WorldWideScience

Sample records for ritonavir amprenavir saquinavir

  1. The effect of fluconazole on ritonavir and saquinavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-1-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koks, C. H.; Crommentuyn, K. M.; Hoetelmans, R. M.; Burger, D. M.; Koopmans, P. P.; Mathôt, R. A.; Mulder, J. W.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of fluconazole on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the protease inhibitors ritonavir and saquinavir in HIV-1-infected patients. Five subjects treated with saquinavir and three with ritonavir received the protease inhibitor alone (saquinavir 1200 mg three times daily,

  2. Once-daily dosing of saquinavir and low-dose ritonavir in HIV-1-infected individuals: a pharmacokinetic pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heeswijk, R. P.; Veldkamp, A. I.; Mulder, J. W.; Meenhorst, P. L.; Lange, J. M.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hoetelmans, R. M.

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the steady-state pharmacokinetics of a once-daily dosing regimen of saquinavir soft gelatin capsules in combination with a low dose of ritonavir in HIV-1-infected individuals. Open-label, multi-dose, pharmacokinetic pilot study. Seven HIV-1-infected individuals who were treated with

  3. Effect of six antiretroviral drugs (delavirdine, stavudine, lamivudine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in association) on albino pregnant rats (Rattus norvegicus Albinus, Rodentia, Mammalia): biological assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, M U; Araujo Júnior, E; Simões, J M; Oliveria, R M Filho; Kulay, L Júnior

    2014-08-01

    To compare the chronic effects of antiretrovirals (lamivudine, stavudine, delavirdine, nelfinavir, amprenavir and an association of lopinavir/ritonavir) on albino pregnant rats. Review. Department of Obstetrics, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. This was a comparative retrospective study formed by 18 groups of 10 pregnant rats each, which were nearly three months of age and weighed 200 g. All of them were medicated every day using a stomach probe, while the control group was given 1 mL of distilled water. The study groups received lamivudine (at 5, 15 and 45 mg/kg/day); stavudine (at 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg/day); nelfinavir (at 40, 120 and 360 mg/kg/day); amprenavir (at 46, 138 and 414 mg/kg/day); lopinavir/ritonavir (at 12.8/3.2, 38.4/9.6 and 115/28.8 mg/kg/day) and delavirdine (at 20 and 60 mg/kg/day). These represented 1, 3 and 9 times the human therapeutic dose, except for the last drug, for which the 9-times dose was not used. Maternal, litter and placental weights, implantation and reabsorption numbers, major external fetal malformations and fetal and maternal deaths were evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare quantitative variables and the chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables. At all three doses, stavudine increased the maternal weight (p=0.001), while lamivudine at 3- and 9-times doses reduced it (p0.05). Stavudine at all doses reduced the litter weights (p<0.001); however, lamivudine at the usual and 3-times doses, delavirdine at 3-times dose, and amprenavir at 3-times dose increased the litter weight (p<0.001). In the maternal compartment, we observed lethal toxicity in the pregnant rats that received amprenavir and ritonavir/lopinavir; and maternal weight change with lamivudine and stavudine. In the fetal compartment, adverse effects were observed in relation to litter weight from stavudine, lamivudine, delavirdine and amprenavir.

  4. A randomized trial comparing initial HAART regimens of nelfinavir/nevirapine and ritonavir/saquinavir in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D; Pedersen, Court

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A triple-class HAART regimen may be associated with a better virological effect than conventional regimens, but may also lead to toxicity and more profound resistance. METHODS: Randomized, controlled, open-label trial of 233 protease inhibitor- and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase...... inhibitor-naive HIV-infected patients allocated to a regimen of nelfinavir and nevirapine (1250/200 mg twice daily; n = 118) or ritonavir and saquinavir (400/400 mg twice daily; n = 115), both in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. The primary end-point was HIV RNA ... the long-term consequences of triple class HAART regimens, including the development of broad drug resistance....

  5. Ketoconazole is inferior to ritonavir as an alternative booster for saquinavir in a once daily regimen in Thai HIV-1 infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autar, Reshma Saskia; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Sankote, Jongkol; Sutthichom, Duanghathai; Kimenai, Elly; Hassink, Elly; Hill, Andrew; Cooper, David A.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Lange, Joep M. A.; Burger, David M.; Ruxrungtham, Kiat

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve the pharmacokinetics of protease inhibitors, boosting with low-dose ritonavir is performed. However, toxicity, storage conditions and high costs of antiretroviral treatment may necessitate interruption of ritonavir. Ketoconazole was investigated as a potential booster of

  6. Ketoconazole is inferior to ritonavir as an alternative booster for saquinavir in a once daily regimen in Thai HIV-1 infected patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Autar, R.S.; Wit, F.W.; Sankote, J.; Sutthichom, D.; Kimenai, E.; Hassink, E.A.M.; Hill, A.; Cooper, D.A.; Phanuphak, P.; Lange, J.M.A.; Burger, D.M.; Ruxrungtham, K.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve the pharmacokinetics of protease inhibitors, boosting with low-dose ritonavir is performed. However, toxicity, storage conditions and high costs of antiretroviral treatment may necessitate interruption of ritonavir. Ketoconazole was investigated as a potential booster of

  7. Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatographic Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of six human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors, indinavir, saquinavir, ritonavir, amprenavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir, was developed and validated. Optimal separation was achieved on a PLRP-S 100 Å, 250 x 4.6 mm I.D. column maintained ...

  8. Clinical outcome among HIV-infected patients starting saquinavir hard gel compared to ritonavir or indinavir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Mocroft, A; Pradier, C

    2001-01-01

    -up within the EuroSIDA study. METHODS: Changes in plasma viral load (pVL) and CD4 cell count from baseline were compared between treatment groups. Time to new AIDS-defining events and death were compared in Kaplan--Meier models, and Cox models were established to further assess differences in clinical...

  9. Anticancer Effects of the Nitric Oxide-Modified Saquinavir Derivative Saquinavir-NO against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Rothweiler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir shows anticancer activity. Although its nitric oxide-modified derivative saquinavir-NO (saq-NO was less toxic to normal cells, it exerted stronger inhibition of B16 melanoma growth in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice than saquinavir did. Saq-NO has been shown to block proliferation, upregulate p53 expression, and promote differentiation of C6 glioma and B16 cells. The anticancer activity of substances is frequently hampered by cancer cell chemoresistance mechanisms. Therefore, we here investigated the roles of p53 and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1, and breast cancer resistance protein 1 (BCRP1 in cancer cell sensitivity to saq-NO to get more information about the potential of saq-NO as anticancer drug. Saq-NO exerted anticancer effects in lower concentrations than saquinavir in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Neither p53 mutation or depletion nor expression of P-gp, MRP1, or BCRP1 affected anticancer activity of saq-NO or saquinavir. Moreover, saq-NO sensitized P-gp-, MRP1-, or BCRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy. Saq-NO induced enhanced sensitization of P-gp- or MRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy compared with saquinavir, whereas both substances similarly sensitized BCRP1-expressing cells. Washout kinetics and ABC transporter ATPase activities demonstrated that saq-NO is a substrate of P-gp as well as of MRP1. These data support the further investigation of saq-NO as an anticancer drug, especially in multidrug-resistant tumors.

  10. Anticancer Effects of the Nitric Oxide-Modified Saquinavir Derivative Saquinavir-NO against Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothweiler, Florian; Michaelis, Martin; Brauer, Peter; Otte, Jürgen; Weber, Kristoffer; Fehse, Boris; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm; Wiese, Michael; Kreuter, Jörg; Al-Abed, Yousef; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Cinatl, Jindrich

    2010-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor saquinavir shows anticancer activity. Although its nitric oxide-modified derivative saquinavir-NO (saq-NO) was less toxic to normal cells, it exerted stronger inhibition of B16 melanoma growth in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice than saquinavir did. Saq-NO has been shown to block proliferation, upregulate p53 expression, and promote differentiation of C6 glioma and B16 cells. The anticancer activity of substances is frequently hampered by cancer cell chemoresistance mechanisms. Therefore, we here investigated the roles of p53 and the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and breast cancer resistance protein 1 (BCRP1) in cancer cell sensitivity to saq-NO to get more information about the potential of saq-NO as anticancer drug. Saq-NO exerted anticancer effects in lower concentrations than saquinavir in a panel of human cancer cell lines. Neither p53 mutation or depletion nor expression of P-gp, MRP1, or BCRP1 affected anticancer activity of saq-NO or saquinavir. Moreover, saq-NO sensitized P-gp-, MRP1-, or BCRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy. Saq-NO induced enhanced sensitization of P-gp- or MRP1-expressing cancer cells to chemotherapy compared with saquinavir, whereas both substances similarly sensitized BCRP1-expressing cells. Washout kinetics and ABC transporter ATPase activities demonstrated that saq-NO is a substrate of P-gp as well as of MRP1. These data support the further investigation of saq-NO as an anticancer drug, especially in multidrug-resistant tumors. PMID:21170266

  11. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of delavirdine in combination with amprenavir in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik S; Klitgaard, Niels A; Brosen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate different dose combinations of amprenavir and delavirdine in order to assess an optimal dose suitable for clinical use. METHODS: This was a prospective, open-label, controlled, three-period, multiple-dose study with nine healthy volunteers. The volunteers received three...

  12. The protease inhibitors ritonavir and saquinavir influence lipid metabolism: a pig model for the rapid evaluation of new drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, E.; Mu, Huiling; Porsgaard, Trine

    2010-01-01

    a general decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids; changes in both saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids were also apparent after antiretroviral treatment. The changes were observed after 4 weeks of treatment. At 4 weeks post-treatment, the levels of all fatty acids were lower compared with pretreatment...

  13. Effect of fosamprenavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of dolutegravir in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ivy; Borland, Julie; Chen, Shuguang; Peppercorn, Amanda; Wajima, Toshihiro; Piscitelli, Stephen C

    2014-11-01

    Dolutegravir (DTG) is an HIV integrase inhibitor (INI) with demonstrated activity in INI-naive and INI-resistant patients. The objective of this open-label, 2-period, single-sequence study was to evaluate the effect of fosamprenavir-ritonavir (FPV-RTV) on the steady-state plasma pharmacokinetics of DTG. Twelve healthy subjects received 50 mg DTG once daily for 5 days (period 1), followed by 10 days of 50 mg DTG once daily in combination with 700/100 mg FPV-RTV every 12 h (period 2). All doses were administered in the fasting state. Serial pharmacokinetic samples for DTG and amprenavir and safety assessments were obtained throughout the study. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed, and geometric least-squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals were generated for within-subject treatment comparison. Fosamprenavir-ritonavir decreased the DTG area under the concentration-time curve, maximum concentration in plasma, and concentration in plasma at the end of the dosing interval by 35%, 24%, and 49%, respectively. Both DTG and DTG with FPV-RTV were well tolerated; no subject withdrew because of adverse events. The most frequently reported drug-related adverse events were rash, abnormal dreams, and nasopharyngitis. The modest decrease in DTG exposure when it was coadministered with FPV-RTV is not considered clinically significant, and DTG dose adjustment is not required with coadministration of FPV-RTV in INI-naive patient populations on the basis of established "no-effect" boundaries of DTG. In the INI-resistant population, as a cautionary measure, alternative combinations that do not include FPV-RTV should be considered. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01209065.). Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Energetic basis for drug resistance of HIV-1 protease mutants against amprenavir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Parimal; Knecht, Volker

    2012-02-01

    Amprenavir (APV) is a high affinity (0.15 nM) HIV-1 protease (PR) inhibitor. However, the affinities of the drug resistant protease variants V32I, I50V, I54V, I54M, I84V and L90M to amprenavir are decreased 3 to 30-fold compared to the wild-type. In this work, the popular molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method has been used to investigate the effectiveness of amprenavir against the wild-type and these mutated protease variants. Our results reveal that the protonation state of Asp25/Asp25' strongly affects the dynamics, the overall affinity and the interactions of the inhibitor with individual residues. We emphasize that, in contrast to what is often assumed, the protonation state may not be inferred from the affinities but requires pKa calculations. At neutral pH, Asp25 and Asp25' are ionized or protonated, respectively, as suggested from pKa calculations. This protonation state was thus mainly considered in our study. Mutation induced changes in binding affinities are in agreement with the experimental findings. The decomposition of the binding free energy reveals the mechanisms underlying binding and drug resistance. Drug resistance arises from an increase in the energetic contribution from the van der Waals interactions between APV and PR (V32I, I50V, and I84V mutant) or a rise in the energetic contribution from the electrostatic interactions between the inhibitor and its target (I54M and I54V mutant). For the V32I mutant, also an increased free energy for the polar solvation contributes to the drug resistance. For the L90M mutant, a rise in the van der Waals energy for APV-PR interactions is compensated by a decrease in the polar solvation free energy such that the net binding affinity remains unchanged. Detailed understanding of the molecular forces governing binding and drug resistance might assist in the design of new inhibitors against HIV-1 PR variants that are resistant against current drugs.

  15. Enhanced systemic exposure of saquinavir via the concomitant use of curcumin-loaded solid dispersion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Sung-Whan; Choi, Hoo-Kyun; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2013-08-16

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of curcumin-loaded solid dispersion on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir in rats. Solid dispersion (SD) formulation was prepared with Solutol® HS15 to improve the solubility and bioavailability of curcumin. Subsequently, its inhibition effect on P-gp mediated cellular efflux was examined by using NCI/ADR-RES cells overexpressing P-gp. Compared to the untreated curcumin, SD formulation enhanced the cellular uptake of rhodamine-123, a P-gp substrate by approximately 3 folds in NCI/ADR-RES cells. The oral and intravenous pharmacokinetics of saquinavir were also determined in rats with/without curcumin in the different formulations. Compared to the control given saquinavir alone, curcumin-loaded solid dispersion significantly (p<0.05) increased the oral exposure of saquinavir in rats, while it did not affect the intravenous pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. The AUC and Cmax of oral saquinavir increased by 3.8- and 2.7-folds, respectively in the presence of curcumin-loaded solid dispersion. In contrast, the untreated curcumin did not affect the oral pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. These results suggest that SD formulation of curcumin should be effective to improve the in vivo effectiveness of curcumin as an absorption enhancer, leading to the improved oral exposure of saquinavir. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ritonavir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Theo 24, Uniphyl, others); thioridazine; vinblastine; vincristine; and zolpidem (Ambien, Edluar, Intermezzo, others). Many other medications may ... taking medications to treat HIV infection, your immune system may get stronger and begin to fight other ...

  17. Improved Oral Bioavailability and Brain Transport of Saquinavir Upon Administration in Novel Nanoemulsion Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Tushar K.; Shahiwala, Aliasgar; Amiji, Mansoor M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop novel oil-in-water (o/w) nanoemulsions containing saquinavir (SQV), an anti-HIV protease inhibitor, for enhanced oral bioavailability and brain disposition. SQV was dissolved in different types of edible oils rich in essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to constitute the internal oil phase of the nanoemulsions. The external phase consisted of surfactants Lipoid®-80 and deoxycholic acid dissolved in water. The nanoemulsions with an average o...

  18. Estimation of population pharmacokinetic parameters of saquinavir in HIV patients with the MONOLIX software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavielle, Marc; Mentré, France

    2007-04-01

    In nonlinear mixed-effects models, estimation methods based on a linearization of the likelihood are widely used although they have several methodological drawbacks. Kuhn and Lavielle (Comput. Statist. Data Anal. 49:1020-1038 (2005)) developed an estimation method which combines the SAEM (Stochastic Approximation EM) algorithm, with a MCMC (Markov Chain Monte Carlo) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation in nonlinear mixed-effects models without linearization. This method is implemented in the Matlab software MONOLIX which is available at http://www.math.u-psud.fr/~lavielle/monolix/logiciels. In this paper we apply MONOLIX to the analysis of the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir, a protease inhibitor, from concentrations measured after single dose administration in 100 HIV patients, some with advance disease. We also illustrate how to use MONOLIX to build the covariate model using the Bayesian Information Criterion. Saquinavir oral clearance (CL/F) was estimated to be 1.26 L/h and to increase with body mass index, the inter-patient variability for CL/F being 120%. Several methodological developments are ongoing to extend SAEM which is a very promising estimation method for population pharmacockinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses.

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir/ritonavir in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lambert, J S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine total and unbound lopinavir (LPV) plasma concentrations in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving lopinavir\\/ritonavir (LPV\\/r tablet) undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) during pregnancy and postpartum.

  20. Transport mechanism of lipid covered saquinavir pure drug nanoparticles in intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; He, Yuan; Li, Qiuxia

    2018-01-01

    are transported. To improve cellular uptake and transport of pure nanodrug in cells, here, a lipid covered saquinavir (SQV) pure drug NP (Lipo@nanodrug) was designed by modifying a pure SQV NP (nanodrug) with a phospholipid bilayer. We studied their endocytosis, intracellular trafficking mechanism using Caco-2...... their intracellular processing, helping to improve drug transport across intestinal epithelium. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of the novel phospholipid bilayer covered SQV pure drug NP design, and a mechanistic study on intracellular trafficking in in vitro cell models has been described......Pure drug nanoparticles (NPs) represent a promising formulation for improved drug solubility and controlled dissolution velocity. However, limited absorption by the intestinal epithelium remains challenge to their clinical application, and little is known about how these NPs within the cells...

  1. Identification and Structural Characterization of I84C and I84A Mutations That Are Associated with High-Level Resistance to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Protease Inhibitors and Impair Viral Replication▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Hongmei; Parkin, Neil; Stewart, Kent D.; Lu, Liangjun; Dekhtyar, Tatyana; Kempf, Dale J.; Molla, Akhteruzzaman

    2007-01-01

    Two novel human immunodeficiency virus protease mutations, I84C and I84A, were identified in patient isolates. The mutants with I84C displayed high-level resistance (median, at least 56-fold) to nelfinavir and saquinavir, but the majority remained susceptible to lopinavir. In contrast, isolates with the I84A mutation exhibited ≥33-fold median increased levels of resistance to nelfinavir, indinavir, amprenavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, saquinavir, and atazanavir. Isolates with the I84A or I84C mutation tended to be more resistant than the isolates with the I84V mutation. Modeling of the structure of the mutant proteases indicated that the I84V, I84C, and I84A mutations all create unoccupied volume in the active site, with I84A introducing the greatest change in the accessible surface area from that of the wild-type structure. PMID:17101675

  2. Novel intravaginal nanomedicine for the targeted delivery of saquinavir to CD4+ immune cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang S

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sidi Yang,1,2 Yufei Chen,1,2 Kaien Gu,1,2 Alicia Dash,1,2 Casey L Sayre,1 Neal M Davies,1 Emmanuel A Ho1,2 1Faculty of Pharmacy, 2Laboratory for Drug Delivery and Biomaterials, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Abstract: The goal of this study was to develop and characterize an intravaginal nanomedicine for the active targeted delivery of saquinavir (SQV to CD4+ immune cells as a potential strategy to prevent or reduce HIV infection. The nanomedicine was formulated into a vaginal gel to provide ease in self-administration and to enhance retention within the vaginal tract. SQV-encapsulated nanoparticles (SQV-NPs were prepared from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid(PLGA and conjugated to antihuman anti-CD4 antibody. Antibody-conjugated SQV-NPs (Ab-SQV-NPs had an encapsulation efficiency (EE% of 74.4% ± 3.7% and an antibody conjugation efficiency (ACE% of 80.95% ± 1.10%. Over 50% of total loaded SQV was released from NPs over 3 days. NPs were rapidly taken up by Sup-T1 cells, with more than a twofold increase in the intracellular levels of SQV when delivered by Ab-SQV-NPs in comparison to controls 1 hour post-treatment. No cytotoxicity was observed when vaginal epithelial cells were treated for 24 hours with drug-free Ab-NPs (1,000 µg/mL, 1% HEC placebo gel (200 mg/mL, or 1% HEC gel loaded with drug-free Ab-NPs (5 mg NPs/g gel, 200 mg/mL of gel mixture. Overall, we described an intravaginal nanomedicine that is nontoxic and can specifically deliver SQV into CD4+ immune cells. This platform may demonstrate potential utility in its application as postexposure prophylaxis for the treatment or reduction of HIV infection, but further studies are required. Keywords: nanoparticles, saquinavir, antibody conjugation, intravaginal gel, HIV/AIDS, microbicide

  3. Insights into the mechanism of drug resistance: X-ray structure analysis of G48V/C95F tethered HIV-1 protease dimer/saquinavir complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prashar, Vishal; Bihani, Subhash C.; Das, Amit; Rao, D.R.; Hosur, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    The mutation G48V in HIV-1 protease is a major resistance mutation against the drug saquinavir. Recently, G48V mutation is found to co-exist with the mutation C95F in AIDS patients treated with saquinavir. We report here the three-dimensional crystal structure of G48V/C95F tethered HIV-1 protease/saquinavir complex. The structure indicates following as the possible causes of drug resistance: (1) loss of direct van der Waals interactions between saquinavir and enzyme residues PHE-53 and PRO-1081, (2) loss of water-mediated hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl oxygen atoms in saquinavir and amide nitrogen atoms of flap residues 50 and 1050, (3) changes in inter-monomer interactions, which could affect the energetics of domain movements associated with inhibitor-binding, and (4) significant reduction in the stability of the mutant dimer. The present structure also provides a rationale for the clinical observation that the resistance mutations C95F/G48V/V82A occur as a cluster in AIDS patients.

  4. Therapeutic drug monitoring of atazanavir/ritonavir in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Else, L J

    2014-11-01

    Pregnant women experience physiological changes during pregnancy that can have a significant impact on antiretroviral pharmacokinetics. Ensuring optimal plasma concentrations of antiretrovirals is essential for maternal health and to minimize the risk of vertical transmission. Here we describe atazanavir\\/ritonavir (ATV\\/r) plasma concentrations in a cohort of pregnant women undergoing routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM).

  5. Interaction of dipeptide prodrugs of saquinavir with multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2): evasion of MRP-2 mediated efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ritesh; Agarwal, Sheetal; Mandava, Nanda Kishore; Sheng, Ye; Mitra, Ashim K

    2008-10-01

    Saquinavir (SQV), the first protease inhibitor approved by FDA to treat HIV-1 infection. This drug is a well-known substrate for multidrug resistance protein-2 (MRP-2). The objective of this study was to investigate whether derivatization of SQV to dipeptide prodrugs, valine-valine-saquinavir (Val-Val-SQV) and glycine-valine-saquinavir (Gly-Val-SQV), targeting peptide transporter can circumvent MRP-2 mediated efflux. Uptake and transport studies were carried out across MDCKII-MRP2 cell monolayers to investigate the interaction of SQV and its prodrugs with MRP-2. In situ single pass intestinal perfusion experiments in rat jejunum were performed to calculate intestinal absorption rate constants and permeabilities of SQV, Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV. Uptake studies demonstrated that the prodrugs have significantly lower interaction with MRP-2 relative to SQV. Transepithelial transport of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV across MDCKII-MRP2 cells exhibited an enhanced absorptive flux and reduced secretory flux as compared to SQV. Intestinal perfusion studies revealed that synthesized prodrugs have higher intestinal permeabilities relative to SQV. Enhanced absorption of Val-Val-SQV and Gly-Val-SQV relative to SQV can be attributed to their translocation by the peptide transporter in the jejunum. In the presence of MK-571, a MRP family inhibitor, there was a significant increase in the permeabilities of SQV and Gly-Val-SQV indicating that these compounds are probably substrates for MRP-2. However, there was no change in the permeability of Val-Val-SQV with MK-571 indicating lack of any interaction of Val-Val-SQV with MRP-2. In conclusion, peptide transporter targeted prodrug modification of MRP-2 substrates may lead to shielding of these drug molecules from MRP-2 efflux pumps.

  6. EFFECT OF ULTRA-HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION ON THE INTERACTION BETWEEN BOVINE CASEIN MICELLES AND RITONAVIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo-Martínez, M.; Mohan, M.; Dunlap, J.; Harte, F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this work was to develop a milk-based powder formulation appropriate for pediatric delivery of ritonavir (RIT). Methods Ultra-high pressure homogenization (UHPH) at 0.1, 300 and 500 MPa was used to process a dispersion of pasteurized skim milk (SM) and ritonavir. Loading efficiency was determined by RP-HPLC-UV; characterization of RIT:SM systems was carried out by apparent average hydrodynamic diameter and rheological measurements as well as different analytical techniques including Trp fluorescence, UV spectroscopy, DSC, FTIR and SEM; and delivery capacity of casein micelles was determined by in vitro experiments promoting ritonavir release. Results Ritonavir interacted efficiently with milk proteins, especially, casein micelles, regardless of the processing pressure; however, results suggest that, at 0.1 MPa, ritonavir interacts with caseins at the micellar surface, whilst, at 300 and 500 MPa, ritonavir is integrated to the protein matrix during UHPH treatment. Likewise, in vitro experiments showed that ritonavir release from micellar casein systems is pH dependent; with a high retention of ritonavir during simulated gastric digestion and a rapid delivery under conditions simulating the small intestine environment. Conclusions Skim milk powder, especially, casein micelles are potentially suitable and efficient carrier systems to develop novel milk-based and low-ethanol powder formulations of ritonavir appropriate for pediatric applications. PMID:25270571

  7. Gemfibrozil Concentrations are Significantly Decreased in the Presence of Lopinavir/ritonavir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Kristin H.; Hadigan, Colleen; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M.; Formentini, Elizabeth; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Penzak, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of a two-week course of lopinavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of the triglyceride-lowering agent, gemfibrozil. Methods: The study was conducted as an open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers. Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetic parameter values were compared using a students t test after a single 600 mg dose was administered to healthy volunteers before, and after two weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily. Results: Fifteen healthy volunteers (8 males) completed the study. All study drugs were generally well-tolerated and no subjects withdrew participation. The geometric mean ratio (GMR, 90% CI) for gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir compared to baseline was 0.59 (0.52, 0.67) (P gemfibrozil AUC0-∞ after lopinavir-ritonavir (range: −6% to −74%). The GMRs for gemfibrozil apparent oral clearance (Cl/F) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 1.69 (1.41, 1.97) and 0.67 (0.49, 0.86) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir versus baseline, respectively (P Gemfibrozil elimination half-life did not change after lopinavir-ritonavir administration (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly reduced the systemic exposure of gemfibrozil by reducing gemfibrozil absorption. Clinicians treating HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridemia should be aware of this drug interaction. PMID:19648824

  8. Gemfibrozil concentrations are significantly decreased in the presence of lopinavir-ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Kristin H; Hadigan, Colleen; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M; Formentini, Elizabeth; Kovacs, Joseph A; Penzak, Scott R

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of a 2-week course of lopinavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of the triglyceride-lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The study was conducted as an open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers. Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetic parameter values were compared using a Student t test after a single 600-mg dose was administered to healthy volunteers before and after 2 weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily. Fifteen healthy volunteers (eight males) completed the study. All study drugs were generally well tolerated and no subjects withdrew participation. The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval) for gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir compared with baseline was 0.59 (0.52, 0.67) (P gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve after lopinavir-ritonavir (range, -6% to -74%). The geometric mean ratios for gemfibrozil apparent oral clearance and maximum concentration were 1.69 (1.41, 1.97) and 0.67 (0.49, 0.86) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir versus baseline, respectively (P Gemfibrozil elimination half-life did not change after lopinavir-ritonavir administration (P = 0.60). Lopinavir-ritonavir significantly reduced the systemic exposure of gemfibrozil by reducing gemfibrozil absorption. Clinicians treating HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridemia should be aware of this drug interaction.

  9. The history of antiretrovirals: key discoveries over the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Erik

    2009-09-01

    Within 25 years after zidovudine (3'-azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine, AZT) was first described as an inhibitor of HIV replication, 25 anti-HIV drugs have been formally approved for clinical use in the treatment of HIV infections: seven nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs): zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir and emtricitabine; one nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI): tenofovir [in its oral prodrug form: tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)]; four non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs): nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz and etravirine; ten protease inhibitors (PIs): saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir and darunavir; one fusion inhibitor (FI): enfuvirtide; one co-receptor inhibitor (CRI): maraviroc and one integrase inhibitor (INI): raltegravir. These compounds are used in various drug combination (some at fixed dose) regimens so as to achieve the highest possible benefit and tolerability, and to diminish the risk of virus-drug resistance development. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs in anatomical sanctuary sites: the male and female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Laura J; Taylor, Stephen; Back, David J; Khoo, Saye H

    2011-01-01

    HIV resides within anatomical 'sanctuary sites', where local drug exposure and viral dynamics may differ significantly from the systemic compartment. Suboptimal antiretroviral concentrations in the genital tract may result in compartmentalized viral replication, selection of resistant mutations and possible re-entry of wild-type/resistant virus into the systemic circulation. Therefore, achieving adequate antiretroviral exposure in the genital tract has implications for the prevention of sexual and vertical transmission of HIV. Penetration of antiretrovirals in the genital tract is expressed by accumulation ratios derived from the measurement of drug concentrations in time-matched seminal plasma/cervicovaginal fluid and plasma samples. Penetration varies by gender and may be drug (as opposed to class) specific with high interindividual variability. Concentrations in seminal plasma are highest for nucleoside analogues and lowest for protease inhibitors and efavirenz. Seminal accumulation of newer agents, raltegravir and maraviroc, is moderate (rank order of accumulation is nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [lamivudine/zidovudine/tenofovir/didanosine > stavudine/abacavir] > raltegravir > indinavir/maraviroc/nevirapine > efavirenz/protease inhibitors [amprenavir/atazanavir/darunavir > lopinavir/ritonavir > saquinavir] > enfuvirtide). In the female genital tract, the nucleoside analogues exhibit high accumulation ratios, whereas protease inhibitors have limited penetration; however, substantial variability exists between individuals and study centres. Second generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor etravirine, and maraviroc and raltegravir, demonstrate effective accumulation in cervicovaginal secretions (rank order of accumulation is nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [zidovudine/lamivudine/didanosine > emtricitabine/tenofovir] > indinavir > maraviroc/raltegravir/darunavir/etravirine > nevirapine

  11. Antitumor action of temozolomide, ritonavir and aprepitant against human glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Richard E; Ramiro, Susana; Lladó, Sandra; Toro, Salvador; Coveñas, Rafael; Muñoz, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    In the effort to find better treatments for glioblastoma we tested several currently marketed non-chemotherapy drugs for their ability to enhance the standard cytotoxic drug currently used to treat glioblastoma- temozolomide. We tested four antiviral drugs- acyclovir, cidofovir, maraviroc, ritonavir, and an anti-emetic, aprepitant. We found no cytotoxicity of cidofovir and discussed possible reasons for discrepancy from previous findings of others. We also found no cytotoxicity from acyclovir or maraviroc also in contradistinction to predictions. Cytotoxicity to glioma cell line GAMG for temozolomide alone was 14%, aprepitant alone 7%, ritonavir alone 14%, while temozolomide + aprepitant was 19%, temozolomide + ritonavir 34%, ritonavir + aprepitant 64 %, and all three, temozolomide + ritonavir + aprepitant 78%. We conclude that a remarkable synergy exists between aprepitant and ritonavir. Given the long clinical experience with these two well-tolerated drugs in treating non-cancer conditions, and the current median survival of glioblastoma of 2 years, a trial is warranted of adding these two simple drugs to current standard treatment with temozolomide.

  12. The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir is potentially active against urological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato A

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Akinori Sato Department of Urology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Japan Abstract: The human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir has recently been shown to have antineoplastic activity, and its use in urological malignancies is under investigation with an eye toward drug repositioning. Ritonavir is thought to exert its antineoplastic activity by inhibiting multiple signaling pathways, including the Akt and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways. It can increase the amount of unfolded proteins in the cell by inhibiting both the proteasome and heat shock protein 90. Combinations of ritonavir with agents that increase the amount of unfolded proteins, such as proteasome inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors, or heat shock protein 90 inhibitors, therefore, induce endoplasmic reticulum stress cooperatively and thereby kill cancer cells effectively. Ritonavir is also a potent cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibitor, increasing the intracellular concentration of combined drugs by inhibiting their degradation and efflux from cancer cells and thereby enhancing their antineoplastic activity. Furthermore, riotnavir’s antineoplastic activity includes modulation of immune system activity. Therapies using ritonavir are thus an attractive new approach to cancer treatment and, due to their novel mechanisms of action, are expected to be effective against malignancies that are refractory to current treatment strategies. Further investigations using ritonavir are expected to find new uses for clinically available drugs in the treatment of urological malignancies as well as many other types of cancer. Keywords: drug repositioning, novel treatment

  13. Lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of HIV-1 infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chandwani

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ashish Chandwani1, Jonathan Shuter21Division of Infectious Diseases, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 2AIDS Center and Division of Infectious Diseases, Montefiore Medical Center and the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: Lopinavir/ritonavir is the first and only coformulated HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI. Large clinical trials have demonstrated lopinavir/ritonavir’s clinical efficacy in both antiretroviral-naïve and -experienced patients. The immunologic and virologic benefits of treatment with this agent have been proven in HIV-infected adults, adolescents, and children. Smaller studies support the use of lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy as a therapeutic option in certain patients. The drug is characterized by a high genetic barrier to resistance, and appears to be more forgiving of non-adherence than earlier, unboosted PIs. The most frequent side effects observed are diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. These gastrointestinal adverse effects are generally mild to moderate. Metabolic derangements, including hyperlipidemia and glucose intolerance, have also been observed in lopinavir/ritonavir recipients. As the menu of available antiretroviral agents continues to expand, lopinavir/ritonavir remains a proven and effective drug for the treatment of HIV infection.Keywords: lopinavir/ritonavir, protease inhibitor, HIV, antiretroviral, Kaletra®

  14. Cost-effectiveness analysis of lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir+ritonavir regimens in the CASTLE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kit N; Rajagopalan, Rukmini; Dietz, Birgitta

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis and budget impact analysis comparing lopinavir with ritonavir (LPV/r) and atazanavir plus ritonavir (ATV+RTV) for antiretroviral-naïve patients with a baseline CD4+ T-cell distribution and total cholesterol (TC) profile as reported in the CASTLE study. This decision analysis study used a previously published Markov model of HIV disease, incorporating coronary heart disease (CHD) events to compare the short- and long-term budget impacts and CHD consequences expected for the two regimens. Patients were assumed to have a baseline CHD risk of 4.6% (based on demographic data) and it was also assumed that 50% of the population in the CASTLE study were smokers. The CHD risk differences (based on percent of patients with TC >240 mg/dL) in favor of ATV+RTV resulted in an average improvement in life expectancy of 0.031 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) (11 days), and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $1,409,734/QALY. Use of the LPV/r regimen saved $24,518 and $36,651 at 5 and 10 years, respectively, with lifetime cost savings estimated at $38,490. A sensitivity analysis using a cohort of all smokers on antihypertensive medication estimated an average improvement in life expectancy of 31 quality-adjusted days in favor of ATV+RTV, and a cost-effectiveness ratio of $520,861/QALY: a ratio that is still above the acceptable limit within the US. The use of an LPV/r-based regimen in antiretroviral-naïve patients with a baseline CHD risk similar to patients in the CASTLE study appears to be a more cost-effective use of resources compared with an ATV+RTV-based regimen. The very small added CHD risk predicted by LPV/r treatment is more than offset by the substantial short- and long-term cost savings expected with the use of LPV/r in antiretroviral-naïve individuals with average to moderately elevated CHD risk.

  15. Influence of Carrier (Polymer Type and Drug-Carrier Ratio in the Development of Amorphous Dispersions for Solubility and Permeability Enhancement of Ritonavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek S. Dave

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the ratio of Eudragit® L100-55 or Kolliphor® P188 on the solubility, dissolution, and permeability of ritonavir was studied with a goal of preparing solid dispersions (SDs of ritonavir. SDs were formulated using solvent evaporation or lyophilization techniques, and evaluated for their physical-chemical properties. The dissolution and permeability assessments of the functionality of the SDs were carried out. The preliminary functional stability of these formulations was assessed at accelerated storage conditions for a period of six months. Ritonavir: Eudragit® L100-55 (RE, 1:3 SD showed a 36-fold higher ritonavir solubility compared to pure ritonavir. Similarly, ritonavir: Kolliphor® P188 (RP, 1:2 SD exhibited a 49-fold higher ritonavir solubility compared to pure ritonavir. Ritonavir dissolution from RE formulations increased with increasing ratios of Eudragit® L100-55, up to a ritonavir: carrier ratio of 1:3. The ritonavir dissolution from RP formulations was highest at ritonavir: Kolliphor® P188 ratio of 1:2. Dissolution efficiencies of these formulations were found to be in line with, and supported the dissolution results. The permeability of ritonavir across the biological membrane from the optimized formulations RE (1:3 and RP (1:2 were ~76 % and ~97 %, respectively; and were significantly higher compared to that of pure ritonavir (~20 %. A preliminary (six-month stability study demonstrated the functional stability of prepared solid dispersions. The present study demonstrates that ritonavir solubility, dissolution, and permeability improvement can be achieved with a careful choice of the carrier polymer, and optimizing the amount of polymer in a SD formulation.

  16. Therapeutic drug monitoring of lopinavir/ritonavir in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lambert, J S

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine total and unbound lopinavir (LPV) plasma concentrations in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving lopinavir\\/ritonavir (LPV\\/r tablet) undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) during pregnancy and postpartum. METHODS: Women were enrolled in the study who were receiving the LPV\\/r tablet as part of their routine prenatal care. Demographic and clinical data were collected and LPV plasma (total) and ultrafiltrate (unbound) concentrations were determined in the first, second and third trimesters using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS\\/MS). Postpartum sampling was performed where applicable. Antepartum and postpartum trough concentrations (C(trough) ) were compared independently [using analysis of variance (anova)] and on a longitudinal basis (using a paired t-test). RESULTS: Forty-six women were enrolled in the study (38 Black African). Forty women initiated LPV\\/r treatment in pregnancy. Median (range) gestation at initiation was 25 (15-36) weeks and median (range) baseline CD4 count and viral load were 346 (14-836) cells\\/muL and 8724 (<50-267408) HIV-1 RNA copies\\/mL, respectively. Forty women (87%) had LPV concentrations above the accepted minimum effective concentration for wild-type virus (MEC; 1000 ng\\/mL). Geometric mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) total LPV concentrations in the first\\/second [3525 (2823-4227) ng\\/mL; n=16] and third [3346 (2813-3880) ng\\/mL; n=43] trimesters were significantly lower relative to postpartum [5136 (3693-6579) ng\\/mL; n=12] (P=0.006). In a paired analysis (n=12), LPV concentrations were reduced in the third trimester [3657 (2851-4463) ng\\/mL] vs. postpartum (P=0.021). No significant differences were observed in the LPV fraction unbound (fu%). Conclusions The above target concentrations achieved in the majority of women and similarities in the fu% suggest standard dosing of the LPV\\/r tablet is appropriate during pregnancy

  17. The role of interleukin-18 in glioblastoma pathology implies therapeutic potential of two old drugs-disulfiram and ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Richard E

    2015-04-09

    Based on reporting in the last several years, an impressive but dismal list of cytotoxic chemotherapies that fail to prolong the median overall survival of patients with glioblastoma has prompted the development of treatment protocols designed to interfere with growth-facilitating signaling systems by using non-cytotoxic, non-oncology drugs. Recent recognition of the pro-mobility stimulus, interleukin-18, as a driver of centrifugal glioblastoma cell migration allows potential treatment adjuncts with disulfiram and ritonavir. Disulfiram and ritonavir are well-tolerated, non-cytotoxic, non-oncology chemotherapeutic drugs that are marketed for the treatment of alcoholism and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, respectively. Both drugs exhibit an interleukin-18-inhibiting function. Given the favorable tolerability profile of disulfiram and ritonavir, the unlikely drug-drug interaction with temozolomide, and the poor prognosis of glioblastoma, trials of addition of disulfiram and ritonavir to current standard initial treatment of glioblastoma would be warranted.

  18. Raltegravir versus lopinavir/ritonavir for treatment of HIV-infected late-presenting pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brites, Carlos; Nóbrega, Isabella; Luz, Estela; Travassos, Ana Gabriela; Lorenzo, Cynthia; Netto, Eduardo M

    2018-06-01

    Background Late-presenting pregnant women pose a challenge in the prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child-transmission. We compared the safety and efficacy of raltegravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for this population. Methods We did a single-center, pilot, open-label, randomized trial in Brazil (N = 44). We randomly allocated late-presenting HIV-infected pregnant women (older than 18 years with a plasma HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL) to receive raltegravir 400 mg twice a day or lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice a day plus zidovudine and lamivudine (1:1). The primary endpoint was virological suppression at delivery (HIV-1 RNA HIV-infected late-presenting pregnant women.

  19. Ritonavir and Topical Ocular Corticosteroid Induced Cushing's Syndrome in an Adolescent With HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsbury, Paul G; Sharp, Jessica; Tappin, Alison; Hussey, Martin; Lenko, Alexandra; Foster, Caroline

    2017-05-01

    Cushing's syndrome after topical ocular corticosteroid use is extremely rare. We describe a case of symptomatic Cushing's syndrome in an adolescent male with sight-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis on antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection that included ritonavir, a potent cytochrome p450 CYP3A4 inhibitor. CYP3A4 inhibition reduces the metabolism of exogenous corticosteroids leading to suppression of endogenous steroid production and Cushing's syndrome.

  20. Effects of resveratrol on P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A in vitro and on pharmacokinetics of oral saquinavir in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li JP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiapeng Li,1,2 Yang Liu,2 Jingru Zhang,1,2 Xiaotong Yu,1,2 Xiaoling Wang,1 Libo Zhao11Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, 2Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: The intestinal cytochrome P450 3A (CYP 3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp present a barrier to the oral absorption of saquinavir (SQV. Resveratrol (RESV has been indicated to have modulatory effects on P-gp and CYP 3A. Therefore, this study was to investigate the effects of RESV on P-gp and CYP 3A activities in vitro and in vivo on oral SQV pharmacokinetics in rats.Methods: In vitro, intestinal microsomes were used to evaluate RESV effect on CYP 3A-mediated metabolism of SQV; MDR1-expressing Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCKII-MDR1 cells were employed to assess the impact of RESV on P-gp-mediated efflux of SQV. In vivo effects were studied using 10 rats randomly assigned to receive oral SQV (30 mg/kg with or without RESV (20 mg/kg. Serial blood samples were obtained over the following 24 h. Concentrations of SQV in samples were ascertained using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.Results: RESV (1–100 µM enhanced residual SQV (% of control in a dose-dependent manner after incubation with intestinal microsomes. RESV (1–100 µM reduced the accumulation of SQV in MDCKII-MDR1 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A double peaking phenomenon was observed in the plasma SQV profiles in rats. The first peak of plasma SQV concentration was increased, but the second peak was reduced by coadministration with RESV. The mean AUC0–∞ of SQV was slightly decreased, with no statistical significance probably due to the high individual variation.Conclusion: RESV can alter the plasma SQV concentration profiles, shorten the Tmax of SQV. RESV might also cause a slight decrease tendency in the

  1. Virologic response to tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimens in antiretroviral therapy experienced HIV-1 patients: a meta-analysis and meta-regression of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asres Berhan

    Full Text Available The development of tipranavir and darunavir, second generation non-peptidic HIV protease inhibitors, with marked improved resistance profiles, has opened a new perspective on the treatment of antiretroviral therapy (ART experienced HIV patients with poor viral load control. The aim of this study was to determine the virologic response in ART experienced patients to tipranavir-ritonavir and darunavir-ritonavir based regimens.A computer based literature search was conducted in the databases of HINARI (Health InterNetwork Access to Research Initiative, Medline and Cochrane library. Meta-analysis was performed by including randomized controlled studies that were conducted in ART experienced patients with plasma viral load above 1,000 copies HIV RNA/ml. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI for viral loads of <50 copies and <400 copies HIV RNA/ml at the end of the intervention were determined by the random effects model. Meta-regression, sensitivity analysis and funnel plots were done. The number of HIV-1 patients who were on either a tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimen and achieved viral load less than 50 copies HIV RNA/ml was significantly higher (overall OR = 3.4; 95% CI, 2.61-4.52 than the number of HIV-1 patients who were on investigator selected boosted comparator HIV-1 protease inhibitors (CPIs-ritonavir. Similarly, the number of patients with viral load less than 400 copies HIV RNA/ml was significantly higher in either the tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimen treated group (overall OR = 3.0; 95% CI, 2.15-4.11. Meta-regression showed that the viral load reduction was independent of baseline viral load, baseline CD4 count and duration of tipranavir-ritonavir or darunavir-ritonavir based regimen.Tipranavir and darunavir based regimens were more effective in patients who were ART experienced and had poor viral load control. Further studies are required to determine their consistent

  2. Lack of immunotoxicity of saquinavir (Ro 31-8959) used alone or in double or triple combination with AZT and ddC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viora, M; Di Genova, G; Quaranta, M G; Boirivant, M; Camponeschi, B

    1998-09-01

    Saquinavir (Ro 31-8959; SQV) has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) proteinases and acts synergistically with dideoxynucleoside analogues. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro immunomodulatory effects of SQV on normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMC). We used the drug either alone or in double and triple combination with AZT and ddC to assess whether SQV enhances the immunomodulatory effects induced by AZT and ddC that we previously observed. We demonstrated that SQV did not induce any modulation of the proliferative response either in PBMC or in LPMC. Similarly, NK cell-mediated cytotoxic activity and cytokine production were not modified by SQV. More importantly, SQV/AZT, SQV/ddC, and SQV/AZT/ddC combinations did not strengthen neither the inhibition of PBMC and LPMC proliferative response or the modulation of cytokine production induced by AZT, ddC, and AZT/ddC. On the other hand, the increased IL-2 production induced by AZT and ddC was not observed adding SQV to the dideoxynucleoside analogues. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SQV used in combination with AZT and ddC did not add any further immunotoxicity.

  3. Efficacy and Safety of Lopinavir/ritonavir- versus Efavirenz-based Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Pregnant Ugandan Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    COHAN, Deborah; NATUREEBA, Paul; KOSS, Catherine A.; PLENTY, Albert; LUWEDDE, Flavia; MWESIGWA, Julia; ADES, Veronica; CHARLEBOIS, Edwin D.; GANDHI, Monica; CLARK, Tamara D.; NZARUBARA, Bridget; ACHAN, Jane; RUEL, Theodore; KAMYA, Moses R.; HAVLIR, Diane V.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now the global standard for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women at all CD4 cell counts. We compared the efficacy and safety of an efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women initiating ART in rural Uganda. Design Randomized clinical trial. Methods We performed a planned secondary analysis comparing viral load suppression (HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies/ml), safety, and HIV transmission to infants in a trial designed to test the hypothesis that lopinavir/ritonavir- versus efavirenz-based ART would reduce placental malaria (PROMOTE, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00993031). HIV-infected, ART-naïve pregnant women at 12–28 weeks gestation and any CD4 cell count were randomized. ART was provided and participants were counseled to breastfeed for one year postpartum. Results The median age of the 389 study participants was 29 years; median CD4 cell count was 370 cells/mm3. At delivery, virologic suppression was 97.6% in the efavirenz arm and 86.0% in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm, p HIV (both in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm) and HIV-free infant survival was similar between study arms: 92.9% (lopinavir/ritonavir) versus 97.2% (efavirenz), p = 0.10. Conclusions Virologic suppression at delivery was higher with an efavirenz- versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen. However, women in both arms achieved high levels of virologic suppression through one year postpartum and the risk of transmission to infants was low. PMID:25426808

  4. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohan, Deborah; Natureeba, Paul; Koss, Catherine A; Plenty, Albert; Luwedde, Flavia; Mwesigwa, Julia; Ades, Veronica; Charlebois, Edwin D; Gandhi, Monica; Clark, Tamara D; Nzarubara, Bridget; Achan, Jane; Ruel, Theodore; Kamya, Moses R; Havlir, Diane V

    2015-01-14

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) is now the global standard for HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women at all CD4⁺ cell counts. We compared the efficacy and safety of an efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women initiating ART in rural Uganda. Randomized clinical trial. We performed a planned secondary analysis comparing viral load suppression (HIV-1 RNA ≤400 copies/ml), safety, and HIV transmission to infants in a trial designed to test the hypothesis that lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based ART would reduce placental malaria (PROMOTE, ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00993031). HIV-infected, ART-naive pregnant women at 12-28 weeks gestation and any CD4⁺ cell count were randomized. ART was provided and participants were counseled to breastfeed for 1 year postpartum. The median age of the 389 study participants was 29 years; median CD4⁺ cell count was 370 cells/μl. At delivery, virologic suppression was 97.6% in the efavirenz arm and 86.0% in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm (P HIV (both in the lopinavir/ritonavir arm), and HIV-free infant survival was similar between study arms: 92.9% (lopinavir/ritonavir) versus 97.2% (efavirenz) (P = 0.10). Virologic suppression at delivery was higher with an efavirenz versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen. However, women in both arms achieved high levels of virologic suppression through 1 year postpartum and the risk of transmission to infants was low.

  5. Managing Drug-Drug Interaction Between Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir/Ritonavir, Dasabuvir, and Mycophenolate Mofetil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaitre, Florian; Ben Ali, Zeineb; Tron, Camille; Jezequel, Caroline; Boglione-Kerrien, Christelle; Verdier, Marie-Clémence; Guyader, Dominique; Bellissant, Eric

    2017-08-01

    No drug-drug interaction study has been conducted to date for the combination of ombitasvir, paritaprevir/ritonavir, dasabuvir (3D), and mycophenolic acid (MPA). We here report the case of a hepatitis C virus-infected patient treated with 3D and MPA for vasculitis. In light of the threat of drug-drug interaction, the concentration of MPA was measured before, during, and 15 days after the end of the 3D treatment. Similar values were found at all 3 time points, thus indicating that there is probably no need to adapt MPA dosage to 3D.

  6. Low body weight and type of protease inhibitor predict discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions among HIV-infected patients starting a protease inhibitor regimen: consistent results from a randomized trial and an observational cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O; Gerstoft, J; Pedersen, C

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess predictors for discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions (TLADR) among patients starting their first protease inhibitor (PI). METHODS: Data on patients starting a PI regimen (indinavir, ritonavir, ritonavir/saquinavir and saquinavir hard gel) in a randomi......OBJECTIVES: To assess predictors for discontinuation and treatment-limiting adverse drug reactions (TLADR) among patients starting their first protease inhibitor (PI). METHODS: Data on patients starting a PI regimen (indinavir, ritonavir, ritonavir/saquinavir and saquinavir hard gel....... Low body weight and initiation of ritonavir relative to other PIs were associated with an increased risk of TLADRs. Very consistent results were found in a randomized trial and an observational cohort....

  7. Antiretroviral resistance at virological failure in the NEAT 001/ANRS 143 trial: raltegravir plus darunavir/ritonavir or tenofovir/emtricitabine plus darunavir/ritonavir as first-line ART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert-Niclot, S.; George, E. C.; Pozniak, A.; White, E.; Schwimmer, C.; Jessen, H.; Johnson, M.; Dunn, D.; Perno, C. F.; Clotet, B.; Plettenberg, A.; Blaxhult, A.; Palmisano, L.; Wittkop, L.; Calvez, V.; Marcelin, A. G.; Raffi, F.; Dedes, Nikos; Chêne, Geneviève; Richert, Laura; Allavena, Clotilde; Raffi, François; Autran, Brigitte; Antinori, Andrea; Bucciardini, Raff Aella; Vella, Stefano; Horban, Andrzej; Arribas, Jose; Babiker, Abdel G.; Boffito, Marta; Pillay, Deenan; Pozniak, Anton; Franquet, Xavier; Schwarze, Siegfried; Grarup, Jesper; Fischer, Aurélie; Wallet, Cédrick; Diallo, Alpha; Molina, Jean-Michel; Saillard, Juliette; Moecklinghoff, Christiane; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; van Leeuwen, Remko; Gatell, Jose; Sandstrom, Eric; Flepp, Markus; Ewings, Fiona; George, Elizabeth C.; Hudson, Fleur; Pearce, Gillian; Quercia, Romina; Rogatto, Felipe; Leavitt, Randi; Nguyen, Bach-Yen; Goebel, Frank; Marcotullio, Simone; Kaur, Navrup; Sasieni, Peter; Spencer-Drake, Christina; Peto, Tim; Miller, Veronica; Arnault, Fabien; Boucherie, Céline; Jean, Delphine; Paniego, Virginie; Paraina, Felasoa; Rouch, Elodie; Schwimmer, Christine; Soussi, Malika; Taieb, Audrey; Termote, Monique; Touzeau, Guillaume; Cursley, Adam; Dodds, Wendy; Hoppe, Anne; Kummeling, Ischa; Pacciarini, Filippo; Paton, Nick; Russell, Charlotte; Taylor, Kay; Ward, Denise; Aagaard, Bitten; Eid, Marius; Gey, Daniela; Jensen, Birgitte Gram; Jakobsen, Marie-Louise; Jansson, Per O.; Jensen, Karoline; Joensen, Zillah Maria; Larsen, Ellen Moseholm; Pahl, Christiane; Pearson, Mary; Nielsen, Birgit Riis; Reilev, Søren Stentoft; Christ, Ilse; Lathouwers, Desiree; Manting, Corry; Mendy, Bienvenu Yves; Metro, Annie; Couffin-Cadiergues, Sandrine; Knellwolf, Anne-Laure; Palmisiano, Lucia; Aznar, Esther; Barea, Cristina; Cotarelo, Manuel; Esteban, Herminia; Girbau, Iciar; Moyano, Beatriz; Ramirez, Miriam; Saiz, Carmen; Sanchez, Isabel; Yllescas, Maria; Binelli, Andrea; Colasanti, Valentina; Massella, Maurizio; Anagnostou, Olga; Gioukari, Vicky; Touloumi, Giota; Schmied, Brigitte; Rieger, Armin; Vetter, Norbert; de Wit, Stephane; Florence, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Gerstoft, Jan; Mathiesen, Lars; Katlama, Christine; Cabie, Andre; Cheret, Antoine; Dupon, Michel; Ghosn, Jade; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Goujard, Cécile; Lévy, Yves; Morlat, Philippe; Neau, Didier; Obadia, Martine; Perre, Philippe; Piroth, Lionel; Reynes, Jacques; Tattevin, Pierre; Ragnaud, Jean Marie; Weiss, Laurence; Yazdan, Yazdanpanah; Yeni, Patrick; Zucman, David; Behrens, Georg; Esser, Stefan; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Hoffmann, Christian; Jessen, Heiko; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Schmidt, Reinhold; Stephan, Christoph; Unger, Stefan; Hatzakis, Angelos; Daikos, George L.; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Skoutelis, Athamasios; Banhegyi, Denes; Mallon, Paddy; Mulcahy, Fiona; Andreoni, Massimo; Bonora, Stefano; Castelli, Francesco; Monforte, Antonella D.'Arminio; Di Perri, Giovanni; Galli, Massimo; Lazzarin, Adriano; Mazzotta, Francesco; Carlo, Torti; Vullo, Vincenzo; Prins, Jan; Richter, Clemens; Verhagen, Dominique; van Eeden, Arne; Doroana, Manuela; Antunes, Francisco; Maltez, Fernando; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Garcia, Juan Gonzalez; Aldeguer, José López; Clotet, Bonaventura; Domingo, Pere; Gatell, Jose M.; Knobel, Hernando; Marquez, Manuel; Miralles, Martin Pilar; Portilla, Joaquin; Soriano, Vicente; Tellez, Maria-Jesus; Thalme, Anders; Blaxhult, Anders; Gisslen, Magnus; Winston, Alan; Fox, Julie; Gompels, Mark; Herieka, Elbushra; Johnson, Margaret; Leen, Clifford; Teague, Alastair; Williams, Ian; Boyd, Mark Alastair; Møller, Nina Friis; Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Le Moing, Vincent; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Kowalska, Justyna; Berenguer, Juan; Moreno, Santiago; Müller, Nicolas J.; Török, Estée; Post, Frank; Angus, Brian; Calvez, Vincent; Boucher, Charles; Collins, Simon; Dunn, David; Lambert, Sidonie; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Perno, Carlo Federico; White, Ellen; Ammassari, Adriana; Stoehr, Wolgang; Schmidt, Reinhold Ernst; Odermarsky, Michal; Smith, Colette; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; de La Serna, Jose Ignacio Bernardino; Castagna, Antonella; Furrer, Hans-Jackob; Mocroft, Amanda; Reiss, Peter; Bucciardini, Raffaella; Fragola, Vincenzo; Lauriola, Marco; Murri, Rita; Nieuwkerk, Pythia; Spire, Bruno; Volny-Anne, Alain; West, Brian; Amieva, Hélène; Llibre Codina, Josep Maria; Braggion, Marco; Focà, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    To describe the pattern of drug resistance at virological failure in the NEAT001/ANRS143 trial (first-line treatment with ritonavir-boosted darunavir plus either tenofovir/emtricitabine or raltegravir). Genotypic testing was performed at baseline for reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease genes and

  8. [Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency secondary to an interaction between ritonavir and inhaled fluticasone. A review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cerquera, Juan Manuel; Hernando-López, Elena; Blanco-Ramos, José Ramón

    2014-12-01

    Highly effective antiretroviral treatment has improved the life expectancy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, but has led to an increase in the comorbidities related to aging, such as the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). All this implies the need for a greater number of drugs and an increasing risk of drugs interactions with antiretroviral treatment, particularly protease inhibitors. We report a case of iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency interaction secondary to ritonavir and inhaled fluticasone in an HIV-infected patient with COPD. A review was made of the cases reported in adults in the medical literature (Medline) up to December 2012. A total of 34 cases were reported. The mean age was 4 years. The mean dose of ritonavir was 187 mg/day, while the fluticasone dose was 866 μg/day. The average time of the interaction between ritonavir and fluticasone was 8 months. In 85% of cases fluticasone was discontinued at the time of diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency/Cushing syndrome. Almost all (90%) patients had a complete resolution of the symptoms after changing the treatment. HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy with protease inhibitor boosted with ritonavir which requires the use of inhaled corticosteroids, beclomethasone would be the best treatment option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of pediatric lopinavir/ritonavir tablets in children when administered twice daily according to FDA weight bands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, D.E.T.; Forcat, S.; Lyall, H.; Cressey, T.R.; Hansudewechakul, R.; Kanjanavanit, S.; Noguera-Julian, A.; Konigs, C.; Inshaw, J.R.; Chalermpantmetagul, S.; Saidi, Y.; Compagnucci, A.; Harper, L.M.; Giaquinto, C.; Colbers, A.P.; Burger, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) pediatric tablets (100/25 mg) are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) as part of combination antiretroviral therapy. Dosing is based on body weight bands or body surface area under FDA approval

  10. Pharmacokinetics and 48-week safety and efficacy of generic lopinavir/ritonavir in Thai HIV-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramautarsing, Reshmie A.; van der Lugt, Jasper; Gorowara, Meena; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Lange, Joep M. A.; Burger, David M.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxthungtham, Kiat; Avihingsanon, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Generic products reduce the costs of HIV treatment. Few generic second-line antiretroviral products are available. We assessed pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of generic lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) produced by the Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO) of Thailand in Thai

  11. Nonnucleoside Reverse-transcriptase Inhibitor- vs Ritonavir-boosted Protease Inhibitor-based Regimens for Initial Treatment of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Lundh, Andreas; Tendal, Britta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) cause faster virologic suppression, while ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) recover more CD4 cells. However, individual trials have not been powered to compare clinical outcomes. METHODS: ...

  12. Continued indinavir versus switching to indinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaiz, J.A.; Mallolas, J.; Podzamczer, D.; Gerstoft, J.; Lundgren, J.D.; Cahn, P.; Fatkenheuer, G.; D'Arminio-Monforte, A.; Casiro, A.; Reiss, P.; Burger, D.M.; Stek Jr, M.; Gatell, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare continued indinavir (IDV) 8-hourly (q8h) with switching to indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/RTV) 12-hourly (q12h) in HIV-positive patients having suppressed viral load with IDV q8h plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). DESIGN: Multicentre, international,

  13. Continued indinavir versus switching to indinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaiz, Juan A.; Mallolas, Josep; Podzamczer, Daniel; Gerstoft, Jan; Lundgren, Jens D.; Cahn, Pedro; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella; Casiró, Arnaldo; Reiss, Peter; Burger, David M.; Stek, Michael; Gatell, José M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare continued indinavir (IDV) 8-hourly (q8h) with switching to indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/RTV) 12-hourly (q12h) in HIV-positive patients having suppressed viral load with IDV q8h plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Design: Multicentre, international,

  14. Clinical Course and Management of Iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome after Co-Administration of Injected-Triamcinolone and Ritonavir: a Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    John, Gregor Raphaël; Ollo, Diana; Meyer, Patrick; Herold, Markus; Samer, Caroline Flora; Calmy, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Iatrogenic Cushing Syndrome (ICS) has been reported after co-administration of injectedtriamcinolone and ritonavir. Clinical evolution is however poorly described and recommendations on how to manage this drug-drug interaction are lacking. Methods: We performed a systematic review of all reported cases of ICS exploring Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane library, and articles references. Time to Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis recovery for patients with or without ritonavir interruption, was c...

  15. Development of a Tumour Growth Inhibition Model to Elucidate the Effects of Ritonavir on Intratumoural Metabolism and Anti-tumour Effect of Docetaxel in a Mouse Model for Hereditary Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huixin; Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Rottenberg, Sven; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2016-03-01

    In a mouse tumour model for hereditary breast cancer, we previously explored the anti-cancer effects of docetaxel, ritonavir and the combination of both and studied the effect of ritonavir on the intratumoural concentration of docetaxel. The objective of the current study was to apply pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) modelling on this previous study to further elucidate and quantify the effects of docetaxel when co-administered with ritonavir. PK models of docetaxel and ritonavir in plasma and in tumour were developed. The effect of ritonavir on docetaxel concentration in the systemic circulation of Cyp3a knock-out mice and in the implanted tumour (with inherent Cyp3a expression) was studied, respectively. Subsequently, we designed a tumour growth inhibition model that included the inhibitory effects of both docetaxel and ritonavir. Ritonavir decreased docetaxel systemic clearance with 8% (relative standard error 0.4%) in the co-treated group compared to that in the docetaxel only-treated group. The docetaxel concentration in tumour tissues was significantly increased by ritonavir with mean area under the concentration-time curve 2.5-fold higher when combined with ritonavir. Observed tumour volume profiles in mice could be properly described by the PK/PD model. In the co-treated group, the enhanced anti-tumour effect was mainly due to increased docetaxel tumour concentration; however, we demonstrated a small but significant anti-tumour effect of ritonavir addition (p value effect observed when docetaxel is combined with ritonavir is mainly caused by enhanced docetaxel tumour concentration and to a minor extent by a direct anti-tumour effect of ritonavir.

  16. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Jin [Ministry of Education Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wang, Ying [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Su, Ke [Department of Nephrology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Liu, Min [Ministry of Education Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Hu, Peng-Chao [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi [Ministry of Education Laboratory of Combinatorial Biosynthesis and Drug Discovery, School of Pharmaceutical Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wei, Lei [Department of Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zheng, Zhongliang, E-mail: biochem@whu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Virology, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yang, Fang, E-mail: fang-yang@whu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-10-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ERα and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: • RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. • RTV downregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ. • RTV inhibits ERα promoter activity. • RTV directly binds to ERα and the key amino acid is Leu536. • RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ERα and GPER.

  17. Ritonavir binds to and downregulates estrogen receptors: Molecular mechanism of promoting early atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Jin; Wang, Ying; Su, Ke; Liu, Min; Hu, Peng-Chao; Ma, Tian; Li, Jia-Xi; Wei, Lei; Zheng, Zhongliang; Yang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Estrogenic actions are closely related to cardiovascular disease. Ritonavir (RTV), a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, induces atherosclerosis in an estrogen-related manner. However, how RTV induce pathological phenotypes through estrogen pathway remains unclear. In this study, we found that RTV increases thickness of coronary artery walls of Sprague Dawley rats and plasma free fatty acids (FFA) levels. In addition, RTV could induce foam cell formation, downregulate both estrogen receptor α (ERα) and ERβ expression, upregulate G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) expression, and all of them could be partially blocked by 17β-estradiol (E2), suggesting RTV acts as an antagonist for E2. Computational modeling shows a similar interaction with ERα between RTV and 2-aryl indoles, which are highly subtype-selective ligands for ERα. We also found that RTV directly bound to ERα and selectively inhibited the nuclear localization of ERα, and residue Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain (LBD) was essential for the interaction with RTV. In addition, RTV did not change the secondary structure of ERα-LBD like E2, which explained how ERα lost the capacity of nuclear translocation under the treatment of RTV. All of the evidences suggest that ritonavir acts as an antagonist for 17β-estradiol in regulating α subtype estrogen receptor function and early events of atherosclerosis. - Graphical abstract: RTV directly binds to ERα and Leu536 in the hydrophobic core of ligand binding domain is essential for the interaction. - Highlights: • RTV increases the thickness of rat coronary artery wall and foam cell formation. • RTV downregulates the expression of ERα and ERβ. • RTV inhibits ERα promoter activity. • RTV directly binds to ERα and the key amino acid is Leu536. • RTV inhibits the nuclear translocation of ERα and GPER

  18. Drug Interactions Between Hepatoprotective Agents Ursodeoxycholic Acid or Glycyrrhizin and Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Jiuhong; Badri, Prajakta S; Ding, Bifeng; Uchiyama, Naotaka; Alves, Katia; Rodrigues, Lino; Redman, Rebecca; Dutta, Sandeep; Menon, Rajeev M

    2015-11-01

    The 2 direct-acting antiviral combination (2D) of ombitasvir and paritaprevir (coadministered with ritonavir) is being evaluated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in Japan. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and glycyrrhizin (GCR) are hepatoprotective agents widely used in Japan. A drug-drug interaction (DDI) study was conducted to guide dosing recommendations for UDCA and GCR when coadministered with the 2D regimen. DDIs between the 2D regimen (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir 25/150/100 mg orally once daily) and UDCA (50 mg orally 3 times daily) or GCR (80 mg intravenously once daily) were evaluated in a 2-arm, multiple-dose study in 24 Japanese healthy subjects under fed conditions. Pharmacokinetic and safety evaluations were performed when UDCA or GCR and the 2D regimen were administered alone and during coadministration. Exposures from coadministration of the 2D regimen plus UDCA or GCR versus the 2D regimen, UDCA, or GCR alone were compared using repeated-measures analyses of natural logarithms of the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC). After coadministration of the 2D regimen and UDCA, steady-state exposures (Cmax and AUC) of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir showed a ≤9% change, and UDCA exposures showed a ≤20% change compared with administration alone. When the 2D regimen and GCR were coadministered, steady-state exposures of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir were not affected (≤9% change), GCR AUC increased by 49%, and GCR Cmax was unaffected (<1% change). No dose adjustment is needed for UDCA, GCR, or the 2D regimen when UDCA or GCR is coadministered with the 2D regimen in hepatitis C virus-infected patients under fed conditions. Clinical monitoring of patients using GCR is recommended due to an approximately 50% increase in GCR AUC when coadministered with the 2D regimen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of dasabuvir/ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir for hepatitis C virus in clinical practice: A population-based observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Leventer-Roberts

    Full Text Available Direct acting antivirals for hepatitis C virus have shown dramatic results in clinical trials. However, their effectiveness has yet to be demonstrated within observational cohorts which lack exclusion criteria found in randomized control trials.To determine the effectiveness of dasabuvir/ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir in achieving sustained virological response.Retrospective observational cohort study of all Clalit Health Services members with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 who were dispensed dasabuvir/ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir from January 1, 2015 to-November 31, 2015.There were 564 participants during the study period. The average age was 61.9 years, 52.0% were male, and 61.5% were born Eastern/Central Europe or Central Asia. The prevalence of diabetes was 31.7% and 70.3% were overweight/obese. Cirrhosis was present in 41.0% of participants, of whom 52.8% had stage 4 fibrosis. Of the cohort, 416 (74.8% had follow-up viral load testing at 10 or more weeks after the end of treatment. We report a sustained virological response of 98.8% among those tested.Treatment with dasabuvir/ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir demonstrated a near universal effectiveness in achieving a sustained virological response among HCV patients in a large cohort.

  20. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in patients receiving inhaled budesonide and itraconazole or ritonavir: two cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Marie-Christine; Beauregard, Hugues; Serri, Omar

    2013-01-01

    To present two cases of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome caused by the interaction of budesonide, an inhaled glucocorticoid, with ritonavir and itraconazole. We present the clinical and biochemical data of two patients in whom diagnosis of Cushing syndrome was caused by this interaction. We also reviewed the pertinent literature and management options. A 71-year-old man was treated with inhaled budesonide for a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and itraconazole for a pulmonary aspergillosis. The patient rapidly developed a typical Cushing syndrome complicated by bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral heads. Serum 8:00 AM cortisol concentrations were suppressed at 0.76 and 0.83 μg/dL on two occasions. The patient died 4 days later of a massive myocardial infarction. The second case is a 46-year-old woman who was treated for several years with inhaled budesonide for asthma. She was put on ritonavir, a retroviral protease inhibitor, for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the following months, she developed typical signs of Cushing syndrome. Her morning serum cortisol concentration was 1.92 μg/dL. A cosyntropin stimulation test showed values of serum cortisol of Cushing syndrome and secondary adrenal insufficiency due to the association of inhaled corticosteroids with itraconazole or ritonavir.

  1. The bile acid sensor FXR protects against dyslipidemia and aortic plaques development induced by the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mencarelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-related morbidity and mortality rates in patients treated with a combination of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART have declined, significant metabolic/vascular adverse effects associated with the long term use of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs have emerged as a significant side effect. Here we illustrate that targeting the bile acid sensor farnesoid X receptor (FXR protects against dyslipidemia and vascular injury induced HIV-PIs in rodents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Administration of the HIV PI ritonavir to wild type mice increased plasma triacylglycerols and cholesterol levels and this effect was exacerbated by dosing ritonavir to mice harbouring a disrupted FXR. Dyslipidemia induced by ritonavir associated with a shift in the liver expression of signature genes, Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein (SREBP-1 and fatty acid synthase. Treating wild type mice with the FXR agonist (chenodeoxycholic acid, CDCA protected against development of dyslipidemia induced by ritonavir. Administration of ritonavir to ApoE(-/- mice, a strain that develop spontaneously atherosclerosis, increased the extent of aortic plaques without worsening the dyslipidemia. Treating these mice with CDCA reduced the extent of aortic plaques by 70% without changing plasma lipoproteins or the liver expression of signature genes. A beneficial effect on aortic plaques was also obtained by treating ApoE(-/- mice with gemfibrozil, a PPARα agonist. FXR activation counter-regulated induction of expression/activity of CD36 caused by HIV-PIs in circulating monocytes and aortic plaques. In macrophages cell lines, CDCA attenuated CD36 induction and uptake of acetylated LDL caused by ritonavir. Natural and synthetic FXR ligands reduced the nuclear translocation of SREBP1c caused by ritonavir. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Activation of the bile acid sensor FXR protects against dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic caused by

  2. [Challenges of lopinavir/ritonavir in the chronicity of human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirrebengoa, Koldo

    2014-11-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased patient survival, which is currently similar to that of the general population in western countries. However, ART is unable to completely restore normal health, given the persistence of chronic immune activation. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has become a chronic disease and 50% of patients will soon be older than 50 years. Currently, there is a debate on the possibility of accelerated aging in the HIV-infected population. An overlap has been observed between chronic inflammation, age-related comorbidities, lifestyle, and the long-term toxicity of ART. ART-related toxicity can encourage the development of comorbidities, especially cardiovascular and renal complications, while toxicity-especially that of thymidine analogs-can also contribute to inflammation and aging. Evidence is available on simplification strategies with boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy aiming to avoid or reduce potential or demonstrated toxicity. Currently, studies are underway of dual therapy strategies with lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) with distinct antiretroviral agents. The studies with the largest samples are those with raltegravir and lamivudine. The GARDEL trial has demonstrated that dual therapy with LPV/r plus a generic drug such as lamivudine is non-inferior to triple therapy in treatment- naïve patients. All of the above indicates the response to the challenge posed to LPV/r by the chronic phase of the disease and by the need to reduce costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Spectrophotometric method for simultaneous estimation of atazanavir sulfate and ritonavir in tablet dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha A Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ritonavir (RTV and atazanavir sulfate (ATV are protease inhibitor and RTV mostly used as a booster for increasing the bioavailability of other protease inhibitors like ATV. Aims: Quality assessment of the new dosage form of RTV and ATV i.e., tablets is very essential and hence this work deals with to develop sensitive, simple and precise method for simultaneous estimation of ATV and RTV in tablet dosage form by absorbance correction method. Materials and Methods: The present work was carried out on Shimadzu Ultraviolate(UV-1700 double beam spectrophotometer with 1 cm path length supported by S Shimadzu, model-1700(Japan, UV-Probe software, version 2.31 was used for spectral measurements with 10 mm matched quartz cells. Standard ATV and RTV were supplied by Cipla Pharmaceutical Ltd. Methanol was purchased from Finar Chemicals Pvt. Ltd. Results and Conclusion: The λmax or the absorption maxima for ATV and RTV were found to be 279 and 240 nm, respectively in methanol as solvent. The drugs follow Beer-Lambert′s law in the concentration range 30-90 and 10-30 μg/mL for ATV and RTV, respectively. The percentage recovery was found to be 100-100.33% and 100-101.5% for ATV and RTV, respectively. The method was validated for different parameters as per the International Conference for Harmonization Guidelines.

  4. [Lopinavir/ritonavir in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection in special situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasias, María; Aldeguer, José López

    2014-11-01

    Ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) is a protease inhibitor used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in both normal patients and in certain situations. In patients with renal failure, LPV/r does not require dosage adjustment because it is metabolized in the liver. Cohort studies have shown that the incidence of varying degrees of renal disease and/or crystalluria related to combination antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir and some protease inhibitors (PI) does not appear with LPV/r or that the incidence is much lower with this combination. Neurocognitive impairments are described in a high proportion of patients with HIV infection and viral replication or related inflammatory activity in the subarachnoid space. In these patients, LPV/r is one of the therapeutic options. A score has been published that rates antiretroviral drugs according to the concentration attained in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). LPV/r levels reached in CSF exceed the IC50 of wild-type HIV and has a valuable score (score 3) of the drugs currently used. The most important comorbid condition is chronic hepatitis, due to its frequency and because the biotransformation of LPV/r occurs in the liver. In these circumstances, it is important to evaluate the influence of liver failure on blood drug levels and how these values may cause liver toxicity. LPV/r dose modification has not been established in the presence of liver failure. LPV/r-induced liver toxicity has only been reported with a certain frequency when liver enzymes were elevated at baseline or in patients with chronic hepatitis C, although most cases of liver toxicity were mild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. PH-Induced Nanosegregation of Ritonavir to Lyotropic Liquid Crystal of Higher Solubility Than Crystalline Polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Spong, B.; Acciacca, A.; Fleisher, D.; Rodriguez-Hornedo, N.

    2009-01-01

    Birefringent spherical vesicles of ritonavir (RTV) are formed by increasing the pH of aqueous solutions from 1 to 3 or to 7 and by addition of water to ethanol solutions at room temperature. Increasing the pH creates supersaturation levels of 30--400. Upon this change in pH, the solutions become translucent, implying that some kind of RTV assembly was formed. Small spherical vesicles of narrow size distribution are detectable only after a few hours by optical microscopy. The vesicles show similar X-ray diffraction patterns and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) behavior to amorphous RTV prepared by melt-quenching crystalline RTV. Examination by polarized optical microscopy suggests that these are lyotropic liquid crystalline (LLC) assemblies. Small-angle X-ray scattering and synchrotron X-ray diffraction further support the presence of orientational order that is associated with a nematic structure. RTV self-organizes into various phases as a result of the supersaturation created in aqueous solutions. The LLC vesicles do not fuse but slowly transform to the polymorphs of RTV (in days), Form I and finally Form II. Amorphous RTV in aqueous suspension also undergoes a transformation to a mesophase of similar morphology. Transformation pathways are consistent with measured dissolution rates and solubilities: amorphous > LLC >> Form I > Form II. The dissolution and solubility of LLC is slightly lower than that of the amorphous phase and about 20 times higher than that of Form II. RTV also self-assembles at the air/water interface as indicated by the decrease in surface tension of aqueous solutions. This behavior is similar to that of amphiphilic molecules that induce LLC formation.

  6. Improvement of lipoatrophy by switching from efavirenz to lopinavir/ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, J; Lonca, M; Imaz, A; Estrada, V; Asensi, V; Miralles, C; Domingo, P; Montero, M; del Rio, L; Fontdevila, J; Perez, I; Cruceta, A; Gatell, J M; Arnedo, M; Martínez, E

    2016-05-01

    To assess whether changes in antiretroviral drugs other than thymidine nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) may have a body fat impact in HIV-infected patients with lipoatrophy. Ninety-six-week phase IV, open-label, multicentre, pilot randomized trial. HIV-infected patients with moderate/severe lipoatrophy at one or more body sites despite long-term thymidine NRTI-free therapy were randomized to continue their efavirenz (EFV)-based antiretroviral regimen or to switch from EFV to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r). The primary endpoint was the absolute change in limb fat mass measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry from baseline to 96 weeks. Changes in other body fat measurements, subjective perception of lipoatrophy, subcutaneous fat gene expression and plasma lipids were also assessed. Thirty-three patients (73% men, median age 52 years) were recruited. At 96 weeks, absolute limb fat mass increased in the LPV/r arm vs. the EFV arm (estimated difference +1082.1 g; 95% CI +63.7 to +2103.5; P = 0.04); this difference remained significant after adjustment by gender, age, fat mass, body mass index and CD4 cell count at baseline. Subjective lipoatrophy perception scores also improved in the LPV/r arm relative to the EFV arm. Adipogenesis, glucose and lipid metabolism, and mitochondrial gene expression increased in the LPV/r arm compared with the EFV arm at 96 weeks. HDL cholesterol decreased in the LPV/r arm relative to the EFV arm. Switching from EFV to LPV/r in HIV-infected patients with lipoatrophy may offer further limb fat gain beyond thymidine NRTI discontinuation, although this strategy decreased plasma HDL cholesterol and caused changes in subcutaneous fat gene expression that may be associated with increased insulin resistance. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  7. Lopinavir/ritonavir dosing during pregnancy in Brazil and maternal/infant laboratory abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ferreira Peixoto

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe laboratory abnormalities among HIV-infected women and their infants with standard and increased lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r dosing during the third trimester of pregnancy. METHODS: We evaluated data on pregnant women from NISDI cohorts (2002-2009 enrolled in Brazil, who received at least 28 days of LPV/r during the third pregnancy trimester and gave birth to singleton infants. RESULTS: 164 women received LPV/r standard dosing [(798/198 or 800/200 mg/day (Group 1] and 70 increased dosing [(> 800/200 mg/day (Group 2]. Group 1 was more likely to have advanced clinical disease and to use ARVs for treatment, and less likely to have CD4 counts > 500 cells/mm³. Mean plasma viral load was higher in Group 2. There were statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful, differences between groups in mean AST, ALT, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The proportion of women with Grade 3 or 4 adverse events was very low, with no statistically significant differences between groups in severe adverse events related to ALT, AST, total bilirubin, cholesterol, or triglycerides. There were statistically significant, but not clinically meaningful, differences between infant groups in ALT and creatinine. The proportion of infants with Grade 3 or 4 adverse events was very low, and there were no statistically significant differences in severe adverse events related to ALT, AST, BUN, or creatinine. CONCLUSION: The proportions of women and infants with severe laboratory adverse events were very low. Increased LPV/r dosing during the third trimester of pregnancy appears to be safe for HIV-infected women and their infants.

  8. Effect of low-dose ritonavir (100 mg twice daily) on the activity of cytochrome P450 2D6 in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoutse, Rob E; Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Koopmans, Peter P; Touw, Daan J; Wieling, Jaap; Hekster, Yechiel A; Burger, David M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection, the protease inhibitor ritonavir is used in a low dose (100 mg twice daily) to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and thereby increase plasma concentrations of coadministered protease inhibitors. When applied in a therapeutic dose

  9. Effect of low-dose ritonavir (100 mg twice daily) on the activity of cytochrome P450 2D6 in healthy volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoutse, R.E.; Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Koopmans †, P.P.; Touw, D.J.; Wieling, J.; Hekster, Y.A.; Burger, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection, the protease inhibitor ritonavir is used in a low dose (100 mg twice daily) to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and thereby increase plasma concentrations of coadministered protease inhibitors. When applied in a therapeutic dose

  10. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santiago, Francisco; Oguma, Junya; Brown, Anthony M.C.; Laurence, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► First demonstration of direct role for noncanonical Wnt in osteoclast differentiation. ► Demonstration of Ryk as a Wnt5a/b receptor in inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. ► Modulation of noncanonical Wnt signaling by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. ► Establishes a mechanism for an important clinical problem: HIV-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Wnt proteins that signal via the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway directly regulate osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, most studies of Wnt-related effects on osteoclasts involve indirect changes. While investigating bone mineral density loss in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with the protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV), we observed that RTV decreased nuclear localization of β-catenin, critical to canonical Wnt signaling, in primary human and murine osteoclast precursors. This occurred in parallel with upregulation of Wnt5a and Wnt5b transcripts. These Wnts typically stimulate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and this can antagonize the canonical Wnt pathway in many cell types, dependent upon Wnt receptor usage. We now document RTV-mediated upregulation of Wnt5a/b protein in osteoclast precursors. Recombinant Wnt5b and retrovirus-mediated expression of Wnt5a enhanced osteoclast differentiation from human and murine monocytic precursors, processes facilitated by RTV. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling mediated by Wnt3a suppressed osteoclastogenesis. Both RTV and Wnt5b inhibited canonical, β-catenin/T cell factor-based Wnt reporter activation in osteoclast precursors. RTV- and Wnt5-induced osteoclast differentiation were dependent upon the receptor-like tyrosine kinase Ryk, suggesting that Ryk may act as a Wnt5a/b receptor in this context. This is the first demonstration of a direct role for Wnt signaling pathways and Ryk in regulation of osteoclast differentiation, and its modulation by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. These studies

  11. Acute development of Cushing syndrome in an HIV-infected child on atazanavir/ritonavir based antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gueorgui Dubrocq

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom, didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain. During the endocrine workup, suspicion for adrenal insufficiency prompted 24-h urine collection for free cortisol, which was found to be undetectable (below LLQ of 1.0 μg/L. This prompted further evaluation of the hypothalamic–pituitary axis (HPA by standard dose adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH stimulation test. A 250 μg cosyntropin stimulation test was performed and confirmed HPA axis suppression. Baseline cortisol level was <1 μg/dL and stimulated cortisol level at 30 min was 3.8 μg/dL. The patient was diagnosed with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome and suppression of HPA axis secondary to the drug interaction between ritonavir (RTV and intra-articular triamcinolone injection. Following endocrine evaluation and workup, the patient was admitted for planned orthopaedic procedure including elective left hamstring lengthening, distal femoral osteotomy and patellar tendon advancement. Taking into consideration the diagnosis of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome, at the start of the surgical procedure, 100 mg IV stress dose of hydrocortisone followed by 50 mg hydrocortisone every 8 h for 24 h was administered. Stress dosing was discontinued 24 h after the procedure. Throughout the hospitalization and upon discharge, the patient continued his ART. From initial presentation, patient has remained clinically stable throughout

  12. Profile of paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir plus dasabuvir in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Smith, Alice LimDepartment of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacy Administration, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, University of the Sciences, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Over the last several years, many advances have been made in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection with the development of direct-acting antivirals. Paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir with dasabuvir (PrOD is a novel combination of a nonstructural (NS 3/4A protein inhibitor boosted by ritonavir, an NS5A protein inhibitor, and an NS5B nonnucleoside polymerase inhibitor. This review aims to discuss the pharmacology, efficacy, safety, drug interactions, and viral drug resistance of PrOD in the treatment of HCV genotype 1 infections. Phase I, II, and III human and animal studies that describe the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of PrOD for HCV were identified and included. Studies that evaluated patients without cirrhosis (n=2,249 and with cirrhosis (n=422 demonstrated that PrOD for 12 or 24 weeks was effective at achieving sustained virologic response rates (>90% in patients with genotype 1a or 1b HCV infection. Although indicated for the treatment of HCV genotype 1 infection, PrOD is also recommended for the treatment of HCV in patients coinfected with HIV. Additionally, promising data exist for the use of PrOD in liver-transplant recipients. The most common adverse drug events associated with PrOD included nausea, pruritus, insomnia, diarrhea, asthenia, dry skin, vomiting, and anemia. The high efficacy rates seen coupled with a favorable side effect profile seen with PrOD with or without ribavirin have led to its addition as a recommended treatment regimen for HCV genotype 1 infection.Keywords: direct-acting antiviral, interferon-free, ribavirin-free

  13. Analysis of Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Resistance Variants in Japanese Patients Treated with Paritaprevir-Ritonavir and Ombitasvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Preethi; Schnell, Gretja; Tripathi, Rakesh; Beyer, Jill; Reisch, Thomas; Zhang, Xinyan; Setze, Carolyn; Rodrigues, Lino; Burroughs, Margaret; Redman, Rebecca; Chayama, Kazuaki; Kumada, Hiromitsu; Collins, Christine; Pilot-Matias, Tami

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of HCV genotype 1b (GT1b)-infected Japanese patients with paritaprevir (NS3/4A inhibitor boosted with ritonavir) and ombitasvir (NS5A inhibitor) in studies M12-536 and GIFT-I demonstrated high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates. The virologic failure rate was 3% (13/436) across the two studies. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the impact of baseline resistance-associated variants (RAVs) on treatment outcome and the emergence and persistence of RAVs in patients experiencing virologic failure. Baseline paritaprevir resistance-conferring variants in NS3 were infrequent, while Y93H in NS5A was the most prevalent ombitasvir resistance-conferring variant at baseline. A comparison of baseline prevalence of polymorphisms in Japanese and western patients showed that Q80L and S122G in NS3 and L28M, R30Q, and Y93H in NS5A were significantly more prevalent in Japanese patients. In the GIFT-I study, the prevalence of Y93H in NS5A varied between 13% and 21% depending on the deep-sequencing detection threshold. Among patients with Y93H comprising 40% of their preexisting viral population, the 24-week SVR (SVR24) rates were >99% (276/277), 93% (38/41), and 76% (25/33), respectively, indicating that the prevalence of Y93H within a patient's viral population is a good predictor of treatment response. The predominant RAVs at the time of virologic failure were D168A/V in NS3 and Y93H alone or in combination with other variants in NS5A. While levels of NS3 RAVs declined over time, NS5A RAVs persisted through posttreatment week 48. Results from these analyses are informative in understanding the resistance profile of an ombitasvir- plus paritaprevir/ritonavir-based regimen in Japanese GT1b-infected patients. Copyright © 2016 Krishnan et al.

  14. The Safety, Effectiveness and Concentrations of Adjusted Lopinavir/Ritonavir in HIV-Infected Adults on Rifampicin-Based Antitubercular Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decloedt, Eric H.; Maartens, Gary; Smith, Peter; Merry, Concepta; Bango, Funeka; McIlleron, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Rifampicin co-administration dramatically reduces plasma lopinavir concentrations. Studies in healthy volunteers and HIV-infected patients showed that doubling the dose of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) or adding additional ritonavir offsets this interaction. However, high rates of hepatotoxicity were observed in healthy volunteers. We evaluated the safety, effectiveness and pre-dose concentrations of adjusted doses of LPV/r in HIV infected adults treated with rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment. Methods Adult patients on a LPV/r-based antiretroviral regimen and rifampicin-based tuberculosis therapy were enrolled. Doubled doses of LPV/r or an additional 300 mg of ritonavir were used to overcome the inducing effect of rifampicin. Steady-state lopinavir pre-dose concentrations were evaluated every second month. Results 18 patients were enrolled with a total of 79 patient months of observation. 11/18 patients were followed up until tuberculosis treatment completion. During tuberculosis treatment, the median (IQR) pre-dose lopinavir concentration was 6.8 (1.1–9.2) mg/L and 36/47 (77%) were above the recommended trough concentration of 1 mg/L. Treatment was generally well tolerated with no grade 3 or 4 toxicity: 8 patients developed grade 1 or 2 transaminase elevation, 1 patient defaulted additional ritonavir due to nausea and 1 patient developed diarrhea requiring dose reduction. Viral loads after tuberculosis treatment were available for 11 patients and 10 were undetectable. Conclusion Once established on treatment, adjusted doses of LPV/r co-administered with rifampicin-based tuberculosis treatment were tolerated and LPV pre-dose concentrations were adequate. PMID:22412856

  15. A Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Cirrhotic Patient Developing Interstitial Pneumonia during the Course of Antiviral Therapy with Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Tarao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs are the main therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV-associated liver disease in Japan. Daclatasvir/asunaprevir is the first agent and sofosbuvir/ledipasvir is the secondary agent for HCV genotype 1b. More recently, ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir is also recommended as a potent therapy for HCV genotype 1b. Among the adverse events associated with these oral DAAs, interstitial pneumonia is one of the most severe ones. Regarding treatment with daclatasvir plus asunaprevir or sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir, a few cases have already been reported in a postmarketing surveillance. Recently, we have encountered a HCV-associated genotype 1b cirrhosis patient who developed interstitial pneumonia during treatment with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and who recovered after drug discontinuation without corticosteroid therapy. Interstitial pneumonia was confirmed by chest x-ray and chest computed tomography. The serum KL-6 level was elevated to 1,180 U/mL. The total duration of the drug administration was 7 weeks, and she achieved SVR24. This is the first detailed report in the literature on the development of interstitial pneumonia during treatment with ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir. When dry cough appeared in the treatment with DAAs, chest computed tomography and the evaluation of serum KL-6 level were recommended.

  16. The Palatability of Lopinavir and Ritonavir Delivered by an Innovative Freeze-Dried Fast-Dissolving Tablet Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Pittman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative hedonic sensory qualities of HIV antiretroviral drugs often reduce patient adherence particularly in pediatric populations requiring oral consumption. This study examines the palatability of an innovative delivery mechanism utilizing a freeze-drying-in-blister approach to create fast-dissolving tablets (FDTs containing a fixed-dose combination of lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r. Consumption patterns of solutions during brief-access and long-term testing and baby foodstuff consumption were analyzed to evaluate the orosensory detection and avoidance of placebo FDTs containing no LPV/r (FDT− and FDTs containing LPV/r (FDT+. Rats showed no change in consumption patterns for the placebo FDT− compared with control solutions. Rats can detect but do not avoid FDT+ at body-weight-adjusted dosages in both brief-access (30-s and long-term (23 h consumption tests. There is an aversive response to concentrated doses of FDT+ during brief-access tests that cannot be masked by 25% sucrose. However, the strongest FDT+ concentration was not rejected when mixed with 50 g of applesauce, banana sauce, or rice cereal baby foodstuffs. The averseness of the FDT+ was associated with the presence of LPV/r and not the FDT− formulation itself. The novel FDT formulation appears to be a palatable delivery mechanism for oral antiretroviral pharmaceuticals especially when mixed with baby foodstuffs.

  17. Dual Therapy With Darunavir and Ritonavir Plus Lamivudine vs Triple Therapy With Darunavir and Ritonavir Plus Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate and Emtricitabine or Abacavir and Lamivudine for Maintenance of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Suppression: Randomized, Open-Label, Noninferiority DUAL-GESIDA 8014-RIS-EST45 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido, Federico; Ribera, Esteban; Lagarde, María; Pérez-Valero, Ignacio; Palacios, Rosario; Iribarren, José A; Payeras, Antoni; Domingo, Pere; Sanz, José; Cervero, Miguel; Curran, Adrián; Rodríguez-Gómez, Francisco J; Téllez, María J; Ryan, Pablo; Barrufet, Pilar; Knobel, Hernando; Rivero, Antonio; Alejos, Belén; Yllescas, María; Arribas, José R

    2017-11-29

    Our objective was to assess the therapeutic noninferiority of dual therapy with darunavir/ritonavir and lamivudine compared to triple therapy with darunavir/ritonavir plus 2 nucleos(t)ides for maintenance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) suppression. This was a multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial (margin 12%). Patients with HIV-1 RNA dual- and triple-therapy arms was 88.9% (112/126) and 92.7% (114/123; difference, -3.8%; 95% confidence interval, -11.0 to 3.4), respectively. Four participants in the dual-therapy arm and 2 in the triple-therapy arm developed protocol-defined virological failure. Switching to dual therapy was associated with a significant increase in total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but not in the total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio. Serious adverse events and study drug discontinuations due to adverse events occurred in 4.8% vs 4.9%P = .97) and in 0.8% (1/126) vs 1.6% P = .55) in dual therapy vs triple therapy, respectively. Dual therapy with darunavir/ritonavir and lamivudine demonstrated noninferior therapeutic efficacy and similar tolerability compared to triple therapy. NCT02159599. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis for HIV replication and biomarkers of immune activation and neurodegeneration in long-term atazanavir/ritonavir monotherapy treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Francesca; Bigoloni, Alba; Passeri, Laura; Galli, Laura; Longo, Valeria; Gerevini, Simonetta; Spagnuolo, Vincenzo; Gisslen, Magnus; Zetterberg, Henrik; Fuchs, Dietmar; Cattaneo, Dario; Caramatti, Giada; Lazzarin, Adriano; Cinque, Paola; Castagna, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral escape is a concern in ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors monotherapy. The aim was to assess HIV-RNA, biomarkers of immune activation and neurodegeneration, and atazanavir concentrations in CSF of patients on successful long-term atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) monotherapy. This is a substudy of the multicentric, randomized, open-label, noninferiority trial monotherapy once a day with atazanavir/ritonavir (NCT01511809), comparing the ongoing ATV/r along with 2 nucleoside retrotranscriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) regimen to a simplified ATV/r monotherapy. Patients with plasma HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL after at least 96 study weeks were eligible.We assessed HIV-RNA, soluble (s)CD14, sCD163, CCL2, CXCL10, interleukin-6, and YKL40 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, and neurofilament by immunoassays; and ATV concentrations by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in paired plasma and CSF samples. Variables were compared with Wilcoxon rank-sum or Fisher exact test, as appropriate. HIV-RNA was detected in the CSF of 1/11 patients on ATV/r monotherapy (114 copies/mL), without neurological symptoms, who was successfully reintensified with his previous 2NRTIs, and in none of the 12 patients on ATV/r + 2NRTIs. CSF biomarkers and ATV concentrations did not differ between the 2 arms. CSF escape was uncommon in patients on long-term ATV/r monotherapy and was controlled with reintensification.

  19. Estudio farmacocinético poblacional de antirretrovirales en rata.

    OpenAIRE

    Lledó García, Rocio

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN El saquinavir y ritonavir, son fármacos antirretrovirales pertenecientes a la familia de inhibidores de la proteasa, caracterizados por poseer una biodisponibilidad oral absoluta irregular, que en el caso del saquinavir además es baja. Ambos son substrato de enzimas metabólicas, como el CYP3A4 y de secreción intestinal. Actualmente, se utilizan en combinación, ya que el ritonavir es un potente inhibidor de la isoenzima CYP3A4, de modo que aumenta la biodisponibilidad oral del saqui...

  20. Plasma metabolic changes in Chinese HIV-infected patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir based treatment: Implications for HIV precision therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin; Wu, Tong; Jiang, Yongjun; Zhang, Zining; Han, Xiaoxu; Geng, Wenqing; Ding, Haibo; Kang, Jing; Wang, Qi; Shang, Hong

    2018-05-16

    The goal of this study is to profile the metabolic changes in the plasma of HIV patients receiving lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) relative to their treatment-naïve phase, aimed to identify precision therapy for HIV for improving prognosis and predicting dyslipidemia caused by LPV/r. 38 longitudinal plasma samples were collected from 19 HIV-infected patients both before and after antiretroviral therapy, and 18 samples from healthy individuals were used as controls. Untargeted metabolomics profiling of these plasma samples was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 331 compounds of known identity were detected among these metabolites, a 67-metabolite signature mainly mapping to tryptophan, histidine, acyl carnitine, ketone bodies and fatty acid metabolism distinguished HIV patients from healthy controls. The levels of 19 out of the 67 altered metabolites including histidine, kynurenine, and 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), recovered after LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy, and histidine was positively correlated with the presence of CD4 + T lymphocytes. Furthermore, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses, we discovered that butyrylcarnitine in combination with myristic acid from plasma in treatment-naïve patients could predict dyslipidemia caused by LPV/r with 87% accuracy. Metabolites alterations in treatment-naïve HIV patients may indicate an inflammatory, oxidative state and mitochondrial dysfunction that is permissive for disease progression. Histidine may provide a specific protective function for HIV patients. Besides, elevated fatty acids levels including butyrylcarnitine and myristic acid after infection may indicate patients at risk of suffering from dyslipidemia after LPV/r-based HAART. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Efficacy of initial antiretroviral therapy based on lopinavir/ritonavir plus 2 nucleoside/nucleotide analogs in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Laura; Gatell, José M

    2014-11-01

    Triple combination regimens consisting of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus 2 nucleoside/nucleotide analogs continue to be a valid option in initial antiretroviral therapy. Other protease inhibitors boosted with ritonavir (and in future with cobicistat) have been introduced, as well as other non-nucleoside analogs (rilpivirin) and 3 integrase inhibitors. None of the new regimens have shown superiority over LPV/r or comparisons are lacking. Therefore, regimens including LPV/r continue to be recommended as initial first-line or alternative strategies in most treatment guidelines. Dual combinations with LPV/r (plus raltegravir or lamivudine) are described in another article and can provide a similar response rate to triple combinations, better tolerance, and an improved cost-efficacy ratio, both for initial therapy and in simplification strategies. In contrast, LPV/r or darunavir/r monotherapy does not seem an acceptable option in treatment-naïve patients and is becoming increasingly less acceptable in simplification strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Validation of Simultaneous Quantitative Method of HIV Protease Inhibitors Atazanavir, Darunavir and Ritonavir in Human Plasma by UPLC-MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulsidas Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. HIV protease inhibitors are used in the treatment of patients suffering from AIDS and they act at the final stage of viral replication by interfering with the HIV protease enzyme. The paper describes a selective, sensitive, and robust method for simultaneous determination of three protease inhibitors atazanavir, darunavir and ritonavir in human plasma by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Materials and Methods. The sample pretreatment consisted of solid phase extraction of analytes and their deuterated analogs as internal standards from 50 μL human plasma. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on Waters Acquity UPLC C18 (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm column under gradient conditions using 10 mM ammonium formate, pH 4.0, and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Results. The method was established over a concentration range of 5.0–6000 ng/mL for atazanavir, 5.0–5000 ng/mL for darunavir and 1.0–500 ng/mL for ritonavir. Accuracy, precision, matrix effect, recovery, and stability of the analytes were evaluated as per US FDA guidelines. Conclusions. The efficiency of sample preparation, short analysis time, and high selectivity permit simultaneous estimation of these inhibitors. The validated method can be useful in determining plasma concentration of these protease inhibitors for therapeutic drug monitoring and in high throughput clinical studies.

  3. Contribution of different antiretroviral regimens containing zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir on HIV viral load reduction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripan, Patumrat; Le Coeur, Sophie; Ingsrisawang, Lily; Cressey, Tim R; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Traisathit, Patrinee; Srirompotong, Ussanee; Ayudhaya, Orada Patamasingh Na; Puangsombat, Achara; Jungpipun, Jantana; Jittayanun, Kanokwan; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Jourdain, Gonzague; Lallemant, Marc; Urien, Saïk

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have evolved over time. We evaluated the contribution of different ARV regimens on the reduction of the plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) during pregnancy. A total of 1,833 VL measurements from ARV-naive pregnant women participating in perinatal prevention trials in Thailand were included. Women received either zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy, ZDV plus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), or ZDV plus lamivudine (3TC) plus LPV/r. VL time-course during pregnancy was described as a function of pretreatment VL and treatment duration using an Emax non-linear mixed-effect model. VL reduction and median time to achieve a VL<50 copies/ml were estimated for each regimen. Among 745 women, 279 (37%), 145 (20%) and 321 (43%) received ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r and ZDV+3TC+LPV/r, respectively. The predicted VL reduction from baseline to delivery after a median of 10 weeks of treatment were 0.5, 2.7 and 2.9 log10 copies/ml with ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r and ZDV+3TC+LPV/r, respectively. At delivery, 1%, 57% and 63% of women receiving ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r or ZDV+3TC+LPV/r had a VL<50 copies/ml. The addition of 3TC to ZDV+LPV/r reduced the time to achieve a VL<50 copies/ml and the higher the pretreatment VL, the larger the effect 3TC had on reducing the time to VL<50 copies/ml. The addition of 3TC to ZDV+LPV/r was associated with a slight further VL reduction but the time to reach a VL<50 copies/ml was shorter. This beneficial effect of 3TC is crucial for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in women who receive ARVs late and with high pretreatment VL.

  4. Etravirine combined with antiretrovirals other than darunavir/ritonavir for HIV-1-infected, treatment-experienced adults: Week 48 results of a phase IV trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Arathoon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: VIOLIN (TMC125IFD3002; NCT01422330 evaluated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of etravirine with antiretrovirals other than darunavir/ritonavir in HIV-1-infected patients. Methods: In a 48-week, phase IV, single-arm, multicenter study, patients on prior antiretroviral therapy (⩾8 weeks who needed to change regimen for virologic failure (viral load ⩾ 500 copies/mL or simplification/adverse events (viral load < 50 copies/mL received etravirine 200 mg bid with ⩾1 other active antiretroviral, excluding darunavir/ritonavir or only nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Results: Of 211 treated patients, 73% (n = 155 had baseline viral load ⩾ 50 copies/mL and 27% (n = 56 had baseline viral load < 50 copies/mL. Protease inhibitors were the most common background antiretrovirals (83%. Diarrhea was the most frequent adverse event (17%. Serious adverse events (no rash occurred in 5% of patients; none were etravirine related. Overall, median etravirine AUC12h was 5390 ng h/mL and C0h was 353 ng/mL (N = 199. Week 48 virologic response rates (viral load < 50 copies/mL; Food and Drug Administration Snapshot algorithm were 48% (74/155 (baseline viral load ⩾ 50 copies/mL and 75% (42/56 (baseline viral load < 50 copies/mL. Virologic failure rates were 42% and 13%, respectively. The most frequently emerging etravirine resistance-associated mutations in virologic failures were Y181C, E138A, and M230L. Virologic response rates for patients with baseline viral load ⩾ 50 copies/mL were 38% (30/79 (non-adherent versus 64% (44/69 (adherent subset. Conclusion: Etravirine 200 mg bid in combination with antiretrovirals other than darunavir/ritonavir was well tolerated in the studied treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected population. The overall etravirine safety and tolerability profile and pharmacokinetics (specifically in those patients who were adherent

  5. Effectiveness of Ritonavir-Boosted Protease Inhibitor Monotherapy in Clinical Practice Even with Previous Virological Failures to Protease Inhibitor-Based Regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F López-Cortés

    Full Text Available Significant controversy still exists about ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (mtPI/rtv as a simplification strategy that is used up to now to treat patients that have not experienced previous virological failure (VF while on protease inhibitor (PI -based regimens. We have evaluated the effectiveness of two mtPI/rtv regimens in an actual clinical practice setting, including patients that had experienced previous VF with PI-based regimens.This retrospective study analyzed 1060 HIV-infected patients with undetectable viremia that were switched to lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy. In cases in which the patient had previously experienced VF while on a PI-based regimen, the lack of major HIV protease resistance mutations to lopinavir or darunavir, respectively, was mandatory. The primary endpoint of this study was the percentage of participants with virological suppression after 96 weeks according to intention-to-treat analysis (non-complete/missing = failure.A total of 1060 patients were analyzed, including 205 with previous VF while on PI-based regimens, 90 of whom were on complex therapies due to extensive resistance. The rates of treatment effectiveness (intention-to-treat analysis and virological efficacy (on-treatment analysis at week 96 were 79.3% (CI95, 76.8-81.8 and 91.5% (CI95, 89.6-93.4, respectively. No relationships were found between VF and earlier VF while on PI-based regimens, the presence of major or minor protease resistance mutations, the previous time on viral suppression, CD4+ T-cell nadir, and HCV-coinfection. Genotypic resistance tests were available in 49 out of the 74 patients with VFs and only four patients presented new major protease resistance mutations.Switching to mtPI/rtv achieves sustained virological control in most patients, even in those with previous VF on PI-based regimens as long as no major resistance mutations are present for the administered drug.

  6. Four weeks of paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir plus dasabuvir encountering dengue fever resulted in sustained virological response in an HCV patient: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Feng; Jang, Tyng-Yuan; Lu, Po-Liang; Yu, Ming-Lung

    2016-11-01

    Direct antiviral agent (DAA) has been the standard of care for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Twelve weeks of paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir plus dasabuvir (PROD) with or without ribavirin has shown to have a sustained virological response at post-treatment 12 weeks (SVR12) rate of >90% in HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1) patients. We report a HCV-1b patient who received only 25 days of PROD treatment. The patient early terminated treatment due to dengue fever but eventually achieved SVR12. It may attribute to low baseline viral loads and extraordinarily rapid suppression of HCV after treatment day1. The finding may shed light for possible response-guided-therapy for so-called ultra-super-responders in the DAA era. Whether the dengue virus, the Flaviviridae family as with HCV, enhanced the HCV clearance remains unclear and needs further exploration.

  7. Exposure-Response Relationship for Ombitasvir and Paritaprevir/Ritonavir in Hepatitis C Virus Subgenotype 1b-Infected Japanese Patients in the Phase 3 Randomized GIFT-I Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Sathej; Khatri, Amit; Mensing, Sven; Redman, Rebecca; Menon, Rajeev; Zha, Jiuhong

    2016-04-01

    The all-oral 2 direct-acting antiviral (DAA) regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir 25/150/100 mg once a day has been evaluated in hepatitis C virus subgenotype 1b-infected Japanese adults in the GIFT-I study. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate potential relationships between DAA exposures and laboratory abnormalities/adverse events of peripheral edema in patients in GIFT-I. The GIFT-I study consisted of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled substudy in patients without cirrhosis and an open-label substudy in patients with compensated cirrhosis. Patients received ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir for 12 weeks. Exposure-response relationships between individual components of the ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir regimen and clinical parameters of interest were explored using pharmacokinetic and clinical data from patients in the study. Graphical analyses were performed. For events that occurred in at least 10 patients (total bilirubin elevation ≥grade 2 and peripheral edema ≥grade 1), multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify significant relationships between predictor variables (drug exposures) and response variables (probability of adverse events or laboratory abnormalities), with consideration for the effect of potential covariates and baseline status of response variables. Data from 321 noncirrhotic and 42 compensated cirrhotic patients were analyzed. There were 14 events of peripheral edema (10 at grade 1 and 4 at grade 2) in patients who received concomitant administration of calcium channel blockers and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir. There was no apparent relationship between the incidences of peripheral edema and exposures of paritaprevir, ombitasvir, or ritonavir. There was a shallow relationship between total bilirubin elevation and exposures of paritaprevir which is an inhibitor of bilirubin transporter organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B. Based on graphical analyses, exposures of paritaprevir

  8. Treatment of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome with a combination of lopinavir-ritonavir and interferon-β1b (MIRACLE trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Alothman, Adel; Balkhy, Hanan H; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz; AlJohani, Sameera; Al Harbi, Shmeylan; Kojan, Suleiman; Al Jeraisy, Majed; Deeb, Ahmad M; Assiri, Abdullah M; Al-Hameed, Fahad; AlSaedi, Asim; Mandourah, Yasser; Almekhlafi, Ghaleb A; Sherbeeni, Nisreen Murad; Elzein, Fatehi Elnour; Memon, Javed; Taha, Yusri; Almotairi, Abdullah; Maghrabi, Khalid A; Qushmaq, Ismael; Al Bshabshe, Ali; Kharaba, Ayman; Shalhoub, Sarah; Jose, Jesna; Fowler, Robert A; Hayden, Frederick G; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2018-01-30

    It had been more than 5 years since the first case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus infection (MERS-CoV) was recorded, but no specific treatment has been investigated in randomized clinical trials. Results from in vitro and animal studies suggest that a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon-β1b (IFN-β1b) may be effective against MERS-CoV. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of treatment with a combination of lopinavir/ritonavir and recombinant IFN-β1b provided with standard supportive care, compared to treatment with placebo provided with standard supportive care in patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS requiring hospital admission. The protocol is prepared in accordance with the SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) guidelines. Hospitalized adult patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS will be enrolled in this recursive, two-stage, group sequential, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind randomized controlled trial. The trial is initially designed to include 2 two-stage components. The first two-stage component is designed to adjust sample size and determine futility stopping, but not efficacy stopping. The second two-stage component is designed to determine efficacy stopping and possibly readjustment of sample size. The primary outcome is 90-day mortality. This will be the first randomized controlled trial of a potential treatment for MERS. The study is sponsored by King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Enrollment for this study began in November 2016, and has enrolled thirteen patients as of Jan 24-2018. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02845843 . Registered on 27 July 2016.

  9. Lopinavir and Ritonavir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Orap); rifampin (Rimactane, Rifadin, in Rifamate, in Rifater); sildenafil (only Revatio brand used for lung disease); simvastatin ( ... quetiapine (Seroquel); rifabutin (Mycobutin); salmeterol (Serevent, in Advair); sildenafil (Viagra); tadalafil (Adcirca, Cialis); trazodone; and vardenafil (Levitra). ...

  10. Eplerenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eplerenone comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day, with or without food. To help you ... Crixivan), ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra), and saquinavir (Invirase); isoniazid (Laniazid, in Rifamate, Rifater); lithium (Lithobid); metronidazole (Flagyl); ...

  11. High rate of virologic suppression with darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy among highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients: results of a prospective cohort study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Vidal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the virologic and immunological response of darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy in highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients with confirmed virologic failure began darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± raltegravir ± enfuvirtide ± maraviroc after performing a genotypic resistance assay. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were collected at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of virologic response at 48 weeks. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The median of darunavir resistant mutation was 1 (range 0-6. The median genotypic sensitivity score in the optimized background therapy was 2 (interquartile range 1-2. At week 48, 83% (95% CI: 75-90% had an HIV RNA level 100 000 copies/mL was inversely associated with virologic success at week 48 (HR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy was a highly effective salvage regimen under clinical routine conditions in a referral center in Brazil, which is similar to the reported in high-income countries.

  12. High rate of virologic suppression with darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy among highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients: results of a prospective cohort study in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Vidal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess the virologic and immunological response of darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy in highly antiretroviral-experienced HIV-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study carried out in a tertiary center in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Three-class antiretroviral-experienced patients with confirmed virologic failure began darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy (nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors ± raltegravir ± enfuvirtide ± maraviroc after performing a genotypic resistance assay. Clinical evaluation and laboratory tests were collected at baseline and at weeks 12, 24, and 48. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of virologic response at 48 weeks. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were included. The median of darunavir resistant mutation was 1 (range 0-6. The median genotypic sensitivity score in the optimized background therapy was 2 (interquartile range 1-2. At week 48, 83% (95% CI: 75-90% had an HIV RNA level 100 000 copies/mL was inversely associated with virologic success at week 48 (HR: 0.22, 95% CI: 0.06-0.85, p = 0.028. CONCLUSIONS: Darunavir/ritonavir plus optimized background therapy was a highly effective salvage regimen under clinical routine conditions in a referral center in Brazil, which is similar to the reported in high-income countries.

  13. Response by gender of HIV-1-infected subjects treated with abacavir/lamivudine plus atazanavir, with or without ritonavir, for 144 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Squires KE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kathleen E Squires,1 Benjamin Young,2,3 Lizette Santiago,4 Robin H Dretler,5 Sharon L Walmsley,6 Henry H Zhao,7 Gary E Pakes,8 Lisa L Ross,8 Mark S Shaefer8 On behalf of the ARIES Study Team 1Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Apex Family Medicine and Research, Denver, CO, 3International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care, Washington DC, USA; 4HOPE Clinic and Wellness Center, San Juan, Puerto Rico; 5ID Specialists of Atlanta, Decatur, GA, USA; 6University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 7GlaxoSmithKline, 8ViiV Healthcare, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA Purpose: The 144-week results of the open-label, multicenter Atazanavir/Ritonavir Induction with Epzicom Study (ARIES were stratified by gender to compare treatment responses.Methods: A total of 369 HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve subjects receiving once-daily abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r whose HIV-1 RNA was <50 copies/mL by week 30 were randomized 1:1 at week 36 to maintain or discontinue ritonavir for 108 subsequent weeks. Between- and within-treatment gender-related efficacy and safety differences were analyzed.Results: Subjects were 85% male; 64% white; and had a mean age of 39 years, baseline median HIV-1 RNA of 114,815 copies/mL, and median CD4+ cell count of 198 cells/mm3. Gender (ATV [n=189]: 29 females/160 males; ATV/r [n=180]: 25 females/155 males and most other demographics were similar between groups; more females than males were black (65% vs 25% and fewer females had baseline HIV-1 RNA ≥100,000 copies/mL (41% vs 58%. At week 144, no significant differences between genders were observed in proportion maintaining HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL (ATV, 79% vs 77%; ATV/r, 60% vs 75% or <400 copies/mL (ATV, 83% vs 84%; ATV/r, 68% vs 82% (intent-to-treat-exposed: time to loss of virologic response analysis; median CD4+ change from baseline (ATV, +365 vs +300 cells/mm3; ATV/r, +344 vs +301 cells/mm3; proportion with treatment-related grade 2–4

  14. Validation and application of a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous quantification of lopinavir and ritonavir in human plasma using semi-automated 96-well liquid-liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Perry G; Wei, Jack S; Kim, Grace; Chang, Min; El-Shourbagy, Tawakol

    2006-10-20

    Kaletra is an important antiretroviral drug, which has been developed by Abbott Laboratories. It is composed of lopinavir (low-pin-a-veer) and ritonavir (ri-toe-na-veer). Both have been proved to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors and have substantially reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1 infection. We have developed and validated an assay, using liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), for the routine quantification of lopinavir and ritonavir in human plasma, in which lopinavir and ritonavir can be simultaneously analyzed with high throughput. The sample preparation consisted of liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of hexane: ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), using 100 microL of plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Symmetry C(18) column (150 mm x 3.9 mm, particle size 5 microm) with reverse-phase isocratic using mobile phase of 70:30 (v/v) acetonitrile: 2 mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution containing 0.01% formic acid (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. A Waters symmetry C(18) guard column (20 mm x 3.9 mm, particle size 5 microm) was connected prior to the analytical column, and a guard column back wash was performed to reduce the analytical column contamination using a mixture of tetrahydrofuran (THF), methanol and water (45:45:10, v/v/v). The analytical run was 4 min. The use of a 96-well plate autosampler allowed a batch size up to 73 study samples. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was operated in a positive ion mode and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used for drug quantification. The method was validated over the concentration ranges of 19-5,300 ng/mL for lopinavir and 11-3,100 ng/mL for ritonavir. A-86093 was used as an internal standard (I.S.). The relative standard deviation (RSD) were <6% for both lopinavir and ritonavir. Mean accuracies were between the designed limits (+/-15%). The robust and rapid LC

  15. Formulation preference, tolerability and quality of life assessment following a switch from lopinavir/ritonavir soft gel capsule to tablet in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmotzer Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r tablet compared to the soft gel capsule (SGC formulation has no oleic acid or sorbitol, has no refrigeration or food-restriction requirements, and has less pharmacokinetic variability. We compared the tolerability, quality of life (QoL, and formulation preference after switching from LPV/r SGC to the tablet formulation. Methods In a prospective, single-arm, cohort study-design, 74 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected subjects stable on LPV/r-based therapy were enrolled prior to (n = 25 or 8 weeks (n = 49 after switching from SGC to tablet. Baseline data included clinical laboratory tests, bowel habit survey (BHS and QoL questionnaire (recalled if enrolled post-switch. Global Condition Improvement (GCI-score, BHS-score, QoL-score, and formulation preference data were captured at weeks 4 and 12. Results At week 12 post-enrollment; the tablet was preferred to the SGC (74% vs. 10%, p Conclusions LPV/r-tablet was well tolerated and preferred to the SGC in HIV infected subjects, with stable QoL and appreciable improvement in GI-tolerability. The unexpected changes in lipid profile deserve further evaluation.

  16. Cost/efficacy analysis of preferred Spanish AIDS study group regimens and the dual therapy with lopinavir/ritonavir plus lamivudine for initial ART in HIV infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatell Artigas, Josep María; Arribas López, José Ramón; Lázaro Y de Mercado, Pablo; Blasco Bravo, Antonio Javier

    2016-01-01

    The National AIDS Plan and the Spanish AIDS study group (GESIDA) proposes "preferred regimens" (PR) of antiretroviral treatment (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients. In 2013, the recommended regimens were all triple therapy regimens. The Gardel Study assessed the efficacy of a dual therapy (DT) combination of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) plus lamivudine (3TC). Our objective is to evaluate the GESIDA PR and the DT regimen LPV/r+3TC cost/efficacy ratios. Decision tree models were built. probability of having viral load cost: costs of ART, adverse effects, and drug resistance tests during the first 48 weeks. Cost/efficacy ratios varied between 5,817 and 13,930 euros per responder at 48 weeks, for the DT of LPV/r+3TC and tenofovir DF/emtricitabine+raltegravir, respectively. Taking into account the official Spanish prices of ART, the most efficient regimen was DT of LPV/r+3TC, followed by the triple therapy with non-nucleoside containing regimens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. CUSP9* treatment protocol for recurrent glioblastoma: aprepitant, artesunate, auranofin, captopril, celecoxib, disulfiram, itraconazole, ritonavir, sertraline augmenting continuous low dose temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Richard E; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Halatsch, Marc-Eric

    2014-09-30

    CUSP9 treatment protocol for recurrent glioblastoma was published one year ago. We now present a slight modification, designated CUSP9*. CUSP9* drugs--aprepitant, artesunate, auranofin, captopril, celecoxib, disulfiram, itraconazole, sertraline, ritonavir, are all widely approved by regulatory authorities, marketed for non-cancer indications. Each drug inhibits one or more important growth-enhancing pathways used by glioblastoma. By blocking survival paths, the aim is to render temozolomide, the current standard cytotoxic drug used in primary glioblastoma treatment, more effective. Although esthetically unpleasing to use so many drugs at once, the closely similar drugs of the original CUSP9 used together have been well-tolerated when given on a compassionate-use basis in the cases that have come to our attention so far. We expect similarly good tolerability for CUSP9*. The combined action of this suite of drugs blocks signaling at, or the activity of, AKT phosphorylation, aldehyde dehydrogenase, angiotensin converting enzyme, carbonic anhydrase -2,- 9, -12, cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, cathepsin B, Hedgehog, interleukin-6, 5-lipoxygenase, matrix metalloproteinase -2 and -9, mammalian target of rapamycin, neurokinin-1, p-gp efflux pump, thioredoxin reductase, tissue factor, 20 kDa translationally controlled tumor protein, and vascular endothelial growth factor. We believe that given the current prognosis after a glioblastoma has recurred, a trial of CUSP9* is warranted.

  18. Quantitative analysis of the effect of zidovudine, efavirenz, and ritonavir on insulin aggregation by multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares of infrared spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martí-Aluja, Idoia; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Larrechi, M. Soledad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The structure of insulin can be changed via interaction with antiretroviral drugs. ► The chemical interaction promotes the formation of aggregates. ► This drug effect was evaluated by MCR-ALS coupled to IR spectroscopy. ► Formation of aggregates was favourable if drugs were able to form hydrogen bonds. ► Higher drug concentrations favoured formation of amorphous aggregates. - Abstract: Quantification of the effect of antiretroviral drugs on the insulin aggregation process is an important area of research due to the serious metabolic diseases observed in AIDS patients after prolonged treatment with these drugs. In this work, multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to infrared monitoring of the insulin aggregation process in the presence of three antiretroviral drugs to quantify their effect. To evidence concentration dependence in this process, mixtures at two different insulin:drug molar ratios were used. The interaction between insulin and each drug was analysed by 1 H NMR spectroscopy. In all cases, the aggregation process was monitored during 45 min by infrared spectroscopy. The aggregates were further characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). MCR-ALS provided the spectral and concentration profiles of the different insulin–drug conformations that are involved in the process. Their feasible band boundaries were calculated using the MCR-BANDS methodology. The kinetic profiles describe the aggregation pathway and the spectral profiles characterise the conformations involved. The retrieved results show that each of the three drugs modifies insulin conformation in a different way, promoting the formation of aggregates. Ritonavir shows the strongest promotion of aggregation, followed by efavirenz and zidovudine. In the studied concentration range, concentration dependence was only observed for zidovudine, with shorter aggregation time obtained as the amount of zidovudine increased. This factor

  19. Development and in vivo evaluation of child-friendly lopinavir/ritonavir pediatric granules utilizing novel in situ self-assembly nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Kevin; Li, Diana; Guo, Shujie; Penzak, Scott; Dong, Xiaowei

    2016-03-28

    The aim of this study was to develop a nanotechnology to formulate a fixed-dose combination of poorly water-soluble drugs in a children-friendly, flexible solid dosage form. For diseases like HIV, pediatric patients are taking multiple drugs for effective treatments. Fixed-dose combinations could reduce pill burdens and costs as well as improving patient adherence. However, development of fixed-dose combinations of poorly water-soluble drugs for pediatric formulations is very challenging. We discovered a novel nanotechnology that produced in situ self-assembly nanoparticles (ISNPs) when the ISNP granules were introduced to water. In this study, antiretroviral drug granules, including lopinavir (LPV) ISNP granules and a fixed-dose combination of LPV/ritonavir (RTV) ISNP granules, were prepared using the ISNP nanotechnology, which spontaneously produced drug-loaded ISNPs in contact with water. Drug-loaded ISNPs had particle size less than 158nm with mono-dispersed distribution, over 95% entrapment efficiency for both LPV and RTV and stability over 8h in simulated physiological conditions. Drug-loaded ISNP granules with about 16% of LPV and 4% of RTV were palatable and stable at room temperature over 6months. Furthermore, LPV/RTV ISNP granules displayed a 2.56-fold increase in bioavailability and significantly increased LPV concentrations in tested tissues, especially in HIV sanctuary sites, as compared to the commercial LPV/RTV tablet (Kaletra®) in rats. Overall, the results demonstrated that the novel ISNP nanotechnology is a promising platform to manufacture palatable, "heat" stable, and flexible pediatric granules for fixed-dose combinations that can be used as sachets and sprinkles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on this kind of novel nanotechnology for pediatric fixed-dose combinations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Atazanavir in HIV-1-Infected Children Treated With Atazanavir Powder and Ritonavir: Combined Analysis of the PRINCE-1 and -2 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinsky, Heather; Zaru, Luna; Wang, Reena; Xu, Xiaohui; Pikora, Cheryl; Correll, Todd A; Eley, Timothy

    2018-06-01

    Two clinical studies (PRINCE-1 and -2) in HIV-1-infected children assessed the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics of dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor background therapy plus once-daily atazanavir (ATV) powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV + RTV). Here, we present a combined analysis of ATV pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics across these studies. Intensive 24-hour pharmacokinetic profiles at steady state compared ATV exposures (area under the concentration-time curve in one dosing interval) in 5 ATV + RTV baseline weight-band dosing categories, with historic data in adults receiving ATV + RTV 300/100 mg capsules. Repeated ATV Ctrough measurements over 48 weeks explored relationships between ATV composite Ctrough quartiles (CCQs) with virologic efficacy and key safety parameters. Of 146 children included in this combined analysis, 49.3% were male, 56.8% were Black/African American and 62.3% were antiretroviral experienced. Proportions with HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 48 were 13/32, 24/32, 19/32 and 13/28 in the lowest through highest ATV CCQs, respectively. Mean changes from baseline in total bilirubin at week 48 were +0.3, +0.5, +0.6 and +1.0 mg/dL in the lowest through highest ATV CCQs, respectively. Corresponding proportions with adverse events of hyperbilirubinemia by week 48 were 1/36, 4/36, 5/36 and 13/35, respectively. Changes from baseline in total amylase or electrocardiogram parameters and adverse events of diarrhea did not vary by ATV CCQs. Weight-band dosing of ATV + RTV plus optimized dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in young HIV-1-infected children achieved similar ATV exposure to that in adults; no unexpected safety findings occurred, and with the exception of lower virologic suppression in the lowest ATV CCQ, there was no apparent trend in virologic suppression across ATV CCQs.

  1. Real-world efficacy and safety of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir, dasabuvir ± ribavirin for hepatitis C genotype 1 - final results of the REV1TAL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubel, John; Strasser, Simone; Stuart, Katherine A; Dore, Gregory; Thompson, Alexander; Pianko, Stephen; Bollipo, Steven; Mitchell, Joanne L; Fragomeli, Vincenzo; Jones, Tracey; Chivers, Sarah; Gow, Paul; Iser, David; Levy, Miriam; Tse, Edmund; Gazzola, Alessia; Cheng, Wendy; Nazareth, Saroj; Galhenage, Sam; Wade, Amanda; Weltman, Martin; Wigg, Alan; MacQuillan, Gerry; Sasadeusz, Joe; George, Jacob; Zekry, Amany; Roberts, Stuart K

    2017-01-01

    Limited data exist on the outcomes of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir with ombitasvir and dasabuvir (PrOD) ± ribavirin in a real-world setting. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of PrOD-based therapy in hepatitis C genotype 1 patients with and without cirrhosis, and to explore pre-treatment factors predictive of sustained viral response (SVR) and serious adverse events (SAEs) on treatment. 451 patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 treated in 20 centres across Australia were included. Baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory information, on-treatment biochemical, virological and haematological indices and details on serious adverse events were collected locally. Cirrhosis was present in 340 patients (75.4%). Overall SVR was 95.1% with no differences in SVR between the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups (94.7% versus 96.4%). SVR in subgenotypes 1a and 1b was 93.1% and 99.2%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, baseline bilirubin level and early treatment cessation predicted SVR. SAEs occurred in 10.9% of patients including hepatic decompensation (2.7%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (1.8%). On multivariate analysis of factors predictive of SAEs in the overall group, Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) B was the only significant factor, while in those with cirrhosis, baseline albumin and creatinine levels were significant. In this large real-world cohort of HCV genotype 1 subjects, treatment with PrOD was highly effective and similar to clinical trials. Important determinants of reduced SVR include early cessation of therapy and baseline bilirubin concentration. SAEs were not infrequent with CTP B patients being at greatest risk.

  2. Fosamprenavir or atazanavir once daily boosted with ritonavir 100 mg, plus tenofovir/emtricitabine, for the initial treatment of HIV infection: 48-week results of ALERT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Lisa L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Once-daily (QD ritonavir 100 mg-boosted fosamprenavir 1400 mg (FPV/r100 or atazanavir 300 mg (ATV/r100, plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC 300 mg/200 mg, have not been compared as initial antiretroviral treatment. To address this data gap, we conducted an open-label, multicenter 48-week study (ALERT in 106 antiretroviral-naïve, HIV-infected patients (median HIV-1 RNA 4.9 log10 copies/mL; CD4+ count 191 cells/mm3 randomly assigned to the FPV/r100 or ATV/r100 regimens. Results At baseline, the FPV/r100 or ATV/r100 arms were well-matched for HIV-1 RNA (median, 4.9 log10 copies/mL [both], CD4+ count (mean, 176 vs 205 cells/mm3. At week 48, intent-to-treat: missing/discontinuation = failure analysis showed similar responses to FPV/r100 and ATV/r100 (HIV-1 RNA 3, p = 0.398 [Wilcoxon rank sum test]. Fasting total/LDL/HDL-cholesterol changes-from-baseline were also similar, although week 48 median fasting triglycerides were higher with FPV/r100 (150 vs 131 mg/dL. FPV/r100-treated patients experienced fewer treatment-related grade 2–4 adverse events (15% vs 57%, with differences driven by ATV-related hyperbilirubinemia. Three patients discontinued TDF/FTC because their GFR decreased to Conclusion The all-QD regimens of FPV/r100 and ATV/r100, plus TDF/FTC, provided similar virologic, CD4+ response, and fasting total/LDL/HDL-cholesterol changes through 48 weeks. Fewer FPV/r100-treated patients experienced treatment-related grade 2–4 adverse events.

  3. Pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (300/100 mg once daily) in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lê, Minh P; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Descamps, Diane; Soulié, Cathia; Ichou, Houria; Bourgeois-Moine, Agnès; Damond, Florence; Lariven, Sylvie; Valantin, Marc-Antoine; Landman, Roland; Faucher, Philippe; Tubiana, Roland; Duro, Dominique; Meier, Françoise; Legac, Sylvie; Bourse, Patricia; Mortier, Emmanuel; Dommergues, Marc; Calvez, Vincent; Matheron, Sophie; Peytavin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r) is a boosted protease inhibitor recommended to minimize the risk of mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT). We aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of ATV/r in HIV-1-infected pregnant women and their neonates. A multicentre, cross-sectional, non-interventional cohort of HIV-1-infected pregnant women receiving ATV/r (300/100 mg once daily) who delivered in three Paris hospitals from 2006 to 2013 was designed. We determined antiretroviral trough plasma concentrations using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry at each of the three trimesters, delivery and post-partum. ATV concentrations at 24 h (C24h) were interpreted by the 150-850 ng/ml efficacy-tolerance thresholds. Safety data and newborn HIV status were recorded. A mother's virological failure was defined as two successive measurements of plasma HIV-1 RNA>50 copies/ml within the 2 months before delivery. 103 pregnant women were included, mostly from sub-Saharan Africa (88%). ATV C24h at each of the three trimesters and delivery remained similar to post-partum values. No dose adjustment was needed during pregnancy. The median plasma ratio of fetal/maternal ATV level was 0.19 (n=28). Only three patients showed two successive detectable viral loads but <400 copies/ml. Among 82 available newborn data, 16 were born preterm. Three in utero deaths occurred. Tolerance was good with one case of maternal grade 3 hyperbilirubinaemia, no cases in neonates at delivery and no clinically relevant adverse event. No case of MTCT was reported. In this population, an ATV/r-containing antiretroviral regimen demonstrated good pharmacokinetics, virological efficacy and safety. No significant impact of pregnancy on ATV C24h was found. No dose adjustment was required.

  4. Efficacy and safety of atazanavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infected subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshawy, Amr; Ismail, Ammar; Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Ahmed, Hussien; Menshawy, Esraa; Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Gadelkarim, Mohamed; Abdel-Maboud, Mohamed; Attia, Attia; Negida, Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Atazanavir (ATZ) is a well-tolerated protease inhibitor that can be boosted with ritonavir (r) to treat infection with resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1). The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy, safety, and metabolic effects of ATZ/r regimen versus commonly used antiretroviral drugs such as lopinavir (LPV) and darunavir (DRV) in HIV-1-infected patients. We searched PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL, using relevant keywords. Data were extracted from eligible randomized trials and pooled as risk ratios (RR) or standardized mean differences (SMD) in a meta-analysis model using RevMan software. Nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (3292 patients) were eligible for the final analysis. After 96 weeks of treatment, the pooled effect estimate did not favor either ATZ/r or LPV/r in terms of virological failure rate (RR 1.11, 95% CI [0.74, 1.66]). However, ATZ/r was marginally superior to LPV/r in terms of increasing the proportion of patients with HIV RNA SMD -0.06, 95%CI [-0.33, 0.21]) or subcutaneous adipose tissue (SMD 0.12, 95% CI [-0.15, 0.39]). The ATZ/r regimen was generally as effective and well-tolerated as the LPV/r regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 patients. Compared to the DRV/r regimen, ATZ/r has no favorable effect on the plasma lipid profile or adipose tissue distribution.

  5. Baseline natural killer and T cell populations correlation with virologic outcome after regimen simplification to atazanavir/ritonavir alone (ACTG 5201.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McKinnon

    Full Text Available Simplified maintenance therapy with ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r provides an alternative treatment option for HIV-1 infection that spares nucleoside analogs (NRTI for future use and decreased toxicity. We hypothesized that the level of immune activation (IA and recovery of lymphocyte populations could influence virologic outcomes after regimen simplification.Thirty-four participants with virologic suppression ≥ 48 weeks on antiretroviral therapy (2 NRTI plus protease inhibitor were switched to ATV/r alone in the context of the ACTG 5201 clinical trial. Flow cytometric analyses were performed on PBMC isolated from 25 patients with available samples, of which 24 had lymphocyte recovery sufficient for this study. Assessments included enumeration of T-cells (CD4/CD8, natural killer (NK (CD3+CD56+CD16+ cells and cell-associated markers (HLA-DR, CD's 38/69/94/95/158/279.Eight of the 24 patients had at least one plasma HIV-1 RNA level (VL >50 copies/mL during the study. NK cell levels below the group median of 7.1% at study entry were associated with development of VL >50 copies/mL following simplification by regression and survival analyses (p = 0.043 and 0.023, with an odds ratio of 10.3 (95% CI: 1.92-55.3. Simplification was associated with transient increases in naïve and CD25+ CD4+ T-cells, and had no impact on IA levels.Lower NK cell levels prior to regimen simplification were predictive of virologic rebound after discontinuation of nucleoside analogs. Regimen simplification did not have a sustained impact on markers of IA or T lymphocyte populations in 48 weeks of clinical monitoring.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00084019.

  6. AIDS in the Third World: how to stop the HIV infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, E

    2007-01-01

    Of the 38.6 million people living with HIV/AIDS globally, almost 25 million (65%) live in sub-Saharan Africa. Preventive strategies and measures fall short, often simply because they are not available or are largely male-controlled. A preventive HIV vaccine is still far away; hence the drive to develop alternative prevention technologies, such as microbicides and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis, that could be female controlled. There are, at present, twenty-two anti-HIV drugs which have been formally licensed for clinical use in the treatment of HIV infections (AIDS): zidovudine, didanosine, zalcitabine, stavudine, lamivudine, abacavir, emtricitabine, tenofovir, nevirapine, delavirdine, efavirenz, saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, lopinavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, tipranavir, darunavir and enfuvirtide. These compounds, in combination, form the basis of HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy), which has led to the development of a single daily pill existing of the combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine and efavirenz, which has to be taken orally once daily for the treatment of AIDS. Beyond development of new drugs and clinical evaluation of existing medications, several companies within the pharmaceutical industry have established innovative policies that provide HIV medications at affordable prices in the least-developed countries. Reduced pricing is not alone a solution, and thus companies are actively working in partnership with the World Health Organization and other multinational groups to address roadblocks such as complex registration and procurement systems. Even in this period of successful anti-HIV therapy via HAART, a growing number of patients is cycling through the various remaining therapeutic options and are increasingly becoming dependent of the availability of newly developed anti-HIV agents. It is of concern that existing and future therapies will have to be effective against newly evolving

  7. Prevalence, Mutation Patterns, and Effects on Protease Inhibitor Susceptibility of the L76V Mutation in HIV-1 Protease▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Thomas P.; Parkin, Neil T.; Stawiski, Eric; Pilot-Matias, Tami; Trinh, Roger; Kempf, Dale J.; Norton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) and effects on PI susceptibility associated with the L76V mutation were studied in a large database. Of 20,501 sequences with ≥1 PI RAM, 3.2% contained L76V; L76V was alone in 0.04%. Common partner mutations included M46I, I54V, V82A, I84V, and L90M. L76V was associated with a 2- to 6-fold decrease in susceptibility to lopinavir, darunavir, amprenavir, and indinavir and a 7- to 8-fold increase in susceptibility to atazanavir and saquinavir. PMID:20805393

  8. Safety and Efficacy of Atazanavir Powder and Ritonavir in HIV-1-Infected Infants and Children From 3 Months to The PRINCE-2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Mark F; Liberty, Afaaf; Torres-Escobar, Indiana; Gonzalez-Tome, Maria Isabel; Lissens, Jurgen; Zaru, Luna; Klauck, Isabelle; Cambilargiu, Daniela; Pikora, Cheryl; Correll, Todd A

    2018-06-01

    Novel antiretroviral formulations that are palatable, safe, and effective are needed for infants and children. PRINCE-2 is an ongoing clinical trial assessing safety, efficacy, and palatability of once-daily atazanavir powder formulation boosted with ritonavir (ATV + RTV) plus optimized dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors therapy in antiretroviral-naïve/experienced children with screening HIV-1 RNA ≥1000 copies/mL. Children 3 months to <11 years received ATV + RTV by 5 baseline weight bands: 5 to <10 kg = 150/80 mg; 5 to <10 kg = 200/80 mg; 10 to <15 kg = 200/80 mg; 15 to <25 kg = 250/80 mg; and 25 to <35 kg = 300/100 mg. Of 99 treated children, 83.8% and 59.6% remained on ATV powder until 24 and 48 weeks, respectively. Through 48 weeks, the most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infections (33.3%), gastroenteritis (28.3%), vomiting (21.2%) and hyperbilirubinemia (18.2%; none leading to treatment discontinuation). Serious adverse events occurred in 20.2% of patients. Laboratory grade 3-4 hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 9.2% and elevated total/pancreatic amylase in 33.7%/3.1%. At week 24, proportions with virologic suppression (HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL; intention-to-treat analysis) across weight bands were 10/23 (43.5%), 2/12 (16.5%), 10/21 (47.6%), 19/35 (54.3%) and 5/8 (62.5%), respectively. Virologic suppression was similar in antiretroviral-naïve/experienced patients and lowest in the 5 to <10 kg = 200/80 mg group, likely because of higher baseline HIV-1 RNA and discontinuation (66.7%). Overall, virologic suppression at weeks 24 (46.5%) and 48 (43.0%) was comparable. At week 48, 83.3% and 74.1% of caregivers reported no trouble giving ATV powder and RTV, respectively. ATV powder palatability, efficacy and lack of unexpected safety findings support its use for HIV-1-infected children ≥3 months to <11 years.

  9. Role of baseline HIV-1 DNA level in highly-experienced patients receiving raltegravir, etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir regimen (ANRS139 TRIO trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Charpentier

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the ANRS 139 TRIO trial, the use of 3 new active drugs (raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir/ritonavir, resulted in a potent and sustained inhibition of viral replication in multidrug-resistant treatment-experienced patients. The aim of this virological sub-study of the ANRS 139 TRIO trial was to assess: (i the evolution of HIV-1 DNA over the first year; and (ii the association between baseline HIV-1 DNA and virological outcome. METHODS: Among the 103 HIV-1-infected patients included in the ANRS-139 TRIO trial, HIV-1 DNA specimens were available for 92, 84, 88, and 83 patients at Week (W0, W12, W24, and W48, respectively. Quantification of total HIV-1 DNA was performed by using the commercial kit "Generic HIV DNA Cell" (Biocentric, Bandol, France. RESULTS: Baseline median HIV-1 DNA of patients displaying virological success (n= 61, viral blip (n= 20, and virological failure (n = 11 were 2.34 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR= 2.15-2.66, 2.42 (IQR = 2.12-2.48, and 2.68 (IQR= 2.46-2.83, respectively. Although not statistically significant, patients exhibiting virological success or viral blip had a tendency to display lower baseline HIV-1 DNA than patients experiencing virological failure (P = 0.06. Median decrease of HIV-1 DNA between baseline and W48 was -0.13 log(10 copies/10(6 PBMC (IQR = -0.34 to +0.10, mainly explained by the evolution from W0 to W4. No more changes were observed in the W4-W48 period. CONCLUSIONS: In highly-experienced multidrug-resistant patients, HIV-1 DNA slightly decreased during the first month and then remained stable during the first year of highly potent antiretroviral regimen. In this population, baseline HIV-1 DNA might help to better predict the virological response and to tailor clinical therapeutic management as more aggressive therapeutic choices in patients with higher baseline HIV-1 DNA.

  10. Current Efavirenz (EFV or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r use correlates with elevate markers of atherosclerosis in HIV-infected subjects in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph L Gleason

    Full Text Available HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy have shown elevated incidence of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and cardiovascular disease (CVD. Most studies, however, focus on cohorts from developed countries, with less data available for these co-morbidities in Ethiopia and sub-Saharan Africa.Adult HIV-negative (n = 36, treatment naïve (n = 51, efavirenz (EFV-treated (n = 91, nevirapine (NVP-treated (n = 95, or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r-treated (n=44 subjects were recruited from Black Lion Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Aortic pressure, augmentation pressure, and pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured via applanation tonometry and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT and carotid arterial stiffness, and brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD were measured via non-invasive ultrasound. Body mass index, waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR, skinfold thickness, and self-reported fat redistribution were used to quantify lipodystrophy. CD4+ cell count, plasma HIV RNA levels, fasting glucose, total-, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, hsCRP, sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, leptin and complete blood count were measured.PWV and normalized cIMT were elevate and FMD impaired in EFV- and LPV/r-treated subjects compared to NVP-treated subjects; normalized cIMT was also elevated and FMD impaired in the EFV- and LPV/r-treated subjects compared to treatment-naïve subjects. cIMT was not statistically different across groups. Treated subjects exhibited elevated markers of dyslipidemia, inflammation, and lipodystrophy. PWV was associated with age, current EFV and LPV/r used, heart rate, blood pressure, triglycerides, LDL, and hsCRP, FMD with age, HIV duration, WHR, and glucose, and cIMT with age, current EFV use, skinfold thickness, and blood pressure.Current EFV- or LPV/r-treatment, but not NVP-treatment, correlated with elevated markers of atherosclerosis, which may involve mechanisms distinct from traditional risk factors.

  11. [Comparative cost-effectiveness analysis between darunavir/ritonavir and other protease inhibitors in treatment-naive human immunodeficiency syndrome type 1-infected patients in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Erik; Brogan, Anita J; Hill, Andrew; Adriaenssen, Ines; Sawyer, Anthony W; Domingo-Pedrol, Pere; Gostkorzewicz, Joana; Ledesma, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    GESIDA (AIDS Study Group) has proposed preferred regimens of antiretroviral treatment as initial therapy in HIV infected patients. The objective of this analysis is to compare the costs and effectiveness of darunavir/r QD and other ritonavir-boosted (/r) protease inhibitors (PIs) currently recommended in GESIDA guidelines for treatment-naïve patients. A cost-efficacy model compared the boosted PIs recommended as preferred or alternative treatment choices, each used with a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. Efficacy was measured by 48-week virological response (viral load < 50 copies/mL) adjusted by baseline viral load and CD4 cell count. To generate efficiency frontiers and cost-efficacy ratios, one-year antiretroviral therapy costs in Spain, and 48-week efficacy values were used. The model estimated that starting treatment with darunavir/r QD was the most cost-effective choice compared with the other preferred PI/r based therapies. The average cost per patient with a virological response was lower for darunavir/r QD (13,420€) than for atazanavir/r QD (14,000€), or lopinavir/r BID (13,815€). Among the preferred PI/r-based therapies, darunavir/r QD also was estimated to be the most efficient option for treatment-naïve patients. Atazanavir/r QD and lopinavir/r BID were found to be «dominated» by darunavir/r) and, consequently, were outside the efficiency frontier of PI/r-based first-line treatment. Given a fixed budget of 10 million euros for PI/r-based first-line therapy, the model estimated that darunavir/r QD would yield more responders (745) than atazanavir/r QD (714), or lopinavir/r BID (724). At the same time, darunavir/r QD would reduce the number of individuals failing treatment (150) compared with atazanavir/r QD (172) and lopinavir/r BID (286). In this model, darunavir/r QD was found to be the most cost-effective choice, among the preferred PI/r-based therapies recommended in the Spanish guidelines for treatment-naïve patients

  12. Drug-Drug Interactions Between the Anti-Hepatitis C Virus 3D Regimen of Ombitasvir, Paritaprevir/Ritonavir, and Dasabuvir and Eight Commonly Used Medications in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polepally, Akshanth R; King, Jennifer R; Ding, Bifeng; Shuster, Diana L; Dumas, Emily O; Khatri, Amit; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Podsadecki, Thomas J; Menon, Rajeev M

    2016-08-01

    The three direct-acting antiviral regimen of ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir and dasabuvir (3D regimen) is approved for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection. Drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies of the 3D regimen and commonly used medications were conducted in healthy volunteers to provide information on coadministering these medications with or without dose adjustments. Three phase I studies evaluated DDIs between the 3D regimen (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir 25/150/100 mg once daily + dasabuvir 250 mg twice daily) and hydrocodone bitartrate/acetaminophen (5/300 mg), metformin hydrochloride (500 mg), diazepam (2 mg), cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride (5 mg), carisoprodol (250 mg), or sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMZ/TMP) (800/160 mg twice daily), all administered orally. DDI magnitude was determined using geometric mean ratios and 90 % confidence intervals for the maximum plasma concentration (C max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Changes in exposures (C max and AUC geometric mean ratios) of acetaminophen, metformin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and diazepam were ≤25 % upon coadministration with the 3D regimen. The C max and AUC of nordiazepam, an active metabolite of diazepam, increased by 10 % and decreased by 44 %, respectively. Exposures of cyclobenzaprine and carisoprodol decreased by ≤40 and ≤46 %, respectively, whereas exposures of hydrocodone increased up to 90 %. Ombitasvir, paritaprevir, ritonavir, and dasabuvir exposures changed by ≤25 %, except for a 37 % decrease in paritaprevir C max with metformin and a 33 % increase in dasabuvir AUC with SMZ/TMP. Acetaminophen, metformin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim can be coadministered with the 3D regimen without dose adjustment. Higher doses may be needed for diazepam, cyclobenzaprine, and carisoprodol based on clinical monitoring. A 50 % lower dose and/or clinical monitoring should be considered for hydrocodone. No dose

  13. A cross-sectional study to evaluate second line virological failure and elevated bilirubin as a surrogate for adherence to atazanavir/ritonavir in two urban HIV clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongubo, Dennis Miyoge; Lim, Robertino; Tweya, Hannock; Stanley, Christopher Chikhosi; Tembo, Petros; Broadhurst, Richard; Gugsa, Salem; Ngongondo, McNeil; Speight, Colin; Heller, Tom; Phiri, Sam; Hosseinipour, Mina C

    2017-07-03

    Malawi's national antiretroviral therapy program provides atazanavir/ritonavir-based second line regimens which cause concentration-dependent rise in indirect bilirubin. We sought to determine if elevated bilirubin, as a surrogate of atazanavir/ritonavir adherence, can aid in the evaluation of second line virological failure in Malawi. We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected patients ≥15 years who were on boosted protease inhibitor-based second line antiretroviral therapy for at least 6 months in two urban HIV clinics in Lilongwe, Malawi. Antiretroviral therapy history and adherence data were extracted from the electronic medical records and blood was drawn for viral load, complete blood count, total bilirubin, and CD4 cell count at a clinic visit. Factors associated with virological failure were assessed using multivariate logistic regression model. Out of 376 patients on second line antiretroviral therapy evaluated, 372 (98.9%) were on atazanavir/ritonavir-based therapy and 142 (37.8%) were male. Mean age was 40.9 years (SD ± 10.1), mean duration on second line antiretroviral therapy was 41.9 months (SD ± 27.6) and 256 patients (68.1%) had elevated bilirubin >1.3 mg/dL. Overall, 35 (9.3%) patients had viral load >1000 copies/ml (virological failure). Among the virologically failing vs. non-failing patients, bilirubin was elevated in 34.3% vs. 72.0% respectively (p bilirubin levels (aOR 5.4, p bilirubin levels better predicted virological failure than pill count adherence. Therefore, strategic use of bilirubin and viral load testing to target adherence counseling and support may be cost-effective in monitoring second line antiretroviral therapy adherence and virological failure. Drug resistance testing targeted for patients with virological failure despite elevated bilirubin levels would facilitate timely switch to third line antiretroviral regimens whenever available.

  14. Durability of virologic response, risk of de novo hepatocellular carcinoma, liver function and stiffness two years after treatment with Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir ±Dasabuvir ±Ribavirin in the AMBER, real-world experience study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, Robert; Janczewska, Ewa; Łucejko, Mariusz; Karpińska, Ewa; Zarębska-Michaluk, Dorota; Nazzal, Khalil; Bolewska, Beata; Białkowska, Jolanta; Berak, Hanna; Fleischer-Stępniewska, Katarzyna; Tomasiewicz, Krzysztof; Karwowska, Kornelia; Simon, Krzysztof; Piekarska, Anna; Tronina, Olga; Tuchendler, Ewelina; Garlicki, Aleksander

    2018-06-11

    We followed for 2 years patients treated with Direct Acting Agents (DAA) to assess long-term durability of virologic response, improvement of liver function, reduction of liver stiffness (LS), and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).The study included patients from 16 hepatologic centers involved in the AMBER, investigators initiated study on treatment of chronic hepatitis C patients within a programme preceding EU registration of Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/ritonavir±Dasabuvir±Ribavirin. A total of 204 patients among 209 from the primary study were enrolled; 200 with available testing at 2 years follow-up (2yFU) with undetectable HCV RNA (198 responders and 2 non-responders retreated). During 2yFU 4 patients died, 17 had hepatic decompensation and 3 needed liver transplantation. De novo hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 4 and its recurrence in 3 patients. Significant decreases in bilirubin, MELD, Child-Pugh scores and liver stiffness, and increases in albumin level were observed during 2yFU. Strengths of the study were a fixed period of post treatment follow-up, prospective character of the study and high proportion of available patients from the primary study. The major weaknesses was lack of a comparative arm and relatively insufficient number of patients for subsets analysis. In conclusion, two-years follow-up confirmed durability of virologic response after treatment of HCV infection with Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/ritonavir±Dasabuvir±Ribavirin. It was accompanied by significant improvement of major measures of hepatic function and reduction of hepatic stiffness. Successful therapy did not prevent hepatic decompensation, HCC or death in cirrhotics, that support the need for longer than 2-year monitoring for possible disease progression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Experiencia del tratamiento con lopinavirritonavir en pacientes del programa de infección por VIH en un hospital universitario, Bogotá, Colombia Experience with lopinavir/ritonavir for patients with HIV infection at an university hospital in Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE ALBERTO CORTÉS

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La terapia antirretroviral con varios medicamentos de diferentes familias es altamente efectiva para controlar la replicación viral y mejorar la respuesta inmunológica y las posibilidades de supervivencia en los pacientes infectados por el VIH. Objetivos. Evaluar la eficacia del tratamiento de rescate con lopinavir/ritonavir en una cohorte de pacientes en un país subdesarrollado. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo una revisión retrospectiva de los pacientes que recibieron tratamiento antirretroviral con la combinación de lopinavir/ritonavir en el Hospital Universitario de San Ignacio. Se seleccionaron los pacientes del programa integral de atención a pacientes con infección por VIH y se evaluaron la respuesta virológica e inmunológica, la tolerancia y el cumplimiento de la terapia. Resultados. Veinticinco pacientes con tratamiento anitrretroviral previo y un paciente con tratamiento por primera vez tuvieron un seguimiento promedio de 13 meses, con medición de la carga viral y recuento de CD4. El promedio de esquemas antirretrovirales utilizados fue de 2,28. El recuento de CD4 se elevó significativamente y ninguno de los pacientes con seguimiento de 36 meses tuvo recuentos de CD4 menores a 50 por mililitro. El porcentaje de pacientes con carga viral indetectable (Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of rescue treatment with lopinavir/ritonavir in a cohort of patients infected with HIV in a developing country. Methods. Retrospective evaluation of patients who received combined antiretroviral treatment (cART using lopinavir/ritonavir at an universitary hospital in Bogotá, Colombia. The virological and immunological follow up was evaluated, together with the tolerance and adherence. Results. 25 patients with previous cART and a patient naïve had a mean follow up of 13 months. The mean of previously used cART schemes was 2.28. The CD4 count increased over time and none of the individuals with a follow up of 36 months had CD4 counts

  16. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS): a multicentre, single-arm, open-label study of etravirine and darunavir/ritonavir as dual therapy in HIV-1-infected early treatment-experienced subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, P J; Brinson, C; Ramgopal, M; Ryan, R; Coate, B; Cho, M; Kakuda, T N; Anderson, D

    2015-05-01

    Following antiretroviral therapy failure, patients are often treated with a three-drug regimen that includes two nucleoside/tide reverse transcriptase inhibitors [N(t)RTIs]. An alternative two-drug nucleoside-sparing regimen may decrease the pill burden and drug toxicities associated with the use of N(t)RTIs. The Intelence aNd pRezista Once A Day Study (INROADS; NCT01199939) evaluated the nucleoside-sparing regimen of etravirine 400 mg with darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily in HIV-1-infected treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance. In this exploratory phase 2b, single-arm, open-label, multicentre, 48-week study, the primary endpoint was the proportion of subjects who achieved HIV-1 RNA treatment-experienced subjects or treatment-naïve subjects with transmitted resistance was virologically efficacious and well tolerated. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  17. Análise morfológica e fisiológica dos fígados e rins de ratas prenhes e seus fetos tratados pela associação zidovudina, lamivudina e ritonavir durante toda a prenhez Morphological and physiological analysis of livers and kidneys of pregnant rats and their fetuses treated by the association of zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir for the whole period of pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Wagner

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos da administração da associação zidovudina-lamivudina-ritonavir nos fígados e rins de ratas prenhes e seus conceptos do ponto de vista morfológico e fisiológico. MÉTODOS: 40 ratas albinas prenhes foram aleatoriamente divididas em 4 grupos: 1 controle (Ctrl: controle de veículo e 3 experimentais (Exp1x, Exp3x e Exp9x. Estes últimos foram tratados por solução oral de zidovudina/lamivudina/ritonavir (Exp1x: 10/5/20 mg/kg; Exp3x: 30/15/60 mg/kg; Exp9x: 90/45/180 mg/kg. As drogas e o veículo foram administrados por gavagem, desde o 1º até o 20º dia de prenhez. No último dia do experimento, todos os animais foram anestesiados e sangue foi retirado da cavidade cardíaca para avaliação sérica das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST e alanina aminotransferase (ALT, por método calorimétrico, bem como da ureia, determinada por método cinético-enzimático, e creatinina, por método cinético-colorimétrico. Em seguida, fragmentos dos fígados e rins maternos e fetais foram coletados, fixados em formol a 10% e processados segundo os métodos histológicos para inclusão em parafina. Cortes com 5 µm de espessura foram corados pela hematoxilina-eosina (HE e analisados por microscopia de luz. Na leitura das lâminas, considerou-se o padrão de normalidade para fígado e rins, tais como: hepatócitos, espaço porta íntegros e veias hepáticas bem definidas. Nos rins, a presença de corpúsculos renais, túbulos contorcidos e alças de Henle típicos. Nos fígados fetais considerou-se, ainda, a morfologia das células da linhagem eritrocitária nas diferentes fases do desenvolvimento, bem como os megacariócitos. Quando houve alteração da coloração padrão estabelecida para as estruturas hepáticas e renais, alteração na morfologia de núcleos, rompimento de limites de alguma organela citoplasmática, presença de congestão vascular, tudo isso foi entendido como provavelmente provocado pelas drogas

  18. Anti-HIV drugs, lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir, modulate innate immune response triggered by Leishmania in macrophages: the role of NF-κB and PPAR-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Érica Alessandra Rocha; de Miranda, Marthina Gomes; Borges, Tatiana Karla; Magalhães, Kelly Grace; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) and atazanavir (ATV) on macrophage functions during their first interaction with Leishmania. Macrophages from BALB/c mice treated for 10days with LPV/RTV and ATV, infected or not in vitro with L. (L.) amazonensis, were used to investigate the effects of these drugs on infection index, leishmanicidal capacity, cytokine production and PPAR-γ and RelB expression. LPV/RTV and ATV treatments significantly increased the infection index and the percentage of Leishmania-infected macrophages compared to untreated infected macrophages. There was no correlated increase in the production of NO and H2O2 leishmanicidal molecules. Promastigotes derived from Leishmania-infected macrophages from LPV/RTV and ATV-treated BALB/c mice had an in vitro growth 45.1% and 56.4% higher in groups treated with LPV/RTV and ATV than with PBS in culture. ATV treatment reduced IL-12p70 and IL-10 secretion in Leishmania-infected macrophages, but had no effect on IL-23 and TNF production. LPV reduced IL-10 and had no effect on IL-12p70, TNF and IL-23 secretion. ATV treatment decreased PPAR-γ expression in Leishmania-infected macrophages compared to untreated infected macrophages. In addition, LPV/RTV, but not ATV, reduced RelB cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation in Leishmania-infected macrophages. Results showed that LPV/RTV and ATV HIV protease inhibitors were able to modulate innate defense mechanisms against Leishmania via different intracellular pathways. Although HIV protease inhibitors are highly efficient to control the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, these drugs might also influence the course of leishmaniasis in HIV-Leishmania-co-infected individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal and foetal outcomes among 4118 women with HIV infection treated with lopinavir/ritonavir during pregnancy: analysis of population-based surveillance data from the national study of HIV in pregnancy and childhood in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tookey, Pat A; Thorne, Claire; van Wyk, Jean; Norton, Michael

    2016-02-04

    The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) conducts comprehensive population-based surveillance of pregnancies in women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom/Ireland. Use of antepartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and to treat maternal infection, if required, is standard practise in this population; lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is commonly used. The study objective was to examine the use of LPV/r among pregnant women with HIV infection to describe maternal and foetal outcomes. The NSHPC study collected maternal, perinatal and paediatric data through confidential and voluntary obstetric and paediatric reporting schemes. Pregnancies reported to the NSHPC by June 2013, due to deliver 2003-2012 and with LPV/r exposure were included in this analysis, using pregnancy as the unit of observation. Four thousand eight hundred sixty-four LPV/r-exposed pregnancies resulting in 4702 deliveries in 4118 women were identified. Maternal region of birth was primarily sub-Saharan Africa (77 %) or United Kingdom/Ireland (14 %). Median maternal age at conception was 30 years. LPV/r was initiated preconception in 980 (20 %) and postconception in 3884 (80 %) pregnancies; median duration of antepartum LPV/r exposure was 270 and 107 days, respectively. Viral load close to delivery was HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland who received LPV/r-containing ART regimens demonstrate that these regimens have a good safety profile and are effective for viral suppression during pregnancy, with associated low rates of MTCT.

  20. Long-Term Efficacy, Tolerability, and Renal Safety of Atazanavir/Ritonavir-based Antiretroviral Therapy in a Cohort of Treatment-Naïve Patients with HIV-1 Infection: the REMAIN Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teófilo, Eugénio; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Kuhlmann, Birger; Antela, Antonio; Knechten, Heribert; Santos, Jesús; Jiménez-Expósito, Maria Jesús

    2016-02-01

    Boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), including ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), are a recommended option for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection based upon clinical trial data; however, long-term real-life clinical data are limited. We evaluated the long-term use of ATV/r as a component of antiretroviral combination therapy in the real-life setting in the REMAIN study. This was an observational cohort study conducted at sites across Germany, Portugal, and Spain. Retrospective historical and prospective longitudinal follow-up data were extracted every six months from medical records of HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients aged ≥ 18 years initiating a first-line ATV/r-containing regimen. Eligible patients (n = 517) were followed up for a median of 3.4 years. The proportion remaining on ATV/r at 5 years was 51.5% with an estimated Kaplan-Meier median time to treatment discontinuation of 4.9 years. Principal reasons for discontinuation were adverse events (15.9%; 8.9% due to hyperbilirubinemia) and virologic failure (6.8%). The Kaplan-Meier probability of not having virologic failure (HIV-1 RNA treatment-emergent major PI resistance occurred. ATV/r was generally well tolerated during long-term treatment with no significant changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate over five years. In a real-life clinical setting over five years, treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1 infection initiating an ATV/r-based regimen showed sustained virologic suppression, an overall treatment persistence rate of 51.5%, an absence of treatment-emergent major PI resistance mutations at virologic failure, a long-term safety profile consistent with that observed in clinical trials, and no significant decline in renal function.

  1. Effects on vitamin D, bone and the kidney of switching from fixed-dose tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine/efavirenz to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy: a randomized, controlled trial (MIDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Lisa; Tiraboschi, Juan M; Iveson, Helen; Toby, Martina; Mant, Christine; Cason, John; Burling, Keith; Wandolo, Emily; Jendrulek, Isabelle; Taylor, Chris; Ibrahim, Fowzia; Kulasegaram, Ranjababu; Teague, Alastair; Post, Frank A; Fox, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) has been associated with reductions in vitamin D (25[OH]D) and tenofovir (TDF) with increased bone turnover, reductions in bone mineral density (BMD) and renal tubular dysfunction. We hypothesized that switching from fixed-dose TDF/emtricitabine (FTC)/EFV to darunavir/ritonavir monotherapy (DRV/r) might increase 25(OH)D and BMD, and improve renal tubular function. Subjects with HIV RNA <50 copies/ml on TDF/FTC/EFV for ≥6 months were randomized 1:1 to ongoing TDF/FTC/EFV or DRV/r (800/100 mg once daily) for 48 weeks. The primary end point was change from baseline in 25(OH)D at week 48. Secondary end points included changes in BMD, bone turnover markers and renal tubular function. A total of 64 subjects (86% male, 66% white, mean [sd] CD4(+) T-cell count 537.3 [191.5]/mm(3)) were analysed. After adjustment for baseline 25(OH)D and demographics, at week 48 DRV/r monotherapy was associated with a +3.6 (95% CI 0.6, 6.6) ng/ml increase in 25(OH)D compared to TDF/FTC/EFV (P=0.02). DRV/r monotherapy was associated with an increase in BMD (+2.9% versus -0.003% at the neck of femur and +2.6% versus +0.008% at the lumbar spine for DRV/r versus TDF/FTC/EFV; P<0.05 for all) and reductions in bone biomarkers compared with those remaining on TDF/FTC/EFV. No significant difference in renal tubular function was observed. Reasons for discontinuation in the DRV/r arm included side effects (n=4) and viral load rebound (n=3), all of which resolved with DRV/r discontinuation or regimen intensification. Switching from TDF/FTC/EFV to DRV/r in patients with suppressed HIV RNA resulted in significant improvements in 25(OH)D and bone biomarkers, and a 2-3% increase in BMD.

  2. Bone mineral density and inflammatory and bone biomarkers after darunavir-ritonavir combined with either raltegravir or tenofovir-emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1: a substudy of the NEAT001/ANRS143 randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Jose I; Mocroft, Amanda; Mallon, Patrick W; Wallet, Cedrick; Gerstoft, Jan; Russell, Charlotte; Reiss, Peter; Katlama, Christine; De Wit, Stephane; Richert, Laura; Babiker, Abdel; Buño, Antonio; Castagna, Antonella; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Chene, Genevieve; Raffi, Francois; Arribas, Jose R

    2015-11-01

    Osteopenia, osteoporosis, and low bone mineral density are frequent in patients with HIV. We assessed the 96 week loss of bone mineral density associated with a nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI)-sparing regimen. Antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV were enrolled in 78 clinical sites in 15 European countries into a randomised (1:1), open-label, non-inferiority trial (NEAT001/ANRS143) assessing the efficacy and safety of darunavir (800 mg once per day) and ritonavir (100 mg once per day) plus either raltegravir (400 mg twice per day; NtRTI-sparing regimen) or tenofovir (245 mg once per day) and emtricitabine (200 mg once per day; standard regimen). For this bone-health substudy, 20 of the original sites in six countries participated, and any patient enrolled at one of these sites who met the following criteria was eligible: plasma viral loads greater than 1000 HIV RNA copies per mL and CD4 cell counts of fewer than 500 cells per μL, except in those with symptomatic HIV infection. Exclusion criteria included treatment for malignant disease, testing positive for hepatitis B virus surface antigen, pregnancy, creatinine clearance less than 60 mL per min, treatment for osteoporosis, systemic steroids, or oestrogen-replacement therapy. The two primary endpoints were the mean percentage changes in lumbar spine and total hip bone mineral density at week 48, assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. We did the analysis with an intention-to-treat-exposed approach with antiretroviral modifications ignored. The parent trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01066962, and is closed to new participants. Between Aug 2, 2010, and April 18, 2011, we recruited 146 patients to the substudy, 70 assigned to the NtRTI-sparing regimen and 76 to the standard regimen. DXA data were available for 129, 121 and 107 patients at baseline, 48 and 96 weeks respectively. At week 48, the mean percentage loss in bone mineral density in the

  3. Cost-effectiveness analysis of dolutegravir plus backbone compared with raltegravir plus backbone, darunavir+ritonavir plus backbone and efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment naïve and experienced HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restelli U

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Restelli,1,2 Giuliano Rizzardini,3,4 Andrea Antinori,5 Adriano Lazzarin,6 Marzia Bonfanti,1 Paolo Bonfanti,7 Davide Croce1,2 1Centre for Research on Health Economics, Social and Health Care Management, LIUC – Università Cattaneo, Castellanza, Varese, Italy; 2School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 3First and Second Divisions of Infectious Diseases, “Luigi Sacco” Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 5National Institute for Infectious Diseases “L Spallanzani”, Rome, 6Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, 7Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, A Manzoni Hospital, Lecco, Italy Background: In January 2014, the European Medicines Agency issued a marketing authorization for dolutegravir (DTG, a second-generation integrase strand transfer inhibitor for HIV treatment. The study aimed at determining the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the use of DTG+backbone compared with raltegravir (RAL+backbone, darunavir (DRV+ritonavir(r+backbone and efavirenz/tenofovir/emtricitabine (EFV/TDF/FTC in HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients and compared with RAL+backbone in treatment-experienced patients, from the Italian National Health Service’s point of view.Materials and methods: A published Monte Carlo Individual Simulation Model (ARAMIS-DTG model was used to perform the analysis. Patients pass through mutually exclusive health states (defined in terms of diagnosis of HIV with or without opportunistic infections [OIs] and cardiovascular disease [CVD] and successive lines of therapy. The model considers costs (2014 and quality of life per monthly cycle in a lifetime horizon. Costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs are dependent on OI, CVD, AIDS events, adverse events and antiretroviral therapies.Results: In

  4. Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir and Dasabuvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cada, Dennis J; Leonard, James; Levien, Terri L; Baker, Danial E

    2015-05-01

    Each month, subscribers to The Formulary Monograph Service receive 5 to 6 well-documented monographs on drugs that are newly released or are in late phase 3 trials. The monographs are targeted to Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Subscribers also receive monthly 1-page summary monographs on agents that are useful for agendas and pharmacy/nursing in-services. A comprehensive target drug utilization evaluation/medication use evaluation (DUE/MUE) is also provided each month. With a subscription, the monographs are sent in print and are also available on-line. Monographs can be customized to meet the needs of a facility. A drug class review is now published monthly with The Formulary Monograph Service. Through the cooperation of The Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy publishes selected reviews in this column. For more information about The Formulary Monograph Service, call The Formulary at 800-322-4349. The May 2015 monograph topics are palbociclib, lenvatinib, nivolumab, ferric pyrophosphate citrate solution, and secukinumab. The Safety MUE is on non-opioid injectable pain or fever medications.

  5. Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir and Dasabuvir

    OpenAIRE

    Cada, Dennis J.; Leonard, James; Levien, Terri L.; Baker, Danial E.

    2015-01-01

    Each month, subscribers to The Formulary Monograph Service receive 5 to 6 well-documented monographs on drugs that are newly released or are in late phase 3 trials. The monographs are targeted to Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Subscribers also receive monthly 1-page summary monographs on agents that are useful for agendas and pharmacy/nursing in-services. A comprehensive target drug utilization evaluation/medication use evaluation (DUE/MUE) is also provided each month. With a subscriptio...

  6. Clinical studies with oral lipid based formulations of poorly soluble compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fatouros, Dimitrios; Karpf, Ditte M; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2007-01-01

    . Several drug products intended for oral administration have been marketed utilizing lipid and surfactant based formulations. Sandimmune((R)) and Sandimmune Neoral((R)) (cyclosporin A, Novartis), Norvir((R)) (ritonavir), and Fortovase((R)) (saquinavir) have been formulated in self-emulsifying drug delivery...... systems (SEDDS). This review summarizes published pharmacokinetic studies of orally administered lipid based formulations of poorly aqueous soluble drugs in human subjects. Special attention has been paid to the physicochemical characteristics of the formulations, when available and the impact...

  7. Prevalence and factors associated with darunavir resistance mutations in multi-experienced HIV-1-infected patients failing other protease inhibitors in a referral teaching center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E Vidal

    Full Text Available Information about resistance profile of darunavir (DRV is scarce in Brazil. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of DRV resistance mutations in patients failing protease inhibitors (PI and to identify factors associated with having more DRV resistance mutations. All HIV-infected patients failing PI-based regimens with genotyping performed between 2007 and 2008 in a referral teaching center in São Paulo, Brazil, were included. DRV-specific resistance mutations listed by December 2008 IAS-USA panel update were considered. Two Poisson regression models were constructed to assess factors related to the presence of more DRV resistance mutations. A total of 171 HIV-infected patients with available genotyping were included. The number of patients with lopinavir, saquinavir, and amprenavir used in previous regimen were 130 (76%, 83 (49%, and 35 (20%, respectively. The prevalence of major DRV resistance mutations was 50V: 5%; 54M: 1%; 76V: 4%; 84V: 15%. For minor mutations, the rates were 11I: 3%; 32I: 7%; 33F: 23%; 47V: 6%; 54L: 6%; 74P: 3%; 89V: 6%. Only 11 (6% of the genotypes had > 3 DRV resistance mutations. In the clinical model, time of HIV infection of > 10 years and use of amprenavir were independently associated with having more DRV resistance mutations. In the genotyping-based model, only total number of PI resistance mutations was associated with our outcome. In conclusion, the prevalence of DRV mutations was low. Time of HIV infection, use of amprenavir and total number of PI resistance mutations were associated with having more DRV mutations.

  8. Body composition and metabolic outcomes after 96 weeks of treatment with ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus either nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors or raltegravir in patients with HIV with virological failure of a standard first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen: a substudy of the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Mark A; Amin, Janaki; Mallon, Patrick W G; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Lombaard, Johan; Wood, Robin; Chetchotisakd, Ploenchan; Phanuphak, Praphan; Mohapi, Lerato; Azwa, Iskandar; Belloso, Waldo H; Molina, Jean-Michel; Hoy, Jennifer; Moore, Cecilia L; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A

    2017-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is one of the most feared complications associated with the use of nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs). We aimed to assess soft-tissue changes in participants with HIV who had virological failure of a first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus two N(t)RTIs and were randomly assigned to receive a second-line regimen containing a boosted protease inhibitor given with either N(t)RTIs or raltegravir. Of the 37 sites that participated in the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study, eight sites from five countries (Argentina, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and Thailand) participated in the body composition substudy. All sites had a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner and all participants enrolled in SECOND-LINE were eligible for inclusion in the substudy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated allocation schedule, to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir (raltegravir group) or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus two or three N(t)RTIs (N[t]RTI group). Randomisation was stratified by site and screening HIV-1 RNA. Participants and investigators were not masked to group assignment, but allocation was concealed until after interventions were assigned. DXA scans were done at weeks 0, 48, and 96. The primary endpoint was mean percentage and absolute change in peripheral limb fat from baseline to week 96. We did intention-to-treat analyses of available data. This substudy is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01513122. Between Aug 1, 2010, and July 10, 2011, we recruited 211 participants into the substudy. The intention-to-treat population comprised 102 participants in the N(t)RTI group and 108 participants in the raltegravir group, of whom 91 and 105 participants, respectively, reached 96 weeks. Mean percentage change in limb fat from baseline to week 96 was 16·8% (SD 32·6) in the N

  9. Resistance profiles and adherence at primary virological failure in three different highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens: analysis of failure rates in a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røge, B T; Barfod, T S; Kirk, O

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the interplay between resistance and adherence in the virological failure of three fundamentally different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 56 verified primary virological failures (viral load >400 HIV-1 RNA...... copies/mL) among 293 patients randomized to two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs)+ritonavir+saquinavir (RS-arm) (n=115), two NRTIs+nevirapine+nelfinavir (NN-arm) (n=118), or abacavir+stavudine+didanosine (ASD-arm) (n=60) followed up for a median of 90 weeks. Data on adherence were...... collected from patient files, and genotyping was performed on plasma samples collected at time of failure. RESULTS: Treatment interruption or poor adherence was mainly caused by side effects and accounted for 74% of failures, and was associated with absence of resistance mutations. In the 30 failing...

  10. Activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate in combination with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors against acute HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patick, A K; Boritzki, T J; Bloom, L A

    1997-10-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (formerly AG1343) is a potent and selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that was discovered by protein structure-based design methodologies. We evaluated the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the clinically approved antiretroviral therapeutics zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), dideoxycytidine (ddC; zalcitabine), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir and a three-drug combination of nelfinavir with ZDV and 3TC against an acute HIV-1 strain RF infection of CEM-SS cells in vitro. Quantitative assessment of drug interaction was evaluated by a universal response surface approach (W. R. Greco, G. Bravo, and J. C. Parsons, Pharm. Rev. 47:331-385, 1995) and by the method of M. N. Prichard and C. Shipman (Antiviral Res. 14:181-206, 1990). Both analytical methods yielded similar results and showed that the two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the reverse transcriptase inhibitors ZDV, 3TC, ddI, d4T, and ddC and the three-drug combination with ZDV and 3TC resulted in additive to statistically significant synergistic interactions. In a similar manner, the combination of nelfinavir with the three protease inhibitors resulted in additive (ritonavir and saquinavir) to slightly antagonistic (indinavir) interactions. In all combinations, minimal cellular cytotoxicity was observed with any drug alone and in combination. These results suggest that administration of combinations of the appropriate doses of nelfinavir with other currently approved antiretroviral therapeutic agents in vivo may result in enhanced antiviral activity with no associated increase in cellular cytotoxicity.

  11. Protecting the fetus against HIV infection: a systematic review of placental transfer of antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Shelley A; Best, Brookie M

    2014-11-01

    Maternal-to-fetal transfer of antiretroviral drugs contributes to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV. This systematic review discusses published studies containing data pertaining to the pharmacokinetics of placental transfer of antiretrovirals in humans, including paired cord and maternal plasma samples collected at the time of delivery as well as ex vivo placental perfusion models. Articles pertaining to placental transfer of antiretrovirals were identified from PubMed, from references of included articles, and from US Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Treatment of HIV-infected Pregnant Women and Prevention of Perinatal Transmission guidelines. Articles from non-human animal models or that had no original maternal-to-fetal transfer data were excluded. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 103 published studies were identified. Data across studies appeared relatively consistent for the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and the non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), with cord to maternal ratios approaching 1 for many of these agents. The protease inhibitors atazanavir and lopinavir exhibited consistent maternal-to-fetal transfer across studies, although the transfer may be influenced by variations in drug-binding proteins. The protease inhibitors indinavir, nelfinavir, and saquinavir exhibited unreliable placental transport, with cord blood concentrations that were frequently undetectable. Limited data, primarily from case reports, indicate that darunavir and raltegravir provide detectable placental transfer. These findings appear consistent with current guidelines of using two NRTIs plus an NNRTI, atazanavir/ritonavir, or lopinavir/ritonavir to maximize placental transfer as well as to optimally suppress maternal viral load. Darunavir/ritonavir and raltegravir may reasonably serve as second-line agents.

  12. The HIV-1 protease resistance mutation I50L is associated with resistance to atazanavir and susceptibility to other protease inhibitors in multiple mutational contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sista, P; Wasikowski, B; Lecocq, P; Pattery, T; Bacheler, L

    2008-08-01

    The HIV-1 protease mutation I50 L causes atazanavir resistance but increases susceptibility to other PIs. Predicted phenotypic FC values were obtained from viral genotypes, using the virtual Phenotype-LM bioinformatics tool (powering vircoTYPE). To evaluate I50 L's effect on susceptibility to 8 PIs, in a large genotype database. I50 L containing routine clinical isolate samples in Virco's genotype database were paired with samples having like patterns (or profiles) of IAS-USA-defined primary PI mutations, but lacking I50 L. Using vircoTYPE (version 4.1), the median predicted FC for each mutational profile was determined. I50 L-associated shifts in FC were evaluated using drug-specific CCOs. We selected 307 and 37098 samples with and without I50 L. These corresponded to 31 mutation patterns of > or =3 samples each. I50 L caused resistance to atazanavir in all 31 mutation contexts, but was associated with higher susceptibility for other PIs. The largest I50 L-associated shifts in median predicted FC were: 1.2 to 42.4 (atazanavir), 10.2 to 3.2 (amprenavir), 3.3 to 0.5 (darunavir), 13 to 0.5 (indinavir), 34.9 to 1.3 (lopinavir), 22.3 to 1.3 (nelfinavir), 5.2 to 0.3 (saquinavir) and 29.9 to 5.2 (tipranavir). The PI mutation I50 L causes clinically relevant resistance and increased susceptibility to atazanavir and other PIs respectively.

  13. HIV protease inhibitors in pregnancy : pharmacology and clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andany, Nisha; Loutfy, Mona R

    2013-03-01

    The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the natural history of HIV-1 infection has resulted in dramatic reductions in disease-associated morbidity and mortality. Additionally, the epidemiology of HIV-1 infection worldwide is changing, as women now represent a substantial proportion of infected adults. As more highly effective and tolerable antiretroviral regimens become available, and as the prevention of mother-to-child transmission becomes an attainable goal in the management of HIV-infected individuals, more and more HIV-positive women are choosing to become pregnant and have children. Consequently, it is important to consider the efficacy and safety of antiretroviral agents in pregnancy. Protease inhibitors are a common class of medication used in the treatment of HIV-1 infection and are increasingly being used in pregnancy. However, several studies have raised concerns regarding pharmacokinetic alterations in pregnancy, particularly in the third trimester, which results in suboptimal drug concentrations and a theoretically higher risk of virologic failure and perinatal transmission. Drug level reductions have been observed with each individual protease inhibitor and dose adjustments in pregnancy are suggested for certain agents. Furthermore, studies have also raised concerns regarding the safety of protease inhibitors in pregnancy, particularly as they may increase the risk of pre-term birth and metabolic disturbances. Overall, protease inhibitors are safe and effective for the treatment of HIV-infected pregnant women. Specifically, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir- and atazanavir-based regimens are preferred in pregnancy, while ritonavir-boosted darunavir- and saquinavir-based therapies are reasonable alternatives. This paper reviews the use of protease inhibitors in pregnancy, focusing on pharmacokinetic and safety considerations, and outlines the recommendations for use of this class of medication in the HIV-1-infected pregnant woman.

  14. Propiedad intelectual y acceso a medicamentos:el caso de lopinavir/ritonavir en Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pablo Méndez-Alburez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available El impacto de la protección de la propiedad intelectual de los productos farmacéuticos en el acceso a medicamentos en los países de ingreso bajo y medio ha sido motivo de debate a nivel mundial desde finales del siglo XX...

  15. Farmacocinética poblacional de lopinavir y ritonavir en pacientes adultos infectados por el VIH

    OpenAIRE

    Moltó Marhuenda, José

    2008-01-01

    Descripció del recurs: 25 gener 2011 Objetivos: 1.- Determinar la variabilidad interindividual de la concentración valle en plasma de los fármacos inhibidores de la transcriptasa inversa no análogos de los nucleósidos (ITINAN) y de los inhibidores de la proteasa (IP) del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), así como la proporción de pacientes infectados por el VIH en tratamiento antirretroviral con concentraciones valle de los fármacos por debajo de la concentración mínima eficaz en...

  16. Response of HIV positive patients to the long-term salvage therapy by lopinavir/ritonavir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prejdová, Jana; Machala, L.; Staňková, M.; Linka, M.; Brůčková, M.; Vandasová, J.; Konvalinka, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 4 (2005), 319-323 ISSN 1386-6532 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NI6339 Grant - others:5th Framework(XE) QLK2-CT-2001-02360 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : protease inhibitor * salvage therapy * resistance development Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.623, year: 2005

  17. Nelfinavir augments proteasome inhibition by bortezomib in myeloma cells and overcomes bortezomib and carfilzomib resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, M; Bader, J; Overkleeft, H; Driessen, C

    2013-01-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) are oral drugs for HIV treatment. HIV-PI have antitumor activity via induction of ER-stress, inhibition of phospho-AKT (p-AKT) and the proteasome, suggesting antimyeloma activity. We characterize the effects of all approved HIV-PI on myeloma cells. HIV-PI were compared regarding cytotoxicity, proteasome activity, ER-stress induction and AKT phosphorylation using myeloma cells in vitro. Nelfinavir is the HIV-PI with highest cytotoxic activity against primary myeloma cells and with an IC 50 near therapeutic drug blood levels (8–14 μM), irrespective of bortezomib sensitivity. Only nelfinavir inhibited intracellular proteasome activity in situ at drug concentrations <40 μℳ. Ritonavir, saquinavir and lopinavir inhibited p-AKT comparable to nelfinavir, and showed similar synergistic cytotoxicity with bortezomib against bortezomib-sensitive cells. Nelfinavir had superior synergistic activity with bortezomib/carfilzomib in particular against bortezomib/carfilzomib-resistant myeloma cells. It inhibited not only the proteasomal β1/β5 active sites, similar to bortezomib/carfilzomib, but in addition the β2 proteasome activity not targeted by bortezomib/carfilzomib. Additional inhibition of β2 proteasome activity is known to sensitize cells for bortezomib and carfilzomib. Nelfinavir has unique proteasome inhibiting activity in particular on the bortezomib/carfilzomib-insensitive tryptic (β2) proteasome activity in intact myeloma cells, and is active against bortezomib/carfilzomib-resistant myeloma cells in vitro

  18. Efficacy and safety of darunavir-ritonavir compared with that of lopinavir-ritonavir at 48 weeks in treatment-experienced, HIV-infected patients in TITAN: a randomised controlled phase III trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madruga, José Valdez; Berger, Daniel; McMurchie, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The protease inhibitor darunavir has been shown to be efficacious in highly treatment-experienced patients with HIV infection, but needs to be assessed in patients with a broader range of treatment experience. We did a randomised, controlled, phase III trial (TITAN) to compare 48-week....... The primary endpoint was non-inferiority (95% CI lower limit for the difference in treatment response -12% or greater) for HIV RNA of less than 400 copies per mL in plasma at week 48 (per-protocol analysis). TITAN (TMC114-C214) is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00110877. FINDINGS: Of 595...

  19. The PHACS SMARTT Study: Assessment of the Safety of In Utero Exposure to Antiretroviral Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Barrett Van Dyke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities (SMARTT cohort of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS includes over 3500 HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU infants and children at 22 sites in the U.S. including Puerto Rico. The goal of the study is to determine the safety of in utero exposure to antiretrovirals (ARV and to estimate the incidence of adverse events. Domains being assessed include metabolic, growth and development, cardiac, neurological, neurodevelopmental, behavior, language, and hearing. SMARTT employs an innovative trigger-based design as an efficient means to identify and evaluate adverse events. Participants who met a predefined clinical or laboratory threshold (trigger undergo additional evaluations to define their case status. After adjusting for birth cohort and other factors, there was no significant increase in the likelihood of meeting overall case status (case in any domain with exposure to combination ARVs (cARV, any ARV class, or any specific ARV. However, several individual ARVs were significantly associated with case status in individual domains, including zidovudine for a metabolic case, first trimester stavudine for a language case, and didanosine plus stavudine for a neurodevelopmental case. We found an increased rate of preterm birth with first trimester exposure to protease inhibitor-based cARV. Although there was no overall increase in congenital anomalies with first trimester cARV, a significant increase was seen with exposure to atazanavir, ritonavir, and didanosine plus stavudine. Tenofovir exposure was associated with significantly lower mean whole-body bone mineral content in the newborn period and a lower length and head circumference at 1 year of age. With neurodevelopmental testing at 1 year of age, specific ARVs (atazanavir, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir, nelfinavir, and tenofovir were associated with lower performance, although all groups were within the normal range. No ARVs or classes were

  20. Terapia antiviral para VIH-SIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Tarinas Reyes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, muchos agentes antivirales nuevos han sido incorporados a la quimioterapéutica. En esta revisión se resumen tanto los fármacos establecidos de años atrás como los nuevos medicamentos desarrollados para el tratamiento de individuos infectados por VIH. El AZT fue el primero aprobado en marzo de 1987, le siguió el ddl (1991, ddC (1992, d4T (1994, 3TC (1995. Luego fue aprobado el primer inhibidor de proteasa, saquinavir en diciembre de 1995, seguido de ritonavir (1996, indinavir (1996, nelfinavir (1997; además de otros inhibidores de la reverso transcriptasa como nevirapine (1996, delavirdine (1997, efavirenz (1998, entre otros. En estos momentos se siguen buscando y desarrollando nuevas terapias alternativas para esta afección. En este trabajo se exponen algunas de las características de dichos medicamentos, como son: mecanismos de acción (sobre qué enzima actúa cada uno y cómo lo hacen, el ciclo viral, dosificación, incompatibilidades y reacciones adversas.During the last years many new antiviral agents have been incorporated to the chemotherapeutics. The pharmaceuticals established years ago as well as the new ones developed to treat HIV infected individuals are included in this review. The AZT was the first approved in March, 1987, followed by ddl (1991, ddc (1992, d4t (1994, and 3TC (1995. Later, the first protease inhibitor, saquinovir, was approved in December, 1995, followed by ritonavir (1996, indinavir (1996, and nelfinavir (1997; in addition to other inhibitors of the reverse transcriptase as neviparine (1996, delavirdine (1997, and efavirenz (1998, among others. At present new alternative therapies for this affection are being searched and developed. Some of the characteristics of these dugs, such as: action mechanisms (on which enzime each of them act and how they do it, viral cycle, dosage, incompatibilites and adverse reactions are dealt with in this paper.

  1. Once-daily fosamprenavir with ritonavir in the treatment of HIV infection in therapy-naïve patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gisslen, Magnus; Flamholc,Leo; Gisslen,Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Leo Flamholc1, Magnus Gisslén21Department of Infectious Diseases, Malmö University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden; 2Sahlgrenska University Hospital/Östra, Gothenburg, SwedenAbstract: Treatment options for HIV patients have dramatically improved since the introduction of efficacious antiretroviral combination therapy more than a decade ago. Treatment regimens have been simplified with fewer pills and fewer daily dosages. Fosamprenavir is a protease inhibitor with...

  2. Ritonavir-boosted darunavir combined with raltegravir or tenofovir-emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults infected with HIV-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffi, François; Babiker, Abdel G; Richert, Laura

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Standard first-line antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection includes two nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), but these drugs have limitations. We assessed the 96 week efficacy and safety of an NtRTI-sparing regimen. METHODS: Between August, 2010......-inferior to standard treatment and represents a treatment option for patients with CD4 cell counts higher than 200 cells per μL. FUNDING: European Union Sixth Framework Programme, Inserm-ANRS, Gilead Sciences, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Merck Laboratories....

  3. The crystal structure of protease Sapp1p from Candida parapsilosis in complex with the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostál, Jiří; Brynda, Jiří; Hrušková-Heidingsfeldová, Olga; Pachl, Petr; Pichová, Iva; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2012), s. 160-165 ISSN 1475-6366 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA ČR GA310/09/1945; GA ČR GA203/09/0820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : secreted aspartic protease * virulence factor * X-ray structure * candidiasis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2012

  4. Randomized pharmacokinetic evaluation of different rifabutin doses in African HIV- infected tuberculosis patients on lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiker, Suhashni; Connolly, Cathy; Wiesner, Lubbe; Kellerman, Tracey; Reddy, Tarylee; Harries, Anthony; McIlleron, Helen; Lienhardt, Christian; Pym, Alexander

    2014-11-19

    Pharmacokinetic interactions between rifampicin and protease inhibitors (PIs) complicate the management of HIV-associated tuberculosis. Rifabutin is an alternative rifamycin, for patients requiring PIs. Recently some international guidelines have recommended a higher dose of rifabutin (150 mg daily) in combination with boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), than the previous dose of rifabutin (150 mg three times weekly {tiw}). But there are limited pharmacokinetic data evaluating the higher dose of rifabutin in combination with LPV/r. Sub-optimal dosing can lead to acquired rifamycin resistance (ARR). The plasma concentration of 25-O-desacetylrifabutin (d-RBT), the metabolite of rifabutin, increases in the presence of PIs and may lead to toxicity. Sixteen patients with TB-HIV co-infection received rifabutin 300 mg QD in combination with tuberculosis chemotherapy (initially pyrazinamide, isoniazid and ethambutol then only isoniazid), and were then randomized to receive isoniazid and LPV/r based ART with rifabutin 150 mg tiw or rifabutin 150 mg daily. The rifabutin dose with ART was switched after 1 month. Serial rifabutin and d-RBT concentrations were measured after 4 weeks of each treatment. The median AUC0-48 and Cmax of rifabutin in patients taking 150 mg rifabutin tiw was significantly reduced compared to the other treatment arms. Geometric mean ratio (90% CI) for AUC0-48 and Cmax was 0.6 (0.5-0.7) and 0.5 (0.4-0.6) for RBT 150 mg tiw compared with RBT 300 mg and 0.4 (0.4-0.4) and 0.5 (0.5-0.6) for RBT 150 mg tiw compared with 150 mg daily. 86% of patients on the tiw rifabutin arm had an AUC0-24 ART, and grade 3 neutropenia (asymptomatic) was reported in 4 patients. These events were not associated with increases in rifabutin or metabolite concentrations. A daily 150 mg dose of rifabutin in combination with LPV/r safely maintained rifabutin plasma concentrations in line with those shown to prevent ARR. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00640887.

  5. Efficacy of etravirine combined with darunavir or other ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors in HIV-1-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingerhoets, J; Calvez, V; Flandre, P

    2015-01-01

    data. METHODS: Two international (EuroSIDA; EUResist Network) and five national (France, Italy, Spain, Switzerland and UK) cohorts provided data (collected in 2007-2012). Stratum-adjusted (for confounding factors) Mantel-Haenszel differences in virological responses (viral load

  6. Ability of polymer-bound P-glycoprotein inhibitor ritonavir to overcome multidrug resistance in various resistant neuroblastoma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koziolová, Eva; Chytil, Petr; Etrych, Tomáš; Janoušková, Olga

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 10 (2017), s. 1126-1130 ISSN 0959-4973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : drug-delivery polymers * multidrug resistance * N-(2-hydroxypropyl) methacrylamide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.320, year: 2016

  7. Clinical validation and applicability of different tipranavir/ritonavir genotypic scores in HIV-1 protease inhibitor-experienced patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracino, Annalisa; Monno, Laura; Tartaglia, Alessandra; Tinelli, Carmine; Seminari, Elena; Maggiolo, Franco; Bonora, Stefano; Rusconi, Stefano; Micheli, Valeria; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Lazzaroni, Laura; Ferrara, Sergio; Ladisa, Nicoletta; Nasta, Paola; Parruti, Giustino; Bellagamba, Rita; Forbici, Federica; Angarano, Gioacchino

    2009-07-01

    Tipranavir, a non-peptidic protease inhibitor which shows in vitro efficacy against some HIV-1-resistant strains, can be used in salvage therapies for multi-experienced HIV patients due to its peculiar resistance profile including 21 mutations at 16 protease positions according to International AIDS Society (IAS). Other genotypic scores, however, which attribute a different weight to single amino-acid substitutions, have been recently proposed. To validate the clinical utility of four different genotypic scores for selecting tipranavir responders, the baseline resistance pattern of 176 HIV heavily experienced patients was correlated with virological success (HIV-RNA42.5% of patients. With univariate analysis, genotypic scores were all associated with outcome but showed a low accuracy with ROC analysis, with the weighted score (WS) by Scherer et al. demonstrating the best performance with an AUC of 68%. Only 52% of patients classified as susceptible (WSIAS mutations: L33F, I54AMV, Q58E, and non-IAS mutation: N37DES. On the contrary, the use of T20 in T20-naïve patients and the V82AFSI and F53LY non-IAS mutations were associated with virological success. The study suggests that even if the "weighted" scores are able to interpret correctly the antiretroviral resistance profile of multi-experienced patients, it is difficult to individuate a cut-off which can be easily applied to this population for discriminating responders.

  8. Characteristic Ligand-Induced Crystal Forms of HIV-1 Protease Complexes: A Novel Discovery of X-Ray Crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olajuyigbe, Folasade M.; Geremia, Silvano

    2009-10-01

    Mixtures of saquinavir (SQV) and ritonavir (RTV) were cocrystallized with HIV-1 protease (PR) in an attempt to compare their relative potencies using a crystallographic approach and factors responsible for the respective crystal forms obtained were examined. The mixture ratio of the SQV/RTV was in the range of 1:1 to 1:50 with increasing concentration of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) used. Two crystal forms of PR complexes were obtained. At concentrations of 0.8 and 1.2 % DMSO using 1:1 and 1:15 ratios of SQV/RTV, the crystal form was monoclinic while increasing the concentration of DMSO to 3.2 and 5.0% using 1:15 and 1:50 ratios of SQV/RTV, the orthorhombic crystal form was obtained. The high resolution X-ray crystal structures of the PR/ inhibitor complexes reveal that crystal forms with respective space groups are dependent on the occupancy of either SQV or RTV in the active site of the PR. The occupancy of either of the PR inhibitors in the active site of PR has interestingly demonstrated unique cooperativity effects in crystallization of protein-ligand complexes. The crystal forms obtained were also related to the concentration of DMSO and ammonium sulphate in crystallization, and storage conditions of purified PR. Surprisingly, the relative occupancies of these inhibitors in the active site suggested a competition between the two inhibitors which were not inhibition constants related. Analysis of the structures in both crystal forms show no difference in DMSO content but at higher concentration of DMSO (3.2 - 5.0%) in the orthorhombic crystal forms, there were protein-sulphate interactions which were absent in the monoclinic forms with lower concentration (0.8 - 1.2%) of DMSO. This work has clearly demonstrated that there is cooperativity in crystallization and the conditions of crystallization influence specific intermolecular contacts in crystal packing (crystal form). (author)

  9. Examining the production costs of antiretroviral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Eloan; Vasan, Ashwin; Kim, Jim Yong; Lee, Evan; Guimier, Jean Marc; Perriens, Joseph

    2006-08-22

    To present direct manufacturing costs and price calculations of individual antiretroviral drugs, enabling those responsible for their procurement to have a better understanding of the cost structure of their production, and to indicate the prices at which these antiretroviral drugs could be offered in developing country markets. Direct manufacturing costs and factory prices for selected first and second-line antiretroviral drugs were calculated based on cost structure data from a state-owned company in Brazil. Prices for the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) were taken from a recent survey by the World Health Organization (WHO). The calculated prices for antiretroviral drugs are compared with quoted prices offered by privately-owned, for-profit manufacturers. The API represents the largest component of direct manufacturing costs (55-99%), while other inputs, such as salaries, equipment costs, and scale of production, have a minimal impact. The calculated prices for most of the antiretroviral drugs studied fall within the lower quartile of the range of quoted prices in developing country markets. The exceptions are those drugs, primarily for second-line therapy, for which the API is either under patent, in short supply, or in limited use in developing countries (e.g. abacavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir). The availability of data on the cost of antiretroviral drug production and calculation of factory prices under a sustainable business model provide benchmarks that bulk purchasers of antiretroviral drugs could use to negotiate lower prices. While truly significant price decreases for antiretroviral drugs will depend largely on the future evolution of API prices, the present study demonstrates that for several antiretroviral drugs price reduction is currently possible. Whether or not these reductions materialize will depend on the magnitude of indirect cost and profit added by each supplier over the direct production costs. The ability to

  10. A Single-Arm, Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Lopimune (Lopinavir/Ritonavir) as a Treatment for HPV-Related Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Lynne; Maranga, Innocent O; Masinde, Millicent S; Oliver, Anthony W; Batman, Gavin; He, Xiaotong; Desai, Minaxi; Okemwa, Parmenas M; Stringfellow, Helen; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre; Mwaniki, Alex M; Gichangi, Peter; Hampson, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common female malignancy in the developing nations and the third most common cancer in women globally. An effective, inexpensive and self-applied topical treatment would be an ideal solution for treatment of screen-detected, pre-invasive cervical disease in low resource settings. Between 01/03/2013 and 01/08/2013, women attending Kenyatta National Hospital's Family Planning and Gynaecology Outpatients clinics were tested for HIV, HPV (Cervista®) and liquid based cervical cytology (LBC-ThinPrep®). HIV negative women diagnosed as high-risk HPV positive with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were examined by colposcopy and given a 2 week course of 1 capsule of Lopimune (CIPLA) twice daily, to be self-applied as a vaginal pessary. Colposcopy, HPV testing and LBC were repeated at 4 and 12 weeks post-start of treatment with a final punch biopsy at 3 months for histology. Primary outcome measures were acceptability of treatment with efficacy as a secondary consideration. A total of 23 women with HSIL were treated with Lopimune during which time no adverse reactions were reported. A maximum concentration of 10 ng/ml of lopinavir was detected in patient plasma 1 week after starting treatment. HPV was no longer detected in 12/23 (52.2%, 95%CI: 30.6-73.2%). Post-treatment cytology at 12 weeks on women with HSIL, showed 14/22 (63.6%, 95%CI: 40.6-82.8%) had no dysplasia and 4/22 (18.2%, 95%CI: 9.9-65.1%) were now low grade demonstrating a combined positive response in 81.8% of women of which 77.8% was confirmed by histology. These data are supported by colposcopic images, which show regression of cervical lesions. These results demonstrate the potential of Lopimune as a self-applied therapy for HPV infection and related cervical lesions. Since there were no serious adverse events or detectable post-treatment morbidity, this study indicates that further trials are clearly justified to define optimal regimes and the overall benefit of this therapy. ISRCTN Registry 48776874.

  11. A Single-Arm, Proof-Of-Concept Trial of Lopimune (Lopinavir/Ritonavir as a Treatment for HPV-Related Pre-Invasive Cervical Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Hampson

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the most common female malignancy in the developing nations and the third most common cancer in women globally. An effective, inexpensive and self-applied topical treatment would be an ideal solution for treatment of screen-detected, pre-invasive cervical disease in low resource settings.Between 01/03/2013 and 01/08/2013, women attending Kenyatta National Hospital's Family Planning and Gynaecology Outpatients clinics were tested for HIV, HPV (Cervista® and liquid based cervical cytology (LBC-ThinPrep®. HIV negative women diagnosed as high-risk HPV positive with high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL were examined by colposcopy and given a 2 week course of 1 capsule of Lopimune (CIPLA twice daily, to be self-applied as a vaginal pessary. Colposcopy, HPV testing and LBC were repeated at 4 and 12 weeks post-start of treatment with a final punch biopsy at 3 months for histology. Primary outcome measures were acceptability of treatment with efficacy as a secondary consideration.A total of 23 women with HSIL were treated with Lopimune during which time no adverse reactions were reported. A maximum concentration of 10 ng/ml of lopinavir was detected in patient plasma 1 week after starting treatment. HPV was no longer detected in 12/23 (52.2%, 95%CI: 30.6-73.2%. Post-treatment cytology at 12 weeks on women with HSIL, showed 14/22 (63.6%, 95%CI: 40.6-82.8% had no dysplasia and 4/22 (18.2%, 95%CI: 9.9-65.1% were now low grade demonstrating a combined positive response in 81.8% of women of which 77.8% was confirmed by histology. These data are supported by colposcopic images, which show regression of cervical lesions.These results demonstrate the potential of Lopimune as a self-applied therapy for HPV infection and related cervical lesions. Since there were no serious adverse events or detectable post-treatment morbidity, this study indicates that further trials are clearly justified to define optimal regimes and the overall benefit of this therapy.ISRCTN Registry 48776874.

  12. Micelle-forming HPMA copolymer conjugates of ritonavir bound via a pH-sensitive spacer with improved cellular uptake designed for enhanced tumor accumulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koziolová, Eva; Machová, Daniela; Pola, Robert; Janoušková, Olga; Chytil, Petr; Laga, Richard; Filippov, Sergey K.; Šubr, Vladimír; Etrych, Tomáš; Pechar, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 47 (2016), s. 7620-7629 ISSN 2050-750X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/12/1254; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-02986S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-17207S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : HPMA copolymer * tumor * micelle Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.543, year: 2016

  13. Could the FDA-approved anti-HIV PR inhibitors be promising anticancer agents? An answer from enhanced docking approach and molecular dynamics analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arodola OA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Olayide A Arodola, Mahmoud ES SolimanMolecular Modelling and Drug Design Lab, School of Health Sciences, Westville Campus, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South AfricaAbstract: Based on experimental data, the anticancer activity of nelfinavir (NFV, a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI, was reported. Nevertheless, the mechanism of action of NFV is yet to be verified. It was hypothesized that the anticancer activity of NFV is due to its inhibitory effect on heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90, a promising target for anticancer therapy. Such findings prompted us to investigate the potential anticancer activity of all other FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. To accomplish this, “loop docking” – an enhanced in-house developed molecular docking approach – followed by molecular dynamic simulations and postdynamic analyses were performed to elaborate on the binding mechanism and relative binding affinities of nine FDA-approved HIV-1 PIs against human Hsp90. Due to the lack of the X-ray crystal structure of human Hsp90, homology modeling was performed to create its 3D structure for subsequent simulations. Results showed that NFV has better binding affinity (ΔG =−9.2 kcal/mol when compared with other PIs: this is in a reasonable accordance with the experimental data (IC50 3.1 µM. Indinavir, saquinavir, and ritonavir have close binding affinity to NFV (ΔG =−9.0, −8.6, and −8.5 kcal/mol, respectively. Per-residue interaction energy decomposition analysis showed that hydrophobic interaction (most importantly with Val534 and Met602 played the most predominant role in drug binding. To further validate the docking outcome, 5 ns molecular dynamic simulations were performed in order to assess the stability of the docked complexes. To our knowledge, this is the first account of detailed computational investigations aimed to investigate the potential anticancer activity and the binding

  14. Limited-sampling strategies for anti-infective agents: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Denise A; Ensom, Mary H H

    2009-09-01

    Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) is a pharmacokinetic parameter that represents overall exposure to a drug. For selected anti-infective agents, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters, such as AUC/MIC (where MIC is the minimal inhibitory concentration), have been correlated with outcome in a few studies. A limited-sampling strategy may be used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC, without the frequent, costly, and inconvenient blood sampling that would be required to directly calculate the AUC. To discuss, by means of a systematic review, the strengths, limitations, and clinical implications of published studies involving a limited-sampling strategy for anti-infective agents and to propose improvements in methodology for future studies. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms "anti-infective agents", "limited sampling", "optimal sampling", "sparse sampling", "AUC monitoring", "abbreviated AUC", "abbreviated sampling", and "Bayesian". The reference lists of retrieved articles were searched manually. Included studies were classified according to modified criteria from the US Preventive Services Task Force. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Six of the studies (involving didanosine, zidovudine, nevirapine, ciprofloxacin, efavirenz, and nelfinavir) were classified as providing level I evidence, 4 studies (involving vancomycin, didanosine, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir) provided level II-1 evidence, 2 studies (involving saquinavir and ceftazidime) provided level II-2 evidence, and 8 studies (involving ciprofloxacin, nelfinavir, vancomycin, ceftazidime, ganciclovir, pyrazinamide, meropenem, and alpha interferon) provided level III evidence. All of the studies providing level I evidence used prospectively collected data and proper validation procedures with separate, randomly selected index and validation groups. However, most of the included studies did not provide an adequate description of the methods or

  15. DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH TUBERCULOSIS THERAPY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kurt

    ous toxicity and a low therapeutic index, where relatively small changes in drug level can have ... Paracetamol. Increased clearance of paracetamol ... Rifampicin reduces ritonavir levels by Monitoring of liver function advised ritonavir enzyme ...

  16. 76 FR 59141 - Determination That LOXITANE (Loxapine Succinate) Capsules and Three Other Drug Products Were Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... Applicant NDA 017525 LOXITANE (loxapine Watson Laboratories succinate) Inc., 417 Wakara Capsules, Way, Suite.../milliliter. NDA 020828 FORTOVASE Hoffmann La Roche (saquinavir) Inc., 340 Kingsland Capsule, 200 mg. St...

  17. Parallel monitoring of plasma and intraluminal drug concentrations in man after oral administration of fosamprenavir in the fasted and fed state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of linking the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug with its gastrointestinal behavior by simultaneously monitoring plasma and intraluminal drug concentrations. Fosamprenavir, a phosphate ester prodrug of the poorly water-soluble HIV-inhibitor amprenavir, was selected as model compound. A single tablet of fosamprenavir (Telzir) was administered to 5 volunteers in the fasted and fed state (simulated by intake of a nutritional drink). Gastric and duodenal fluids were aspirated in function of time and characterized with respect to the concentration of (fos)amprenavir, inorganic phosphate and pH. In parallel, blood samples were collected and analyzed for amprenavir. The observed plasma concentration-time profiles suggested a food-induced delay in the absorption of amprenavir: in the fed state, mean tmax increased by more than 150 min compared to the fasted state. A similar delay was seen in the duodenal appearance of fosamprenavir (concentrations in mM-range) and, after dephosphorylation, amprenavir (concentrations below 160 microM). This observation could be related to the behavior of fosamprenavir in the stomach. In the fasted state, gastric dissolution of fosamprenavir started immediately, resulting in a Cmax of 4 +/- 2 mM after 43 +/- 15 min; however, in the fed state, the fosamprenavir concentration remained below 20 microM for the first 90 min after drug intake. The postponed gastric dissolution may be attributed to a food-induced delay in tablet disintegration. For the first time, the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug was monitored in parallel with its gastrointestinal concentrations. The observed food effect in the plasma concentration-time profile of amprenavir after intake of its phosphate ester prodrug could be related to a food-induced delay in gastric dissolution of fosamprenavir.

  18. Ritonavir-boosted darunavir combined with raltegravir or tenofovir-emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults infected with HIV-1: 96 week results from the NEAT001/ANRS143 randomised non-inferiority trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raffi, François; Babiker, Abdel G.; Richert, Laura; Molina, Jean-Michel; George, Elizabeth C.; Antinori, Andrea; Arribas, Jose R.; Grarup, Jesper; Hudson, Fleur; Schwimmer, Christine; Saillard, Juliette; Wallet, Cédrick; Jansson, Per O.; Allavena, Clotilde; van Leeuwen, Remko; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Vella, Stefano; Chêne, Geneviève; Pozniak, Anton; Dedes, Nikos; Autran, Brigitte; Bucciardini, Raffaella; Horban, Andrzej; Arribas, José; Boffito, Marta; Pillay, Deenan; Franquet, Xavier; Schwarze, Siegfried; Fischer, Aurélie; Diallo, Alpha; Moecklinghoff, Christiane; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Gatell, José; Sandström, Eric; Flepp, Markus; Ewings, Fiona; Pearce, Gillian; Quercia, Romina; Rogatto, Felipe; Leavitt, Randi; Nguyen, Bach-Yen; Goebel, Frank; Marcotullio, Simone; Kaur, Navrup; Sasieni, Peter; Spencer-Drake, Christina; Peto, Tim; Miller, Veronica; Arnault, Fabien; Boucherie, Céline; Jean, Delphine; Paniego, Virginie; Paraina, Felasoa; Rouch, Elodie; Soussi, Malika; Taieb, Audrey; Touzeau, Guillaume; Cursley, Adam; Dodds, Wendy; Hoppe, Anne; Kummeling, Ischa; Pacciarini, Filippo; Paton, Nick; Russell, Charlotte; Taylor, Kay; Ward, Denise; Aagaard, Bitten; Eid, Marius; Gey, Daniela; Jensen, Birgitte Gram; Jakobsen, Marie-Louise; Jensen, Karoline; Joensen, Zillah Maria; Larsen, Ellen Moseholm; Pahl, Christiane; Pearson, Mary; Nielsen, Birgit Riis; Reilev, Søren Stentoft; Christ, Ilse; Lathouwers, Desiree; Manting, Corry; Mendy, Bienvenu Yves; Metro, Annie; Couffin-Cadiergues, Sandrine; Knellwolf, Anne-Laure; Palmisano, Lucia; Aznar, Esther; Barea, Cristina; Cotarelo, Manuel; Esteban, Herminia; Girbau, Iciar; Moyano, Beatriz; Ramirez, Miriam; Saiz, Carmen; Sanchez, Isabel; Yllescas, Maria; Binelli, Andrea; Colasanti, Valentina; Massella, Maurizio; Anagnostou, Olga; Gioukari, Vicky; Touloumi, Giota; Schmied, Brigitte; Rieger, Armin; Vetter, Norbert; de Wit, Stephane; Florence, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Gerstoft, Jan; Mathiesen, Lars; Katlama, Christine; Cabie, André; Cheret, Antoine; Dupon, Michel; Ghosn, Jade; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Goujard, Cécile; Lévy, Yves; Morlat, Philippe; Neau, Didier; Obadia, Martine; Perre, Philippe; Piroth, Lionel; Reynes, Jacques; Tattevin, Pierre; Raffi, Francois; Ragnaud, Jean Marie; Weiss, Laurence; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Yeni, Patrick; Zucman, David; Behrens, Georg; Esser, Stefan; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Hoffmann, Christian; Jessen, Heiko; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Schmidt, Reinhold; Stephan, Christoph; Unger, Stefan; Hatzakis, Angelos; Daikos, George L.; Papadopoulos, Antonios; Skoutelis, Athamasios; Banhegyi, Denes; Mallon, Paddy; Mulcahy, Fiona; Andreoni, Massimo; Bonora, Stefano; Castelli, Francesco; Monforte, Antonella D.'Arminio; Galli, Massimo; Lazzarin, Adriano; Mazzotta, Francesco; Vullo, Vincenzo; Prins, Jan; Richter, Clemens; Verhagen, Dominique; Eeden, Van; Doroana, Manuela; Antunes, Francisco; Maltez, Fernando; Sarmento-Castro, Rui; Gonzalez Garcia, Juan; López Aldeguer, José; Clotet, Bonaventura; Domingo, Pere; Gatell, Jose M.; Knobel, Hernando; Marquez, Manuel; Pilar Miralles, Martin; Portilla, Joaquin; Soriano, Vicente; Tellez, Maria-Jesus; Thalme, Anders; Blaxhult, Anders; Gisslen, Magnus; Winston, Alan; Fox, Julie; Gompels, Mark; Herieka, Elbushra; Johnson, Margaret; Leen, Clifford; Teague, Alastair; Williams, Ian; Boyd, Mark Alastair; Møller, Nina Friis; Larsen, Ellen Frøsig Moseholm; Le Moing, Vincent; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Kowalska, Justyna; Berenguer, Juan; Moreno, Santiago; Müller, Nicolas J.; Török, Estée; Post, Frank; Angus, Brian; Boucher, Charles; Calvez, Vincent; Collins, Simon; Dunn, David; Fox, Zoe; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ammassari, Adriana; Stoehr, Wolgang; Schmidt, Reinhold Ernst; Odermarsky, Michal; Smith, Colette; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Arribas, Jose; de La Serna, Jose Ignacio Bernardino; Castagna, Antonella; Furrer, Hans-Jackob; Mocroft, Amanda; Reiss, Peter; Fragola, Vincenzo; Lauriola, Marco; Murri, Rita; Nieuwkerk, Pythia; Spire, Bruno; Volny-Anne, Alain; West, Brian; Amieva, Hélène; Llibre Codina, Josep Maria

    2014-01-01

    Standard first-line antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection includes two nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NtRTIs), but these drugs have limitations. We assessed the 96 week efficacy and safety of an NtRTI-sparing regimen. Between August, 2010, and September, 2011, we

  19. [Rhabdomyolysis and severe hepatotoxicity due to a drug-drug interaction between ritonavir and simvastatin. Could we use the most cost-effective statin in all human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Carla; Also, Maria Antonia; Pericas, Juan Manuel; Letang, Emili; Tuset, Montse; Miró, Josep Maria

    2014-11-01

    Drugs like statins may induce rhabdomyolysis. Simvastatin and lovastatin have a high hepatic metabolism and their potential toxicity could be increased by interactions with other drugs that reduce their metabolism. A case-report is presented of an HIV-infected patient treated with antiretroviral drugs who developed a rhabdomyolysis-induced renal failure and liver toxicity when simvastatin was substituted for atorvastatin. A literature review is also presented. The patient required hospital admission and showed a favorable response after hydration and urine alkalinization. There were 4 additional cases published of which there was one death. Drug-drug interactions can increase the risk of statin induced rhabdomyolysis. In order to evaluate them properly, physicians at all levels of clinical care should be aware of all drugs prescribed to their patients and the contraindicated combinations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Bone mineral density and inflammatory and bone biomarkers after darunavir-ritonavir combined with either raltegravir or tenofovir-emtricitabine in antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1: a substudy of the NEAT001/ANRS143 randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardino, Jose I.; Mocroft, Amanda; Mallon, Patrick W.; Wallet, Cedrick; Gerstoft, Jan; Russell, Charlotte; Reiss, Peter; Katlama, Christine; de Wit, Stephane; Richert, Laura; Babiker, Abdel; Buño, Antonio; Castagna, Antonella; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Chene, Genevieve; Raffi, Francois; Arribas, Jose R.; Dedes, Nikos; Allavena, Clotilde; Autran, Brigitte; Antinori, Andrea; Bucciardini, Raffaella; Vella, Stefano; Horban, Andrzej; Arribas, Jose; Babiker, Abdel G.; Boffito, Marta; Pillay, Deenan; Pozniak, Anton; Franquet, Xavier; Schwarze, Siegfried; Grarup, Jesper; Fischer, Aurelie; Diallo, Alpha; Molina, Jean-Michel; Saillard, Juliette; Moecklinghoff, Christiane; Stellbrink, Hans-Jurgen; van Leeuwen, Remko; Gatell, Jose; Sandstrom, Eric; Flepp, Markus; Ewings, Fiona; George, Elizabeth C.; Hudson, Fleur; Pearce, Gillian; Quercia, Romina; Prins, Jan; Wit, Ferdinand W. N. M.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia

    2015-01-01

    Osteopenia, osteoporosis, and low bone mineral density are frequent in patients with HIV. We assessed the 96 week loss of bone mineral density associated with a nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NtRTI)-sparing regimen. Antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV were enrolled in 78

  1. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by COPE Foundation, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lambert, J S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine total and unbound lopinavir (LPV) plasma concentrations in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving lopinavir\\/ritonavir (LPV\\/r tablet) undergoing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) during pregnancy and postpartum.

  2. Tinidazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suspension (liquid) prepared by the pharmacist and a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken ... inhibitors such as indinavir (Crixivan) and ritonavir (Norvir); isoniazid (INH, Nydrazid); lithium (Lithobid); metronidazole (Flagyl); nefazodone (Serzone); ...

  3. Early neuropsychological adverse events after switching from PI/r to dolutegravir could be related to hyperthyroidism in patients under levothyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jean-Luc; Nguyen, Yohan; Lebrun, Delphine; Migault, Caroline; Hentzien, Maxime; Marty, Hélène; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé

    2017-01-01

    We report two patients who had taken levothyroxine at the same dose for several years and who had stable thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, and who developed clinical and biological hyperthyroidism following switch from ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) to dolutegravir-based HAART. Levothyroxine is metabolized by deiodination and glucuronidation and the induction of glucuronidation by ritonavir leads to an increased elimination of levothyroxine and a necessity of higher daily doses. Patients who switch from ritonavir-boosted PIs to antiretroviral drugs-based HAART with minimal drug-interaction such as dolutegravir, may require an adjustment in their dose of levothyroxine in order to prevent hyperthyroidism due to impaired elimination of levothyroxine without ritonavir.

  4. Drug: D10745 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10745 Mixture ... Drug Ombitasvir - paritaprevir -ritonavir mixt; Technivie (TN) (O...mbitasvir hydrate [DR:D10598] | Ombitasvir [DR:D10576]), (Paritaprevir hydrate [DR:D10597] | Paritaprevir [D

  5. Atazanavir is not associated with an increased risk of cardio- or cerebrovascular disease events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Reiss, Peter; Nielsen, Lene Ryom

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether there is any association between exposure to atazanavir (ATV), either when boosted or unboosted by ritonavir, and myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke within the D:A:D: Study.......To investigate whether there is any association between exposure to atazanavir (ATV), either when boosted or unboosted by ritonavir, and myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke within the D:A:D: Study....

  6. Multimodal nanoparticles as alignment and correlation markers in fluorescence/soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography of nucleoplasmic reticulum and apoptosis in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Christoph; Werner, Stephan; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Malhas, Ashraf N.; Klupp, Barbara G.; Guttmann, Peter; Rehbein, Stefan; Henzler, Katja; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Correlative fluorescence and soft X-ray cryo-microscopy/tomography on flat sample holders is perfectly suited to study the uncompromised physiological status of adherent cells at its best possible preservation by imaging after fast cryo-immobilization. To understand the mechanism by which herpesviruses induce nucleoplasmic reticulum, i.e. invaginations of the nuclear envelope, during their egress from the host cell nucleus, morphologically similar structures found in laminopathies and after chemical induction were investigated as a potentially more easily accessible model system. For example, anti-retroviral protease inhibitors like Saquinavir also induce invaginations of the nuclear membranes. With the help of newly designed multimodal nanoparticles as alignment and correlation markers, and by optimizing fluorescence cryo-microscopy data acquisition, an elaborate three-dimensional network of nucleoplasmic reticulum was demonstrated in nuclei of Saquinavir-treated rabbit kidney cells expressing a fluorescently labeled inner nuclear membrane protein. In part of the protease inhibitor-treated samples, nuclei exhibited dramatic ultrastructural changes indicative of programmed cell death/apoptosis. This unexpected observation highlights another unique feature of soft X-ray microscopy, i.e. high absorption contrast information not relying on labeled cellular components, at a 3D resolution of approximately 40 nm (half-pitch) and through a sample thickness of several micrometers. These properties make it a valuable part of the cell biology imaging toolbox to visualize the cellular ultrastructure in its completeness. - Highlights: • Nucleoplasmic reticulum was demonstrated in nuclei of Saquinavir-treated cells. • New polyelectrolyte-Qdot ® 605 coated gold beads were employed as fiducials. • Saquinavir can induce a strong apoptotic phenotype in the nucleus. • CryoXT is an auspicious imaging technique in apoptosis research

  7. Activities of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor nelfinavir mesylate in combination with reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors against acute HIV-1 infection in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    Patick, A K; Boritzki, T J; Bloom, L A

    1997-01-01

    Nelfinavir mesylate (formerly AG1343) is a potent and selective, nonpeptidic inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease that was discovered by protein structure-based design methodologies. We evaluated the antiviral and cytotoxic effects of two-drug combinations of nelfinavir with the clinically approved antiretroviral therapeutics zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), dideoxycytidine (ddC; zalcitabine), stavudine (d4T), didanosine (ddI), indinavir, saquinavir, and ritona...

  8. Characterisation of moisture uptake effects on the glass transitional behaviour of an amorphous drug using modulated temperature DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, P G; Craig, D Q; Doherty, C

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the depression of the glass transition temperature, T(g), of the protease inhibitor saquinavir in the first heating scan as a function of the quantity of sorbed water by the application of modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC). Samples of amorphous saquinavir were pretreated under various humidity conditions and the quantity of sorbed water measured by thermogravimetric analysis. MTDSC runs were performed using hermetically and non-hermetically sealed pans in order to determine the glass transition temperature. MTDSC allowed the separation of the glass transition from the enthalpic relaxation, thereby allowing clear visualisation of T(g) for amorphous saquinavir in the first heating scan. The plasticizing effects of water were assessed, with the depression in T(g) related to the mole fraction of water sorbed via the Gordon-Taylor relationship. An expression has been derived which allows estimation of the water content which lowers the T(g) to the storage temperature, thereby considerably increasing the risk of recrystallisation. It is argued that this model may aid prediction of the optimal storage conditions for amorphous drugs.

  9. A phase I/pharmacokinetic study of sunitinib in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive patients with cancer: AIDS Malignancy Consortium Trial AMC 061

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, Michelle A; Moore, Page C.; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Dezube, Bruce J.; Aboulafia, David; Gerecitano, John; Sullivan, Ryan; Cianfrocca, Mary E.; Henry, David H.; Ratner, Lee; Haigentz, Missak; Dowlati, Afshin; Little, Richard F.; Ivy, S. Percy; Deeken, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of non-AIDS defining cancers (NADCs) may be complicated by drug interactions between highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and chemotherapy. This trial is the first by the AIDS Malignancy Consortium assessing targeted therapies and HAART in HIV+ cancer patients (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00890747). Methods Patients were stratified into two arms based on whether they were taking ritonavir, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, in a modified phase I study of sunitinib. Patients in arm 1 (non-ritonavir HAART) received standard sunitinib dosing (50mg/day). Arm 2 (ritonavir-based HAART) used a phase I, 3+3 dose escalation design (from 25 to 50mg/day). Cycles were with four weeks on treatment followed by a two week break (6 weeks total). Pharmacokinetics of sunitinib and its active metabolite (N-desethyl sunitinib) were assessed. Results Nineteen patients were enrolled and evaluable. Patients on Arm 1 tolerated treatment with one observed dose limiting toxicity (DLT). In Arm 2, a DLT was experienced at 37.5mg, and an additional 3 of 5 patients experienced grade 3 neutropenia, an uncommon toxicity of sunitinib. No patient had a response, but 10 had stable disease, including 8 with prolonged disease stability. Efavirenz, a potent inducer of CYP3A4, resulted in increased exposure of N-desethyl sunitinib, whereas ritonavir caused decreased exposure of the metabolite. Hand-foot syndrome was associated with higher steady-state trough concentrations of sunitinib. Conclusions Patients on non-ritonavir based HAART regimens tolerated standard dosing of sunitinib. Patients on ritonavir-based therapy treated with 37.5mg/day experienced higher toxicities. Dose reduction of sunitinib to 37.5mg may be warranted in patients on ritonavir. PMID:24474568

  10. Drug susceptibility to etravirine and darunavir among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-derived pseudoviruses in treatment-experienced patients with HIV/AIDS in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Kyung; Kim, Sung Soon; Rhee, Jee Eun; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Park, Mina; Oh, Hye-Ri; Choi, Ju-Yeon

    2015-04-09

    In South Korea, about 20 types of antiretroviral drugs are used in the treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Since 2010, raltegravir, etravirine, and darunavir have been spotlighted as new drugs for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-experienced adults with resistant HIV-1 in South Korea. In this study, we investigated potential susceptibility of pseudoviruses derived from treatment-experienced Korean patients to etravirine vs efavirenz and to darunavir vs amprenavir and indinavir using a modified single-round assay. Pseudoviruses derived from nine treatment-experienced patients infected with HIV-1 were investigated by comparison with the wild-type strain pNL4-3. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were calculated and drug susceptibility was compared. The intensity of genotypic drug resistance was classified based on the 'SIR' interpretation of the Stanford data base. Drug susceptibility was generally higher for etravirine and darunavir compared with efavirenz, amprenavir, and indinavir in pseudoviruses derived from treatment-experienced patients. Pseudoviruses derived from patients KRB4025 and KRB8014, who exhibited long-term use of protease inhibitors, showed an outside of tested drug concentration, especially for amprenavir and indinavir. However, they exhibited a lower fold-change in resistance to darunavir. Etravirine and darunavir have been used in HAART since 2010 in South Korea. Therefore, these antiretroviral drugs together with other newly introduced antiretroviral drugs are interesting for the optimal treatment of patients with treatment failure. This study may help to find a more effective HAART in the case of HIV-1 infected patients that have difficulty being treated.

  11. Atazanavir intracellular concentrations remain stable during pregnancy in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focà, Emanuele; Calcagno, Andrea; Bonito, Andrea; Simiele, Marco; Domenighini, Elisabetta; D'Avolio, Antonio; Quiros Roldan, Eugenia; Trentini, Laura; Casari, Salvatore; Di Perri, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Bonora, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Atazanavir (300 mg) boosted by ritonavir (100 mg) is the preferred third drug in pregnancy. However, there is still discordance on atazanavir dose increase during the third trimester. To evaluate plasma and intracellular atazanavir and ritonavir concentrations in HIV-infected women during pregnancy and after delivery. This was an observational study. HIV-infected pregnant patients treated with atazanavir/ritonavir plus either tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine had been prospectively enrolled after having signed a written informed consent form. Plasma and intracellular atazanavir and ritonavir Ctrough (24 ± 3 h after drug intake) were measured at each visit during the first, second and third trimesters and post-partum using validated HPLC-MS and HPLC-photodiode array methods (with direct evaluation of cellular volume). Data are described as median (IQR) and compared through non-parametric tests. Twenty-five patients were enrolled; at baseline, the median age was 32 years (27-35). All patients had plasma HIV RNA  0.05). This is the first demonstration that intracellular atazanavir exposure remains unchanged during pregnancy supporting the standard 300/100 mg atazanavir/ritonavir dosing throughout pregnancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. PRACTICE OF USING VIRAL PROTEASE INHIBITORS IN CHILDREN WITH HIV INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.B. Denisenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of the most effective and safest high-active antiretroviral therapies is a critical issue faced by modern HIV medicine. Authors studied 28 children with HIV infection aged from 3 to 7 divided into two groups administered a combination of two HIV reverse transcriptase nucleoside inhibitors with viral protease nelfinavir inhibitors (n = 13 and lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 15. The subjects in both groups demonstrated a decreased frequency of HIV-associated symptoms and opportunistic infections, positive dynamics of immunological indicators, suppression of HIV replication. When lopinavir/ritonavir was administered, there was more even better dynamics in clinical, immunological and virologic parameters, which allows this medication to be recommended as a antiretroviral therapy for children. Key words: HIV infection, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(1:62-67

  13. [Effect and mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress on cisplatin resistance in ovarian carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Hu, Xiaoming; Qu, Quanxin

    2014-05-01

    The study intended to investigate the effect and mechanism of endoplasmic reticulum stress on cisplatin resistance in ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to test the expression of mTOR and Beclin1 mRNA and protein in ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells after saquinavir induction. MTT assay was used to analyze the influence of saquinavir on cisplatin sensitivity in SKOV3 cells. The IC50 of SKOV3 cells was (5.490 ± 1.148) µg/ml. After induced by Saquinavair 10 µmol/L and 20 µmol/L, the IC50 of SKOV3 cells was increased to (11.199 ± 0.984) µg/ml and (14.906 ± 2.015) µg/ml, respectively. It suggested that the sensitivity of ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin was decreased significantly (P = 0.001). The expression of mTOR and Beclin1 mRNA and protein was significantly different among the five groups: the (Saquinavair+DDP) group of, Saquinavair group, LY294002 group, DDP group and control group (P cisplatin sensitivity in the SKOV3 cells after Saquinavir induced ER stress (P cisplatin in SKOV3 cells. The mechanism of the decrease of sensitivity to cisplatin in SKOV3 cells may be that ERS regulates cell autophagy through the mTOR and Beclin1 pathways. ERS of tumor cells and autophagy may become a new target to improve the therapeutic effect of chemotherapy and to reverse the drug resistance in tumor treatment.

  14. Characterisation of the glass transition of an amorphous drug using modulated DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royall, P G; Craig, D Q; Doherty, C

    1998-07-01

    The use of modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) as a novel means of characterising the glass transition of amorphous drugs has been investigated, using the protease inhibitor saquinavir as a model compound. In particular, the effects of measuring variables (temperature cycling, scanning period, heating mode) have been examined. Saquinavir samples of known moisture content were examined using a TA Instruments 2920 MDSC at a heating rate of 2 degrees C/min and an amplitude of +/-0.159 degrees C with a period of 30 seconds. These conditions were used to examine the effects of cycling between - 50 degrees C and 150 degrees C. A range of periods between 20 and 50 seconds were then studied. Isothermal measurements were carried out between 85 degrees C and 120 degrees C using an amplitude of +/-0.159 degrees C with a period of 30 seconds. MDSC showed the glass transition of saquinavir (0.98 +/- 0.05%w/w moisture content) in isolation from the relaxation endotherm to give an apparent glass transition temperature of 107.0 degrees C +/- 0.4 degrees C. Subsequent temperature cycling gave reproducible glass transition temperatures of approximately 105 degrees C for both cooling and heating cycles. The enthalpic relaxation peak observed in the initial heating cycle had an additional contribution from a Tg "shift" effect brought about by the difference in response to the glass transition of the total and reversing heat flow signals. Isothermal studies yield a glass transition at 105.9 degrees C +/- 0.1 degrees C. MDSC has been shown to be capable of separating the glass transition of saquinavir from the relaxation endotherm, thereby facilitating measurement of this parameter without the need for temperature cycling. However, the Tg "shift" effect and the number of modulations through the transition should be taken into account to avoid drawing erroneous conclusions from the experimental data. MDSC has been shown to be an effective method of characterising the glass

  15. HIV-protease inhibitors for the treatment of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Fagone, Paolo; McCubrey, James

    2017-01-01

    The possible use of HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) as new therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer primarily originated from their success in treating HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). While these findings were initially attributed to immune reconstitution and better control of oncogenic...... and nitric oxide (NO) derivatives of HIV-PIs. In this article, we discuss the current preclinical and clinical evidences for the potential use of HIV-PIs, and of novel derivatives, such as saquinavir-NO in the treatment of cancer....

  16. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tics and HIV protease inhibitors, such as ritonavir and lipinavir.2 Recently, some procedures for the synthesis of amidoalkyl naphthols are reported using I2,3 nano- sulphated zirconia,4 montmorillonite K10,5 bismuth. (III) nitrate pentahydrate,6 HClO4.SiO2,7 potasium hydrogensulphate,8 silica chloride9 and dodecylphos-.

  17. What to Start: Selecting a First HIV Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CCR5 antagonists Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) Post-attachment inhibitors In general, a person's first HIV regimen includes two NRTIs plus an INSTI, an NNRTI, or a PI boosted with cobicistat (brand name: Tybost) or ritonavir (brand name: Norvir). Cobicistat ...

  18. Low lopinavir plasma or hair concentrations explain second-line protease inhibitor failures in a resource-limited setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zyl, Gert Uves; van Mens, Thijs E.; McIlleron, Helen; Zeier, Michele; Nachega, Jean B.; Decloedt, Eric; Malavazzi, Carolina; Smith, Peter; Huang, Yong; van der Merwe, Lize; Gandhi, Monica; Maartens, Gary

    2011-01-01

    In resource-limited settings, many patients, with no prior protease inhibitor (PI) treatment on a second-line, high genetic barrier, ritonavir-boosted PI-containing regimen have virologic failure. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to investigate the aetiology of virologic failure in 2 public

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease and Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Positive Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achhra, Amit C; Nugent, Melinda; Mocroft, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has emerged as an important health concern in HIV-positive individuals. Preventing long-term kidney toxicity from an antiretroviral therapy is therefore critical. Selected antiretroviral agents, especially tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and some ritonavir-boosted...

  20. A proof-of-concept study of short-cycle intermittent antiretroviral therapy with a once-daily regimen of didanosine, lamivudine, and efavirenz for the treatment of chronic HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dybul, M; Nies-Kraske, E; Dewar, R; Maldarelli, F; Hallahan, CW; Daucher, M; Piscitelli, SC; Ehler, L; Weigand, A; Palmer, S; Metcalf, JA; Davey, RT; Kress, DMR; Powers, A; Beck, [No Value; Frenkel, L; Baseler, M; Coffin, J; Fauci, AS

    2004-01-01

    Background. We previously demonstrated that short-cycle structured intermittent therapy ( SIT; 7 days without therapy followed by 7 days with antiretroviral therapy [ART]) with a ritonavir-boosted, indinavir-based, twice-daily regimen maintained suppression of plasma HIV viremia while reducing serum

  1. Zidovudine/lamivudine for HIV-1 infection contributes to limb fat loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit G A van Vonderen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Lipoatrophy is known to be associated with stavudine as part of the treatment for HIV infection, but it is less clear if this serious side effect is also related to other nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors like zidovudine. We aimed to determine whether zidovudine-sparing first-line antiretroviral therapy would lead to less lipoatrophy and other metabolic changes than zidovudine-containing therapy.Fifty antiretroviral therapy-naïve HIV-1 infected men with an indication to start antiretroviral therapy were included in a randomized single blinded clinical trial. Randomisation was between zidovudine-containing therapy (zidovudine/lamivudine+lopinavir/ritonavir and zidovudine-sparing therapy (nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir. Main outcome measures were body composition assessed by computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan and lipid profile before and after 3, 12, 24 months of antiretroviral therapy. In the zidovudine/lamivudine+lopinavir/ritonavir group, from 3 months onward limb fat decreased progressively by 684+/-293 grams (estimated mean+/-standard error of the mean(p = 0.02 up to 24 months whereas abdominal fat increased, but exclusively in the visceral compartment (+21.9+/-8.1 cm(2, p = 0.008. In contrast, in the nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir group, a generalized increase in fat mass was observed. After 24 months no significant differences in high density lipoprotein and total/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were found between both treatment groups, but total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were higher in the nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir group (6.1+/-0.2 versus 5.3+/-0.2 and 3.6+/-0.1 versus 2.8+/-0.1 mmol/l respectively, p<0.05. Virologic response and safety were comparable in both groups.Zidovudine/lamivudine+lopinavir/ritonavir, but not nevirapine+lopinavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral therapy-naïve patients, is associated with lipoatrophy and greater relative intraabdominal

  2. In vitro profiling of the vaginal permeation potential of anti-HIV microbicides and the influence of formulation excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammen, Carolien; Augustijns, Patrick; Brouwers, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    In the search for an effective anti-HIV microbicidal gel, limited drug penetration into the vaginal submucosa is a possible reason for failed protection against HIV transmission. To address this issue in early development, we here describe a simple in vitro strategy to predict the tissue permeation potential of vaginally applied drugs, based on solubility, permeability and flux assessment. We demonstrated this approach for four model microbicides (tenofovir, darunavir, saquinavir mesylate and dapivirine) and additionally examined the influence of formulation excipients on the permeation potential. When formulated in an aqueous-based HEC gel, high flux values across an HEC-1A cell layer were reached by tenofovir, as a result of its high aqueous solubility. In contrast, saquinavir and dapivirine fluxes remained low due to poor permeability and solubility, respectively. These low fluxes suggest limited in vivo tissue penetration, possibly leading to lack of efficacy. Dapivirine fluxes, however, could be enhanced up to 30-fold, by including formulation excipients such as polyethylene glycol 1000 (20%) or cyclodextrins (5%) in the HEC gels. Alternative formulations, i.e. emulsions or silicone elastomer gels, were less effective in flux enhancement compared to cyclodextrin-HEC gels. In conclusion, implementing the proposed solubility and permeability profiling in early microbicide development may contribute to the successful selection of promising microbicide candidates and appropriate formulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV-protease inhibitors for the treatment of cancer: Repositioning HIV protease inhibitors while developing more potent NO-hybridized derivatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic-Ivanic, Danijela; Fagone, Paolo; McCubrey, James; Bendtzen, Klaus; Mijatovic, Sanja; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2017-04-15

    The possible use of HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) as new therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer primarily originated from their success in treating HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). While these findings were initially attributed to immune reconstitution and better control of oncogenic viral infections, the number of reports on solid tumors, KS, lymphoma, fibrosarcoma, multiple myeloma and prostate cancer suggest other mechanisms for the anti-neoplastic activity of PIs. However, a major drawback for the possible adoption of HIV-PIs in the therapy of cancer relies on their relatively weak anticancer potency and important side effects. This has propelled several groups to generate derivatives of HIV-PIs for anticancer use, through modifications such as attachment of different moieties, ligands and transporters, including saquinavir-loaded folic acid conjugated nanoparticles and nitric oxide (NO) derivatives of HIV-PIs. In this article, we discuss the current preclinical and clinical evidences for the potential use of HIV-PIs, and of novel derivatives, such as saquinavir-NO in the treatment of cancer. © 2016 UICC.

  4. Repression of Proteases and Hsp90 Chaperone Expression Induced by an Antiretroviral in Virulent Environmental Strains of Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Cleber Fernando; Paris, Ana Paula; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Simão, Rita Cássia Garcia; Gandra, Rinaldo Ferreira

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the antiretroviral ritonavir on protease secretion in different strains of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from the environment and investigated the expression of heat shock protein (Hsp90), classically described virulence factors in other yeast in the presence of the same antiretroviral. The presence of the enzyme was detected by the formation of a degradation of the halo around the colonies. The results were classified as follows: level 1 (without proteases), level 2 (positive for proteases), and level 3 (strongly positive for proteases). Total protein extract isolated from the cell walls of the 12 strains incubated in the absence and presence of ritonavir (0.3125 mg mL -1 ) were resolved by SDS-PAGE and analyzed by Western blot assays using an antiserum against Hsp90 from Blastocladiella emersonii. All strains tested showed inhibition of proteinase activity in the presence of ritonavir at 0.3125 to 1.25 mg mL -1 . High levels of Hsp90 were observed in the absence of ritonavir (0.3125 mg mL -1 ), except for the non-virulent control cells. In contrast, in the presence of the antiretroviral, a drastic reduction in the expression of the chaperone was observed. The data suggest that ritonavir, in addition to containing viral replication, could inhibit the expression of virulence factors in opportunistic yeast, as proteases and Hsp90. According to our current knowledge, this is the first time that the inhibition of Hsp90 by an antiretroviral was reported for environmental isolates of C. neoformans.

  5. No Need for Lopinavir Dose Adjustment during Pregnancy: a Population Pharmacokinetic and Exposure-Response Analysis in Pregnant and Nonpregnant HIV-Infected Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed Hamed; Jones, Aksana Kaefer; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Taylor, Graham P; Patterson, Kristine B; Nilius, Angela M; Klein, Cheri Enders

    2016-01-01

    Lopinavir-ritonavir is frequently prescribed to HIV-1-infected women during pregnancy. Decreased lopinavir exposure has been reported during pregnancy, but the clinical significance of this reduction is uncertain. This analysis aimed to evaluate the need for lopinavir dose adjustment during pregnancy. We conducted a population pharmacokinetic analysis of lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations collected from 84 pregnant and 595 nonpregnant treatment-naive and -experienced HIV-1-infected subjects enrolled in six clinical studies. Lopinavir-ritonavir doses in the studies ranged between 400/100 and 600/150 mg twice daily. In addition, linear mixed-effect analysis was used to compare the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h (AUC0-12) and concentration prior to dosing (Cpredose) in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects. The relationship between lopinavir exposure and virologic suppression in pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects was evaluated. Population pharmacokinetic analysis estimated 17% higher lopinavir clearance in pregnant women than in nonpregnant subjects. Lopinavir clearance values postpartum were 26.4% and 37.1% lower than in nonpregnant subjects and pregnant women, respectively. As the tablet formulation was estimated to be 20% more bioavailable than the capsule formulation, no statistically significant differences between lopinavir exposure in pregnant women receiving the tablet formulation and nonpregnant subjects receiving the capsule formulation were identified. In the range of lopinavir AUC0-12 or Cpredose values observed in the third trimester, there was no correlation between lopinavir exposure and viral load or proportion of subjects with virologic suppression. Similar efficacy was observed between pregnant women and nonpregnant subjects receiving lopinavir-ritonavir at 400/100 mg twice daily. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic results support the use of a lopinavir-ritonavir 400/100-mg twice-daily dose during pregnancy

  6. Effect of Methamphetamine on Spectral Binding, Ligand Docking and Metabolism of Anti-HIV Drugs with CYP3A4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ande, Anusha; Wang, Lei; Vaidya, Naveen K.; Li, Weihua; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major drug metabolic enzyme, and is involved in the metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, especially protease inhibitors (PIs). This study was undertaken to examine the effect of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. We showed that methamphetamine exhibits a type I spectral change upon binding to CYP3A4 with δAmax and KD of 0.016±0.001 and 204±18 μM, respectively. Methamphetamine-CYP3A4 docking showed that methamphetamine binds to the heme of CYP3A4 in two modes, both leading to N-demethylation. We then studied the effect of methamphetamine binding on PIs with CYP3A4. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters spectral binding of nelfinavir but not the other type I PIs (lopinavir, atazanavir, tipranavir). The change in spectral binding for nelfinavir was observed at both δAmax (0.004±0.0003 vs. 0.0068±0.0001) and KD (1.42±0.36 vs.2.93±0.08 μM) levels. We further tested effect of methamphetamine on binding of 2 type II PIs; ritonavir and indinavir. Our results showed that methamphetamine alters the ritonavir binding to CYP3A4 by decreasing both the δAmax (0.0038±0.0003 vs. 0.0055±0.0003) and KD (0.043±0.0001 vs. 0.065±0.001 nM), while indinavir showed only reduced KD in presence of methamphetamine (0.086±0.01 vs. 0.174±0.03 nM). Furthermore, LC-MS/MS studies in high CYP3A4 human liver microsomes showed a decrease in the formation of hydroxy ritonavir in the presence of methamphetamine. Finally, CYP3A4 docking with lopinavir and ritonavir in the absence and presence of methamphetamine showed that methamphetamine alters the docking of ritonavir, which is consistent with the results obtained from spectral binding and metabolism studies. Overall, our results demonstrated differential effects of methamphetamine on the binding and metabolism of PIs with CYP3A4. These findings have clinical implication in terms of drug dose adjustment of antiretroviral medication, especially with ritonavir

  7. Cardiovascular disease and use of contemporary protease inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Lundgren, Jens D; El-Sadr, Wafaa

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although earlier protease inhibitors have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, whether this increased risk also applies to more contemporary protease inhibitors is unknown. We aimed to assess whether cumulative use of ritonavir-boosted atazanavir and ritonavir......-boosted darunavir were associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV. METHODS: The prospective Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study consists of people living with HIV-1 from 11 cohorts in Australia, Europe, and the USA. Participants were...... monitored from Jan 1, 2009, until the earliest of a cardiovascular event, 6 months after the last visit, or until Feb 1, 2016. The outcome of interest was the incidence of cardiovascular disease in adults (aged ≥16 years) living with HIV who were being treated with contemporary treatments. We defined...

  8. Association between antiretroviral exposure and renal impairment among HIV-positive persons with normal baseline renal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Mocroft, A.; Kirk, O.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several antiretroviral agents (ARVs) are associated with chronic renal impairment, but the extent of such adverse events among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with initially normal renal function is unknown.Methods. D:A:D study participants with an estimated...... glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≥90 mL/min after 1 January 2004 were followed until they had a confirmed eGFR of ≤70 mL/min (the threshold below which we hypothesized that renal interventions may begin to occur) or ≤60 mL/min (a value indicative of moderately severe chronic kidney disease [CKD...... [95% CI, 1.16-1.28], respectively). Associations were unaffected by censoring for concomitant ARV use but diminished after discontinuation of these ARVs.Conclusions. Tenofovir, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir, and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir use were independent predictors of chronic renal impairment...

  9. Does short-term virologic failure translate to clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in clinical practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Mugavero, Michael J; May, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    , nevirapine, lopinavir/ritonavir, nelfinavir, or abacavir as third drugs in combination with a zidovudine and lamivudine nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Short-term (24-week) virologic failure (>500 copies/ml) and clinical events within 2 years of ART initiation.......58-2.22), lopinavir/ritonavir (1.32, 95% CI = 1.12-1.57), nelfinavir (3.20, 95% CI = 2.74-3.74), and abacavir (2.13, 95% CI = 1.82-2.50). However, the rate of clinical events within 2 years of ART initiation appeared higher only with nevirapine (adjusted hazard ratio for composite outcome measure 1.27, 95% CI = 1......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether differences in short-term virologic failure among commonly used antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens translate to differences in clinical events in antiretroviral-naïve patients initiating ART. DESIGN: Observational cohort study of patients initiating ART between...

  10. HIV protease inhibitors disrupt lipid metabolism by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibiting autophagy activity in adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth S Zha

    Full Text Available HIV protease inhibitors (PI are core components of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART, the most effective treatment for HIV infection currently available. However, HIV PIs have now been linked to lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia, which are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Our previous studies have shown that HIV PIs activate endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and disrupt lipid metabolism in hepatocytes and macrophages. Yet, little is known on how HIV PIs disrupt lipid metabolism in adipocytes, a major cell type involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.Cultured and primary mouse adipocytes and human adipocytes were used to examine the effect of frequently used HIV PIs in the clinic, lopinavir/ritonavir, on adipocyte differentiation and further identify the underlying molecular mechanism of HIV PI-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes. The results indicated that lopinavir alone or in combination with ritonavir, significantly activated the ER stress response, inhibited cell differentiation, and induced cell apoptosis in adipocytes. In addition, HIV PI-induced ER stress was closely linked to inhibition of autophagy activity. We also identified through the use of primary adipocytes of CHOP(-/- mice that CHOP, the major transcriptional factor of the ER stress signaling pathway, is involved in lopinavir/ritonavir-induced inhibition of cell differentiation in adipocytes. In addition, lopinavir/ritonavir-induced ER stress appears to be associated with inhibition of autophagy activity in adipocytes.Activation of ER stress and impairment of autophagy activity are involved in HIV PI-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism in adipocytes. The key components of ER stress and autophagy signaling pathways are potential therapeutic targets for HIV PI-induced metabolic side effects in HIV patients.

  11. Dual Therapy Treatment Strategies for the Management of Patients Infected with HIV: A Systematic Review of Current Evidence in ARV-Naive or ARV-Experienced, Virologically Suppressed Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Jean-Guy; Angel, Jonathan B; Gill, M John; Gathe, Joseph; Cahn, Pedro; van Wyk, Jean; Walmsley, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the current literature regarding antiretroviral (ARV)-sparing therapy strategies to determine whether these novel regimens can be considered appropriate alternatives to standard regimens for the initial treatment of ARV-naive patients or as switch therapy for those patients with virologically suppressed HIV infection. A search for studies related to HIV dual therapy published from January 2000 through April 2014 was performed using Biosis, Derwent Drug File, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Medline, Pascal, SciSearch, and TOXNET databases; seven major trial registries, and the abstracts of major conferences. Using predetermined criteria for inclusion, an expert review committee critically reviewed and qualitatively evaluated all identified trials for efficacy and safety results and potential limitations. Sixteen studies of dual therapy regimens were critiqued for the ARV-naive population. Studies of a protease inhibitor/ritonavir in combination with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir or the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine provided the most definitive evidence supporting a role for dual therapy. In particular, lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir combined with raltegravir and lopinavir/ritonavir combined with lamivudine demonstrated noninferiority to standard of care triple therapy after 48 weeks of treatment. Thirteen trials were critiqued in ARV-experienced, virologically suppressed patients. The virologic efficacy outcomes were mixed. Although overall data regarding toxicity are limited, when compared with standard triple therapy, certain dual therapy regimens may offer advantages in renal function, bone mineral density, and limb fat changes; however, some dual combinations may elevate lipid or bilirubin levels. The potential benefits of dual therapy regimens include reduced toxicity, improved tolerability and adherence, and reduced cost. Although the data reviewed here provide valuable insights into the

  12. Dual Therapy Treatment Strategies for the Management of Patients Infected with HIV: A Systematic Review of Current Evidence in ARV-Naive or ARV-Experienced, Virologically Suppressed Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Guy Baril

    Full Text Available We reviewed the current literature regarding antiretroviral (ARV-sparing therapy strategies to determine whether these novel regimens can be considered appropriate alternatives to standard regimens for the initial treatment of ARV-naive patients or as switch therapy for those patients with virologically suppressed HIV infection.A search for studies related to HIV dual therapy published from January 2000 through April 2014 was performed using Biosis, Derwent Drug File, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Medline, Pascal, SciSearch, and TOXNET databases; seven major trial registries, and the abstracts of major conferences. Using predetermined criteria for inclusion, an expert review committee critically reviewed and qualitatively evaluated all identified trials for efficacy and safety results and potential limitations.Sixteen studies of dual therapy regimens were critiqued for the ARV-naive population. Studies of a protease inhibitor/ritonavir in combination with the integrase inhibitor raltegravir or the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine provided the most definitive evidence supporting a role for dual therapy. In particular, lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir combined with raltegravir and lopinavir/ritonavir combined with lamivudine demonstrated noninferiority to standard of care triple therapy after 48 weeks of treatment. Thirteen trials were critiqued in ARV-experienced, virologically suppressed patients. The virologic efficacy outcomes were mixed. Although overall data regarding toxicity are limited, when compared with standard triple therapy, certain dual therapy regimens may offer advantages in renal function, bone mineral density, and limb fat changes; however, some dual combinations may elevate lipid or bilirubin levels.The potential benefits of dual therapy regimens include reduced toxicity, improved tolerability and adherence, and reduced cost. Although the data reviewed here provide valuable

  13. Factors involved in treatment durability and immunological recovery in a cohort of HIV-positive patients receiving atazanavir-based regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Giacomelli; Letizia Oreni; Marco Franzetti; Valentina Di Cristo; Barbara Vergani; Manuela Morosi; Elisa Colella; Massimo Galli; Stefano Rusconi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Since antiretroviral therapy must be taken lifelong, persistence and safety have become the goals to achieve. Protease inhibitors, in particular atazanavir (ATV) with or without ritonavir (r), represent a highly prescribed class in real life long-term treatment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in HIV-1-positive patients who were followed at the Infectious Diseases Unit, DIBIC Luigi Sacco, University of Milan. Data regarding viral load, CD4 lymphocytes and the ...

  14. Viagra warning re "poppers" and notice re protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-05-01

    Pfizer, Inc., manufacturer of Viagra (sildenafil), is warning patients that Viagra is contraindicated with nitrate inhalers (poppers). Nitrates in any form or nitric oxide donors can potentially cause hypotension. Pfizer also recommends that patients using protease inhibitors, particularly ritonavir, use a lower dose of Viagra (25 mg) because they interfere with the elimination of Viagra. This interaction does not pose a significant risk to the patient.

  15. HIV Therapies and the Kidney: Some Good, Some Not So Good?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryom, Lene; Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens

    2012-01-01

    declining eGFR in persons without clinical symptoms of urolithiasis, especially when the plasma drug concentration is boosted by concomitant ritonavir use. In 2012, only a minority of HIV-positive individuals are affected by drug-induced nephrotoxicity. However, in the future, the clinical impact and hence...... the requirement for more research in this area will likely increase due to ageing and continued cART exposure of the HIV-positive population....

  16. Carbamylation of N-terminal proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olajuyigbe, Folasade M; Demitri, Nicola; Ajele, Joshua O; Maurizio, Elisa; Randaccio, Lucio; Geremia, Silvano

    2010-09-09

    Protein carbamylation is of great concern both in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report the first structural characterization of a protein carbamylated at the N-terminal proline. The unexpected carbamylation of the α-amino group of the least reactive codified amino acid has been detected in high-resolution electron density maps of a new crystal form of the HIV-1 protease/saquinavir complex. The carbamyl group is found coplanar to the proline ring with a trans conformation. The reaction of N-terminal with cyanate ion derived from the chaotropic agent urea was confirmed by mass spectra analysis on protease single crystals. Implications of carbamylation process in vitro and in vivo are discussed.

  17. Analysis of 3D Prints by X-ray Computed Microtomography and Terahertz Pulsed Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markl, Daniel; Zeitler, J Axel; Rasch, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: A 3D printer was used to realise compartmental dosage forms containing multiple active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) formulations. This work demonstrates the microstructural characterisation of 3D printed solid dosage forms using X-ray computed microtomography (XμCT) and terahertz pulsed...... imaging (TPI). METHODS: Printing was performed with either polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or polylactic acid (PLA). The structures were examined by XμCT and TPI. Liquid self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) formulations containing saquinavir and halofantrine were incorporated into the 3D printed...... was characterised by XμCT and TPI on the basis of the computer-aided design (CAD) models of the dosage form (compartmentalised PVA structures were 7.5 ± 0.75% larger than designed; n = 3). CONCLUSIONS: The 3D printer can reproduce specific structures very accurately, whereas the 3D prints can deviate from...

  18. Kinetic Modeling of Accelerated Stability Testing Enabled by Second Harmonic Generation Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhengtian; Sarkar, Sreya; Vogt, Andrew D; Danzer, Gerald D; Smith, Casey J; Gualtieri, Ellen J; Simpson, Garth J

    2018-04-03

    The low limits of detection afforded by second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy coupled with image analysis algorithms enabled quantitative modeling of the temperature-dependent crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) within amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). ASDs, in which an API is maintained in an amorphous state within a polymer matrix, are finding increasing use to address solubility limitations of small-molecule APIs. Extensive stability testing is typically performed for ASD characterization, the time frame for which is often dictated by the earliest detectable onset of crystal formation. Here a study of accelerated stability testing on ritonavir, a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor, has been conducted. Under the condition for accelerated stability testing at 50 °C/75%RH and 40 °C/75%RH, ritonavir crystallization kinetics from amorphous solid dispersions were monitored by SHG microscopy. SHG microscopy coupled by image analysis yielded limits of detection for ritonavir crystals as low as 10 ppm, which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than other methods currently available for crystallinity detection in ASDs. The four decade dynamic range of SHG microscopy enabled quantitative modeling with an established (JMAK) kinetic model. From the SHG images, nucleation and crystal growth rates were independently determined.

  19. The influence of AT1002 on the nasal absorption of molecular weight markers and therapeutic agents when co-administered with bioadhesive polymers and an AT1002 antagonist, AT1001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Keon-Hyoung; Eddington, Natalie D

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the effects of the tight junction permeation enhancer, AT1002, on the nasal absorption of molecular weight markers and low bioavailable therapeutic agents co-administered with bioadhesive polymers or zonulin antagonist. The bioadhesive polymers, carrageenan and Na-CMC, were prepared with AT1002 to examine the permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002 on the nasal absorption of inulin, calcitonin and saquinavir after nasal administration to Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected over a 6-hour period from a jugular cannula. In addition, we determined whether AT1002 exerts a permeation-enhancing effect via activation of PAR-2 specific binding to a putative receptor of zonulin. To examine this zonulin antagonist, AT1001, was administered 30 min prior to dosing with an AT1002/inulin solution and blood samples were collected over a 6-hour period. The bioadhesive polymers did not directly increase the absorption of inulin, calcitonin and saquinavir, but promoted the permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002 when delivered nasally, thereby significantly increasing the absorption of each drug. Pre-treatment with AT1001 antagonized the zonulin receptor and significantly minimized the permeation-enhancing effect of AT1002. These findings will assist in understanding the permeation-enhancing capability of and the receptor binding of AT1002. Further, combining AT1002 with carrageenan supports the development of the mucosal delivery of therapeutic agents that have low bioavailability even with bioadhesive agents. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  20. Cholelithiasis and Nephrolithiasis in HIV-Positive Patients in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Yin Lin

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and risk factors of cholelithiasis and nephrolithiasis among HIV-positive patients in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of HIV-positive patients who underwent routine abdominal sonography for chronic viral hepatitis, fatty liver, or elevated aminotransferases between January 2004 and January 2015. Therapeutic drug monitoring of plasma concentrations of atazanavir was performed and genetic polymorphisms, including UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT 1A1*28 and multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1 G2677T/A, were determined in a subgroup of patients who received ritonavir-boosted or unboosted atazanavir-containing combination antiretroviral therapy. Information on demographics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory testing were collected and analyzed.During the 11-year study period, 910 patients who underwent routine abdominal sonography were included for analysis. The patients were mostly male (96.9% with a mean age of 42.2 years and mean body-mass index of 22.9 kg/m2 and 85.8% being on antiretroviral therapy. The anchor antiretroviral agents included non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (49.3%, unboosted atazanavir (34.4%, ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (20.4%, and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (5.5%. The overall prevalence of cholelithiasis and nephrolithiasis was 12.5% and 8.2%, respectively. Among 680 antiretroviral-experienced patients with both baseline and follow-up sonography, the crude incidence of cholelithiasis and nephrolithiasis was 4.3% and 3.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the independent factors associated with incident cholelithiasis were exposure to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir for >2 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 6.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-35.16 and older age (AOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.00-1.09. The positive association between duration of exposure to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir and incident

  1. Tenofovir alafenamide versus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: is there a true difference in efficacy and safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew; Hughes, Sophie L; Gotham, Dzintars; Pozniak, Anton L

    2018-04-01

    Higher plasma tenofovir concentrations are associated with higher risks of renal and bone adverse events. The pharmacokinetic boosters ritonavir (RTV) and cobicistat (COBI) significantly increase plasma area under the curve (AUC) concentrations of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), by 25-37%. When combined with RTV or COBI, the dose of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is lowered from 25 mg to 10 mg daily, but the TDF dose is maintained at 300 mg daily. To assess the differences in safety and efficacy between tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) in regimens with and without the pharmacokinetic boosters RTV and COBI. A PubMed/Embase search inclusive of dates up to 17 July 2017 identified 11 randomised head-to-head trials (8111 patients) of TDF versus TAF. The Mantel-Haenszel method was used to calculate pooled risk differences and 95% confidence intervals using random-effects models. A pre-defined sub-group analysis compared TAF with TDF, either when boosted with RTV or COBI, or when unboosted. Nine clinical trials compared TAF and TDF for treatment of HIV-1 and two were for hepatitis B treatment. The eleven clinical trials documented 4574 patients with boosting RTV or COBI in both arms, covering 7198 patient-years of follow-up. Some 3537 patients received unboosted regimens, totalling 3595 patient-years of follow-up. Boosted TDF-treated patients showed borderline lower HIV RNA suppression TAF and unboosted TDF. TDF boosted with RTV or COBI was associated with higher risks of bone and renal adverse events, and lower HIV RNA suppression rates, compared with TAF. By contrast, when ritonavir and cobicistat were not used, there were no efficacy differences between TAF and TDF, and marginal differences in safety. The health economic value of TAF versus low-cost generic TDF may be limited when these drugs are used without cobicistat or ritonavir.

  2. A novel method for determining the solubility of small molecules in aqueous media and polymer solvent systems using solution calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadda, Hala M; Chen, Xin; Aburub, Aktham; Mishra, Dinesh; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2014-07-01

    To explore the application of solution calorimetry for measuring drug solubility in experimentally challenging situations while providing additional information on the physical properties of the solute material. A semi-adiabatic solution calorimeter was used to measure the heat of dissolution of prednisolone and chlorpropamide in aqueous solvents and of griseofulvin and ritonavir in viscous solutions containing polyvinylpyrrolidone and N-ethylpyrrolidone. Dissolution end point was clearly ascertained when heat generation stopped. The heat of solution was a linear function of dissolved mass for all drugs (solution of 9.8 ± 0.8, 28.8 ± 0.6, 45.7 ± 1.6 and 159.8 ± 20.1 J/g were obtained for griseofulvin, ritonavir, prednisolone and chlorpropamide, respectively. Saturation was identifiable by a plateau in the heat signal and the crossing of the two linear segments corresponds to the solubility limit. The solubilities of prednisolone and chlopropamide in water by the calorimetric method were 0.23 and 0.158 mg/mL, respectively, in agreement with the shake-flask/HPLC-UV determined values of 0.212 ± 0.013 and 0.169 ± 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. For the higher solubility and high viscosity systems of griseofulvin and ritonavir in NEP/PVP mixtures, respectively, solubility values of 65 and 594 mg/g, respectively, were obtained. Solution calorimetry offers a reliable method for measuring drug solubility in organic and aqueous solvents. The approach is complementary to the traditional shake-flask method, providing information on the solid properties of the solute. For highly viscous solutions, the calorimetric approach is advantageous.

  3. Palatability, adherence and prescribing patterns of antiretroviral drugs for children with human immunodeficiency virus infection in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Daren; Seabrook, Jamie A; Matsui, Doreen M; King, Susan M; Rieder, Michael J; Finkelstein, Yaron

    2011-12-01

    To assess the impact of perceived palatability of antiretroviral drugs on adherence to therapy of children infected by human immunodeficiency virus and on prescribing patterns by their caring physicians. Two arms--retrospective chart review and a cross-sectional survey. Tertiary-care pediatric human immunodeficiency virus clinic during a 17-year period. Children with human immunodeficiency virus infection and physicians actively caring for children with human immunodeficiency virus infection in seven provinces in Canada were surveyed regarding their perception of the palatability of 8-liquid and 15 non-liquid antiretroviral medications and its effect on drug selection. Effect of taste preferences of antiretroviral drugs on adherence to treatment by infected children and on drug selection by their caring physicians. Forty of 119 children (34%) refused at least once to an antiretroviral medication. In 5%, treatment was discontinued because of poor palatability. Ritonavir was the least palatable drug (50% of children; p = 0.01). Ritonavir use (OR 4.80 [95%CI 1.34-17.20]) and male gender (OR 7.25 [95%CI 2.30-22.90]) were independent predictors of drug discontinuation because of poor taste. Physicians also perceived liquid ritonavir as the least palatable (p = 0.01) and the most likely to be discontinued (p = 0.01). However, they commonly prescribed it as first-line therapy (p = 0.06). A third of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus fail to adhere to their treatment because of poor drug taste. Physicians are aware of that, but this does not prevent them from selecting the least palatable drugs as first-line therapy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Related factors to atazanavir plasma levels in a cohort of HIV positive individuals with undetectable viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Júlia Luz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with plasma concentrations of atazanavir (ATV in a cohort of well-controlled HIV infected subjects (undetectable viremia. Design: Cross-sectional study where 69 subjects were consecutively enrolled between April and November, 2011. METHODS: Patients had to be on atazanavir for at least six months, undetectable viral load for a period equal to or longer than 12 months, T CD4+ lymphocyte count higher than 200 cells/mm³, and aged between 18 years and 70 years old. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, any neurologic disease, active opportunistic disease, hepatitis or cancer. Atazanavir plasma levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overall, 54 patients (mean age of 47 years and 50% women were included in the analysis. Those without ritonavir (unboosted atazanavir had statistically lower plasma concentrations than those with ritonavir boosted atazanavir (p = 0.001 and total and indirect bilirubin were statistically associated with plasma concentration of atazanavir (r = 0.32 and r = 0.33 respectively; p < 0.05 in both cases. no statistical association was found among gender, ethnicity, age, weight, body mass index (BMI, lipid profile, and the plasma concentration of atazanavir. CONCLUSION: in summary, as expected, concomitant ritonavir use was the only factor associated with atazanavir plasma levels. prospective studies with a larger sample size might help to observe an association of atazanavir concentrations to other characteristics such as body weight, since the p-value showed to be close to significance (p = 0.068.

  5. Highly active antiretroviral therapy during gestation: effects on a rat model of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L P F; Simões, R S; Araujo Júnior, E; Oliveira Filho, R M; Kulay Júnior, L; Nakamura, M U

    2014-04-01

    To assess the adverse effects of the chronic use of zidovudine/lopinavir/ritonavir in a rat pregnancy model.Type of article: Original paper. A prospective experimental study. Department of Obstetrics, São Paulo Federal University (UNIFESP). 40 pregnant EPM-1 albino rats were randomly allocated into four groups of 10 animals each: control (Ctrl) group (untreated) and three experimental groups (Exp1, Exp2 and Exp3), which received zidovudine/lopinavir/ritonavir in the corresponding doses of 10/13.3/3.3; 30/39.9/9.9 and 90/119.7/29.7 mg/Kg/day from the first up to the 20th day of pregnancy, respectively. The rats were treated by gavage daily. Body weights were recorded on days 0, 7, 14 and 20. At term, the rats were sacrificed and the implantation sites, number of live and dead fetuses and placentas, resorptions and fetal and placental weights were recorded. The fetuses were evaluated for external abnormalities under a stereomicroscope. The chi-square test was used to compare death rates between groups. Weight gain during pregnancy no showed significant differences between groups. Average weight gains between the 7th and 20th day were 45.70 ± 5.27 g for Ctrl; 48.49 ± 3.64 g for Exp1; 45.39 ± 6.22 g for Exp2 and 44.19 ± 6.78 g for Exp3. However, the percentage weight gain in the 7th was lower in groups Exp2 and Exp3 and in the 14th in the Group Exp2. All other parameters assessed did not differ significantly between groups. Exp2 and Exp3 in relation of the others. The chronic exposure of pregnant rats to high doses of zidovudine/lopinavir/ritonavir in association resulted in a significant reduction in maternal body weight gain but was not associated with significant adverse fetal parameters.

  6. NIMROD: a program for inference via a normal approximation of the posterior in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prague, Mélanie; Commenges, Daniel; Guedj, Jérémie; Drylewicz, Julia; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2013-08-01

    Models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) are widespread tools for describing dynamical systems. In biomedical sciences, data from each subject can be sparse making difficult to precisely estimate individual parameters by standard non-linear regression but information can often be gained from between-subjects variability. This makes natural the use of mixed-effects models to estimate population parameters. Although the maximum likelihood approach is a valuable option, identifiability issues favour Bayesian approaches which can incorporate prior knowledge in a flexible way. However, the combination of difficulties coming from the ODE system and from the presence of random effects raises a major numerical challenge. Computations can be simplified by making a normal approximation of the posterior to find the maximum of the posterior distribution (MAP). Here we present the NIMROD program (normal approximation inference in models with random effects based on ordinary differential equations) devoted to the MAP estimation in ODE models. We describe the specific implemented features such as convergence criteria and an approximation of the leave-one-out cross-validation to assess the model quality of fit. In pharmacokinetics models, first, we evaluate the properties of this algorithm and compare it with FOCE and MCMC algorithms in simulations. Then, we illustrate NIMROD use on Amprenavir pharmacokinetics data from the PUZZLE clinical trial in HIV infected patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the HIV-2 protease's adaptation to various ligands: characterization of backbone asymmetry using a structural alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Dhoha; Cano Contreras, Mario Enrique; Flatters, Delphine; Visseaux, Benoit; Descamps, Diane; Camproux, Anne-Claude; Regad, Leslie

    2018-01-15

    The HIV-2 protease (PR2) is a homodimer of 99 residues with asymmetric assembly and binding various ligands. We propose an exhaustive study of the local structural asymmetry between the two monomers of all available PR2 structures complexed with various inhibitors using a structural alphabet approach. On average, PR2 exhibits asymmetry in 31% of its positions-i.e., exhibiting different backbone local conformations in the two monomers. This asymmetry was observed all along its structure, particularly in the elbow and flap regions. We first differentiated structural asymmetry conserved in most PR2 structures from the one specific to some PR2. Then, we explored the origin of the detected asymmetry in PR2. We localized asymmetry that could be induced by PR2's flexibility, allowing transition from the semi-open to closed conformations and the asymmetry potentially induced by ligand binding. This latter could be important for the PR2's adaptation to diverse ligands. Our results highlighted some differences between asymmetry of PR2 bound to darunavir and amprenavir that could explain their differences of affinity. This knowledge is critical for a better description of PR2's recognition and adaptation to various ligands and for a better understanding of the resistance of PR2 to most PR2 inhibitors, a major antiretroviral class.

  8. Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins as transporters of antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Antimicrobial drugs are essential in the treatment of infectious diseases. A better understanding of transport processes involved in drug disposition will improve the predictability of drug-drug interactions with consequences for drug response. Multidrug And Toxin Extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are efflux transporters mediating the excretion of several antimicrobial drugs as well as other organic compounds into bile and urine, thereby contributing to drug disposition. This review summarizes current knowledge of the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including their functional role in drug transport with a specific focus on antimicrobial drugs. The PubMed database was searched using the terms "MATE1," "MATE-2K," "MATE2," "SLC47A1," "SLC47A2," and "toxin extrusion protein" (up to June 2012). MATE proteins have been recognized as important transporters mediating the final excretion step of cationic drugs into bile and urine. These include the antiviral drugs acyclovir, amprenavir, and ganciclovir, the antibiotics cephalexin, cephradine and levofloxacin, as well as the antimalarial agents chloroquine and quinine. It is therefore important to enhance our understanding of the role of MATEs in drug extrusion with particular emphasis on the functional consequences of genetic variants on disposition of these antimicrobial drugs.

  9. Food-dependent disintegration of immediate release fosamprenavir tablets: in vitro evaluation using magnetic resonance imaging and a dynamic gastrointestinal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Joachim; Anneveld, Bart; Goudappel, Gert-Jan; Duchateau, Guus; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick; Zeijdner, Evelijn

    2011-02-01

    In the present study, we demonstrated the value of two advanced tools, the TNO gastric and small Intestinal Model (TIM-1) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), for the in vitro evaluation of food-dependent disintegration of immediate release fosamprenavir tablets. Upon introduction of a tablet with the nutritional drink Scandishake Mix® in the stomach compartment of TIM-1, simulating the fed state, disintegration and fosamprenavir dissolution were significantly postponed compared to the fasted state (lag time 80 ± 23 min). This resulted in a lag in the appearance of bioaccessible fosamprenavir (tablet disintegration and subsequent amprenavir absorption in healthy volunteers. Therefore, TIM-1 can be used in tablet development to identify food-induced disintegration issues causing unexpected clinical behavior. From a mechanistic perspective, we applied MRI to illustrate impaired water ingress in fosamprenavir tablets immersed in the nutritional drink compared to simulated gastric fluid. This effect may be attributed to both competition between nutritional components and the tablet for the available water (indicated by reduced rotational and translational diffusion) as well as the possible formation of a food-dependent precipitation layer on the HPMC-coated tablet. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Differences in response to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients being treated for tuberculosis in Eastern Europe, Western Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro-Vega, Yanink; Schultze, Anna; W Efsen, Anne Marie

    2018-01-01

    -positive patients aged ≥16 years with a diagnosis of tuberculosis recruited to the TB:HIV study between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013 in 19 countries in Eastern Europe (EE), Western Europe (WE), and Latin America (LA) who received ART concomitantly with TB treatment were included. Patients either received efavirenz......-containing ART, and 318 a non-efavirenz regimen) 50% were from EE, 28% from WE, and 22% from LA. Among those not receiving efavirenz-containing ART, regimens mainly contained a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (57%), or raltegravir (22%). At 12 months 1.4% of patients in WE had died, compared to 20% in EE...

  11. Comparison of single and boosted protease inhibitor versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-containing cART regimens in antiretroviral-naïve patients starting cART after January 1, 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Horban, A; Clumeck, N

    2006-01-01

    increase) response in antiretroviral-naïve patients starting either a single protease inhibitor (PI; n = 183), a ritonavir-boosted PI regimen (n = 197), or a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based cART regimen (n = 447) after January 1, 2000, and the odds of lack of virologic...... or immunologic response at 3 years after starting cART. METHOD: Cox proportional hazards models and logistic regression. RESULTS: After adjustment, compared to patients taking an NNRTI-regimen, patients taking a single-PI regimen were significantly less likely to achieve a viral load (VL)

  12. Importância do metabolismo no planejamento de fármacos The importance of metabolism in drug design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dárcio Gomes Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that pharmacokinetic optimization needs to be addressed early in drug discovery to reduce the high failure rate in bringing drugs to market. Poor absorption, too short duration of action due to high elimination rate, or the presence of active metabolites are examples of properties that can potentially lead to unsuccessful clinical programmes. Here I describe a brief overview of advantages and molecular strategies for improving metabolic and pharmacokinetic properties applied to the discovery of fluconazol, beta-blockers, ritonavir and ezetimibe and to the development of the prodrugs enalapril and bambuterol.

  13. Evaluating the role of atazanavir/cobicistat and darunavir/cobicistat fixed-dose combinations for the treatment of HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crutchley RD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rustin D Crutchley,1 Rakesh C Guduru,2 Amy M Cheng1 1Department of Pharmacy Practice and Translational Research, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, 2CompanionDX, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Atazanavir/cobicistat (ATV/c and darunavir/cobicistat (DRV/c are newly approved once daily fixed-dose protease inhibitor combinations for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Studies in healthy volunteers have established bioequivalence between cobicistat and ritonavir as pharmacoenhancers of both atazanavir (ATV and darunavir (DRV. In addition, two randomized clinical trials (one Phase II and one Phase III noninferiority trial with a 144-week follow-up period demonstrated that cobicistat had sustainable and comparable efficacy and safety to ritonavir as a pharmacoenhancer of ATV through 144 weeks of treatment in HIV-1-infected patients. Furthermore, one Phase III, open-label, single-arm, clinical trial reflected virologic and immunologic responses and safety outcomes consistent with prior published data for DRV/ritonavir 800/100 mg once daily, supporting the use of DRV/c 800/150 mg once daily for future treatment of treatment-naïve and -experienced HIV-1-infected patients with no DRV resistance-associated mutations. Low rates of virologic failure secondary to resistance to antiretroviral regimens were present in these clinical studies. Most notable adverse events in the ATV studies were hyperbilirubinemia and in the DRV study rash. Small increases in serum creatinine and minimally reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate Cockcroft–Gault calculation (eGFRCG were observed in ATV/c and DRV/c clinical studies consistent with other studies evaluating elvitegravir/cobicistat/tenofovir/emtricitabine for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. These renal parameter changes occurred acutely in the first few weeks and plateaued off for the remaining study periods and are not necessarily clinically relevant. Cobicistat has numerous advantages compared to

  14. Pharmacokinetics of total and unbound darunavir in HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbers, Angela; Moltó, José; Ivanovic, Jelena; Kabeya, Kabamba; Hawkins, David; Gingelmaier, Andrea; Taylor, Graham; Weizsäcker, Katharina; Sadiq, S Tariq; Van der Ende, Marchina; Giaquinto, Carlo; Burger, David

    2015-02-01

    To describe the pharmacokinetics of darunavir in pregnant HIV-infected women in the third trimester and post-partum. This was a non-randomized, open-label, multicentre, Phase IV study in HIV-infected pregnant women recruited from HIV treatment centres in Europe. HIV-infected pregnant women treated with darunavir (800/100 mg once daily or 600/100 mg twice daily) as part of their combination ART were included. Pharmacokinetic curves were recorded in the third trimester and post-partum. A cord blood sample and maternal sample were collected. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under number NCT00825929. Twenty-four women were included in the analysis [darunavir/ritonavir: 600/100 mg twice daily (n=6); 800/100 mg once daily (n=17); and 600/100 mg once daily (n=1)]. Geometric mean ratios of third trimester versus post-partum (90% CI) were 0.78 (0.60-1.00) for total darunavir AUC0-tau after 600/100 mg twice-daily dosing and 0.67 (0.56-0.82) for total darunavir AUC0-tau after 800/100 mg once-daily dosing. The unbound fraction of darunavir was not different during pregnancy (12%) compared with post-partum (10%). The median (range) ratio of darunavir cord blood/maternal blood was 0.13 (0.08-0.35). Viral load close to delivery was HIV-negative and no congenital abnormalities were reported. Darunavir AUC and Cmax were substantially decreased in pregnancy for both darunavir/ritonavir regimens. This decrease in exposure did not result in mother-to-child transmission. For antiretroviral-naive patients, who are adherent, take darunavir with food and are not using concomitant medication reducing darunavir concentrations, 800/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir once daily is adequate in pregnancy. For all other patients 600/100 mg of darunavir/ritonavir twice daily is recommended during pregnancy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. No impact of HIV-1 protease minority resistant variants on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen containing darunavir or atazanavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Marine; Visseaux, Benoit; Landman, Roland; Joly, Véronique; Todesco, Eve; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Calvez, Vincent; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Descamps, Diane; Charpentier, Charlotte

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate, in a clinical cohort of HIV-1-infected patients, the prevalence of PI minority resistant variants (MRV) at ART baseline and their impact on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen. In an observational single-centre cohort, we assessed all ART-naive patients initiating a first-line regimen including two NRTI and one boosted PI, darunavir/ritonavir or atazanavir/ritonavir, between January 2012 and March 2015. Ultra-deep sequencing of the pol gene was performed using Illumina® technology. Protease mutations were identified using the WHO transmitted drug resistance list and major PI resistance mutations (IAS-USA drug resistance mutations list). Ninety-four and 16 patients initiating a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen and an atazanavir/ritonavir-based regimen, respectively, were assessed. Twenty-eight percent of the patients were HIV-1 subtype B, 39% CRF02_AG and 33% other non-B subtypes. Thirteen patients (13.8%) in the darunavir group and three patients (18.8%) in the atazanavir group experienced a virological failure (VF). Overall, 13 (11.8%) subjects had PI MRV at baseline in the median proportion of 1.3% (IQR = 1.1-1.7). The most prevalent PI MRV were G73C (n = 5) and M46I (n = 3). The proportion of patients harbouring baseline PI MRV was similar between those with virological success (10.6%) and those experiencing VF (18.8%) (P = 0.40). No difference was observed in the rate of PI MRV by viral subtype (P = 0.51) or by PI drug (P = 0.40). This study showed a prevalence of 11.8% of PI MRV among 110 ART-naive subjects, without significant impact on the virological response to a first-line PI-based regimen containing darunavir or atazanavir. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Restrictions for reimbursement of interferon-free direct-acting antiviral drugs for HCV infection in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshall, Alison D; Cunningham, Evan B; Nielsen, Stine

    2018-01-01

    for, interferon-free DAA reimbursement among countries in the European Union and European Economic Area, and Switzerland. Reimbursement documentation was reviewed between Nov 18, 2016, and Aug 1, 2017. Primary outcomes were fibrosis stage, drug or alcohol use, prescriber type, and HIV co......-infection restrictions. Among the 35 European countries and jurisdictions included, the most commonly reimbursed DAA was ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, with dasabuvir, and with or without ribavirin (33 [94%] countries and jurisdictions). 16 (46%) countries and jurisdictions required patients to have fibrosis...... of some countries not following the 2016 hepatitis C virus treatment guidelines by the European Association for the Study of Liver....

  17. Switch to maraviroc with darunavir/r, both QD, in patients with suppressed HIV-1 was well tolerated but virologically inferior to standard antiretroviral therapy: 48-week results of a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rossetti

    Full Text Available Primary study outcome was absence of treatment failure (virological failure, VF, or treatment interruption per protocol at week 48.Patients on 3-drug ART with stable HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL and CCR5-tropic virus were randomized 1:1 to maraviroc with darunavir/ritonavir qd (study arm or continue current ART (continuation arm.In June 2015, 115 patients were evaluable for the primary outcome (56 study, 59 continuation arm. The study was discontinued due to excess of VF in the study arm (7 cases, 12.5%, vs 0 in the continuation arm, p = 0.005. The proportion free of treatment failure was 73.2% in the study and 59.3% in the continuation arm. Two participants in the study and 10 in the continuation arm discontinued therapy due to adverse events (p = 0.030. At VF, no emergent drug resistance was detected. Co-receptor tropism switched to non-R5 in one patient. Patients with VF reported lower adherence and had lower plasma drug levels. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly improved in the study arm.Switching to maraviroc with darunavir/ritonavir qd in virologically suppressed patients was associated with improved tolerability but was virologically inferior to 3-drug therapy.

  18. HCV Drug Resistance Challenges in Japan: The Role of Pre-Existing Variants and Emerging Resistant Strains in Direct Acting Antiviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuaki Chayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustained virological response (SVR rates have increased dramatically following the approval of direct acting antiviral (DAA therapies. While individual DAAs have a low barrier to resistance, most patients can be successfully treated using DAA combination therapy. However, DAAs are vulnerable to drug resistance, and resistance-associated variants (RAVs may occur naturally prior to DAA therapy or may emerge following drug exposure. While most RAVs are quickly lost in the absence of DAAs, compensatory mutations may reinforce fitness. However, the presence of RAVs does not necessarily preclude successful treatment. Although developments in hepatitis C virus (HCV therapy in Asia have largely paralleled those in the United States, Japan’s July 2014 approval of asunaprevir plus daclatasvir combination therapy as the first all-oral interferon-free therapy was not repeated in the United States. Instead, two different combination therapies were approved: sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir/dasabuvir. This divergence in treatment approaches may lead to differences in resistance challenges faced by Japan and the US. However, the recent approval of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in Japan and the recent submissions of petitions for approval of paritaprevir/ritonavir plus ombitasvir suggest a trend towards a new consensus on emerging DAA regimens.

  19. Drug interactions in HIV patients treated in a high complexity hospital of Antofagasta city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio R. Araya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Context: From the beginning of the global HIV epidemic there has been a great concern about drug interactions (DI considering that up to 27% of all patients may be affected by at least one type of DI, this risk increases by receiving concomitant treatments. This DI leads to negative consequences such as adverse drug reactions (ADR, lack of treatment adherence and new hospital admissions. Aims: To determine the prevalence of DI of antiretroviral drugs and their clinical consequences in UNACESS-VIH-SIDA patients of Hospital Regional de Antofagasta. Methods: The study included a total of 100 HIV patients. To identify DI, Micromedex database was used. All data were gathered in a pharmaceutical datasheet, the theoretical DI were identified and real DI were detected by using hematologic tests and the patient’s clinical evolution. After the detection of any real DI, a pharmaceutical intervention took place. Results: A total of 106 DI were detected; 86% of DI found were related to drug’s pharmacokinetic properties, which were mostly metabolism related interactions (96.9%; the most commonly found associations were atazanavir with ritonavir, efavirenz with atorvastatin and efavirenz with gemfibrozil. The main clinical consequences associated with DI were ADR (49%. Conclusions: High prevalence of metabolism-related interactions was found and the antiretroviral drugs mostly associated with DI were found to be atazanavir, ritonavir y efavirenz. A high prevalence of ADR was found; however, they were mild or moderate.

  20. Severe manifestation of psoriasis in a HIV infected patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gunduz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic in Turkey reveals a slow progression and at the end of November 2015, the total official number was reported to be 11,109 cases. Approximately 90% of HIV patients develop some type of skin disease. Especially patients with psoriasis and HIV infection often present with more severe and treatment-refractory cutaneous disease. Herein, we describe a case of a patient with previously known psoriasis worsened by HIV infection. A 37-year-old housewife was admitted to our clinic with previously known psoriasis worsened during the last two years with conversion to erythrodermic psoriasis which was not controlled even by PUVA, methotrexate and systemic cyclosporine. The patient had positive HIV antibody test. HIV RNA viral load was 120.000 copy/ml and CD4 count 88/ mm3 . She also had oral candidiasis and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The patient received antiretroviral treatment including tenofovir/emtricitabine and lopinavir/ritonavir. Symptoms resolved gradually within one month with almost complete impovement of her erythrodermic psoriasis. . Four years later the patient was still on tenofovir/emtricitabine and lopinavir/ritonavir without concomitant spesific psoriasis treatment. Psoriasis manifestations can be severe in AIDS patients. Clinicians face diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties when psoriasis coexists with HIV infection. The HIV test should be considered in patients affected by severe erythrodermic psoriasis and resistant to conventional and biological treatments. [Dis Mol Med 2015; 3(4.000: 43-45

  1. A review of pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions with the anthelmintic medications albendazole and mebendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, Shane Ashley; Roels, Craig Allan; Wilby, Kyle John; Ensom, Mary H H

    2015-04-01

    Medications indicated for helminthes and other parasitic infections are frequently being used in mass populations in endemic areas. Currently, there is a lack of guidance for clinicians on how to appropriately manage drug interactions when faced with patients requiring short-term anthelmintic therapy with albendazole or mebendazole while concurrently taking other agents. The objective of this review was to systematically summarize and evaluate published literature on the pharmacokinetics of albendazole or mebendazole when taken with other interacting medications. A search of MEDLINE (1946 to October 2014), EMBASE (1974 to October 2014), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970 to October 2014), Google, and Google Scholar was conducted for articles describing the pharmacokinetics of albendazole or mebendazole when given with other medications (and supplemented by a bibliographic review of all relevant articles). Altogether, 17 articles were included in the review. Studies reported data on pharmacokinetic parameters for albendazole or mebendazole when taken with cimetidine, dexamethasone, ritonavir, phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, ivermectin, praziquantel, diethylcarbamazine, azithromycin, and levamisole. Cimetidine increased the elimination half-life of albendazole and maximum concentration (Cmax) of mebendazole; dexamethasone increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of albendazole; levamisole decreased the Cmax of albendazole; anticonvulsants (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine) decreased the AUC of albendazole; praziquantel increased the AUC of albendazole; and ritonavir decreased the AUC of both albendazole and mebendazole. No major interactions were found with ivermectin, azithromycin, or diethylcarbamazine. Future research is required to clarify the clinical relevance of the interactions observed.

  2. Antiviral agents: structural basis of action and rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez-Arias, Luis; Gago, Federico

    2013-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant progress has been made in the development of novel antiviral drugs, mainly crystallizing in the establishment of potent antiretroviral therapies and the approval of drugs inhibiting hepatitis C virus replication. Although major targets of antiviral intervention involve intracellular processes required for the synthesis of viral proteins and nucleic acids, a number of inhibitors blocking virus assembly, budding, maturation, entry or uncoating act on virions or viral capsids. In this review, we focus on the drug discovery process while presenting the currently used methodologies to identify novel antiviral drugs by using a computer-based approach. We provide examples illustrating structure-based antiviral drug development, specifically neuraminidase inhibitors against influenza virus (e.g. oseltamivir and zanamivir) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease inhibitors (i.e. the development of darunavir from early peptidomimetic compounds such as saquinavir). A number of drugs in preclinical development acting against picornaviruses, hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus and their mechanism of action are presented to show how viral capsids can be exploited as targets of antiviral therapy.

  3. A Modified P1 Moiety Enhances in vitro Antiviral Activity against Various Multi-Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants and in vitro CNS Penetration Properties of a Novel Nonpeptidic Protease Inhibitor, GRL-10413

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Masayuki; Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro Miguel; Zhao, Rui; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Das, Debananda; Bulut, Haydar; Delino, Nicole S.; Sheri, Venkata Reddy; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki (Kumamoto); (NIH); (Purdue)

    2016-09-12

    We here report that GRL-10413, a novel non-peptidic HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) containing a modified P1 moiety and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (EC50: 0.00035 - 0.0018 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity (CC50: 35.7 μM). GRL-10413 blocked the infectivity and replication of HIV-1NL4-3variants selected by up to 5 μM concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, or amprenavir (EC50: 0.0021 - 0.0023 μM). GRL-10413 also maintained its strong antiviral activity against multi-drug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients, who no longer responded to various antiviral regimens after long-term antiretroviral therapy. The development of resistance against GRL-10413 was significantly delayed compared to that of APV. In addition, GRL-10413 showed a favorable central nervous system (CNS) penetration property as assessed with anin vitroblood brain barrier (BBB) reconstruction system. Analysis of the crystal structure of HIV-1 protease in complex with GRL-10413 demonstrated that the modified P1 moiety of GRL-10413 has a greater hydrophobic surface area and makes greater van der Waals contacts with active-site amino acids of protease than in the case of darunavir. Moreover, the chlorine substituent in the P1 moiety interacts with protease in two distinct configurations. The present data demonstrate that GRL-10413 has desirable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-drug-resistant HIV-1 variants with favorable CNS-penetration capability and that the newly modified P1-moiety may confer desirable features in designing novel anti-HIV-1 PIs.

  4. Fitting the elementary rate constants of the P-gp transporter network in the hMDR1-MDCK confluent cell monolayer using a particle swarm algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Agnani

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein, a human multidrug resistance transporter, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. In order to understand transport kinetics via P-gp, confluent cell monolayers overexpressing P-gp are widely used. The purpose of this study is to obtain the mass action elementary rate constants for P-gp's transport and to functionally characterize members of P-gp's network, i.e., other transporters that transport P-gp substrates in hMDR1-MDCKII confluent cell monolayers and are essential to the net substrate flux. Transport of a range of concentrations of amprenavir, loperamide, quinidine and digoxin across the confluent monolayer of cells was measured in both directions, apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical. We developed a global optimization algorithm using the Particle Swarm method that can simultaneously fit all datasets to yield accurate and exhaustive fits of these elementary rate constants. The statistical sensitivity of the fitted values was determined by using 24 identical replicate fits, yielding simple averages and standard deviations for all of the kinetic parameters, including the efflux active P-gp surface density. Digoxin required additional basolateral and apical transporters, while loperamide required just a basolateral tranporter. The data were better fit by assuming bidirectional transporters, rather than active importers, suggesting that they are not MRP or active OATP transporters. The P-gp efflux rate constants for quinidine and digoxin were about 3-fold smaller than reported ATP hydrolysis rate constants from P-gp proteoliposomes. This suggests a roughly 3∶1 stoichiometry between ATP hydrolysis and P-gp transport for these two drugs. The fitted values of the elementary rate constants for these P-gp substrates support the hypotheses that the selective pressures on P-gp are to maintain a broad substrate range and to keep xenobiotics out of the cytosol, but not out of the

  5. Electrochemical evaluation and determination of antiretroviral drug fosamprenavir using boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Ozkan, Sibel A

    2010-05-01

    Fosamprenavir is a pro-drug of the antiretroviral protease inhibitor amprenavir and is oxidizable at solid electrodes. The anodic oxidation behavior of fosamprenavir was investigated using cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry at boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. In cyclic voltammetry, depending on pH values, fosamprenavir showed one sharp irreversible oxidation peak or wave depending on the working electrode. The mechanism of the oxidation process was discussed. The voltammetric study of some model compounds allowed elucidation of the possible oxidation mechanism of fosamprenavir. The aim of this study was to determine fosamprenavir levels in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples by means of electrochemical methods. Using the sharp oxidation response, two voltammetric methods were described for the determination of fosamprenavir by differential pulse and square-wave voltammetry at the boron-doped diamond and glassy carbon electrodes. These two voltammetric techniques are 0.1 M H(2)SO(4) and phosphate buffer at pH 2.0 which allow quantitation over a 4 x 10(-6) to 8 x 10(-5) M range using boron-doped diamond and a 1 x 10(-5) to 1 x 10(-4) M range using glassy carbon electrodes, respectively, in supporting electrolyte. All necessary validation parameters were investigated and calculated. These methods were successfully applied for the analysis of fosamprenavir pharmaceutical dosage forms, human serum and urine samples. The standard addition method was used in biological media using boron-doped diamond electrode. No electroactive interferences from the tablet excipients or endogenous substances from biological material were found. The results were statistically compared with those obtained through an established HPLC-UV technique; no significant differences were found between the voltammetric and HPLC methods.

  6. Generation and Characterization of a Defective HIV-1 Virus as an Immunogen for a Therapeutic Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; García, Felipe; Blanco, Julia; Escribà-García, Laura; Gatell, Jose Maria; Alcamí, Jose; Plana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles

    2012-01-01

    Background The generation of new immunogens able to elicit strong specific immune responses remains a major challenge in the attempts to obtain a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine against HIV/AIDS. We designed and constructed a defective recombinant virus based on the HIV-1 genome generating infective but non-replicative virions able to elicit broad and strong cellular immune responses in HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Results Viral particles were generated through transient transfection in producer cells (293-T) of a full length HIV-1 DNA carrying a deletion of 892 base pairs (bp) in the pol gene encompassing the sequence that codes for the reverse transcriptase (NL4-3/ΔRT clone). The viral particles generated were able to enter target cells, but due to the absence of reverse transcriptase no replication was detected. The immunogenic capacity of these particles was assessed by ELISPOT to determine γ-interferon production in a cohort of 69 chronic asymptomatic HIV-1 seropositive individuals. Surprisingly, defective particles produced from NL4-3/ΔRT triggered stronger cellular responses than wild-type HIV-1 viruses inactivated with Aldrithiol-2 (AT-2) and in a larger proportion of individuals (55% versus 23% seropositive individuals tested). Electron microscopy showed that NL4-3/ΔRT virions display immature morphology. Interestingly, wild-type viruses treated with Amprenavir (APV) to induce defective core maturation also induced stronger responses than the same viral particles generated in the absence of protease inhibitors. Conclusions We propose that immature HIV-1 virions generated from NL4-3/ΔRT viral clones may represent new prototypes of immunogens with a safer profile and stronger capacity to induce cellular immune responses than wild-type inactivated viral particles. PMID:23144996

  7. GRL-09510, a Unique P2-Crown-Tetrahydrofuranylurethane -Containing HIV-1 Protease Inhibitor, Maintains Its Favorable Antiviral Activity against Highly-Drug-Resistant HIV-1 Variants in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, Masayuki; Miguel Salcedo-Gómez, Pedro; Yedidi, Ravikiran S.; Delino, Nicole S.; Nakata, Hirotomo; Venkateswara Rao, Kalapala; Ghosh, Arun K.; Mitsuya, Hiroaki

    2017-09-25

    We report that GRL-09510, a novel HIV-1 protease inhibitor (PI) containing a newly-generated P2-crown-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (Crwn-THF), a P2'-methoxybenzene, and a sulfonamide isostere, is highly active against laboratory and primary clinical HIV-1 isolates (EC50: 0.0014–0.0028 μM) with minimal cytotoxicity (CC50: 39.0 μM). Similarly, GRL-09510 efficiently blocked the replication of HIV-1NL4-3 variants, which were capable of propagating at high-concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, and amprenavir (APV). GRL-09510 was also potent against multi-drug-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants and HIV-2ROD. Under the selection condition, where HIV-1NL4-3 rapidly acquired significant resistance to APV, an integrase inhibitor raltegravir, and a GRL-09510 congener (GRL-09610), no variants highly resistant against GRL-09510 emerged over long-term in vitro passage of the virus. Crystallographic analysis demonstrated that the Crwn-THF moiety of GRL-09510 forms strong hydrogen-bond-interactions with HIV-1 protease (PR) active-site amino acids and is bulkier with a larger contact surface, making greater van der Waals contacts with PR than the bis-THF moiety of darunavir. The present data demonstrate that GRL-09510 has favorable features for treating patients infected with wild-type and/or multi-drug-resistant HIV-1 variants, that the newly generated P2-Crwn-THF moiety confers highly desirable anti-HIV-1 potency. The use of the novel Crwn-THF moiety sheds lights in the design of novel PIs.

  8. Evolución de la fibrosis hepática en reclusos coinfectados por VIH y VHC que inician tratamiento con inhibidores de la proteasa potenciados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Saiz de la Hoya Zamácola

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la evolución de la fibrosis hepática medida por elastografía y pruebas bioquímicas en reclusos coinfectados por VIH y VHC que han iniciado tratamiento antirretroviral con lopinavir/ritonavir u otros inhibidores de la proteasa potenciados con ritonavir. Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, observacional y multicéntrico. Se comprobó durante 48 semanas la evolución de la fibrosis hepática medida mediante elastografía de transición (FibroScan y pruebas bioquímicas en población penitenciaria española coinfectada por VIH y VHC. Resultados: De los 94 pacientes incluidos, 54 (57,4% fueron seguidos durante 48 semanas. En la semana 48, no hubo cambios significativos en el grado de fibrosis medida mediante FibroScan (8,1 Kpa vs 8,3; p=0.20 o índice de FORNS (5,6 vs 5,1; p=0,50, aunque sí con el índice APRI (0.7 vs 0.6; p=0.05 y el índice FIB-4 (p=0,02. Cuando la medición se realizó en función del grado de fibrosis basal, se observó que el tratamiento redujo el porcentaje de pacientes con fibrosis basal de grado 3/4 (50% vs 15%; p=0,001, pero no hubo cambios en los que ya tenían basalmente grado 4 (20,4% vs 20,4%. Conclusión: Los reclusos coinfectados por VIH y VHC que inician tratamiento antirretroviral con lopinavir/ritonavir muestran una estabilización de la fibrosis hepática medida con FibroScan® tras un año de seguimiento. En conjunto, el tratamiento mejoró la fibrosis cuando la referencia de medición fue el índice APRI y el FIB-4, pero no con el índice FORNS o la elastografía.

  9. First-line antiretroviral drug discontinuations in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melony Fortuin-de Smidt

    Full Text Available There are a limited number of paediatric antiretroviral drug options. Characterising the long term safety and durability of different antiretrovirals in children is important to optimise management of HIV infected children and to determine the estimated need for alternative drugs in paediatric regimens. We describe first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART durability and reasons for discontinuations in children at two South African ART programmes, where lopinavir/ritonavir has been recommended for children <3 years old since 2004, and abacavir replaced stavudine as the preferred nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor in 2010.We included children (<16 years at ART initiation who initiated ≥3 antiretrovirals between 2004-2014 with ≥1 follow-up visit on ART. We estimated the incidence of first antiretroviral discontinuation using Kaplan-Meier analysis. We determined the reasons for antiretroviral discontinuations using competing risks analysis. We used Cox regression to identify factors associated with treatment-limiting toxicity.We included 3579 children with median follow-up duration of 41 months (IQR 14-72. At ART initiation, median age was 44 months (IQR 13-89 and median CD4 percent was 15% (IQR 9-21%. At three and five years on ART, 72% and 26% of children respectively remained on their initial regimen. By five years on ART, the most common reasons for discontinuations were toxicity (32%, treatment failure (18%, treatment simplification (5%, drug interactions (3%, and other or unspecified reasons (18%. The incidences of treatment limiting toxicity were 50.6 (95% CI 46.2-55.4, 1.6 (0.5-4.8, 2.0 (1.2-3.3, and 1.3 (0.6-2.8 per 1000 patient years for stavudine, abacavir, efavirenz and lopinavir/ritonavir respectively.While stavudine was associated with a high risk of treatment-limiting toxicity, abacavir, lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz were well-tolerated. This supports the World Health Organization recommendation to replace stavudine with

  10. Virological and serological analysis of a recent Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection case on a triple combination antiviral regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Nikolaos; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Haagmans, Bart L; Raj, V Stalin; Pontikis, Kostantinos; Koutsoukou, Antonia; Koulouris, Nikolaos G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P G; Tsakris, Athanassios

    2014-12-01

    Serological, molecular and phylogenetic analyses of a recently imported case of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Greece are reported. Although MERS-CoV remained detectable in the respiratory tract secretions of the patient until the fourth week of illness, viraemia was last detected 2 days after initiation of triple combination therapy with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and lopinavir/ritonavir, administered from Day 13 of illness. Phylogenetic analysis of the virus showed close similarity with other human MERS-CoVs from the recent Jeddah outbreak in Saudi Arabia. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) titres peaked 3 weeks after the onset of illness, whilst IgM levels remained constantly elevated during the follow-up period (second to fifth week of illness). Serological testing confirmed by virus neutralisation assay detected an additional case that was a close contact of the patient. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Characterization of HIV-1 from patients with virological failure to a boosted protease inhibitor regimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemark, Marie Rathcke; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2011-01-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) regimens with unboosted protease inhibitors (PIs) has resulted in a high level of virological failure primarily due to the development of resistant virus. Current boosted PI regimens combine successfully low-dose ritonavir (r) with a second.......3%) experienced virological failure, of whom 19 (83%) started PI/r treatment before 2001. Patients from Copenhagen (n=19) were selected to study the development of protease (PR) and gag cleavage site (CS) mutations during PI/r treatment and PI plasma levels at the time of virological failure. Three patients (16......%) developed major PI resistance mutations. Mutations in the p7/p1 and p1/p6 gag CS only developed in patients with major or minor mutations in PR. Drug concentrations were low or undetectable in 10 out of the 19 patients. In total PR resistance mutations and low drug levels could account for 12 (63...

  12. Targeting Cathepsin E in Pancreatic Cancer by a Small Molecule Allows In Vivo Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund J. Keliher

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available When resectable, invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is most commonly treated with surgery and radiochemotherapy. Given the intricate local anatomy and locoregional mode of dissemination, achieving clean surgical margins can be a significant challenge. On the basis of observations that cathepsin E (CTSE is overexpressed in PDAC and that an United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved protease inhibitor has high affinity for CTSE, we have developed a CTSE optical imaging agent [ritonavir tetramethyl-BODIPY (RIT-TMB] for potential intraoperative use.We show nanomolar affinity [half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 of 39.9 ± 1.2 nM] against CTSE of the RIT-TMB in biochemical assays and intracellular accumulation and target-to-background ratios that allow specific delineation of individual cancer cells. This approach should be useful for more refined surgical staging, planning, and resection with curative intent.

  13. Efficacy of Prompt Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in the Treatment of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Triggered by Uncontrolled Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan P. Fitzgerald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH is a life-threatening, rapidly progressive hematologic disorder involving uncontrolled immune system activation. HLH has been associated with viral infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infections. We report a case of a critically ill 30-year-old female who was hospitalized with HIV-associated HLH, with a CD4 count of 4 cells/mL and HIV viral load of 1,842,730 copies/mL. After ruling out other potential infectious causes of HLH, antiretroviral therapy (ART was initiated with darunavir, ritonavir, tenofovir, and emtricitabine. Within one week of initiation of ART, the patient began to improve clinically and hematologically and was stable enough for discharge from the hospital three weeks after starting therapy. This case suggests that treatment with ART in patients with HIV-associated HLH should be considered even in critically ill patients with low CD4 counts.

  14. Análise de interações medicamentosas e alimentares em pacientes com AIDS em uso da TARV associada à terapia de resgate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Antônia Cruz Furini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A combinação de antirretrovirais da terapia de resgate na Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida aumenta os riscos de interações medicamentosas e alimentares. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar o risco de interações medicamentosas e alimentares no uso da terapia antirretroviral com medicamentos do resgate por 40 pacientes com AIDS de um Hospital quaternário da região Noroeste paulista. Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo de abordagem quantitativa e qualitativa, realizado no período entre2012 e 2013. Os pacientes foram entrevistados através de questionário elaborado pela equipe multidisciplinar de saúde. As entrevistas foram realizadas pela equipe de farmacêuticos. As interações foram avaliadas por bases de dados informatizados. O esquema composto por darunavir, enfuvirtida, lamivudina, raltegravir e ritonavir foi o mais utilizado (32,5% pelos pacientes. Os antirretrovirais que mais apresentaram risco de interações alimentares foram ritonavir, darunavir e tenofovir, em 31 (77,5%, 29 (72,5% e 21 (52,5% pacientes, respectivamente. Foram identificados 87 tipos de potenciais interações medicamentosas, e sete foram classificadas como de nível maior. Neste estudo todas as prescrições apresentaram riscos para interações medicamentosas e demonstraram a importância do monitoramento pela equipe multidisciplinar. Contudo, a maioria das interações medicamentosas foi benéfica, decorrentes da potencialização do efeito terapêutico em consequência do sinergismo entre os fármacos da terapia antirretroviral. A interação entre farmacêuticos e prescritores pode contribuir para a farmacoterapia racional e segura do paciente.Palavras-chave: Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida. HIV. Antirretrovirais. Interações de Medicamentos. Interações Alimento-Droga. ABSTRACTAnalysis of drug and food interactions in AIDS patients in use of ART associated with rescue therapyThe combination of antiretroviral agents of

  15. Risk of myocardial infarction in patients with HIV infection exposed to specific individual antiretroviral drugs from the 3 major drug classes: the data collection on adverse events of anti-HIV drugs (D:A:D) study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe Westring; Sabin, Caroline; Weber, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been assessed in 13 anti-HIV drugs in the Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) study. METHODS. Poisson regression models were adjusted for cardiovascular risk...... factors, cohort, calendar year, and use of other antiretroviral drugs and assessed the association between MI risk and cumulative (per year) or recent (current or in the past 6 months) use of antiretroviral drugs, with >30,000 person-years of exposure. RESULTS. Over 178,835 person-years, 580 patients......% CI, 1.01-1.17], respectively) after adjustment for lipids but were not altered further after adjustment for other metabolic parameters. CONCLUSIONS. Of the drugs considered, only indinavir, lopinavir-ritonavir, didanosine, and abacavir were associated with a significantly increased risk of MI...

  16. No Evidence for Decay of the Latent Reservoir in HIV-1–Infected Patients Receiving Intensive Enfuvirtide-Containing Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Bosch, Ronald J.; Aga, Evgenia; Albrecht, Mary; Demeter, Lisa M.; Dykes, Carrie; Bastow, Barbara; Para, Michael; Lai, Jun; Siliciano, Robert F.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Eron, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) persists in a latent reservoir of infected resting memory CD4 cells in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. We assessed whether multitarget therapy with enfuvirtide, 2 reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, and a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor leads to decay of this reservoir. Nineteen treatment-naive patients initiated this regimen; 9 experienced virologic suppression and continued enfuvirtide-containing therapy for at least 48 weeks. In enfuvirtide-treated patients with virological suppression, there was no decay of the latent reservoir (95% confidence interval for half-life, 11 months to infinity). The stability of the latent reservoir despite intensive therapy suggests that new strategies are needed to eradicate HIV-1 from this reservoir. PMID:20001856

  17. Emergence of drug resistance-associated variants and changes in serum lipid profiles in sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir-treated chronic hepatitis C patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Hiromi; Imamura, Michio; Kawakami, Yoshiiku; Daijo, Kana; Teraoka, Yuji; Honda, Fumi; Nakamura, Yuki; Morio, Kei; Kobayashi, Tomoki; Nakahara, Takashi; Nagaoki, Yuko; Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Tsuge, Masataka; Aikata, Hiroshi; Hayes, Clair Nelson; Miki, Daiki; Ochi, Hidenori; Honda, Yoji; Mori, Nami; Takaki, Shintaro; Tsuji, Keiji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-11-01

    Combination of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir therapy has been expected to enhance sustained virological response (SVR) rates in hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 chronic infected patients. We analyzed the emergence of drug resistance-associated variants (RAVs) in treatment failure and changes in lipid profiles in sofosbuvir/ledipasvir-treated patients. A total of 176 patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection without decompensated liver cirrhosis were treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir for 12 weeks. NS5A and NS5B RAVs were determined by either Invader assay or direct sequencing. Serum lipid-related markers were measured at the start of treatment and at week 4 in patients who received sofosbuvir/ledipasvir and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir therapies. SVR was achieved in 94.9% (167 out of 176) of patients. SVR12 rate was 97.1% for patietns with low frequncy (75%) of NS5A RAVs. In multivariate regression analysis, higher albumin (odds ratio [OR] = 0.020 for presence; P = 0.007), and NS5A-L31/Y93 RAVs with a population frequency <75% (OR = 29.860 for presence; P = 0.023) were identified as significant independent predictors for SVR12. NS5A-Y93H substitutions were detected in all nine treatment failures at HCV relapse, and three out of six patients with NS5A inhibitor-naïve patients achieved additional NS5A RAVs. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels were significantly elevated at week 4 in sofosbuvir/ledipasvir-treated patients. These elevations were greater than in ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir-treated patients. In conclusion, NS5A multi-RAVs are likely to develop in patients who fail to respond to sofosbuvir/ledipasvir therapy. Inhibition of HCV replication with sofosbuvir might affect lipid metabolism. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. HIV-1 anti-retroviral drug effect on the C. albicans hyphal growth rate by a Bio-Cell Tracer system Efeito da droga anti-retroviral HIV-1 no crescimento de hifas de C. albicans monitoradas pelo sistema "Bio-Cell Tracer"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Declining incidence of oropharyngeal candidosis and opportunistic infections over recent years can be attributed to the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART. Infection with C. albicans generally involves adherence and colonization of superficial tissues. During this process, budding yeasts are able to transform to hyphae and penetrate into the deep tissue. Using the biocell tracer system, C. albicans hyphal growth was dynamically observed at the cellular level. Ritonavir was effective in the inhibition of hyphal growth with growth rate of 0.8 mum/min. This study showed the in vitro effect of HIV anti-retroviral drug on the growth rate of the C. albicans hyphae.O declínio na incidência de candidose orofaríngea e infecções oportunistas associadas a infecção pelo HIV tem sido atribuído a introdução da terapia antiretroviral combinada (HAART. Infecção por C. albicans envolve aderência e colonização da mucosa superficial. Durante este processo leveduras são capazes de transformar-se na forma de hifas e penetrar nos tecidos mais profundos. Usando o sistema "Bio-Cell Tracer", o crescimento de hifas de C. albicans foi observado dinamicamente a nível celular. Ritonavir, inibidor de protease do HIV, foi efetivo na inibição do crescimento de hifas com media de 0.8 mim/min.O presente estudo demonstrou o efeito in vitro de um agente anti-retroviral HIV sobre o crescimento de hifas de C. albicans.

  19. N-Heterocyclic Carbene Capture by Cytochrome P450 3A4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Gareth K.; Ritchie, Caroline M.; Shock, Lisa S.; Lyons, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the dominant P450 enzyme involved in human drug metabolism, and its inhibition may result in adverse interactions or, conversely, favorably reduce the systemic elimination rates of poorly bioavailable drugs. Herein we describe a spectroscopic investigation of the interaction of CYP3A4 with N-methylritonavir, an analog of ritonavir, widely used as a pharmacoenhancer. In contrast to ritonavir, the binding affinity of N-methylritonavir for CYP3A4 is pH-dependent. At pH UV-visible spectroscopy binding studies with molecular fragments narrows the source of this pH dependence to its N-methylthiazolium fragment. The C2 proton of this group is acidic, and variable-pH resonance Raman spectroscopy tentatively assigns it a pKa of 7.4. Hence, this fragment of N-methylritonavir is expected to be readily deprotonated under physiologic conditions to yield a thiazol-2-ylidene, which is an N-heterocyclic carbene that has high-affinity for and is presumed to be subsequently captured by the heme iron. This mechanism is supported by time-dependent density functional theory with an active site model that accurately reproduces distinguishing features of the experimental UV-visible spectra of N-methylritonavir bound to CYP3A4. Finally, density functional theory calculations support that this novel interaction is as strong as the tightest-binding azaheterocycles found in P450 inhibitors and could offer new avenues for inhibitor development. PMID:27126611

  20. Effectiveness of tipranavir versus darunavir as a salvage therapy in HIV-1 treatment-experienced patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Hermosillo, Juan Carlos; Mata-Marin, José Antonio; Herrera-González, Norma Estela; Chávez-García, Marcelino; Huerta-García, Gloria; Nuñez-Rodríguez, Nohemí; García-Gámez, José Gerardo; Jiménez-Romero, Anai; Gaytán-Martínez, Jesús Enrique

    2016-09-30

    Although both tipranavir (TPV) and darunavir (DRV) represent important options for the management of patients with multi-protease inhibitor (PI)-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), currently there are no studies comparing the effectiveness and safety of these two drugs in the Mexican population. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of TPV versus DRV as a salvage therapy in HIV-1 treatment-experienced patients. This was a comparative, prospective, cohort study. Patients with HIV and triple-class drug resistance evaluated at the Hospital de Infectología "La Raza", National Medical Center, were included. All patients had the protease and retrotranscriptase genotype; resistance mutation interpretation was done using the Stanford database. A total of 35 HIV-1 triple-class drug-resistant patients were analyzed. All of them received tenofovir and raltegravir, 22 received darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r), and 13 received tipranavir/ritonavir (TPV/r) therapies. The median baseline RNA HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ cell count were 4.34 log (interquartile range [IQR], 4.15-4.72) and 267 cells/mm3 (IQR, 177-320) for the DRV/r group, and 4.14 log (IQR, 3.51-4.85) and 445 cells/mm3 (IQR, 252-558) for the TPV/r group. At week 24 of treatment, 91% of patients receiving DRV/r and 100% of patients receiving TPV/r had an RNA HIV-1 viral load HIV-1 patients who were highly experienced in antiretroviral therapy.

  1. Virological responses to lamivudine or emtricitabine when combined with tenofovir and a protease inhibitor in treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients in the Dutch AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands (ATHENA) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokx, C; Gras, L; van de Vijver, Damc; Verbon, A; Rijnders, Bja

    2016-09-01

    Lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) are considered interchangeable in recommended tenofovir disoproxil-fumarate (TDF)-containing combination antiretroviral therapies (cARTs). This statement of equivalence has not been systematically studied. We compared the treatment responses to 3TC and FTC combined with TDF in boosted protease inhibitor (PI)-based cART for HIV-1-infected patients. An observational study in the AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands (ATHENA) cohort was carried out between 2002 and 2013. Virological failure rates, time to HIV RNA suppression treatment failure were analysed using multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models. Sensitivity analyses included propensity score-adjusted models. A total of 1582 ART-naïve HIV-1-infected patients initiated 3TC or FTC with TDF and ritonavir-boosted darunavir (29.6%), atazanavir (41.5%), lopinavir (27.1%) or another PI (1.8%). Week 48 virological failure rates on 3TC and FTC were comparable (8.9% and 5.6%, respectively; P = 0.208). The multivariable adjusted odds ratio of virological failure when using 3TC instead of FTC with TDF in PI-based cART was 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32-1.79; P = 0.51]. Propensity score-adjusted models showed comparable results. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for treatment failure of 3TC compared with FTC was 1.15 (95% CI 0.58-2.27) within 240 weeks after cART initiation. The time to two consecutive HIV RNA measurements treatment failure after suppression treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected patients starting either 3TC/TDF or FTC/TDF and a ritonavir-boosted PI. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  2. Short communication: Phenotypic protease inhibitor resistance and cross-resistance in the clinic from 2006 to 2008 and mutational prevalences in HIV from patients with discordant tipranavir and darunavir susceptibility phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Richard; Scherer, Joseph; Witvrouw, Myriam; Paquet, Agnes; Coakley, Eoin; Hall, David

    2012-09-01

    To test tipranavir (TPV) or darunavir (DRV) as treatment options for patients with phenotypic resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs), including lopinavir, saquinavir, atazanavir, and fosamprenavir, the PhenoSense GT database was analyzed for susceptibility to DRV or TPV among PI-resistant isolates. The Monogram Biosciences HIV database (South San Francisco, CA) containing 7775 clinical isolates (2006-2008) not susceptible to at least one first-generation PI was analyzed. Phenotypic responses [resistant (R), partially susceptible (PS), or susceptible (S)] were defined by upper and lower clinical cut-offs to each PI. Genotypes were screened for amino acid substitutions associated with TPV-R/DRV-S and TPV-S/DRV-R phenotypes. In all, 4.9% (378) of isolates were resistant to all six PIs and 31.0% (2407) were resistant to none. Among isolates resistant to all four first-generation PIs, DRV resistance increased from 21.2% to 41.9% from 2006 to 2008, respectively, and resistance to TPV remained steady (53.9 to 57.3%, respectively). Higher prevalence substitutions in DRV-S/TPV-R isolates versus DRV-R/TPV-S isolates, respectively, were 82L/T (44.4% vs. 0%) and 83D (5.8% vs. 0%). Higher prevalence substitutions in DRV-R/TPV-S virus were 50V (0.0% vs. 28.9%), 54L (1.0% vs. 36.1%), and 76V (0.4% vs. 15.5%). Mutations to help predict discordant susceptibility to DRV and TPV in isolates with reduced susceptibility to other PIs were identified. DRV resistance mutations associated with improved virologic response to TPV were more prevalent in DRV-R/TPV-S isolates. TPV resistance mutations were more prevalent in TPV-R and DRV-S isolates. These results confirm the impact of genotype on phenotype, illustrating how HIV genotype and phenotype data assist regimen optimization.

  3. Inhibition of bile salt transport by drugs associated with liver injury in primary hepatocytes from human, monkey, dog, rat, and mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; He, Kan; Cai, Lining; Chen, Yu-Chuan; Yang, Yifan; Shi, Qin; Woolf, Thomas F; Ge, Weigong; Guo, Lei; Borlak, Jürgen; Tong, Weida

    2016-08-05

    Interference of bile salt transport is one of the underlying mechanisms for drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We developed a novel bile salt transport activity assay involving in situ biosynthesis of bile salts from their precursors in primary human, monkey, dog, rat, and mouse hepatocytes in suspension as well as LC-MS/MS determination of extracellular bile salts transported out of hepatocytes. Glycine- and taurine-conjugated bile acids were rapidly formed in hepatocytes and effectively transported into the extracellular medium. The bile salt formation and transport activities were time‒ and bile-acid-concentration‒dependent in primary human hepatocytes. The transport activity was inhibited by the bile salt export pump (BSEP) inhibitors ketoconazole, saquinavir, cyclosporine, and troglitazone. The assay was used to test 86 drugs for their potential to inhibit bile salt transport activity in human hepatocytes, which included 35 drugs associated with severe DILI (sDILI) and 51 with non-severe DILI (non-sDILI). Approximately 60% of the sDILI drugs showed potent inhibition (with IC50 values monkey, dog, rat and mouse hepatocytes. Species differences in potency were observed with mouse being less sensitive than other species to inhibition of bile salt transport. In summary, a novel assay has been developed using hepatocytes in suspension from human and animal species that can be used to assess the potential for drugs and/or drug-derived metabolites to inhibit bile salt transport and/or formation activity. Drugs causing sDILI, except those by immune-mediated mechanism, are highly associated with potent inhibition of bile salt transport. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Self-Assembled Core-Shell-Type Lipid-Polymer Hybrid Nanoparticles: Intracellular Trafficking and Relevance for Oral Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuxia; Xia, Dengning; Tao, Jinsong; Shen, Aijun; He, Yuan; Gan, Yong; Wang, Chi

    2017-10-01

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) are advantageous for drug delivery. However, their intracellular trafficking mechanism and relevance for oral drug absorption are poorly understood. In this study, self-assembled core-shell lipid-polymer hybrid NPs made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and various lipids were developed to study their differing intracellular trafficking in intestinal epithelial cells and their relevance for oral absorption of a model drug saquinavir (SQV). Our results demonstrated that the endocytosis and exocytosis of hybrid NPs could be changed by varying the kind of lipid. A glyceride mixture (hybrid NPs-1) decreased endocytosis but increased exocytosis in Caco-2 cells, whereas the phospholipid (E200) (hybrid NPs-2) decreased endocytosis but exocytosis was unaffected as compared with PLGA nanoparticles. The transport of hybrid NPs-1 in cells involved various pathways, including caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis, and clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis, which was different from the other groups of NPs that involved only caveolae/lipid raft-dependent endocytosis. Compared with that of the reference formulation (nanoemulsion), the oral absorption of SQV-loaded hybrid NPs in rats was poor, probably due to the limited drug release and transcytosis of NPs across the intestinal epithelium. In conclusion, the intracellular processing of hybrid NPs in intestinal epithelia can be altered by adding lipids to the NP. However, it appears unfavorable to use PLGA-based NPs to improve oral absorption of SQV compared with nanoemulsion. Our findings will be essential in the development of polymer-based NPs for the oral delivery of drugs with the purpose of improving their oral absorption. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transport inhibition of digoxin using several common P-gp expressing cell lines is not necessarily reporting only on inhibitor binding to P-gp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Albin Lumen

    highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter.

  6. Transgender women, hormonal therapy and HIV treatment: a comprehensive review of the literature and recommendations for best practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radix, Asa; Sevelius, Jae; Deutsch, Madeline B

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that transgender women (TGW) are disproportionately affected by HIV, with an estimated HIV prevalence of 19.1% among TGW worldwide. After receiving a diagnosis, HIV-positive TGW have challenges accessing effective HIV treatment, as demonstrated by lower rates of virologic suppression and higher HIV-related mortality. These adverse HIV outcomes have been attributed to the multiple sociocultural and structural barriers that negatively affect their engagement within the HIV care continuum. Guidelines for feminizing hormonal therapy among TGW recommend combinations of oestrogens and androgen blockers. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that certain antiretroviral therapy (ART) agents, such as protease inhibitors (PIs), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and cobicistat, interact with ethinyl estradiol, the key oestrogen component of oral contraceptives (OCPs). The goal of this article is to provide an overview of hormonal regimens used by TGW, to summarize the known drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between feminizing hormonal regimens and ART, and to provide clinical care recommendations. The authors identified English language articles examining DDIs between oestrogen therapy, androgen blockers and ART published between 1995 and 2015 using PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature and EBSCOhost. Published articles predominantly addressed interactions between ethinyl estradiol and NNRTIs and PIs. No studies examined interactions between ART and the types and doses of oestrogens found in feminizing regimens. DDIs that may have the potential to result in loss of virologic suppression included ethinyl estradiol and amprenavir, unboosted fosamprenavir and stavudine. No clinically significant DDIs were noted with other anti-retroviral agents or androgen blockers. There are insufficient data to address DDIs between ART and feminizing hormone regimens used by TGW. There is an urgent need for further research in this

  7. Rationale and clinical utility of the darunavir–cobicistat combination in the treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putcharoen O

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Opass Putcharoen,1 Tanya Do,2 Anchalee Avihingsanon,2 Kiat Ruxrungtham1,2 1Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 2The HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand (HIV-NAT Research Collaboration, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: This article is to provide an update overview of cobicistat (COBI-boosted darunavir in response to its recent approval by the US Food and Drug Administration, and inclusion as an alternative first-line regime in the 2015 treatment guidelines in the US. COBI is a relatively new non-antiretroviral cytochrome P450 3A inhibitor or pharmacoenhancer. The rationale behind COBI development was to provide an alternative to ritonavir (RTV as a protease inhibitor pharmacoenhancer, due to associated adverse events with short- and long-term RTV use, such as gastrointestinal intolerability, drug–drug interactions, insulin resistance, lipodystrophy, and hyperlipidemia. Although in vitro studies suggest that COBI may result in a lower incidence of undesired drug–drug interactions and lipid-associated disorders than RTV, not all Phase III studies have well addressed these issues, and the data are limited. However, Phase III studies have demonstrated tolerability, noninferiority, and bioequivalence of COBI compared to RTV. Two main advantages of COBI over RTV-containing regimes have been noted as follows: 1 COBI has no anti-HIV activity; therefore, resistance to COBI as a booster in addition to protease inhibitor resistance is of little concern, allowing for COBI-containing regimes in future. 2 COBI’s solubility and dissolution rate allow for co-formulated/fixed-dose combination products. Nonetheless, prior to initiating COBI-containing treatment regimens, the following should be considered: 1 COBI may increase serum creatinine levels and reduce estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR without affecting actual GFR; 2 potential drug–drug interaction data are insufficient

  8. Factors involved in treatment durability and immunological recovery in a cohort of HIV-positive patients receiving atazanavir-based regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Andrea; Oreni, Letizia; Franzetti, Marco; Di Cristo, Valentina; Vergani, Barbara; Morosi, Manuela; Colella, Elisa; Galli, Massimo; Rusconi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Since antiretroviral therapy must be taken lifelong, persistence and safety have become the goals to achieve. Protease inhibitors, in particular atazanavir (ATV) with or without ritonavir (r), represent a highly prescribed class in real life long-term treatment. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study in HIV-1-positive patients who were followed at the Infectious Diseases Unit, DIBIC Luigi Sacco, University of Milan. Data regarding viral load, CD4 lymphocytes and the mean blood chemistry parameters were collected at baseline, first, third, sixth months from the beginning of therapy and then every six months. Factors related to persistence of therapy with ATV and time-dependent probability to reach a CD4 cells count >500 cells/µL were evaluated with Kaplan-Meier curve and Cox model. Results A total of 1030 patients were evaluated: 183 received therapy with ATV/r as naïve, 653 switched to ATV/r as a second or following line and 194 switched to unboosted ATV from previous ATV-free regimens. A total of 138 patients shifted to unboosted ATV from a previous ATV/r regimen (17 from naïve ATV/r and 121 from experienced ATV/r). The median duration of therapy was 38 months (95% CI 29–73) in ATV/r naïve patients, 36 months (95% CI 23–53) in unboosted ATV group and 35 months (95% CI 31–43) in patients switched to ATV/r. We observed no significant difference in the persistence of the three regimens (p=0.149). Female (HR=1.317; 95% CI 1.073–1.616 p=0.008) and patients with CD4500 cells/µL. Factors associated to a poor CD4 gain were each extra Log of viral load at baseline (HR=0.915; 95% CI 0.852–0.982 p=0.014) and CD4<200 cells/µL at ATV start (HR=0.197; 95%CI 0.138–0.281 p<0.0001); conversely, females (HR=1.262; 95%CI 1.032–1.543 p=0.023) had a higher probability of CD4 recovery. Conclusions Antiretroviral regimens containing atazanavir with or without ritonavir were durable and well tolerated, an elevated viral load and CD4 <200 cells

  9. Interactions between recreational drugs and antiretroviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Tony; Tseng, Alice Lin-In

    2002-10-01

    To summarize existing data regarding potential interactions between recreational drugs and drugs commonly used in the management of HIV-positive patients. Information was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-August 2002) using the MeSH headings human immunodeficiency virus, drug interactions, cytochrome P450, medication names commonly prescribed for the management of HIV and related opportunistic infections, and names of commonly used recreational drugs. Abstracts of national and international conferences, review articles, textbooks, and references of all articles were also reviewed. Literature on pharmacokinetic interactions was considered for inclusion. Pertinent information was selected and summarized for discussion. In the absence of specific data, prediction of potential clinically significant interactions was based on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. All protease inhibitors (PIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are substrates and potent inhibitors or inducers of the cytochrome P450 system. Many classes of recreational drugs, including benzodiazepines, amphetamines, and opioids, are also metabolized by the liver and can potentially interact with antiretrovirals. Controlled interaction studies are often not available, but clinically significant interactions have been observed in a number of case reports. Overdoses secondary to interactions between the "rave" drugs methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and PIs have been reported. PIs, particularly ritonavir, may also inhibit metabolism of amphetamines, ketamine, lysergic acid diethylmide (LSD), and phencyclidine (PCP). Case series and pharmacokinetic studies suggest that nevirapine and efavirenz induce methadone metabolism, which may lead to symptoms of opiate withdrawal. A similar interaction may exist between methadone and the PIs ritonavir and nelfinavir, although the data are less consistent. Opiate metabolism can be inhibited or induced by

  10. Opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions: from the perspectives of evidence based on randomized controlled trials and clinical risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XQ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Xiu-qin Feng,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Quan Zhou3 1Nursing Administration Office, Division of Nursing, 2VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Background: Multimorbidity results in complex polypharmacy which may bear a risk of drug interactions. A better understanding of opioid analgesics combination therapy used for pain management could help warrant medication safety, efficacy, and economic relevance. Until now there has been no review summarizing the opioid analgesics-related pharmacokinetic drug interactions from the perspective of evidence based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Method: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library, using a PRISMA flowchart. Results: Fifty-two RCTs were included for data interpretation. Forty-two RCTs (80.8% were conducted in healthy volunteers, whereas 10 RCTs (19.2% enrolled true patients. None of the opioid–drug/herb pairs was listed as contraindications of opioids involved in this review. Circumstances in which opioid is comedicated as a precipitant drug include morphine–P2Y12 inhibitors, morphine–gabapentin, and methadone–zidovudine. Circumstances in which opioid is comedicated as an object drug include rifampin–opioids (morphine, tramadol, oxycodone, methadone, quinidine–opioids (morphine, fentanyl, oxycodone, codeine, dihydrocodeine, methadone, antimycotics–opioids (buprenorphine, fentanyl, morphine, oxycodone, methadone, tilidine, tramadol, protease inhibitors–opioids (ritonavir, ritonavir/lopinavir–oxycodone, ritonavir–fentanyl, ritonavir–tilidine, grapefruit juice–opioids (oxycodone, fentanyl, methadone, antidepressants–opioids (paroxetine–tramadol, paroxetine–hydrocodone, paroxetine–oxycodone, escitalopram–tramadol, metoclopramide–morphine, amantadine–morphine, sumatriptan

  11. Novel L-Dopa and dopamine prodrugs containing a 2-phenyl-imidazopyridine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Lopedota, Angela; Serra, Mariangela; Dazzi, Laura; Biggio, Giovanni; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K; Latrofa, Andrea; Trapani, Giuseppe; Liso, Gaetano

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the feasibility of enhancing the delivery of L-Dopa and dopamine to the brain by linking these neurotransmitters and L-Dopa ethyl ester to 2-phenyl-3-carboxymethyl-imidazopyridine compounds giving rise to the so-called Dopimid compounds. A number of Dopimid compounds were synthesized and both stability and binding studies to dopaminergic and benzodiazepine receptors were performed. To evaluate whether Dopimid compounds are P-gp substrates, [(3)H]ritonavir uptake experiments and bi-directional transport studies on confluent MDCKII-MDR1 monolayers were carried out. The brain penetration properties of Dopimid compounds were estimated by the Clark's computational model and evaluated by investigation of their transport across BBMECs monolayers. The dopamine levels following the intraperitoneal administration of the selected Dopimid compounds were measured in vivo by using brain microdialysis in rat. Tested compounds were adequately stable in solution buffered at pH 7.4 but undergo faster cleavage in dilute rat serum at 37 degrees C. Receptor binding studies showed that Dopimid compounds are essentially devoid of affinity for dopaminergic and benzodiazepine receptors. [(3)H]ritonavir uptake experiments indicated that selected Dopimid compounds, like L-Dopa and dopamine hydrochloride, are not substrates of P-gp and it was also confirmed by bi-directional transport experiments across MDCKII-MDR1 monolayers. By Clark's model a significant brain penetration was deduced for L-Dopa ethyl ester and dopamine derivatives. Transport studies involving BBMECs monolayers indicated that some of these compounds should be able to cross the BBB. Interestingly, the rank order of apparent permeability (P (app)) values observed in these assays parallels that calculated by the computational approach. Brain microdialysis experiments in rat showed that intraperitoneal acute administration of some Dopimid compounds induced a dose-dependent increase

  12. Decoding the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi action of HIV peptidase inhibitors using epimastigotes as a model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro S Sangenito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aspartic peptidase inhibitors have shown antimicrobial action against distinct microorganisms. Due to an increase in the occurrence of Chagas' disease/AIDS co-infection, we decided to explore the effects of HIV aspartic peptidase inhibitors (HIV-PIs on Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: HIV-PIs presented an anti-proliferative action on epimastigotes of T. cruzi clone Dm28c, with IC50 values ranging from 0.6 to 14 µM. The most effective inhibitors, ritonavir, lopinavir and nelfinavir, also had an anti-proliferative effect against different phylogenetic T. cruzi strains. The HIV-PIs induced some morphological alterations in clone Dm28c epimastigotes, as reduced cell size and swollen of the cellular body. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the flagellar membrane, mitochondrion and reservosomes are the main targets of HIV-PIs in T. cruzi epimastigotes. Curiously, an increase in the epimastigote-into-trypomastigote differentiation process of clone Dm28c was observed, with many of these parasites presenting morphological alterations including the detachment of flagellum from the cell body. The pre-treatment with the most effective HIV-PIs drastically reduced the interaction process between epimastigotes and the invertebrate vector Rhodnius prolixus. It was also noted that HIV-PIs induced an increase in the expression of gp63-like and calpain-related molecules, and decreased the cruzipain expression in epimastigotes as judged by flow cytometry and immunoblotting assays. The hydrolysis of a cathepsin D fluorogenic substrate was inhibited by all HIV-PIs in a dose-dependent manner, showing that the aspartic peptidase could be a possible target to these drugs. Additionally, we verified that ritonavir, lopinavir and nelfinavir reduced drastically the viability of clone Dm28c trypomastigotes, causing many morphological damages. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results

  13. Safety of the 2D/3D direct-acting antiviral regimen in HCV-induced Child-Pugh A cirrhosis - A pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poordad, Fred; Nelson, David R; Feld, Jordan J; Fried, Michael W; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Larsen, Lois; Cohen, Daniel E; Cohen, Eric; Mobashery, Niloufar; Tatsch, Fernando; Foster, Graham R

    2017-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients with cirrhosis are a high-priority population for treatment. To help inform the benefit-risk profile of the all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination regimen of ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir, with or without dasabuvir (OBV/PTV/r±DSV) in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, we undertook a comprehensive review of AbbVie-sponsored clinical trials enrolling patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. Twelve phase II or III clinical trials of the 2-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r±ribavirin (RBV) or the 3-DAA regimen of OBV/PTV/r+DSV±RBV that included patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis were reviewed; patients who completed treatment by November 16, 2015 were included in a pooled, post hoc safety assessment. The number and percentage of patients with treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, and TEAEs consistent with hepatic decompensation were reported. In 1,066 patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis, rates of serious TEAEs and TEAEs leading to study drug discontinuation were 5.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1-6.8) and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4-3.2), respectively. Thirteen patients (1.2%; 95% CI: 0.7-2.1) had a TEAE that was consistent with hepatic decompensation. The most frequent TEAEs consistent with hepatic decompensation were ascites (n=8), esophageal variceal hemorrhage (n=4), and hepatic encephalopathy (n=2). This pooled analysis in 1,066 HCV-infected patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis confirms the safety of OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV in this population. These results support the use of OBV/PTV/r±DSV±RBV in this high-priority population. Lay summary: This pooled safety analysis in 1,066 HCV-infected patients with compensated cirrhosis, receiving treatment with ombitasvir, paritaprevir, and ritonavir with or without dasabuvir, with or without ribavirin, shows that the rate of hepatic decompensation events was similar to previously reported rates in untreated patients. Copyright © 2017 European

  14. Pilot, randomized study assessing safety, tolerability and efficacy of simplified LPV/r maintenance therapy in HIV patients on the 1 PI-based regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Pedro; Montaner, Julio; Junod, Patrice; Patterson, Patricia; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; Cassetti, Isabel; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Casiró, Arnaldo David; Bortolozzi, Raul; Lupo, Sergio Horacio; Longo, Nadia; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Ackad, Nabil; Sampalis, John S

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of an individualized treatment-simplification strategy consisting of switching from a highly-active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART) with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) and 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy, with intensification by 2 NRTIs if necessary, to that of continuing their HAART. This is a one-year, randomized, open-label, multi-center study in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adults on their first PI/r-containing treatment, randomized to either LPV/r-monotherapy or continue their current treatment. Treatment efficacy was determined by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL), time-to-virologic rebound, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CD4+T-cell-count changes. Safety was assessed with the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AE). Forty-one patients were randomized to LPV/r and 39 to continue their HAART. No statistically-significant differences between the two study groups in demographics and baseline characteristics were observed. At day-360, 71(39:LPV/r;32:HAART) patients completed treatment, while 9(2:LPV/r;7:HAART) discontinued. In a Last Observation Carried Forward Intent-to-Treat analysis, 40(98%) patients on LPV/r and 37(95%) on HAART had VL<200 copies/mL (P = 0.61). Time-to-virologic rebound, changes in PROs, CD4+ T-cell-count and VL from baseline, also exhibited no statistically-significant between-group differences. Most frequent AEs were diarrhea (19%), headache (18%) and influenza (16%). Four (10%) patients on LPV/r were intensified with 2 NRTIs, all regaining virologic control. Eight serious AEs were reported by 5(2:LPV/r;3:HAART) patients. At day-360, virologic efficacy and safety of LPV/r appears comparable to that of a PI+2NRTIs HAART. These results suggest that our individualized, simplified maintenance strategy with LPV/r-monotherapy and protocol-mandated NRTI re-introduction upon viral rebound, in

  15. Pilot, Randomized Study Assessing Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of Simplified LPV/r Maintenance Therapy in HIV Patients on the 1st PI-Based Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahn, Pedro; Montaner, Julio; Junod, Patrice; Patterson, Patricia; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; Cassetti, Isabel; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Casiró, Arnaldo David; Bortolozzi, Raul; Lupo, Sergio Horacio; Longo, Nadia; Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Ackad, Nabil; Sampalis, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of an individualized treatment-simplification strategy consisting of switching from a highly-active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART) with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) and 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy, with intensification by 2 NRTIs if necessary, to that of continuing their HAART. Methods This is a one-year, randomized, open-label, multi-center study in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adults on their first PI/r-containing treatment, randomized to either LPV/r-monotherapy or continue their current treatment. Treatment efficacy was determined by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL), time-to-virologic rebound, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CD4+T-cell-count changes. Safety was assessed with the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AE). Results Forty-one patients were randomized to LPV/r and 39 to continue their HAART. No statistically-significant differences between the two study groups in demographics and baseline characteristics were observed. At day-360, 71(39:LPV/r;32:HAART) patients completed treatment, while 9(2:LPV/r;7:HAART) discontinued. In a Last Observation Carried Forward Intent-to-Treat analysis, 40(98%) patients on LPV/r and 37(95%) on HAART had VL<200copies/mL (P = 0.61). Time-to-virologic rebound, changes in PROs, CD4+ T-cell-count and VL from baseline, also exhibited no statistically-significant between-group differences. Most frequent AEs were diarrhea (19%), headache (18%) and influenza (16%). Four (10%) patients on LPV/r were intensified with 2 NRTIs, all regaining virologic control. Eight serious AEs were reported by 5(2:LPV/r;3:HAART) patients. Conclusion At day-360, virologic efficacy and safety of LPV/r appears comparable to that of a PI+2NRTIs HAART. These results suggest that our individualized, simplified maintenance strategy with LPV/r-monotherapy and protocol-mandated NRTI re

  16. Pilot, randomized study assessing safety, tolerability and efficacy of simplified LPV/r maintenance therapy in HIV patients on the 1 PI-based regimen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cahn

    Full Text Available To compare the efficacy and safety of an individualized treatment-simplification strategy consisting of switching from a highly-active anti-retroviral treatment (HAART with a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r and 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs to lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r monotherapy, with intensification by 2 NRTIs if necessary, to that of continuing their HAART.This is a one-year, randomized, open-label, multi-center study in virologically-suppressed HIV-1-infected adults on their first PI/r-containing treatment, randomized to either LPV/r-monotherapy or continue their current treatment. Treatment efficacy was determined by plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL, time-to-virologic rebound, patient-reported outcomes (PROs and CD4+T-cell-count changes. Safety was assessed with the incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (AE.Forty-one patients were randomized to LPV/r and 39 to continue their HAART. No statistically-significant differences between the two study groups in demographics and baseline characteristics were observed. At day-360, 71(39:LPV/r;32:HAART patients completed treatment, while 9(2:LPV/r;7:HAART discontinued. In a Last Observation Carried Forward Intent-to-Treat analysis, 40(98% patients on LPV/r and 37(95% on HAART had VL<200 copies/mL (P = 0.61. Time-to-virologic rebound, changes in PROs, CD4+ T-cell-count and VL from baseline, also exhibited no statistically-significant between-group differences. Most frequent AEs were diarrhea (19%, headache (18% and influenza (16%. Four (10% patients on LPV/r were intensified with 2 NRTIs, all regaining virologic control. Eight serious AEs were reported by 5(2:LPV/r;3:HAART patients.At day-360, virologic efficacy and safety of LPV/r appears comparable to that of a PI+2NRTIs HAART. These results suggest that our individualized, simplified maintenance strategy with LPV/r-monotherapy and protocol-mandated NRTI re-introduction upon viral rebound, in

  17. Clinical implications of antiretroviral drug interactions with warfarin: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterly, John S; Darin, Kristin M; Gerzenshtein, Lana; Othman, Fidah; Postelnick, Michael J; Scarsi, Kimberly K

    2013-06-01

    Warfarin, a frequently prescribed anticoagulant with a narrow therapeutic index, is susceptible to drug-drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study compared the warfarin maintenance dose (WMD) between patients receiving and not receiving ART and evaluated predictors of warfarin dosage among those on ART. This was a case-control (1:2) study. Cases were HIV-infected patients receiving warfarin and protease inhibitor (PI)- and/or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Controls were randomly selected HIV-uninfected patients receiving warfarin. The WMD was compared between cases and controls and between cases on varying ART regimens. Bivariate comparisons were performed and a linear regression model was developed to identify predictors of WMD. We identified 18 case and 36 control patients eligible for inclusion. Cases were younger than controls (mean age: 45.8 versus 63.1 years, P African American (50.0% versus 22.2%, P=0.04). ART was classified as PI-based (n=9), NNRTI-based (n=7) and PI + NNRTI-based (n=2). The WMD (mean ± SD) differed between cases and controls (8.6  ±  3.4 mg versus 5.1 ± 1.5 mg, P ART regimens (PI: 8.8  ±  4.5 mg; NNRTI: 8.6   ± 1.8 mg; PI + NNRTI: 7.3  ±  3.3 mg; P = 0.86). Race and ritonavir dose were independent predictors of WMD, predicting an increase of 3.9 mg (95% CI: 0.88-6.98, P = 0.02) if a patient was African American or 3.7 mg (95% CI: 0.53-6.89, P = 0.03) if the total daily ritonavir dose was 200 mg. The required WMD was significantly higher in patients receiving ART. Prompt dose titration to achieve a higher WMD with vigilant monitoring may be required due to these drug-drug interactions.

  18. Novel in situ self-assembly nanoparticles for formulating a poorly water-soluble drug in oral solid granules, improving stability, palatability, and bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo S

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Shujie Guo,1 Kevin Pham,2 Diana Li,2 Scott R Penzak,3 Xiaowei Dong2 1State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Hypertension, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Pharmacotherapy, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TX, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a novel lipid-based nanotechnology to formulate poorly water-soluble drugs in oral solid granules to improve stability, palatability, and bioavailability. Materials and methods: In one method, we prepared ritonavir (RTV nanoparticles (NPs by a microemulsion-precursor method and then converted the RTV NPs to solid granules by wet granulation to produce RTV NP-containing granules. In the other innovative method, we did not use water in the formulation preparation, and discovered novel in situ self-assembly nanoparticles (ISNPs. We prepared RTV ISNP granules that did not initially contain NPs, but spontaneously produced RTV ISNPs when the granules were introduced to water with gentle agitation. We fully characterized these RTV nanoformulations. We also used rats to test the bioavailability of RTV ISNP granules. Finally, an Astree electronic tongue was used to assess the taste of the RTV ISNP granules. Results: RTV NP-containing granules only had about 1% drug loading of RTV in the solid granules. In contrast, RTV ISNP granules achieved over 16% drug loading and were stable at room temperature over 24 weeks. RTV ISNPs had particle size between 160 nm and 300 nm with narrow size distribution. RTV ISNPs were stable in simulated gastric fluid for 2 hours and in simulated intestinal fluid for another 6 hours. The data from the electronic tongue showed that the RTV ISNP granules were similar in taste to blank ISNP granules, but were much different from RTV solution. RTV ISNP granules increased RTV bioavailability

  19. Prevalence of possible drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral agents in different age groups in a section of the private health care sector setting in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katende-Kyenda, N L; Lubbe, M S; Serfontein, J H P; Truter, I

    2008-08-01

    The chronic nature of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection requires lifelong highly active antiretroviral (ARV) therapy (HAART) to continuously suppress HIV-1 viral replication, thus reducing morbidity and mortality. HAART is restricted by complex dosing, drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and toxicities. To determine the prevalence of possible DDIs between ARV drugs in different age groups in a section of the private primary health care sector in South Africa. A quantitative, retrospective drug utilization review was performed on 47 085 ARV prescriptions claimed through a national medicine claims database during 2006. Possible DDIs identified were classified according to a clinical significance rating as described by Tatro [Drug Interaction Facts 2005. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons (2005)]. The total number of patients who received prescriptions that were claimed through the medicine claims database was 275 424, of whom 25.11% were males, 28.28% were females and the gender of 46.61% patients was unknown. Of the total number of patients, 3.27% were HIV patients of which an average of 5.23 +/- 3.86 ARV prescriptions (n = 47 085) per patient were claimed for representing 4.73% of the total number of prescriptions claimed during the study period (N = 993 804). HIV patients received an average of 2.36 +/- 0.61 ARVs per prescription. Only 4.95% of the prescriptions had one ARV medicine item, 56.04% two, 37.10% three, 1.75% four and 6 years and 12 and 60 years with patients <40 years and < or =60 years having the highest number of DDIs and patients older than 60 years the lowest. The majority of DDIs between the ARVs presented in significance levels 2 and 4. The most important interactions were between: indinavir (IDV) and ritonavir (n = 199); efavirenz (EFV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (n = 65) and EFV and IDV (n = 60) all interacting at level 2. The importance of using drug utilization study as an identification tool to provide insight into the prescribing and

  20. Comparative manufacture and cell-based delivery of antiretroviral nanoformulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkundi S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Shantanu Balkundi1, Ari S Nowacek1, Ram S Veerubhotla1, Han Chen2, Andrea Martinez-Skinner1, Upal Roy1, R Lee Mosley1,3, Georgette Kanmogne1, Xinming Liu1,3,4, Alexander V Kabanov3,4, Tatiana Bronich3,4, JoEllyn McMillan1, Howard E Gendelman1,31Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 2Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE, USA; 3Center for Drug Delivery and Nanomedicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USAAbstract: Nanoformulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz were manufactured by wet milling, homogenization or sonication with a variety of excipients. The chemical, biological, immune, virological, and toxicological properties of these formulations were compared using an established monocyte-derived macrophage scoring indicator system. Measurements of drug uptake, retention, release, and antiretroviral activity demonstrated differences amongst preparation methods. Interestingly, for drug cell targeting and antiretroviral responses the most significant difference among the particles was the drug itself. We posit that the choice of drug and formulation composition may ultimately affect clinical utility.Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus type one, nanotoxicology, monocyte-derived macrophage, nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy, manufacturing techniques

  1. Pregnancy and postpartum control in HIV infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo M. Warley

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy and postpartum control in HIV infected women. We present data from a retrospective observational descriptive study with the objective of evaluating characteristics of HIV-infected pregnant women, analyze the level of control of pregnancy and assess adherence to treatment and loss of follow up after delivery. We analyzed reported data of 104 pregnancies, 32.7% of them under 25 years old. The diagnosis was performed as part of pregnancy control in 36.5% of women. TARV started before 24 weeks of pregnancy in 70% of them and a regimen with 2 nucleos(tides and 1 ritonavir potenciated protease inhibitor (PIr was prescribed in 84.5%. Elective c-section was the most frequent mode of delivery. The viral load after 32 weeks of pregnancy was available in 82.7%, being less than 1000 cop/ml in 78 (75%, less than 200 cop/ml in 70 (67.3% and not available in 18 (17.3% of cases. We observed a considered high rate of adherence failure and loss of follow up after delivery. Reported data should alert programs on the need to implement strategies to promote early pregnancy control and increase adherence and retention in care, especially in the postpartum period

  2. Brief Report: Efficacy and Safety of Switching to Coformulated Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) in Virologically Suppressed Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Sally; Squires, Kathleen; Kityo, Cissy; Hagins, Debbie; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Kido, Anna; Jiang, Shuping; Kulkarni, Rima; Cheng, Andrew; Cao, Huyen

    2018-06-01

    The integrase inhibitor regimen [elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)] demonstrated superior efficacy when compared with a protease inhibitor regimen [ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV + RTV) and FTC/TDF] in 575 treatment-naive women at week 48. We investigated the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of switching to a TAF-based, single-tablet regimen containing elvitegravir, cobicistat, FTC, and tenofovir alafenamide (E/C/F/TAF) versus remaining on ATV + RTV plus FTC/TDF. After completing the initial randomized, blinded phase, virologically suppressed (HIV-1 RNA TAF versus remaining on their current regimen. The primary end point was proportion of participants with plasma HIV-1 RNA TAF and 53 to remain on ATV + RTV plus FTC/TDF. At week 48, virologic suppression was maintained in 150 (94%) of women on E/C/F/TAF and 46 (87%) on ATV + RTV plus FTC/TDF [difference 7.5% (95% confidence interval -1.2% to 19.4%)], demonstrating noninferiority of E/C/F/TAF to ATV + RTV and FTC/TDF. Incidence of AEs was similar between groups; study drug-related AEs were more common with E/C/F/TAF (11% versus 4%). Switching to E/C/F/TAF was noninferior to continuing ATV + RTV plus FTC/TDF in maintaining virologic suppression and was well tolerated at 48 weeks.

  3. Estimation of the Binding Free Energy of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 Protease Wild Type and Mutations Using Free Energy Perturbation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Son Tung; Mai, Binh Khanh; Hiep, Dinh Minh; Li, Mai Suan

    2015-10-01

    The binding mechanism of AC1NX476 to HIV-1 protease wild type and mutations was studied by the docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The binding free energy was calculated using the double-annihilation binding free energy method. It is shown that the binding affinity of AC1NX476 to wild type is higher than not only ritonavir but also darunavir, making AC1NX476 become attractive candidate for HIV treatment. Our theoretical results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data as the correlation coefficient between calculated and experimentally measured binding free energies R = 0.993. Residues Asp25-A, Asp29-A, Asp30-A, Ile47-A, Gly48-A, and Val50-A from chain A, and Asp25-B from chain B play a crucial role in the ligand binding. The mutations were found to reduce the receptor-ligand interaction by widening the binding cavity, and the binding propensity is mainly driven by the van der Waals interaction. Our finding may be useful for designing potential drugs to combat with HIV. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Resveratrol Co-Treatment Attenuates the Effects of HIV Protease Inhibitors on Rat Body Weight and Enhances Cardiac Mitochondrial Respiration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Symington

    Full Text Available Since the early 1990s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS emerged as a global health pandemic, with sub-Saharan Africa the hardest hit. While the successful roll-out of antiretroviral (ARV therapy provided significant relief to HIV-positive individuals, such treatment can also elicit damaging side-effects. Here especially HIV protease inhibitors (PIs are implicated in the onset of cardio-metabolic complications such as type-2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. As there is a paucity of data regarding suitable co-treatments within this context, this preclinical study investigated whether resveratrol (RSV, aspirin (ASP or vitamin C (VitC co-treatment is able to blunt side-effects in a rat model of chronic PI exposure (Lopinavir/Ritonavir treatment for 4 months. Body weights and weight gain, blood metabolite levels (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, echocardiography and cardiac mitochondrial respiration were assessed in PI-treated rats ± various co-treatments. Our data reveal that PI treatment significantly lowered body weight and cardiac respiratory function while no significant changes were found for heart function and blood metabolite levels. Moreover, all co-treatments ameliorated the PI-induced decrease in body weight after 4 months of PI treatment, while RSV co-treatment enhanced cardiac mitochondrial respiratory capacity in PI-treated rats. This pilot study therefore provides novel hypotheses regarding RSV co-treatment that should be further assessed in greater detail.

  5. Challenges in Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile L Tremblay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many clinical trials have shown that initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART at higher rather than lower CD4 T cell-positive counts results in survival benefit. Early treatment can help prevent end-organ damage associated with HIV replication and can decrease infectivity. The mainstay of treatment is either a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor in combination with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. While effective at combating HIV, ART can produce adverse alterations of lipid parameters, with some studies suggesting a relationship between some anti-retroviral agents and cardiovascular disease. As the HIV-positive population ages, issues such as hypertension and diabetes must be taken into account when initiating ART. Adhering to ART can be difficult; however, nonoptimal adherence to ART can result in the development of resistance; thus, drug characteristics and the patient’s preparedness to begin therapy must be considered. Reducing the pill burden through the use of fixed-dose antiretroviral drug combinations can facilitate adherence.

  6. Potential benefit of dolutegravir once daily: efficacy and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fantauzzi A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Fantauzzi,1 Ombretta Turriziani,2 Ivano Mezzaroma11Department of Clinical Medicine, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Sapienza, University of Rome, Rome, ItalyAbstract: The viral integrase enzyme has recently emerged as a primary alternative target to block HIV-1 replication, and integrase inhibitors are considered a pivotal new class of antiretroviral drugs. Dolutegravir is an investigational next-generation integrase inhibitor showing some novel and intriguing characteristics, ie, it has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with a prolonged intracellular half-life, rendering feasible once-daily dosing without the need for ritonavir boosting and without regard to meals. Moreover, dolutegravir is primarily metabolized via uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltranferase 1A1, with a minor component of the cytochrome P450 3A4 isoform, thereby limiting drug–drug interactions. Furthermore, its metabolic profile enables coadministration with most of the other available antiretroviral agents without dose adjustment. Recent findings also demonstrate that dolutegravir has significant activity against HIV-1 isolates with resistance mutations associated with raltegravir and/or elvitegravir. The attributes of once-daily administration and the potential to treat integrase inhibitor-resistant viruses make dolutegravir an interesting and promising investigational drug. In this review, the main concerns about the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir as well as its resistance profile are explored by analysis of currently available data from preclinical and clinical studies.Keywords: antiretroviral drugs, HIV-1 integrase, integrase inhibitors, dolutegravir, once daily

  7. Hepatitis C Virus Resistance Testing in Genotype 1: The Changing Role in Clinical Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Suzanne; Martin, Michelle T

    2017-09-01

    To review the role and utility of baseline resistance testing with currently available and pipeline genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. Authors reviewed liver meeting abstracts for data on currently-available and pipeline genotype 1 retreatment regimens from January 1, 2015, to March 23, 2017. Additional trials were identified from a review of clinicaltrials.gov using the pipeline medication names. Authors identified reports of current and pipeline genotype 1 retreatment regimens. Seven references were clinical study results presented at the meetings of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the European Association for the Study of the Liver, and 2 studies were from clinicaltrials.gov . Retreatment trial data of currently available salvage regimens indicate that baseline NS5A resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) may decrease sustained virological response (SVR) rates when retreating with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir but are not affected when using elbasvir/grazoprevir + sofosbuvir + ribavirin, paritaprevir/ritonavir/ombitasvir + dasabuvir + sofosbuvir, or sofosbuvir/velpatasvir + ribavirin. Pipeline data indicate that baseline NS5A RASs do not affect SVR rates when retreating with sofosbuvir/velpatasvir/voxilaprevir or glecaprevir/pibrentasvir. Baseline resistance testing was used for decisional support for 3 clinical scenarios in patients with HCV genotype 1 infection at the time of manuscript submission. Pending the approval of 2 new direct-acting antiviral regimens in the third quarter of 2017, the rapidly evolving HCV treatment guidelines will likely reflect a decreased clinical utility for resistance testing.

  8. Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cada, Dennis J; Baker, Danial E; Bindler, Ross Jason

    2015-03-01

    Each month, subscribers to The Formulary Monograph Service receive 5 to 6 well-documented monographs on drugs that are newly released or are in late phase 3 trials. The monographs are targeted to Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committees. Subscribers also receive monthly 1-page summary monographs on agents that are useful for agendas and pharmacy/nursing in-services. A comprehensive target drug utilization evaluation/medication use evaluation (DUE/MUE) is also provided each month. With a subscription, the monographs are sent in print and are also available on-line. Monographs can be customized to meet the needs of a facility. A drug class review is now published monthly with The Formulary Monograph Service. Through the cooperation of The Formulary, Hospital Pharmacy publishes selected reviews in this column. For more information about The Formulary Monograph Service, call The Formulary at 800-322-4349. The March 2015 monograph topics are paritaprevir, ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir; meningococcal B bivalent recombinant vaccine; alemtuzumab; ceftolozane/tazobactam; and peramivir solution. The Safety MUE is on peramivir solution.

  9. Patient and regimen characteristics associated with self-reported nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Sullivan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy (ARVT is an important behavioral determinant of the success of ARVT. Nonadherence may lead to virological failure, and increases the risk of development of drug resistance. Understanding the prevalence of nonadherence and associated factors is important to inform secondary HIV prevention efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used data from a cross-sectional interview study of persons with HIV conducted in 18 U.S. states from 2000-2004. We calculated the proportion of nonadherent respondents (took or=4 medications; living in a shelter or on the street; and feeling "blue" >or=14 of the past 30 days. We found weaker associations with having both male-male sex and injection drug use risks for HIV acquisition; being prescribed ARVT for >or=21 months; and being prescribed a protease inhibitor (PI-based regimen not boosted with ritonavir. The median proportion of doses missed was 50%. The most common reasons for missing doses were forgetting and side effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Self-reported recent nonadherence was high in our study. Our data support increased emphasis on adherence in clinical settings, and additional research on how providers and patients can overcome barriers to adherence.

  10. HIV Protease Inhibitor Use During Pregnancy Is Associated With Decreased Progesterone Levels, Suggesting a Potential Mechanism Contributing to Fetal Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R.; Yudin, Mark H.; Murphy, Kellie E.; Walmsley, Sharon L.; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Background. Protease inhibitor (PI)–based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. Methods. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Results. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Conclusions. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. PMID:25030058

  11. The effect of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition in HIV-infected persons initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlay, Judith C; Sharma, Shweta; Peng, Grace; Gibert, Cynthia L; Grunfeld, Carl

    2009-07-01

    To examine the long-term effects of individual antiretroviral drugs on body composition among 416 persons initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). In a substudy of a clinical trial of persons initiating ART, changes in body composition attributable to individual ART were examined. ARTs assessed were as follows: indinavir, ritonavir, nelfinavir, efavirenz, nevirapine, stavudine (d4T), zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC), didanosine, and abacavir. Skinfolds and circumferences were measured at baseline and every 4 months. Mid arm, mid thigh, and waist subcutaneous tissue areas and nonsubcutaneous tissue areas were calculated. Rates of change per year of exposure to each individual ART drug were determined using multivariate longitudinal regression. d4T and ZDV use was associated with losses in subcutaneous tissue area and skinfold thickness. 3TC use was associated with gains in all subcutaneous tissue areas and skinfold thickness, whereas abacavir use was associated with an increase in waist subcutaneous tissue area. Indinavir was associated with gains in waist subcutaneous tissue area, whereas indinavir, efavirenz, and nevirapine were associated with increases in upper back skinfolds. d4T use was also associated with increases in all nonsubcutaneous tissue areas; 3TC use was associated with the greatest increase in waist nonsubcutaneous tissue area. In this prospective nonrandomized evaluation, the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors d4T and ZDV were associated with decreases in subcutaneous tissue areas, whereas 3TC use was associated with increased subcutaneous tissue areas and waist nonsubcutaneous tissue area.

  12. Selection of effective cocrystals former for dissolution rate improvement of active pharmaceutical ingredients based on lipoaffinity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysewski, Piotr; Przybyłek, Maciej

    2017-09-30

    New theoretical screening procedure was proposed for appropriate selection of potential cocrystal formers possessing the ability of enhancing dissolution rates of drugs. The procedure relies on the training set comprising 102 positive and 17 negative cases of cocrystals found in the literature. Despite the fact that the only available data were of qualitative character, performed statistical analysis using binary classification allowed to formulate quantitative criterions. Among considered 3679 molecular descriptors the relative value of lipoaffinity index, expressed as the difference between values calculated for active compound and excipient, has been found as the most appropriate measure suited for discrimination of positive and negative cases. Assuming 5% precision, the applied classification criterion led to inclusion of 70% positive cases in the final prediction. Since lipoaffinity index is a molecular descriptor computed using only 2D information about a chemical structure, its estimation is straightforward and computationally inexpensive. The inclusion of an additional criterion quantifying the cocrystallization probability leads to the following conjunction criterions H mix 3.61, allowing for identification of dissolution rate enhancers. The screening procedure was applied for finding the most promising coformers of such drugs as Iloperidone, Ritonavir, Carbamazepine and Enthenzamide. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Executive summary of the GESIDA/National AIDS Plan Consensus Document on Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults Infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Updated January 2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by HIV-1. The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should be based on a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir in either of its two formulations plus emtricitabine or abacavir plus lamivudine) and another drug from a different family. Four of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase inhibitor as the third drug (dolutegravir, elvitegravir boosted with cobicistat or raltegravir), are considered preferential, whereas a further 3 regimens (based on elvitegravir/cobicistat, rilpivirine, or darunavir boosted with cobicistat or ritonavir) are considered alternatives. We present the reasons and criteria for switching ART in patients with an undetectable PVL and in those who present virological failure, in which case salvage ART should include 3 (or at least 2) drugs that are fully active against HIV. We also update the criteria for ART in specific situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, pregnancy) and comorbidities (tuberculosis or other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease and cancer). Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  14. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition.

  15. Contribution of the organic anion transporter OAT2 to the renal active tubular secretion of creatinine and mechanism for serum creatinine elevations caused by cobicistat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepist, Eve-Irene; Zhang, Xuexiang; Hao, Jia; Huang, Jane; Kosaka, Alan; Birkus, Gabriel; Murray, Bernard P; Bannister, Roy; Cihlar, Tomas; Huang, Yong; Ray, Adrian S

    2014-01-01

    Many xenobiotics including the pharmacoenhancer cobicistat increase serum creatinine by inhibiting its renal active tubular secretion without affecting the glomerular filtration rate. This study aimed to define the transporters involved in creatinine secretion, applying that knowledge to establish the mechanism for xenobiotic-induced effects. The basolateral uptake transporters organic anion transporter OAT2 and organic cation transporters OCT2 and OCT3 were found to transport creatinine. At physiologic creatinine concentrations, the specific activity of OAT2 transport was over twofold higher than OCT2 or OCT3, establishing OAT2 as a likely relevant creatinine transporter and further challenging the traditional view that creatinine is solely transported by a cationic pathway. The apical multidrug and toxin extrusion transporters MATE1 and MATE2-K demonstrated low-affinity and high-capacity transport. All drugs known to affect creatinine inhibited OCT2 and MATE1. Similar to cimetidine and ritonavir, cobicistat had the greatest effect on MATE1 with a 50% inhibition constant of 0.99 μM for creatinine transport. Trimethoprim potently inhibited MATE2-K, whereas dolutegravir preferentially inhibited OCT2. Cimetidine was unique, inhibiting all transporters that interact with creatinine. Thus, the clinical observation of elevated serum creatinine in patients taking cobicistat is likely a result of OCT2 transport, facilitating intracellular accumulation, and MATE1 inhibition. PMID:24646860

  16. Hyperlipidaemia - a risk factor for femoral head osteonecrosis (Legg-Calvè-Perthes-Like disease in children with AIDS: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Aguiar de Aragão

    Full Text Available Although treatment of children infected with HIV with protease inhibitors has improved the survival of these patients, various adverse side effects have been reported, including metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperlipidaemia. We describe a case of hip osteonecrosis in an adolescent with AIDS who was being treated with protease inhibitors. There is a possible relation with hyperlipidemia. F.M.G., white, 11 years old, AIDS A2, started to receive AZT and DDI when he was 7 years old. In April 1999, the patient had a significant increase in viral load and so the antiretroviral therapy was switched to d4T, 3TC and Ritonavir. Triglyceride plasma levels reached 460mg/dl after this switch and were always above the reference value. In December 1999, the patient complained of pain in the right hip. On physical examination, he had limited movement of this joint. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right hip showed flattening, deformity and fragmentation of the femoral head, compatible with osteonecrosis. Few cases of femoral head osteonecrosis have been associated with HIV infection, in the absence of the classic risk factors for osteonecrosis. Metabolic risk factors include hypertriglyceridaemia. The immunological disorders that occur in the HIV infection may predispose the patient to avascular osteonecrosis and metabolic disorders, particularly hypertriglyceridemia, while the use of protease inhibitors, may be considered an additional risk factor for osteonecrosis. Given the importance of premature diagnosis and to avoid complications of osteonecrosis, we recommend evaluation of musculoskeletal symptoms in children receiving protease inhibitors.

  17. Diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy, and emergence of resistance to antiretroviral agents in HIV-2 infection: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Hightower

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and type 2 (HIV-2 are the causative agents of AIDS. HIV-2 is prevalent at moderate to high rates in West African countries, such as Senegal, Guinea, Gambia, and Cape Verde. Diagnosis of HIV-2 is made with a positive HIV-1/HIV-2 ELISA or simple/rapid assay, followed by one or two confirmatory tests specific for HIV-2. Following CD4+ T cell counts, HIV-2 viral burden and clinical signs and symptoms of immunodeficiency are beneficial in monitoring HIV-2 disease progression. Although non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors are ineffective in treating HIV-2, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors can be effective in dual and triple antiretroviral regimens. Their use can decrease HIV-2 viral load, increase CD4+ T cell counts and improve AIDS-related symptoms. HIV-2 resistance to various nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors, including zidovudine, lamivudine, ritonavir and indinavir, has been identified in some HIV-2 infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. The knowledge of HIV-2 peculiarities, when compared to HIV-1, is crucial to helping diagnose and guide the clinician in the choice of the initial antiretroviral regimen and for monitoring therapy success.

  18. Glyceroneogenesis is inhibited through HIV protease inhibitor-induced inflammation in human subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroyer, Stéphanie; Vatier, Camille; Kadiri, Sarah; Quette, Joëlle; Chapron, Charles; Capeau, Jacqueline; Antoine, Bénédicte

    2011-01-01

    Glyceroneogenesis, a metabolic pathway that participates during lipolysis in the recycling of free fatty acids to triglycerides into adipocytes, contributes to the lipid-buffering function of adipose tissue. We investigated whether glyceroneogenesis could be affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitors (PIs) responsible or not for dyslipidemia in HIV-infected patients. We treated explants obtained from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) depots from lean individuals. We observed that the dyslipidemic PIs nelfinavir, lopinavir and ritonavir, but not the lipid-neutral PI atazanavir, increased lipolysis and decreased glyceroneogenesis, leading to an increased release of fatty acids from SAT but not from VAT. At the same time, dyslipidemic PIs decreased the amount of perilipin and increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) secretion in SAT but not in VAT. Parthenolide, an inhibitor of the NFκB pathway, counteracted PI-induced increased inflammation and decreased glyceroneogenesis. IL-6 (100 ng) inhibited the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, the key enzyme of glyceroneogenesis, in SAT but not in VAT. Our data show that dyslipidemic but not lipid-neutral PIs decreased glyceroneogenesis as a consequence of PI-induced increased inflammation in SAT that could have an affect on adipocytes and/or macrophages. These results add a new link between fat inflammation and increased fatty acids release and suggest a greater sensitivity of SAT than VAT to PI-induced inflammation. PMID:21068005

  19. [Pregnancy and postpartum control in HIV infected women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warley, Eduardo M; Tavella, Silvina; Rosas, Alejandra

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy and postpartum control in HIV infected women. We present data from a retrospective observational descriptive study with the objective of evaluating characteristics of HIV-infected pregnant women, analyze the level of control of pregnancy and assess adherence to treatment and loss of follow up after delivery. We analyzed reported data of 104 pregnancies, 32.7% of them under 25 years old. The diagnosis was performed as part of pregnancy control in 36.5% of women. TARV started before 24 weeks of pregnancy in 70% of them and a regimen with 2 nucleos(t)ides and 1 ritonavir potenciated protease inhibitor (PIr) was prescribed in 84.5%. Elective c-section was the most frequent mode of delivery. The viral load after 32 weeks of pregnancy was available in 82.7%, being less than 1000 cop/ml in 78 (75%), less than 200 cop/ml in 70 (67.3%) and not available in 18 (17.3%) of cases. We observed a considered high rate of adherence failure and loss of follow up after delivery. Reported data should alert programs on the need to implement strategies to promote early pregnancy control and increase adherence and retention in care, especially in the postpartum period.

  20. Structure-based discovery of clinically approved drugs as Zika virus NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitors that potently inhibit Zika virus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuofeng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; den-Haan, Helena; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Poon, Vincent Kwok-Man; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Mak, Winger Wing-Nga; Zhu, Zheng; Zou, Zijiao; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chan, Kwok-Hung; de la Peña, Jorge; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Cerón-Carrasco, José Pedro; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection may be associated with severe complications in fetuses and adults, but treatment options are limited. We performed an in silico structure-based screening of a large chemical library to identify potential ZIKV NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitors. Clinically approved drugs belonging to different drug classes were selected among the 100 primary hit compounds with the highest predicted binding affinities to ZIKV NS2B-NS3-protease for validation studies. ZIKV NS2B-NS3 protease inhibitory activity was validated in most of the selected drugs and in vitro anti-ZIKV activity was identified in two of them (novobiocin and lopinavir-ritonavir). Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations predicted that novobiocin bound to ZIKV NS2B-NS3-protease with high stability. Dexamethasone-immunosuppressed mice with disseminated ZIKV infection and novobiocin treatment had significantly (P < 0.05) higher survival rate (100% vs 0%), lower mean blood and tissue viral loads, and less severe histopathological changes than untreated controls. This structure-based drug discovery platform should facilitate the identification of additional enzyme inhibitors of ZIKV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [HIV encephalopathy due to drug resistance despite 2-year suppression of HIV viremia by cART].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiya, Hiroaki; Kawamoto, Michi; Togo, Masaya; Yoshimura, Hajime; Imai, Yukihiro; Kohara, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    A 57-year-old man presented with subacute progression of cognitive impairment (MMSE 22/30). He had been diagnosed as AIDS two years before and taking atazanavir, abacavir, and lamivudine. HIV RNA of plasma had been negative. On admission, HIV RNA was 4,700 copy/ml and 5,200 copy/ml in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid respectively, suggesting treatment failure of cART. The brain magnetic resonance imaging showed high intensity areas in the white matter of the both frontal lobes and brain stem. The drug-resistance test revealed the resistance of lamivudine and abacavir. We introduced the CNS penetration effectiveness (CPE) score to evaluate the drug penetration of HIV drugs. As the former regimen had low points (7 points), we optimized the regimen to raltegravir, zidovudine, and darunavir/ritonavir (scoring 10 points). His cognitive function improved as normal (MMSE 30/30) in 2 weeks and HIV-RNA became undetectable both in plasma and CSF in a month. In spite of the cognitive improvement, the white matter hyperintensity expanded. To rule out malignant lymphoma or glioblastoma, the brain biopsy was performed from the right frontal lobe. It revealed microglial hyperplasia and diffuse perivascular infiltration by CD8+/CD4-lymphocytes. No malignant cells were found and the polymerase chain reaction analyses excluded other viruses. Considering the drug penetration to the central nervous system is important for treating HIV encephalopathy.

  2. Self-reported adverse reactions among patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane A. Menezes de Pádua

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional analysis was carried out to describe adverse reactions to antiretroviral therapy (ART reported by HIV-infected patients initiating treatment at two public health AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, 2001-2003 and to verify their association with selected variables. Adverse reactions were obtained through interview at the first follow-up visit (first month after the antiretroviral prescription. Socio-demographic and behavioral variables related to ART were obtained from baseline and follow-up interviews and clinical variables from medical charts. Patients with four or more reactions were compared to those with less than four. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were estimated using logistic regression model for both univariate and multivariate analyses. At least one adverse reaction was reported by 92.2% of the participants while 56.2% reported four or more different reactions. Antiretroviral regimens including indinavir/ritonavir, irregular use of antiretrovirals and switch in regimens were independently associated with four or more adverse reactions (OR=7.92, 5.73 and 2.03, respectively. The initial period of ARV treatment is crucial and patients´ perception of adverse reactions should be carefully taken into account. Strategies for monitoring and management of adverse reactions including the choice of regimens and the prevention of irregular ART should be developed in AIDS/HIV referral centers in Brazil to promote better adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

  3. Evaluation of inadequate anti-retroviral treatment in patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Carvalho da Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the emergence of antiretroviral therapy, the survival of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus has increased. Non-adherence to this therapy is directly related to treatment failure, which allows the emergence of resistant viral strains. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study of the antiretroviral dispensing records of 229 patients from the Center for Health Care, University Hospital, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Brazil, was conducted between January and December 2009. RESULTS: The study aimed to evaluate patient compliance and determine if there was an association between non-adherence and the therapy. Among these patients, 63.8% were men with an average age of 44.0 ± 9.9 years. The most used treatment was a combination of 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors with 1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (55.5% or with 2 protease inhibitors (28.8%. It was found that patients taking lopinavir/ritonavir with zidovudine and lamivudine had a greater frequency of inadequate treatment than those taking atazanavir with zidovudine and lamivudine (85% and 83.3%, respectively. Moreover, when the combination of zidovudine/ lamivudine was used, the patients were less compliant (χ2 = 4.468, 1 degree of freedom, p = 0.035. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of patients failed to correctly adhere to their treatment; therefore, it is necessary to implement strategies that lead to improved compliance, thus ensuring therapeutic efficacy and increased patient survival.

  4. Normalisation of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers parallels improvement of neurological symptoms following HAART in HIV dementia – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blennow Kaj

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the introduction of HAART the incidence of HIV dementia has declined and HAART seems to improve neurocognitive function in patients with HIV dementia. Currently, HIV dementia develops mainly in patients without effective treatment, though it has also been described in patients on HAART and milder HIV-associated neuropsychological impairment is still frequent among HIV-1 infected patients regardless of HAART. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of markers of neural injury and immune activation have been found in HIV dementia, but neither of those, nor CSF HIV-1 RNA levels have been proven useful as diagnostic or prognostic pseudomarkers in HIV dementia. Case presentation We report a case of HIV dementia (MSK stage 3 in a 57 year old antiretroviral naïve man who was introduced on zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir boosted indinavir, and followed with consecutive lumbar punctures before and after two and 15 months after initiation of HAART. Improvement of neurocognitive function was paralleled by normalisation of CSF neural markers (NFL, Tau and GFAP levels and a decline in CSF and serum neopterin and CSF and plasma HIV-1 RNA levels. Conclusion The value of these CSF markers as prognostic pseudomarkers of the effect of HAART on neurocognitive impairment in HIV dementia ought to be evaluated in longitudinal studies.

  5. Economic evaluation of 3-drug antiretroviral regimens for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkunya; Tantivess, Sripen; Kullert, Nareeluk; Tosanguan, Kakanang; Butchon, Rukmanee; Voramongkol, Nipunporn; Boonsuk, Sarawut; Pilasant, Songyot; Kulpeng, Wantanee; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2015-03-01

    The current program for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in Thailand recommends a 2-drugs regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women with a CD4 count >200 cells/mm(3). This study assesses the value for money of 3 antiretroviral drugs compared with zidovudine (AZT)+single-dose nevirapine (sd-NVP). A decision tree was constructed to predict costs and outcomes using the governmental perspective for assessing cost-effectiveness of 3-drug regimens: (1) AZT, lamivudine, and efavirenz and (2) AZT, 3TC, and lopinavir/ritonavir, in comparison with the current protocol, AZT+sd-NVP. The 3-drug antiretroviral regimens yield lower costs and better health outcomes compared with AZT+sd-NVP. Although these 3-drug regimens offer higher program costs and health care costs for premature birth, they save money significantly in regard to pediatric HIV treatment and treatment costs for drug resistance in mothers. The 3-drug regimens are cost-saving interventions. The findings from this study were used to support a policy change in the national recommendation. © 2013 APJPH.

  6. Gateways to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomillero, A; Moral, M A

    2009-05-01

    (-)-Gossypol; Abacavir sulfate/lamivudine, ACAM-1000, ACE-011, Agomelatine, AGS-004, Alemtuzumab, Alvocidib hydrochloride, AMG-317, Amlodipine, Aripiprazole, Atazanavir sulfate, Azacitidine; Becatecarin, Belinostat, Bevacizumab, BMS-387032, BMS-690514, Bortezomib; Casopitant mesylate, Cetuximab, Choline fenofibrate, CK-1827452, Clofarabine, Conivaptan hydrochloride; Dabigatran etexilate, DADMe-Immucillin-H, Darbepoetin alfa, Darunavir, Dasatinib, DC-WT1, Decitabine, Deferasirox, Degarelix acetate, Denenicokin, Denosumab, Dienogest, Duloxetine hydrochloride; Ecogramostim, Eculizumab, Edoxaban tosilate, Elacytarabine, Elesclomol, Eltrombopag olamine, Enfuvirtide, Enzastaurin hydrochloride, Eribulin mesilate, Erlotinib hydrochloride, Escitalopram oxalate, Eszopiclone, Etravirine; Flibanserin, Fludarabine, Fondaparinux sodium, Fosamprenavir calcium; Gefitinib, Genistein; I-131-L19-SIP, Idrabiotaparinux sodium, Imatinib mesylate, IMGN-901, Ipilimumab; Laromustine, Lenalidomide, Liposomal cisplatin, Liraglutide, Lisdexamfetamine mesilate, Lopinavir, Lopinavir/ritonavir; Maraviroc, MDV-3100, Mecasermin rinfabate, MP-470, Mycophenolic acid sodium salt; Naproxcinod, NB-002, Nesiritide, Nilotinib hydrochloride monohydrate, NK-012; Palonosetron hydrochloride, Panobinostat, Pegfilgrastim, Peginterferon alfa-2a, Pitavastatin calcium, PL-3994, Plerixafor hydrochloride, Plitidepsin, PM-10450; Raltegravir potassium, Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin, ReoT3D, RHAMM R3 peptide, Rivaroxaban, Romiplostim, Rosuvastatin calcium, Rozrolimupab; Sabarubicin hydrochloride, Salinosporamide A, Sirolimus-eluting stent, Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine, Live, Sorafenib; Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, Teriparatide, Tipifarnib, Tipranavir, Trabectedin, Trifluridine/TPI; Vardenafil hydrochloride hydrate, Vinflunine, Volociximab, Vorinostat; Ximelagatran; Yttrium 90 (90Y) ibritumomab tiuxetan; Ziprasidone hydrochloride, Zoledronic acid monohydrate

  7. Reactivation of Herpesvirus in Patients With Hepatitis C Treated With Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló M, Christie; Fernández-Carrillo, Carlos; Londoño, María-Carlota; Arias-Loste, Teresa; Hernández-Conde, Marta; Llerena, Susana; Crespo, Javier; Forns, Xavier; Calleja, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    We performed a case-series analysis of reactivation of herpesvirus in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treated with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents. We collected data from 576 patients with HCV infection treated with DAA combinations at 3 hospitals in Spain, from November 2014 through November 2015. We also collected data from a control population (230 HCV-infected patients, matched for sex and age; 23 untreated and 213 treated with interferon-based regimens). Herpesvirus was reactivated in 10 patients who received DAA therapy (7 patients had cirrhosis and 3 patients had received liver transplants), a median of 8 weeks after the therapy was initiated. None of the controls had herpesvirus reactivation. Patients with herpesvirus reactivation were receiving the DAA agents sofosbuvir with ledipasvir (with or without ribavirin, 7/10), ombitasvir with paritaprevir and ritonavir plus dasabuvir (with or without ribavirin, 2/10), or sofosbuvir with simeprevir plus ribavirin (1/10). Two of the 10 patients developed postherpetic neuralgia and 1 patient developed kerato-uveitis. All 10 patients with herpesvirus reactivation achieved a sustained virologic response. Immune changes that follow clearance of HCV might lead to reactivation of other viruses, such as herpesvirus. Patients with HCV infection suspected of having herpesvirus infection should be treated immediately. Some groups also might be screened for herpesvirus infection. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Facile one-pot synthesis of 1-amido alkyl-2-naphthols by RuCl2(PPh3)3-catalyzed multi-component reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Lee, Yong Rok; Kim, Sung Hong

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an efficient and general synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols by RuCl 2 (PPh 3 ) 3 -catalyzed one-pot multi-component reaction of 2-naphthol with aromatic aldehydes and amides. The advantages of these methodologies are easy handling, mild reaction conditions, and use of an effective and non-toxic catalyst. Molecules bearing 1,3-amino oxygenated functional groups have been reported to exhibit a variety of biological and pharmacological activities including nucleoside antibiotics and HIV protease inhibitors such as ritonavir and lipinavir. Importantly, 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols can be easily converted to biologically active 1-aminomethyl-2-naphthols by amide hydrolysis. These compounds also exhibit potent antihypertensive, adrenoceptor-blocking, and Ca +2 channel-blocking activities. Because of the importance of these compounds, numerous methods for the synthesis of 1-amidoalkyl-2-naphthols have been described. The reported methods mainly include one-pot three-component reactions of 2-naphthol, aromatic aldehydes, and amides

  9. Managing first-line failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David A

    2014-01-01

    WHO standard of care for failure of a first regimen, usually 2N(t)RTI's and an NNRTI, consists of a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor with a change in N(t)RTI's. Until recently, there was no evidence to support these recommendations which were based on expert opinion. Two large randomized clinical trials, SECOND LINE and EARNEST both showed excellent response rates (>80%) for the WHO standard of care and indicated that a novel regimen of a boosted protease inhibitor with an integrase inhibitor had equal efficacy with no difference in toxicity. In EARNEST, a third arm consisting of induction with the combined protease and integrase inhibitor followed by protease inhibitor monotherapy maintenance was inferior and led to substantial (20%) protease inhibitor resistance. These studies confirm the validity of the current recommendations of WHO and point to a novel public health approach of using two new classes for second line when standard first-line therapy has failed, which avoids resistance genotyping. Notwithstanding, adherence must be stressed in those failing first-line treatments. Protease inhibitor monotherapy is not suitable for a public health approach in low- and middle-income countries.

  10. Hypersensitivity Reaction Associated with Abacavir Therapy in an Indian HIV Patient - A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Manju; Amberkar V, Mohan Babu; Vidyasagar, Sudha; Kumari K, Meena; Holla, Sadhana N

    2014-09-01

    The most important and unique adverse effect of abacavir (ABC) is fatal hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). The objective of this report is to describe a case of ABC induced HSR that occurred in an Indian HIV patient during treatment. Although this adverse effect is not uncommon, it is perhaps underreported or has never been reported so far in an Indian case scenario. A 44-year-old known case of HIV-1 was admitted in view of his worsening condition and very low CD4 cell counts 3 cells/μL. He was on anti-retroviral therapy since three years but not regular. On the basis of treatment failure, non-compliance and progressive low CD4 counts, the anti HIV regime was switched over to abacavir 600 mg+ atazanavir/ ritonavir 300mg/100mg Two weeks after ABC therapy he presented with maculopapular rash, headache and signs of hepatic damage (serum AST, ALP and ALT increased to 3-4 fold) suggestive of hypersensitivity reaction. As we know discontinuation of the drug is the ultimate litmus test to confirm diagnosis of drug induced adverse reaction. We did confirm ABC induced HSR by de-challenge wherein, rash disappeared within 2-3 days and LFT came back to normal within 5 days. However, no rechallenge was done. HSR was more in favour of ABC because atazanavir failed to produce any similar reaction after re-challenge.

  11. Human Paraoxonase-1 Activity Is Related to the Number of CD4+ T-Cells and Is Restored by Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Morganti Ferreira Maselli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity is suggested to be altered in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1. We investigated PON1 activity in individuals receiving different regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Methods. PON1 activity was evaluated in 91 HIV-1 seronegative and 624 HIV-1 infected individuals (115 were not undergoing therapy (ART-naïve, and 509 were receiving HAART. HIV-1 infected individuals were treated with the following: efavirenz (EFV; n=195 or nevirapine (NVP; n=95 or lopinavir/ritonavir (LOP/r; n=219. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, HDL, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL fractions and the atherogenic indices (AI, TC : HDL, and LDL : HDL ratios were determined. Results. PON1 activity (U/L was lower in the ART-naïve group compared with the other groups. PON1 activity correlated with CD4+ T-cell number of ART-naïve group (r=0,121; P=0,014. The LOP/r group showed a reduction in HDL and an increase in AI (TC : HDL ratio in comparison with other groups. Conclusion. PON1 activity was reduced in untreated individuals, but not in individuals receiving HAART. PON1 activity correlated with the number of CD4+ T-cells. The findings suggest that the activity of PON1 is associated with the immune status of HIV-1 infected individuals.

  12. Adolescent HIV treatment issues in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, H

    2015-11-01

    Following the discovery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), our knowledge of HIV infection and management has increased rapidly, but implementation of interventions has been slow in resource-limited settings. In particular, interventions such as antiretroviral treatment (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission were hindered owing to lack of access to antiretroviral drugs. This resulted in ongoing HIV transmission, morbidity and mortality associated with opportunistic infections. Notwithstanding the current progress in HIV prevention and treatment, challenges remain in preventing new infections in adolescents and supporting and treating HIV-infected adolescents. Barriers to successful treatment of infection in adolescents include denial of diagnosis, poor understanding or perception of future benefits of treatment and current-orientated thinking that may contribute to non-adherence to ART. Side-effects that lead to stigmatisation, such as lipoatrophy (stavudine, zidovudine), diarrhoea and flatulence (lopinavir/ritonavir) and gynaecomastia (efavirenz), maybe intolerable and prevent adherence to treatment. This article highlights common treatment issues in HIV adolescent care and provides guidance on their management in the South African setting.

  13. HIV protease inhibitor use during pregnancy is associated with decreased progesterone levels, suggesting a potential mechanism contributing to fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Eszter; Mohammadi, Hakimeh; Loutfy, Mona R; Yudin, Mark H; Murphy, Kellie E; Walmsley, Sharon L; Shah, Rajiv; MacGillivray, Jay; Silverman, Michael; Serghides, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Protease inhibitor (PI)-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is administered during pregnancy to prevent perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, PI use has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, including preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births. The mechanisms underlying these outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized that PIs contribute to these adverse events by altering progesterone levels. PI effects on trophoblast progesterone production were assessed in vitro. A mouse pregnancy model was used to assess the impact of PI-based cART on pregnancy outcomes and progesterone levels in vivo. Progesterone levels were assessed in plasma specimens from 27 HIV-infected and 17 HIV-uninfected pregnant women. PIs (ritonavir, lopinavir, and atazanavir) but not nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors reduced trophoblast progesterone production in vitro. In pregnant mice, PI-based cART but not dual-NRTI therapy was associated with significantly lower progesterone levels that directly correlated with fetal weight. Progesterone supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in fetal weight. We observed lower progesterone levels and smaller infants in HIV-infected women receiving PI-based cART, compared with the control group. In HIV-infected women, progesterone levels correlated significantly with birth weight percentile. Our data suggest that PI use in pregnancy may lead to lower progesterone levels that could contribute to adverse birth outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  14. [Use of darunavir in HIV-infected women during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonina, L Iu; Voronin, E E

    2013-01-01

    The use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) in a mother and a child can reduce the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to less than 1%; therefore, highly active antiretroviral therapy is used in all pregnant women regardless of indications for HIV-infection treatment. The major requirements for choosing an ARVD to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission are its high safety for a pregnant woman, a fetus, and a baby and its high therapeutic efficacy. Clinical trials of darunavir (DRV) in adults and children have shown a high virologic response, good tolerance, and safety. Trials and observations have demonstrated the high efficacy and safety of a DRV when used in pregnant women. Pharmacokinetic studies in pregnant women have indicated the effective and well-tolerated concentration of a DRV when it is co-administered with low-dose ritonavir, which permits the use of a DRV for both the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and the treatment of pregnant women who require antiretroviral therapy. The Russian clinical protocol "Use of ARVDs in the package of measures for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission" approved by the National Scientific Society of Infectiologists in 2013 recommends DRV as an alternative drug in antiretroviral therapy regimens for pregnant women to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission and to treat maternal HIV infection.

  15. Effect of protein binding on unbound atazanavir and darunavir cerebrospinal fluid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delille, Cecile A; Pruett, Sarah T; Marconi, Vincent C; Lennox, Jeffrey L; Armstrong, Wendy S; Arrendale, Richard F; Sheth, Anandi N; Easley, Kirk A; Acosta, Edward P; Vunnava, Aswani; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha

    2014-09-01

    HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs) exhibit different protein binding affinities and achieve variable plasma and tissue concentrations. Degree of plasma protein binding may impact central nervous system penetration. This cross-sectional study assessed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) unbound PI concentrations, HIV-1 RNA, and neopterin levels in subjects receiving either ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV), 95% plasma protein bound, or atazanavir (ATV), 86% bound. Unbound PI trough concentrations were measured using rapid equilibrium dialysis and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma and CSF HIV-1 RNA and neopterin were measured by Ampliprep/COBAS® Taqman® 2.0 assay (Roche) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ALPCO), respectively. CSF/plasma unbound drug concentration ratio was higher for ATV, 0.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.06-0.12] than DRV, 0.04 (95%CI 0.03-0.06). Unbound CSF concentrations were lower than protein adjusted wild-type inhibitory concentration-50 (IC50 ) in all ATV and 1 DRV-treated subjects (P < 0.001). CSF HIV-1 RNA was detected in 2/15 ATV and 4/15 DRV subjects (P = 0.65). CSF neopterin levels were low and similar between arms. ATV relative to DRV had higher CSF/plasma unbound drug ratio. Low CSF HIV-1 RNA and neopterin suggest that both regimens resulted in CSF virologic suppression and controlled inflammation. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  16. Executive summary of the GESIDA/National AIDS Plan Consensus Document on Antiretroviral Therapy in Adults Infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (Updated January 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should comprise 3 drugs, namely, 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), and 1 drug from another family. Four of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) as the third drug, are considered a preferred regimen; a further 6 regimens, which are based on an INSTI, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or a protease inhibitor boosted with cobicistat or ritonavir (PI/COBI, PI/r), are considered alternatives. The reasons and criteria for switching ART are presented both for patients with an undetectable PVL and for patients who experience virological failure, in which case the rescue regimen should include 3 (or at least 2) drugs that are fully active against HIV. The specific criteria for ART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, pregnancy) and comorbid conditions (tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer) are updated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  17. Executive summary of the GESIDA/National AIDS Plan Consensus Document on antiretroviral therapy in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (updated January 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Juan; Polo, Rosa; Aldeguer, José López; Lozano, Fernando; Aguirrebengoa, Koldo; Arribas, José Ramón; Blanco, José Ramón; Boix, Vicente; Casado, José Luis; Clotet, Bonaventura; Crespo, Manuel; Domingo, Pere; Estrada, Vicente; García, Federico; Gatell, José María; González-García, Juan; Gutiérrez, Félix; Iribarren, José Antonio; Knobel, Hernando; Llibre, Josep María; Locutura, Jaime; López, Juan Carlos; Miró, José M; Moreno, Santiago; Podzamczer, Daniel; Portilla, Joaquín; Pulido, Federico; Ribera, Esteban; Riera, Melchor; Rubio, Rafael; Santos, Jesús; Sanz-Moreno, José; Sanz, Jesús; Téllez, María Jesús; Tuset, Montserrat; Rivero, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    In this update, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The strength and grade of the recommendation vary depending on the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count, the presence of opportunistic infections or comorbid conditions, age, and the efforts to prevent the transmission of HIV. The objective of ART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load (PVL). Initial ART should comprise three drugs, namely, two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) and one drug from another family. Three of the recommended regimens, all of which have an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) as the third drug, are considered a preferred regimen; a further seven regimens, which are based on an INSTI, an non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), or a protease inhibitor boosted with ritonavir (PI/r), are considered alternatives. The reasons and criteria for switching ART are presented both for patients with an undetectable PVL and for patients who experience virological failure, in which case the rescue regimen should include three (or at least two) drugs that are fully active against HIV. The specific criteria for ART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, pregnancy) and comorbid conditions (tuberculosis and other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer) are updated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermodynamics of Highly Supersaturated Aqueous Solutions of Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs-Impact of a Second Drug on the Solution Phase Behavior and Implications for Combination Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trasi, Niraj S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2015-08-01

    There is increasing interest in formulating combination products that contain two or more drugs. Furthermore, it is also common for different drug products to be taken simultaneously. This raises the possibility of interactions between different drugs that may impact formulation performance. For poorly water-soluble compounds, the supersaturation behavior may be a critical factor in determining the extent of oral absorption. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the maximum achievable supersaturation for several poorly water-soluble compounds alone, and in combination. Model compounds included ritonavir, lopinavir, paclitaxel, felodipine, and diclofenac. The "amorphous solubility" for the pure drugs was determined using different techniques and the change in this solubility was then measured in the presence of differing amounts of a second drug. The results showed that "amorphous solubility" of each component in aqueous solution is substantially decreased by the second component, as long as the two drugs are miscible in the amorphous state. A simple thermodynamic model could be used to predict the changes in solubility as a function of composition. This information is of great value when developing co-amorphous or other supersaturating formulations and should contribute to a broader understanding of drug-drug physicochemical interactions in in vitro assays as well as in the gastrointestinal tract. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  19. Vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaio, Daniella Junko; Rondó, Patricia Helen Carvalho; Souza, José Maria Pacheco; Firmino, Aline Vale; Luzia, Liania Alves; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a common condition in HIV-infected individuals and may occur in all stages of the disease. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the concentrations of vitamin A and beta-carotene, micronutrients related to immunity and oxidative stress, in 182 adults with HIV/AIDS, under different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to their HAART regimen: combination of nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-NRTIs; combination of NRTIs, protease inhibitors, and ritonavir; combination of NRTIs and other classes. Multiple linear regression analysis determined the effect of the treatment regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen, on vitamin A and beta-carotene concentrations, controlling for the following variables: gender, age, educational level, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, time of infection with HIV, presence of comorbidities, CD4(+) T lymphocyte count, total cholesterol and fractions, and triglyceride levels. There was no significant difference in vitamin A or beta-carotene concentrations in patients under the different HAART regimens. However, approximately 4% of the patients had deficient/low concentrations of vitamin A (<0.70 μmol/L), and 98% showed concentrations of beta-carotene <1.0 μmol/L. In conclusion, HIV/AIDS patients in this region will not benefit from vitamin A supplementation, independently of the HAART regimen utilized, but beta-carotene may be of importance, considering its antioxidant effect.

  20. Vitamin E concentrations in adults with HIV/AIDS on highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinoseki Kaio, Daniella J Itinoseki; Rondó, Patricia Helen C; Luzia, Liania Alves; Souza, José Maria P; Firmino, Aline Vale; Santos, Sigrid Sousa

    2014-09-15

    HIV/AIDS patients are probably more predisposed to vitamin E deficiency, considering that they are more exposed to oxidative stress. Additionally, there are an extensive number of drugs in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens that may interfere with vitamin E concentrations. The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in 182 HIV/AIDS patients receiving different HAART regimens. The patients were divided into three groups according to regimen: nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) + non-nucleoside analog reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs); NRTIs + protease inhibitors + ritonavir; NRTIs + other classes. Alpha-tocopherol was assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of HAART regimen, time of use, and compliance with the regimen on alpha-tocopherol concentrations. Alpha-tocopherol concentrations were on average 4.12 μmol/L lower for the NRTIs + other classes regimen when compared to the NRTIs + NNRTIs regimen (p = 0.037). A positive association (p < 0.001) was observed between alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol concentrations, a finding due, in part, to the relationship between liposoluble vitamins and lipid profile. This study demonstrated differences in alpha-tocopherol concentrations between patients using different HAART regimens, especially regimens involving the use of new drugs. Long-term prospective cohort studies are needed to monitor vitamin E status in HIV/AIDS patients since the beginning of treatment.

  1. Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model for Obesity Pharmacology Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jolene; Vasselli, Joseph R; King, Jason F; King, Michael L; We, Wenqian; Fitzpatrick, Zachary; Johnson, William D; Finley, John W; Martin, Roy J; Keenan, Michael J; Enright, Frederic M; Greenway, Frank L

    The Caenorhabditis elegans model is a rapid and inexpensive method to address pharmacologic questions. We describe the use of C. elegans to explore 2 pharmacologic questions concerning candidate antiobesity drugs and illustrate its potential usefulness in pharmacologic research: (1) to determine a ratio of betahistine-olanzapine that blocks the olanzapine-induced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) as detected by Nile red staining and (2) to identify the mechanism of action of a pharmaceutical candidate AB-101 that reduces IFD. Olanzapine (53 μg/mL) increased the IFD (12.1 ± 0.1%, P < 0.02), which was blocked by betahistine (763 μg/mL, 39.3 ± 0.01%, P < 0.05) in wild-type C. elegans (N2). AB-101 (1.0%) reduced the IFD in N2 (P < 0.05), increased the pharyngeal pumping rate (P < 0.05), and reversed the elevated IFD induced by protease inhibitors atazanavir and ritonavir (P < 0.05). AB-101 did not affect IFD in a ACS null mutant strain acs-4(ok2872) III/hT2[bli-4(e937) let-?(q782) qIs48](I;III) suggesting an involvement of the lipid oxidation pathway and an upregulation of CPT-1. Our studies suggest that C. elegans may be used as a resource in pharmacologic research. This article is intended to stimulate a greater appreciation of its value in the development of new pharmaceutical interventions.

  2. Trends in Decline of Antiretroviral Resistance among ARV-Experienced Patients in the HIV Outpatient Study: 1999–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Buchacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little is known about temporal trends in frequencies of clinically relevant ARV resistance mutations in HIV strains from U.S. patients undergoing genotypic testing (GT in routine HIV care. Methods. We analyzed cumulative frequency of HIV resistance among patients in the HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS who, during 1999–2008 and while prescribed antiretrovirals, underwent GT with plasma HIV RNA >1,000 copies/mL. Exposure ≥4 months to each of three major antiretroviral classes (NRTI, NNRTI and PI was defined as triple-class exposure (TCE. Results. 906 patients contributed 1,570 GT results. The annual frequency of any major resistance mutations decreased during 1999–2008 (88% to 79%, P=0.05. Resistance to PIs decreased among PI-exposed patients (71% to 46%, P=0.010 as exposure to ritonavir-boosted PIs increased (6% to 81%, P<0.001. Non-significant declines were observed in resistance to NRTIs among NRTI-exposed (82% to 67%, and triple-class-resistance among TCE patients (66% to 41%, but not to NNRTIs among NNRTI-exposed. Conclusions. HIV resistance was common but declined in HIV isolates from subgroups of ARV-experienced HOPS patients during 1999–2008. Resistance to PIs among PI-exposed patients decreased, possibly due to increased representation of patients whose only PI exposures were to boosted PIs.

  3. Dyslipidemias and Elevated Cardiovascular Risk on Lopinavir-Based Antiretroviral Therapy in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sowath; Ouk, Vara; Chanroeurn, Hak; Thavary, Saem; Boroath, Ban; Canestri, Ana; Viretto, Gérald; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Ségéral, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Background Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) is widely used in Cambodia with high efficacy but scarce data exist on long-term metabolic toxicity. Methods We carried out a cross-sectional and retrospective study evaluating metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk in Cambodian patients on LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for > 1 year followed in Calmette Hospital, Phnom Penh. Data collected included cardiovascular risk factors, fasting blood lipids and glucose, and retrospective collection of bioclinical data. We estimated the 10-year risks of coronary heart disease with the Framingham, Ramathibodi-Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (Rama-EGAT), and the Data Collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs (D:A:D) risk equations. We identified patients with LDL above targets defined by the French expert group on HIV and by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Disease Society of America and the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (IDSA-AACTG). Results Of 115 patients enrolled—mean age 40.9 years, 69.2% male, mean time on LPV/r 3.8 years—40 (34.8%) had hypercholesterolemia (> 2.40 g/L), and 69 (60.0%) had low HDL cholesterol (dyslipidemia was high in this cohort of HIV-infected Cambodian patients on LPV/r. Roughly one third had high LDL levels requiring specific intervention. PMID:27579612

  4. Cost analysis of initial highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens for managing human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients according to clinical practice in a hospital setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Antonella Castagna,3 Sergio Di Matteo,2 Laura Galli,3 Giacomo Bruno,2 Andrea Poli,3 Stefania Salpietro,3 Alessia Carbone,3 Adriano Lazzarin3,41Department of Drug Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pavia, Italy; 2Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche (S.A.V.E., Milan, 3Infectious Diseases Department, San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, 4Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, ItalyObjective: In the study reported here, single-tablet regimen (STR versus (vs multi-tablet regimen (MTR strategies were evaluated through a cost analysis in a large cohort of patients starting their first highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1-naïve patients, followed at the San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy, starting their first-line regimen from June 2008 to April 2012 were included in the analysis.Methods: The most frequently used first-line HAART regimens (>10% were grouped into two classes: 1 STR of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF + emtricitabine (FTC + efavirenz (EFV and 2 MTR including TDF + FTC + EFV, TDF + FTC + atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r, TDF + FTC + darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r, and TDF + FTC + lopinavir/ritoavir (LPV/r. Data were analyzed from the point of view of the Lombardy Regional Health Service. HAART, hospitalizations, visits, medical examinations, and other concomitant non-HAART drug costs were evaluated and price variations included. Descriptive statistics were calculated for baseline demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics; associations between categorical variables and type of antiretroviral strategy (STR vs MTR were examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. At multivariate analysis, the generalized linear model was used to identify the predictive factors of the overall costs of the first-line HAART regimens.Results: A total of 474 naïve patients (90% male, mean age 42.2 years, mean baseline HIV-RNA 4.50 log10 copies/mL, and cluster of

  5. Benefits and Risks of Antiretroviral Therapy for Perinatal HIV Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Mary G; Qin, Min; Fiscus, Susan A; Currier, Judith S; Flynn, Patricia M; Chipato, Tsungai; McIntyre, James; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Siberry, George K; Coletti, Anne S; Taha, Taha E; Klingman, Karin L; Martinson, Francis E; Owor, Maxensia; Violari, Avy; Moodley, Dhayendre; Theron, Gerhard B; Bhosale, Ramesh; Bobat, Raziya; Chi, Benjamin H; Strehlau, Renate; Mlay, Pendo; Loftis, Amy J; Browning, Renee; Fenton, Terence; Purdue, Lynette; Basar, Michael; Shapiro, David E; Mofenson, Lynne M

    2016-11-03

    Randomized-trial data on the risks and benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as compared with zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine to prevent transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in HIV-infected pregnant women with high CD4 counts are lacking. We randomly assigned HIV-infected women at 14 or more weeks of gestation with CD4 counts of at least 350 cells per cubic millimeter to zidovudine and single-dose nevirapine plus a 1-to-2-week postpartum "tail" of tenofovir and emtricitabine (zidovudine alone); zidovudine, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (zidovudine-based ART); or tenofovir, emtricitabine, and lopinavir-ritonavir (tenofovir-based ART). The primary outcomes were HIV transmission at 1 week of age in the infant and maternal and infant safety. The median CD4 count was 530 cells per cubic millimeter among 3490 primarily black African HIV-infected women enrolled at a median of 26 weeks of gestation (interquartile range, 21 to 30). The rate of transmission was significantly lower with ART than with zidovudine alone (0.5% in the combined ART groups vs. 1.8%; difference, -1.3 percentage points; repeated confidence interval, -2.1 to -0.4). However, the rate of maternal grade 2 to 4 adverse events was significantly higher with zidovudine-based ART than with zidovudine alone (21.1% vs. 17.3%, P=0.008), and the rate of grade 2 to 4 abnormal blood chemical values was higher with tenofovir-based ART than with zidovudine alone (2.9% vs. 0.8%, P=0.03). Adverse events did not differ significantly between the ART groups (P>0.99). A birth weight of less than 2500 g was more frequent with zidovudine-based ART than with zidovudine alone (23.0% vs. 12.0%, P<0.001) and was more frequent with tenofovir-based ART than with zidovudine alone (16.9% vs. 8.9%, P=0.004); preterm delivery before 37 weeks was more frequent with zidovudine-based ART than with zidovudine alone (20.5% vs. 13.1%, P<0.001). Tenofovir-based ART was associated with higher rates than

  6. Boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy versus boosted protease inhibitor plus lamivudine dual therapy as second-line maintenance treatment for HIV-1-infected patients in sub-Saharan Africa (ANRS12 286/MOBIDIP): a multicentre, randomised, parallel, open-label, superiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaffi, Laura; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Sawadogo, Adrien Bruno; Ndour, Cheik Tidiane; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Mbouyap, Pretty Rosereine; Ayangma, Liliane; Zoungrana, Jacques; Gueye, Ndeye Fatou Ngom; Diallo, Mohamadou; Izard, Suzanne; Bado, Guillaume; Kane, Coumba Toure; Aghokeng, Avelin Fobang; Peeters, Martine; Girard, Pierre Marie; Le Moing, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Delaporte, Eric

    2017-09-01

    Despite satisfactory efficacy of WHO-recommended second-line antiretroviral treatment for patients with HIV in low-income countries, the need for simplified, low-cost, and less-toxic maintenance strategies remains high. We compared boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy with dual therapy with boosted protease inhibitor plus lamivudine in patients on second-line antiretrovial therapy (ART). We did a multicentre, randomised, parallel, open-label, superiority, trial in the HIV services of five hospitals in sub-Saharan Africa (Yaoundé, Cameroon; Dakar, Senegal; and Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso). We recruited patients from the long-term, post-trial cohort of the ANRS 12169/2LADY study that compared the efficacy of three second-line combinations based on boosted protease inhibitors. Participants for our study were HIV-1 infected with multiple mutations including M184V, at first-line failure, aged 18 years and older, on boosted protease inhibitor plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) for at least 48 weeks with at least 48 weeks follow-up in the 2LADY trial, with two viral load measurements of less than 200 copies per mL in the previous 6 months, CD4 counts of more than 100 cells per μL, adherence of at least 90%, and no change to ART in the past 3 months. We randomly assigned participants (1:1) to receive either monotherapy with their boosted protease inhibitor (once-daily darunavir 800 mg [two 400 mg tablets] boosted with ritonavir 100 mg [one tablet] or coformulation of lopinavir 200 mg with ritonavir 50 mg [two tablets taken twice per day]) or to boosted protease inhibitor plus once-daily lamivudine 300 mg (one 300 mg tablet or two 150 mg tablets). Computer-generated randomisation was stratified by study site and viral load at screening (treatment allocation was not masked from clinicians or patients]. Patients had follow-up visits at weeks 4 and 12, and every 3 months until 96 weeks; if viral load exceeded 500 copies per mL at any visit, NRTI

  7. Interferon-free treatments in patients with hepatitis C genotype 1-4 infections in a real-world setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Huascar; Linares, Pedro; Badia, Ester; Martín, Isabel; Gómez, Judith; Almohalla, Carolina; Jorquera, Francisco; Calvo, Sara; García, Isidro; Conde, Pilar; Álvarez, Begoña; Karpman, Guillermo; Lorenzo, Sara; Gozalo, Visitación; Vásquez, Mónica; Joao, Diana; de Benito, Marina; Ruiz, Lourdes; Jiménez, Felipe; Sáez-Royuela, Federico; Asociación Castellano y Leonesa de Hepatología (ACyLHE)

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigated the real-world effectiveness and safety of various regimens of interferon-free treatments in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS We performed an observational study to analyze different antiviral treatments administered to 462 HCV-infected patients, of which 56.7% had liver cirrhosis. HCV RNA after 4 wk of treatment and at 12 wk after treatment sustained virologic response (SVR) as well as serious adverse events (SAEs) was analyzed first for the whole cohort and then separately in patients who met or did not meet the inclusion criteria of a clinical trial (CT-met and CT-unmet, respectively). RESULTS The most frequently prescribed treatment was simeprevir/sofosbuvir (36.4%), followed by sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (24.9%) and ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir (r)/dasabuvir (19.9%). Ribavirin (RBV) was administered in 198 patients (42.9%). SVRs occurred in 437/462 patients (94.6%). The SVRs ranged between 93.3% and 100% for genotypes 1-4. SVRs were achieved in 96.2% patients in the CT-met group vs 91.9% patients in the CT-unmet group (P = 0.049). Undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 occurred in 72.9% of the patients. In the univariate analysis, the factors associated with SVRs were lower liver stiffness, absence of cirrhosis, higher platelet count, higher albumin levels, no RBV dose reduction, undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 and CT-met group. In the multivariate analysis, only albumin was an independent predictor of treatment failure (P = 0.04). Eleven patients (2.4%) developed SAEs; 5.2% and 0.7% of the patients in the CT-unmet and CT-met groups, respectively (P = 0.003). CONCLUSION A high proportion of patients with HCV infection achieved SVRs. For patients who did not meet the CT criteria, treatment regimens must be optimized. PMID:28533924

  8. Vitamin D time profile based on the contribution of non-genetic and genetic factors in HIV-infected individuals of European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Monia; Foletti, Giuseppe; McLaren, Paul; Cavassini, Matthias; Rauch, Andri; Tarr, Philip E; Lamy, Olivier; Panchaud, Alice; Telenti, Amalio; Csajka, Chantal; Rotger, Margalida

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in HIV-infected individuals and vitamin D supplementation is proposed according to standard care. This study aimed at characterizing the kinetics of 25(OH)D in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals of European ancestry to better define the influence of genetic and non-genetic factors on 25(OH)D levels. These data were used for the optimization of vitamin D supplementation in order to reach therapeutic targets. 1,397 25(OH)D plasma levels and relevant clinical information were collected in 664 participants during medical routine follow-up visits. They were genotyped for 7 SNPs in 4 genes known to be associated with 25(OH)D levels. 25(OH)D concentrations were analysed using a population pharmacokinetic approach. The percentage of individuals with 25(OH)D concentrations within the recommended range of 20-40 ng/ml during 12 months of follow-up and several dosage regimens were evaluated by simulation. A one-compartment model with linear absorption and elimination was used to describe 25(OH)D pharmacokinetics, while integrating endogenous baseline plasma concentrations. Covariate analyses confirmed the effect of seasonality, body mass index, smoking habits, the analytical method, darunavir/ritonavir and the genetic variant in GC (rs2282679) on 25(OH)D concentrations. 11% of the inter-individual variability in 25(OH)D levels was explained by seasonality and other non-genetic covariates, and 1% by genetics. The optimal supplementation for severe vitamin D deficient patients was 300,000 IU two times per year. This analysis allowed identifying factors associated with 25(OH)D plasma levels in HIV-infected individuals. Improvement of dosage regimen and timing of vitamin D supplementation is proposed based on those results.

  9. Effect of Cobicistat on Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF): What Is True for TAF May Also Be True for TDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Dario; Minisci, Davide; Baldelli, Sara; Mazzali, Cristina; Giacomelli, Andrea; Milazzo, Laura; Meraviglia, Paola; Resnati, Chiara; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Clementi, Emilio; Galli, Massimo; Gervasoni, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The dose of tenofovir alafenamide is reduced from 25 to 10 mg daily when given with boosting agents. However, such dose reduction has never been adopted for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). In this study, we aim to quantify the effect of cobicistat (COBI) both on tenofovir concentrations and TDF durability in real life setting. HIV-positive patients receiving TDF-containing antiretroviral therapies with at least 1 assessment of tenofovir plasma trough concentrations were included in the study. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed considering tenofovir concentration as the dependent variable and clinical characteristics as independent covariates. Subsequently, survival and Cox analyses were performed considering as the primary outcome TDF discontinuation for any reasons. Patients were given TDF with protease inhibitors/ritonavir (n = 212), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (n = 176), integrase inhibitors (dolutegravir or raltegravir, n = 46), or with elvitegravir/COBI (ELV/COBI) (n = 76). By multivariate analysis, concomitant antiretroviral therapies resulted significantly associated with tenofovir levels, with the highest drug concentrations measured in patients given ELV/COBI. By survival analysis, we found that patients given TDF with ELV/COBI had the lowest rate of drug durability. Overall, these patients had a 2.3-fold increased risk to experience TDF discontinuation. Coadministration with COBI resulted in significantly higher tenofovir concentrations and higher TDF discontinuation compared with other antiretroviral regimens. Accordingly, the possibility that the lack of proper dose adjustment for TDF when given with COBI might have biased the safety comparisons with tenofovir alafenamide during registrative trials cannot be ruled out.

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Tenofovir Alafenamide When Co-administered With Other HIV Antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begley, Rebecca; Das, Moupali; Zhong, Lijie; Ling, John; Kearney, Brian P; Custodio, Joseph M

    2018-04-10

    Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a prodrug of the nucleotide analogue tenofovir (TFV), is an antiretroviral (ARV) agent approved either as a complete regimen (elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine (F)/tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), rilpivirine/F/TAF, bictegravir/F/TAF), or for use with other ARVs (F/TAF), for treatment of HIV. TAF is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transporters. Disposition of TAF may be altered by co-medications that can inhibit or induce P-gp or BCRP transporters. The effects of ARVs on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of TAF were evaluated in 3 studies. Healthy participants received TAF administered alone or with rilpivirine (RPV) in study 1; with dolutegravir (DTG), ritonavir boosted atazanavir (ATV+RTV), lopinavir (LPV/RTV), or darunavir (DRV+RTV) in study 2; and with the pharmacokinetic enhancer cobicistat (COBI), or efavirenz (EFV) in study 3. Across the three studies, 98 participants received treatment with TAF and a coadministered agent (n=10-34/cohort). All study treatments were well tolerated. TAF and TFV exposures were unaffected following co-administration with RPV and DTG. Co-administration with Pgp/BCRP inhibitors such as COBI or PI based regimens (ATV+RTV, LPV/r or DRV+RTV) resulted in a range of 6% to 183% increases in TAF and 105% to 316% increases in TFV exposure, while co-administration with a Pgp inducer, EFV, resulted in a 15% to 24% decrease in TAF and TFV exposure. Evaluation of the drug interaction between TAF and other commonly prescribed boosted and unboosted ARVs provides characterization of the susceptibility of TAF and/or TFV PK to inhibitors or inducers of Pgp/BCRP transporters.

  11. Antiretroviral therapy provided to HIV-infected Malawian women in a randomized trial diminishes the positive effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements on breast-milk B vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H; Hampel, Daniela; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; York, Emily R; Adair, Linda S; Flax, Valerie L; Tegha, Gerald; Chasela, Charles S; Kamwendo, Debbie; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Little information is available on B vitamin concentrations in human milk or on how they are affected by maternal B vitamin deficiencies, antiretroviral therapy, or maternal supplementation. The objective was to evaluate the effects of antiretroviral therapy and/or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) on B vitamin concentrations in breast milk from HIV-infected women in Malawi. Breast milk was collected from 537 women recruited within the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study at 2 or 6 wk and 24 wk postpartum. Women were assigned to receive antiretrovirals and LNSs, antiretrovirals only, LNSs only, or a control. Antiretrovirals and LNSs were given to the mothers from weeks 0 to 28. The antiretrovirals were zidovudine/lamivudine and nelfinavir or lopinavir/ritonavir. LNSs provided 93-118% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, and vitamin B-12. Infants were exclusively breastfed. LNSs increased milk concentrations of all vitamins except thiamin, whereas antiretrovirals lowered concentrations of nicotinamide, pyridoxal, and vitamin B-12. Although antiretrovirals alone had no significant effect on riboflavin concentrations, they negatively affected the LNS-induced increase in this vitamin. Thiamin was not influenced by the study interventions. Concentrations of all B vitamins were much lower than usually accepted values. All B vitamins were low in milk, and all but thiamin were increased by maternal supplementation with LNSs. Antiretrovirals alone decreased concentrations of some B vitamins in milk. When LNS was given in addition to antiretrovirals, the negative effect of antiretrovirals offset the positive effect of LNSs for all vitamins except thiamin. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00164762. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Hepatocyte-based in vitro model for assessment of drug-induced cholestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Sagnik; Richert, Lysiane; Augustijns, Patrick; Annaert, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of drug-induced cholestasis remains a challenge during drug development. We have developed and validated a biorelevant sandwich-cultured hepatocytes- (SCH) based model that can identify compounds causing cholestasis by altering bile acid disposition. Human and rat SCH were exposed (24–48 h) to known cholestatic and/or hepatotoxic compounds, in the presence or in the absence of a concentrated mixture of bile acids (BAs). Urea assay was used to assess (compromised) hepatocyte functionality at the end of the incubations. The cholestatic potential of the compounds was expressed by calculating a drug-induced cholestasis index (DICI), reflecting the relative residual urea formation by hepatocytes co-incubated with BAs and test compound as compared to hepatocytes treated with test compound alone. Compounds with clinical reports of cholestasis, including cyclosporin A, troglitazone, chlorpromazine, bosentan, ticlopidine, ritonavir, and midecamycin showed enhanced toxicity in the presence of BAs (DICI ≤ 0.8) for at least one of the tested concentrations. In contrast, the in vitro toxicity of compounds causing hepatotoxicity by other mechanisms (including diclofenac, valproic acid, amiodarone and acetaminophen), remained unchanged in the presence of BAs. A safety margin (SM) for drug-induced cholestasis was calculated as the ratio of lowest in vitro concentration for which was DICI ≤ 0.8, to the reported mean peak therapeutic plasma concentration. SM values obtained in human SCH correlated well with reported % incidence of clinical drug-induced cholestasis, while no correlation was observed in rat SCH. This in vitro model enables early identification of drug candidates causing cholestasis by disturbed BA handling. - Highlights: • Novel in vitro assay to detect drug-induced cholestasis • Rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) as in vitro models • Cholestatic compounds sensitize SCH to toxic effects of accumulating bile acids • Drug

  13. Prices of second-line antiretroviral treatment for middle-income countries inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Bryony; Hill, Andrew; Ford, Nathan; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Antiretrovirals are available at low prices in sub-Saharan Africa, but these prices may not be consistently available for middle-income countries in other regions with large HIV epidemics. Over 30% of HIV infected people live in countries outside sub-Saharan Africa. Several key antiretrovirals are still on patent, with generic production restricted. We assessed price variations for key antiretroviral drugs inside versus outside sub-Saharan Africa. HIV drug prices used in national programmes (2010-2014) were extracted from the WHO Global Price Reporting Mechanism database for all reporting middle-income countries as classified by the World Bank. Treatment costs (branded and generic) were compared for countries inside sub-Saharan Africa versus those outside. Five key second-line antiretrovirals were analysed: abacavir, atazanavir, darunavir, lopinavir/ritonavir, raltegravir. Prices of branded antiretrovirals were significantly higher outside sub-Saharan Africa (psub-Saharan Africa versus $4689 (IQR $4075-5717) in non-African middle-income countries, an increase of 541%. However, when supplied by generic companies, most antiretrovirals were similarly priced between countries in sub-Saharan Africa and other regions. Pharmaceutical companies are selling antiretrovirals to non-African middle-income countries at prices 74-541% higher than African countries with similar gross national incomes. However, generic companies are selling most of these drugs at similar prices across regions. Mechanisms to ensure fair pricing for patented antiretrovirals across both African and non-African middle-income countries need to be improved, to ensure sustainable treatment access.

  14. Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the apolipoprotein C-III (APOC3 genotype in children receiving HAART: an eight-year retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Rocco

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in apolipoprotein genes have shown to be predictors of plasma lipid levels in adult cohorts receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Our objective was to confirm the association between the APOC3 genotype and plasma lipid levels in an HIV-1-infected pediatric cohort exposed to HAART. A total of 130 HIV-1-infected children/adolescents that attended a reference center in Argentina were selected for an 8-year longitudinal study with retrospective data collection. Longitudinal measurements of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C and LDL-C were analyzed under linear or generalized linear mixed models. The contribution of the APOC3 genotype at sites -482, -455 and 3238 to plasma lipid levels prediction was tested after adjusting for potential confounders. Four major APOC3 haplotypes were observed for sites -482/-455/3238, with estimated frequencies of 0.60 (C/T/C, 0.14 (T/C/C, 0.11 (C/C/C, and 0.11 (T/C/G. The APOC3 genotype showed a significant effect only for the prediction of total cholesterol levels (p<0.0001. However, the magnitude of the differences observed was dependent on the drug combination (p = 0.0007 and the drug exposure duration at the time of the plasma lipid measurement (p = 0.0002. A lower risk of hypercholesterolemia was predicted for double and triple heterozygous individuals, mainly at the first few months after the initiation of Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor-based regimens. We report for the first time a significant contribution of the genotype to total cholesterol levels in a pediatric cohort under HAART. The genetic determination of APOC3 might have an impact on a large portion of HIV-1-infected children at the time of choosing the treatment regimens or on the counter-measures against the adverse effects of drugs.

  15. Effect of Lopinavir and Nevirapine Concentrations on Viral Outcomes in Protease Inhibitor-experienced HIV-infected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholisa, Retsilisitsoe R; Schomaker, Michael; Kuhn, Louise; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Coovadia, Ashraf; Strehlau, Renate; Patel, Faeezah; Pinillos, Francoise; Abrams, Elaine J; Maartens, Gary; McIlleron, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Adequate exposure to antiretroviral drugs is necessary to achieve and sustain viral suppression. However, the target antiretroviral concentrations associated with long-term viral suppression have not been adequately defined in children. We assessed the relationship between plasma lopinavir or nevirapine concentrations and the risk of subsequent viremia in children initially suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. After an induction phase of antiretroviral treatment, 195 children with viral suppression (viral load ≤400 copies/mL) were randomized to continue a lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen or to switch to a nevirapine-based regimen (together with lamivudine and stavudine). Viral load and lopinavir or nevirapine concentrations were measured at clinic visits 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 52, 64 and 76 weeks post randomization. Cox multiple failure event models were used to estimate the effects of drug concentrations on the hazard of viremia (viral load >50 copies/mL) RESULTS:: At randomization, the median (interquartile range) age, CD4 T-Lymphocyte percentage, weight-for-age and weight-for-height z scores were 19 (16-24) months, 29% (23-37), -0.6 (-1.3 to 0.2) and -3.2 (-4.1 to -2.1), respectively. The proportion of children with viral load 51-400 copies/mL at randomization was 43%. The hazard of subsequent viremia during follow-up was increased for lopinavir concentrations <1 versus ≥1 mg/L [adjusted hazard ratio 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.94)] and for children with viral loads 51-400 copies/mL at randomization. Nevirapine concentrations were not significantly associated with subsequent viremia. Plasma lopinavir concentrations predicted viral outcomes in children receiving lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy. Our findings support a minimum target concentration of ≥1 mg/L of lopinavir to ensure sustained viral suppression.

  16. Plasma lopinavir concentrations predict virological failure in a cohort of South African children initiating a protease-inhibitor-based regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholisa, Retsilisitsoe R; Schomaker, Michael; Kuhn, Louise; Meredith, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Coovadia, Ashraf; Strehlau, Renate; Martens, Leigh; Abrams, Elaine J; Maartens, Gary; Mcllleron, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy contributes to pharmacokinetic variability and is the major determinant of virological failure. However, measuring treatment adherence is difficult, especially in children. We investigated the relationship between plasma lopinavir concentrations, pretreatment characteristics and viral load >400 copies/ml. Methods A total of 237 HIV-infected children aged 4–42 months on lopinavir/ritonavir oral solution were studied prospectively and followed for up to 52 weeks. Viral load and lopinavir concentration were measured at clinic visits 12, 24, 36 and 52 weeks after starting treatment. Cox multiple failure events models were used to estimate the crude and adjusted effect of lopinavir concentrations on the hazard of viral load >400 copies/ml. Results The median (IQR) pretreatment CD4+ T-lymphocyte percentage was 18.80% (12.70–25.35) and 53% of children had a pretreatment viral load >750,000 copies/ml. The median (IQR) weight-for-age and height-for-age z-scores were −2.17 (−3.35–−2.84) and −3.34 (−4.57–−3.41), respectively. Median (IQR) lopinavir concentrations were 8.00 mg/l (4.11–12.42) at median (IQR) 3.50 h (2.67–4.25) after the dose. The hazard of viral load >400 copies/ml was increased with lopinavir concentrations <1 mg/l versus ≥1 mg/l (adjusted hazard ratio 2.3 [95% CI 1.63, 3.26]) and lower height-for-age z-scores. Conclusions Low lopinavir concentrations (<1 mg/l) are associated with viraemia in children. This measure could be used as a proxy for adherence and to determine which children are more likely to fail. PMID:24518130

  17. Hepatocyte-based in vitro model for assessment of drug-induced cholestasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sagnik, E-mail: Sagnik.Chatterjee@pharm.kuleuven.be [Drug Delivery and Disposition, KU Leuven Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, O and N2, Herestraat 49 — bus 921, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Richert, Lysiane, E-mail: l.richert@kaly-cell.com [KaLy-Cell, 20A rue du Général Leclerc, 67115 Plobsheim (France); Augustijns, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Augustijns@pharm.kuleuven.be [Drug Delivery and Disposition, KU Leuven Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, O and N2, Herestraat 49 — bus 921, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Annaert, Pieter, E-mail: Pieter.Annaert@pharm.kuleuven.be [Drug Delivery and Disposition, KU Leuven Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, O and N2, Herestraat 49 — bus 921, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of drug-induced cholestasis remains a challenge during drug development. We have developed and validated a biorelevant sandwich-cultured hepatocytes- (SCH) based model that can identify compounds causing cholestasis by altering bile acid disposition. Human and rat SCH were exposed (24–48 h) to known cholestatic and/or hepatotoxic compounds, in the presence or in the absence of a concentrated mixture of bile acids (BAs). Urea assay was used to assess (compromised) hepatocyte functionality at the end of the incubations. The cholestatic potential of the compounds was expressed by calculating a drug-induced cholestasis index (DICI), reflecting the relative residual urea formation by hepatocytes co-incubated with BAs and test compound as compared to hepatocytes treated with test compound alone. Compounds with clinical reports of cholestasis, including cyclosporin A, troglitazone, chlorpromazine, bosentan, ticlopidine, ritonavir, and midecamycin showed enhanced toxicity in the presence of BAs (DICI ≤ 0.8) for at least one of the tested concentrations. In contrast, the in vitro toxicity of compounds causing hepatotoxicity by other mechanisms (including diclofenac, valproic acid, amiodarone and acetaminophen), remained unchanged in the presence of BAs. A safety margin (SM) for drug-induced cholestasis was calculated as the ratio of lowest in vitro concentration for which was DICI ≤ 0.8, to the reported mean peak therapeutic plasma concentration. SM values obtained in human SCH correlated well with reported % incidence of clinical drug-induced cholestasis, while no correlation was observed in rat SCH. This in vitro model enables early identification of drug candidates causing cholestasis by disturbed BA handling. - Highlights: • Novel in vitro assay to detect drug-induced cholestasis • Rat and human sandwich-cultured hepatocytes (SCH) as in vitro models • Cholestatic compounds sensitize SCH to toxic effects of accumulating bile acids • Drug

  18. First demonstration of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma A beta lowering with oral administration of a beta-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 inhibitor in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Sethu; Holahan, Marie A; Colussi, Dennis; Crouthamel, Ming-Chih; Devanarayan, Viswanath; Ellis, Joan; Espeseth, Amy; Gates, Adam T; Graham, Samuel L; Gregro, Allison R; Hazuda, Daria; Hochman, Jerome H; Holloway, Katharine; Jin, Lixia; Kahana, Jason; Lai, Ming-tain; Lineberger, Janet; McGaughey, Georgia; Moore, Keith P; Nantermet, Philippe; Pietrak, Beth; Price, Eric A; Rajapakse, Hemaka; Stauffer, Shaun; Steinbeiser, Melissa A; Seabrook, Guy; Selnick, Harold G; Shi, Xiao-Ping; Stanton, Matthew G; Swestock, John; Tugusheva, Katherine; Tyler, Keala X; Vacca, Joseph P; Wong, Jacky; Wu, Guoxin; Xu, Min; Cook, Jacquelynn J; Simon, Adam J

    2009-01-01

    beta-Site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme (BACE) 1 cleavage of amyloid precursor protein is an essential step in the generation of the potentially neurotoxic and amyloidogenic A beta 42 peptides in Alzheimer's disease. Although previous mouse studies have shown brain A beta lowering after BACE1 inhibition, extension of such studies to nonhuman primates or man was precluded by poor potency, brain penetration, and pharmacokinetics of available inhibitors. In this study, a novel tertiary carbinamine BACE1 inhibitor, tertiary carbinamine (TC)-1, was assessed in a unique cisterna magna ported rhesus monkey model, where the temporal dynamics of A beta in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma could be evaluated. TC-1, a potent inhibitor (IC(50) approximately 0.4 nM), has excellent passive membrane permeability, low susceptibility to P-glycoprotein transport, and lowered brain A beta levels in a mouse model. Intravenous infusion of TC-1 led to a significant but transient lowering of CSF and plasma A beta levels in conscious rhesus monkeys because it underwent CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. Oral codosing of TC-1 with ritonavir, a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, twice daily over 3.5 days in rhesus monkeys led to sustained plasma TC-1 exposure and a significant and sustained reduction in CSF sAPP beta, A beta 40, A beta 42, and plasma A beta 40 levels. CSF A beta 42 lowering showed an EC(50) of approximately 20 nM with respect to the CSF [TC-1] levels, demonstrating excellent concordance with its potency in a cell-based assay. These results demonstrate the first in vivo proof of concept of CSF A beta lowering after oral administration of a BACE1 inhibitor in a nonhuman primate.

  19. Randomized trial of stopping or continuing ART among postpartum women with pre-ART CD4 ≥ 400 cells/mm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Judith S; Britto, Paula; Hoffman, Risa M; Brummel, Sean; Masheto, Gaerolwe; Joao, Esau; Santos, Breno; Aurpibul, Linda; Losso, Marcelo; Pierre, Marie F; Weinberg, Adriana; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Klingman, Karin; Browning, Renee; Coletti, Anne; Mofenson, Lynne; Shapiro, David; Pilotto, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Health benefits of postpartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women with high CD4+ T-counts have not been assessed in randomized trials. Asymptomatic, HIV-positive, non-breastfeeding women with pre-ART CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 400 cells/mm3 started on ART during pregnancy were randomized up to 42 days after delivery to continue or discontinue ART. Lopinavir/ritonavir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine was the preferred ART regimen. The sample size was selected to provide 88% power to detect a 50% reduction from an annualized primary event rate of 2.07%. A post-hoc analysis evaluated HIV/AIDS-related and World Health Organization (WHO) Stage 2 and 3 events. All analyses were intent to treat. 1652 women from 52 sites in Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, China, Haiti, Peru, Thailand and the US were enrolled (1/2010-11/2014). Median age was 28 years and major racial categories were Black African (28%), Asian (25%) White (15%). Median entry CD4 count was 696 cells/mm3 (IQR 575-869), median ART exposure prior to delivery was 19 weeks (IQR 13-24) and 94% had entry HIV-1 RNA women randomized to continue ART, 189/827 (23%) had virologic failure; of the 155 with resistance testing, 103 (66%) failed without resistance to their current regimen, suggesting non-adherence. Overall, serious clinical events were rare among young HIV-positive post-partum women with high CD4 cell counts. Continued ART was safe and was associated with a halving of the rate of WHO 2/3 conditions. Virologic failure rates were high, underscoring the urgent need to improve adherence in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00955968.

  20. HIV type-1 genotypic resistance profiles in vertically infected patients from Argentina reveal an association between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulicino, Paula C; Rocco, Carlos A; Mecikovsky, Debora; Bologna, Rosa; Mangano, Andrea; Sen, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    Patterns and pathways of HIV type-1 (HIV-1) antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance-associated mutations in clinical isolates are conditioned by ARV history and factors such as viral subtype and fitness. Our aim was to analyse the frequency and association of ARV drug resistance mutations in a group of long-term vertically infected patients from Argentina. Plasma samples from 71 patients (38 children and 33 adolescents) were collected for genotypic HIV-1 ARV resistance testing during the period between February 2006 and October 2008. Statistically significant pairwise associations between ARV resistance mutations in pol, as well as associations between mutations and drug exposure, were identified using Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni and false discovery rate corrections. Phylogenetic analyses were performed for subtype assignment. In protease (PR), resistance-associated mutations M46I/L, I54M/L/V/A/S and V82A/F/T/S/M/I were associated with each other and with minor mutations at codons 10, 24 and 71. Mutations V82A/F/T/S/M/I were primarily selected by the administration of ritonavir (RTV) in an historical ARV regimen. In reverse transcriptase, thymidine analogue mutation (TAM)1 profile was more common than TAM2. The non-nucleoside K103N+L100I mutations were observed at high frequency (15.5%) and were significantly associated with the nucleoside mutation L74V in BF recombinants. Associations of mutations at PR sites reflect the frequent use of RTV at an early time in this group of patients and convergent resistance mechanisms driven by the high exposure to protease inhibitors, as well as local HIV-1 diversity. The results provide clinical evidence of a molecular interaction between K103N+L100I and L74V mutations at the reverse transcriptase gene in vivo, limiting the future use of second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as etravirine.

  1. Fifteen years of HIV Protease Inhibitors: raising the barrier to resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, Annemarie M J; van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Nijhuis, Monique

    2010-01-01

    HIV protease plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle and is essential for the generation of mature infectious virus particles. Detailed knowledge of the structure of HIV protease and its substrate has led to the design of specific HIV protease inhibitors. Unfortunately, resistance to all protease inhibitors (PIs) has been observed and the genetic basis of resistance has been well documented over the past 15 years. The arrival of the early PIs was a pivotal moment in the development of antiretroviral therapy. They made possible the dual class triple combination therapy that became known as HAART. However, the clinical utility of the first generation of PIs was limited by low bioavailability and high pill burdens, which ultimately reduced adherence and limited long-term viral inhibition. When therapy failure occurred multiple protease resistance mutations were observed, often resulting in broad class resistance. To combat PI-resistance development, second-generation approaches have been developed. The first advance was to increase the level of existing PIs in the plasma by boosting with ritonavir. The second was to develop novel PIs with high potency against the known PI-resistant HIV protease variants. Both approaches increased the number of protease mutations required for clinical resistance, thereby raising the genetic barrier. This review provides an overview of the history of protease inhibitor therapy, its current status and future perspectives. It forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, vol. 85, issue 1, 2010. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative stress/reactive metabolite gene expression signature in rat liver detects idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, Angelique; Nie, Alex; Brandon Parker, J.; Sawant, Sharmilee; Piechta, Leigh-Anne; Kelley, Michael F., E-mail: mkelley2@its.jnj.com; Mark Kao, L.; Jim Proctor, S.; Verheyen, Geert; Johnson, Mark D.; Lord, Peter G.; McMillian, Michael K.

    2014-03-15

    Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-treated rats from more recent experiments were examined for statistical fit to the OS/RM signature. Of all 97 drugs examined, in addition to the nine drugs noted above, 19 more were identified as OS/RM-producing compounds—chlorpromazine, clozapine, cyproterone acetate, dantrolene, dipyridamole, glibenclamide, isoniazid, ketoconazole, methapyrilene, naltrexone, nifedipine, sulfamethoxazole, tamoxifen, coumarin, ritonavir, amitriptyline, valproic acid, enalapril, and chloramphenicol. Importantly, all of the OS/RM drugs listed above have been linked to idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, excepting chloramphenicol, which does not have a package label for hepatotoxicity, but does have a black box warning for idiosyncratic bone marrow suppression. Most of these drugs are not acutely toxic in the rat. The OS/RM signature should be useful to avoid idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity of drug candidates. - Highlights: • 28 of 97 drugs gave a positive OS/RM gene expression signature in rat liver. • The specificity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 98%. • The sensitivity of the signature for human idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants was 75%. • The signature can help eliminate hepatotoxicants from drug development.

  3. Antiretroviral changes during the first year of therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Policarpo Carmo Sá Bandeira

    Full Text Available Summary Introduction: The Brazilian HIV/AIDS management and treatment guideline (PCDT, published in 2013, recommends and standardizes the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in all adult patients, in spite of LTCD4 count. This study aimed to analyze the first year of HAART use in patients from a reference center on HIV/AIDS management in Fortaleza, Ceará. Method: This descriptive study reviewed all prescription forms of antiretroviral regimens initiation and changes from January to July 2014. All antiretroviral regimen changes that occurred during the first year of therapy were evaluated. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 20. Mean, standard deviation and frequency, Student’s t and Mann-Whitney tests calculations were used, with significance at p<0.05. Results: From 527 patients initiating HAART, 16.5% (n=87 had a regimen change in the first year. These patients were mostly male (59.8%; n=52, aged 20 to 39 years, with only one HAART change (72.4%; n=63. Efavirenz was the most often changed drug, followed by tenofovir, zidovudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. Mean time of HAART changes was 120 days, with adverse reactions as the most prevalent cause. HAART was effective in decreasing viral load since second month of treatment (p=0.003 and increasing LTCD4 lymphocytes since fifth month (p<0.001. Conclusion: The main cause of initial HAART changes was adverse reaction and most patients had only one change in the HAART regimen. HAART prescription was in accordance to the PCDT from 2013.

  4. The pricing and procurement of antiretroviral drugs: an observational study of data from the Global Fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Ashwin; Hoos, David; Mukherjee, Joia S; Farmer, Paul E; Rosenfield, Allan G; Perriëns, Joseph H

    2006-05-01

    The Purchase price report released in August 2004 by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (Global Fund) was the first publication of a significant amount of real transaction purchase data for antiretrovirals (ARVs). We did an observational study of the ARV transaction data in the Purchase price report to examine the procurement behaviour of principal recipients of Global Fund grants in developing countries. We found that, with a few exceptions for specific products (e.g. lamivudine) and regions (e.g. eastern Europe), prices in low-income countries were broadly consistent or lower than the lowest differential prices quoted by the research and development sector of the pharmaceutical industry. In lower middle-income countries, prices were more varied and in several instances (lopinavir/ritonavir, didanosine, and zidovudine/lamivudine) were very high compared with the per capita income of the country. In all low- and lower middle-income countries, ARV prices were still significantly high given limited local purchasing power and economic strength, thus reaffirming the need for donor support to achieve rapid scale-up of antiretroviral therapy. However, the price of ARVs will have to decrease to render scale-up financially sustainable for donors and eventually for governments themselves. An important first step in reducing prices will be to make available in the public domain as much ARV transaction data as possible to provide a factual basis for discussions on pricing. The price of ARVs has considerable implications for the sustainability of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) treatment in the developing world.

  5. Evaluation of HIV/AIDS patients' knowledge on antiretroviral drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Flávia de Castro Almeida

    Full Text Available Lack of information on antiretroviral drugs or the misunderstanding of available information can facilitate incorrect use of such drugs. This can result in non-adherence to the prescribed regimen, leading to a great possibility of a therapeutic failure. The aim of this study was to know which information HIV/AIDS patients, who receive their medicines at the pharmacy of a reference hospital in the northeast Brazil, have on the drugs they use, the source of this information and whether there is a need for additional information. A total of 195 HIV/AIDS patients, who were using either zidovudina + lamivudina 300+150mg (AZT+3TC, efavirenz 600mg (EFZ or lopinavir/ritonavir 133.33/33mg (LPV/r, were interviewed. The mean age was 41 years (SD = 9.55 and 70.8% were males. Of the total, 55.4% didn't know the effect of the drug in the organism; 35.9% were unaware of the necessity of taking antiretroviral drugs for the rest of their lives; only 14.4% knew how to proceed when a dosage was missed; 22.1% said they could die and the same number of individuals believed in aggravation of the disease in case of treatment interruption. The majority, 68.2%, considered it very necessary to receive drug information. The results show that there is an apparent lack of general information among users of antiretroviral drugs, and at the same time a need for it. It is necessary that all professionals involved in the health care of the patients agree that an efficient supply of information on prescribed drugs is an ethical component of the treatment that favors and fosters its adherence.

  6. The Female Genital Tract Microbiome Is Associated With Vaginal Antiretroviral Drug Concentrations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue Carlson, Renee; Sheth, Anandi N; Read, Timothy D; Frisch, Michael B; Mehta, C Christina; Martin, Amy; Haaland, Richard E; Patel, Anar S; Pau, Chou-Pong; Kraft, Colleen S; Ofotokun, Igho

    2017-11-15

    The female genital tract (FGT) microbiome may affect vaginal pH and other factors that influence drug movement into the vagina. We examined the relationship between the microbiome and antiretroviral concentrations in the FGT. Over one menstrual cycle, 20 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women virologically suppressed on tenofovir (TFV) disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV) underwent serial paired cervicovaginal and plasma sampling for antiretroviral concentrations using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing of cervicovaginal lavage clustered each participant visit into a unique microbiome community type (mCT). Participants were predominantly African American (95%), with a median age of 38 years. Cervicovaginal lavage sequencing (n = 109) resulted in a low-diversity mCT dominated by Lactobacillus (n = 40), and intermediate-diversity (n = 28) and high-diversity (n = 41) mCTs with abundance of anaerobic taxa. In multivariable models, geometric mean FGT:plasma ratios varied significantly by mCT for all 3 drugs. For both ATV and TFV, FGT:plasma was significantly lower in participant visits with high- and low-diversity mCT groups (all P < .02). For emtricitabine, FGT:plasma was significantly lower in participant visits with low- vs intermediate-diversity mCT groups (P = .002). Certain FGT mCTs are associated with decreased FGT antiretroviral concentrations. These findings are relevant for optimizing antiretrovirals used for biomedical HIV prevention in women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Virologic failure of protease inhibitor-based second-line antiretroviral therapy without resistance in a large HIV treatment program in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie H Levison

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of wild-type virus (no major drug resistance and drug resistance mutations at second-line antiretroviral treatment (ART failure in a large HIV treatment program in South Africa.HIV-infected patients ≥ 15 years of age who had failed protease inhibitor (PI-based second-line ART (2 consecutive HIV RNA tests >1000 copies/ml on lopinavir/ritonavir, didanosine, and zidovudine were identified retrospectively. Patients with virologic failure were continued on second-line ART. Genotypic testing for drug resistance was performed on frozen plasma samples obtained closest to and after the date of laboratory confirmed second-line ART failure. Of 322 HIV-infected patients on second-line ART, 43 were adults with confirmed virologic failure, and 33 had available plasma for viral sequencing. HIV-1 RNA subtype C predominated (n = 32, 97%. Mean duration on ART (SD prior to initiation of second-line ART was 23 (17 months, and time from second-line ART initiation to failure was 10 (9 months. Plasma samples were obtained 7(9 months from confirmed failure. At second-line failure, 22 patients (67% had wild-type virus. There was no major resistance to PIs found. Eleven of 33 patients had a second plasma sample taken 8 (5.5 months after the first. Median HIV-1 RNA and the genotypic resistance profile were unchanged.Most patients who failed second-line ART had wild-type virus. We did not observe evolution of resistance despite continuation of PI-based ART after failure. Interventions that successfully improve adherence could allow patients to continue to benefit from second-line ART therapy even after initial failure.

  8. SARS: systematic review of treatment effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren J Stockman

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The SARS outbreak of 2002-2003 presented clinicians with a new, life-threatening disease for which they had no experience in treating and no research on the effectiveness of treatment options. The World Health Organization (WHO expert panel on SARS treatment requested a systematic review and comprehensive summary of treatments used for SARS-infected patients in order to guide future treatment and identify priorities for research. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In response to the WHO request we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on ribavirin, corticosteroids, lopinavir and ritonavir (LPV/r, type I interferon (IFN, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG, and SARS convalescent plasma from both in vitro studies and in SARS patients. We also searched for clinical trial evidence of treatment for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Sources of data were the literature databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL up to February 2005. Data from publications were extracted and evidence within studies was classified using predefined criteria. In total, 54 SARS treatment studies, 15 in vitro studies, and three acute respiratory distress syndrome studies met our inclusion criteria. Within in vitro studies, ribavirin, lopinavir, and type I IFN showed inhibition of SARS-CoV in tissue culture. In SARS-infected patient reports on ribavirin, 26 studies were classified as inconclusive, and four showed possible harm. Seven studies of convalescent plasma or IVIG, three of IFN type I, and two of LPV/r were inconclusive. In 29 studies of steroid use, 25 were inconclusive and four were classified as causing possible harm. CONCLUSIONS: Despite an extensive literature reporting on SARS treatments, it was not possible to determine whether treatments benefited patients during the SARS outbreak. Some may have been harmful. Clinical trials should be designed to validate a standard protocol for dosage

  9. Analysis of drug-drug interactions among patients receiving antiretroviral regimens using data from a large open-source prescription database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimish; Borg, Peter; Haubrich, Richard; McNicholl, Ian

    2018-06-14

    Results of a study of contraindicated concomitant medication use among recipients of preferred antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens are reported. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate concomitant medication use in a cohort of previously treatment-naive, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected U.S. patients prescribed preferred ART regimens during the period April 2014-March 2015. Data were obtained from a proprietary longitudinal prescription database; elements retrieved included age, sex, and prescription data. The outcome of interest was the frequency of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) associated with concomitant use of contraindicated medications. Data on 25,919 unique treatment-naive patients who used a preferred ART regimen were collected. Overall, there were 384 instances in which a contraindicated medication was dispensed for concurrent use with a recommended ART regimen. Rates of contraindicated concomitant medication use differed significantly by ART regimen; the highest rate (3.2%) was for darunavir plus ritonavir plus emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (DRV plus RTV plus FTC/TDF), followed by elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EVG/c/FTC/TDF)(2.8%). The highest frequencies of DDIs were associated with ART regimens that included a pharmacoenhancing agent: DRV plus RTV plus FTC/TDF (3.2%) and EVG/c/FTC/TDF (2.8%). In a large population of treatment-naive HIV-infected patients, ART regimens that contained a pharmacoenhancing agent were involved most frequently in contraindicated medication-related DDIs. All of the DDIs could have been avoided by using therapeutic alternatives within the same class not associated with a DDI. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thai national guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolekha, Rangsima; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith; Kiertiburanakul, Sasisopin; Chetchotisakd, Pleonchan; Boonsuk, Sarawut

    2018-01-01

    Background Thailand has made progress in reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to levels that meet the World Health Organization targets for so-called “elimination” (HIV/AIDS Treatment Prevention Working Group issued a new version of its National Prevention of MTCT guidelines in March 2017 aimed to reduce MTCT rate to HIV is diagnosed for ART naïve HIV-infected pregnant women. An alternative regimen is TDF or zidovudine (AZT) plus 3TC/FTC plus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) for HIV-infected pregnant women suspected resistant to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Treatment should be started immediately irrespective of gestational age and continued after delivery for life. Raltegravir is recommended in addition to the ART regimen for HIV-infected pregnant women who present late (gestational age (GA) ≥32 weeks) or those who have a viral load (VL) >1000 copies/mL at GA ≥32 weeks. HIV-infected pregnant women who conceive while receiving ART should continue their treatment regimen during pregnancy. HIV-infected pregnant women who present in labor and are not receiving ART should receive single-dose nevirapine immediately along with oral AZT, and continue ART for life. Infants born to HIV-infected mothers are categorized as high or standard risk for MTCT. High MTCT risk is defined as an infant whose mother has a viral load (VL) > 50 copies/mL at GA > 36 weeks or has received ART HIV-exposed infants. PMID:29861798

  11. Higher risk of renal impairment associated with tenofovir use amongst people living with HIV in India: a comparative cohort analysis between Western India and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Sanjay N; Smith, Colette; Makane, Abhimanyu; Youle, Mike; Johnson, Margaret; Bele, Vivek; Joshi, Kedar; Dabhade, Digamber; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2014-03-29

    Data on the renal safety of Tenofovir (TDF) in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs) is scarce. We compared development of various forms of renal impairment with use of TDF-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) between a cohort from the Institute of Infectious Diseases (IID) Pune, Western India and the Royal Free Hospital (RFH) London, UK. This is a retrospective analysis of change in estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) at 6, 12 and 24 months post TDF initiation using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. In people living with Human Immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) with pre-TDF eGFR > 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 time to development of and factors associated with progression to eGFR  90 ml/min/1.73 m2 PLHIV at IID were more likely to develop an eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (aHR = 7.6 [95% CI 3.4, 17.4] p < 0.0001) and had a faster rate of progression estimated using Kaplan Meier methods. Risk factors included age (per 10 years older: aHR = 2.21 [1.6, 3.0] p < 0.0001) and receiving concomitant ritonavir boosted Protease Inhibitor (PI/r) (aHR = 2.4 [1.2, 4.8] p = 0.01). There is higher frequency of treatment limiting renal impairment events amongst PLHIV receiving TDF in Western India. As TDF scale up progresses, programs need to develop capacity for monitoring and treatment of renal impairment associated with TDF.

  12. High Virologic Failure Rates with Maraviroc-Based Salvage Regimens Among Indian Patients: A Preliminary Analysis-Maraviroc Effectiveness in HIV-1 Subtype C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Sanjay; Gaikwad, Sunil; Bele, Vivek; Joshi, Kedar; Dabhade, Digamber

    2018-01-01

    There is no information on the clinical effectiveness of Maraviroc (MVC) amongst People Living with HIV (PLHIV) in India infected with HIV-1 Subtype C viruses. We conducted a retrospective chart review of adult PLHIV on MVC based Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens for at least 6 months. Maraviroc was initiated amongst PLHIV with documented R5 tropic viruses (determined by in-house population sequencing of the V3 loop in triplicate and interpreted using the Geno2Pheno algorithm) in combination with an Optimized Background regimen (designed using genotypic resistance testing and past ARV history). Plasma viral loads (PVL) are performed 6 months post-initiation and annually thereafter. Primary outcome d. Median duration on MVC treatment was 1.8 years (range 1-2.9 years) while median duration of ART prior to switching to MVC was 13 years. Maraviroc was combined with Darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) (n=10), Atazanavir/r (ATV/r) (n=2) and Lopinavir/r (LPV/r) (n=1). All PLHIV were infected with HIV-1 Subtype C. Only 23.3% PLHIV achieved virologic suppression at 6 months and sustained it for 2.3 years. Median CD4 count change from baseline was +117 (n=13), +228 (n=10), +253 (n=9), and +331 (n=4) at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months respectively. Repeat tropism among patients with virologic failure demonstrated R5 virus. High rates of virologic failure was seen when MVC was used amongst treatment experienced PLHIV infected with HIV-1 Subtype C in India. was the proportion of PLHIV with virologic success (PVL<50 copies/ml) at last follow up visit. Data on 13 PLHIV were analyze.

  13. PRESENCIA DE SÍNDROME METABÓLICO EN PACIENTES CON VIH EN EL HOSPITAL DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL DE IQUITOS, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chávez Chacaltana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha descrito la presencia del síndrome metabólico (SM en pacientes con VIH que reciben terapia antiretroviral (TAR. La presencia del SM implica un mayor riesgo cardiovascular y la eventual modificación de la terapia antiretroviral. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y las características del SM en pacientes con VIH que reciben TAR. La metodología fue descriptiva y transversal. Se evaluó a 78 pacientes entre junio a Setiembre del 2011. La evaluación fue clínica y de laboratorio (glicemia, colesterol, HDL y triglicéridos. Se encontró hipertrigliridemia (42.3%, colesterol HDL bajo (30.8%, hipertensión arterial (19.2%, obesidad abdominal (17.9%, e hiperglicemia en ayunas (12.8%. La prevalencia del síndrome metabólico fue de 19.2% (IC95% 17.4-21.0%; predomino en las mujeres (25.0% que en los hombres (17.7%, una mayor tendencia en mayores de 40 a más a años, con 6 a más años de TAR, y con esquema INTR + Lopinavir/ritonavir (28.0%, INTR+ Efavirenz (19.2% y INTR + Atazanavir (11.1%. El síndrome metabólico es prevalente en los pacientes con VIH, se recomienda considerar prioritario un oportuno un manejo integral e individualizado.

  14. PRESENCIA DE SÍNDROME METABÓLICO EN PACIENTES CON VIH EN EL HOSPITAL DE SEGURIDAD SOCIAL DE IQUITOS, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Chávez Chacaltana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha descrito la presencia del síndrome metabólico (SM en pacientes con VIH que reciben terapia antiretroviral (TAR. La presencia del SM implica un mayor riesgo cardiovascular y la eventual modificación de la terapia antiretroviral. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la prevalencia y las características del SM en pacientes con VIH que reciben TAR. La metodología fue descriptiva y transversal. Se evaluó a 78 pacientes entre Junio a Setiembre del 2011. La evaluación fue clínica y de laboratorio (glicemia, colesterol, HDL y triglicéridos. Se encontró hipertrigliridemia (42.3%, colesterol HDL bajo (30.8%, hipertensión arterial (19.2%, obesidad abdominal (17.9%, e hiperglicemia en ayunas (12.8%. La prevalencia del síndrome metabólico fue de 19.2% (IC95% 17.4-21.0%; predomino en la mujeres (25.0% que en los hombres (17.7%, una mayor tendencia en  mayores de 40 a más a años, con 6 a más años de TAR, y con esquema INTR + Lopinavir/ritonavir (28.0%, INTR+ Efavirenz (19.2% y INTR + Atazanavir (11.1%. El síndrome metabólico es prevalente en los pacientes con VIH, se recomienda considerar prioritario un oportuno un manejo integral e individualizado.

  15. Ergotismo y HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara C. Finn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El ergotismo es una complicación de la intoxicación aguda y/o el abuso crónico de los derivados del ergot. Se manifiesta por síndrome vasomotor con enfermedad vascular periférica que frecuentemente compromete extremidades. Presentamos cuatro casos de pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana 1 (HIV-1, en tratamiento con antirretrovirales que incluyen inhibidores de la proteasa reforzados con ritonavir, y que habían recibido ergotamina como automedicación. Ellos desarrollaron síntomas de enfermedad vascular periférica y al examen físico sus pulsos estaban disminuidos o ausentes. El Doppler arterial confirmó signos de espasmo arterial difuso en dos de ellos. Se hizo diagnóstico de ergotismo secundario a la asociación de ergotamina-inhibidores de la proteasa. Los pacientes fueron tratados con la discontinuación de las drogas involucradas (inhibidores de la proteasa y ergotamina, bloqueantes cálcicos, profilaxis antitrombótica con enoxaparina, antiagregación con ácido acetil salicílico y uno ellos recibió pentoxifilina e infusión de prostaglandinas vasodilatadoras con mejoría de los síntomas. Discutimos la presentación clínica de esta interacción medicamentosa, difícil de diagnosticar correctamente sin una fuerte sospecha de su existencia.

  16. Randomized trial of time-limited interruptions of protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy (ART vs. continuous therapy for HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Firnhaber

    Full Text Available The clinical outcomes of short interruptions of PI-based ART regimens remains undefined.A 2-arm non-inferiority trial was conducted on 53 HIV-1 infected South African participants with viral load 450 cells/µl on stavudine (or zidovudine, lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir. Subjects were randomized to a sequential 2, 4 and 8-week ART interruptions or b continuous ART (cART. Primary analysis was based on the proportion of CD4 count >350 cells(c/ml over 72 weeks. Adherence, HIV-1 drug resistance, and CD4 count rise over time were analyzed as secondary endpoints.The proportions of CD4 counts >350 cells/µl were 82.12% for the intermittent arm and 93.73 for the cART arm; the difference of 11.95% was above the defined 10% threshold for non-inferiority (upper limit of 97.5% CI, 24.1%; 2-sided CI: -0.16, 23.1. No clinically significant differences in opportunistic infections, adverse events, adherence or viral resistance were noted; after randomization, long-term CD4 rise was observed only in the cART arm.We are unable to conclude that short PI-based ART interruptions are non-inferior to cART in retention of immune reconstitution; however, short interruptions did not lead to a greater rate of resistance mutations or adverse events than cART suggesting that this regimen may be more forgiving than NNRTIs if interruptions in therapy occur.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00100646.

  17. Effects of treatment with suppressive combination antiretroviral drug therapy and the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid; (SAHA on SIV-infected Chinese rhesus macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binhua Ling

    Full Text Available Viral reservoirs-persistent residual virus despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART-remain an obstacle to cure of HIV-1 infection. Difficulty studying reservoirs in patients underscores the need for animal models that mimics HIV infected humans on cART. We studied SIV-infected Chinese-origin rhesus macaques (Ch-RM treated with intensive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and 3 weeks of treatment with the histone deacetyalse inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA.SIVmac251 infected Ch-RM received reverse transcriptase inhibitors PMPA and FTC and integrase inhibitor L-870812 beginning 7 weeks post infection. Integrase inhibitor L-900564 and boosted protease inhibitor treatment with Darunavir and Ritonavir were added later. cART was continued for 45 weeks, with daily SAHA administered for the last 3 weeks, followed by euthanasia/necropsy. Plasma viral RNA and cell/tissue-associated SIV gag RNA and DNA were quantified by qRT-PCR/qPCR, with flow cytometry monitoring changes in immune cell populations.Upon cART initiation, plasma viremia declined, remaining <30 SIV RNA copy Eq/ml during cART, with occasional blips. Decreased viral replication was associated with decreased immune activation and partial restoration of intestinal CD4+ T cells. SAHA was well tolerated but did not result in demonstrable treatment-associated changes in plasma or cell associated viral parameters.The ability to achieve and sustain virological suppression makes cART-suppressed, SIV-infected Ch-RM a potentially useful model to evaluate interventions targeting residual virus. However, despite intensive cART over one year, persistent viral DNA and RNA remained in tissues of all three animals. While well tolerated, three weeks of SAHA treatment did not demonstrably impact viral RNA levels in plasma or tissues; perhaps reflecting dosing, sampling and assay limitations.

  18. [Safety profile of dolutegravir].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Antonio; Domingo, Pere

    2015-03-01

    Integrase inhibitors are the latest drug family to be added to the therapeutic arsenal against human immunodeficiency virus infection. Drugs in this family that do not require pharmacological boosting are characterized by a very good safety profile. The latest integrase inhibitor to be approved for use is dolutegravir. In clinical trials, dolutegravir has shown an excellent tolerability profile, both in antiretroviral-naïve and previously treated patients. Discontinuation rates due to adverse effects were 2% and 3%, respectively. The most frequent adverse effects were nausea, headache, diarrhea and sleep disturbance. A severe hypersensitivity reaction has been reported in only one patient. In patients coinfected with hepatropic viruses, the safety profile is similar to that in patients without coinfection. The lipid profile of dolutegravir is similar to that of raltegravir and superior to those of Atripla® and darunavir/ritonavir. Dolutegravir induces an early, predictable and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine of around 10% of baseline values in treatment-naïve patients and of 14% in treatment-experienced patients. This increase is due to inhibition of tubular creatinine secretion through the OCT2 receptor and does not lead to a real decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate with algorithms that include serum creatinine. The effect of the combination of dolutegravir plus Kivexa(®) on biomarkers of bone remodeling is lower than that of Atripla(®). Dolutegravir has an excellent tolerability profile with no current evidence of long-term adverse effects. Its use is accompanied by an early and non-progressive increase in serum creatinine due to OCT2 receptor inhibition. In combination with abacavir/lamivudine, dolutegravir has a lower impact than enofovir/emtricitabine/efavirenz on bone remodelling markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacological and clinical evidence of nevirapine immediate- and extended-release formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ena J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Javier Ena, Concepción Amador, Conxa Benito, Francisco PasquauHIV Unit, Hospital Marina Baixa, Villajoyosa, SpainAbstract: We reviewed the current information available on nevirapine immediate- and extended-release formulations and its role in single-dose and combination antiretroviral therapy. Nevirapine was approved in 1996 and was the first non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor available for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. Nevirapine has demonstrated good efficacy and a well-characterized safety profile. A major drawback is the low genetic barrier, allowing the emergence of resistance in the presence of single mutations in the reverse-transcriptase gene. This shortcoming is particularly relevant when nevirapine is administered in a single dose to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection, compromising the efficacy of future non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase–inhibitor regimens. Studies published recently have probed the noninferiority of nevirapine compared to ritonavir-boosted atazanavir with both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine in antiretroviral treatment–naïve patients. In 2011, a new formulation of nevirapine (nevirapine extended release that allowed once-daily dosing was approved by the Food and Drug Administration and by the European Medicines Agency. VERxVe, a study comparing nevirapine extended release with nevirapine immediate release in antiretroviral treatment–naïve patients, and TRANxITION, a study carried out in antiretroviral treatment–experienced patients who switched therapy from nevirapine immediate release to nevirapine extended release, provided data on the noninferiority of the new formulation of nevirapine compared with nevirapine immediate release in terms of efficacy and safety. Nevirapine extended release will further increase the durability and persistence of nevirapine-containing antiretroviral therapy, allowing once-daily dosing regimens.Keywords: nevirapine

  20. Comparison of illumina and 454 deep sequencing in participants failing raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Z Li

    Full Text Available The impact of raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 minority variants (MVs on raltegravir treatment failure is unknown. Illumina sequencing offers greater throughput than 454, but sequence analysis tools for viral sequencing are needed. We evaluated Illumina and 454 for the detection of HIV-1 raltegravir-resistant MVs.A5262 was a single-arm study of raltegravir and darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-naïve patients. Pre-treatment plasma was obtained from 5 participants with raltegravir resistance at the time of virologic failure. A control library was created by pooling integrase clones at predefined proportions. Multiplexed sequencing was performed with Illumina and 454 platforms at comparable costs. Illumina sequence analysis was performed with the novel snp-assess tool and 454 sequencing was analyzed with V-Phaser.Illumina sequencing resulted in significantly higher sequence coverage and a 0.095% limit of detection. Illumina accurately detected all MVs in the control library at ≥0.5% and 7/10 MVs expected at 0.1%. 454 sequencing failed to detect any MVs at 0.1% with 5 false positive calls. For MVs detected in the patient samples by both 454 and Illumina, the correlation in the detected variant frequencies was high (R2 = 0.92, P<0.001. Illumina sequencing detected 2.4-fold greater nucleotide MVs and 2.9-fold greater amino acid MVs compared to 454. The only raltegravir-resistant MV detected was an E138K mutation in one participant by Illumina sequencing, but not by 454.In participants of A5262 with raltegravir resistance at virologic failure, baseline raltegravir-resistant MVs were rarely detected. At comparable costs to 454 sequencing, Illumina demonstrated greater depth of coverage, increased sensitivity for detecting HIV MVs, and fewer false positive variant calls.

  1. Predicting Early Viral Control under Direct-Acting Antiviral Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Using Pretreatment Immunological Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Hutchinson

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of all-oral direct-acting antiviral (DAA treatment has revolutionized care of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Regrettably, the high cost of DAA treatment is burdensome for healthcare systems and may be prohibitive for some patients who would otherwise benefit. Understanding how patient-related factors influence individual responses to DAA treatment may lead to more efficient prescribing. In this observational study, patients with chronic HCV infection were comprehensively monitored by flow cytometry to identify pretreatment immunological variables that predicted HCV RNA negativity within 4 weeks of commencing DAA treatment. Twenty-three patients [genotype 1a (n = 10, 1b (n = 9, and 3 (n = 4] were treated with daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir (SOF (n = 15, ledipasvir plus SOF (n = 4, or ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir (n = 4. DAA treatment most prominently altered the distribution of CD8+ memory T cell subsets. Knowing only pretreatment frequencies of CD3+ and naive CD8+ T cells allowed correct classification of 83% of patients as “fast” (HCV RNA-negative by 4 weeks or “slow” responders. In a prospective cohort, these parameters correctly classified 90% of patients. Slow responders exhibited higher frequencies of CD3+ T cells, CD8+ TEM cells, and CD5high CD27− CD57+ CD8+ chronically activated T cells, which is attributed to bystander hyperactivation of virus-non-specific CD8+ T cells. Taken together, non-specific, systemic CD8+ T cell activation predicted a longer time to viral clearance. This discovery allows pretreatment identification of individuals who may not require a full 12-week course of DAA therapy; in turn, this could lead to individualized prescribing and more efficient resource allocation.

  2. Protease mutations emerging on darunavir in protease inhibitor-naïve and experienced patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bouzidi, Kate; White, Ellen; Mbisa, Jean L; Phillips, Andrew; Mackie, Nicola; Pozniak, Anton; Dunn, David

    2014-01-01

    Darunavir (DRV) is a preferred agent in treatment guidelines for ART-naïve and experienced patients [1]. It is considered to have a high genetic barrier to resistance and 11 resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) are recognized by IAS-USA [2]. These have largely been identified by analyses examining the correlation between baseline genotype and virological response [3]. However, there is little information on RAMs that are directly selected by DRV, outside of short-term clinical trials. We aimed to identify emerging mutations by comparing the genotypes of individuals before and after DRV exposure. The UK HIV Drug Resistance Database was used to identify patients aged over 16 who had received at least 30 days of a DRV-containing regimen. Patients were included if they had a "baseline" resistance test, prior to DRV exposure, and a "repeat" test, either on DRV or within 30 days of stopping this agent. To avoid attributing the effects of other PIs on emerging RAMs to DRV, patients were excluded if they had received another PI for greater than 90 days between the baseline genotype and the start of DRV. The baseline and repeat tests were compared to determine the nature of mutations stratified by PI history. A total of 5623 patients had DRV, of whom 306 met the inclusion criteria. A total of 228 (74.5%) were male, median age at the start of DRV was 42 years (IQR 37-47), and half had subtype B infection. The mode of transmission was homosexual contact for 50%, heterosexual for 38%, and 3% were injection drug users. The median CD4 count at the start of DRV was 257 cells/mm(3) (IQR 94-453). A total of 149 patients (49%) had a history of PI use prior to DRV, and 157 (51%) were PI-naïve. The most common previous PIs were lopinavir, atazanavir, and saquinavir. Baseline DRV RAMs were present in 1 (0.6%) PI-naïve and 20 (13.4%) PI-experienced patients. Mutations emerged under DRV pressure in a further 3 (1.9%) PI-naïve patients, and in 7 (4.7%) PI-experienced patients, 5 of

  3. Clinically important drug interactions with zopiclone, zolpidem and zaleplon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Leah M; von Moltke, Lisa L; Greenblatt, David J

    2003-01-01

    Insomnia, an inability to initiate or maintain sleep, affects approximately one-third of the American population. Conventional benzodiazepines, such as triazolam and midazolam, were the treatment of choice for short-term insomnia for many years but are associated with adverse effects such as rebound insomnia, withdrawal and dependency. The newer hypnosedatives include zolpidem, zaleplon and zopiclone. These agents may be preferred over conventional benzodiazepines to treat short-term insomnia because they may be less likely to cause significant rebound insomnia or tolerance and are as efficacious as the conventional benzodiazepines. This review aims to summarise the published clinical drug interaction studies involving zolpidem, zaleplon and zopiclone. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions that may be clinically important are highlighted. Clinical trials have studied potential interactions of zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone with the following types of drugs: cytochrome P450 (CYP) inducers (rifampicin), CYP inhibitors (azoles, ritonavir and erythromycin), histamine H(2) receptor antagonists (cimetidine and ranitidine), antidepressants, antipsychotics, antagonists of benzodiazepines and drugs causing sedation. Rifampicin significantly induced the metabolism of the newer hypnosedatives and decreased their sedative effects, indicating that a dose increase of these agents may be necessary when they are administered with rifampicin. Ketoconazole, erythromycin and cimetidine inhibited the metabolism of the newer hypnosedatives and enhanced their sedative effects, suggesting that a dose reduction may be required. Addition of ethanol to treatment with the newer hypnosedatives resulted in additive sedative effects without altering the pharmacokinetic parameters of the drugs. Compared with some of the conventional benzodiazepines, fewer clinically important interactions appear to have been reported in the literature with zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone. The

  4. Gender differences in clinical, immunological, and virological outcomes in highly active antiretroviral-treated HIV–HCV coinfected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Emery

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Joel Emery1, Neora Pick2, Edward J Mills3, Curtis L Cooper11The Ottawa Hospital Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada; 2Oak Tree Clinic, BC Women’s Hospital, Vancouver, Canada; 3Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, CanadaObjective: The influence of biological sex on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antiretroviral treatment outcome is not well described in HIV–hepatitis C (HCV coinfection.Methods: We assessed patients’ clinical outcomes of HIV–HCV coinfected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy attending the Ottawa Hospital Immunodeficiency Clinic from January 1996 to June 2008.Results: We assessed 144 males and 39 females. Although similar in most baseline characteristics, the CD4 count was higher in females (375 vs 290 cells/μL. Fewer females initiated ritonavir-boosted regimens. The median duration on therapy before interruption or change was longer in males (10 versus 4 months (odds ratio [OR] 1.40 95% confidence interval: 0.95–2.04; P = 0.09. HIV RNA suppression was frequent (74% and mean CD4 count achieved robust (over 400 cells/μL at 6 months, irrespective of sex. The primary reasons for therapy interruption in females and males included: gastrointestinal intolerance (25% vs 19%; P = 0.42; poor adherence (22% vs 15%; P = 0.31; neuropsychiatric symptoms (19% vs 5%; P = 0.003; and lost to follow-up (3% vs 13%; P = 0.08. Seven males (5% and no females discontinued therapy for liver-specific complications. Death rate was higher in females (23% vs 7%; P = 0.003.Conclusion: There are subtle differences in the characteristics of female and male HIV–HCV coinfected patients that influence HIV treatment decisions. The reasons for treatment interruption and change differ by biological sex. This knowledge should be considered when starting HIV therapy and in efforts to improve treatment outcomes.Keywords: AIDS, HIV, HCV, coinfection, HAART, viral load, women, gender differences

  5. Efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals-based antiviral therapies for hepatitis C virus patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Qu, Yundong; Guo, Ying; Wang, Yan; Wang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals (DAA)-based antiviral therapies for HCV patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease. We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and CENTRAL on the Cochrane Library without time and language limitations. The search strategy used was "(End stage renal disease OR chronic kidney failure OR severe renal impairment OR chronic kidney disease OR dialysis) AND (sofosbuvir OR simeprevir OR grazoprevir OR elbasvir OR ombitasvir OR paritaprevir OR ritonavir OR dasabuvir OR daclatasvir OR asuparevir OR direct-acting antiviral OR DAA)". Sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12), adverse events (AEs) and/or serious adverse events (SAEs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled. Eleven studies, comprising a total of 264 patients were included for our meta-analysis. The pooled SVR12 rate were 93.2% (95% CI 89.9%-95.9%, I 2 =0.0%), 89.4% (95% CI 82.0%-95.0%, I 2 =0.0%) and 94.7% (95% CI 91.0%-97.5%, I 2 =0.0%) in total population, patients with sofosbuvir-based therapies and patients with non-sofosbuvir-based therapies respectively. For HCV genotype 1 patients, the pooled SVR12 rate was 93.1% (95% CI 88.3%-96.7%, I 2 =20.0%). The pooled incidence of SAEs was 12.1% (95% CI 6.2%-19.7%, I 2 =55.0%). The pooled discontinuation rate because of AEs or SAEs in our meta-analysis was 2.2% (95% CI 0.8%-4.4%, I 2 =0.0%). DAA-based antiviral therapies are effective and well-tolerated for HCV patients with stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Different origin of adipogenic stem cells influences the response to antiretroviral drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Nasi, Milena; Carnevale, Gianluca; Pisciotta, Alessandra; Bianchini, Elena; Bartolomeo, Regina [Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia School of Medicine, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Polo, Miriam [Department of Pharmacology, University of Valencia, Av.da Blasco Ibáñez 15, Valencia (Spain); FISABIO–Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Av.da Gaspar Aguilar 90, Valencia (Spain); De Pol, Anto [Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia School of Medicine, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento Sperimentale Interaziendale, Campus San Lazzaro, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Pinti, Marcello [Department of Life Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Cossarizza, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.cossarizza@unimore.it [Department of Surgery, Medicine, Dentistry and Morphological Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia School of Medicine, Via Campi 287, 41125 Modena (Italy); Dipartimento Sperimentale Interaziendale, Campus San Lazzaro, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    Lipodystrophy (LD) is a main side effect of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection, and can be provoked by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). LD exists in different forms, characterized by fat loss, accumulation, or both, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. In particular, few data exist concerning the effects of antiretroviral drugs on adipocyte differentiation. Adipose tissue can arise either from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), that include bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBM-MSCs), or from ectodermal stem cells, that include dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). To analyze whether the embryonal origin of adipocytes might impact the occurrence of different phenotypes in LD, we quantified the effects of several antiretroviral drugs on the adipogenic differentiation of hBM-MSCs and hDPSCs. hBM-MSCs and hDPSCs were isolated from healthy donors. Cells were treated with 10 and 50 μM stavudine (d4T), efavirenz (EFV), atazanavir (ATV), ritonavir (RTV), and ATV-boosted RTV. Viability and adipogenesis were evaluated by staining with propidium iodide, oil red, and adipoRed; mRNA levels of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, i.e. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and in adipocyte functions, i.e. fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), perilipin-1 (PLIN1) and 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase-2 (AGPAT2), were quantified by real time PCR. We found that ATV, RTV, EFV, and ATV-boosted RTV, but not d4T, caused massive cell death in both cell types. EFV and d4T affected the accumulation of lipid droplets and induced changes in mRNA levels of genes involved in adipocyte functions in hBM-MSCs, while RTV and ATV had little effects. All drugs stimulated the accumulation of lipid droplets in hDPSCs. Thus, the adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells can be influenced by antiretroviral drugs, and depends, at least in

  7. Virtual drug screen schema based on multiview similarity integration and ranking aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong; Sheng, Zhen; Zhu, Ruixin; Huang, Qi; Liu, Qi; Cao, Zhiwei

    2012-03-26

    The current drug virtual screen (VS) methods mainly include two categories. i.e., ligand/target structure-based virtual screen and that, utilizing protein-ligand interaction fingerprint information based on the large number of complex structures. Since the former one focuses on the one-side information while the later one focuses on the whole complex structure, they are thus complementary and can be boosted by each other. However, a common problem faced here is how to present a comprehensive understanding and evaluation of the various virtual screen results derived from various VS methods. Furthermore, there is still an urgent need for developing an efficient approach to fully integrate various VS methods from a comprehensive multiview perspective. In this study, our virtual screen schema based on multiview similarity integration and ranking aggregation was tested comprehensively with statistical evaluations, providing several novel and useful clues on how to perform drug VS from multiple heterogeneous data sources. (1) 18 complex structures of HIV-1 protease with ligands from the PDB were curated as a test data set and the VS was performed with five different drug representations. Ritonavir ( 1HXW ) was selected as the query in VS and the weighted ranks of the query results were aggregated from multiple views through four similarity integration approaches. (2) Further, one of the ranking aggregation methods was used to integrate the similarity ranks calculated by gene ontology (GO) fingerprint and structural fingerprint on the data set from connectivity map, and two typical HDAC and HSP90 inhibitors were chosen as the queries. The results show that rank aggregation can enhance the result of similarity searching in VS when two or more descriptions are involved and provide a more reasonable similarity rank result. Our study shows that integrated VS based on multiple data fusion can achieve a remarkable better performance compared to that from individual ones and

  8. Inhibitors of GLUT/SLC2A Enhance the Action of BCNU and Temozolomide against High-Grade Gliomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Azzalin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucose transport across glioblastoma membranes plays a crucial role in maintaining the enhanced glycolysis typical of high-grade gliomas and glioblastoma. We tested the ability of two inhibitors of the glucose transporters GLUT/SLC2A superfamily, indinavir (IDV and ritonavir (RTV, and of one inhibitor of the Na/glucose antiporter type 2 (SGLT2/SLC5A2 superfamily, phlorizin (PHZ, in decreasing glucose consumption and cell proliferation of human and murine glioblastoma cells. We found in vitro that RTV, active on at least three different GLUT/SLC2A transporters, was more effective than IDV, a specific inhibitor of GLUT4/SLC2A4, both in decreasing glucose consumption and lactate production and in inhibiting growth of U87MG and Hu197 human glioblastoma cell lines and primary cultures of human glioblastoma. PHZ was inactive on the same cells. Similar results were obtained when cells were grown in adherence or as 3D multicellular tumor spheroids. RTV treatment but not IDV treatment induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPKα phosphorylation that paralleled the decrease in glycolytic activity and cell growth. IDV, but not RTV, induced an increase in GLUT1/SLC2A1 whose activity could compensate for the inhibition of GLUT4/SLC2A4 by IDV. RTV and IDV pass poorly the blood brain barrier and are unlikely to reach sufficient liquoral concentrations in vivo to inhibit glioblastoma growth as single agents. Isobologram analysis of the association of RTV or IDV and 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU or 4-methyl-5-oxo-2,3,4,6,8-pentazabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-2,7,9-triene-9-carboxamide (TMZ indicated synergy only with RTV on inhibition of glioblastoma cells. Finally, we tested in vivo the combination of RTV and BCNU on established GL261 tumors. This drug combination increased the overall survival and allowed a five-fold reduction in the dose of BCNU.

  9. Calculation of direct antiretroviral treatment costs and potential cost savings by using generics in the German HIV ClinSurv cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Stoll

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND/AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to determine the cost impacts of antiretroviral drugs by analysing a long-term follow-up of direct costs for combined antiretroviral therapy, cART, -regimens in the nationwide long-term observational multi-centre German HIV ClinSurv Cohort. The second aim was to develop potential cost saving strategies by modelling different treatment scenarios. METHODS: Antiretroviral regimens (ART from 10,190 HIV-infected patients from 11 participating ClinSurv study centres have been investigated since 1996. Biannual data cART-initiation, cART-changes, surrogate markers, clinical events and the Centre of Disease Control- (CDC-stage of HIV disease are reported. Treatment duration was calculated on a daily basis via the documented dates for the beginning and end of each antiretroviral drug treatment. Prices were calculated for each individual regimen based on actual office sales prices of the branded pharmaceuticals distributed by the license holder including German taxes. RESULTS: During the 13-year follow-up period, 21,387,427 treatment days were covered. Cumulative direct costs for antiretroviral drugs of €812,877,356 were determined according to an average of €42.08 per day (€7.52 to € 217.70. Since cART is widely used in Germany, the costs for an entire regimen increased by 13.5%. Regimens are more expensive in the advanced stages of HIV disease. The potential for cost savings was calculated using non-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor, NNRTI, more frequently instead of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, PI/r, in first line therapy. This calculation revealed cumulative savings of 10.9% to 19.8% of daily treatment costs (50% and 90% substitution of PI/r, respectively. Substituting certain branded drugs by generic drugs showed potential cost savings of between 1.6% and 31.8%. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the data of this nationwide study reflects disease-specific health services research

  10. Fatores determinantes para modificações da terapia antirretroviral inicial Factors determining changes in initial antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Girão Limaverde Lima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar os fatores determinantes das mudanças da terapia antirretroviral (TARV inicial dos pacientes assistidos em hospital de referência em AIDS do Ceará. MÉTODOS: O estudo descritivo e exploratório utilizou a análise dos formulários de solicitação de início ou modificação de tratamento do ano de 2008, acompanhando as mudanças de terapia durante o primeiro ano de tratamento. Os dados foram analisados nos programas Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS e Epi Info, utilizando ANOVA e teste exato do coeficiente de contingência, com significância de p OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors determining changes in initial antiretroviral therapy (ART in patients attended to in an AIDS tertiary care hospital in Ceará, Brazil. METHODS: This descriptive and exploratory study used the analysis of request to initiate or change treatment forms in the year of 2008, and the changes in therapy were followed through the first year of treatment. Data were analyzed with SPSS and EpiInfo by using ANOVA and the exact test of the coefficient of contingency, with significance at p < 0.05. RESULTS: From 301 patients initiating ART, 22.1% (n = 68 needed a change in the first year. These patients were mostly males, aged 20 to 39 years; with only one ART changed needed in 86.8% of the cases (n = 59. Reports of two or three changes in regimen were observed. Zidovudine was the drug most often changed, followed by lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz. A significant association was found between changes in initial regimens and the report of adverse reactions (p < 0.001. Conclusion: The main factor determining changes in the initial ART was an adverse reaction report. Most patients had one change in the initial ART over the first year of treatment. ART monitoring contributed to a better control of the specific drug therapy.

  11. Nephrotoxicity during tenofovir treatment: a three-year follow-up study in a Brazilian reference clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Ferreira da Silva Pinto Neto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 275 patients in use of tenofovir were retrospectively followed-up for three years to evaluate risk factors involved in impaired renal function. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to verify any differences in creatinine levels and estimated clearance at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months, adjusting for the co-variables sex, skin color, age >50 years, arterial hypertension, diabetes and the use of the ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r lopinavir/r or atazanavir/r. The software package STATISTICA 10® was used for statistical analysis. The patients’ mean age was 43.2 ± 10.7 years. Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH and diabetes were found in 20.4% and 8.7% of the patients, respectively. Overall, 96.7% were on tenofovir associated with lamivudine (TDF + 3TC, 39.3% on lopinavir/r, 29.8% on efavirenz, and 17.6% on atazanavir/r. There was a statistically significant difference in estimated creatinine clearance at 24 months, when the co-variables male (F = 3.95; p = 0.048, SAH (F = 6.964; p = 0.009, and age over 50 years (F = 45.81; p < 0.001 were taken into consideration. Analysis of the co-variable use of atazanavir/r showed a tendency toward an increased risk over time (F = 2.437; p = 0.063; however, no significant time interaction was seen. At 36-month, a statistically significant difference was found for age over 50 years, (F = 32.02; p < 0.05 and there was a significant time-by-sex interaction (F = 3.117; p = 0.0149. TDF was discontinued in 12 patients, one because of a femoral neck fracture (0.7% and 11 due to nephrotoxicity (4%. Of these latter cases, 9/11 patients were also using protease inhibitors. These data strongly alert that tenofovir use should be individualized with careful attention to renal function especially in male patients, over 50 years, with SAH, and probably those on ATV/r.

  12. [GESIDA/National AIDS Plan: Consensus document on antiretroviral therapy in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (Updated January 2015)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This consensus document is an update of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) guidelines and recommendations for HIV-1 infected adult patients. To formulate these recommendations, a panel composed of members of the AIDS Study Group and the AIDS National Plan (GeSIDA/Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) reviewed the efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, and cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings. The strength of the recommendations, and the evidence that supports them, are based on modified criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. In this update, cART is recommended for all patients infected by type 1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). The strength and level of the recommendation depends on the CD4+T-lymphocyte count, the presence of opportunistic diseases or comorbid conditions, age, and prevention of transmission of HIV. The objective of cART is to achieve an undetectable plasma viral load. Initial cART should always comprise a combination of 3 drugs, including 2 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and a third drug from a different family. Three out of the ten recommended regimes are regarded as preferential (all of them with an integrase inhibitor as the third drug), and the other seven (based on a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, or an integrase inhibitor) as alternatives. This update presents the causes and criteria for switching cART in patients with undetectable plasma viral load, and in cases of virological failure where rescue cART should comprise 3 (or at least 2) drugs that are fully active against the virus. An update is also provided for the specific criteria for cART in special situations (acute infection, HIV-2 infection, and pregnancy) and with comorbid conditions (tuberculosis or other opportunistic infections, kidney disease, liver disease, and cancer). These new guidelines

  13. A highly intensified ART regimen induces long-term viral suppression and restriction of the viral reservoir in a simian AIDS model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iart Luca Shytaj

    Full Text Available Stably suppressed viremia during ART is essential for establishing reliable simian models for HIV/AIDS. We tested the efficacy of a multidrug ART (highly intensified ART in a wide range of viremic conditions (10³-10⁷ viral RNA copies/mL in SIVmac251-infected rhesus macaques, and its impact on the viral reservoir. Eleven macaques in the pre-AIDS stage of the disease were treated with a multidrug combination (highly intensified ART consisting of two nucleosidic/nucleotidic reverse transcriptase inhibitors (emtricitabine and tenofovir, an integrase inhibitor (raltegravir, a protease inhibitor (ritonavir-boosted darunavir and the CCR5 blocker maraviroc. All animals stably displayed viral loads below the limit of detection of the assay (i.e. <40 RNA copies/mL after starting highly intensified ART. By increasing the sensitivity of the assay to 3 RNA copies/mL, viral load was still below the limit of detection in all subjects tested. Importantly, viral DNA resulted below the assay detection limit (<2 copies of DNA/5*10⁵ cells in PBMCs and rectal biopsies of all animals at the end of the follow-up, and in lymph node biopsies from the majority of the study subjects. Moreover, highly intensified ART decreased central/transitional memory, effector memory and activated (HLA-DR⁺ effector memory CD4⁺ T-cells in vivo, in line with the role of these subsets as the main cell subpopulations harbouring the virus. Finally, treatment with highly intensified ART at viral load rebound following suspension of a previous anti-reservoir therapy eventually improved the spontaneous containment of viral load following suspension of the second therapeutic cycle, thus leading to a persistent suppression of viremia in the absence of ART. In conclusion, we show, for the first time, complete suppression of viral load by highly intensified ART and a likely associated restriction of the viral reservoir in the macaque AIDS model, making it a useful platform for testing

  14. Impact of low-level-viremia on HIV-1 drug-resistance evolution among antiretroviral treated-patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Delaugerre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug-resistance mutations (DRAM are frequently selected in patients with virological failure defined as viral load (pVL above 500 copies/ml (c/mL, but few resistance data are available at low-level viremia (LLV. Our objective was to determine the emergence and evolution of DRAM during LLV in HIV-1-infected patients while receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients presenting a LLV episode defined as pVL between 40 and 500 c/mL on at least 3 occasions during a 6-month period or longer while on the same ART. Resistance genotypic testing was performed at the onset and at the end of LLV period. Emerging DRAM was defined during LLV if never detected on baseline genotype or before. RESULTS: 48 patients including 4 naive and 44 pretreated (median 9 years presented a LLV episode with a median duration of 11 months. Current ART included 2NRTI (94%, ritonavir-boosted PI (94%, NNRTI (23%, and/or raltegravir (19%. Median pVL during LLV was 134 c/mL. Successful resistance testing at both onset and end of the LLV episode were obtained for 37 patients (77%, among who 11 (30% acquired at least 1 DRAM during the LLV period: for NRTI in 6, for NNRTI in 1, for PI in 4, and for raltegravir in 2. During the LLV period, number of drugs with genotypic resistance increased from a median of 4.5 to 6 drugs. Duration and pVL level of LLV episode, duration of previous ART, current and nadir CD4 count, number of baseline DRAM and GSS were not identified as predictive factors of resistance acquisition during LLV, probably due to limited number of patients. CONCLUSION: Persistent LLV episodes below 500 c/ml while receiving ART is associated with emerging DRAM for all drug classes and a decreasing in further therapeutic options, suggesting to earlier consider resistance monitoring and ART optimization in this setting.

  15. [A pediatric case of HIV who diagnosed by virtue of disseminated cryptococcus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Manolya; Sütçü, Murat; Aktürk, Hacer; Hançerli Törün, Selda; Karagöz, Nurinisa; Beka, Hayati; Yekeler, Ensar; Ağaçfidan, Ali; Salman, Nuran; Somer, Ayper

    2016-07-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an important opportunistic pathogen that causes serious mortality and morbidity in AIDS patients. Although its incidence has decreased with proper antiretroviral treatment (ART), it is still a major concern in areas with low socioeconomic HIV endemic countries with poor sources of therapy. In our country, pediatric HIV infection and so, HIV-related opportunistic infections are very rare. In order to pay attention to this unusual collaboration; herein, we presented a pediatric case who was diagnosed with HIV and disseminated cryptococcus infection concomitantly. A 6.5-year-old previously healthy girl has admitted to our hospital with the complaints of prolonged fever, cough and hemoptysis. On her physical examination she had oral candidiasis, generalized lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly. Laboratory findings were as follows; white blood cell count: 3170 µL (neutrophil: 2720 µL, lymphocyte: 366 µL), hemoglobin level: 7.8 gr/dl, hematocrit: 25.5% platelets: 170.000 µL, CRP: 15.2 mg/L and serum IgG level: 1865 mg/dl. Her anti-HIV test yielde,d positive result and confirmed by Western blot assay, together with a high viral load (HIV-RNA: 3.442.000 copies/ml). She was started ART (lamivudine, zidovudine and lopinavir/ritonavir combination) with the diagnosis of stage 3 HIV infection (AIDS). Posteroanterior chest radiograph showed mediastinal extension and nodular parenchyma. Since the patient was suspected to have pulmonary tuberculosis based on the clinical and radiological findings, empirical antituberculosis therapy was started. Because of the insistance of fever, three different blood specimens, bone marrow and gastric aspirates were collected for culture, in which all of them yielded C.neoformans growth. She was then diagnosed as disseminated cryptococcosis and treated with liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole successfully. Although pediatric HIV infection is usually diagnosed secondary to maternal disease, it can rarely be

  16. Different origin of adipogenic stem cells influences the response to antiretroviral drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibellini, Lara; De Biasi, Sara; Nasi, Milena; Carnevale, Gianluca; Pisciotta, Alessandra; Bianchini, Elena; Bartolomeo, Regina; Polo, Miriam; De Pol, Anto; Pinti, Marcello; Cossarizza, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Lipodystrophy (LD) is a main side effect of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection, and can be provoked by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and protease inhibitors (PIs). LD exists in different forms, characterized by fat loss, accumulation, or both, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. In particular, few data exist concerning the effects of antiretroviral drugs on adipocyte differentiation. Adipose tissue can arise either from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), that include bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBM-MSCs), or from ectodermal stem cells, that include dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). To analyze whether the embryonal origin of adipocytes might impact the occurrence of different phenotypes in LD, we quantified the effects of several antiretroviral drugs on the adipogenic differentiation of hBM-MSCs and hDPSCs. hBM-MSCs and hDPSCs were isolated from healthy donors. Cells were treated with 10 and 50 μM stavudine (d4T), efavirenz (EFV), atazanavir (ATV), ritonavir (RTV), and ATV-boosted RTV. Viability and adipogenesis were evaluated by staining with propidium iodide, oil red, and adipoRed; mRNA levels of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, i.e. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), and in adipocyte functions, i.e. fatty acid synthase (FASN), fatty acid binding protein-4 (FABP4), perilipin-1 (PLIN1) and 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase-2 (AGPAT2), were quantified by real time PCR. We found that ATV, RTV, EFV, and ATV-boosted RTV, but not d4T, caused massive cell death in both cell types. EFV and d4T affected the accumulation of lipid droplets and induced changes in mRNA levels of genes involved in adipocyte functions in hBM-MSCs, while RTV and ATV had little effects. All drugs stimulated the accumulation of lipid droplets in hDPSCs. Thus, the adipogenic differentiation of human stem cells can be influenced by antiretroviral drugs, and depends, at least in

  17. Metronidazole or Cotrimoxazole therapy is associated with a decrease in intestinal bioavailability of common antiretroviral drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Dossou-Yovo

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MTZ and Cotrimoxazole (CTX are used in HIV/AIDS patients eligible for antiretroviral treatment. The objective of this animal study was to determine whether pre-treatment with antibiotics affects the intestinal bioavailability of Atazanavir (ATV and Ritonavir (RTV. After oral administration of 1 mg MTZ and CTX for 7 days, the rat colonic mucosa were analyzed for mucus thickness or placed in Ussing chambers to measure ATV and RTV net transepithelial fluxes (Jnet. 1. In control rats, the mucus thickness was 43.3±7.6 µm and 40.7±6.9 µm, in proximal and distal colon, respectively. In proximal colon, the thickness was 57.2±8.8 and 58.2±6.9 µm after MTZ and CTX, respectively whereas in distal colon, the thickness was 121.1±38.4 and 170.5±35.0 µm (P<0.05 respectively. 2. Transepithelial conductance was reduced after MTZ or CTX in the proximal and distal colon. 3. In control, net ATV secretion was observed both in proximal (-0.36±0.02 µg.hr(-1 cm(-2 and distal colon (-0.30±0.08 µg.hr(-1 cm(-2. After MTZ and CTX, it was increased in the proximal colon by two 2 fold and 4 fold, respectively and in the distal colon by 3 fold and 5 fold, respectively. 4. In control, there was no net active RTV transport either in proximal (+0.01±0.01 µg.hr(-1 cm(-2 or distal colon (+0.04±0.01 µg.hr(-1 cm(-2. After MTZ and CTX, secretion was increased 5 fold and 10 fold, respectively, in the proximal colon and two fold and 5 fold, respectively in the distal colon (p<0.001. In conclusion, after MTZ and CTX therapy, the mucus layer was enlarged, passive permeability was decreased and ATV and RTV were actively secreted by the colonic epithelium suggesting that, in rat, the intestinal bioavailability of ATV and RTV is impaired after antibiotic therapy.

  18. Randomized trial of stopping or continuing ART among postpartum women with pre-ART CD4 ≥ 400 cells/mm3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith S Currier

    Full Text Available Health benefits of postpartum antiretroviral therapy (ART for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive women with high CD4+ T-counts have not been assessed in randomized trials.Asymptomatic, HIV-positive, non-breastfeeding women with pre-ART CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 400 cells/mm3 started on ART during pregnancy were randomized up to 42 days after delivery to continue or discontinue ART. Lopinavir/ritonavir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine was the preferred ART regimen. The sample size was selected to provide 88% power to detect a 50% reduction from an annualized primary event rate of 2.07%. A post-hoc analysis evaluated HIV/AIDS-related and World Health Organization (WHO Stage 2 and 3 events. All analyses were intent to treat.1652 women from 52 sites in Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, China, Haiti, Peru, Thailand and the US were enrolled (1/2010-11/2014. Median age was 28 years and major racial categories were Black African (28%, Asian (25% White (15%. Median entry CD4 count was 696 cells/mm3 (IQR 575-869, median ART exposure prior to delivery was 19 weeks (IQR 13-24 and 94% had entry HIV-1 RNA < 1000 copies/ml. After a median follow-up of 2.3 years, the primary composite endpoint rate was significantly lower than expected, and not significantly different between arms (continue arm 0.21 /100 person years(py; discontinue 0.31/100 py, Hazard ratio (HR 0.68, 95% CI: 0.19, 2.40. WHO Stage 2 and 3 events were significantly reduced with continued ART (2.08/100 py vs. 4.36/100 py in the discontinue arm; HR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.33, 0.70. Toxicity rates did not differ significantly between arms. Among women randomized to continue ART, 189/827 (23% had virologic failure; of the 155 with resistance testing, 103 (66% failed without resistance to their current regimen, suggesting non-adherence.Overall, serious clinical events were rare among young HIV-positive post-partum women with high CD4 cell counts. Continued ART was safe and was associated with a halving of the

  19. Simplification to abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir maintains viral suppression and improves bone and renal biomarkers in ASSURE, a randomized, open label, non-inferiority trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Wohl

    Full Text Available Simplification of antiretroviral therapy in patients with suppressed viremia may minimize long-term adverse effects. The study's primary objective was to determine whether abacavir/lamivudine + atazanavir (ABC/3TC+ATV was virologically non-inferior to tenofovir/emtricitabine + atazanavir/ritonavir (TDF/FTC+ATV/r over 24 weeks in a population of virologically suppressed, HIV-1 infected patients.This open-label, multicenter, non-inferiority study enrolled antiretroviral experienced, HIV-infected adults currently receiving a regimen of TDF/FTC+ATV/r for ≥ 6 months with no history of virologic failure and whose HIV-1 RNA had been ≤ 75 copies/mL on 2 consecutive measurements including screening. Patients were randomized 1 ∶ 2 to continue current treatment or simplify to ABC/3TC+ATV.The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with HIV-RNA<50 copies/mL at Week 24 by the Time to Loss of Virologic Response (TLOVR algorithm. Secondary endpoints included alternative measures of efficacy, adverse events (AEs, and fasting lipids. Exploratory endpoints included inflammatory, coagulation, bone, and renal biomarkers.After 24 weeks, ABC/3TC+ATV (n = 199 was non-inferior to TDF/FTC+ATV/r (n = 97 by both the primary analysis (87% in both groups and all secondary efficacy analyses. Rates of grade 2-4 AEs were similar between the two groups (40% vs 37%, respectively, but an excess of hyperbilirubinemia made the rate of grade 3-4 laboratory abnormalities higher in the TDF/FTC+ATV/r group (30% compared with the ABC/3TC+ATV group (13%. Lipid levels were stable except for HDL cholesterol, which increased significantly in the ABC/3TC+ATV group. Bone and renal biomarkers improved significantly between baseline and Week 24 in patients taking ABC/3TC+ATV, and the difference between groups was significant at Week 24. No significant changes occurred in any inflammatory or coagulation biomarker within or between treatment groups.After 24 weeks, simplification to

  20. Drug Pricing Evolution in Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernaz, Nathalie; Girardin, François; Goossens, Nicolas; Brügger, Urs; Riguzzi, Marco; Perrier, Arnaud; Negro, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the association between the stepwise increase in the sustained viral response (SVR) and Swiss and United States (US) market prices of drug regimens for treatment-naive, genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the last 25 years. We identified the following five steps in the development of HCV treatment regimens: 1) interferon (IFN)-α monotherapy in the early '90s, 2) IFN-α in combination with ribavirin (RBV), 3) pegylated (peg) IFN-α in combination with RBV, 4) the first direct acting antivirals (DAAs) (telaprevir and boceprevir) in combination with pegIFN-α and RBV, and 5) newer DAA-based regimens, such as sofosbuvir (which is or is not combined with ledipasvir) and fixed-dose combination of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir and ombitasvir in combination with dasabuvir. We performed a linear regression and mean cost analysis to test for an association between SVRs and HCV regimen prices. We conducted a sensitivity analysis using US prices at the time of US drug licensing. We selected randomized clinical trials of drugs approved for use in Switzerland from 1997 to July 2015 including treatment-naïve patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. We identified a statistically significant positive relationship between the proportion of patients achieving SVRs and the costs of HCV regimens in Switzerland (with a bivariate ordinary least square regression yielding an R2 measure of 0.96) and the US (R2 = 0.95). The incremental cost per additional percentage of SVR was 597.14 USD in Switzerland and 1,063.81 USD in the US. The pricing of drugs for HCV regimens follows a value-based model, which has a stable ratio of costs per achieved SVR over 25 years. Health care systems are struggling with the high resource use of these new agents despite their obvious long-term advantages for the overall health of the population. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry, health care payers and other stakeholders are challenged with finding new drug

  1. Intensification of antiretroviral treatment with raltegravir for pregnant women living with HIV at high risk of vertical transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Thepnarong, Nattawan; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith; Anugulruengkitt, Suvaporn; Anunsittichai, Orawan; Theerawit, Tuangtip; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2018-04-01

    Objectives:  The rate of vertical HIV transmission for women at high risk of HIV transmission stands at approximately 7.6%. In the present study we describe infant infection rates in women who had received raltegravir (RAL) intensification during pregnancy to a standard three-drug antiretroviral (ART) regimen in Thailand. Methods:  This prospective cohort study enrolled HIV-1-positive pregnant women at high risk of vertical transmission, as defined by (1) ART initiation at a gestational age (GA) ≥32 weeks or (2) HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL at GA of 32-38 weeks while on ART. Women received a standard three-drug ART regimen with RAL intensification (400 mg twice daily) until delivery and continued on a three-drug ART regimen after delivery. Plasma HIV-1 RNA testing was performed before intensification and at delivery. Infant HIV-1 status was determined using DNA PCR at birth, and at 1, 2 and 4 months of life. Results:  Between February 2016 and November 2017, 154 pregnant women on ART were enrolled into the study with a median CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA level of 382 cells/mm 3 and 4.0 log 10 copies/mL, respectively. The three-drug combination consisted of either a lopinavir/ritonavir- (53%) or efavirenz-based (43%) regimen. Median GA at time of RAL initiation was 34 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 33-36) and median duration was 21 days (IQR 8-34). The proportion of women who had a plasma HIV-1 RNA HIV infection, three in utero and three peripartum. Overall vertical transmission rate was 3.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-8.2). Conclusion:  The majority of high-risk pregnant women living with HIV-1 who had received RAL intensification achieved viral suppression at delivery with a relatively low rate of vertical transmission. This intensification strategy represents an option for prevention in HIV-positive women at high risk of vertical transmission.

  2. The HIV-Brazil cohort study: design, methods and participant characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Grangeiro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The HIV-Brazil Cohort Study was established to analyze the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and the impact of this treatment on morbidity, quality of life (QOL and mortality. The study design, patients' profiles and characteristics of cART initiation between 2003 and 2010 were described. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since 2003, the HIV-Brazil Cohort has been following HIV-infected adults receiving cART at 26 public health care facilities, using routine clinical care data and self-reported QOL questionnaires. When not otherwise available, data are obtained from national information systems. The main outcomes of interest are diseases related or unrelated to HIV; suppression of viral replication; adverse events; virological, clinical and immunological failures; changes in the cART; and mortality. For the 5,061 patients who started cART between 2003 and 2010, the median follow-up time was 4.1 years (IQR 2.2-5.9 years with an 83.4% retention rate. Patient profiles were characterized by a predominance of men (male/female ratio 1.7∶1, with a mean age of 36.9 years (SD 9.9 years; 55.2% had been infected with HIV via heterosexual contact. The majority of patients (53.4% initiated cART with a CD4+ T-cell count ≤200 cells/mm3. The medications most often used in the various treatment regimens were efavirenz (59.7% and lopinavir/ritonavir (18.2%. The proportion of individuals achieving viral suppression within the first 12 months of cART use was 77.4% (95% CI 76.1-78.6. Nearly half (45.4% of the patients presented HIV-related clinical manifestations after starting cART, and the AIDS mortality rate was 13.9 per 1,000 person-years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results from cART use in the daily practice of health services remain relatively unknown in low- and middle-income countries, and studies with the characteristics of the HIV-Brazil Cohort contribute to minimizing these shortcomings, given its scope and patient

  3. Predictors of switch to and early outcomes on third-line antiretroviral therapy at a large public-sector clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Denise; Hirasen, Kamban; Berhanu, Rebecca; Malete, Given; Ive, Prudence; Spencer, David; Badal-Faesen, Sharlaa; Sanne, Ian M; Fox, Matthew P

    2018-04-10

    While efficacy data exist, there are limited data on the outcomes of patients on third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa in actual practice. Being able to identify predictors of switch to third-line ART will be essential for planning for future need. We identify predictors of switch to third-line ART among patients with significant viraemia on a protease inhibitor (PI)-based second-line ART regimen. Additionally, we describe characteristics of all patients on third-line at a large public sector HIV clinic and present their early outcomes. Retrospective analysis of adults (≥ 18 years) on a PI-based second-line ART regimen at Themba Lethu Clinic, Johannesburg, South Africa as of 01 August 2012, when third-line treatment became available in South Africa, with significant viraemia on second-line ART (defined as at least one viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL on second-line ART after 01 August 2012) to identify predictors of switch to third-line (determined by genotype resistance testing). Third-line ART was defined as a regimen containing etravirine, raltegravir or ritonavir boosted darunavir, between August 2012 and January 2016. To assess predictors of switch to third-line ART we used Cox proportional hazards regression among those with significant viraemia on second-line ART after 01 August 2012. Then among all patients on third-line ART we describe viral load suppression, defined as a viral load third-line ART. Among 719 patients in care and on second-line ART as of August 2012 (with at least one viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL after 01 August 2012), 36 (5.0% over a median time of 54 months) switched to third-line. Time on second-line therapy (≥ 96 vs. third-line ART, 78.3% (47/60) and 83.3% (35/42) of those in care and with a viral load suppressed their viral load at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Our results show that the need for third-line is low (5%), but that patients' who switch to third-line ART have good early treatment

  4. Mitochondrial genomics and antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic complications in HIV-infected Black South Africans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinxadi, Phumla Z; Dave, Joel A; Samuels, David C; Heckmann, Jeannine M; Maartens, Gary; Levitt, Naomi S; Wester, C William; Haas, David W; Hulgan, Todd

    2013-07-01

    Studies suggest that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART)-related metabolic complications and distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP), but there have been few studies in persons of African descent. We explored such associations in South African adults. Clinical and laboratory data and DNA specimens from a cross-sectional study were used. Sequencing and Phylotree determined African mtDNA subhaplogroups. Wilcoxon and regression analyses determined associations between mtDNA subhaplogroups and ART-related complications. The 171 participants represented six major haplogroups: L0 (n=78), L1 (n=3), L2 (n=30), L3 (n=53), L4 (n=1), and L5 (n=6). Analyses were restricted to 161 participants representing L0, L2, and L3: 78% were female; the median age was 36 years. All had been exposed to thymidine analogues, 42% were on lopinavir/ritonavir (lopinavir/r), and 58% were on either efavirenz or nevirapine. Median (IQR) ART duration was 22 (14-36) months. Median fasting triglycerides were 1.60 (1.13-1.75) and 1.04 (0.83-1.45) mmol/liter among L3e1 (n=22) and other subhaplogroups, respectively (p=0.003). Subhaplogroup L3e1 [adjusted OR (aOR) 3.16 (95% CI: 1.11-8.96); p=0.03] and exposure to lopinavir/r [aOR 2.98 (95% CI: 1.02-8.96); p=0.05] were independently associated with hypertriglyceridemia, after adjusting for age, sex, and ART duration. There were no significant associations between mtDNA haplogroups and cholesterol, dysglycemia, hyperlactatemia, or lipoatrophy, or DSP. Subhaplogroup L3e1 and lopinavir/r exposure were independently associated with hypertriglyceridemia in black South Africans on ART. This is the first report to link an African mtDNA variant with hypertriglyceridemia. If replicated, these findings may provide new insights into host factors affecting metabolic complications.

  5. Calculation of direct antiretroviral treatment costs and potential cost savings by using generics in the German HIV ClinSurv cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Matthias; Kollan, Christian; Bergmann, Frank; Bogner, Johannes; Faetkenheuer, Gerd; Fritzsche, Carlos; Hoeper, Kirsten; Horst, Heinz-August; van Lunzen, Jan; Plettenberg, Andreas; Reuter, Stefan; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Stellbrink, Hans-Jürgen; Hamouda, Osamah; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aimed to determine the cost impacts of antiretroviral drugs by analysing a long-term follow-up of direct costs for combined antiretroviral therapy, cART, -regimens in the nationwide long-term observational multi-centre German HIV ClinSurv Cohort. The second aim was to develop potential cost saving strategies by modelling different treatment scenarios. Antiretroviral regimens (ART) from 10,190 HIV-infected patients from 11 participating ClinSurv study centres have been investigated since 1996. Biannual data cART-initiation, cART-changes, surrogate markers, clinical events and the Centre of Disease Control- (CDC)-stage of HIV disease are reported. Treatment duration was calculated on a daily basis via the documented dates for the beginning and end of each antiretroviral drug treatment. Prices were calculated for each individual regimen based on actual office sales prices of the branded pharmaceuticals distributed by the license holder including German taxes. During the 13-year follow-up period, 21,387,427 treatment days were covered. Cumulative direct costs for antiretroviral drugs of €812,877,356 were determined according to an average of €42.08 per day (€7.52 to € 217.70). Since cART is widely used in Germany, the costs for an entire regimen increased by 13.5%. Regimens are more expensive in the advanced stages of HIV disease. The potential for cost savings was calculated using non-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor, NNRTI, more frequently instead of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor, PI/r, in first line therapy. This calculation revealed cumulative savings of 10.9% to 19.8% of daily treatment costs (50% and 90% substitution of PI/r, respectively). Substituting certain branded drugs by generic drugs showed potential cost savings of between 1.6% and 31.8%. Analysis of the data of this nationwide study reflects disease-specific health services research and will give insights into the cost impacts of

  6. Drug Pricing Evolution in Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernaz, Nathalie; Girardin, François; Goossens, Nicolas; Brügger, Urs; Riguzzi, Marco; Perrier, Arnaud; Negro, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine the association between the stepwise increase in the sustained viral response (SVR) and Swiss and United States (US) market prices of drug regimens for treatment-naive, genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the last 25 years. We identified the following five steps in the development of HCV treatment regimens: 1) interferon (IFN)-α monotherapy in the early '90s, 2) IFN-α in combination with ribavirin (RBV), 3) pegylated (peg) IFN-α in combination with RBV, 4) the first direct acting antivirals (DAAs) (telaprevir and boceprevir) in combination with pegIFN-α and RBV, and 5) newer DAA-based regimens, such as sofosbuvir (which is or is not combined with ledipasvir) and fixed-dose combination of ritonavir-boosted paritaprevir and ombitasvir in combination with dasabuvir. Design We performed a linear regression and mean cost analysis to test for an association between SVRs and HCV regimen prices. We conducted a sensitivity analysis using US prices at the time of US drug licensing. We selected randomized clinical trials of drugs approved for use in Switzerland from 1997 to July 2015 including treatment-naïve patients with HCV genotype 1 infection. Results We identified a statistically significant positive relationship between the proportion of patients achieving SVRs and the costs of HCV regimens in Switzerland (with a bivariate ordinary least square regression yielding an R2 measure of 0.96) and the US (R2 = 0.95). The incremental cost per additional percentage of SVR was 597.14 USD in Switzerland and 1,063.81 USD in the US. Conclusion The pricing of drugs for HCV regimens follows a value-based model, which has a stable ratio of costs per achieved SVR over 25 years. Health care systems are struggling with the high resource use of these new agents despite their obvious long-term advantages for the overall health of the population. Therefore, the pharmaceutical industry, health care payers and other stakeholders are

  7. [Consensus Statement by GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan Secretariat on antiretroviral treatment in adults infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (Updated January 2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This consensus document is an update of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) guidelines for HIV-1 infected adult patients. To formulate these recommendations a panel composed of members of the GeSIDA/National AIDS Plan Secretariat (Grupo de Estudio de Sida and the Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida) reviewed the efficacy and safety advances in clinical trials, cohort and pharmacokinetic studies published in medical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented in medical scientific meetings. The strength of the recommendations and the evidence which support them are based on a modification of the criteria of Infectious Diseases Society of America. cART is recommended in patients with symptoms of HIV infection, in pregnant women, in serodiscordant couples with high risk of transmission, in hepatitisB co-infection requiring treatment, and in HIV nephropathy. cART is recommended in asymptomatic patients if CD4 is 500cells/μl cART should be considered in the case of chronic hepatitisC, cirrhosis, high cardiovascular risk, plasma viral load >100.000 copies/ml, proportion of CD4 cells 55years. The objective of cART is to achieve an undetectable viral load. The first cART should include 2 reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI) nucleoside analogs and a third drug (a non-analog RTI, a ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor, or an integrase inhibitor). The panel has consensually selected some drug combinations, for the first cART and specific criteria for cART in acute HIV infection, in tuberculosis and other HIV related opportunistic infections, for the women and in pregnancy, in hepatitisB or C co-infection, in HIV-2 infection, and in post-exposure prophylaxis. These new guidelines update previous recommendations related to first cART (when to begin and what drugs should be used), how to monitor, and what to do in case of viral failure or adverse drug reactions. cART specific criteria in comorbid patients and special situations are similarly updated. Copyright

  8. Second-line failure and first experience with third-line antiretroviral therapy in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsuddin Khan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are limited data on the failure of second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART and the use of third-line ART in people living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Since 2011, the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF HIV/tuberculosis programme in Mumbai, India, has been providing third-line ART to patients in care. Objective: To describe the experiences and programmatic challenges during management of suspected second-line ART failure and third-line ART therapy for patients living with HIV, including the use of HIV viral load (VL testing. Design: This was a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with suspected second-line ART treatment failure, who were followed for at least 12 months between January 2011 and March 2014. Results: A total of 47 patients with suspected second-line failure met the inclusion criteria during the study period. Twenty-nine of them (62% responded to enhanced adherence support, had a subsequent undetectable VL after a median duration of 3 months and remained on second-line ART. The other 18 patients had to be initiated on a third-line ART regimen, which consisted of darunavir–ritonavir, raltegravir, and one or more appropriate nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, based on the results of HIV genotype testing. Of the 13 patients for whom follow-up VL results were available, 11 achieved virological suppression after a median duration of 3 months on third-line ART (interquartile range: 2.5–3.0. No serious treatment-related adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: With intensive counselling and adherence support in those suspected of failing second-line ART, unnecessary switching to more expensive third-line ART can be averted in the majority of cases. However, there is an increasing need for access to third-line ART medications such as darunavir and raltegravir, for which national ART programmes should be prepared. The cost of such medications and inadequate access to VL

  9. Fixed-dose combination for adults accessing antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA HIV Clinicians Society

    2013-02-01

    between FDC and individual drugs due to insufficient stock. Note: The FDC tablet is not significantly larger than EFV or lopinavir/ritonavir (LOP/r (Aluvia; therefore, swallowing should not be problematic. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1 Suppl:41-43. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.913

  10. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy S; Fonseca, Elize M; Bastos, Francisco I; Gruskin, Sofia; Salomon, Joshua A

    2007-11-13

    Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005. We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r) have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six specific drugs: patented lopinavir

  11. Evolution of antiretroviral drug costs in Brazil in the context of free and universal access to AIDS treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy S Nunn

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the long-term drug costs associated with treating AIDS in developing countries. Brazil's AIDS treatment program has been cited widely as the developing world's largest and most successful AIDS treatment program. The program guarantees free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART for all people living with HIV/AIDS in need of treatment. Brazil produces non-patented generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs, procures many patented ARVs with negotiated price reductions, and recently issued a compulsory license to import one patented ARV. In this study, we investigate the drivers of recent ARV cost trends in Brazil through analysis of drug-specific prices and expenditures between 2001 and 2005.We compared Brazil's ARV prices to those in other low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed trends in drug expenditures for HAART in Brazil from 2001 to 2005 on the basis of cost data disaggregated by each ARV purchased by the Brazilian program. We decomposed the overall changes in expenditures to compare the relative impacts of changes in drug prices and drug purchase quantities. We also estimated the excess costs attributable to the difference between prices for generics in Brazil and the lowest global prices for these drugs. Finally, we estimated the savings attributable to Brazil's reduced prices for patented drugs. Negotiated drug prices in Brazil are lowest for patented ARVs for which generic competition is emerging. In recent years, the prices for efavirenz and lopinavir-ritonavir (lopinavir/r have been lower in Brazil than in other middle-income countries. In contrast, the price of tenofovir is US$200 higher per patient per year than that reported in other middle-income countries. Despite precipitous price declines for four patented ARVs, total Brazilian drug expenditures doubled, to reach US$414 million in 2005. We find that the major driver of cost increases was increased purchase quantities of six specific drugs

  12. A STUDY OF DYSLIPIDAEMIA IN HIV PATIENTS RECEIVING HAART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chepuri Venkata Ravikumar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV was discovered in 1986 in Chennai (India amongst female sex workers by Dr. Suniti Solomon. Since then, HIV has spread to all parts of the country from the high-risk group to the antepartum population in many states at an alarming rate. The prevalence of dyslipidaemia and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease is significant in HIV/AIDS patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, ranging from 20% to 80%. In view of the high prevalence of dyslipidaemia and the increased risk for cardiovascular diseases among patients with HIV/AIDS, this is a matter of concern for public health. MATERIALS AND METHODS 143 patients who had been receiving HAART for a minimum of two years from Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, during the period of January 2015 to September 2016 were studied. They were divided into 4 regimens groups 1 TEL (Tenofovir, Efavirenz, Lamivudine 2 TLAR (Tenofovir, Lamivudine, Atazanavir, Ritonavir 3 ZLE (Zidovudine, Lamivudine, Efavirenz 4 ZLN (Zidovudine, Lamivudine, Nevirapine. Detailed history, demographic data, anthropometric measurements, serum lipid profile obtained and analysed. RESULTS Out of 143 patients, 90 (62.9% were males and 53 (37.1% were females. 68 (47.6% were in the 30-39 years age group accounted for maximum percentage of groups. Based on BMI only 3 (2.1% were obese, 24 (16.8% were of overweight. WaistHip ratio was abnormal in 117 (81.8% and 26 (18.2% were normal. The mean values for patients on TEL regimen are TC is 195.4 mg%, LDL 122.1 mg%, HDL 34.96 mg%, TG 194.02 mg% and TC/HDL is 5.5714. In patients treated with TLAR regimen the mean values of TC are 172.15 mg%, LDL 99.15 mg %, HDL 36.35 mg%, TG 183.35 mg% and TC/HDL is 4.8. In patients treated with ZLE regimen, TC is 201.64 mg%, LDL 123.27 mg%, HDL 35.68 mg%, TG 212.27 mg% and TC/HDL is 5.6364. In patients treated with ZLN regimen, TC is 162.1 mg%, LDL 91.94 mg%, HDL 35.98 mg%, TG

  13. Beyond clinical trials: Cross-sectional associations of combination antiretroviral therapy with reports of multiple symptoms and non-adherence among adolescents in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natukunda, H P M; Cluver, L D; Toska, E; Musiime, V; Yakubovich, A R

    2017-10-31

    Studies investigating symptoms associated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) use among adolescents in resource-limited settings are rare beyond clinical trials. Identifying adolescents at risk of non-adherence is imperative for HIV/AIDS programming and controlling the epidemic in this key population. To examine which cART regimens were associated with reports of multiple symptoms and past-week non-adherence in a large community-traced sample of HIV-positive adolescents in South Africa (SA). A total of 1 175 HIV-positive ART-experienced adolescents aged 10 - 19 years attending 53 health facilities in the Eastern Cape Province, SA, were interviewed in 2014 - 2015. Ninety percent (n=1 059) were included in the study. Adolescents who reported no medication use and those with unclear or missing data were excluded from further analysis, resulting in a sample for analysis of n=501. Outcomes were reports of multiple symptoms (three or more symptoms in the past 6 months) and past-week ART non-adherence (<95% correct doses in the past week). Multivariable logistic regression analyses controlled for sociodemographic and HIV-related covariates in Stata 13/IC. Of the adolescents included, 54.3% were female. The median age was 14 (interquartile range 12 - 16) years, and 66.5% were vertically infected. The prevalence of multiple symptoms was 59.7% (95% confidence interval (CI) 55.3 - 63.9). Independent of covariates, stavudine (d4T)-containing cART regimens and the fixed-dose combination of tenofovir (TDF) + emtricitabine (FTC) + efavirenz (EFV) were associated with more reports of multiple symptoms (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.38; 95% CI 1.19 - 9.60 and aOR 2.67; 95% CI 1.21 - 5.88, respectively). Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-containing regimens were associated with fewer reports of multiple symptoms (aOR 0.47; 95% CI 0.21 - 1.04). For EFV-based regimens, adolescents on d4T + lamivudine (3TC) + EFV were more likely to report multiple symptoms than those on TDF + FTC

  14. Adverse events and adherence to HIV post-exposure prophylaxis: a cohort study at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetteh, Raymond A; Nartey, Edmund T; Lartey, Margaret; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Nortey, Priscilla A; Dodoo, Alexander N O

    2015-06-20

    There is strong evidence that post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) with antiretroviral drugs in the timely management of occupational exposures sustained by healthcare workers decreases the risk of HIV infection and PEP is now widely used. Antiretroviral drugs have well documented toxicities and produce adverse events in patients living with HIV/AIDS. In the era of "highly active antiretroviral therapy", non-adherence to treatment has been closely linked to the occurrence of adverse events in HIV patients and this ultimately influences treatment success but the influence of adverse events on adherence during PEP is less well studied. Following the introduction of a HIV post-exposure prophylaxis program in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in January 2005, the incidence of adverse events and adherence were documented in occupationally-exposed healthcare workers (HCWs) and healthcare students (HCSs). Cohort event monitoring was used in following-up on exposed HCWs/HCSs for the two study outcomes; adverse events and adherence. All adverse events reported were grouped by MedDRA system organ classification and then by preferred term according to prophylaxis regimen. Adherence was determined by the completion of prophylaxis schedule. Cox proportional regression analysis was applied to determine the factors associated with the cohort study outcomes. Differences in frequencies were tested using the Chi square test and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A total of 228 exposed HCWs/HCSs were followed up during the study, made up of 101 exposed HCWs/HCSs administered lamivudine/zidovudine (3TC/AZT) for 3 days; 75 exposed HCWs/HCSs administered lamivudine/zidovudine (3TC/AZT) for 28 days; and 52 exposed HCWs/HCSs administered lamivudine/zidovudine/lopinavir-ritonavir (3TC/AZT/LPV-RTV) for 28 days. The frequency of adverse events was 28% (n = 28) in exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for 3 days, 91% (n = 68) in exposed HCWs/HCSs administered 3TC/AZT for

  15. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with clopidogrel: updated review and risk management in combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Zhi-Yu Wang,1 Meng Chen,1 Ling-Ling Zhu,2 Lu-Shan Yu,3 Su Zeng,3 Mei-Xiang Xiang,4 Quan Zhou1 1Department of Pharmacy, 2VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, 3Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Drug Metabolism, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4Department of Cardiology, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Coprescribing of clopidogrel and other drugs is common. Available reviews have addressed the drug–drug interactions (DDIs when clopidogrel is as an object drug, or focused on combination use of clopidogrel and a special class of drugs. Clinicians may still be ignorant of those DDIs when clopidogrel is a precipitant drug, the factors determining the degree of DDIs, and corresponding risk management.Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to analyze the pharmacokinetic DDIs of clopidogrel and new P2Y12 receptor inhibitors.Results: Clopidogrel affects the pharmacokinetics of cerivastatin, repaglinide, ferulic acid, sibutramine, efavirenz, and omeprazole. Low efficacy of clopidogrel is anticipated in the presence of omeprazole, esomeprazole, morphine, grapefruit juice, scutellarin, fluoxetine, azole antifungals, calcium channel blockers, sulfonylureas, and ritonavir. Augmented antiplatelet effects are anticipated when clopidogrel is coprescribed with aspirin, curcumin, cyclosporin, St John’s wort, rifampicin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The factors determining the degree of DDIs with clopidogrel include genetic status (eg, cytochrome P540 [CYP]2B6*6, CYP2C19 polymorphism, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and CYP1A2-163C>A, species differences, and dose strength. The DDI risk does not exhibit a class effect, eg, the effects of clopidogrel on cerivastatin versus other statins, the effects of proton pump

  16. Metabolismo de fármacos y lesión hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2015-03-01

    el menor porcentaje. Los fármacos que ocasionan lesión hepática de forma intrínseca pueden actuar directamente sobre el hepatocito, o a través de algún compuesto tóxico generado durante su metabolismo; ejemplos de ello son el paracetamol, ácido acetilsalicílico y muchos de sus derivados. Por otra parte, la hepatotoxicidad idiosincrática es aquella que ocurre de forma impredecible y no depende de la dosis del fármaco, ésta tiene mayor incidencia. Ejemplos de medicamentos que provocan esta hepatotoxicidad son: ácido valproico, alopurinol, amiodarona, bupropión, captopril, carbamazepina, ciclofosfamida, ciproheptadina, clindamicina, clotrimazol, diclofenaco, enalapril, estatinas, fenitoína, fenobarbital, fluoxetina, flutamida, glibenclamida, ibuprofeno, isoniazida, ketoconazol, lisinopril, losartán, metotrexate, nefazodona, nevirapina, nitrofurantoína, paroxetina, pirazinamida, quinolonas, rifampicina, risperidona, ritonavir, sertralina, sulfonamidas, tetraciclina, trazodona, troglitazona, verapamil, entre muchos otros. (1, 3 Se proponen diferentes mecanismos causantes de lesión hepatocelular: la alteración de la homeostasis del calcio intracelular, que conduce al desarreglo de las fibrillas de actina existentes en la superficie del hepatocito, modificando la membrana celular, con posterior rotura y lisis; interrupción de los filamentos cerca de los canalículos, con la rotura de éstos y reducción en la excreción biliar, fenómeno que también puede estar asociado a la interrupción del transporte de bilis por las bombas proteicas; reacciones que involucran al sistema del citocromo P-450, al generar reacciones de alta energía que producen enlaces covalentes fármaco-enzima, creando complejos proteicos no funcionales que migran hacia la superficie de la célula y son inmunogénicos, convirtiéndose en blanco de las células T citolíticas y de las citosinas; algunos fármacos inhiben la función mitocondrial por efecto en la beta-oxidación de los

  17. The 12th Edition of the Scientific Days of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” and the 12th National Infectious Diseases Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian-Mihail Niculae

    2016-11-01

    Victor Pantea, Gheorghe Placinta, Valentin Cebotarescu, Lilia Cojuhari, Paulina Jimbei A27 The management of hyperbilirubinemia in HCV cirrhotic patients who underwent therapy with direct acting antivirals Cristina Popescu, Anca Leuștean, Cristina Dragomirescu, Alina Orfanu, Cristina Murariu, Laurențiu Stratan, Alexandra Badea, Cătălin Tilișcan, Daniela Munteanu, Raluca Năstase, Violeta Molagic, Mihaela Rădulescu, Remulus Catana, Victoria Aramă A28 The efficacy of ombitasvir-paritaprevir/ritonavir, dasabuvir and ribavirin in patients with genotype 1 HCV compensated cirrhosis Cristina Popescu, Laurențiu Stratan, Remulus Catana, Anca Leuștean, Cristina Dragomirescu, Alexandra Badea, Cristina Murariu, Raluca Năstase, Violeta Molagic, Daniela Munteanu, Cătălin Tilișcan, Mihaela Rădulescu, Alina Orfanu, Ioan Diaconu, Anca Negru, Iulia Bodosca, Violeta Niță, Victoria Aramă A29 The efficacy of direct acting antivirals regimen without ribavirin in HCV genotype 1b infected patients with compensated cirrhosis Anca Leuștean, Victoria Aramă, Alina Orfanu, Remulus Catana, Laurențiu Stratan, Cristina Dragomirescu, Cristina Murariu, Alexandra Badea, Cătălin Tilișcan, Daniela Munteanu, Violeta Molagic, Raluca Năstase, Mihaela Rădulescu, Cristina Popescu A30 Liver decompensation during ombitasvir-paritaprevir/ritonavir-dasabuvir and ribavirin regimen in HCV infected patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis Cristina Popescu, Cristina Dragomirescu, Anca Leuștean, Cristina Murariu, Laurențiu Stratan, Alexandra Badea, Remulus Catană, Alina Orfanu, Raluca Mihaela Năstase, Violeta Molagic, Daniela Munteanu, Cătălin Tilișcan, Victoria Aramă A31 The safety of direct acting antivirals in HCV compensated cirrhotic patients - an interim analysis Victoria Aramă, Remulus Catană, Cristina Dragomirescu, Cristina Murariu, Anca Leuștean, Laurențiu Stratan, Alexandra Badea, Alina Orfanu, Anca Negru, Raluca Năstase, Violeta Molagic, Daniela Munteanu, Cătălin Tili