leadership theory, a vastly acknowledged western leadership theory with innovative perspective and visions to suit the modern world. This paper intends to analyse the policy from a distributed leadership perspective using Taylor’s critical policy analysis framework.

  3. Suspended sediment data analysis: Mackenzie Delta, NWT 1992-93 update [and] Westbank Tributaries, Mackenzie River, NWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, M A

    1993-03-01

    A full analysis and review of sediment data collected in 1991 as part of a program dealing with sediment-related aspects of northern hydrocarbon development is presented. The data were collected at two delta-head stations, three mid-delta stations, and three outer-delta stations. The primary purpose of the program is to obtain mathematical relationships that will allow prediction of sediment concentration at delta stations in the absence of actual sampling. This task is a prerequisite to the development of a sediment adjunct to the one-dimensional hydraulic model being developed for the delta. Preliminary analysis indicates strong correlations between sediment concentrations at different stations in the delta. It is tentatively proposed that sediment concentrations at all east-central stations in the delta could be predicted from samples concentrations at Inuvik, and that concentrations on the west side could be predictable from Peel River Station. The second part of this report deals with suspended sediment data analysis for the westbank tributaries of the Mackenzie River. 19 refs., 36 figs., 29 tabs.

  4. Geomorphological Analysis and Hydrological Potential Zone of Baira River Watershed, Churah in Chamba District of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Pareta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the quantitative geomorphological analysis and hydrological characterization of 95 micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed in Himachal Pradesh, India with an area of 425.25 Km2. First time in the world, total 173 morphometric parameters have been generated in a single watershed using satellite remote sensing data (i.e. IRS-P6 ResourceSAT-1 LISS-III, LandSAT-7 ETM+, and LandSAT-8 PAN & OLI merge data, digital elevation models (i.e. IRS-P5 CartoSAT-1 DEM, ASTER DEM data, and soI topographical maps of 1: 50,000 scale. The ninety-five micro-watersheds (MWS of Baira river watershed have been prioritized through the morphometric analysis of different morphometric parameters (i.e. drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture analysis, and relief characterizes . The study has concurrently established the importance of geomorphometry as well as the utility of remote sensing and GIS technology for hydrological characterization of the watershed and there for better resource and environmental managements.

  5. Savannah River Plant Low-Level Waste Heat Utilization Project preliminary analysis. Volume I. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of capturing energy ejected in hot water at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) is presented. The cooling water, drawn from the river or a pond at the rate of 500,000 gallons per minute, is typically heated 80 0 F to about 150 0 F and is then allowed to cool in the atmosphere. The energy added to the water is equivalent to 20 million barrels of oil a year. This study reports that the reject heat can be used directly in an organic Rankine cycle system to evaporate fluids which drive electric generators. The output of one reactor can produce 45,000 kilowatts of electricity. Since the fuel is waste heat, an estimated 45% savings over conventional electric costs is possible over a thirty year period

  6. Runoff analysis by means of multiple isotope tracers in Iwami river drainage, Akita, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu; Yoshida, Minako; Tanaka-Miyamoto, Kiriko.

    1990-01-01

    By means of three isotope tracer techniques, proportion of direct runoff and characters of groundwater runoff were studied in the Iwami River drainage during a high runoff period for about 3 days, caused by a heavy rainfall of 85 mm for 17 hours. The proportion of direct runoff is 15 % or less of the total runoff caused by the rainfall, while 65 % of river water at the peak of runoff. Differences observed in the runoff manners among 18 O, 2 H, and 3 H are interpreted as a result of preferential runoff of previous precipitations stored in some unsaturated zone above the saturated groundwater zone. Cl - content is not conservative as a tracer to study runoff mechanisms. (author)

  7. Fitting sediment rating curves using regression analysis: a case study of Russian Arctic rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Tananaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Published suspended sediment data for Arctic rivers is scarce. Suspended sediment rating curves for three medium to large rivers of the Russian Arctic were obtained using various curve-fitting techniques. Due to the biased sampling strategy, the raw datasets do not exhibit log-normal distribution, which restricts the applicability of a log-transformed linear fit. Non-linear (power model coefficients were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms, all of which generally showed close agreement. A non-linear power model employing the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter evaluation algorithm was identified as an optimal statistical solution of the problem. Long-term annual suspended sediment loads estimated using the non-linear power model are, in general, consistent with previously published results.

  8. Fitting sediment rating curves using regression analysis: a case study of Russian Arctic rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananaev, N. I.

    2015-03-01

    Published suspended sediment data for Arctic rivers is scarce. Suspended sediment rating curves for three medium to large rivers of the Russian Arctic were obtained using various curve-fitting techniques. Due to the biased sampling strategy, the raw datasets do not exhibit log-normal distribution, which restricts the applicability of a log-transformed linear fit. Non-linear (power) model coefficients were estimated using the Levenberg-Marquardt, Nelder-Mead and Hooke-Jeeves algorithms, all of which generally showed close agreement. A non-linear power model employing the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter evaluation algorithm was identified as an optimal statistical solution of the problem. Long-term annual suspended sediment loads estimated using the non-linear power model are, in general, consistent with previously published results.

  9. Analysis of some aromatic hydrocarbons in a benzene-soluble bitumen from Green River shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, D.E.; Doolittle, F.G.; Robinson, W.E.

    1973-01-01

    The hydrocarbon content of an aromatic fraction, isolated from the bitumen of Green River shale, was studied by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectrometry, gas chromatography and a dehydrogenation technique. The hydrocarbon types and their distribution in this aromatic fraction, as determined by mass spectrometry, are presented. The carbon-number range, empirical formulas and quantity of each compound in the major types are reported. Mass spectra of several compounds and homologous mixtures of compounds isolated from the aromatic fraction are also given.

  10. Short time series analysis of Didymosphenia geminata blooming in the Oreti River, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, T.; Kilroy, C.; Larned, S.; Packman, A. I.; Kumar, P.

    2010-12-01

    The mat-forming diatom Didymosphenia geminata was introduced to New Zealand in 2004, and subsequently spread to many rivers on the south island. D geminata mats are exceptionally dense and thick. Extensive blooms of this introduced organism have substantially modified the benthic environment in many New Zealand rivers, but the factors that contribute to D. geminata blooming are not well understood. We synthesized a sequence of observations of D. geminata areal coverage and thickness to examine physical and chemical controls on the growth and persistence of D germinata. We analyzed the best available time series on the distribution of this organism in New Zealand, observations in the Oreti River every 15 days spanning April 2006 to May 2007. During this period, mean D. geminata coverage of the river bed was ~52% and the mean mat thickness was ~6 mm. Relationships between time-series observations of D. geminata and 13 different physical and chemical variables were analyzed using linear and nonlinear methods. Areal cover and thickness of D geminata mats were found to be influenced by both slow and fast dynamic processes. The spread of the organism, in terms of % cover, was highly correlated with conductivity, ammonium, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and total nitrogen with short time lags (fast dynamics). Moreover, water clarity, cloud cover, and flow were highly correlated with % cover with long time lags, indicating that these conditions exert long-term control on D. geminata growth. Areal coverage and thickness were found to be highly correlated, but the variables associated with slow and fast dynamics of these two measures were not identical. The variables found to be highly correlated with D. germinata thickness and represented fast dynamics were temperature, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Additionally, the variables influencing the slow dynamics of D. germinata thickness were flow, water clarity, turbidity and total phosphorous.

  11. Analysis of the Pelletron charging chain break in the Chalk River MP tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burn, N.; Greiner, B.F.; Coleman, C.E.

    1980-11-01

    On February 7, 1980 one of the three Pelletron charging chains in the Low Energy end of the Chalk River MP Tandem Accelerator broke during normal operation. The chains had been in use for 38 000 h at the time of the break. Tensile tests were carried out on pieces of the broken chain as well as unused pieces of chain. Several possible reasons for the chain break are suggested; ways of improving performance and reliability are proposed. (auth)

  12. Dynamic Changes of Landscape Pattern and Vulnerability Analysis in Qingyi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziwei; Xie, Chaoying; He, Xiaohui; Guo, Hengliang; Wang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Environmental vulnerability research is one of the core areas of global environmental change research. Over the past 10 years, ecologically fragile zones or transition zones had been significantly affected by environmental degradation and climate change and human activities. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of landscape pattern and landscape vulnerability degree in Qingyi River Basin by calculating the landscape sensitivity index and landscape restoration degree index based on Landsat images of 2005, 2010 and 2015. The results showed that: (1) The top conversion area was farmland, woodland and grassland area decreased, city land and rural residential land increased fastest. (2) The fragility of the landscape pattern along the Qingyi River gradually increased between 2005 and 2015, the downstream area was influenced by the influence of human activities. (3) Landscape pattern changes and fragility are mainly affected by urbanization. These findings are helpful for understanding the evolution of landscape pattern as well as urban ecology, which both have significant implications for urban planning and minimize the potential environmental impacts of urbanization in Qingyi River Basin.

  13. Late quaternary dynamics in the Madeira river basin, southern Amazonia (Brazil, as revealed by paleomorphological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericson H. Hayakawa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient drainage systems are being increasingly documented in the Amazon basin and their characterization is crucial for reconstructing fluvial evolution in this area. Fluvial morphologies, including elongate belts, are well preserved along the Madeira River. Digital Elevation Model from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission favored the detection of these features even where they are covered by dense rainforest. These paleomorphologies are attributed to the shifting position of past tributaries of the Madeira River through avulsions. These radial paleodrainage networks produced fan-shaped morphologies that resemble distributary megafans. Distinguishing avulsive tributary systems from distributary megafans in the sedimentary record is challenging. Madeira´s paleodrainage reveals the superposition of tributary channels formed by multiple avulsions within a given time period, rather than downstream bifurcation of coexisting channels. Channel avulsion in this Amazonian area during the late Quaternary is related to tectonics due to features as: (i straight lineaments coincident with fault directions; (ii northeastward tilting of the terrain with Quaternary strata; and (iii several drainage anomalies, including frequent orthogonal drainage inflections. These characteristics altogether lead to propose that the radial paleodrainage present at the Madeira River margin results from successive avulsions of tributary channels over time due to tectonics.

  14. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 16 (GROTTH00170016) on Town Highway 17, crossing the Wells River, Groton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striker, L.K.; Ivanoff, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure GROTTH00170016 on Town Highway 17 crossing the Wells River, Groton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D.

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 37 (BARTTH00080037) on Town Highway 8, crossing Willoughby River, Barton, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Boehmler, Erick M.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure BARTTH00080037 on town highway 8 crossing the Willoughby River, Barton, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province

  16. Long-term variation analysis of a tropical river's annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyam, Mohammed; Othman, Faridah

    2015-07-01

    Studying the long-term changes of streamflow is an important tool for enhancing water resource and river system planning, design, and management. The aim of this work is to identify the long-term variations in annual streamflow regime over a 50-year period from 1961 to 2010 in the Selangor River, which is one of the main tropical rivers in Malaysia. Initially, the data underwent preliminary independence, normality, and homogeneity testing using the Pearson correlation coefficient and Shapiro-Wilk and Pettitt's tests, respectively. The work includes a study and analysis of the changes through nine variables describing the annual streamflow and variations in the yearly duration of high and low streamflows. The analyses were conducted via two time scales: yearly and sub-periodic. The sub-periods were obtained by segmenting the 50 years into seven sub-periods by two techniques, namely the change-point test and direct method. Even though analysis revealed nearly negligible changes in mean annual flow over the study period, the maximum annual flow generally increased while the minimum annual flow significantly decreased with respect to time. It was also observed that the variables describing the dispersion in streamflow continually increased with respect to time. An obvious increase was detected in the yearly duration of danger level of streamflow, a slight increase was noted in the yearly duration of warning and alert levels, and a slight decrease in the yearly duration of low streamflow was found. The perceived changes validate the existence of long-term changes in annual streamflow regime, which increase the probability of floods and droughts occurring in future. In light of the results, attention should be drawn to developing water resource management and flood protection plans in order to avert the harmful effects potentially resulting from the expected changes in annual streamflow regime.

  17. Comparative analysis of meteorological and hydrological drought in the Pearl River basin during the period 1960-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, K.; Wu, C.; Hu, B.; Niu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards that can have devastating impacts on the regional environment, agriculture, and water resources. Previous studies have conducted the assessment of historic changes in meteorological drought over various regional scales but rarely considered hydrological drought due to limited hydrological observations. Here, we use a long-term (1960-2012) gridded hydro-meteorological data to present a comparative analysis of meteorological and hydrological drought in the Pearl River basin in southern China using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and the standardized runoff index (SRI). The variation in SPI and SRI at four different timescales (1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month) is investigated using the Mann-Kendall (M-K) method and continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The results indicate that the correlation between SPI and SRI is strong over the Pearl River basin and tends to be stronger at the longer timescale. Meanwhile, the periodic oscillation pattern of SPI becomes more consistent with that of SRI with the increased timescale. The SPI can be used as a substitute for SRI to represent the hydrological drought at the long-term scale. Overall there is a noticeably wetting trend mainly in the eastern parts and a significant drying trend mainly in the western regions and the downstream area of the Pearl River basin. The variability of meteorological drought is significant mainly in the eastern and western regions, while the variability of hydrological drought tends to be larger mainly in the western region. CWT analysis indicates a period of 0.75-7 years in both meteorological and hydrological droughts during the period 1960-2012 in the study region.

  18. Seiche-induced unsteady flows in the Huron-Erie Corridor: Spectral analysis of oscillations in stage and discharge in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Contantinescu, G.; Garcia, M.; Hanes, D.

    2016-01-01

    Animations of highly dynamic water-surface profiles through the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers have identified transient disturbances propagating from Lakes Huron and Erie into the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, respectively. To determine any relation to seiche and tidal oscillations on Lakes Huron and Erie, a spectral analysis was performed on stage and discharge data from the Huron-Erie Corridor. There is excellent agreement between the observed oscillations in stage and discharge in the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers and the documented frequencies of oscillations in Lakes Huron and Erie. The fundamental seiche, some higher-order seiche modes, and the semidiurnal tide from Lakes Huron and Erie are evident in the stage and discharge records at gages along the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers, respectively. Lake St. Clair appears to act as a damper in the system. If not accounted for, these oscillations may complicate monitoring, modeling, and restoration of this system.

  19. Comparative analysis of the mobility of uranium and artificial radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolsunovsky, Alexander; Medvedeva, Marina [Institute of Biophysics SB Russian Academy of Sciences, 660036, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Yenisei River is one of the largest rivers in the world, which had been subjected to radioactive contamination for over 50 years, due to operation of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) of Rosatom at Zheleznogorsk, which had been producing weapons-grade plutonium. Bottom sediments and flood plain of the Yenisei River are contaminated by artificial radionuclides, including transuranium ones, both close to the MCC and at a considerable distance downstream. The MCC is also a source of uranium isotopes in the Yenisei. Thus, the Yenisei River basin is a unique environment for studying the mobility of both uranium isotopes and artificial radionuclides in all components of the aquatic ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to compare the mobility of uranium and artificial radionuclides in the ecosystem of the Yenisei River. Samples of water, sediments, and aquatic organisms were used as study material. Aquatic organisms were represented by submerged plants, benthic-feeding fish, and zoo-benthos. The submerged plants (macrophytes) analyzed were of five species: Fontinalis antipyretica, Potamogeton lucens, Ceratophyllum demersum, Myriophyllum spicatum, and Elodea canadensis. Grayling (Timalus arcticus) represented benthic-feeding fish, and zoo-benthos species were represented by Philolimnogammarus viridis, which forms the major part of the grayling's diet. Samples were collected at positions in the vicinity of the MCC discharge point, at a distance of 110 km downstream of Krasnoyarsk, and upstream of the MCC, during sampling campaigns in 2008-2012. Radionuclide measurements were performed using a wide range of instrumental methods: gamma-spectrometry with a 'Canberra' spectrometer (U.S.), mass spectrometry with an 'Agilent' spectrometer (U.S.), neutron activation analysis, and beta-alpha radiometry. The results obtained in this study suggest that the part of the Yenisei River ecosystem contaminated due to MCC radioactive discharges contains

  20. Technical management plan for sample generation, analysis, and data review for Phase 2 of the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.C.; Benson, S.B.; Beeler, D.A.

    1994-03-01

    The Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) is designed to address the transport, fate, and distribution of waterborne contaminants (radionuclides, metals, and organic compounds) released from the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and to assess potential risks to human health and the environment associated with these contaminants. The remedial investigation is entering Phase 2, which has the following items as its objectives: define the nature and extent of the contamination in areas downstream from the DOE ORR, evaluate the human health and ecological risks posed by these contaminants, and perform preliminary identification and evaluation of potential remediation alternatives. This plan describes the requirements, responsibilities, and roles of personnel during sampling, analysis, and data review for the Clinch River Environmental Restoration Program (CR-ERP). The purpose of the plan is to formalize the process for obtaining analytical services, tracking sampling and analysis documentation, and assessing the overall quality of the CR-ERP data collection program to ensure that it will provide the necessary building blocks for the program decision-making process

  1. A gradient analysis on urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern between 1985 and 2000 in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Erfu; Wu, Zhuo; Du, Xiaodian

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization is an irreversible trend worldwide, especially in rapidly developing China. Accelerated urbanization has resulted in rapid urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern changes. Quantifying the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban land use and landscape pattern not only can reveal the characteristics of social transfer and economic development, but also can provide insights into the driving mechanisms of land use changes. In this study, we integrated remote sensing (RS), geographic information system (GIS), landscape metrics, and gradient analysis to quantitatively compare the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use, urban sprawl, and landscape pattern for nine cities in the Pearl River Delta from 1985‒2000. For the whole study region, urbanization was obvious. The results show an increase in urban buildup land and shrinkage of cropland in the Pearl River Delta. However, the nine cities differed greatly in terms of the process and magnitude of urban sprawl for both the spatial and temporal dimensions. This was most evident for the cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Gradient analysis on urban landscape changes could deepen understanding of the stages of urban development and provide a scientific foundation for future urban planning and land management strategies in China.

  2. Analysis of the development of land use in the Morava River floodplain, with special emphasis on the landscape matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilianová Helena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of an analysis of land use development in the Morava River floodplain (Czech Republic using GIS from 1836 to the present, are the subject of this article. The results are based on the analysis of historical maps, using the landscape matrix assessment of the Morava River floodplain. The final analyses were processed from land use maps of the floodplain at a scale of 1 : 25,000 in five time horizons. These maps were compared with the present state of landscape by GIS methods. The study area was assessed according to five geomorphological areas from the northern/higher part to the southern/lower part of floodplain. In 1836 the landscape matrix of the floodplain was composed of meadows and forests. Forest components decreased minimally but the changes are more important. The grassland area (meadows and pastures decreased but arable land, as well as settlements, increased very significantly. In the 1950s the landscape matrix was composed of a mosaic of alluvial forests, meadows and arable land. Currently, the predominant landscape matrix consists of arable land and isolated forest complexes.

  3. Phenological response of vegetation to upstream river flow in the Heihe Rive basin by time series analysis of MODIS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid and solid precipitation is abundant in the high elevation, upper reach of the Heihe River basin in northwestern China. The development of modern irrigation schemes in the middle reach of the basin is taking up an increasing share of fresh water resources, endangering the oasis and traditional irrigation systems in the lower reach. In this study, the response of vegetation in the Ejina Oasis in the lower reach of the Heihe River to the water yield of the upper catchment was analyzed by time series analysis of monthly observations of precipitation in the upper and lower catchment, river streamflow downstream of the modern irrigation schemes and satellite observations of vegetation index. Firstly, remotely sensed NDVI data acquired by Terra-MODIS are used to monitor the vegetation dynamic for a seven years period between 2000 and 2006. Due to cloud-contamination, atmospheric influence and different solar and viewing angles, however, the quality and consistence of time series of remotely sensed NDVI data are degraded. A Fourier Transform method – the Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS algorithm – is used to reconstruct cloud- and noise-free NDVI time series data from the Terra-MODIS NDVI dataset. Modification is made on HANTS by adding additional parameters to deal with large data gaps in yearly time series in combination with a Temporal-Similarity-Statistics (TSS method developed in this study to seek for initial values for the large gap periods. Secondly, the same Fourier Transform method is used to model time series of the vegetation phenology. The reconstructed cloud-free NDVI time series data are used to study the relationship between the water availability (i.e. the local precipitation and upstream water yield and the evolution of vegetation conditions in Ejina Oasis from 2000 to 2006. Anomalies in precipitation, streamflow, and vegetation index are detected by comparing each year with the average year. The results showed that

  4. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading for Selected Sites in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 1978-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. The U.S. Geologic Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading in the Lower Gunnison River Basin to support the development of total maximum daily selenium loads at sites that represent the cumulative contribution to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list segments. Analysis of selenium loading included quantifying loads and determining the amount of load that would need to be reduced to bring the site into compliance, referred to as 'the load reduction,' with the State chronic aquatic-life standard for dissolved selenium [85th percentile selenium concentration not to exceed 4.6 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)], referred to as 'the water-quality standard.' Streamflow and selenium concentration data for 54 historical water-quality/water-quantity monitoring sites were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data sources. Three methods were used for analysis of selenium concentration data to address the variable data density among sites. Mean annual selenium loads were determined for only 10 of the 54 sites due to data availability limitations. Twenty-two sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations that exceeded the water-quality standard, 3 sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations less than the State standard, and 29 sites could not be evaluated with respect to 85th percentile selenium concentration (sample count less than 5). To bring selenium concentrations into compliance with the water-quality standard, more than 80 percent of the mean annual selenium load would need to be reduced at Red Rock Canyon, Dry Cedar Creek, Cedar Creek, Loutzenhizer Arroyo, Sunflower Drain, and Whitewater Creek. More than 50 percent of the mean annual load would need to be reduced at Dry Creek to bring the site into compliance with the water

  5. Quantitative analysis of aircraft multispectral-scanner data and mapping of water-quality parameters in the James River in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.; Bahn, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    Statistical analysis techniques were applied to develop quantitative relationships between in situ river measurements and the remotely sensed data that were obtained over the James River in Virginia on 28 May 1974. The remotely sensed data were collected with a multispectral scanner and with photographs taken from an aircraft platform. Concentration differences among water quality parameters such as suspended sediment, chlorophyll a, and nutrients indicated significant spectral variations. Calibrated equations from the multiple regression analysis were used to develop maps that indicated the quantitative distributions of water quality parameters and the dispersion characteristics of a pollutant plume entering the turbid river system. Results from further analyses that use only three preselected multispectral scanner bands of data indicated that regression coefficients and standard errors of estimate were not appreciably degraded compared with results from the 10-band analysis.

  6. An Analysis of Freshwater Mussels (Unionidae) in the Quiver River and Bogue Phalia, Mississippi, 1994-95

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    .... The project area included a section of the Quiver River between its confluence with the Big Sunflower River immediately north of Highway 82 in Sunflower County to the Leflore-Tallahatchie county line...

  7. Automatic Monitoring System Design and Failure Probability Analysis for River Dikes on Steep Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Lung; Lin, Yi-Jun; Tung, Yeou-Koung

    2017-04-01

    The purposes of this study includes: (1) design an automatic monitoring system for river dike; and (2) develop a framework which enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes during a rainstorm. The historical dike failure data collected in this study indicate that most dikes in Taiwan collapsed under the 20-years return period discharge, which means the probability of dike failure is much higher than that of overtopping. We installed the dike monitoring system on the Chiu-She Dike which located on the middle stream of Dajia River, Taiwan. The system includes: (1) vertical distributed pore water pressure sensors in front of and behind the dike; (2) Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) to measure the displacement of dike; (3) wireless floating device to measure the scouring depth at the toe of dike; and (4) water level gauge. The monitoring system recorded the variation of pore pressure inside the Chiu-She Dike and the scouring depth during Typhoon Megi. The recorded data showed that the highest groundwater level insides the dike occurred 15 hours after the peak discharge. We developed a framework which accounts for the uncertainties from return period discharge, Manning's n, scouring depth, soil cohesion, and friction angle and enables the determination of dike failure probabilities for various failure modes such as overtopping, surface erosion, mass failure, toe sliding and overturning. The framework was applied to Chiu-She, Feng-Chou, and Ke-Chuang Dikes on Dajia River. The results indicate that the toe sliding or overturning has the highest probability than other failure modes. Furthermore, the overall failure probability (integrate different failure modes) reaches 50% under 10-years return period flood which agrees with the historical failure data for the study reaches.

  8. Analysis of heavy metal flow in the river Przemsza, Katowice region, using macrophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewander, M.

    1995-06-01

    The river Przemsza, in southern Poland, was investigated with the aim to determine the flow of Cd, Pb and Zn between the submerged macrophytes Potamogeton pectinatus and Myriophyllum verticillatum, sediment and water, and to find out if a pollution gradient was present along the investigated part of the river. In order to determine the uptake of heavy metals from water and sediment macrophytes were planted in pots along the river, in unpolluted and polluted sediment during six weeks in the summer of 1993. After harvesting the plants were dried, wet digested and analysed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Parallel in situ experiments and outdoor experiments in sealed jars were performed. No significant decreased pollution gradient in the sediment or the macrophytes content could be detected. However, the water concentration of Zn decreased slightly along the gradient and in both experiments Pb concentration in the water also decreased. The concentrations of metals in the plants and sediments were probably depending on local stream conditions as well as increasing organic content. The study suggests that the macrophytes took up metals both from water and sediment. The unpolluted sediment accumulated Pb and Zn in both experiments, while Cd was accumulated in the in situ experiment. Metal concentration in the polluted sediment decreased during the study period, either due to plant uptake or loss to the water. Metals lost from the polluted sediment to the water were taken up by the plant shoots. Lead mainly accumulated in the roots while Zn accumulated in the plant shoots, and Cd was distributed almost equally between shoots and roots. 18 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  9. Local models for rainstorm-induced hazard analysis on Mediterranean river-torrential geomorphological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Diodato

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Damaging hydrogeomorphological events are defined as one or more simultaneous phenomena (e.g. accelerated erosions, landslides, flash floods and river floods, occurring in a spatially and temporal random way and triggered by rainfall with different intensity and extent. The storm rainfall values are highly dependent on weather condition and relief. However, the impact of rainstorms in Mediterranean mountain environments depend mainly on climatic fluctuations in the short and long term, especially in rainfall quantity. An algorithm for the characterisation of this impact, called Rainfall Hazard Index (RHI, is developed with a less expensive methodology. In RHI modelling, we assume that the river-torrential system has adapted to the natural hydrological regime, and a sudden fluctuation in this regime, especially those exceeding thresholds for an acceptable range of flexibility, may have disastrous consequences for the mountain environment. RHI integrate two rainfall variables based upon storm depth current and historical data, both of a fixed duration, and a one-dimensionless parameter representative of the degree ecosystem flexibility. The approach was applied to a test site in the Benevento river-torrential landscape, Campania (Southern Italy. So, a database including data from 27 events which have occurred during an 77-year period (1926-2002 was compared with Benevento-station RHI(24h, for a qualitative validation. Trends in RHIx for annual maximum storms of duration 1, 3 and 24h were also examined. Little change is observed at the 3- and 24-h duration of a storm, but a significant increase results in hazard of a short and intense storm (RHIx(1h, in agreement with a reduction in return period for extreme rainfall events.

  10. Risk analysis of leukaemia incidence among people living along the Techa River: a nested case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E; Gagniere, B; Laurier, D; Gudkova, N; Krestinina, L; Verger, P; Hubert, P; Bard, D; Akleyev, A; Tirmarche, M; Kossenko, M

    2006-01-01

    Large quantities of radioactive materials released over time from the Mayak nuclear weapons facility caused significant internal and external exposure for people living along the banks of the Techa River (Southern Urals, Russia). We conducted a nested case-control study in the Extended Techa River Cohort to determine whether the risk of leukaemia incidence increased with protracted exposure to ionising radiation or with other non-radiation risk factors. The study included 83 cases identified over 47 years of follow-up and 415 controls matched for sex, age at diagnosis, age (within a 5 year age group), and date of initial residence in the riverside area. External and internal doses have been calculated using the Techa River Dosimetry System 1996 (TRDS96). Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios per Gray (OR/Gy) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). After excluding cases of chronic lymphoid leukaemia, the OR/Gy of total, external, and internal doses were 4.6 (95% CI: 1.7-12.3), 7.2 (95%CI: 1.7-30.0) and 5.4 (95%CI: 1.1-27.2), respectively. A history of solid tumour, either malignant or benign, before the leukaemia diagnosis was associated with a 2.5-fold increase in the leukaemia risk (95% CI: 1.1-5.9). Even though the analysis of confounders was less useful than expected because of missing data, multivariate analyses that took the exposure dose into account confirmed the association between leukaemia incidence and tumour history

  11. Spatial-temporal Evolution of Vegetation Coverage and Analysis of it’s Future Trends in Wujiang River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianyong; Bai, Xiaoyong; Zhou, Dequan; Qian, Qinghuan; Zeng, Cheng; Chen, Fei

    2018-01-01

    Vegetation coverage dynamics is affected by climatic, topography and human activities, which is an important indicator reflecting the regional ecological environment. Revealing the spatial-temporal characteristics of vegetation coverage is of great significance to the protection and management of ecological environment. Based on MODIS NDVI data and the Maximum Value Composites (MVC), we excluded soil spectrum interference to calculate Fractional Vegetation Coverage (FVC). Then the long-term FVC was used to calculate the spatial pattern and temporal variation of vegetation in Wujiang River Basin from 2000 to 2016 by using Trend analysis and Hurst index. The relationship between topography and spatial distribution of FVC was analyzed. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The multi-annual mean vegetation coverage reveals a spatial distribution variation characteristic of low value in midstream and high level in other parts of the basin, owing a mean value of 0.6567. (2) From 2000 to 2016, the FVC of the Wujiang River Basin fluctuated between 0.6110 and 0.7380, and the overall growth rate of FVC was 0.0074/a. (3) The area of vegetation coverage tending to improve is more than that going to degrade in the future. Grass land, Arable land and Others improved significantly; karst rocky desertification comprehensive management project lead to persistent vegetation coverage improvement of Grass land, Arable land and Others. Residential land is covered with obviously degraded vegetation, resulting of urban sprawl; (4) The spatial distribution of FVC is positively correlated with TNI. Researches of spatial-temporal evolution of vegetation coverage have significant meaning for the ecological environment protection and management of the Wujiang River Basin.

  12. Analysis of Debris Flow Kuranji River in Padang City Using Rainfall Data, Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Z; Wan Mohd Akib, W A A; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    Flash flood is the most common environmental hazard worldwide. This phenomenon is usually occurs due to intense and prolonged rainfall spells on saturated ground. When there is a rapid rise in water levels and high flow-velocities of the stream occur, the channel overflows and the result is a flash flood. Flash floods normally cause a dangerous wall of roaring water carrying rocks, mud and other debris. On Tuesday, July 24, 2012 at 18:00 pm, a flash flood (debris flow) struck Kuranji River whereby 19 urban villages in seven (7) sub-districts in the city of Padang were affected by this flood disaster. The temporary loss estimated is 40 Billion US Dollar reported by the West Sumatra Provincial Government due to many damages of the built environment infrastructures. This include damaged houses of 878 units, mosque 15 units, irrigation damaged 12 units, bridges 6 units, schools 2 units and health posts 1 unit. Generally, widely used methods for making a landslide study are Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing techniques. The landslide information extracted from remotely sensed products is mainly related to morphology, vegetation and hydrologic conditions of a slope. While GIS is used to create a database, data management, data display and to analyze data such as thematic maps of land use/land cover, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), rainfall data and soil texture. This paper highlights the analysis of the condition of the Watershed Kuranji River experiencing flash floods, using remote sensing satellite image of Landsat ETM 7 in 2009 and 2012 and Geographic Information System (GIS). Furthermore, the data was analyzed to determine whether this flash flood occurred due to extreme rain or collapse of existing natural dams in the upstream of the Kuranji River

  13. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) and Nutrients Analysis in the Río Piedras River, San Juan, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, I.; Infante, G.

    2016-02-01

    The Río Piedras is the only River in the metropolitan area of Puerto Rico. This River was the first water supplier and is part of the ancient aqueduct, the first treatment plant of the San Juan urban area. Because of its cultural and historic importance the ancient aqueduct was cataloged as a National Treasure by the National Trust of History Preservation in 2014. Actually, is protected by Para La Naturaleza (before named in Spanish as the "Fideicomiso de Conservación de Puerto Rico"). The research objectives were to evaluate and measure the dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphorus (TP) and the heavy metals (HM) concentrations of the River. Also, to examine if the DO, TP and HM (Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Al, and Zn) concentrations were in compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards. Using DO bottles, water samples were collected on three points during six dates. DO concentrations were measured with the YSI Pro GBOD. TP concentrations were analyzed using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer "HACH" (DR 5000). Utilizing the ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectrophotometer emission technique and the EPA protocols HM concentrations were measured. Preliminary results show that the DO measurements were from 5.00 mg/L to 7.00 mg/L (p-value=0.282). HM concentrations findings were 0.456 (correlation coefficient=0.9997), 1.205 (correlation coefficient=0.9972) and 3.287 (correlation coefficient=0.9950) for Zn, Cu and Cr, respectively. We expected highest HM concentrations in our finals results due to the drought weather during each samples collection. Data analysis for DO, TP and HM concentrations will be presented. Finally, the results obtained and the project details will be explained during the poster presentation.

  14. Environmental Analysis of the Upper Susitna River Basin using Landsat Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    CourseslData Measuring Sites (SCS) 0 Snow Cover Measurement Location 4 C R RE /N OAA) j HŔ River Gauging Station (UISGS, COE) tI’ql with Water...large-scale map that can be used in selection of moved westward across the area (Kachadoorian drilling sites, provide a basis for estimating 1974...A033500 petrology and structure of the Maclaren, Ruby Range McKim, H L, L W Gatto, C I Merry, and R K Haugen (1976b) and Coast Range Belts implications

  15. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LOTIC ECOSYSTEMS FROM UPPER MUREŞ RIVER CATCHMENT AREA USING DIFFERENT BIOTIC INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milca PETROVICI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper approach the issue of assessing the water quality of tributaries located in the upper basin of the river Mureş, taking into account changes in the value of biotic indices. In this sense, have been selected the next five biotic indices: Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera index (EPT, Total Invertebrates index (T, Chironomidae index (Ch, EPT / Total invertebrates index (EPT / T, EPT / Chironomidae index (EPT / Ch and % Chironomidae index (% Chironomidae. Considering all these indices, it was found existence of a medium to best quality water in Mureş tributaries from Harghita Mountains and a good quality water which comes from the Maramureş Mountains and Transylvania Plateau.

  16. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  17. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  18. Modeling and analysis of the unprotected loss-of-flow accident in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E.E.; Dunn, F.E.; Simms, R.; Gruber, E.E.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of fission-gas-driven fuel compaction on the energetics resulting from a loss-of-flow accident was estimated with the aid of the SAS3D accident analysis code. The analysis was carried out as part of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor licensing process. The TREAT tests L6, L7, and R8 were analyzed to assist in the modeling of fuel motion and the effects of plenum fission-gas release on coolant and clad dynamics. Special, conservative modeling was introduced to evaluate the effect of fission-gas pressure on the motion of the upper fuel pin segment following disruption. For the nominal sodium-void worth, fission-gas-driven fuel compaction did not adversely affect the outcome of the transient. When uncertainties in the sodium-void worth were considered, however, it was found that if fuel compaction occurs, loss-of-flow driven transient overpower phenomenology could not be precluded

  19. Biomarker Analysis of Samples Visually Identified as Microbial in the Eocene Green River Formation: An Analogue for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott Marshall, Alison; Cestari, Nicholas A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major exploration targets for current and future Mars missions are lithofacies suggestive of biotic activity. Although such lithofacies are not confirmation of biotic activity, they provide a way to identify samples for further analyses. To test the efficacy of this approach, we identified carbonate samples from the Eocene Green River Formation as "microbial" or "non-microbial" based on the macroscale morphology of their laminations. These samples were then crushed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) to determine their lipid biomarker composition. GC/MS analysis revealed that carbonates visually identified as "microbial" contained a higher concentration of more diverse biomarkers than those identified as "non-microbial," suggesting that this could be a viable detection strategy for selecting samples for further analysis or caching on Mars.

  20. Application of accident progression event tree technology to the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility SAR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandyberry, M.D.; Baker, W.H.; Wittman, R.S.; Amos, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    The Accident Analysis in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) for the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has recently undergone an upgrade. Non-reactor SARs at SRS (and other Department of Energy (DOE) sites) use probabilistic techniques to assess the frequency of accidents at their facilities. This paper describes the application of an extension of the Accident Progression Event Tree (APET) approach to accidents at the SRS DWPF. The APET technique allows an integrated model of the facility risk to be developed, where previous probabilistic accident analyses have been limited to the quantification of the frequency and consequences of individual accident scenarios treated independently. Use of an APET allows a more structured approach, incorporating both the treatment of initiators that are common to more than one accident, and of accident progression at the facility

  1. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  2. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  3. Identifying Pollutants in the Siret River Basin by Applying New Assessment Tools on Monitoring Data: the Correlation of Land Use and Physicochemical Parameter of Water Quality Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mănescu Andreea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Siret River are used as raw water source for different municipal water supply systems, yet the Siret River are used as receiving bodies by some inhabitants and industry. In the study the quality of the Siret River water was determinate using a Water Quality Index (WQI. Results are presented from a field study performed on the Bistrita, Moldova, Suceava, Siret, Şomuzu Mare, Trotuş and Tributary River in the study area Siret Basin Romania. The main objective of this study was to determine is to find correlations land use to indicators physical-chemical of water quality, to investigate pollution source is more responsible for river water quality. This is of interest not only research context, but also for supporting and facilitating the application analysis postullend in the Water Framework Directive (WFD (2000/60/CE for the establishment of programmers of measures. For this purpose a slightly impact pollution source municipal wastewater treatment, land uses, urban, forest, agriculture and mining was selected and intensively monitored during six years January 2006 - December 2011, sampling was determined to meet the WFD standards for confidence in twenty two different control section of the Siret Basin. The main measures to reduce emissions to the Siret River were calcium, ammonium, sulfate, residue fixed (RF, sodium, chloride, free detergent and municipal wastewater treatment, concentrated on point emission. The main contributor to diffuse this parameters increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to industry and urban and less to forest and mining.

  4. Analysis of thematic mapper simulator data acquired during winter season over Pearl River, Mississippi, test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. E.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Digital processed aircraft-acquired thematic mapping simulator (TMS) data collected during the winter season over a forested site in southern Mississippi are presented to investigate the utility of TMS data for use in forest inventories and monitoring. Analyses indicated that TMS data are capable of delineating the mixed forest land cover type to an accuracy of 92.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct. The accuracies associated with river bottom forest and pine forest were 95.5 and 91.5 % correct, respectively. The figures reflect the performance for products produced using the best subset of channels for each forest cover type. It was found that the choice of channels (subsets) has a significant effect on the accuracy of classification produced, and that the same channels are not the most desirable for all three forest types studied. Both supervised and unsupervised spectral signature development techniques are evaluated; the unsupervised methods proved unacceptable for the three forest types considered.

  5. Channel and Floodplain Change Analysis over a 100-Year Period: Lower Yuba River, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Aalto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic gold mining in the Sierra Nevada, California (1853–1884 displaced ~1.1 billion m3 of sediment from upland placer gravels that were deposited along piedmont rivers below dams where floods can remobilize them. This study uses topographic and planimetric data from detailed 1906 topographic maps, 1999 photogrammetric data, and pre- and post-flood aerial photographs to document historic sediment erosion and deposition along the lower Yuba River due to individual floods at the reach scale. Differencing of 3 × 3-m topographic data indicates substantial changes in channel morphology and documents 12.6 × 106 m3 of erosion and 5.8 × 106 m3 of deposition in these reaches since 1906. Planimetric and volumetric measurements document spatial and temporal variations of channel enlargement and lateral migration. Over the last century, channels incised up to ~13 m into mining sediments, which dramatically decreased local flood frequencies and increased flood conveyance. These adjustments were punctuated by event-scale geomorphic changes that redistributed sediment and associated contaminants to downstream lowlands.

  6. Measurement and Prediction of Regional Tourism Sustainability: An Analysis of the Yangtze River Economic Zone, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canmian Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In view of sustainable development of tourism, this paper firstly constructs a more comprehensive and scientific index system from the economical/societal/resource-related/environmental aspects of tourism and evaluates the sustainable and comprehensive development level of tourism in 11 provinces and cities of the Yangtze River economic zone by using the weighted TOPSIS (The Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution method; secondly, it analyzes the coupling coordination evolution relationship between tourism and the economy/society/resources/environment in different provinces and cities of the Yangtze river economic zone based on the coupling coordination model from the spatio-temporal dimension; and finally, it predicts the coupling coordination degree of the provinces and cities in the region in the next few years by the grey model (1,1 and puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions. According to the study, this method provides an effective reference to the study on the sustainable development of tourism and is very significant for learning the sustainable development of regional tourism and establishing specific and scientific countermeasures for improvement.

  7. Software quality assurance for safety analysis and risk management at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Toffer, H.; Crowe, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    As part of its Reactor Operations Improvement Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), in cooperation with the Westinghouse Hanford Company, has developed and implemented quality assurance for safety-related software for technical programs essential to the safety and reliability of reactor operations. More specifically, the quality assurance process involved the development and implementation of quality standards and attendant procedures based on industry software quality standards. These procedures were then applied to computer codes in reactor safety and probabilistic risk assessment analyses. This paper provides a review of the major aspects of the WSRC safety-related software quality assurance. In particular, quality assurance procedures are described for the different life cycle phases of the software that include the Requirements, Software Design and Implementation, Testing and Installation, Operation and Maintenance, and Retirement Phases. For each phase, specific provisions are made to categorize the range of activities, the level of responsibilities, and the documentation needed to assure the control of the software. The software quality assurance procedures developed and implemented are evolutionary in nature, and thus, prone to further refinements. These procedures, nevertheless, represent an effective controlling tool for the development, production, and operation of safety-related software applicable to reactor safety and probabilistic risk assessment analyses

  8. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858 (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of T. stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for T. stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m, 6 submetacentric (sm, 2 subtelocentric (st and 40 acrocentric (a, for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family.

  9. Analysis of shallow-groundwater dynamic responses to water supply change in the Haihe River plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Lin, W.; Pengfei, L.

    2015-05-01

    When the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is completed, the water supply pattern of the Haihe River plain in North China will change significantly due to the replenishment of water sources and groundwater-exploitation control. The water-cycle-simulation model - MODCYCLE, has been used in simulating the groundwater dynamic balance for 2001-2010. Then different schemes of water supply in 2020 and 2030 were set up to quantitatively simulate the shallow-groundwater dynamic responses in the future. The results show that the total shallow-groundwater recharge is mainly raised by the increases in precipitation infiltration and surface-water irrigation infiltration. Meanwhile, the decrease of groundwater withdrawal contributes to reduce the total discharge. The recharge-discharge structure of local groundwater was still in a negative balance but improved gradually. The shallow-groundwater level in most parts was still falling before 2030, but more slowly. This study can benefit the rational exploitation of water resources in the Haihe River plain.

  10. [Growth analysis on modules of Cynodon dactylon clones in Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Janar; Li, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ying; Yang, Yun-Fei

    2009-04-01

    By the method of randomly digging up whole ramet tuft while maintaining natural integrity, large samples of Cynodon dactylon clones were collected from a grape orchard abandoned for 2 years without any management in the Yili River Valley Plain of Xinjiang, aimed to quantitatively analyze the growth patterns of their modules. The results showed that the average ramet number of test 30 clones reached 272.6 +/- 186. 6, among which, vegetative ramets occupied 82.3%, being 4.3 times higher than reproductive ones. The total biomass of the clones was 45.4 +/- 40.0 g, in which, rhizomes accounted for 54.4%, while the vegetative ramets, stolons, and reproductive ramets occupied 21.0%, 14.8%, and 9.4% of the total, respectively. The accumulative length of rhizomes and stolons reached 5.1 + 4.7 m and 3.3 +/- 3.4 m, while the bud number on stolons and rhizomes was 291.5 +/- 246.8 and 78.8 +/- 87.4, respectively. The bud number on stolons and rhizomes was positively correlated to the quantitative characters of vegetative ramets, reproductive ramets, stolons, and rhizomes (P < 0.01), indicating that in Yili River Valley Plain, C. dactylon clone could achieve and maintain its continuous renovation via rhizome buds.

  11. Parameter Identification and Uncertainty Analysis for Visual MODFLOW based Groundwater Flow Model in a Small River Basin, Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, S.

    2015-12-01

    The overexploitation of groundwater resulted in abandoning many shallow tube wells in the river Basin in Eastern India. For the sustainability of groundwater resources, basin-scale modelling of groundwater flow is essential for the efficient planning and management of the water resources. The main intent of this study is to develope a 3-D groundwater flow model of the study basin using the Visual MODFLOW package and successfully calibrate and validate it using 17 years of observed data. The sensitivity analysis was carried out to quantify the susceptibility of aquifer system to the river bank seepage, recharge from rainfall and agriculture practices, horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities, and specific yield. To quantify the impact of parameter uncertainties, Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Algorithm (SUFI-2) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques were implemented. Results from the two techniques were compared and the advantages and disadvantages were analysed. Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) were adopted as two criteria during calibration and validation of the developed model. NSE and R2 values of groundwater flow model for calibration and validation periods were in acceptable range. Also, the MCMC technique was able to provide more reasonable results than SUFI-2. The calibrated and validated model will be useful to identify the aquifer properties, analyse the groundwater flow dynamics and the change in groundwater levels in future forecasts.

  12. Assessing the spatial pattern of a river water quality in southern Brazil by multivariate analysis of biological and chemical indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. B. Cassanego

    Full Text Available Abstract This study assessed the genotoxicity and chemical quality of the Rio dos Sinos, southern Brazil. During two years, bimonthly, cuttings of Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea with flower buds were exposed to river water samples from Caraá, Santo Antônio da Patrulha, Taquara and Campo Bom, which are municipalities located in the upper, middle and lower stretches of the Rio dos Sinos basin. Simultaneously, chemical parameters were analyzed, rainfall data were surveyed and negative (distilled water and positive (0.1% formaldehyde controls were made. Micronuclei (MCN frequencies were determined in tetrads of pollen grain mother cells. From the upper stretch toward the lower, there was an increase in the frequency of MCN and in concentrations of chemical parameters. Cadmium, lead, copper, total chromium and zinc were present at the four sites and a concentration gradient was not demonstrated along the river. The multivariate analysis revealed that two principal components exist, which accounted for 62.3% of the observed variances. Although genotoxicity was observed in Santo Antônio da Patrulha, the water presented higher mean values for most of the assessed parameters, in the lower stretch, where urbanization and industrialization are greater. The spatial and temporal pattern of water quality observed reinforces the importance of considering the environmental factors and their effects on organisms in an integrated way in watercourse monitoring programs.

  13. Socio-economic Impact Analysis for Near Real-Time Flood Detection in the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddo, P.; Ahamed, A.; Bolten, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Flood events pose a severe threat to communities in the Lower Mekong River Basin. The combination of population growth, urbanization, and economic development exacerbate the impacts of these flood events. Flood damage assessments are frequently used to quantify the economic losses in the wake of storms. These assessments are critical for understanding the effects of flooding on the local population, and for informing decision-makers about future risks. Remote sensing systems provide a valuable tool for monitoring flood conditions and assessing their severity more rapidly than traditional post-event evaluations. The frequency and severity of extreme flood events are projected to increase, further illustrating the need for improved flood monitoring and impact analysis. In this study we implement a socio-economic damage model into a decision support tool with near real-time flood detection capabilities (NASA's Project Mekong). Surface water extent for current and historical floods is found using multispectral Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-meter imagery and the spectral Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) signatures of permanent water bodies (MOD44W). Direct and indirect damages to populations, infrastructure, and agriculture are assessed using the 2011 Southeast Asian flood as a case study. Improved land cover and flood depth assessments result in a more refined understanding of losses throughout the Mekong River Basin. Results suggest that rapid initial estimates of flood impacts can provide valuable information to governments, international agencies, and disaster responders in the wake of extreme flood events.

  14. Charles River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  15. Geomorphological and morphometric analysis of the river basin of Salsa, south coast of the state of Paraiba / Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.E.; Nascimento, J.; Furrier, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to extend the knowledge on the geomorphology of the river basin of Salsa , located in the municipality of Conde, State of Paraíba / Brazil . The research was to develop guiding object thematic maps related to morphometric aspects of the basin such as fluvial hierarchy , hypsometric and slope . After obtaining the morphometric data can assess the likely tectonic influences on the morphology of this basin. Literature searches , acquisition and analysis of cartographic data (satellite imagery , topographic and thematic maps), where with the help of software SPRING 5:03 , were made the thematic maps of the basin : For this research, the following milestones have been met. In addition, there have been two topographic profiles of the area through which it was possible to further analyze the geomorphological aspects and clinográficos watershed. Already in possession of the first results of this research it was observed with the analysis of charts and topographic profiles the high level of dissection Barriers Training and dissection of this discrepancy between the left and right margins . Barriers in Education, was observed indicative of tectonics from setbacks headwater quite different slots and obsequente towards the River Salsa (SN), which is discordant from the direction of the main waterways and Training Barriers own inclination is that WE . These findings are important because the geomorphological analysis of litoestatigráfica unit is of paramount importance for the understanding of the mechanisms governing the morphology of the northeast coast, mainly in relation to the mechanisms that govern the morphology of watersheds coast of Paraiba

  16. THE ANALYSIS OF SABO DAM PERFORMANCE AS A SEDIMENT CONTROL STRUCTURE IN PUTIH RIVER, MT. MERAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Wisoyo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mt. Merapi’s eruption which occurred on 26 October 2010 had disadvantageous impact for human life that live surrounds it. The primary disaster was pyroclastic cloud that destroyed villages surround it. In addition, the secondary disaster continuously became a threat for human life around the rivers that destroyed at Mount Merapi. One of the secondary disasters is Putih River’s volcanic material overflowing into Yogyakarta-Magelang Highway. The series of Sabo dam which had been built along the river could not handle that phenomenon. Sabo dam was built and expected to accommodate volcanic material or at least to resist the velocity of volcanic material (sediment controlling, so the damage caused by the flow became relatively small. However, this function could not work at that phenomenon. In order to know the function of sediment control of Sabo dam in Putih River, it is necessary to study the performance of Sabo dam. This research used Kanako software ver. 2.04 and reviewed Sabo dam PU-D1 Mranggen and PU-C8 Ngaglik. There were four simulated scenarios in this research: a scenario without Sabo dam; with Sabo dam PU-D1 Mranggen; with Sabo dam PU-C8 Ngaglik, and the last with two of Sabo dams. The simulation was based on 23 January 2011 event and simulated for 18.000 s. From this research, it can be concluded that Sabo dam PU-D1 Mranggen can reduce the total volume  passing through about 43,998.6 m3 or 1.53 % for 5 hours, and reduce the sediment volume that passing through about 28,482 m3 or 52.59 % for 5 hours. Sabo dam PU-C8 Ngaglik can reduce the total volume that passing through about 255.6 m3 or 0.01 % for 5 hours, and reduce the sediment volume that passing through about 124.8 m3 or 0.33 % for 5 hours, and Sabo dam PU-D1 Mranggen and PU-C8 Ngaglik in series can reduce the total volume that passing through about 2,340.6 m3 or 0.08 % for 5 hours, and reduce the sediment volume that passing through about 157.8 m3 or 0.41 % for 5 hours

  17. Monitoring and Deformation Analysis of Groynes Using Tls at the River Elbe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirschwitz, F.; Mechelke, K.; Jansch, H.; Kersten, T. P.

    2016-06-01

    To enter the Port of Hamburg, one of Europe's busiest ports all vessels need to navigate around 145 km along the Elbe river, a tide influenced navigation channel. To protect the Elbe shoreline from erosion and to channel the waterway groynes (rigid hydraulic structures) have been built along the river. In the past years since ca. 2001 there has been a large increase in damage of groynes structural integrity at parts of the German waterways. The reason for this was determined in the ever growing size of container vessels passing by and inducing long periodical primary waves which have such a force that they erode the groynes rock structure. To analyse and improve the groynes structural resistance for vessel-induced long periodical wave loads an in-situ study is carried out at Juelssand, located at the Elbe river estuary. Over a period of two years the change of the geometrical structure of two different groyne shapes is monitored automatically by utilising two terrestrial laser scanners mounted in protective housings, located each on a 12 m high platform. The self-contained monitoring systems perform scanning of the two groynes one to two times a day at low tide, as the structures are fully submerged at high tide. The long-periodical wave loads are also determined using pressure sensors in each groyne. To correlate the captured data with vessel events and analyse the effects, vessel related parameters are recorded utilizing the Automatic Identification System (AIS). This paper describes the automated processes for the data acquisition and focusses on the deformation that is calculated using current, extended and new algorithms of the Point Cloud Library. It shows the process chain from the acquisition of raw scan files from an elevated station to the filtering of point cloud, the registration, the calculation of pointwise changes and the aggregation to a grid for later correlation with ship parameters. When working outdoor in all kinds of weather conditions, the

  18. TRAC analysis of the Crystal River Unit-3 Plant transient of February 26, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coddington, P.; Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the TRAC-PD2 and TRAC-PF1 codes to analyze the Crystal River transient. The PD2 and PF1 analyses used the three-dimensional and one-dimensional vessel models, respectively. Both calculations predicted the plant depressurization caused by the open PORV and the subsequent repressurization caused by closing the PORV and continuing high-pressure injection flow. Also, natural circulation was calculated in loop B following reestablishment of feedwater to the loop-B steam generator. After system repressurization, the codes calculated that pressure was relieved through the safety valves, and an intermittent flow occurred in loop A because of high-pressure-injection-driven density variations

  19. Analysis of strontium metabolism in humans on the basis of the Techa river data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolstykh, E.I.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vyushkova, O.V.; Degteva, M.O.

    1997-01-01

    Age and sex features of strontium metabolism have been analyzed based on studies of the population residing on the banks of the Techa river which was contaminated by fission products during the years 1949-1956. Measurements of 90 Sr body burden have been performed since 1974 using a whole-body counter, and these have made it possible to estimate age-specific long-term retention and elimination rates for men and women. Regarding the retention that correlated with the respective maturation ages, distinct sex differences have been observed for adolescents, whereas only postmenopausal women showed a sharp increase of their elimination rates. There were no differences concerning the reproductive ages. Our experimental findings have a clear physiological interpretation and can be used to develop metabolic models for bone-seeking radionuclides. (orig.). With 6 figs

  20. Analysis and evaluation of VOC removal technologies demonstrated at Savannah River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesnut, D.A.; Wagoner, J.; Nitao, J.J.; Boyd, S.; Shaffer, R.J.; Kansa, E.J.; Buscheck, T.A.; Pruess, K.; Falta, R.W.

    1993-09-01

    Volatile Organic Compounds, or VOCs, are ubiquitous subsurface contaminants at industrial as well as DOE sites. At the Savannah River Plant, the principles VOCs contaminating the subsurface below A-Area and M-Area are Trichloroethylene (C 2 HCl 3 , or TCE) and Tetrachloroethylene (C 2 Cl 4 , or PCE). These compounds were used extensively as degreasing solvents from 1952 until 1979, and the waste solvent which did not evaporate (on the order of 2x10 6 pounds) was discharged to a process sewer line leading to the M-Area Seepage Basin (Figure I.2). These compounds infiltrated into the soil and underlying sediments from leaks in the sewer line and elsewhere thereby contaminating the vadose zone between the surface and the water table as well as the aquifer

  1. CryoSat-2 satellite radar altimetry for river analysis and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Raphael

    The global coverage of in situ observations of surface water dynamics is insufficient to effectively manage water resources. Moreover, the availability of these data is decreasing, due to the lack of gauging stations and data sharing. Satellite radar altimetry, initially developed to monitor ocean...... water levels, also offers measurements of water levels of rivers and lakes on a global scale. Because of the continuous upstart of new missions, and sensor and processing innovations, the importance of satellite altimetry data for the hydrologic community is increasing. CryoSat-2, launched......) and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric (SARIn) mode. SAR and SARIn have reduced footprint size in the along-track direction owing to delay/Doppler processing, potentially increasing observation accuracy. Second, CryoSat-2 is placed on a unique long-repeat orbit with a cycle of 369 days. This is different...

  2. Preliminary analysis of the study of a Nuclear Energy Center at Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The planning phase for the study of a conceptualized Regional Nuclear Energy Center (NEC) at Green River, Utah to serve a four state area is discussed and an outline of the proposed study is presented. It is assumed that the more technical issues of a NEC have already been studied in detail for generic sites and that this study will address the site specific impacts of a NEC at a representative site. The emphasis will be on the institutional, legal, political, sociological, economic and environmental impacts of a NEC. An assessment is made of the willingness and ability of related public and private entities to participate in the study. These include local, state and regional government agencies, colleges and universities, research organizations, private firms and consultants, and relevant federal agencies in Utah and the region.

  3. Tracking fluorescent dissolved organic matter in multistage rivers using EEM-PARAFAC analysis: implications of the secondary tributary remediation for watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zeyu; Wu, Xiaodong; Huang, Haomin; Fang, Xiaomin; Xu, Chen; Wu, Jianyu; Liang, Xinqiang; Shi, Jiyan

    2016-05-01

    Profound understanding of behaviors of organic matter from sources to multistage rivers assists watershed management for improving water quality of river networks in rural areas. Ninety-one water samples were collected from the three orders of receiving rivers in a typical combined polluted subcatchment (diffuse agricultural pollutants and domestic sewage) located in China. Then, the fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) information for these samples was determined by the excitation-emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC). Consequently, two typical humic-like (C1 and C2) and other two protein-like (C3 and C4) components were separated. Their fluorescence peaks were located at λ ex/em = 255(360)/455, 60 %). Principal component analysis (PCA) further demonstrated that, except for the autochthonous produced C4, the allochthonous components (C1 and C2) had the same terrestrial origins, but C3 might possess the separate anthropogenic and biological sources. Moreover, the spatial heterogeneity of contamination levels was noticeable in multistage rivers, and the allochthonous FDOM was gradually homogenized along the migration directions. Interestingly, the average content of the first three PARAFAC components in secondary tributaries and source pollutants had significantly higher levels than that in subsequent receiving rivers, thus suggesting that the supervision and remediation for secondary tributaries would play a prominent role in watershed management works.

  4. Model-Based Analysis of the Potential of Macroinvertebrates as Indicators for Microbial Pathogens in Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Jerves-Cobo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of water prior to its use for drinking, farming or recreational purposes must comply with several physicochemical and microbiological standards to safeguard society and the environment. In order to satisfy these standards, expensive analyses and highly trained personnel in laboratories are required. Whereas macroinvertebrates have been used as ecological indicators to review the health of aquatic ecosystems. In this research, the relationship between microbial pathogens and macrobenthic invertebrate taxa was examined in the Machangara River located in the southern Andes of Ecuador, in which 33 sites, according to their land use, were chosen to collect physicochemical, microbiological and biological parameters. Decision tree models (DTMs were used to generate rules that link the presence and abundance of some benthic families to microbial pathogen standards. The aforementioned DTMs provide an indirect, approximate, and quick way of checking the fulfillment of Ecuadorian regulations for water use related to microbial pathogens. The models built and optimized with the WEKA package, were evaluated based on both statistical and ecological criteria to make them as clear and simple as possible. As a result, two different and reliable models were obtained, which could be used as proxy indicators in a preliminary assessment of pollution of microbial pathogens in rivers. The DTMs can be easily applied by staff with minimal training in the identification of the sensitive taxa selected by the models. The presence of selected macroinvertebrate taxa in conjunction with the decision trees can be used as a screening tool to evaluate sites that require additional follow up analyses to confirm whether microbial water quality standards are met.

  5. Analysis of stream temperature and heat budget in an urban river under strong anthropogenic influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhuohang; Kinouchi, Tsuyoshi

    2013-05-01

    Stream temperature variations of the Tama River, which runs through highly urbanized areas of Tokyo, were studied in relation to anthropogenic impacts, including wastewater effluents, dam release and water withdrawal. Both long-term and longitudinal changes in stream temperature were identified and the influences of stream flow rate, temperature and volume of wastewater effluents and air temperature were investigated. Water and heat budget analyses were also conducted for several segments of the mainstream to clarify the relative impacts from natural and anthropogenic factors. Stream temperatures in the winter season significantly increased over the past 20 years at sites affected by intensive and warm effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located along the mainstream. In the summer season, a larger stream temperature increase was identified in the upstream reaches, which was attributable to the decreased flow rate due to water withdrawal. The relationship between air and stream temperatures indicated that stream temperatures at the upstream site were likely to be affected by a dam release, while temperatures in the downstream reaches have deviated more from air temperatures in recent years, probably due to the increased impacts of effluents from WWTPs. Results of the water and heat budget analyses indicated that the largest contributions to water and heat gains were attributable to wastewater effluents, while other factors such as groundwater recharge and water withdrawal were found to behave as energy sinks, especially in summer. The inflow from tributaries worked to reduce the impacts of dam release and the heat exchanges at the air-water interface contributed less to heat budgets in both winter and summer seasons for all river segments.

  6. A weighted higher-order network analysis of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) transport in Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufang; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Shuhua

    2018-04-01

    Specification of PM2.5 transmission characteristics is important for pollution control, policymaking and prediction. In this paper, we propose weights for motif instances, thereby to implement a weighted higher-order clustering algorithm for a weighted, directed PM2.5 network in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China. The weighted, directed network we create in this paper includes information on meteorological conditions of wind speed and wind direction, plus data on geographic distance and PM2.5 concentrations. We aim to reveal PM2.5 mobility between cities in the YRD. Major potential PM2.5 contributors and closely interacted clusters are identified in the network of 178 air quality stations in the YRD. To our knowledge, it is the first work to incorporate weight information into the higher-order network analysis to study PM2.5 transport.

  7. Analysis and occurrence of pharmaceuticals, estrogens, progestogens and polar pesticides in sewage treatment plant effluents, river water and drinking water in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; López de Alda, Maria José; Hernando, Maria Dolores; Petrovic, Mira; Martín-Alonso, Jordi; Barceló, Damià

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThis work investigated the presence of 21 emerging contaminants of various chemical groups (7 estrogens, 3 progestogens, 6 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and 5 acidic pesticides) in the Llobregat river basin (NE Spain). Waters from the outlet of various sewage treatment plants (STP) and waterworks located along the river basin, as well as water samples from the river or its tributaries upstream and downstream of these plants were analysed in two pilot monitoring studies. Chemical analyses were performed by means of on-line or off-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Methods detection limits (in ng/L) were ⩽0.85 for estrogens, ⩽3.94 for progestogens, ⩽30 for PPCPs, and ⩽0.99 for pesticides. Of the estrogens and progestogens analysed, only estrone-3-sulfate, estrone, estriol and progesterone were found to be present in the low nanogram per liter range in some of the samples investigated. Except for atenolol, all PPCPs studied (ibuprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, salicylic acid, and triclosan) could be identified at levels usually lower than 250 ng/L and up to 1200 ng/l (diclofenac). Of the various pesticides investigated (2,4-D, bentazone; MCPA, mecoprop and propanil) MCPA and 2,4-D were the most ubiquitous and abundant and bentazone the only one not detected. Individual concentrations were most often below 100 ng/L and never surpassed the EU limits.

  8. Non-stationary flood frequency analysis in continental Spanish rivers, using climate and reservoir indices as external covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J.; Francés, F.

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidences of the impact of persistent modes of regional climate variability, coupled with the intensification of human activities, have led hydrologists to study flood regime without applying the hypothesis of stationarity. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed on the basis of a tool that enables us to address the modelling of non-stationary time series, namely, the "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS). Two approaches to non-stationary modelling in GAMLSS were applied to the annual maximum flood records of 20 continental Spanish rivers. The results of the first approach, in which the parameters of the selected distributions were modelled as a function of time only, show the presence of clear non-stationarities in the flood regime. In a second approach, the parameters of the flood distributions are modelled as functions of climate indices (Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation) and a reservoir index that is proposed in this paper. The results when incorporating external covariates in the study highlight the important role of interannual variability in low-frequency climate forcings when modelling the flood regime in continental Spanish rivers. Also, with this approach it is possible to properly introduce the impact on the flood regime of intensified reservoir regulation strategies. The inclusion of external covariates permits the use of these models as predictive tools. Finally, the application of non-stationary analysis shows that the differences between the non-stationary quantiles and their stationary equivalents may be important over long periods of time.

  9. Non-stationary flood frequency analysis in continental Spanish rivers, using climate and reservoir indices as external covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. López

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidences of the impact of persistent modes of regional climate variability, coupled with the intensification of human activities, have led hydrologists to study flood regime without applying the hypothesis of stationarity. In this study, a framework for flood frequency analysis is developed on the basis of a tool that enables us to address the modelling of non-stationary time series, namely, the "generalized additive models for location, scale and shape" (GAMLSS. Two approaches to non-stationary modelling in GAMLSS were applied to the annual maximum flood records of 20 continental Spanish rivers. The results of the first approach, in which the parameters of the selected distributions were modelled as a function of time only, show the presence of clear non-stationarities in the flood regime. In a second approach, the parameters of the flood distributions are modelled as functions of climate indices (Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation and a reservoir index that is proposed in this paper. The results when incorporating external covariates in the study highlight the important role of interannual variability in low-frequency climate forcings when modelling the flood regime in continental Spanish rivers. Also, with this approach it is possible to properly introduce the impact on the flood regime of intensified reservoir regulation strategies. The inclusion of external covariates permits the use of these models as predictive tools. Finally, the application of non-stationary analysis shows that the differences between the non-stationary quantiles and their stationary equivalents may be important over long periods of time.

  10. Microbiological and 16S rRNA analysis of sulphite-reducing clostridia from river sediments in central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcheggiani Stefania

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbiological indicators are commonly used in the assessment of public health risks associated with fecal contamination of freshwater ecosystems. Sediments are a reservoir of microorganisms, and can thus provide information on past pollution events, not obtainable through the testing of surface water. Moreover, pathogens present in sediment may represent future threats to human health. Clostridium perfringens, a typical colonizer of sediments, has been suggested as an alternative indicator of fecal pollution. In order to be suitable for such purpose, the microorganism should be widely distributed in contaminated environments. The objective of this study was thus to determine the composition of the anaerobic community in sediment samples of the lower Tiber basin, in central Italy, through a combined approach involving granulometric analysis of sediment samples, as well as a microbiological and molecular (16S rRNA analysis of strains. Results Granulometry showed a similar, clayey sediment composition, in most sampling sites. The microbiological method, employing, an adaptation of the standard method, proved to be effective in isolating anaerobic bacteria from the environmental matrix for the purpose of genetic analysis. Eighty-three strains of bacteria were isolated and the partial 16S rRNA gene sequenced. While biochemical analysis detected only C. perfringens strains, phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of three clusters: C. perfringens, C. bifermentans and B. cereus, comprising eight taxa. C. perfringens, the commonest in almost all sediment sampling sites, was present in all sites, and in both seasons (seasonal sampling was carried out only along the Tiber and Aniene rivers. None of the described genetic profiles showed complete similarity with GenBank sequences. Conclusion The study underlines the value of C. perfringens as an alternative microbial indicator of fecal contamination in river sediments. This is

  11. Microbiological and 16S rRNA analysis of sulphite-reducing clostridia from river sediments in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcheggiani, Stefania; Iaconelli, Marcello; D'angelo, Annamaria; Pierdominici, Elio; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Muscillo, Michele; Equestre, Michele; Mancini, Laura

    2008-10-08

    Microbiological indicators are commonly used in the assessment of public health risks associated with fecal contamination of freshwater ecosystems. Sediments are a reservoir of microorganisms, and can thus provide information on past pollution events, not obtainable through the testing of surface water. Moreover, pathogens present in sediment may represent future threats to human health. Clostridium perfringens, a typical colonizer of sediments, has been suggested as an alternative indicator of fecal pollution. In order to be suitable for such purpose, the microorganism should be widely distributed in contaminated environments. The objective of this study was thus to determine the composition of the anaerobic community in sediment samples of the lower Tiber basin, in central Italy, through a combined approach involving granulometric analysis of sediment samples, as well as a microbiological and molecular (16S rRNA) analysis of strains. Granulometry showed a similar, clayey sediment composition, in most sampling sites. The microbiological method, employing, an adaptation of the standard method, proved to be effective in isolating anaerobic bacteria from the environmental matrix for the purpose of genetic analysis. Eighty-three strains of bacteria were isolated and the partial 16S rRNA gene sequenced. While biochemical analysis detected only C. perfringens strains, phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of three clusters: C. perfringens, C. bifermentans and B. cereus, comprising eight taxa. C. perfringens, the commonest in almost all sediment sampling sites, was present in all sites, and in both seasons (seasonal sampling was carried out only along the Tiber and Aniene rivers). None of the described genetic profiles showed complete similarity with GenBank sequences. The study underlines the value of C. perfringens as an alternative microbial indicator of fecal contamination in river sediments. This is supported by the bacterium's presence in all sampling sites

  12. Dissolved oxygen analysis, TMDL model comparison, and particulate matter shunting—Preliminary results from three model scenarios for the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    Efforts are underway to identify actions that would improve water quality in the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Upper Klamath River in south-central Oregon. To provide further insight into water-quality improvement options, three scenarios were developed, run, and analyzed using previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic and water-quality models. Additional scenarios are under development as part of this ongoing study. Most of these scenarios evaluate changes relative to a "current conditions" model, but in some cases a "natural conditions" model was used that simulated the reach without the effect of point and nonpoint sources and set Upper Klamath Lake at its Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) targets. These scenarios were simulated using a model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc. for the years 2006–09, referred to here as the "USGS model." Another model of the reach was developed by Tetra Tech, Inc. for years 2000 and 2002 to support the Klamath River TMDL process; that model is referred to here as the "TMDL model." The three scenarios described in this report included (1) an analysis of whether this reach of the Upper Klamath River would be in compliance with dissolved oxygen standards if sources met TMDL allocations, (2) an application of more recent datasets to the TMDL model with comparison to results from the USGS model, and (3) an examination of the effect on dissolved oxygen in the Klamath River if particulate material were stopped from entering Klamath Project diversion canals. Updates and modifications to the USGS model are in progress, so in the future these scenarios will be reanalyzed with the updated model and the interim results presented here will be superseded. Significant findings from this phase of the investigation include: * The TMDL analysis used depth-averaged dissolved oxygen concentrations from model output for comparison with dissolved oxygen standards. The Oregon dissolved oxygen

  13. Analysis of in situ water velocity distributions in the lowland river floodplain covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats - a case study of the bypass channel of Warta River (Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laks Ireneusz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of in situ measurements of velocity distribution in the floodplain of the lowland river has been carried out. The survey area was located on a bypass channel of the Warta River (West of Poland which is filled with water only in case of flood waves. The floodplain is covered by grassland and reed marsh habitats. The velocity measurements were performed with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP in a cross-section with a bed reinforced with concrete slabs. The measured velocities have reflected the differentiated impact of various vegetation types on the loss of water flow energy. The statistical analyses have proven a relationship between the local velocities and the type of plant communities.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of the Role of Wetlands and Rivers in the Groundwater Discharge of the Guarani Aquifer System in NE Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, L.; Rodriguez, L.; Manzano, M.; Valladares, A.; Agarwaal, P.; Araguas, L.

    2011-01-01

    The Guarani Aquifer System (GAS) is a transboundary aquifer occupying parts of Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina, covering some 1200000 km''2. The location and magnitude of recharge and the magnitude of regional discharges are uncertain. Regional groundwater flow modeling suggests that some discharge may occur through selected reaches of the Parana and Uruguay rivers and their tributaries, and perhaps, through the Ibera wetland system within Argentina. Preliminary findings of hydrochemical and isotopic sampling and analysis from surface water and groundwater in the Southern GAS region, studying the role of rivers and wetlands in the aquifer discharge and revising the conceptual model, are presented.

  15. Spatial Misfit in Participatory River Basin Management: Effects on Social Learning, a Comparative Analysis of German and French Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilke Borowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of river basin management, as prescribed by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, participatory structures are frequently introduced at the hydrological scale without fully adapting them to the decision-making structure. This results in parallel structures and spatial misfits within the institutional settings of river basin governance systems. By analyzing French and German case studies, we show how social learning (SL is impeded by such misfits. We also demonstrate that river basin-scale institutions or actors that link parallel structures are essential for promoting river basins as management entities, and for encouraging SL between actors at the river basin scale. In the multi-scale, multi-level settings of river basin governance, it is difficult to fully exclude spatial misfits. Thus, it is important to take our insights into account in the current transition of water management from the administrative to the hydrological scale to get the greatest benefit from SL processes.

  16. Extensions to SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD2 debris analysis models for the severe accident analysis of Savannah River Site (SRS) reactors preliminary design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siefken, L.J.; Moore, R.L.

    1989-06-01

    Proposed extensions to the debris analysis model in the SCDAP/RELAP5 code to perform severe accident analyses of Savannah River Plant reactors are described. Designs are presented for the following areas of development: (a) calculating convective and radiative heat transfer at the surfaces of a debris region; (b) calculating heatup of a structure and supported debris that interfaces with several fluid control volumes; (c) modeling the addition of transported material to the surfaces of any structure represented by the debris analysis model; (d) calculating the two-dimensional heatup of an arbitrary number of structures in the reactor system; (e) modeling the effect of natural convection of liquefied material on heat transfer in a debris bed; and (f) modeling fission product release and aerosol generation in a debris bed. 11 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs

  17. Differentiating the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Natural and Anthropogenic Processes on River Water-Quality Variation Using a Self-Organizing Map With Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeuh-Bin; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Lee, Jin-Jing

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the historical improvement and advanced measure of river water quality in the Taipei metropolitan area, this study applied the self-organizing map (SOM) technique with factor analysis (FA) to differentiate the spatiotemporal distribution of natural and anthropogenic processes on river water-quality variation spanning two decades. The SOM clustered river water quality into five groups: very low pollution, low pollution, moderate pollution, high pollution, and very high pollution. FA was then used to extract four latent factors that dominated water quality from 1991 to 2011 including three anthropogenic process factors (organic, industrial, and copper pollution) and one natural process factor [suspended solids (SS) pollution]. The SOM revealed that the water quality improved substantially over time. However, the downstream river water quality was still classified as high pollution because of an increase in anthropogenic activity. FA showed the spatiotemporal pattern of each factor score decreasing over time, but the organic pollution factor downstream of the Tamsui River, as well as the SS factor scores in the upstream major tributary (the Dahan Stream), remained within the high pollution level. Therefore, we suggest that public sewage-treatment plants should be upgraded from their current secondary biological processing to advanced treatment processing. The conservation of water and soil must also be reinforced to decrease the SS loading of the Dahan Stream from natural erosion processes in the future.

  18. Raindrop characteristics analysis (Oct 25, 2015) of natural rainfall in Zhengzhou city of Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nana; Lin, Jing; Che, Shuhong; Yang, Xueqin; Li, Weiwei; Shen, Zhenzhou

    2018-03-01

    Raindrop characteristics, including speed and size of raindrops, in Zhengzhou city of Yellow River basin were analyzed through a natural rainfall on the loess slope. Results showed that the process of natural rainfall belonged to a parabola and counts, size and terminal velocity would increase with the rainfall intensity rising. Besides, the size and terminal velocity of natural raindrops were relatively scattered; In the process of individual rainfall, the terminal velocity and its peak value were mainly focused between 1∼5m/s and 3.4m/s, respectively. Size of raindrops were mainly consisted of 0.125-1.25mm, among which the terminal velocity of raindrops with a size of 0.125mm, 0.25mm, 0.375mm, 0.5mm, 0.75mm and 1mm were primarily 0.8-2.6m/s, 1-3.4m/s, 1.4-3.4m/s, 1.8-3.4m/s, 3-4.2m/s and 3.4-5m/s, respectively.

  19. Analysis of meteorological drought for Dagua river basin, Valle del Cauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia González López

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: Extreme climatic events causes great challenges for social, economic and environmental sustainability of a region. Droughts affect agricultural activities significantly thus endangering the livelihoods and food security of rural populations, this is especially crucial for developing countries. The objective of this study is to characterize meteorological drought in Dagua river basin, Valle del Cauca. Method:  Intensity, magnitude, duration and frequency of drought events was estimated using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, for semi-annual and annual groupings with records of 19 stations, during the period 1982-2011 Results: At least one drought was identified in each series; the area near to the subxerofític Basin region, exhibits more frequency of extremely strong drought and lower threshold of minimum precipitation; the largest percentage of spatial coverage of drought coincides with El Niño phenomena events, such as those that occurred in 91-92 to 09-10. Conclusions: The results obtained provide an approach for prediction and characterization of drought, and offer inputs to generate strategies for planning and mitigation of their impacts.

  20. ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL INTENSITY OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT ON SELECTED REACH OF THE NER RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Szałkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform a simulation of sediment transport for the section of the river Ner, while also utilizing GIS tools. Using the ArcGIS numerical model of channel and stream valleys were developed, and motion simulations and sediment transport set for 5 ten-year periods were performed in HEC-RAS. Updated geometries after the simulations were created using the tools of RAS Mapper. ArcGIS was used again for analysing the results. It was used to generate ordinates of bottom in the initial state and final. The difference between them illustrated the magnitude of erosion and accumulation. The process of erosion occurred in 13 sections of the analysed model (the standard differential ordinates negative, while the accumulation in 53 sections. The maximum value of shallowing bottom was 1.24 m (cross-section at km 18 + 868, while the largest deepening occurred at km 8 + 654 (– 0.76 m. All values, using ArcGIS, were marked on othophotomap.

  1. Multiple time scale analysis of sediment and runoff changes in the Lower Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Chi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment and runoff changes of seven hydrological stations along the Lower Yellow River (LYR (Huayuankou Station, Jiahetan Station, Gaocun Station, Sunkou Station, Ai Shan Station, Qikou Station and Lijin Station from 1980 to 2003 were alanyzed at multiple time scale. The maximum value of monthly, daily and hourly sediment load and runoff conservations were also analyzed with the annually mean value. Mann–Kendall non-parametric mathematics correlation test and Hurst coefficient method were adopted in the study. Research results indicate that (1 the runoff of seven hydrological stations was significantly reduced in the study period at different time scales. However, the trends of sediment load in these stations were not obvious. The sediment load of Huayuankou, Jiahetan and Aishan stations even slightly increased with the runoff decrease. (2 The trends of the sediment load with different time scale showed differences at Luokou and Lijin stations. Although the annually and monthly sediment load were broadly flat, the maximum hourly sediment load showed decrease trend. (3 According to the Hurst coefficients, the trend of sediment and runoff will be continue without taking measures, which proved the necessary of runoff-sediment regulation scheme.

  2. Climate variation and incidence of Ross river virus in Cairns, Australia: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, S; Hu, W

    2001-01-01

    In this study we assessed the impact of climate variability on the Ross River virus (RRv) transmission and validated an epidemic-forecasting model in Cairns, Australia. Data on the RRv cases recorded between 1985 and 1996 were obtained from the Queensland Department of Health. Climate and population data were supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and the Australian Bureau of Statistics, respectively. The cross-correlation function (CCF) showed that maximum temperature in the current month and rainfall and relative humidity at a lag of 2 months were positively and significantly associated with the monthly incidence of RRv, whereas relative humidity at a lag of 5 months was inversely associated with the RRv transmission. We developed autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models on the data collected between 1985 to 1994, and then validated the models using the data collected between 1995 and 1996. The results show that the relative humidity at a lag of 5 months (p < 0.001) and the rainfall at a lag of 2 months (p < 0.05) appeared to play significant roles in the transmission of RRv disease in Cairns. Furthermore, the regressive forecast curves were consistent with the pattern of actual values. PMID:11748035

  3. Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index.

  4. Pollution assessment in the Trancao river basin (Portugal) by PIXE, EDXRF and isotopic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, T.; Araujo, M.F.; Carreira, P.M.; Valerio, P.; Nunes, D.; Alves, L.C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports on the inorganic contamination assessment of a river basin and local water resources in order to establish quality standards. PIXE was applied to the elemental determination of the freeze-dried water dry residue and EDXRF was used for the evaluation of elemental content of sediments. To infer the water provenance the electrical conductivity was measured as well as the isotopic composition of surface waters using the 18 O/ 16 O ratio. The combined isotopic and elemental composition information enables to establish dominant contamination contributions from the several tributaries. Moreover, the variability observed for certain parameters, associates them with specific basin regions as for instance, dry residue mass, conductivity and Br, or S, Cl and As or Cr, Ni, Zn and Pb which permit to establish both pollution characterisation and their origin (agriculture, industrial, etc.). At certain locations, enhanced concentrations of elements as Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb are observed both in sediments and in the surface water. The elemental particular associations also permit to characterise pollution sources

  5. Toxicity and pollutant impact analysis in an urban river due to combined sewer overflows loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, A; Maglionico, M; Bolognesi, A; Artina, S

    2010-01-01

    The Navile Channel (Bologna, Italy) is an ancient artificial water course derived from the Reno river. It is the main receiving water body for the urban catchment of Bologna sewer systems and also for the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) main outlet. The aim of this work is to evaluate the Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs) impact on Navile Channel's water quality. In order to collect Navile flow and water quality data in both dry and wet weather conditions, two measuring and sampling stations were installed, right upstream and downstream the WWTP outflow. The study shows that even in case of low intensity rain events, CSOs have a significant effect on both water quantity and quality, spilling a considerable amount of pollutants into the Navile Channel and presenting also acute toxicity effects. The collected data shown a good correlations between the concentrations of TSS and of chemical compounds analyzed, suggesting that the most part of such substances is attached to suspended solids. Resulting toxicity values are fairly high in both measuring points and seem to confirm synergistic interactions between heavy metals.

  6. Accuracy analysis of SRTM usage for upper Citarum River flood modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inanda Siregar Riza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural channel cross section is generally very irregular and varied, for complex cross-sections and natural cross sections no specific formula presents to express the elements of the geometric cross section of the channel. The study uses HEC-Geo RAS with Arc GIS 10 and HEC-RAS 4.1.0 for modeling and 1D hydrodynamic. The surveyed cross sections modeling is calibrated and validated with observed daily discharge. Then the surveyed data cross sections are replaced by the cross sections extracted from SRTM. Accuracy is suitability between the surveyed data cross sections with data cross sections which extracted from SRTM. Accuracy is expressed by the magnitude of the error. The ratio of simulated discharges between two models by surveyed data cross sections and SRTM data cross sections have index of performance indicator for Nash–Sutcliffe Index (NI is 0.95 and index of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE is 0.41. Index of Performance indicator for comparison of simulated discharges between models with Nash–Sutcliffe Index (NI is 0.95 and index of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE is 0.41. The results show that cross sections from SRTM can be an alternative to extract data cross sections for Upper Citarum River flood modeling.

  7. Multivariate Regression Analysis and Statistical Modeling for Summer Extreme Precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme precipitation is likely to be one of the most severe meteorological disasters in China; however, studies on the physical factors affecting precipitation extremes and corresponding prediction models are not accurately available. From a new point of view, the sensible heat flux (SHF and latent heat flux (LHF, which have significant impacts on summer extreme rainfall in Yangtze River basin (YRB, have been quantified and then selections of the impact factors are conducted. Firstly, a regional extreme precipitation index was applied to determine Regions of Significant Correlation (RSC by analyzing spatial distribution of correlation coefficients between this index and SHF, LHF, and sea surface temperature (SST on global ocean scale; then the time series of SHF, LHF, and SST in RSCs during 1967–2010 were selected. Furthermore, other factors that significantly affect variations in precipitation extremes over YRB were also selected. The methods of multiple stepwise regression and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV were utilized to analyze and test influencing factors and statistical prediction model. The correlation coefficient between observed regional extreme index and model simulation result is 0.85, with significant level at 99%. This suggested that the forecast skill was acceptable although many aspects of the prediction model should be improved.

  8. Hydrological simulation and uncertainty analysis using the improved TOPMODEL in the arid Manas River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lianqing; Yang, Fan; Yang, Changbing; Wei, Guanghui; Li, Wenqian; He, Xinlin

    2018-01-11

    Understanding the mechanism of complicated hydrological processes is important for sustainable management of water resources in an arid area. This paper carried out the simulations of water movement for the Manas River Basin (MRB) using the improved semi-distributed Topographic hydrologic model (TOPMODEL) with a snowmelt model and topographic index algorithm. A new algorithm is proposed to calculate the curve of topographic index using internal tangent circle on a conical surface. Based on the traditional model, the improved indicator of temperature considered solar radiation is used to calculate the amount of snowmelt. The uncertainty of parameters for the TOPMODEL model was analyzed using the generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) method. The proposed model shows that the distribution of the topographic index is concentrated in high mountains, and the accuracy of runoff simulation has certain enhancement by considering radiation. Our results revealed that the performance of the improved TOPMODEL is acceptable and comparable to runoff simulation in the MRB. The uncertainty of the simulations resulted from the parameters and structures of model, climatic and anthropogenic factors. This study is expected to serve as a valuable complement for widely application of TOPMODEL and identify the mechanism of hydrological processes in arid area.

  9. Analysis of the Effects of ENSO and Atmospheric Rivers on Precipitation in Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacruz, A.; Lamb, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Winter 2016-2017 season in California was marked by substantial amounts of precipitation; this resulted in critically-low reservoirs filling up and the removal of most of California from drought status. The year prior was characterized by one of the strongest El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, though it did not produce nearly enough precipitation as the 2016-2017 season. The major contributors to the increased rainfall during the 2016-2017 season were climactic phenomenon known as atmospheric rivers (ARs), which transport water vapor through the atmosphere in narrow bands, and are known to produce extreme rain events. Determining the exact timing, landfall areas, and total precipitation amounts of ARs is currently of great interest; a recent study showed that extreme weather events are likely to increase in California in the coming years, which motivates research into how phenomenon such as ENSO and ARs play a role. Using long-term daily rain gauge data provided by the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works, we compute the precipitation volume and storm count for various locations in Los Angeles County and identify anomalies. These data will then be compared with the occurrence and intensity of AR and ENSO events by using NOAA's NOI and ESRL AR data. The results can be used to provide a better grasp of extreme climactic patterns and their effects on the amount of precipitation in the region.

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis of hydro-meteorological drought in the Johor River Basin, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mou Leong; Chua, Vivien P.; Li, Cheng; Brindha, K.

    2018-02-01

    Assessment of historical hydro-meteorological drought is important to develop a robust drought monitoring and prediction system. This study aims to assess the historical hydro-meteorological drought of the Johor River Basin (JRB) from 1975 to 2010, an important basin for the population of southern Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI) were selected to represent the meteorological and hydrological droughts, respectively. Four absolute homogeneity tests were used to assess the rainfall data from 20 stations, and two stations were flagged by these tests. Results indicate the SPI duration to be comparatively low (3 months), and drier conditions occur over the upper JRB. The annual SSI had a strong decreasing trend at 95% significance level, showing that human activities such as reservoir construction and agriculture (oil palm) have a major influence on streamflow in the middle and lower basin. In addition, moderate response rate of SSI to SPI was found, indicating that hydrological drought could also have occurred in normal climate condition. Generally, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Madden Julian Oscillation have greater impacts on drought events in the basin. Findings of this study could be beneficial for future drought projection and water resources management.

  11. Bayesian Spatiotemporal Analysis of Socio-Ecologic Drivers of Ross River Virus Transmission in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie; Williams, Gail; Tong, Shilu; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of socio-ecologic factors on the transmission of Ross River virus (RRV) infection and to identify areas prone to social and ecologic-driven epidemics in Queensland, Australia. We used a Bayesian spatiotemporal conditional autoregressive model to quantify the relationship between monthly variation of RRV incidence and socio-ecologic factors and to determine spatiotemporal patterns. Our results show that the average increase in monthly RRV incidence was 2.4% (95% credible interval (CrI): 0.1–4.5%) and 2.0% (95% CrI: 1.6–2.3%) for a 1°C increase in monthly average maximum temperature and a 10 mm increase in monthly average rainfall, respectively. A significant spatiotemporal variation and interactive effect between temperature and rainfall on RRV incidence were found. No association between Socio-economic Index for Areas (SEIFA) and RRV was observed. The transmission of RRV in Queensland, Australia appeared to be primarily driven by ecologic variables rather than social factors. PMID:20810846

  12. Multivariate hydrological frequency analysis for extreme events using Archimedean copula. Case study: Lower Tunjuelo River basin (Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Wilmar

    2017-04-01

    By analyzing the spatial and temporal variability of extreme precipitation events we can prevent or reduce the threat and risk. Many water resources projects require joint probability distributions of random variables such as precipitation intensity and duration, which can not be independent with each other. The problem of defining a probability model for observations of several dependent variables is greatly simplified by the joint distribution in terms of their marginal by taking copulas. This document presents a general framework set frequency analysis bivariate and multivariate using Archimedean copulas for extreme events of hydroclimatological nature such as severe storms. This analysis was conducted in the lower Tunjuelo River basin in Colombia for precipitation events. The results obtained show that for a joint study of the intensity-duration-frequency, IDF curves can be obtained through copulas and thus establish more accurate and reliable information from design storms and associated risks. It shows how the use of copulas greatly simplifies the study of multivariate distributions that introduce the concept of joint return period used to represent the needs of hydrological designs properly in frequency analysis.

  13. How downstream sub-basins depend on upstream inflows to avoid scarcity: typology and global analysis of transboundary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti

    2018-05-01

    Countries sharing river basins are often dependent upon water originating outside their boundaries; meaning that without that upstream water, water scarcity may occur with flow-on implications for water use and management. We develop a formalisation of this concept drawing on ideas about the transition between regimes from resilience literature, using water stress and water shortage as indicators of water scarcity. In our analytical framework, dependency occurs if water from upstream is needed to avoid scarcity. This can be diagnosed by comparing different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies, in particular local runoff and upstream inflows. At the same time, possible upstream water withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter water availability. By developing a framework of scarcity and dependency, we contribute to the understanding of transitions between system regimes. We apply our analytical framework to global transboundary river basins at the scale of sub-basin areas (SBAs). Our results show that 1175 million people live under water stress (42 % of the total transboundary population). Surprisingly, the majority (1150 million) of these currently suffer from stress only due to their own excessive water use and possible water from upstream does not have impact on the stress status - i.e. they are not yet dependent on upstream water to avoid stress - but could still impact on the intensity of the stress. At the same time, 386 million people (14 %) live in SBAs that can avoid stress owing to available water from upstream and have thus upstream dependency. In the case of water shortage, 306 million people (11 %) live in SBAs dependent on upstream water to avoid possible shortage. The identification of transitions between system regimes sheds light on how SBAs may be affected in the future, potentially contributing to further refined analysis of inter- and intrabasin hydro-political power relations and strategic planning

  14. Surface Textural Analysis of Quartz Grains from Modern Point Bar Deposits in Lower Reaches of the Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yong; Liu, Cong; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Yu; Nie, Qi; Wen, Yiming

    2018-01-01

    The surfaces of quartz grains contain characteristic textures formed during the process of transport, due to their stable physical and chemical properties. The surface textures include the information about source area, transporting force, sedimentary environment and evolution history of sediment. Surface textures of quartz grains from modern point bar deposits in the lower reaches of the Yellow River are observed and studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicate that there are 22 kinds of surface textures. The overall surface morphology of quartz grains shows short transporting time and distance and weak abrasive action of the river water. The combined surface textures caused by mechanical action indicate that quartz grains are transporting in a high-energy hydrodynamic condition and suffer a strong mechanical impact and abrasion. The common solution pits prove that the chemical property of transportation medium is very active and quartz grains receive an obvious chemical action. The combination of these surface textures can be an identification mark of fluvial environment, and that is: quartz grains are main subangular outline, whose roundness is higher with the farther motion distance; Surface fluctuation degree of quartz grains is relatively high, and gives priority to high and medium relief; V-shaped percussion marks are very abundant caused by mechanical action; The conchoidal of different sizes and steps are common-developed with paragenesis relationship; Solution pits are common-developed as well. The study makes up for the blank of surface textures analysis of quartz grains from modern fluvial deposits in China. It provides new ideas and evidence for studies of the sedimentary process and environmental significance, although the deep meanings of these micro textures remain to be further researched.

  15. Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for Escondido Creek, San Antonio River basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D.R.

    1971-01-01

    IntroductionHistory of Small Watershed Projects in TexasThe U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the installation of flood and soil erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of the "Flood Control Act of 1936 and 1944" and "Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. The Soil Conservation Service has found a total of approximately 3,500 floodwater-retarding structures to be physically and economically feasible in Texas. As of September 30, 1970, 1,439 of these structures had been built.This watershed-development program will have varying but important effects on the surface and ground-water resources of river basins, especially where a large number of the floodwater-retarding structures are built. Basic hydrologic data under natural and developed conditions are needed to appraise the effects of the structures on the yield and mode of occurrence of runoff.Hydrologic investigations of these small watersheds were begun by the Geological Survey in 1951 and are now being made in 12 study areas (fig. 1). These investigations are being made in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, the Soil Conservation Service, the San Antonio River Authority, the city of Dallas, and the Tarrant County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The 12 study areas were chosen to sample watershed having different rainfall, topography, geology, and soils. In five of the study areas, (North, Little Elm, Mukewater, little Pond-North Elm, and Pin Oak Creeks), streamflow and rainfall records were collected prior to construction of the floodwater-retarding structures, thus affording the opportunity for analyses of the conditions "before and after" development. A summary of the development of the floodwater-retarding structures in each study areas of September 30, 1970, is shown in table 1.Objectives of the Texas Small Watersheds ProjectThe purpose of these investigations is to collect sufficient data to meeting the

  16. Regional precipitation trend analysis at the Langat River Basin, Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palizdan, Narges; Falamarzi, Yashar; Huang, Yuk Feng; Lee, Teang Shui; Ghazali, Abdul Halim

    2014-08-01

    Various hydrological and meteorological variables such as rainfall and temperature have been affected by global climate change. Any change in the pattern of precipitation can have a significant impact on the availability of water resources, agriculture, and the ecosystem. Therefore, knowledge on rainfall trend is an important aspect of water resources management. In this study, the regional annual and seasonal precipitation trends at the Langat River Basin, Malaysia, for the period of 1982-2011 were examined at the 95 % level of significance using the regional average Mann-Kendall (RAMK) test and the regional average Mann-Kendall coupled with bootstrap (RAMK-bootstrap) method. In order to identify the homogeneous regions respectively for the annual and seasonal scales, firstly, at-site mean total annual and separately at-site mean total seasonal precipitation were spatialized into 5 km × 5 km grids using the inverse distance weighting (IDW) algorithm. Next, the optimum number of homogeneous regions (clusters) is computed using the silhouette coefficient approach. Next, the homogeneous regions were formed using the K-mean clustering method. From the annual scale perspective, all three regions showed positive trends. However, the application of two methods at this scale showed a significant trend only in the region AC1. The region AC2 experienced a significant positive trend using only the RAMK test. On a seasonal scale, all regions showed insignificant trends, except the regions I1C1 and I1C2 in the Inter-Monsoon 1 (INT1) season which experienced significant upward trends. In addition, it was proven that the significance of trends has been affected by the existence of serial and spatial correlations.

  17. A comparative analysis among computational intelligence techniques for dissolved oxygen prediction in Delaware River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Olyaie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the water quality models previously developed and used in dissolved oxygen (DO prediction are complex. Moreover, reliable data available to develop/calibrate new DO models is scarce. Therefore, there is a need to study and develop models that can handle easily measurable parameters of a particular site, even with short length. In recent decades, computational intelligence techniques, as effective approaches for predicting complicated and significant indicator of the state of aquatic ecosystems such as DO, have created a great change in predictions. In this study, three different AI methods comprising: (1 two types of artificial neural networks (ANN namely multi linear perceptron (MLP and radial based function (RBF; (2 an advancement of genetic programming namely linear genetic programming (LGP; and (3 a support vector machine (SVM technique were used for DO prediction in Delaware River located at Trenton, USA. For evaluating the performance of the proposed models, root mean square error (RMSE, Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NS, mean absolute relative error (MARE and, correlation coefficient statistics (R were used to choose the best predictive model. The comparison of estimation accuracies of various intelligence models illustrated that the SVM was able to develop the most accurate model in DO estimation in comparison to other models. Also, it was found that the LGP model performs better than the both ANNs models. For example, the determination coefficient was 0.99 for the best SVM model, while it was 0.96, 0.91 and 0.81 for the best LGP, MLP and RBF models, respectively. In general, the results indicated that an SVM model could be employed satisfactorily in DO estimation.

  18. Testing a river basin model with sensitivity analysis and autocalibration for an agricultural catchment in SW Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TATTARI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Modeling tools are needed to assess (i the amounts of loading from agricultural sources to water bodies as well as (ii the alternative management options in varying climatic conditions. These days, the implementation of Water Framework Directive (WFD has put totally new requirements also for modeling approaches. The physically based models are commonly not operational and thus the usability of these models is restricted for a few selected catchments. But the rewarding feature of these process-based models is an option to study the effect of protection measures on a catchment scale and, up to a certain point, a possibility to upscale the results. In this study, the parameterization of the SWAT model was developed in terms of discharge dynamics and nutrient loads, and a sensitivity analysis regarding discharge and sediment concentration was made. The SWAT modeling exercise was carried out for a 2nd order catchment (Yläneenjoki, 233 km2 of the Eurajoki river basin in southwestern Finland. The Yläneenjoki catchment has been intensively monitored during the last 14 years. Hence, there was enough background information available for both parameter setup and calibration. In addition to load estimates, SWAT also offers possibility to assess the effects of various agricultural management actions like fertilization, tillage practices, choice of cultivated plants, buffer strips, sedimentation ponds and constructed wetlands (CWs on loading. Moreover, information on local agricultural practices and the implemented and planned protective measures were readily available thanks to aware farmers and active authorities. Here, we studied how CWs can reduce the nutrient load at the outlet of the Yläneenjoki river basin. The results suggested that sensitivity analysis and autocalibration tools incorporated in the model are useful by pointing out the most influential parameters, and that flow dynamics and annual loading values can be modeled with reasonable

  19. The flash flood of October 2011 in the Magra River basin (Italy): rainstorm characterisation and flood response analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Lorenzo; Boni, Giorgio; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Crema, Stefano; Lucía, Ana; Marra, Francesco; Zoccatelli, Davide

    2013-04-01

    On 25 October 2011, the Magra River, a stream of northwest Italy outflowing into the Ligurian Sea, was affected by a flash flood, which caused severe economic damage and loss of lives. The catchment covers an area of 1717 km2, of which 605 km2 are drained by the Vara River, the major tributary of the Magra River. The flood was caused by an intense rainstorm which lasted approximately 20 hours. The most intense phase lasted about 8 hours, with rainfall amounts up to around 500 mm. The largest rainfall depths (greater than 300 mm) occurred in a narrow southwest - northeast oriented belt covering an area of approximately 400 km2. This flash flood was studied by analysing rainstorm characteristics, runoff response and geomorphic effects. The rainfall fields used in the analysis are based on data from the Settepani weather radar antenna (located at around 100 km from the study basin) and the local rain gauge network. Radar observations and raingauge data were merged to obtain rainfall estimates at 30 min with a resolution of 1 km2. River stage and discharge rating curves are available for few cross-sections on the main channels. Post-flood documentation includes the reconstruction of peak discharge by means of topographic surveys and application of the slope-conveyance method in 34 cross-sections, observations on the geomorphic effects of the event - both in the channel network and on the hillslopes - and the assessment of the timing of the flood based on interviews to eyewitnesses. Regional authorities and local administrations contributed to the documentation of the flood by providing hydrometeorological data, civil protection volunteers accounts, photos and videos recorded during and immediately after the flood. A spatially distributed rainfall-runoff model, fed with rainfall estimates obtained by the radar-derived observations, was used to check the consistency of field-derived peak discharges and to derive the time evolution of the flood. The assessment of unit

  20. Modelling nutrient fluxes from source to river load : a macroscopic analysis applied to the Rhine and Elbe basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.

    2000-01-01

    In many European rivers, including the major streams of the Rhine and Elbe basins, the nutrient load (N and P) still exceeds target levels. In this paper, a model is presented that describes the river nutrient load as a function of nutrient sources, runoff and lithology in the upstream basin. The

  1. Biofouling of reverse osmosis membranes used in river water purification for drinking purposes: analysis of microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Carolina; Iannelli, Renato; Modeo, Letizia; Bianchi, Veronica; Petroni, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Biofouling in water treatment processes represents one of the most frequent causes of plant performance decline. Investigation of clogged membranes (reverse osmosis membranes, microfiltration membranes and ultrafiltration membranes) is generally performed on fresh membranes. In the present study, a multidisciplinary autopsy of a reverse osmosis membrane (ROM) was conducted. The membrane, which was used in sulfate-rich river water purification for drinking purposes, had become inoperative after 6 months because of biofouling and was later stored for 18 months in dry conditions before analysis. SSU rRNA gene library construction, clone sequencing, T-RFLP, light microscope, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were used to identify the microorganisms present on the membrane and possibly responsible for biofouling at the time of removal. The microorganisms were mainly represented by bacteria belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria and by a single protozoan species belonging to the Lobosea group. The microbiological analysis was interpreted in the context of the treatment plant operations to hypothesize as to the possible mechanisms used by microorganisms to enter the plant and colonize the ROM surface.

  2. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  3. Determination of REE and U in agricultural soils from Jaguari River basin, Sao Paulo, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, E.C.; Modesto, R.P.; Lemos, M.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium has the highest atomic weight of the naturally occurring elements. It is weakly radioactive and occurs naturally in low concentrations (a few parts per million) in soil, rock and water. The rare earth elements (REE) form the largest chemically coherent group in the periodic table. The versatility and specificity of the REE have given them a level of technological, environmental, and economic importance considerably greater than might be expected. The objective of this work was to determine the concentration of the lanthanides (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu), and U, considering the soil use and occupation from the Jaguari river basin, Sao Paulo. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used for the REE and U analysis The study area is located in a traditional agricultural area which is nowadays one of the main industrial regions of Brazil. In order to evaluate the quality of these soils in relation to lanthanides and U levels, the obtained concentrations were compared to guiding values reported by environmental protection agencies. The 75th percentile for U in agricultural soils (2.76 mg kg- 1 ) was higher than in the control areas (1.61 mg kg -1 ), but much lower than the maximum allowed concentration for soils in The Netherlands (28.3 mg kg -1 ). The lanthanides presented concentration levels higher than the guiding values of the RIVM - -National Institute for Public Health and the Environment guidelines. (author)

  4. Geospatial tool-based morphometric analysis using SRTM data in Sarabanga Watershed, Cauvery River, Salem district, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulbalaji, P.; Gurugnanam, B.

    2017-11-01

    A morphometric analysis of Sarabanga watershed in Salem district has been chosen for the present study. Geospatial tools, such as remote sensing and GIS, are utilized for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM-30 m resolution) data have been used for morphometric analysis and evaluating various morphometric parameters. The morphometric parameters of Sarabanga watershed have been analyzed and evaluated by pioneer methods, such as Horton and Strahler. The dendritic type of drainage pattern is draining the Sarabanga watershed, which indicates that lithology and gentle slope category is controlling the study area. The Sarabanga watershed is covered an area of 1208 km2. The slope of the watershed is various from 10 to 40% and which is controlled by lithology of the watershed. The bifurcation ratio ranges from 3 to 4.66 indicating the influence of geological structure and suffered more structural disturbances. The form factor indicates elongated shape of the study area. The total stream length and area of watershed indicate that mean annual rainfall runoff is relatively moderate. The basin relief expressed that watershed has relatively high denudation rates. The drainage density of the watershed is low indicating that infiltration is more dominant. The ruggedness number shows the peak discharges that are likely to be relatively higher. The present study is very useful to plan the watershed management.

  5. Comparative Phenotype and Genome Analysis of Cellvibrio sp. PR1, a Xylanolytic and Agarolytic Bacterium from the Pearl River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangzhang Xie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellvibrio sp. PR1 is a xylanolytic and agarolytic bacterium isolated from the Pearl River. Strain PR1 is closely related to Cellvibrio fibrivorans and C. ostraviensis (identity > 98%. The xylanase and agarase contents of strain PR1 reach up to 15.4 and 25.9 U/mL, respectively. The major cellular fatty acids consisted of C16:0 (36.7%, C18:0 (8.8%, C20:0 (6.8%, C15:0 iso 2-OH or/and C16:1ω7c (17.4%, and C18:1ω7c or/and C18:1ω6c (6.7%. A total of 251 CAZyme modules (63 CBMs, 20 CEs, 128 GHs, 38 GTs, and 2 PLs were identified from 3,730 predicted proteins. Genomic analysis suggested that strain PR1 has a complete xylan-hydrolyzing (5 β-xylanases, 16 β-xylosidases, 17 α-arabinofuranosidases, 9 acetyl xylan esterases, 4 α-glucuronidases, and 2 ferulic acid esterases and agar-hydrolyzing enzyme system (2 β-agarases and 2 α-neoagarooligosaccharide hydrolases. In addition, the main metabolic pathways of xylose, arabinose, and galactose are established in the genome-wide analysis. This study shows that strain PR1 contains a large number of glycoside hydrolases.

  6. Analysis and prediction of reference evapotranspiration with climate change in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-e Tao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Reference evapotranspiration (ET0 is often used to estimate actual evapotranspiration in water balance studies. In this study, the present and future spatial distributions and temporal trends of ET0 in the Xiangjiang River Basin (XJRB in China were analyzed. ET0 during the period from 1961 to 2010 was calculated with historical meteorological data using the FAO Penman-Monteith (FAO P-M method, while ET0 during the period from 2011 to 2100 was downscaled from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 outputs under two emission scenarios, representative concentration pathway 4.5 and representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP45 and RCP85, using the statistical downscaling model (SDSM. The spatial distribution and temporal trend of ET0 were interpreted with the inverse distance weighted (IDW method and Mann-Kendall test method, respectively. Results show that: (1 the mean annual ET0 of the XJRB is 1 006.3 mm during the period from 1961 to 2010, and the lowest and highest values are found in the northeast and northwest parts due to the high latitude and spatial distribution of climatic factors, respectively; (2 the SDSM performs well in simulating the present ET0 and can be used to predict the future ET0 in the XJRB; and (3 CMIP5 predicts upward trends in annual ET0 under the RCP45 and RCP85 scenarios during the period from 2011 to 2100. Compared with the reference period (1961–1990, ET0 increases by 9.8%, 12.6%, and 15.6% under the RCP45 scenario and 10.2%, 19.1%, and 27.3% under the RCP85 scenario during the periods from 2011 to 2040, from 2041 to 2070, and from 2071 to 2100, respectively. The predicted increasing ET0 under the RCP85 scenario is greater than that under the RCP45 scenario during the period from 2011 to 2100.

  7. Spatial analysis of Carbon-14 dynamics in a wetland ecosystem (Duke Swamp, Chalk River Laboratories, Canada)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankovich, T.L.; King-Sharp, K.J.; Carr, J.; Robertson, E.; Killey, R.W.D.; Beresford, N.A.; Wood, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed survey was conducted to quantify the spatial distribution of 14 C in Sphagnum moss and underlying soil collected in Duke Swamp. This wetland environment receives 14 C via groundwater pathways from a historic radioactive Waste Management Area (WMA) on Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL)'s Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site. Trends in 14 C specific activities were evaluated with distance from the sampling location with the maximum 14 C specific activity (DSS-35), which was situated adjacent to the WMA and close to an area of groundwater discharge. Based on a spatial evaluation of the data, an east-to-west 14 C gradient was found, due to the influence of the WMA on 14 C specific activities in the swamp. In addition, it was possible to identify two groups of sites, each showing significant exponential declines with distance from the groundwater source area. One of the groups showed relatively more elevated 14 C specific activities at a given distance from source, likely due to their proximity to the WMA, the location of the sub-surface plume originating from the WMA, the presence of marsh and swamp habitat types, which facilitated 14 C transport to the atmosphere, and possibly, 14 C air dispersion patterns along the eastern edge of the swamp. The other group, which had lower 14 C specific activities at a given distance from the groundwater source area, included locations that were more distant from the WMA and the sub-surface plume, and contained fen habitat, which is known to act as barrier to groundwater flow. The findings suggest that proximity to source, groundwater flow patterns and habitat physical characteristics can play an important role in the dynamics of 14 C being carried by discharging groundwater into terrestrial and wetland environments. - Highlights: • Groundwater represents an important source of volatile radionuclides to wetlands. • Habitat type influenced 14 C transport from sub-surface to surface environments. • C-14 specific

  8. Charles River Fish Contaminant Survey, April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report summarizing a biological monitoring component of the Clean Charles River 2005 initiative through the monitoring & analysis of fish within the lower Charles River basin, implemented by the EPA New England Regional Laboratory in the late fall of 1999.

  9. Rivers and streams in the media: a content analysis of ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    While ecosystem services research has become common, few efforts are directed toward in-depth understanding of the specific ecological quantities people value. Environmental communications as well as ecological monitoring and analysis efforts could be enhanced by such information...

  10. Structural analysis of the P reactor at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslawsky, M.; Maryak, M.

    1991-01-01

    A seismic analysis of the P-reactor buildings that were built in the early 1950's has been performed using current criteria and analysis techniques. The seismic input is based on the RG 1.60 free field response spectra anchored at 0.2g ZPA. The SSI analysis applied deconvolution techniques to establish soil parameters based on strain dependent damping and shear modulus relationships. The analysis used 2-dimensional soil structure interaction techniques to generate floor response spectra. The spectra were adjusted to account for torsional amplifications resulting from differences between the locations of the center of mass of the floors and the center of rigidity of the connecting vertical column elements. The resulting floor response spectra were smoothed and broadened in accordance with NRC criteria. In addition to developing floor response spectra, building shears and moments were obtained and an assessment of the structural capacity of the buildings to withstand the seismic loads was made

  11. study and analysis of asa river hypothetical dam break using hec-ras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    outcome of the analysis showed that in the event of such failure of Asa dam, some areas which include industrial and residential .... Road Bridge (Coca Cola Axis). (iv) Stretch ..... Solutions and Case Studies, WIT Press, Southampton,. Boston ...

  12. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    sail on the Niger River between Nigeria and Mali. Crossing villages, borders and cultures, they stop only to rest by setting up camp on riverbanks or host villages. In River Nomads, we join the nomadic Kebbawa fishermen on one of their yearly crossing, experiencing their relatively adventurous...

  13. River Piracy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    There was this highly venerated river Saraswati flowing through. Haryana, Marwar and Bahawalpur in Uttarapath and emptying itself in the Gulf ofKachchh, which has been described in glowing terms by the Rigveda. "Breaking through the mountain barrier", this "swift-flowing tempestuous river surpasses in majesty and.

  14. Analysis on biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors in the Gufu River basin, Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiwen; Wu, Shuyuan; Touré, Dado; Cheng, Lamei; Miao, Wenjie; Cao, Huafen; Pan, Xiaoying; Li, Jianfeng; Yao, Minmin; Feng, Liang

    2017-12-01

    The main purpose of this study conducted from August 2010 was to find biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors and try to explore the restrictive factors affecting the growth of algae in the Gufu River, the one of the branches of Xiangxi River located in the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River, Hubei Province, Central China. An improved method of in situ primary productivity measurement was utilized to estimate the primary production of the epilithic algae. It was shown that in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, algae are the main primary producers and have a central role in the ecosystem. Chlorophyll a concentration and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) were estimated for epilithic algae of the Gufu River basin in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Environmental factors in the Gufu River ecosystem highlighted differences in periphyton chlorophyll a ranging from 1.49 mg m -2 (origin) to 69.58 mg m -2 (terminal point). The minimum and maximum gross primary productivity of epilithic algae were 96.12 and 1439.89 mg C m -2  day -1 , respectively. The mean net primary productivity was 290.24 mg C m -2  day -1 . The mean autotrophic index (AFDM:chlorophyll a) was 407.40. The net primary productivity, community respiration ratio (P/R ratio) ranged from 0.98 to 9.25 with a mean of 2.76, showed that autotrophic productivity was dominant in the river. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics and biomass was discussed through cluster and stepwise regression analysis which indicated that altitude, total nitrogen (TN), NO 3 - -N, and NH 4 + -N were significant environmental factors affecting the biomass of epilithic algae. However, a negative logarithmic relationship between altitude and the chlorophyll a of epilithic algae was high. The results also highlighted the importance of epilithic algae in maintaining the Gufu River basin ecosystems health.

  15. Hydropower Generation Vulnerability in the Yangtze River in China under Climate Change Scenarios: Analysis Based on the WEAP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Global warming caused by human activities exacerbates the water cycle, changes precipitation features, such as precipitation amount, intensity and time, and raises uncertainties in water resources. This work uses run-off data obtained using climate change models under representative concentration pathways (RCPs and selects the Yangtze River Basin as the research boundary to evaluate and analyse the vulnerability of hydropower generation in 2016–2050 on the basis of the water evaluation and planning model. Results show that the amount of rainfall during 2016–2050 in the Yangtze River Basin is estimated to increase with fluctuations in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. In the RCP4.5 scenario, hydropower stations exhibit large fluctuations in generating capacity, which present the trend of an increase after a decrease; in the RCP8.5 scenario, the generating capacity of hydropower stations in the Yangtze River Basin presents a steady increase. Over 50% of the generating capacity in the Yangtze River Basin is produced from the Three Gorges Dam and 10 other hydropower stations. Over 90% is generated in eight river basins, including the Jinsha, Ya-lung and Min Rivers. Therefore, climate change may accelerate changes in the Yangtze River Basin and further lead to vulnerability of hydropower generation.

  16. Uncertainty modelling and analysis of environmental systems: a river sediment yield example

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Koskela, J.; Guillaume, J.H.; Norton, J.P.; Croke, B.; Jakeman, A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Throughout the last decades uncertainty analysis has become an essential part of environmental model building (e.g. Beck 1987; Refsgaard et al., 2007). The objective of the paper is to introduce stochastic and setmembership uncertainty modelling concepts, which basically differ in the

  17. Modelling water fluxes for the analysis of diffuse pollution at the river basin scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.; Meinardi, C.R.; Wendland, F.; Kunkel, R.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse pollution is a significant and sometimes even major component of surface water pollution. Diffuse inputs of pollutants to the surface water are related to runoff of precipitation. This means that the analysis of diffuse pollutant fluxes from the land surface to the surface water requires an

  18. Uncertainty analysis of a low flow model for the Rhine River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.; Booij, Martijn J.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that hydrological models are subject to parameter uncertainty. However, little attention has been paid so far to the uncertainty in parameters of the data-driven models like weights in neural networks. This study aims at applying a structured uncertainty analysis to a

  19. Multi-Scale Drought Analysis using Thermal Remote Sensing: A Case Study in Georgia’s Altamaha River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Bhat, S.; Choi, M.; Mecikalski, J. R.; Anderson, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    The unprecedented recent droughts in the Southeast US caused reservoir levels to drop dangerously low, elevated wildfire hazard risks, reduced hydropower generation and caused severe economic hardships. Most drought indices are based on recent rainfall or changes in vegetation condition. However in heterogeneous landscapes, soils and vegetation (type and cover) combine to differentially stress regions even under similar weather conditions. This is particularly true for the heterogeneous landscapes and highly variable rainfall in the Southeastern United States. This research examines the spatiotemperal evolution of watershed scale drought using a remotely sensed stress index. Using thermal-infrared imagery, a fully automated inverse model of Atmosphere-Land Exchange (ALEXI), GIS datasets and analysis tools, modeled daily surface moisture stress is examined at a 10-km resolution grid covering central to southern Georgia. Regional results are presented for the 2000-2008 period. The ALEXI evaporative stress index (ESI) is compared to existing regional drought products and validated using local hydrologic measurements in Georgia’s Altamaha River watershed at scales from 10 to 10,000 km2.

  20. Analysis by RAPD of the genetic structure of Astyanax altiparanae (Pisces, Characiformes in reservoirs on the Paranapanema River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sueli Papa Leuzzi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the RAPD technique was used to analyze the genetic structure of populations of the fish Astyanax altiparanae (Characidae, Tetragonopterinae living in the lower, middle and upper Paranapanema River, Brazil. The aim was to assess this structure regarding fish handling and conservation programs. The genetic variability (P was found to be 42.64%, 75% and 75% in the low, middle and upper reaches, respectively. The dendrogram of genetic similarity, obtained by comparative analysis of the sets of samples from the three sites, showed the formation of three clusters. All of the genetic parameters used indicate that the population in the lower Paranapanema is genetically different from those in the middle and upper sections. The theta P test shows that the low Paranapanema is highly differentiated from the middle (0.2813 and upper (0.2912 Paranapanema, while the differentiation between the last two is moderate (0.0895. The data obtained in the present work suggest that recolonization and conservation studies should not be focused on the species A. altiparanae as such, but on the conservation units, because they are the genetically differentiated populations.

  1. Analysis of waste-load assimilative capacity of the Yampa River, Steamboat Springs to Hayden, Routt County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel P.; Steele, Timothy Doak; Anderson, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Yampa River from Steamboat Springs to Hayden, Colo., a distance of 38 miles, was made during September 1975 to obtain information on the effects of projected waste loadings on this stream reach. Simulations of effects of waste loadings on streamflow quality were made using a steady-state water-quality model. The simulations were based on 7-day low-flow values with a 10-year recurrence interval and population projections for 2010. Model results for December and September streamflow conditions indicated that the recommended 1978 Colorado and 1976 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality standard of 0.02 milligram per liter for nonionized ammonia concentration would be exceeded. Model simulations also included the effect of a flow augmentation of 20 cubic feet per second from a proposed upstream reservoir. The permissible ammonia loading in the study reach could be increased approximately 25 percent with this amount of flow augmentation. Simulations of concentrations of dissolved oxygen, fecal-coliform bacteria, and nitrate nitrogen indicated that the State 's water-quality goals proposed for 1978, 1983, or 1985 would not be exceeded. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Distribution and source analysis of heavy metal pollutants in sediments of a rapid developing urban river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Fang; Qu, Liyin; Wang, Ting; Luo, Lili; Chen, Han; Dahlgren, Randy A; Zhang, Minghua; Mei, Kun; Huang, Hong

    2018-09-01

    Heavy metal pollution of aquatic environments in rapidly developing industrial regions is of considerable global concern due to its potential to cause serious harm to aquatic ecosystems and human health. This study assessed heavy metal contamination of sediments in a highly industrialized urban watershed of eastern China containing several historically unregulated manufacturing enterprises. Total concentrations and solid-phase fractionation of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd were investigated for 39 river sediments using multivariate statistical analysis and geographically weighted regression (GWR) methods to quantitatively examine the relationship between land use and heavy metal pollution at the watershed scale. Results showed distinct spatial patterns of heavy metal contamination within the watershed, such as higher concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the southwest and higher Cu concentration in the east, indicating links to specific pollution sources within the watershed. Correlation and PCA analyses revealed that Zn, Pb and Cd were dominantly contributed by anthropogenic activities; Cu originated from both industrial and agricultural sources; and Cr has been altered by recent pollution control strategies. The GWR model indicated that several heavy metal fractions were strongly correlated with industrial land proportion and this correlation varied with the level of industrialization as demonstrated by variations in local GWR R 2 values. This study provides important information for assessing heavy metal contaminated areas, identifying heavy metal pollutant sources, and developing regional-scale remediation strategies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 2020s scenario analysis of nutrient load in the Mekong River Basin using a distributed hydrological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Chihiro; Zhou, Maichun; Kiem, Anthony S; Fukami, Kazuhiko; Prasantha, Hapuarachchi H A; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Kuniyoshi

    2009-10-01

    A distributed hydrological model, YHyM, was integrated with the export coefficient concept and applied to simulate the nutrient load in the Mekong River Basin. In the validation period (1992-1999), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency was 76.4% for discharge, 65.9% for total nitrogen, and 45.3% for total phosphorus at Khong Chiam. Using the model, scenario analysis was then performed for the 2020s taking into account major anthropogenic factors: climate change, population, land cover, fertilizer use, and industrial waste water. The results show that the load at Kompong Cham in 2020s is 6.3 x 10(4)tN a(-1) (+13.0% compared to 1990s) and 4.3 x 10(3)tP a(-1) (+24.7%). Overall, the noticeable nutrient sources are cropland in the middle region and urban load in the lower region. The installation of waste water treatment plants in urban areas possibly cut 60.6%N and 19.9%P of the estimated increase in the case without any treatment.

  4. Analysis on the adaptive countermeasures to ecological management under changing environment in the Tarim River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Xue, Lianqing; Zhang, Luochen; Chen, Xinfang; Chi, Yixia

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to explore the adaptive utilization strategies of flow regime versus traditional practices in the context of climate change and human activities in the arid area. The study presents quantitative analysis of climatic and anthropogenic factors to streamflow alteration in the Tarim River Basin (TRB) using the Budyko method and adaptive utilization strategies to eco-hydrological regime by comparing the applicability between autoregressive moving average model (ARMA) model and combined regression model. Our results suggest that human activities played a dominant role in streamflow deduction in the mainstream with contribution of 120.7%~190.1%. While in the headstreams, climatic variables were the primary determinant of streamflow by 56.5~152.6% of the increase. The comparison revealed that combined regression model performed better than ARMA model with the qualified rate of 80.49~90.24%. Based on the forecasts of streamflow for different purposes, the adaptive utilization scheme of water flow is established from the perspective of time and space. Our study presents an effective water resources scheduling scheme for the ecological environment and provides references for ecological protection and water allocation in the arid area.

  5. Flood Simulations and Uncertainty Analysis for the Pearl River Basin Using the Coupled Land Surface and Hydrological Model System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongnan Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The performances of hydrological simulations for the Pearl River Basin in China were analysed using the Coupled Land Surface and Hydrological Model System (CLHMS. Three datasets, including East Asia (EA, high-resolution gauge satellite-merged China Merged Precipitation Analysis (CMPA-Daily, and the Asian Precipitation Highly-Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation (APHRODITE daily precipitation were used to drive the CLHMS model to simulate daily hydrological processes from 1998 to 2006. The results indicate that the precipitation data was the most important source of uncertainty in the hydrological simulation. The simulated streamflow driven by the CMPA-Daily agreed well with observations, with a Pearson correlation coefficient (PMC greater than 0.70 and an index of agreement (IOA similarity coefficient greater than 0.82 at Liuzhou, Shijiao, and Wuzhou Stations. Comparison of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE shows that the peak flow simulation ability of CLHMS driven with the CMPA-Daily rainfall is relatively superior to that with the EA and APHRODITE datasets. The simulation results for the high-flow periods in 1998 and 2005 indicate that the CLHMS is promising for its future application in the flood simulation and prediction.

  6. How Widely Applicable is River Basin Management? An Analysis of Wastewater Management in an Arid Transboundary Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowsky, Ines; Almog, Ram; Becker, Nir; Feitelson, Eran; Klawitter, Simone; Lindemann, Stefan; Mutlak, Natalie

    2010-05-01

    The basin scale has been promoted universally as the optimal management unit that allows for the internalization of all external effects caused by multiple water uses. However, the basin scale has been put forward largely on the basis of experience in temperate zones. Hence whether the basin scale is the best scale for management in other settings remains questionable. To address these questions this paper analyzes the economic viability and the political feasibility of alternative management options in the Kidron/Wadi Nar region. The Kidron/Wadi Nar is a small basin in which wastewater from eastern Jerusalem flows through the desert to the Dead Sea. Various options for managing these wastewater flows were analyzed ex ante on the basis of both a cost benefit and a multi-criteria analysis. The paper finds that due to economies of scale, a pure basin approach is not desirable from a physical and economic perspective. Furthermore, in terms of political feasibility, it seems that the option which prompts the fewest objections from influential stakeholder groups in the two entities under the current asymmetrical political setting is not a basin solution either, but a two plant solution based on an outsourcing arrangement. These findings imply that the river basin management approach can not be considered the best management approach for the arid transboundary case at hand, and hence is not unequivocally universally applicable.

  7. INAA and chemical analysis of water and sediments sampled in 1996 from the Romanian sector of the Danube river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelica, A.; Georgescu, I.I.; Oprica, M.H.I.; Borcia, C.

    1999-01-01

    Water and sediment samples collected during spring 1996 from 20 sampling sites of the Romanian sector of the Danube river and the Black Sea coast were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and by chemical methods to determine major, minor and trace element contents. The concentrations of 43 elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, K, La, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Ti, Th, U, V, W, Yb, Zr, Zn) were investigated by INAA at WWR-S reactor in Bucharest. Chemical methods were used to determine the content of P 2 O 5 and SiO 2 in sediments. For INAA, the water residues and sediment samples were irradiated at the WWR-S reactor in Bucharest at a neutron fluence rate of 2.3·10 12 cm -2 s -1 . As standards, reference materials IAEA-Soil 7 and WTM (sludge from city water treatment, from the Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques Kosice, Slovakia) as well as chemical compounds of Al, Ca, Mg, V were used. Mono-standard method was applied in the case of Ti and Sr (Cl and Zn as standards, respectively). By chemical methods, the amount of SiO 2 was determined in sediment samples after the treatment with concentrated HCl and residuum dis-aggregation by fusion (melting with a mixture of Na 2 CO 3 and K 2 CO 3 ). Phosphorus was determined by spectrophotometry with ammonium molybdate and by reduction with ascorbic acid. It can be seen that, both for water and sediment samples, the highest contents of Al, Co, Cs, Fe, Rb, and Sb were found at the sites located upstream the Portile de Fier dam: at Turnu Severin (for water) and Orsova (for sediments). Ag, Au, Ni, Yb, Zr were determined only in some of the water samples at the following concentration levels: ng L -1 (Au, Lu), tens of ng L -1 (Ag, Tb, Yb), hundreds of ng L -1 (Ag), μg L -1 (Ni, Zr), tens of μg L -1 (Ni, Ti). From a comparison with results of our previous studies for the Danube bottom sediments, no significant

  8. Savannah River Site sample and analysis plan for Clemson Technical Center waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrom, T.

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this sampling and analysis plan is to determine the chemical, physical and radiological properties of the SRS radioactive Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) liquid waste stream, to verify that it conforms to Waste Acceptance Criteria of the Department of Energy (DOE) East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP) Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) Incineration Facility. Waste being sent to the ETTP TSCA Incinerator for treatment must be sufficiently characterized to ensure that the waste stream meets the waste acceptance criteria to ensure proper handling, classification, and processing of incoming waste to meet the Waste Storage and Treatment Facility's Operating Permits. This sampling and analysis plan is limited to WSRC container(s) of homogeneous or multiphasic radioactive PCB contaminated liquids generated in association with a treatability study at Clemson Technical Center (CTC) and currently stored at the WSRC Solid Waste Division Mixed Waste Storage Facility (MWSF)

  9. Analysis of the influence of tectonics on the evolution of valley networks based on SRTM DEM, Jemma River basin, Ethiopia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kusák, Michal; Kropáček, J.; Vilímek, V.; Schillaci, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2016), 37-50 ISSN 1724-4757 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : valley network * tectonic lineaments * Jemma River basin * Ethiopian Highlands Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  10. Analysis of socio-environmental benefits from the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agricultural sector of the middle reaches of the river chinchiná, colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Florez Yepes, Gloria Yaneth; Calderon Cuartas, Paola Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the socio-environmental benefits generated by the implementation of cleaner production strategies in the agriculture and livestock sectors, in the middle part of the Chinchina river basin, Colombia. The methodology involves recording of field data on the basis of interviews and semi-structured dialogue; processing and analysis of data on the basis of matrix adaptation and network diagramming; and assessment of socio-environmental benefits, with determina...

  11. Water Pollution abatement programme, The Czech republic Pollution abatement analysis and strengthening of water resources management, Odra River Catchment, phase II

    OpenAIRE

    Dagestad, K.; Ratnaweera, H.; Ibrekk, H.O.; Hansen, J.H.; Tridlica, L.; Brezina, P.; Skacel, A.

    1995-01-01

    Odra river is extremely polluted by organic matter, nitrates, ammonia, phosphorus, bacteria, particles, heavy metals and other micro pollutants from municipalities, industries and agriculture. The poor water quality severely affects the ecology and represents a risk to human health. The water has a very limited value of use. This report presents an abatement programme with both technical and accompanying measures. In order to identify the major polluters several multi criteria analysis have b...

  12. Analysis of Groundwater Resources Vulnerability from Agricultural Activities in the Large Irrigation District along the Yellow River

    OpenAIRE

    He, Bin; Oki, Taikan; Kanae, Shinjiro; Runkle, Benjamin; Liang, Xu; Zeng, Ayan; Hao, Fanghua

    2008-01-01

    Groundwater forms an important source of water supply in arid and semi-arid region. Optimum conjunctive utilization of surface and groundwater resources has become extremely important to fill the gap between water demand and supply. Hetao Irrigation District (HID) is the largest irrigation district along the Yellow River and its groundwater table is shallow. The project of Water Saving Reconstruction (WSR) has been conducted for the purpose of keeping the Yellow River free from drying up. The...

  13. Research Analysis of temporal and spatial characteristics of eco-environmental vulnerability in the Xianshui River basin based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Kun; Bai, Lin; Li, Xiao Ju; Wang, Xiao

    2018-05-01

    The Xianshui River basin is an important ecological barrier and water conservation area of Qinghai-Tibet plateau. To master the spatial and temporal differentiation of ecological environment is beneficial to the realization of the protection of regional ecological environment and the development of restoration measures. In this paper, the evaluation index system of ecological environment vulnerability was constructed from topography, climate, soil, land use and social economy. In this study, GIS and information entropy theory are combined to complete the analysis of spatial and temporal variation of vulnerability of ecological environment vulnerability in 2000-2015 years, and the main results are as follows: The ecological vulnerability of the watershed is characterized by the obvious vertical distribution, which is characterized by the gradual increase of the vulnerability of the south to the north. The evaluation results were classified as potential, micro, mild, moderate and severe, with the proportion of each grade being Micro > mild > potential > moderate > severity. The proportion of light and below accounts for more than 80% of the whole area, and the whole basin is at a medium vulnerable level. The change of overall trend indicates that the overall ecological environment of the basin has improved obviously in 15 years. The driving force factor analysis shows that the national environmental protection and restoration project is playing a significant role and plays a major driving role in the obvious improvement of the ecological environment in the basin area. However, there are still a few parts of the region that are deteriorating. This is mainly due to the special natural environment and over exploitation of hydropower resources.

  14. Analysis of past and future dam formation and failure in the Santa Cruz River (San Juan province, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Ivanna M.; Derron, Marc-Henri; Volpi, Michele; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-03-01

    Around 11.5 ∗ 106 m3 of rock detached from the eastern slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina) in the first fortnight of January 2005. The rockslide-debris avalanche blocked the course, resulting in the development of a lake with maximum length of around 3.5 km. The increase in the inflow rate from 47,000-74,000 m3/d between April and October to 304,000 m3/d between late October and the first fortnight of November, accelerated the growing rate of the lake. On 12 November 2005 the dam failed, releasing 24.6 ∗ 106 m3 of water. The resulting outburst flood caused damages mainly on infrastructure, and affected the facilities of a hydropower dam which was under construction 250 km downstream from the source area. In this work we describe causes and consequences of the natural dam formation and failure, and we dynamically model the 2005 rockslide-debris avalanche with DAN3D. Additionally, as a volume ~ 24 ∗ 106 m3of rocks still remain unstable in the slope, we use the results of the back analysis to forecast the formation of a future natural dam. We analyzed two potential scenarios: a partial slope failure of 6.5 ∗ 106 m3 and a worst case where all the unstable volume remaining in the slope fails. The spreading of those potential events shows that a new blockage of the Santa Cruz River is likely to occur. According to their modeled morphometry and the contributing watershed upstream the blockage area, as the one of 2005, the dams would also be unstable. This study shows the importance of back and forward analysis that can be carried out to obtain critical information for land use planning, hazards mitigation, and emergency management.

  15. [Analysis of trend of Oncomelania snail status in Yangtze River valley of Anhui Province, 1998-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia-Chang; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Lu, Jin-You; Li, Ting-Ting; Gao, Feng-Hu; Zhou, Ping; Zhu, Chuan-Ming; He, Long-Zhu; Yu, Bei-Bei; Zhang, Shi-Qing

    2011-04-01

    To understand the trend of Oncomelania hupensis snail distribution in Yangtze River valley of Anhui Province so as to provide an evidence for making out schistosomiasis prevention and control strategies in the future. The snail data from 1998 to 2009 of the Yangtze River valley in Anhui Province were collected including the snail area, newly occurred and re-occurred snail areas, densities of snails and infected snails, etc., and the trend and influence factors were analyzed. With several fluctuations, the snail area showed a trend of declining in general after the devastating summer flooding in 1998. From 1998 to 2009, 3 peaks of newly occurred snail areas appeared in 1998, 2004 and 2006 and 2 peaks of reoccurred snail areas appeared in 1998 and 2004. The densities of living snails and infected snails were more severe in banks of the Yangtze River than in islets of the Yangtze River. During 12 years, 1 peak of living snail density appeared in 2003, and 3 peaks of infected snail density appeared in 1999, 2003-2004 and 2006 in the islets of the Yangtze River. The densities of living snails and infected snails in banks of the Yangtze both appeared 1 peak in 1998. The distribution of snails in the Yangtze River valley is related to nature, society and financial circumstances, and it is hard to completely perform the snail control in a short-term. Therefore, at the same time of strengthening snail control, we should also strengthen infectious source control.

  16. Quantitative analysis of the effect of climate change and human activities on runoff in the Liujiang River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, X.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract: As human basic and strategic natural resources, Water resources have received an unprecedented challenge under the impacts of global climate change. Analyzing the variation characteristics of runoff and the effect of climate change and human activities on runoff could provide the basis for the reasonable utilization and management of water resources. Taking the Liujiang River Basin as the research object, the discharge data of hydrological station and meteorological data at 24 meteorological stations in the Guangxi Province as the basis, the variation characteristics of runoff and precipitation in the Liujiang River Basin was analyzed, and the quantitatively effect of climate change and human activities on runoff was proposed. The results showed that runoff and precipitation in the Liujiang River Basin had an increasing trend from 1964 to 2006. Using the method of accumulative anomaly and the orderly cluster method, the runoff series was divided into base period and change period. BP - ANN model and sensitivity coefficient method were used for quantifying the influences of climate change and human activities on runoff. We found that the most important factor which caused an increase trend of discharges in the Liujiang River Basin was precipitation. Human activities were also important factors which influenced the intra-annual distribution of runoff. Precipitation had a more sensitive influence to runoff variation than potential evaporation in the Liujiang River Basin. Key words: Liujiang River Basin, climate change, human activities, BP-ANN, sensitivity coefficient method

  17. Developmental assessment of the multidimensional component in RELAP5 for Savannah River Site thermal hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, R.G.; Johnson, E.C.; Carlson, K.E.; Chou, C.Y.; Davis, C.B.; Martin, R.P.; Riemke, R.A.; Wagner, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This report documents ten developmental assessment problems which were used to test the multidimensional component in RELAP5/MOD2.5, Version 3w. The problems chosen were a rigid body rotation problem, a pure radial symmetric flow problem, an r-θ symmetric flow problem, a fall problem, a rest problem, a basic one-dimensional flow test problem, a gravity wave problem, a tank draining problem, a flow through the center problem, and coverage analysis using PIXIE. The multidimensional code calculations are compared to analytical solutions and one-dimensional code calculations. The discussion section of each problem contains information relative to the code's ability to simulate these problems

  18. Hydrology Analysis and Modelling for Klang River Basin Flood Hazard Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidek, L. M.; Rostam, N. E.; Hidayah, B.; Roseli, ZA; Majid, W. H. A. W. A.; Zahari, N. Z.; Salleh, S. H. M.; Ahmad, R. D. R.; Ahmad, M. N.

    2016-03-01

    Flooding, a common environmental hazard worldwide has in recent times, increased as a result of climate change and urbanization with the effects felt more in developing countries. As a result, the explosive of flooding to Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) substation is increased rapidly due to existing substations are located in flood prone area. By understanding the impact of flood to their substation, TNB has provided the non-structure mitigation with the integration of Flood Hazard Map with their substation. Hydrology analysis is the important part in providing runoff as the input for the hydraulic part.

  19. Analysis of Chinook Salmon in the Columbia River from an Ecosystem Perspective. Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichatowich, James A.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1995-01-01

    Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment (EDT) methodology was applied to the analysis of chinook salmon in the mid-Columbia subbasins which flow through the steppe and steppe-shrub vegetation zones. The EDT examines historical changes in life history diversity related to changes in habitat. The emphasis on life history, habitat and historical context is consistent with and ecosystem perspective. This study is based on the working hypothesis that the decline in chinook salmon was at least in part due to a loss of biodiversity defined as the intrapopulation life history diversity. The mid Columbia subbasins included in the study are the Deschutes, John Day, Umatilla, Tucannon and Yakima.

  20. Analysis of the Water Resources on Baseflow River Basin in Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.-K.; Jung, W.-Y.; Kang, M.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Jeju Island is a volcanic island located at the southernmost of Korea, and is the heaviest raining area in Korea, but due to its hydrological / geological characteristics different from those of inland areas, most streams are of the dry form, and it relies on groundwater for water resources. As for some streams, however, springwater is discharged at a point near the downstream of the final discharge to maintain the flow of the stream; this has been developed as the source for water supply since the past, but the studies on detail observations and analysis are yet inadequate. This study utilizes the ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) hydrometer to regularly observe the flow amount of base run-off stream, and the water resources of base discharge basin of Jeju Island were analyzed using the SWAT (Soil & Water Assessment Tool) model. The detail water resource analysis study using modeling and site observation with high precision for Jeju Island water resources is expected to become the foundation for efficient usage and security of water resources against future climate changes.

  1. SWOT Analysis of Urban Greening Maintenance and Management in the Central Pearl River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanning; ZHENG; Fang; JIANG

    2013-01-01

    We take Shunde District,Foshan City in Guangdong Province for example,to carry out SWOT analysis of urban greening maintenance and management.The strengths of greening management and maintenance in Shunde District are as follows:(i)The greening area and quality are continuously improved in the downtown of Shunde District;(ii)The management and maintenance work is carried out well;(iii)The management and maintenance level tends to be increasingly perfected.The weaknesses of greening management and maintenance are as follows:(i)The fees for greening management and maintenance are very low;(ii)There is corner as yet untouched in the junction of some town streets;(iii)The greening management and maintenance technicians are unprofessional;(iv)The greening management is not in place;(v)There is management vacancy phenomenon in the management and maintenance of regional green space;(vi)The design and construction phase is flawed.Finally,based on the analysis of strengths and weaknesses of greening,we put forth the recommendations for the development of management and maintenance in urban green space.

  2. Trophic interactions of the endangered Southern river otter ( Lontra provocax) in a Chilean Ramsar wetland inferred from prey sampling, fecal analysis, and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Marcela; Guevara, Giovany; Correa, Loreto; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    Non-invasive methodological approaches are highly recommended and commonly used to study the feeding ecology of elusive and threatened mammals. In this study, we use multiple lines of evidence to assess the feeding strategies of the endangered Southern river otter, by determining seasonal prey availability (electrofishing), analysis of undigested prey remains (spraints), and the use of stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) in otter spraints ( n = 262) and prey in a wetland ecosystem of southern Chile (39°49'S, 73°15'W). Fecal and isotopic analyses suggest that the otter diet is restricted to a few prey items, particularly the less-mobile, bottom-living, and larger prey such as crayfish ( Samastacus spinifrons, 86.11 %) and crabs ( Aegla spp., 32.45 %), supplemented opportunistically by cyprinids ( Cyprinus carpio, 9.55 %) and catfish ( Diplomystes camposensis, 5.66 %). The results suggest that the river otter is highly specialized in bottom foraging. Isotopic signatures of food sources and feces revealed a mid-upper trophic position for the Southern river otter, with either higher or lower δ15N values than their potential prey items. δ13C values for river otters were less enriched than their potential food resources. We suggest that due to their narrow trophic niche and possible dependence on only a few food items, this species may be highly vulnerable to the reduction in its prey populations. Finally, maintaining the ecological interactions between Southern river otters and their prey is considered a central priority for the survival of this endangered carnivore mammal.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in water and sediments of Trepça and Sitnica rivers, Kosovo, using pollution indicators and multivariate cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferati, Flora; Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Kraja-Ylli, Arjana

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in water and sediment samples from Trepça and Sitnica rivers were determined to assess the level of contamination. Six water and sediment samples were collected during the period from April to July 2014. Most of the water samples was found within the European and Kosovo permissible limits. The highest concentration of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originates primarily from anthropogenic sources such discharge of industrial water from mining flotation and from the mine waste eroded from the river banks. Sediment contamination assessment was carried out using the pollution indicators such as contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (Cd), modified degree of contamination (mCd), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The CF values for the investigated metals indicated a high contaminated nature of sediments, while the Cd values indicated a very high contamination degree of sediments. The mCd values indicate a high degree of contamination of Sitnica river sediment to ultrahigh degree of contamination of Trepça river sediment. The PLI values ranged from 1.89 to 14.1 which indicate that the heavy metal concentration levels in all investigated sites exceeded the background values and sediment quality guidelines. The average values of Igeo revealed the following ranking of intensity of heavy metal contamination of the Trepça and Sitnica river sediments: Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > Co > Cr > Ni. Cluster analysis suggests that As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly discharges from mining flotation and erosion form waste from a zinc mine plant. In order to protect the sediments from further contamination, the designing of a monitoring network and reducing the anthropogenic discharges are suggested.

  4. Qu'Appelle River Dam, dam break analysis using advanced GIS tools for rapid modelling and inundation mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, D. [Hatch Energy, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Campbell, C. [Saskatchewan Watershed Authority, Moose Jaw, SK (Canada); Groeneveld, J. [Hatch Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The South Saskatchewan River Project (SSRP) comprises a multi-purpose reservoir that provides water for conservation and irrigation, flood control, power generation, recreation, and municipal and industrial water supply. In addition to the 64 m high Gardiner Dam, the 27 m high Qu'Appelle River Dam and the 22 km long Lake Diefenbaker Reservoir, the SSRP also includes ancillary works. The Qu'Appelle River valley extends for 458 km before connecting to the Assiniboine River. The valley is incised up to 90 m in depth and is a popular cottaging and recreational area with several major communities located in the flood plain. In the event of a breach of the Qu'Appelle Dam, the discharge will increase from a normal maximum discharge of under 60 m{sup 3} per second to over 50,000 m{sup 3} per second. The Saskatchewan Watershed Authority (SWA) is responsible for ensuring safe development of the Province's water resources, without affecting reservoir or lake operations, and preventing damage from flooding, erosion or land slides. It is in the process of developing Hazard Assessments and emergency preparedness plans for each of their dams in accordance with the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines. Studies using GIS technology and the hydrodynamic routing model HEC-RAS have been completed to evaluate the potential inundation that may result in the event of failure of the Qu'Appelle River Dam. These studies involved the development of a breach parameter model using a breach data set revised to better reflect the Qu'Appelle River Dam; the development of a dam break model for the Qu'Appelle River Dam and downstream river and flood plain; and, the use of this model to simulate two potential dam failure scenarios for the Qu'Appelle River Dam, notably failure during passage of the PMF and failure during fair weather conditions. Inundation maps have been prepared for the downstream Qu'Appelle River valley for each of the above events. 3 refs., 4

  5. Analysis of land use and climate change impacts by comparing river flow records for headwaters and lowland reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Nasim; Torabi Haghighi, Ali; Kløve, Bjørn

    2017-11-01

    The natural flow regime of rivers has been strongly altered world-wide, resulting in ecosystem degradation and lakes drying up, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Determining whether this is due mainly to climate change or to water withdrawal for direct human use (e.g. irrigation) is difficult, particularly for saline lake basins where hydrology data are scarce. In this study, we developed an approach for assessing climate and land use change impacts based on river flow records for headwater and lowland reaches of rivers, using the case of Lake Urmia basin, in north-westen Iran. Flow regimes at upstream and downstream stations were studied before and after major dam construction and irrigation projects. Data from 57 stations were used to establish five different time intervals representing 10 different land use development periods (scenarios) for upstream (not impacted) and downstream (impacted) systems. An existing river impact (RI) index was used to assess changes in three main characteristics of flow (magnitude, timing and, intra-annual variability). The results showed that irrigation was by far the main driving force for river flow regime changes in the lake basin. All stations close to the lake and on adjacent plains showed significantly higher impacts of land use change than headwaters. As headwaters are relatively unaffected by agriculture, the non-significant changes observed in headwater flow regimes indicate a minor effect of climate change on river flows in the region. The benefit of the method developed is clear interpretation of results based on river flow records, which is useful in communicating land use and climate change information to decision makers and lake restoration planners.

  6. KEY ELEMENTS OF CHARACTERIZING SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE SLUDGE INSOLUBLES THROUGH SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S; Barbara Hamm, B

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of HLW is a prerequisite for effective planning of HLW disposition and site closure performance assessment activities. Adequate characterization typically requires application of a combination of data sources, including process knowledge, theoretical relationships, and real-waste analytical data. Consistently obtaining high quality real-waste analytical data is a challenge, particularly for HLW sludge insolubles, due to the inherent complexities associated with matrix heterogeneities, sampling access limitations, radiological constraints, analyte loss mechanisms, and analyte measurement interferences. Understanding how each of these complexities affects the analytical results is the first step to developing a sampling and analysis program that provides characterization data that are both meaningful and adequate. A summary of the key elements impacting SRS HLW sludge analytical data uncertainties is presented in this paper, along with guidelines for managing each of the impacts. The particular elements addressed include: (a) sample representativeness; (b) solid/liquid phase quantification effectiveness; (c) solids dissolution effectiveness; (d) analyte cross contamination, loss, and tracking; (e) dilution requirements; (f) interference removal; (g) analyte measurement technique; and (h) analytical detection limit constraints. A primary goal of understanding these elements is to provide a basis for quantifying total propagated data uncertainty

  7. Genetic Analysis of Snake River Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka), 2003 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faler, Joyce; Powell, Madison

    2003-12-01

    A total of 1720 Oncorhynchus nerka tissue samples from 40 populations were characterized using mitochondrial DNA RFLPs (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms). Analysis of anadromous sockeye populations indicated the historical presence of four major maternal lineages. Thirty-five composite mitochondrial haplotypes were observed from the 40 populations of O. nerka sampled throughout the Pacific Northwest. Six of these composite haplotypes ranged in frequency from 7-26% overall and were commonly observed in most populations. The six haplotypes together comprised 90% of the sampled O. nerka. An average of 4.6 composite haplotypes were observed per population. Genetic markers used were satisfactory in separating Redfish Lake anadromous sockeye, residual sockeye and outmigrants from the sympatric kokanee population that spawns in the Fishhook Creek tributary. Outmigrants appear to be primarily composed of progeny from resident residual sockeye, and captively-reared progeny of the captive broodstock program. Thus, residual sockeye may be considered a suitable source of genetic variation to maintain genetic diversity among captive broodstocks of anadromous sockeye. Fishhook Creek kokanee are genetically diverse and during spawning, are temporally and spatially isolated from the residual sockeye population. Eleven composite haplotypes were observed in the kokanee population. The unusually high number of haplotypes is most likely a consequence of periodic stocking of Redfish Lake with kokanee from other sources. Genetic data from Redfish Lake creel samples taken during 1996-1999 putatively indicate the incidental take of a listed resident sockeye.

  8. Sediment Budget Analysis and Hazard Assessment in the Peynin, a Small Alpine Catchment (Upper Guil River, Southern Alps, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Benoit; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Fort, Monique; Bouccara, Fanny; Sourdot, Grégoire; Tassel, Adrien; Lissak, Candide; Betard, François; Cossart, Etienne; Madelin, Malika; Viel, Vincent; Charnay, Bérengère; Bletterie, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The upper Guil catchment (Southern Alps) is prone to hydro-geomorphic hazards. Major hazards are related to catastrophic floods, with an amplification of their impacts due to strong hillslope-channel connectivity as observed in 1957 and 2000. In both cases, the rainfall intensity, aggravated by the pre-existing saturated soils, explained the instantaneous response of the fluvial system, such as destabilisation of slopes, high sediment discharge, and subsequent damages to exposed structures and settlements present in the floodplain and at confluence sites. The Peynin junction with the Guil River is one of these sites, where significant land-use change during the last decades in relation to the development of handicraft and tourism economy has increased debris flow threat to population. Here, we adopt a sediment budget analysis aimed at better understanding the functioning of this small subcatchment. This latter offers a combination of factors that favour torrential and gravitational activity. It receives abundant and intense rainfall during "Lombarde" events (moist air mass from Mediterranean Sea). Its elongated shape and small surface area (15 km²) together with asymmetric slopes (counter dip slope on the left bank) accelerate runoff on a short response time. In addition highly tectonised shaly schists supply a large volume of debris (mostly platy clasts and fine, micaceous sediment). The objectives of this study, carried out in the frame of SAMCO (ANR) project, are threefold: Identify the different sediment storages; Characterise the processes that put sediment into motion; Quantify volumes of sediment storages. We produced a geomorphic map using topographic surveys and aerial photos in order to locate the different sediment storage types and associated processes. This analysis was made with respect to geomorphic coupling and sediment flux activity. In terms of surface area, the dominant landforms in the valley were found to be mass wasting, talus slopes and

  9. F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment Updates through the Special Analysis Process at Savannah River Site - 12169

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Mark H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farm (FTF) is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF is in the north-central portion of the SRS and occupies approximately 22 acres within F-Area. The FTF is an active radioactive waste storage facility consisting of 22 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. An FTF Performance Assessment (PA) was prepared to support the eventual closure of the FTF underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. The PA provides the technical basis and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements identified below for final closure of FTF. The FTank Farm is subject to a state industrial waste water permit and Federal Facility Agreement. Closure documentation will include an F-Tank Farm Closure Plan and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the performance assessment. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the Environmental Protection Agency must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. The projected waste tank inventories in the FTF PA provide reasonably bounding FTF inventory projections while taking into account uncertainties in the effectiveness of future tank cleaning technologies. As waste is removed from the FTF waste tanks, the residual contaminants will be sampled and the remaining residual inventory is characterized. In this manner, tank specific data for the tank inventories at closure will be available to supplement the waste tank inventory projections currently used in the FTF PA. For FTF, the new tank specific data

  10. Savannah River Site production reactor safety analysis report. K production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This section provides the structural criteria for the K-Area buildings that are common to Seismic Category I structures. Exceptions to this criteria for specific buildings are given in Sections 3.8.1 through 3.8.4. The original SRS buildings and structures were designed and constructed before current nuclear codes or standards were developed. However, to withstand a bomb attack, a blast-resistant classification and loading were imposed in the structural criteria. The blast-resistant construction of Buildings 105 and 108 provides significant resistance to earthquake and tornado conditions. In fact, this premise was the basis for qualifying the structures classified as Seismic Category I when the buildings were designed and constructed in the 1950s. A classification of buildings and structures according to the blast and seismic resistance criterion is presented in Table 3.8-1. Knowledge gained in seismic technology since the 1950s has resulted in methods and techniques to design and qualify structures and to develop seismic loading for equipment and piping within those structures. Many seismic analyses of SRS buildings and structures have applied the emerging seismic technologies at various levels of sophistication. A review of seismic analyses and qualifications of the K-reactor building, stack building, cooling water reservoir structures, and process effluent sump structure is required to confirm that these structures can resist the postulated design basis earthquake (DBE). If the capacity of a structure to withstand the DBE cannot be confirmed from the review, additional analysis or design modifications are required. Such actions are governed by the Interim Seismic Program. The seismic design basis for the new evaluations is provided in Section 3.7.2

  11. Allozyme analysis of the four species of Hypostomus (Teleostei: Loricariidae from the Ivaí river, upper Paraná river basin, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.16355

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana de Paiva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme electrophoresis analysis were performed in four species of Hypostomus (Loricariidae, H. albopunctatus, H. hermanni, H. regani, e Hypostomus sp. 1/NUP 5612 from the Ivaí river, a tributary of the upper Paraná river. The study of 14 loci revealed diagnostic characters and exclusive alleles in a low frequency. The heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 in H. albopunctatus to 0.199 in H. hermanni, which was higher than the heterozygosity in other samples of Hypostomus in literature, as well as in other fish groups. Hypostomus albopunctatus and H. regani revealed higher similarity (I = 0.804, while H. hermanni and Hypostomus sp. 1/NUP 5612 showed the least genetic identity (I = 0.569. All samples were genetically distinguished, despite there were several shared alleles. The FST value was 0.671, showing a high genetic differentiation among the samples. Hypostomus sp. 1/NUP 5612 was genetically distinguished from the three congeners by the loci Adh-A and G3pdh-B and by present rare exclusive alleles in other six enzymatic systems.

  12. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  13. Analysis on the Change of Grassland Coverage in the Source Region of Three Rivers during 2000-2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Chengfeng; Wang, Jiao; Liu, Meilin; Liu, Zhengjun

    2014-01-01

    The Source Region of Three Rivers (SRTR) has very important ecological functions which form an ecological security barrier for China's Qinghai-Tibet plateau. As the biggest nationally occuring nature reserve region in China, the ecological environment here is very fragile. In SRTR the grassland coverage is an effective detector to reflect the ecological environment condition, because it records the changing process of climatic and environmental sensitively. In recent years SRTR has been suffering pressures from both nature and social pressures. With MODIS data the study monitored the grassland coverage continuously in SRTR from 2000 to 2012. The density-model was adapted to estimate grassland coverage degree firstly. Then the degree of change and the change intensity, change type were used to judge the grassland coverage change trend comprehensively. For grassland coverage there was natural change annual or within the year, and the degree of change was used to judge if there was change or not. The grassland has another important characteristic, annual fluctuation, and it can be differed from sustained changes with change type. For grassland coverage, such continuous change, like improvement or degradation, and to what extent, has more guidance sense on specific production practice. On the base of change type and degree of change, change intensity was used to identify the change trend of the grassland coverage. The