WorldWideScience

Sample records for risky male behaviour

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Risky Sexual Behaviour among Male Youth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifru Berhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this meta-analysis was to assess the association between risky sexual behaviour and level of education and economic status in male youth. Previous tests of the association of risky sexual behaviour with levels of education and economic status have yielded inconsistent results. Using data from 26 countries, from both within and outside Africa, we performed a meta-analysis with a specific focus on male youths’ risky sexual behaviour. We applied a random effects analytic model and calculated a pooled odds ratio. Out of 19,148 males aged 15–24 years who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 75% engaged in higher-risk sex. The proportion of higher-risk sex among male youth aged 15–19 years was nearly 90% in 21 of the 26 countries. The pooled odds ratio showed a statistically significant association of higher-risk sex with male youth younger than 20 years, living in urban centers, well educated, and of a high economic status. The overall proportion of condom use during youths’ most recent higher-risk sexual encounter was 40% and 51% among 15–19-year-olds and 20–24-year-olds, respectively. Our findings suggest that male youth’s socioeconomic status is directly related to the likelihood that they practice higher-risk sex. The relationship between income and sexual behaviour should be explored further.

  2. Measuring risky adolescent cycling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Schepers, Jan; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn; Kok, Gerjo

    2011-09-01

    Adolescents are at a greater risk of being involved in traffic accidents than most other age groups, even before they start driving cars. This article aims to determine the factor structure of a self-report questionnaire measuring adolescent risky cycling behaviour, the ACBQ (Adolescent Cycling Behaviour Questionnaire). The questionnaire's structure was based on the widely used Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). A sample of secondary school students (N = 1749; age range: 13-18 years) filled out the questionnaire. Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure underlying the questionnaire, which was confirmed on two equally large portions of the entire sample. These three underlying factors were identified as errors, common violations and exceptional violations. The ACBQ is a useful instrument for measuring adolescents' risky cycling behaviour.

  3. Risky Driving Behaviours among Medical Students in Erbil, Iraq

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    Nazar P. Shabila

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil, Iraq, and to explore the relationship between risky driving behaviours and perceptions of risky driving. Methods: This self-administered questionnaire-based survey was conducted from January to May 2014 among a random sample of 400 medical students at Hawler Medical University in Erbil. The questionnaire was designed to assess the frequency of engagement in 21 risky driving behaviours, the perceived risk of each behaviour and the preference for each behaviour as ranked on a 5-point scale. Results: A total of 386 students responded to the survey (response rate: 96.5%. Of these, 211 reported that they currently drove a vehicle (54.7%. Drivers most frequently engaged in the following behaviours: playing loud music (35.9%, speeding (30.4%, allowing front seat passengers to not wear seat belts (27.9% and using mobile phones (27.7%. Least frequent driving behaviours included not stopping at a red light (3.9%, driving while sleepy (4.4%, driving after a mild to moderate intake of alcohol (4.5% and drunk driving (6.4%. Mean risky driving behaviour scores were significantly higher among males (P 20-year-olds (P = 0.028. There was a significant positive relationship between the preference for risky behaviours and risky driving behaviours (beta = 0.44; P <0.001. Conclusion: Medical students in Erbil reported high frequencies of several serious risky driving behaviours. The preference for risky behaviours was found to be an important predictor of risky driving behaviours among medical students in Erbil.

  4. A comparison of risky sexual behaviours between circumcised and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Risky sexual behaviours, circumcised, uncircumcised men, 30-44 years, Botswana. ... male circumcision in the countries in this region2. As a result, many .... whether there are any preventive measures against HIV infection.

  5. Risky traffic behaviour among young adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. Compared with older adolescents (18-24 years old), young adolescents (10-17 years old) exhibit more risky behaviour. Because of their physical and mental development, young adolescents are attracted to risky challenges, they are more

  6. Risky traffic behaviour among young adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. Compared with older adolescents (18-24 years old), young adolescents (10-17 years old) exhibit more risky behaviour. Because of their physical and mental development, young adolescents are attracted to risky challenges, they are more suscep

  7. Risky behaviours among university students in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of psychoactive substances is one of the most important public health issues. Tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs are among the top risk factors for ill-health defined by World Health Organisation. The risky behaviours acquired in teenage can be magnified or decreased during university when a person starts having more awareness about the importance of own wellness. This paper describes the results of the project "Sportello Salute Giovani" ("Youth Health Information Desk" with respect to risky behaviours in a large sample of Italian university students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 18 questions of the survey "Sportello Salute Giovani" dealing with risky behaviors, the use of psychoactive substances such as tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs were included. Absolute and relative frequencies were calculated. Besides, chi square test were used to test the differences in sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: About 24% of the interviewed students currently smokes. 89% and 42.2% respectively drinks at least rarely or weekly beer, wine or spirits. About 40% of students smoked at least a joint and about 2% used other drugs (mostly cocaine. CONCLUSION: The "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey suggests that the frequency of risky behaviours in Italian university students is not reassuring, although they should be aware about the negative consequences on their and others health because of their educational level.

  8. Reducing Risky Security Behaviours: Utilising Affective Feedback to Educate Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsay A. Shepherd

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the number of tools created to help end-users reduce risky security behaviours, users are still falling victim to online attacks. This paper proposes a browser extension utilising affective feedback to provide warnings on detection of risky behaviour. The paper provides an overview of behaviour considered to be risky, explaining potential threats users may face online. Existing tools developed to reduce risky security behaviours in end-users have been compared, discussing the success rates of various methodologies. Ongoing research is described which attempts to educate users regarding the risks and consequences of poor security behaviour by providing the appropriate feedback on the automatic recognition of risky behaviour. The paper concludes that a solution utilising a browser extension is a suitable method of monitoring potentially risky security behaviour. Ultimately, future work seeks to implement an affective feedback mechanism within the browser extension with the aim of improving security awareness.

  9. Resiliency as a factor protecting youths from risky behaviour: Moderating effects of gender and sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Mariusz; Lipowska, Małgorzata; Jochimek, Magdalena; Krokosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesised that resiliency may protect adolescents against risky behaviours, and that both the practicing of sports, and gender are moderating variables in relationships between resiliency and risky behaviours. The study included 18-year-old pupils from a selection of secondary schools (n = 556). A total of 188 individuals practiced competitive sports and the remaining 368 participants were non-athletes. The participants were examined with the Resiliency Assessment Scale for Children and Adolescents (SPP-18) and with a survey containing questions and statements related to high-risk "experiments with adulthood". Adolescent athletes showed higher levels of resiliency than their peers. The power of the "Determination and Persistence in Action" effect on "Alcohol" scale differed significantly between male athletes and male non-athletes. Only in the athletes groups were higher scores on this scale reflected by lower values on the "Drugs" scale. Moreover, it is possible to observe differences in undertaking risky behaviour between male and female athletes. The analysis of risky sexual behaviour suggests that sport is a risk factor for men, and a protective factor for women. These data suggest that consistent prophylactic and psycho-educative activities, with a special attention to differences between genders, should be provided to all the adolescents, irrespective of their sport performance levels.

  10. Job characteristics, well-being and risky behaviour amongst pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Denham L; Walshe, Kieran; Parker, Dianne; Noyce, Peter R; Ashcroft, Darren M

    2016-12-01

    Healthcare practitioners' fitness to practise has often been linked to their personal and demographic characteristics. It is possible that situational factors, such as the work environment and physical or psychological well-being, also have an influence on an individual's fitness to practise. However, it is unclear how these factors might be linked to behaviours that risk compromising fitness to practise. The aim of this study was to examine the association between job characteristics, well-being and behaviour reflecting risky practice amongst a sample of registered pharmacists in a region of the United Kingdom. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional self-report survey of 517 pharmacists. These data were subjected to principal component analysis and path analysis, with job characteristics (demand, autonomy and feedback) and well-being (distress and perceived competence) as the predictors and behaviour as the outcome variable. Two aspects of behaviour were found: Overloading (taking on more work than one can comfortably manage) and risk taking (working at or beyond boundaries of safe practice). Separate path models including either job characteristics or well-being as independent variables provided a good fit to the data-set. Of the job characteristics, demand had the strongest association with behaviour, while the association between well-being and risky behaviour differed according to the aspect of behaviour being assessed. The findings suggest that, in general terms, situational factors should be considered alongside personal factors when assessing, judging or remediating fitness to practise. They also suggest the presence of different facets to the relationship between job characteristics, well-being and risky behaviour amongst pharmacists.

  11. Does family background impact driving attitudes and risky behaviours? An investigation on Chinese young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Zheng, Zuduo; Fleiter, Judy J

    2016-10-01

    The rapid pace of motorisation in China has been well documented, as has the large road trauma burden the Chinese citizens are facing as a result. China's unique political system represents an important consideration in helping reduce road trauma, yet political factors have not been previously investigated in this context. Recently, emerging issues on the road involving the adult children of politically powerful families have become a serious social problem in China, and have drawn widespread media and public attention. This study took a novel approach to examining factors associated with risky attitudes and risky road use in China by investigating the economic and political background status of a sample of young Chinese drivers. An online survey was conducted in May 2015 with a sample size of 476 Chinese young drivers from across the country, aged between 18 and 28, including 305 males and 171 females. The results suggest that for participants who reported having a familial political background, more risky driving behaviours were reported among those participants who reported more impact on their life from that political background; while for participants without political background, higher personal income was associated with more risky driving behaviours. The findings are discussed in light of China's political management system and potential education opportunities for young drivers.

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on risky sexual behaviour and its relationship with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietsch, B.P.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Bailey, J.M.; Wright, M.J.; Martin, N.G.

    2010-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour is a major health issue in society, and it is therefore important to understand factors that may predispose individuals to such behaviour. Research suggests a link between risky sexual behaviour and personality, but the basis of this link remains unknown. Hans Eysenck proposed

  13. Transformations in HIV Awareness in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation of Personality and Risky Sexual Behaviour among Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Olukayode Ayooluwa; Adesina, Ayobami Adekunle

    2011-01-01

    The study observed the influence of neuroticism, agreeableness, extraversion and HIV awareness on risky sexual behaviour of Nigerian undergraduates. Two hundred (215) undergraduates in the Faculties of Engineering and Social sciences, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Nigeria, took part in the research. They consisted of 135 (62.7%) males and 80…

  14. Exploring adolescents' perceptions of risky behaviour using the mobile phone / N. Gois De Gouveia.

    OpenAIRE

    De Gouveia, Natalie Gois

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine adolescent perceptions of risky behaviour using a mobile phone. This research may contribute to creating an awareness of risky and healthy adolescent uses of mobile phones. Anonymous sketches were collected from Grade 10 learners depicting their understanding of risky behaviour using the mobile phone. Thereafter, 12 learners agreed, through informed consent, to participate in semi-structured interviews. All participants considered the mobile phone an i...

  15. Genetic and environmental influences on risky sexual behaviour and its relationship with personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsch, B P; Verweij, K J H; Bailey, J M; Wright, M J; Martin, N G

    2010-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour is a major health issue in society, and it is therefore important to understand factors that may predispose individuals to such behaviour. Research suggests a link between risky sexual behaviour and personality, but the basis of this link remains unknown. Hans Eysenck proposed that personality is related to sexual behaviour via biological underpinnings of both. Here we test the viability of this perspective by analysing data from identical and non-identical twins (N = 4,904) who completed a questionnaire assessing sexual attitudes and behaviour as well as personality. Using genetic modelling of the twin data, we found that risky sexual behaviour was significantly positively correlated with Impulsivity (r = .27), Extraversion (r = .24), Psychoticism (r = .20), and Neuroticism (r = .09), and that in each case the correlation was due primarily to overlapping genetic influences. These findings suggest that the genetic influences that shape our personality may also predispose us to risky sexual behaviour.

  16. Reducing risky driver behaviour through the implementation of a driver risk management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.

  17. Determinants of risky sexual behaviours among secondary school students in Delta State Nigeria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugoji, F.N

    2014-01-01

    .... Using the survey design, this study investigated the perceived effect of emotional intelligence, self-esteem, religiosity and media on risky sexual behaviour of 300 secondary school students from 10...

  18. Sufficient Number of Providers of Primary Prevention of Risky Behaviour in the Town of Příbram

    OpenAIRE

    ŠVŮGEROVÁ, Hana

    2011-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is called ?Sufficient Number of Providers of Primary Prevention of Risky Behaviour in the Town of Příbram?. The aim of the primary prevention is to prevent occurrence of risky behaviour or to postpone the first experience with it as latest as possible. The aim is to prevent from increasing occurrence of risky behaviour. Primary prevention is provided by school methodologists of prevention who choose prevention activities which are used to improve social skills at schools fo...

  19. Label, nudge or tax? A review of health policies for risky behaviours

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    Matteo M. Galizzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a critical, non systematic, review of the three main lines of health policy interventions to deal with risky behaviours, such as over-eating, smoking, sedentary lives, and excess alcohol drinking, namely: i the release of information on health risks and consequences; ii the use of financial incentives; and iii direct policy intervention in markets, through regulation and taxation. First, the health and economic impact of the risky behaviours epidemics are briefly described. Then a critical review follows on the evidence existing on the effectiveness of each type of intervention. The review will also highlight the public health approach staying beyond each type of policy on risky behaviours and critically consider them within the context of more general health and social policy interventions.

  20. Label, nudge or tax? A review of health policies for risky behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizzi, Matteo M

    2012-02-17

    This work proposes a critical, non systematic, review of the three main lines of health policy interventions to deal with risky behaviours, such as over-eating, smoking, sedentary lives, and excess alcohol drinking, namely: i) the release of information on health risks and consequences; ii) the use of incentives; and iii) direct policy intervention in markets, through regulation and taxation. First, the health and economic impact of the risky behaviours epidemics are briefly described. Then a critical review follows on the evidence existing on the effectiveness of each type of intervention. The review will also highlight the public health approach staying beyond each type of policy on risky behaviours and critically consider them within the context of more general health and social policy interventions.

  1. factors associated with AIDS preventive and risky behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-05-01

    May 1, 2000 ... the intention to engage in HIV-preventive behaviour increases ... AIDS prevention was found among White, Black and Asian pupils, which should inform a culturally ..... attitudes, intentions, and perceived behavioural control.

  2. Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlington, Lee

    2017-07-01

    The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a 'risky' cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.

  3. Predictors of risky sexual behaviour among young people in the era ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    behaviours among young people in the world, very ... risk and protective models simultaneously to investigate ... perceptions about personal risk, and low perceived ... elsewhere have assessed these factors in isolation ... the relationship between the risk factors and risky ... patterns and knowledge, care and support, attitude.

  4. Shared aetiology of risky sexual behaviour and adolescent misconduct: Genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Zietsch, B.P.; Bailey, J.M.; Martin, N.G.

    2009-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviour (RSB) is a major risk factor for serious diseases as well as unplanned pregnancy. It is not known if RSB has a genetic basis or if it is only influenced by social and cultural conditions. Adolescent conduct disorder has previously been linked to RSB and has been found to be in

  5. Using drama to target risky behaviours in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommi, S S; Peter, W; Bisai, N

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the collaborative work between Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Lae, and the Seeds Performing Arts Theatre, which adopted the approach of using drama to target risky behaviors in the country. In a baseline study on knowledge, behavior and practice among target groups, results showed that general knowledge about sexually transmitted disease and HIV/AIDS is very poor in these groups. In addition, there is a continued practice of risky behaviors, which could lead to HIV infection among these groups. In view of such, drama presentations were undertaken to disseminate information to specific audiences. Scripts and songs were written and a flip chart was created to show the statistics on HIV/AIDS. In addition, role playing, which included references to factors facilitating the transmission of HIV was given. In 1998, a total of performances were given to over 3000 people: 12 for transport industry and sex workers, and 2 for general communities. Moreover, two other local theater groups were trained on HIV/AIDS topics.

  6. Risky sexual behaviour among women: Does economic empowerment matter? Case of Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra-Leone and Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odimegwu, Clifford O; De Wet, Nicole; Banda, Pamela C

    2016-12-01

    The link between economic empowerment and high risky sexual behaviour has been debated by different scholars in various settings. However, no consistently clear connection between poverty and lack of education has been found regarding engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Also, not much research has been done to examine the strength of these relationships for adolescents and women. The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between female economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour in Africa. Using the latest Demographic and Health Surveys Data (DHS 2011-2014) from Gabon, Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Zambia, univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done on women aged 15 to 49 to examine the patterns of and differences in the association between women's economic empowerment and risky sexual behaviour. The findings both at community and individual level indicate that empowered women (higher education and wealth household) and adolescents aged 15 to 19 are highly significantly associated with engagement in high risky behaviour. The result of this study stresses the need to look further than individual factors in the quest to resolve risky sexual behaviour in Africa. The interrelations between female economic empowerment and engagement in risky sexual behaviour are more complicated and less straightforward than usually presumed.

  7. The relationship between four-wheel drives and risky driving behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Given the increased number of four wheel drive (4WD vehicles in Qatar and their involvement in crashes, casualties and road fatalities, it is important to understand the association between risky driving behavior and 4WD crashes. Aim/Objective: This study aimed to determine the association between risky driving behaviours and 4WD vehicles and its impact on road traffic accidents in the State of Qatar. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique to recruit 1824 drivers of two wheel drive (small cars and 4WD across different primary health centres (PHCs in Qatar. The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ and Driver Skill Inventory (DSI were used to collect the data. Information regarding socio-demographic and road traffic crashes during last three years was also obtained. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Results: 762 (41.8% owned 4WD vehicles. Drivers of 4WD were significantly higher between 30-50 years age (P < 0.001, urban dwellers (P = 0.003, having more driving experience (atleast 5 years (P < 0.001 and annual mileage higher than the drivers of small cars (P < 0.001. A significantly higher proportion of 4WD drivers had previous penalties for traffic violations such as crossing a red traffic signal (51.6% vs. 21.4%; P < 0.001 or exceeding the speed limit (35% vs. 27.8%; P < 0.001. A higher proportion of 4WDs' drivers reported previous involvement in accidents as compared to the drivers of small cars (42.4% vs. 35.7%; p 0.004. The risk of accident involvement was 1.21 times higher among drivers of 4WD as compared to the counterparts (OR 1.21; 95%CI; 1.01-1.46. Besides, excessive speed, annual mileage, male gender, traffic violations, lapses, errors and driving skills were significantly associated with crashes. Conclusion: The drivers of 4WD cars are at higher risk of crashes as compared to the drivers of small cars. Also, they have

  8. The Effect of Adolescent Training Program on Risky Health Behaviours and Health Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KÜRTÜNCÜ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the risky health behaviors and to raise the awareness of adolescents (attending high school education about prevention of risky behaviors and solutions by the effect of module-based training courses (about reproductive health and birth control, sexually transmitted infections, harmful habits, psychosocial behavior. Being planned as cross-sectional, this study was performed between September 2013-June 2014 in three states and a private high school in Zonguldak and conducted with a group of students aged between 14 and 19.926 students have participated before the training and 534 students have participated after training. It was seen that the mean scores of ‘The Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire', ‘The Adolescent's Attitudes Towards Violence Scale' and ‘taking risk about social status', ‘traffic', ‘subtance use' subscales have decreased after the risk prevention trainings. The means scores of ‘Adolescent Coping with Problems Scale', ‘Nutrition Behaviour Scale' and ‘Nutrition Attitude Scale' have raised. Hence, the scores of domains reflecting adolescent health perception such as hygiene, sleep and exercise have raised while the scores of somatic symptoms domain, such as abdominal pain, headache, and fatigue have been failed. Consequently, it was determined that the training courses about risky health behaviours were effective in preventing risky health behaviors and creating positive health perceptions of adolescents.

  9. Depression, pathological dependence, and risky behaviour in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosi, Marialisa; Ruggieri, F; Franchi, G; Masci, I

    2012-09-01

    During adolescence, there is an increased chance of increased incidence of depression and the development of addictive/dependent behaviours such as pathological gambling, excessive Internet use and compulsive shopping, Here we present a psychoeducational approach in the schools of Pescara and Penne to identify and treat these problems.

  10. A risky boundary : Unwanted sexual behaviour among youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of

  11. A risky boundary : Unwanted sexual behaviour among youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Paula de; Burrie, Ingrid; Wel, Frits van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore unwanted sexual behaviour amongs young people. Sexual aggression was operationalized at three levels: ‘‘verbal’’, ‘‘non-verbal/intimidating’’ and ‘‘physically violent’’. A total of 1,700 Dutch adolescents completed a questionnaire that included six clusters of

  12. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors among Male and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in risk sexual behavior due to insufficient knowledge of reproductive health and family ... The level of risks and sexual behaviors are different between male and ... Female students who consumed alcohol were 7 times more likely to be at risk ...

  13. Salivary testosterone as a potential indicator for risky behaviour associated with smoking-related peer pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Adi; Ghazali, Nur B; Said, Nadzirah M; Steele, Michael; Koh, David; Tuah, Nik A

    2016-04-09

    Early smoking is considered an indicator for risky behaviour in adolescents. Although social indicators predicting adolescent smoking are known, biological indicators have not been defined. This study aimed to establish whether salivary testosterone could be used as a "predictive biomarker" for smoking-associated peer pressure. Saliva samples were collected from Bruneian adolescents (aged 13-17 years) by the passive drool method. Salivary testosterone concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Salivary testosterone concentration and smoking-associated peer pressure indicators were compared between adolescent males and females and statistical significance was determined by an independent samples t-test. A significant positive relationship between smoking-associated peer pressure and salivary testosterone levels in adolescents was found. However, this relationship was not significant when males and females were considered separately. Our data suggest that students who have tried cigarette smoking and have friends who are cigarette smokers have higher salivary testosterone levels.

  14. [Depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour in adolescents engaging in risky and pathological internet use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Gloria; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Klug, Katja; Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimi; Wasserman, Danuta; Vonderlin, Eva; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2012-01-01

    To investigate associations between risky and pathologic internet use with depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour among a representative sample of German adolescents. A total of 1,435 students (48% boys, 52% girls) from the area of Heidelberg/Germany were recruited during the SEYLE study, a European school-based intervention study and completed an assessment of different questionnaires, including the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for the assessment of risky and pathological internet use, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Deliberate Self Harm Inventory, and the Paykel Suicide Scale. 80.7% of the students reported regular, 14.5% risky, and 4.8% pathological internet use. The risky and the pathological internet users showed significant higher rates of depression, deliberate self-harm and suicidal behaviour compared to students with regular internet use. Remarkably, there were no significant differences of levels of depression and suicidal behaviour between risky and pathological users. These results suggest that not only pathologic internet use but also risky internet use is associated with symptoms of depression, self-harm and suicidal behaviour. Therefore, more attention should be paid to adolescents with risky internet use for the early recognition of depression, self-harm and suicidality in adolescence.

  15. Parents' and peers' contribution to risky driving of male teen drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman - Ben-Ari, Orit; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2015-05-01

    The current study joins efforts devoted to understanding the associations of parents' personality, attitude, and behavior, and to evaluating the added contribution of peers to the driving behavior of young drivers during their solo driving. The study combines data gathered using in-vehicle data recorders from actual driving of parents and their male teen driver with data collected from self-report questionnaires completed by the young drivers. The sample consists of 121 families, who participated in the study for 12 months, beginning with the licensure of the teen driver. The current examination concentrates on the last 3 months of this first year of driving. The experimental design was based on a random control assignment into three treatment groups (with different forms of feedback) and a control group (with no feedback). Findings indicate that the parents' (especially the fathers') sensation seeking, anxiety, and aggression, as well as their risky driving events rate were positively associated with higher risky driving of the young driver. In addition, parents' involvement in the intervention, either by feedback or by training, led to lower risky driving events rate of young drivers compared to the control group. Finally, higher cohesion and adaptability mitigated parents' model for risky driving, and peers norms' of risky driving were associated with higher risk by the teen drivers. We conclude by claiming that there is an unequivocal need to look at a full and complex set of antecedents in parents' personality, attitudes, and behavior, together with the contribution of peers to the young drivers' reckless driving, and address the practical implications for road safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol and drug abuse and risky sexual behaviours in young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p sexual risk behavior.

  17. Rank among Peers during Game Competition Affects the Tendency to Make Risky Choices in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jerome C.; Nagase, Kohei; Naramura-Ohno, Sawako; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu; Morita, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that adolescents take more risks when they are with peers than when they are alone, presumably because the presence of peers can be a social reward/punishment that can bias decision making. Competition is inherent in peer interactions, and recent work has demonstrated that winning/losing is an intrinsic social reward/punishment. Taken together, it can be hypothesized that competition amongst peers affects adolescents’ risky behavior. While there is much evidence that status amongst peers can relate to antisocial/aggressive behavior, it remains unclear whether risky behavior is affected. Moreover, the degree to which ‘temporary status,’ such as ranking in a short-term competitive game, affects behavior is uncertain, an important issue because adolescents might be sensitive to situations or factors which potentially destabilize existing hierarchies. In this experiment, these issues were directly explored in the classroom environment using smartphone technology and Wi-Fi setup. Male junior high school students (aged 14–15) performed a roulette game task on smartphones, playing either independently or against five classmates. In the latter case, the students’ current ranks within the group of six were constantly presented on smartphone screens. To dissociate the effects of the students’ reactions to ranks from their actual performances, unknown to the students, the ranks presented were actually predetermined so that about half of the students were continuously presented with high ranks whereas the other half were continuously presented with low ranks. We found that the students presented with low ranks made more risky plays than those not presented with ranks or those presented with high ranks. This result suggests that even temporary status significantly affects adolescents’ risky behavior, and also demonstrates the usefulness of smartphones in examining and manipulating peer interactions in classroom experiments. PMID:28174543

  18. Risky health-related behaviours among school-aged adolescents: a rational 'consumer' choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jane E K

    2016-05-01

    Within the contemporary culture of consumption, school-aged adolescents, though neither waged nor salaried producers, are nevertheless treated by the media and the advertisers as if they are active consumers who are engaged in the project of the self. For those adolescents who lack the financial resources to 'buy into' this culture, anxiety may ensue. In order to ease this anxiety, and to acquire social status, some - not all - may make the 'rational' 'consumer' choice to engage in risky health-related behaviour. In situ ethnographic research is needed in order to complement and inform the existing survey-based evidence on the relationship between economic status and health-related behaviour among school-aged adolescents as they deal with the pressures of consumerism.

  19. Sexual debut before the age of 14 leads to poorer psychosocial health and risky behaviour in later life

    OpenAIRE

    Kastbom, Åsa A; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Priebe,Gisela; Svedin, Carl-Göran

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the relationship between sexual debut before 14 years of age and socio-demographics, sexual experience, health, experience of child abuse and behaviour at 18 years of age. Methods A sample of 3432 Swedish high school seniors completed a survey about sexuality, health and abuse at the age of 18. Results Early debut was positively correlated with risky behaviours, such as the number of partners, experience of oral and anal sex, health behaviours, such as smoking, dru...

  20. Introduced goldfish affect amphibians through inhibition of sexual behaviour in risky habitats: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winandy, Laurane; Denoël, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of alien species is one of the major causes of current and global biodiversity loss. The introduction of fish can be a particular threat to native amphibian populations, which are declining worldwide. One way for amphibians to persist in such altered environments is to adopt anti-predator strategies especially at the behavioural level. However, although it has been shown that avoidance behaviour may decrease the probability of being detected by a potential predator, little is known on the consequences on sexual behaviour. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that adult Alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris) use shelters more often and exhibit less sexual activity in the presence of goldfish (Carassius auratus) and that they reduce sexual activity more in risky micro-habitats than in safe environments. To this end, we assessed behavioural patterns of adult newts in a replicated laboratory design. Goldfish were present in direct contact with newts in half of the tanks. Consistently throughout the study period, significantly more newts used shelter in the presence of fish than in their absence. Newts also significantly decreased their sexual activity level overall, but specially outside the shelter when they were in direct contact with fish. These results show that fish presence can affect newts in complex ways, such as through inhibition of their reproduction. Our work highlights that integrating behaviour in conservation studies is essential to understanding the patterns of coexistence and exclusion between introduced fish and amphibians.

  1. Modeling predictors of risky drug use behavior among male street laborers in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Huy; Dunne, Michael P; Debattista, Joseph

    2013-05-07

    The application of theoretical frameworks for modeling predictors of drug risk among male street laborers remains limited. The objective of this study was to test a modified version of the IMB (Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model), which includes psychosocial stress, and compare this modified version with the original IMB model in terms of goodness-of-fit to predict risky drug use behavior among this population. In a cross-sectional study, social mapping technique was conducted to recruit 450 male street laborers from 135 street venues across 13 districts of Hanoi city, Vietnam, for face-to-face interviews. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze data from interviews. Overall measures of fit via SEM indicated that the original IMB model provided a better fit to the data than the modified version. Although the former model was able to predict a lesser variance than the latter (55% vs. 62%), it was of better fit. The findings suggest that men who are better informed and motivated for HIV prevention are more likely to report higher behavioral skills, which, in turn, are less likely to be engaged in risky drug use behavior. This was the first application of the modified IMB model for drug use in men who were unskilled, unregistered laborers in urban settings. An AIDS prevention program for these men should not only distribute information and enhance motivations for HIV prevention, but consider interventions that could improve self-efficacy for preventing HIV infection. Future public health research and action may also consider broader factors such as structural social capital and social policy to alter the conditions that drive risky drug use among these men.

  2. Human factors in cybersecurity; examining the link between Internet addiction, impulsivity, attitudes towards cybersecurity, and risky cybersecurity behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Hadlington

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the relationship between risky cybersecurity behaviours, attitudes towards cybersecurity in a business environment, Internet addiction, and impulsivity. 538 participants in part-time or full-time employment in the UK completed an online questionnaire, with responses from 515 being used in the data analysis. The survey included an attitude towards cybercrime and cybersecurity in business scale, a measure of impulsivity, Internet addiction and a ‘risky’ cybersecurity behaviours scale. The results demonstrated that Internet addiction was a significant predictor for risky cybersecurity behaviours. A positive attitude towards cybersecurity in business was negatively related to risky cybersecurity behaviours. Finally, the measure of impulsivity revealed that both attentional and motor impulsivity were both significant positive predictors of risky cybersecurity behaviours, with non-planning being a significant negative predictor. The results present a further step in understanding the individual differences that may govern good cybersecurity practices, highlighting the need to focus directly on more effective training and awareness mechanisms.

  3. Substance use and risky sexual behaviours among sexually experienced Ghanaian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doku David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between risky sexual behaviours and substance uses among Ghanaian youth were investigated. Methods An in-school cross-sectional representative survey was conducted among 12-18-year- old youth in Ghana in 2008 (N = 1195, response rate =90%. Logistic regression analyses were employed to investigate the association between substance use (tobacco use, drunkenness, marijuana use and other drug uses and risky sexual behaviours (sexual debut, condom use and number of sexual partners. Results Of all youth, 25% (28% boys and 23% girls were sexually experienced. The mean age for first sexual intercourse was 14.8 years (14.4 years for boys and 15.1 years for girls. Among the sexually experienced, 31% had multiple sexual partners. Older age (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4 and rural residency (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1-2.1 were independently associated with sexual debut while only older age (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.7-3.4 was associated with condom use. Additionally, smoking (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 2.0-6.8, tawa use (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.3-4.7, tobacco use (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.7-4.7 drunkenness (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.8 and marijuana use (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.6-7.0 were independently associated with sexual debut. Furthermore, all substance uses studied were associated with having one or multiple sexual partners. Conclusion Substance use seems to be a gateway for risky sexual behaviours among Ghanaian youth. Public health interventions should take into account the likelihood of substance use among sexually experienced youth.

  4. A Hangover and a One-Night Stand: Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behaviour among Female Students at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…

  5. A Hangover and a One-Night Stand: Alcohol and Risky Sexual Behaviour among Female Students at an Australian University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Heidi; Smith, Kylie; Magee, Christopher A.; Jones, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and heavy episodic drinking is increasingly common among female university students. This trend is concerning given that excessive alcohol consumption and binge drinking have several adverse effects, including increased levels of risky sexual behaviour. The findings presented here are the first step in establishing an…

  6. The impact of Universal Health Coverage on health care consumption and risky behaviours: evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislandi, Simone; Manachotphong, Wanwiphang; Perego, Viviana M E

    2015-07-01

    Thailand is among the first non-OECD countries to have introduced a form of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This policy represents a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of public health insurance on health behaviours. In this paper, we examine the impact of Thailand's UHC programme on preventive activities, unhealthy or risky behaviours and health care consumption using data from the Thai Health and Welfare Survey. We use doubly robust estimators that combine propensity scores and linear regressions to estimate differences-in-differences (DD) and differences-in-DD models. Our results offer important insights. First, UHC increases individuals' likelihood of having an annual check-up, especially among women. Regarding health care consumption, we observe that UHC increases hospital admissions by over 2% and increases outpatient visits by 13%. However, there is no evidence that UHC leads to an increase in unhealthy behaviours or a reduction of preventive efforts. In other words, we find no evidence of ex ante moral hazard. Overall, these findings suggest positive health impacts among the Thai population covered by UHC.

  7. Epidemiological Study Of Risky Behaviours And Their Relation With Mental Ill Health Among Secondary School Students In Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam A. El-Moselhy; Morsy A. Ammar; Khaled M. Abd-Allah; Ibrahim A.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional design was carried out on 827 students from general and technical secondary schools in Cairo. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of risky behaviours among the studied students, to assess their relation with sociodemographic factors and psychological problems and to explore student's attitude toward these behaviours. The data were collected by a standardized interviewing form. Different psychological symptoms were assessed using Middle Sex Hospital Questionnaire. The study showed, 54.1% of the students were having unhealthy diet and tobacco smoking behaviours. Also, all the risky behaviours, except absence of physical exercise practice and suicide attempt, were more common among boys. The most important sociodemographic risk factors were; positive family history of risky behaviours, one parent family and the student's work beside studying (OR=7.11, 4.07 and 3.37, respectively. The most important reasons for unhealthy diet, carrying weapon and engagement in casual sex were imitation (55.2%, to feel grown up (47.1% and peer pressure (39.1%, respectively. While, the most common psychological problem was hysteria (15.1% and the most common neurotic trait was sadness (41.9%. The most important psychological problems risk factors were obsession and hysteria (OR=5.53 and 4.59, respectively. While, the most important neurotic traits risk were irritability and sadness (OR=9.53 and 8.05, respectively. No awareness to the reported risk was present among 96.4% of the students having the risky behaviours (OR=6.41.

  8. Young driver risky behaviour and predictors of crash risk in Australia, New Zealand and Colombia: Same but different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, Bridie; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar

    2017-02-01

    Young drivers remain overrepresented in road crashes around the world, with road injury the leading cause of death among adolescents. In addition, the majority of road traffic crashes, fatalities and injuries occur in low- and middle-income countries. All young drivers are at risk due to a breadth of age- and inexperience-related factors; however it is well recognised that young drivers may also intentionally engage in risky driving behaviours which increase their crash risk. The aim of this paper is to examine the self-reported risky driving behaviour of young drivers in Australia, New Zealand (high-income countries), and Colombia (middle-income country), and to explore the utility of a crash risk assessment model in these three countries. Young drivers aged 16-25 years completed the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (BYNDS), in addition to self-reporting crash involvement and driving offences. A hierarchical segmentation analysis via decision trees was used to study the relationship between self-reported crashes and risky driving. Young drivers in Colombia reported more risky driving than young drivers in New Zealand, and considerably more risky driving than young drivers in Australia. Significant differences among and across countries in individual BYNDS items were found, and 23.5% of all participants reported they had been involved in a road crash. Handheld mobile phone usage was the strongest predictor of crashes, followed by driving after drinking alcohol, and carrying friends as passengers. Country of origin predicted mobile phone usage, with New Zealand and Colombia grouped in the same decision tree branch which implies no significant differences in the behaviour between these countries. Despite cultural differences in licensing programs and enforcement, young drivers reported engaging in a similar breadth of risky behaviours. Road crashes were explained by mobile phone usage, drink driving and driving with passengers, suggesting interventions should

  9. Stress, trauma, and risky sexual behaviour among American Indians in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Carol E; Beals, Janette; Mitchell, Christina M; Lemaster, Pamela; Fickenscher, Alexandra

    2004-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship of risky sexual behaviour to stress and trauma-often the mediators of the content and structure of everyday life-among young American Indians. School, work, social life, and home life bring about demands and stresses for youth; choices young people make may depend on the quantity and content of those demands. Traumatic events or highly distressing situations may shatter fragile (or even resilient) systems of external and internal support from which youth may draw. American Indians live in some of the most impoverished areas of the country, where everyday life includes a heavy burden of stress and trauma. Using data from a representative sample of youth from a Northern Plains tribe, bivariate and adjusted ordered logit models are used to show that stress and trauma do play a role in the sexual decision-making of young people, especially young women. For example, young women who have experienced a trauma have a 20% probability of having had multiple casual partners in the prior year compared to 9% for those who have not experiences a trauma. Types and levels of stress and trauma also make a difference by gender.

  10. Geographic variation and socio-demographic determinants of the co-occurrence of risky health behaviours in 27 European Union member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippidis, F T; Agaku, I T; Vardavas, C I

    2016-06-01

    Risky health behaviours such as tobacco and alcohol abuse, physical inactivity and poor diet may play an important role in disease development. The aim of the present study was to assess the geographical distribution and socio-demographic determinants of risky health-related behaviours in 27 member states (MSs) of the European Union (EU). Data from the 2009 Eurobarometer survey (wave 72.3; n = 26 788) were analysed. Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity and fruit consumption were assessed through a self-reported questionnaire provided to participants from 27 EU MSs. Within the analyses, participants with three or more lifestyle risk factors were classified as individuals with co-occurrence of risk factors. Among respondents aged 15 or older, 28.2% had none of the aforementioned behavioural risk factors, whereas 9.9% had three or more lifestyle risk factors. Males [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.50; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.17-2.88] and respondents of middle (aOR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.36-1.89) or lower income (aOR = 2.63; 95% CI: 2.12-3.26) were more likely to report co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors, as well as respondents in Northern (aOR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.14-1.78), Western (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.56) and Eastern Europe (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.06-1.55), when compared with Southern European respondents. The above analyses indicate significant geographical and social variation in the distribution of the co-occurrence of behavioural risk factors for disease development. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Stress Mediates the Relationship Between Past Drug Addiction and Current Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Low-income Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z Helen; Tennen, Howard; Hosain, G M Monawar; Coman, Emil; Cullum, Jerry; Berenson, Abbey B

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the role of stress as a mediator of the relationship between prior drug addiction and current high-risk sexual behaviour. Eight hundred twenty women aged 18 to 30 years, who received care at community-based family planning clinics, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. They also completed the brief version of the Self-Control Scale as a measure of problem-solving strategies and measures of recent stressful events, daily hassles and ongoing chronic stress. Regardless of addiction history, stress exposure during the previous 12 months was associated with risky sexual behaviour during the previous 12 months. Structural equation modelling revealed that 12-month stress levels mediated the relationship between past drug addiction and 12-month high-risk sexual behaviours, as well as the negative relationship between problem-solving strategies and high-risk sexual behaviours. Problem-solving strategies did not moderate the relationship between drug addiction and high-risk sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that stress management training may help reduce risky behaviour among young, low-income women. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. DIGITAL DANGERS AND CYBER-VICTIMISATION: A STUDY OF EUROPEAN ADOLESCENT ONLINE RISKY BEHAVIOUR FOR SEXUAL EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Nicholas DeMarco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The engagement and use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs has increased exponentially across societies worldwide with implications for social and psychological development in young people. In this context, the risk of negative sexual experience and victimisation online is known to have real world consequences for young people. This article seeks to: explore the nature of adolescent risk taking online behaviour from a group of young adults in different European countries; develop types of online risk profiles; explore the impact of help-seeking and to consider the potential real world harmful consequences. Method: A survey was administered across the United Kingdom, Ireland and Italy of 18 to 25 year olds in higher education, asking them about their online experiences between the ages of 12 and 16. Risky behaviour on and off-line, types of victimisation (on and offline and sexual solicitation requests online were analysed together with help-seeking behaviour. Results: Four profiles concerning adolescent risky behaviours were identified through cluster analysis. Each were distinguishable by a pattern of latent constructs linked to risk offline and online. Two were considered normative (adapted adolescents and inquisitive online and two high risk (risk-taking aggressive and sexually inquisitive online. Additionally, regression analysis demonstrated significant factors linked to predicting both likelihood of meeting an adult for sexual purposes, and help-seeking behaviour. Conclusions: The profiles developed are a useful tool for educators, police and health and social care practitioners in identifying adolescents at risk in order to undertake preventative work. Common help-seeking behaviour from peers could be used to effect interventions.

  13. Male Rural-to-Urban Migrants and Risky Sexual Behavior: A Cross-Sectional Study in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Qing Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the prevalence and the determinants of risky sexual behavior (defined as having multiple sex partners and paying for sex among male rural-to-urban migrants in China. An anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographics, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with increased risk of risky sexual behavior from 4,069 subjects. In total 1,132 (27.8% participants reported two or more sex partners and 802 (19.7% participants paid for sex. A considerable proportion (29.6%–41.5% did not use a condom during risky sexual behavior. Logistic regression analysis revealed that unmarried status (OR: 0.62, CI: 0.42–0.85 for married, earlier age at first sexual experience (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.31–0.91 for ≥22 years old, poor perception of risk of acquiring HIV/AIDS (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.33–1.96 for unlikely; OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.61–3.70 for impossible, frequent exposure to pornography (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.60–0.81 for sometimes; OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.11–0.43 for never, attitudes toward legalization of commercial sex (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.59 for no, peer influence (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27–0.88 for no, and not knowing someone who had/had died from HIV/AIDS (OR: 0.35, 95% CI: 0.20–0.53 for yes were all significantly associated with having multiple sex partners. Those who paid for sex showed similar findings.

  14. Use of the Internet by parents of middle school students: internet rules, risky behaviours and online concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdell, E B

    2013-02-01

    Using the Internet is a daily occurrence for parents and children in today's world. Although they use the Internet differently, many individuals may face online hazards that they may be ill equipped to deal with. To better understand Internet use and online behaviours, a study was conducted with 227 parents of early adolescent (ages 11 to 14 years) middle school students (grades 6, 7 and 8). Four important findings emerged: (1) parents are using the Internet like their children but have different online behaviours; (2) parents have Internet use rules at home; (3) parents are participating in risky Internet behaviours (electronic aggression, intentional online harassment and communication with online strangers); and (4) parents are concerned about their child's online safety, specifically about the exposure to sexually explicit materials and online strangers, but the majority of parents do not know where to report negative or unsafe Internet experiences. Nurses, clinicians, healthcare providers and other professionals can and do provide comprehensive care to families by identifying needs and areas of knowledge deficit. By asking Internet use questions, nurses and other professionals are able to develop plans of care for all family members that will promote Internet safety and healthy lifestyle choices.

  15. Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics, sexual behaviour and risk factors of female, male and ... workers were interviewed once; any re-interviews were excluded from analysis. ... where the only sex work-specific clinic was operational, were less likely to have ...

  16. Male sexual harassment alters female social behaviour towards other females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, Safi K; Watts, Lauren

    2012-04-23

    Male harassment of females to gain mating opportunities is a consequence of an evolutionary conflict of interest between the sexes over reproduction and is common among sexually reproducing species. Male Trinidadian guppies Poecilia reticulata spend a large proportion of their time harassing females for copulations and their presence in female social groups has been shown to disrupt female-female social networks and the propensity for females to develop social recognition based on familiarity. In this study, we investigate the behavioural mechanisms that may lead to this disruption of female sociality. Using two experiments, we test the hypothesis that male presence will directly affect social behaviours expressed by females towards other females in the population. In experiment one, we tested for an effect of male presence on female shoaling behaviour and found that, in the presence of a free-swimming male guppy, females spent shorter amounts of time with other females than when in the presence of a free-swimming female guppy. In experiment two, we tested for an effect of male presence on the incidence of aggressive behaviour among female guppies. When males were present in a shoal, females exhibited increased levels of overall aggression towards other females compared with female only shoals. Our work provides direct evidence that the presence of sexually harassing males alters female-female social behaviour, an effect that we expect will be recurrent across taxonomic groups.

  17. Identifying the psychological determinants of risky riding: an application of an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Conner, Mark; Jamson, Samantha

    2012-11-01

    The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) plus moral norms, anticipated regret, past behaviour, self-identity and perceived susceptibility was applied to predicting motorcyclists' intention to ride above the speed limit and ride at inappropriate speeds. Past behaviour, control beliefs, attitudes, moral norm, normative beliefs, age and self-identity explained 60% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to exceed the speed limit on motorways (N=1381). A total of 62% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to really go for it on rural roads was accounted for, with past behaviour, attitudes, control beliefs, age, normative beliefs, anticipated regret, self-identity, behavioural beliefs and training status being significant (N=1116). Finally, attitudes, past behaviour, control beliefs, moral norm, anticipated regret, behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, engine size and self-identity explained 57% of the variance in motorcyclists' intention to ride faster than felt safe in order to keep up with the group (N=1940). The belief-based measures also successfully differentiated between those who intended to speed and those who did not. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. A Go/No-go approach to uncovering implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael J.; Møller, Mette

    2015-01-01

    ' self-reports. Implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving were measured in 53 Danish drivers (31 female, 22 male). Further, we explored the relationship between implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving, and self-reported driving behaviour and skills. The results suggest that implicit...... attitudes were significantly related to self-reported driving behaviour and skills for male (but not female) drivers. Pending future research with larger sample sizes, the difference between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical...

  19. Risky attitudes towards road use in pre-drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waylen, Andrea E; McKenna, Frank P

    2008-05-01

    Motor vehicle accidents are one of the principal causes of adolescent disability or mortality and male drivers are more likely to be involved in road accidents than female drivers. In part such associations between driver age and sex have been linked to differences in risky behaviour (e.g. speed, violations) and individual characteristics (e.g. sensation seeking, deviant behaviour). The aim of this research is to determine whether associations between risky road user behaviour and individual characteristics are a function of driver behaviour or whether they are intrinsic and measurable in individuals too young to drive. Five hundred and sixty-seven pre-driver students aged 11-16 from three secondary schools completed questionnaires measuring enthusiasm for speed, sensation seeking, deviant behaviour and attitudes towards driver violations. Boys reported more risky attitudes than girls for all measures. Associations between sensation seeking, deviant behaviour and attitudes towards risky road use were present from early adolescence and were strongest around age 14, before individuals learn to drive. Risky attitudes towards road use are associated with individual characteristics and are observed in adolescents long before they learn to drive. Safe attitudes towards road use and driver behaviour should be promoted from childhood in order to be effective.

  20. Non communicable disease and risky behaviour in an urban university community Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, O K; Owoaje, E T; Adebiyi, O A

    2013-03-01

    Most developing countries have only limited information on the burden of Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs) even though rapid transitions in these NCDs have been predicted. To describe the burden of selected NCDs and associated risk behaviours in an urban university community in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 525 representative staff of a University in a large city in Nigeria was conducted. In all, 27.6% were already diagnosed with at least one NCD (hypertension-21.5%, diabetes-11%, cancer 2.9%) while 67.4% reported at least one risk behaviour (unhealthy diet- 96%, sedentary living- 27.4% excessive alcohol use-5.1% and smoking- 1.9%). Multiple risk behaviours were observed in 29.9% with no significant variation by sex or age. Those 40 years and above had significantly higher prevalence of NCD, particularly for hypertension (p<0.05). Only 7%, considered themselves to be at risk of NCDs. Those whose parents had NCDs OR: 5.9 (2.4-14.5) and those who currently had NCDs OR: 3.9(1.8-8.1) perceived themselves at risk of one or more NCDs, but not those with multiple risk behaviours. The high burden of NCDs and risk behaviours in the face of limited self-perceived risk has been demonstrated and calls for urgent intervention.

  1. Preferred Leadership Behaviours of Male and Female Badminton Players

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar S HARMA

    2015-01-01

    Pr eferences for specific coaching behaviours of male and female Badminton players were measured by the modified and revised Leadership Scale for Sport. Eighty two (Males=61, Females=21) badminton players were selected from amongst the players representing th eir respective university teams in East - zone Inter - university Badminton (Men/Women) tournaments held at Bilaspur (CG). The present investigation noted ...

  2. Preferred Leadership Behaviours of Male and Female Badminton Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar S HARMA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pr eferences for specific coaching behaviours of male and female Badminton players were measured by the modified and revised Leadership Scale for Sport. Eighty two (Males=61, Females=21 badminton players were selected from amongst the players representing th eir respective university teams in East - zone Inter - university Badminton (Men/Women tournaments held at Bilaspur (CG. The present investigation noted the statistically significant differences among East - zone Inter - university level male as well as female B adminton player’s preferences for specific coaching behaviour. Differences were not observed between male and female badminton players in all the dimensions together of specific coaching behaviours of preferred leadership. It is recommended that coaches a lign their coaching style to meet the needs of their teams.

  3. Risky Sexual Behaviors and Associated Factors Among Male and Female Students in Jimma Zone Preparatory Schools, South West Ethiopia: Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Mamo, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Background Youth engage in risk sexual behavior due to insufficient knowledge of reproductive health and family planning. Youth sexual behavior is important not only because of the possible reproductive outcomes, but also because of sexually transmitted infections. The level of risks and sexual behaviors are different between male and female youth due to sexual exposure and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to compare risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male an...

  4. Male migration and risky sexual behavior in rural India: is the place of origin critical for HIV prevention programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saggurti Niranjan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies of male migrants in India indicate that those who are infected with HIV are spreading the epidemic from high risk populations in high prevalence areas to populations in low prevalence areas. In this context, migrant men are believed to initiate and have risky sexual behaviors in places of destination and not in places of origin. The paucity of information on men's risky sexual behaviors in places of origin limits the decision to initiate HIV prevention interventions among populations in high out-migration areas in India. Methods A cross-sectional behavioral survey was conducted among non-migrants, returned migrants (with a history of migration, and active (current migrants in rural areas across two districts with high levels of male out-migration: Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh and Azamgarh district in Uttar Pradesh. Surveys assessed participant demographics, migration status, migration history, and sexual behavior along the migration routes, place of initiation of sex. District-stratified regression models were used to understand the associations between migration and risky sexual behaviors (number of partners, condom use at last sex and descriptive analyses of migrants' place of sexual initiation and continuation along migration routes. Results The average age at migration of our study sample was 19 years. Adjusted regression analyses revealed that active migrants were more likely to engage in sex with sex workers in the past 12 months (Prakasam: 15 percent vs. 8 percent; adjusted odds ratio (aOR=2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.4; Azamgarh: 19 percent vs.7 percent; aOR=4.0, 95% CI 2.4-6.6 as well as have multiple (3+ sex partners (Prakasam: 18 percent vs. 9 percent; aOR=2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.2; Azamgarh: 28 percent vs. 21 percent; aOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0 than non-migrants. Contrary to popular belief, a high proportion of active and returned migrants (almost 75 percent of those who had sex initiated sex at the place of

  5. Application of the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors amongst male students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Zahra; Zarani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    As AIDS is not merely a hygienic problem but a disease that creates a great deal of economic, cultural, and social problems, it is necessary for most of the state and nongovernmental organizations and individuals to participate in both controlling AIDS and preventing it. As no effective vaccine or therapy for this disease exists currently, the only method for avoiding being afflicted by this disease is prevention. The present study aims to examine the Information-Motivation and Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in risky sexual behaviors. For this purpose, a group of 151 male students was sampled using a multistage random sampling method to complete the quality of HIV information questionnaire, national AIDS questionnaire, international AIDS questionnaire and global positive attitude to AIDS questionnaire. The results show that there is a significant relationship between the perception of HIV infection risk and sexual behavior. Thus, the perception of risk is considered the first step toward modifying sexual behaviors from risk-taking behaviors to safer behaviors.

  6. Male courtship vibrations delay predatory behaviour in female spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2013-12-19

    During courtship, individuals transfer information about identity, mating status and quality. However, male web-building spiders face a significant problem: how to begin courting female spiders without being mistaken for prey? Male Argiope spiders generate distinctive courtship vibrations (shudders) when entering a female's web. We tested whether courtship shudders delay female predatory behaviour, even when live prey is present in the web. We presented a live cricket to females during playbacks of shudder vibrations, or white noise, and compared female responses to a control in which we presented a live cricket with no playback vibrations. Females were much slower to respond to crickets during playback of shudder vibrations. Shudder vibrations also delayed female predatory behaviour in a related spider species, showing that these vibrations do not simply function for species identity. These results suggest that male web-building spiders employ a phylogenetically conserved vibratory signal to ameliorate the risk of pre-copulatory cannibalism.

  7. Behaviour of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus during an induced mating season in captivity: how male relative size influences male behavioural investment and female preference over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgan, M; O'Brien, J; Picciulin, M; Manning, L; Gammell, M

    2017-04-01

    The behaviour of sexually mature Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus specimens (fifth farm generation) was observed in captivity for four consecutive days. Only agonistic interactions between males of different size were facilitated on the first 2 days, while both agonistic and courtship interactions were possible from the third day up to the end of the experiment. The reliability of behavioural analysis was assessed in order to reduce the possibility of observer errors within the generated datasets. The behavioural investment of big males, small males and females was analysed using general linear models (two-way repeated measures ANOVAs with time and male size as factors). A peak in the agonistic interactions between males occurred during the first day of interactions, where the agonistic investment of big males was significantly higher than that of small males. This resulted in an increased investment in submissive behaviour by the small males, who consistently performed submissive behaviours from the second day of interactions up to the end of the trial. Big males were found to invest significantly more than small males in courtship behaviours for the duration of the trial. Even though females performed inter-sexual behaviours towards both big and small males for the entire observation period, female interaction rate towards big males was higher than towards small males. This study suggests that both male investment in mating behaviour and female preference might be related to male characteristics such as body length and that S. alpinus behavioural patterns and mate choice cues might be strongly context-related and characterized by high levels of behavioural plasticity (i.e. presence-absence of certain behavioural units or potential reversal of a mate choice cue) within the same species. Finally, in light of this, some conservation measures are discussed. In particular, effective management plans should take into account the high level of behavioural plasticity

  8. [Study of the Sociodemographic Factors and Risky Behaviours Associated with the Acquisition of Sexual Transmitted Infections by Foreign Exchange Students in Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravata, Andreia; Castro, Rita; Borges-Costa, João

    2016-06-01

    Sexual transmitted infections are a main cause of morbidity, being a public health problem due to its reproductive complications, mostly observed in teenagers and young adults. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sociodemographic factors and risky behaviours associated with sexual transmitted infections acquisition and to assess personal awareness of risky behaviour and the knowledge about Chlamydia trachomatis infection between foreign exchange students in Portugal. The main instrument for data collection was a questionnaire, applied to foreign students in university exchange in Portugal, during the years 2012/2013, 2013/2014 e 2014/2015 Results: Three hundred and thirty eight (338) questionnaires were evaluated, being 58.3% female students, aged between 17 and 30 years old. Mean age for the beginning of the sexual activity was 17.5 years old and the mean number of lifetime sexual partners was 6.9. Concerning the answers given: 11.8% mentioned a sexual relationship with the same gender, 9.5% mentioned that they have never done oral sex and 29% assumed they had practiced anal sex; 82.1% mentioned alcohol/drugs consumption; 21% did not know that Sexual transmitted infections can be transmitted through oral sex and 42.3% did not recognize Chlamydia trachomatis as an Sexual transmitted infections agent. Although sexual transmitted infections can affect individuals of all ages, races and sexual orientation, various demographic, social and behavioral factors have revealed influence in their prevalence rates. Despite knowing about sexual transmitted infections, these students maintain sexual risky behaviours, mainly early age for starting sexual activity, multiple sexual partners and the absence of protection during sexual activities.

  9. Risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male and female students in Jimma Zone preparatory schools, South West Ethiopia: comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fentahun, Netsanet; Mamo, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Youth engage in risk sexual behavior due to insufficient knowledge of reproductive health and family planning. Youth sexual behavior is important not only because of the possible reproductive outcomes, but also because of sexually transmitted infections. The level of risks and sexual behaviors are different between male and female youth due to sexual exposure and socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to compare risky sexual behaviors and associated factors among male and female preparatory school (grades 11 and 12) students in Jimma Zone. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 randomly selected preparatory schools of Jimma Zone. A total of 520 students were selected using simple random sampling technique. A structured, pretested and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Both descriptive analysis and binary logistic regressions were performed on the data to understand risky sexual behaviors among students. Twenty-two (25.9%) of male and 25(21.6%) of female students had two or more sexual partners in the last six months. Eighty-three (32.3%), 113(43.5%) male and female students were sexually at risk in the last six months. Only 8(9.4%) of the male and 10(8.6%) of the female students used condom consistently in the last six months. Female students living away from their parents were 3 times more likely to be at risk than students living with their parents (OR 95%CI 3.0(1.48-6.34)). Female students who consumed alcohol were 7 times more likely to be at risk than those who did not consume alcohol (OR 95%CI 7.27(3.36-15.7)). Male students who consumed alcohol were 2.8 times more likely to be at risk than those who did not consumed alcohol (OR 95%CI, 2.81(1.3-6.06)). Male students who chewed khat were 4.6 times more likely to be at risk than students who did not chew khat (OR 95%CI, 4.58(1.95-10.76). Living arrangement, educational status of parents, family connectedness, alcohol consumption and khat-chewing were the major

  10. Short-term quetiapine treatment alters the use of reinforcement signals during risky decision-making and promotes the choice of negative expected values in healthy adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Philippa L; Harmer, Catherine J; McTavish, Sarah F B; Goodwin, Guy M; Rogers, Robert D

    2013-09-25

    Effective decision-making can involve using environmental signals about the possible good and bad outcomes, and their probabilities, to select optimal actions. Problematic decision-making in psychiatric disorders, and particularly bipolar illness, may result from disrupted use of these reinforcement cues, leading to actions that reflect or precipitate pathological changes in mood. Previous experiments indicate that the processing of reinforcement cues while selecting between risky actions can be influenced by dopamine and serotonin activity. Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent with a complex pharmacology, including antagonist actions at 5-HT2A and, to a lesser extent, D2 receptors. Here, we investigated the effects of (short-term) treatment with quetiapine on the risky decision-making of healthy human adults. Twenty participants received 150 mg of quetiapine XL for 7 d, whereas 20 age- and IQ-matched participants received a placebo. On the eighth day, all participants completed a risky decision-making task that involved making a series of choices between two simultaneously presented gambles that differed in the magnitudes of their possible gains and losses, and the probabilities with which these outcomes were delivered. Quetiapine treatment was associated with a marked tendency to choose options with negative expected values compared with placebo treatment in male but not female participants. Our results demonstrate that antagonism of serotonin and dopamine receptor activity can alter the way individuals use information about gains and losses when selecting between risky actions, possibly reflecting gender-specific differences in risk attitudes. These effects may be beneficial by correcting decision-making biases that feature in mood disorders.

  11. Male mating behaviour in relation to female sexual swellings, socio-sexual behaviour and hormonal changes in wild Barbary macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Christopher; Majolo, Bonaventura; Heistermann, Michael; Schülke, Oliver; Ostner, Julia

    2013-01-01

    In many cercopithecine primates females display probabilistic cues of fertility to indicate the periovulatory period to males. These cues may include female behaviour, acoustic signals, and morphological signs such as the anogenital swelling. However, the extent to which males can utilise this information varies between species. We describe male sexual behaviour in relation to changes in anogenital swelling size, timing of ovulation and female socio-sexual behaviour in wild Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus). We further compare male sexual behaviour during conception and post-conception cycles to evaluate if males differentiate between these qualitatively different cycle types. Our results show that during conception cycles male mating behaviour was concentrated around the fertile phase implying that males inferred information from more than swelling size alone. Male mating frequency increased in line with female socio-sexual behaviour, namely female presenting and the frequency of copulations with copulation calls. Most strikingly our results show that males invested equally in mating during fertile and non-fertile, i.e. post-conception, maximum swelling phases. Whether post-conception swellings were merely a result of changes in hormone concentrations during pregnancy or part of a female reproductive strategy remains elusive. In sum, this study adds to the body of research on the evolution of female sexual signals and how males may infer information from these cues.

  12. Conservation of fruitless' role as master regulator of male courtship behaviour from cockroaches to flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clynen, Elke; Ciudad, Laura; Bellés, Xavier; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2011-05-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, male courtship behaviour is regulated by the fruitless gene. In D. melanogaster, fruitless encodes a set of putative transcription factors that are sex-specifically spliced. Male-specific variants are necessary and sufficient to elicit male courtship behaviour. Fruitless sequences have been reported in other insect species, but there are no data available on their functional role. In the present work, we cloned and sequenced fruitless in males of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, and we studied its expression in male brain and testes. B. germanica fruitless encodes a 350-amino acid protein with BTB and Zinc finger domains typical of fruitless sequences. Upon RNAi-mediated knockdown of fruitless in B. germanica, males no longer exhibit courtship behaviour, thus implying that fruitless is necessary for male sexual behaviour in our cockroach model. This suggests that the role of fruitless as master regulator of male sexual behaviour has been conserved along insect evolution, at least from cockroaches to flies.

  13. Socio-cultural correlates and risky sexual behaviour influencing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and STIs in Uganda: A gender perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraboni Patra

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the behavioural factors especially risky sexual behaviours along with the other socio-economic correlates of the high prevalence of STIs and HIV infection in Uganda. The Uganda AIDS Indicator Survey (2011 data is used. The total sample is 16,607 of which 7,122 are men and 9,485 are women. HIV prevalence is high among men (33.4% and women (50.2% with any sexually transmitted infections (STIs or STI symptoms. Women are significantly more vulnerable to any STIs and HIV/AIDS than men. The prevalence of HIV and STIs is much higher among widow, divorced and separated. Drinking alcohol and not using a condom during sex, having two or more sexual partners are the contributing factors to high HIV and STIs prevalence. Awareness of preventive methods and transmission of STIs, and changes in sexual behaviour are required. The difference in the prevalence of STIs and HIV among men and women can be minimised by increasing employment opportunity for women, by securing woman’s sexual right through legal protection and by targeting men’s perception towards women’s sexuality.

  14. Male red throat coloration, pelvic spine coloration, and courtship behaviours in threespine stickleback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Yong, Lengxob; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    Background: In addition to exhibiting red nuptial throat coloration, male threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) often possess red coloration on their pelvic spines. Although variation in throat colour has been shown to be associated with male reproductive behaviour, limited research has

  15. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of Italian female undergraduate students towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour. Do female medical students make good peer educators?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anna Coniglio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The main purpose of this study was to identify and describe knowledge, beliefs and attitudes towards HIV infection and risky sexual behaviour in female medical freshmen in order to evaluate the possibility of female medical student-based peer education.

    Methods: Researchers surveyed 560 freshmen: 280 medical students and 280 non medical students at two Italian Universities, collecting the data through anonymous, self administered questionnaires. Data were codified and statistical analysis was computed using Statistica and Openstat 4 software.

    Results: Female medical freshmen showed higher levels of knowledge and risk perception about HIV infection, and higher levels of self-awareness in preventing infection when compared with non-medical freshmen. Moreover, medical student’s had a lower rate of sexual activity and a higher rate of condom usage.

    Conclusions: Our data leads to the hypothesis that the involvement of female medical students in developing and providing safe sex education may be an important and effective way of better enhancing young people’s knowledge, attitude and behaviour towards the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

  16. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  17. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  18. Is male puddling behaviour of tropical butterflies targeted at sodium for nuptial gifts or activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, F.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Liefting, M.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    An apparent sexual difference in adult feeding behaviour in many species of Lepidoptera relates to puddling on mud, dung and carrion. In most butterfly species, puddling is exclusively a male behaviour. A possible explanation for this division in feeding behaviour is that nutrients derived from pudd

  19. Is male puddling behaviour of tropical butterflies targeted at sodium for nuptial gifts or activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molleman, F.; Grunsven, van R.H.A.; Liefting, M.; Zwaan, B.J.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    An apparent sexual difference in adult feeding behaviour in many species of Lepidoptera relates to puddling on mud, dung and carrion. In most butterfly species, puddling is exclusively a male behaviour. A possible explanation for this division in feeding behaviour is that nutrients derived from

  20. Why Embarrassment Inhibits the Acquisition and Use of Condoms: A Qualitative Approach to Understanding Risky Sexual Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jo

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on research commissioned by the UK Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit. The Living on the Edge (LOTE) study qualitatively explored factors that shape young people's experiences and attitudes towards sexual behaviour and young parenthood in three linked seaside and rural areas in England. It identifies embarrassment as a key…

  1. Multiple male traits interact: attractive bower decorations facilitate attractive behavioural displays in satin bowerbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, Gail L; Uy, J Albert C; Borgia, Gerald

    2003-11-22

    Sexually selected male courtship displays often involve multiple behavioural and physical traits, but little is known about the function of different traits in mate choice. Here, we examine female courtship behaviours to learn how male traits interact to influence female mating decisions. In satin bowerbirds (Ptilonorhynchus violaceus), successful males give highly aggressive, intense behavioural displays without startling females. Males do this by modulating their displays in response to female crouching, which signals the display intensity that females will tolerate without being startled. Females typically visit multiple males for multiple courtships before choosing a mate, and females show differing tolerance for intense displays during their first courtship with each male. We test three hypotheses that may explain this: (i) familiarity with the courting male; (ii) the order of the courtship in mate-searching; and (iii) the attractiveness of the courting male. We found that females are more tolerant of intense displays during first courtships with attractive males; this increased female tolerance may allow attractive males to give higher intensity courtship displays that further enhance their attractiveness. We then examined why this is so, finding evidence that females are less likely to be startled by males with better physical displays (bower decorations), and this reduced startling then contributes to male courtship success. This role of physical displays in facilitating behavioural displays suggests a novel mechanism by which multiple physical and behavioural traits may influence female choice.

  2. Explaining binge drinking among adolescent males using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Dempster, Martin; Newell, G.; Marley,John

    2005-01-01

    Binge drinking among adolescents in Northern Ireland is prevalent and has detrimental eff ects on public health. Health education interventions, based on valid explanatory models of health behaviour, are required to reduce binge drinking behaviour among adolescents. " is paper examines the utility of the " eory of Planned Behaviour in explaining binge drinking behaviour among adolescent males. Using questionnaire responses from 94 adolescent boys attending secondary schools in the Belfast are...

  3. Effect of home-based HIV counselling and testing on stigma and risky sexual behaviours: serial cross-sectional studies in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Muganzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large, district-wide, home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT programme was implemented in Bushenyi district of Uganda from 2004 to 2007. This programme provided free HBHCT services to all consenting adults of Bushenyi district and had a very high uptake and acceptability. We measured population-level changes in knowledge of HIV status, stigma and HIV-risk behaviours before and after HBHCT to assess whether widespread HBHCT had an effect on trends of risky sexual behaviours and on stigma and discrimination towards HIV. Methods: Serial cross-sectional surveys were carried out before and after the implementation of HBHCT programme in Bushenyi district of Uganda. A total of 1402 randomly selected adults (18 to 49 years were interviewed in the baseline survey. After the implementation, a different set of randomly selected 1562 adults was interviewed using the same questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, whether respondents had ever tested for HIV and stigma and discrimination towards HIV/AIDS. Results: The proportion of people who had ever tested for HIV increased from 18.6% to 62% (p<0.001. Among people who had ever tested, the proportion of people who shared HIV test result with a sexual partner increased from 41% to 57% (p<0.001. The proportion of persons who wanted infection status of a family member not to be revealed decreased from 68% to 57% (p<0.001. Indicators of risk behaviour also improved; the proportion of people who exchanged money for sex reduced from 12% to 4% (p<0.001, who used a condom when money was exchanged during a sexual act increased from 39% to 80% (p<0.001 and who reported genital ulcer/discharge decreased from 22% to 10% (p<0.001. Conclusion: These data suggest that HBHCT rapidly increased the uptake of HCT and may have led to reduction in high-risk behaviours at population level as well as reduction in stigma and discrimination. Because HBCT programmes

  4. Courtship behaviour in male red-backed salamanders: the ESS dating game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom; Jaeger; Willits

    1997-09-01

    Social interactions in red-backed salamanders, Plethodon cinereusare complex and often depend upon the sex and reproductive status of individuals. In the population at Mountain Lake Biological Station, Virginia, adult males outnumber sexually active (gravid) females by approximately 2:1, because males court annually while females accept mates only biennially. Field observations of male P. cinereus suggest that males maintain feeding territories and allow non-gravid (not sexually active) females access to their territories for foraging, whereas they defend their territories against intrusion by males. We used a game-theoretic analysis of models of male fitness to examine conditions that would favour the evolution of this 'permissive' behaviour. Under a series of increasingly realistic behavioural assumptions, we found that the critical factor in the evolution of male permissive behaviour is female preference for permissive males. If non-gravid females are more likely to return to mate with a male that allows access to his territory, then permissive behaviour is likely to evolve. Furthermore, the evolution of permissive behaviour is facilitated when energetic losses due to territorial defence exceed those due to allowing females to forage.1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour

  5. Female vibration discourages male courtship behaviour in the Amarillo fish (Girardinichthys multiradiatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Medina, Lourdes; Macías Garcia, Constantino; Flores Urbina, Amira; Manjarrez, Javier; Moyaho, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Amarillo fish females (Girardinichthys multiradiatus) vibrate when conspecific males approach them; the reason behind this behaviour is unclear. Hypotheses are that females vibrate either to avoid aggression from males or to court them. We prevented females from vibrating by temporarily blocking their lateral line organs and eyes, on the assumption that they rely on these senses to detect approaching males. Females with the lateral line organs obstructed vibrated less frequently than females with the lateral line intact, indicating that the mechanosensory lateral line system is necessary for perceiving approaching males. Males displayed more courtship behaviour to sighted females with the lateral line organs obstructed than to sighted females with the lateral line intact. A general tendency indicated that the less the females vibrated the more the males courted them. These findings indicate that female vibration discourages male courtship behaviour.

  6. HIV risk behaviours among male-to-female transgenders in comparison with homosexual or bisexual males and heterosexual females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, T; Luke, D; Mamo, L; Ching, A; Patria, J

    1999-06-01

    Issues and concerns among six directors, one counsellor and one consultant for transgender programmes in San Francisco are described. Additionally, 173 clients who were enrolled in programmes in eight AIDS service organizations were interviewed using a structured survey questionnaire. This study examined the relationships between HIV risk behaviours and social and cognitive factors among transgendered females (male-to-female transgenders) (n = 25) in comparison with homosexual or bisexual males (n = 122) and heterosexual females (n = 26). Transgendered females engaged in riskier behaviours than the other groups in terms of the number of sex partners in the past 30 days and the past six months, commercial sex activities, and having a steady sex partner who injected drugs. Adverse socioeconomic conditions and transgender-specific risk behaviours such as injecting hormones in relation to HIV risk behaviours must be targeted by future intervention studies.

  7. Effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibition on neural activity related to risky decisions and monetary rewards in healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macoveanu, Julian; Fisher, Patrick M; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) such as fluoxetine are commonly prescribed antidepressant drugs targeting the dysfunctional serotonin (5-HT) system, yet little is known about the functional effects of prolonged serotonin reuptake inhibition in healthy individuals. Here we used...... functional MRI (fMRI) to investigate how a three-week fluoxetine intervention influences neural activity related to risk taking and reward processing. Employing a double-blinded parallel-group design, 29 healthy young males were randomly assigned to receive 3 weeks of a daily dose of 40 mg fluoxetine...

  8. Health behaviour, decision making and perceived parenting : are male and female learners significantly different?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roman, Nicolette Vanessa; Davids, Eugene Lee; Leach, Lloyd

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to establish the perceived parenting styles, decision making styles and engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviours of male and female learners in secondary schools in the Western Cape, South Africa...

  9. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  10. The Extreme Male Brain Theory and Gender Role Behaviour in Persons with an Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauder, J. E. A.; Cornet, L. J. M.; Ponds, R. W. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    According to the Extreme Male Brain theory persons with autism possess masculinised cognitive traits. In this study masculinisation of gender role behaviour is evaluated in 25 persons with an autism spectrum condition (ASC) and matched controls with gender role behaviour as part of a shortened version of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality…

  11. Lifetime mating opportunities and male mating behaviour in sexually cannibalistic praying mantids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell

    1998-04-01

    I examined the number of lifetime mating opportunities and mating behaviour of males in two sexually cannibalistic species, the Mediterranean, Iris oratoria, and bordered, Stagmomantis limbata, praying mantids (Mantodea: Mantidae). Two approaches estimated the number of lifetime mating opportunities: direct observations of intersexual encounters in the field, and an encounter model. I collected behavioural observations, together with ecological data for use in the model, over three field seasons. The ecological data included an assessment of the feeding condition of S. limbata females in nature; the females fed at a level comparable to females maintained on an abundant diet in the laboratory. As for the number of mating opportunities, individual males of both species encountered two or more females, as predicted by the model. I observed no male, however, in more than one copulation. This result could reflect individual variation in the times and places of sexual activity or an actual low number of mating opportunities in the field. Furthermore, a higher percentage of I. oratoria males encountered two or more females than S. limbata males, as the model indicates. Fewer mating opportunities could lead to greater selection upon S. limbata males to ensure paternity at each mating, which can explain the longer copulation times observed for S. limbata males. I considered two hypotheses about male behaviour in light of the number of lifetime encounters with females: male suicide and male reduction of the risk of cannibalism. Behavioural observations do not strongly support male suicide in either species. Certain male behaviours, such as the nature of copulatory position and, in captivity, mounting females from the rear, are consistent with the idea that males behave so as to reduce the probability that they are cannibalized during intersexual encounters. Moreover, male I. oratoria preferentially mount well-fed, fecund females in captivity. Taken together, these results

  12. Male prairie voles with different avpr1a microsatellite lengths do not differ in courtship behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Brittney M; Solomon, Nancy G; Noe, Douglas A; Keane, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Females are generally expected to be selective when choosing their social and sexual partners. In a previous laboratory study, female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) showed significant social and sexual preferences for males with longer microsatellite DNA within the avpr1a gene encoding the vasopressin 1a receptor, as predicted if females select mates whose parental behaviour should increase female reproductive success. We tested the hypothesis that males with short versus long avpr1a microsatellite alleles exhibit differences in courtship behaviour, which could act as cues for female mate preference. The only behavioural difference we detected between males with short versus long avpr1a microsatellite alleles in mate preference trials was that males with short avpr1a microsatellite alleles sniffed the anogenital region of females more frequently during the first two days of the trials. Our results did not strongly support the hypothesis that a male's avpr1a genotype predicts the courtship behaviours we measured and suggests that other courtship behaviours or traits, such as odour and vocalizations, may be more important to female prairie voles when choosing mates. Additional studies using a wider array of species are needed to assess the degree to which male mammal courtship behaviour provides information on mate quality to females.

  13. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliott, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited. OBJECTIVES To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour among MSM after a negative HIV infection test. To identify effective components within interventions in reducing HIV risk-related behaviours and develop a candidate intervention. To host expert events addressing the implementation and optimisation of a candidate intervention. DATA SOURCES All major electronic databases (British Education Index, BioMed Central, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, Educational Resource Index and Abstracts, Health and Medical Complete, MEDLINE, PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, PubMed and Social Science Citation Index) were searched between January 2000 and December 2014. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions was conducted. Interventions were examined using the behaviour change technique (BCT) taxonomy, theory coding assessment, mode of delivery and proximity to HIV infection testing. Data were summarised in narrative review and, when appropriate, meta-analysis was carried out. Supplemental analyses for the development of the candidate intervention focused on post hoc realist review method, the assessment of the sequential delivery and content of intervention components, and the social and historical context of primary studies. Expert panels reviewed the candidate intervention for issues of implementation and optimisation. RESULTS Overall, trials included in this review (n = 10) demonstrated that individual-level behaviour change interventions

  14. Male red throat coloration, pelvic spine coloration, and courtship behaviours in threespine stickleback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Yong, Lengxob; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In addition to exhibiting red nuptial throat coloration, male threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) often possess red coloration on their pelvic spines. Although variation in throat colour has been shown to be associated with male reproductive behaviour, limited research has b

  15. Male red throat coloration, pelvic spine coloration, and courtship behaviours in threespine stickleback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Yong, Lengxob; Pierotti, Michele E. R.; McKinnon, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In addition to exhibiting red nuptial throat coloration, male threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) often possess red coloration on their pelvic spines. Although variation in throat colour has been shown to be associated with male reproductive behaviour, limited research has b

  16. Do male birds intercept and use rival courtship calls to adjust paternity protection behaviours?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matessi, Giuliano; McGregor, Peter Kenneth; Peake, Thomas More;

    2005-01-01

    with the behaviour of males who received a control playback, territorial song. After playback of courtship display calls male rock sparrows increased the frequency of courtship displays directed towards their mate, as predicted, but not mate guarding. These results illustrate the interplay of reproductive...

  17. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Kuznekoff, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary perspective when

  18. Insights into Sexism: Male Status and Performance Moderates Female-Directed Hostile and Amicable Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M Kasumovic

    Full Text Available Gender inequality and sexist behaviour is prevalent in almost all workplaces and rampant in online environments. Although there is much research dedicated to understanding sexist behaviour, we have almost no insight into what triggers this behaviour and the individuals that initiate it. Although social constructionist theory argues that sexism is a response towards women entering a male dominated arena, this perspective doesn't explain why only a subset of males behave in this way. We argue that a clearer understanding of sexist behaviour can be gained through an evolutionary perspective that considers evolved differences in intra-sexual competition. We hypothesised that female-initiated disruption of a male hierarchy incites hostile behaviour from poor performing males who stand to lose the most status. To test this hypothesis, we used an online first-person shooter video game that removes signals of dominance but provides information on gender, individual performance, and skill. We show that lower-skilled players were more hostile towards a female-voiced teammate, especially when performing poorly. In contrast, lower-skilled players behaved submissively towards a male-voiced player in the identical scenario. This difference in gender-directed behaviour became more extreme with poorer focal-player performance. We suggest that low-status males increase female-directed hostility to minimize the loss of status as a consequence of hierarchical reconfiguration resulting from the entrance of a woman into the competitive arena. Higher-skilled players, in contrast, were more positive towards a female relative to a male teammate. As higher-skilled players have less to fear from hierarchical reorganization, we argue that these males behave more positively in an attempt to support and garner a female player's attention. Our results provide the clearest picture of inter-sexual competition to date, highlighting the importance of considering an evolutionary

  19. Exposure to pornographic videos and its effect on HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidhubhusan Mahapatra

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Research on pornography and its association with HIV-related sexual behaviours is limited in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of viewing pornographic videos and examine its associations with HIV-related sexual risk behaviours among male migrant workers in India. METHODS: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007-08 across 21 districts in four states of India. Respondents included 11,219 male migrants aged 18 years or older, who had migrated to at least two places in the past two years for work. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to examine the association between viewing pornography and HIV-related sexual risk behaviours. RESULTS: Two-fifths (40% of the migrants had viewed pornographic videos in one month prior to the survey. Migrants aged 25-29 years, literate, unmarried and away from native village for more than five years were more likely to view pornography than their counterparts. Migrants who viewed pornographic videos were more likely to engage in paid (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 4.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.7-4.8 and unpaid sex (AOR: 4.2, 95% CI: 3.7-4.7, report inconsistent condom use in paid sex (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0 and experience STI-like symptoms (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.5-1.8 than their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: The findings regarding migrants' exposure to pornography and its linkage with high HIV risk behaviour suggest that the HIV prevention programmes for migrants need to be more innovative to communicate on the negative-effects of viewing pornography. More importantly, programmes need to find alternative ways to engage migrants in infotainment activities during their leisure time in an effort to reduce their exposure to pornographic videos as well as risky sexual behaviours.

  20. The effect of mate removal on dawn singing behaviour in male pied bush chats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vinaya Kumar SETHI; Dinesh BHATT; Amit KUMAR

    2011-01-01

    To determine the influence of pairing status on dawn singing behaviour in pied bush chats Saxicola caprata, we conducted mate removal experiments across eight territories. The experiment was divided into three stages: pre-removal (pairs were present on theit respective territories), removal (females were experimentally removed), and returned (females were released into the focal pairs' territories). Dawn bout length, song rate, song complexity, percentage performance time, song perch height, and distance of singing location to territory boundary were measured for each male during each experimental stage. We did not find an effect of mate removal on any dawn song characteristics of male pied bush chats suggesting that the presence or absence of a mate does not influence male dawn singing behaviour. Our findings further suggest that males use dawn chorus to mediate social relationships with neighbouring males to proclaim an established territory.

  1. Addressing adolescents' risk and protective factors related to risky behaviours: Findings from a school-based peer-education evaluation in the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timol, Furzana; Vawda, Mohammed Yacoob; Bhana, Arvin; Moolman, Benita; Makoae, Mokhantso; Swartz, Sharlene

    2016-12-01

    Peer-education programmes aim to bring about attitudinal and behavioural changes in their target audience. In the South African educational context, peer education is a favoured approach in dealing with issues such as HIV and AIDS, sexual decision-making and substance misuse. Given the reliance on peer-education programmes in the educational system, it is important to establish how well they are working. This study aims to assess the effect of an extensive, structured, time-limited, curriculum-based, peer-led educational programme on first-year high school learners in public schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The curriculum called 'Listen Up' addresses issues such as supporting peers, sexual decision-making, healthy relationships, HIV risk, alcohol misuse and unwanted pregnancy in seven structured sessions. The programme targeted adolescents in Grade 8 growing up in what are considered to be risky environments in public schools in the Western Cape during 2012 and 2013. The intervention was evaluated based on 10 scales sourced from published literature related to the outcome indicators of future orientation, sensation-seeking, self-efficacy in sexual relations, HIV transmission knowledge, HIV prevention knowledge, HIV attitudes, sexual attitudes, decision-making, healthy relationships and social support. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse demographic and community characteristics and analyses of variance were used to detect differences between groups. The surveys were administered to a total of 7709 learners across three waves of the study in 27 peer intervention schools and eight control schools. Immediately post intervention, statistically significant differences were noted for the intervention schools when compared to their baseline levels on measures of future orientation, self-efficacy in sexual relations, knowledge regarding HIV transmission, knowledge regarding HIV prevention and knowledge in terms of healthy relationships

  2. Behavioural and physiological consequences of male reproductive trade-offs in edible dormice ( Glis glis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietz, Joanna; Klose, Stefan M.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.

    2010-10-01

    Testosterone mediates male reproductive trade-offs in vertebrates including mammals. In male edible dormice ( Glis glis), reproductivity linked to high levels of testosterone reduces their ability to express torpor, which may be expected to dramatically increase thermoregulatory costs. Aims of this study were therefore to analyse behavioural and physiological consequences of reproductive activity in male edible dormice under ecologically and evolutionary relevant conditions in the field. As we frequently encountered sleeping groups in the field, we hypothesized that social thermoregulation should be an important measure to reduce energy expenditure especially in sexually active male edible dormice. Our results revealed that the occurrence of sleeping groups was negatively influenced by male body mass but not by reproductive status or ambient temperature. In reproductive as in non-reproductive males, the number of individuals huddling together was negatively influenced by their body mass. Thus in general males with a high body mass were sitting in smaller groups than males with a low body mass. However, in reproductive males group size was further negatively affected by ambient temperature and positively by testes size. Thus breeders formed larger sleeping groups at lower ambient temperatures and males with larger testes were found in larger groups than males with smaller testes. Measurements of oxygen consumption demonstrated that grouping behaviour represents an efficient strategy to reduce energy expenditure in edible dormice as it reduced energy requirements by almost 40%. In summary, results of this field study showcase how sexually active male edible dormice may, through behavioural adjustment, counterbalance high thermoregulatory costs associated with reproductive activity.

  3. Interdependent effects of male and female body size plasticity on mating behaviour of predatory mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that traits with low phenotypic plasticity are more fitness relevant, because they have been canalized via strong past selection, than traits with high phenotypic plasticity. Based on differing male body size plasticities of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity), we accordingly hypothesized that small male body size entails higher costs in female choice and male-male competition in P. persimilis than N. californicus. Males of both species are highly polygynous but females differ in the level of polyandry (low level in P. persimilis; medium level in N. californicus). We videotaped the mating interactions in triplets of either P. persimilis or N. californicus, consisting of a virgin female (small or standard-sized) and a small and a standard-sized male. Mating by both small and standard-sized P. persimilis females was biased towards standard-sized males, resulting from the interplay between female preference for standard-sized males and the inferiority of small males in male-male competition. In contrast, mating by N. californicus females was equally balanced between small and standard-sized males. Small N. californicus males were more aggressive ('Napoleon complex') in male-male competition, reducing the likelihood of encounter between the standard-sized male and the female, and thus counterbalancing female preference for standard-sized males. Our results support the hypothesis that male body size is more important to fitness in the low-level polyandrous P. persimilis than in the medium-level polyandrous N. californicus and provide a key example of the implications of sexually selected body size plasticity on mating behaviour.

  4. Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.; Rijntjes, E.; Heijning, van de B.J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal and chronic hypothyroidism impair behavioural development in male and female rats. EXP PHYSIOL 00(0) 000-000, 0000. - A lack of thyroid hormone, i.e. hypothyroidism, during early development results in multiple morphological and functional alterations in the developing brain. In the presen

  5. The Drosophila Kctd-family homologue Kctd12-like modulates male aggression and mating behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael J; Goergen, Philip; Phad, Ganesh; Fredriksson, Robert; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2014-08-01

    In Drosophila, serotonin (5-HT) regulates aggression, mating behaviour and sleep/wake behaviour through different receptors. Currently, how these various receptors are themselves regulated is still not completely understood. The KCTD12-family of proteins, which have been shown to modify G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling in mammals, are one possibility of auxiliary proteins modulating 5-HT receptor signalling. The KCTD12-family was found to be remarkably conserved and present in species from C. elegans to humans. The Drosophila KCTD12 homologue Kctd12-like (Ktl) was highly expressed in both the larval and adult CNS. By performing behavioural assays in male Drosophila, we now reveal that Ktl is required for proper male aggression and mating behaviour. Previously, it was shown that Ktl is in a complex with the Drosophila 5-HT receptor 5-HT7, and we observed that both Ktl and the 5-HT1A receptor are required in insulin-producing cells (IPCs) for proper adult male behaviour, as well as for hyperaggressive activity induced by the mammalian 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-dipropylaminotetralin-hydrobromide. Finally, we show that Ktl expression in the IPCs is necessary to regulate locomotion and normal sleep/wake patterns in Drosophila, but not the 5-HT1A receptor. Similar to what was observed with mammalian KCTD12-family members that interact physically with a GPCR receptor to regulate desensitization, in Drosophila Ktl may function in GPCR 5-HT receptor pathways to regulate their signalling, which is required for proper adult male behaviour. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Boldness, aggression and exploration: evidence for a behavioural syndrome in male pentamorphic livebearing fish, Poecilia parae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey R. Bourne

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A body of evidence is being accumulated on consistent individual differences in behaviour for several animal taxa. Individuals of these species exhibit different levels of risk during competition over limited resources, and the resultant behavioural types perform better under different social and physical environmental conditions. We used approach distance to a model of a piscivore predator the pike cichlid (Crenicichla saxatilis to categorize male pentamorphic livebearing fish or pentas (Poecilia parae as bold, intermediate, and shy, and then tested the hypothesis that when behaviours are correlated, individuals express different behaviour types under different contexts. Our results for the most part corroborated the six predictions generated by the aforementioned hypothesis: (1 bold pentas explored a T-maze in the shortest time, and initially approached the chamber with a living pike cichlid instead of the one with the conspecific male; (2 intermediate pentas spent more time exploring the maze and exhibited no initial interest in the predator chamber nor the conspecific one; (3 shy individuals spent the most time exploring the maze, and initially approached the predator chamber, providing only partial support for this prediction because shy males did not initially approach the conspecific chamber; (4 approach distance from the pike cichlid predator model and time to explore the maze was positively correlated; (5 bold pentas exhibit highest levels of aggression toward conspecifics; and (6 bold individuals ingested the most conspecific fry. Our results lead to the conclusion that pentas exhibited a behavioural syndrome with bold fish being more aggressive, faster explorers of novel situations, and more cannibalistic than intermediate and shy individuals of the same population. Thus, penta males fall into a behavioural syndrome formally known as the proactive-reactive axis.

  7. Fluoxetine inhibits aggressive behaviour during parental care in male fighting fish (Betta splendens, Regan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid; Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Bagher Mojazi; Huang, Wen-Bin

    2014-11-01

    The increasing presence of aquatic contaminants, such as the pharmaceutical fluoxetine, has raised concerns over potentially disrupting effects on several aspects of fish reproduction. However, the effects of fluoxetine on reproductive and paternal behavior in fish remain understudied, particularly at environmentally relevant concentrations. In the current study, we therefore tested the hypothesis that waterborne fluoxetine at an environmentally relevant concentration (540 ng/l), disrupts specific reproductive and paternal behaviors in male Siamese fighting fish at distinct reproductive phases. A pre-post test design was adopted to investigate specific behavioral responses at the individual fish level in response to male conspecific intruders at two different distances from the nest across four distinct reproductive phases (before bubblenest construction, following bubblenest construction, after spawning and after hatching of the larvae). In the control specimens, the measured behaviours were not different between the spawning times and among the interactions in either distance to nest at the different reproduction phases. Our results indicate that fluoxetine specifically disrupts characteristic paternal territorial aggression behaviour only after spawning and hatching of the larvae, while male behaviour in previous reproductive phases is unaffected by fluoxetine exposure. Results of comparison between males at 1st spawning and specimens exposed to fluoxetine at 2nd spawning showed that the first reaction of the nest-holding males to the intruders, duration of fin spreading, number of bites, and 90° turn, and the frequency of sweeps were different between the spawning times after spawning or hatching of embryos. However, interaction of spawning time and reproduction phase was significant on biting behaviour. These results demonstrate that fluoxetine exposure at environmental concentrations negatively affects territorial defense behaviour in fighting fish during

  8. Volatile substances from male Anastrepha fraterculus wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae: identification and behavioural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Ivanildo S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds produced by calling males of Anastrepha species have previously been reported from A. ludens and A. suspensa. Both species mate in the afternoon, release a similar range of compounds in different proportions, and only differ in the production of monoterpenes. When calling, male A. fraterculus releases two isomers of the sesquiterpene alpha-farnesene, three lactones (anastrephin, epianastrephin and (E,E-suspensolide, and two monoterpenes (limonene and (Z-beta-ocimene. The dimorphic male salivary glands produce and/or store the same isomers of alpha-farnesene and suspensolide, and four pyrazines. Two of these compounds have been previously reported from male A. ludens and A. suspensa. Salivary glands from virgin calling male A. fraterculus showed behavioural activity when bioassayed with virgin mature female flies, but immature females were not attracted.

  9. Morphology of putative female sex pheromone glands and mating behaviour in Aphidoletes aphidimyza

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Schettino, M.; Isidoro, N.; Romani, R.; Schelt, van J.

    2002-01-01

    Adult emergence period, sex ratio, female calling behaviour, and the risky mating behaviour of A. aphidimyza in spider webs are described. We provide evidence that A. aphidimyza females produce a sex pheromone and attract males, and we give a description of the location and structure of the supposed

  10. Female conspecifics restore rhythmic singing behaviour in arrhythmic male zebra finches

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NEELU ANAND JHA; VINOD KUMAR

    2017-03-01

    The present study investigated whether pairing with a conspecific female would restore rhythmicity in the singingbehaviour of arrhythmic male songbirds. We recorded the singing and, as the circadian response indicator, monitoredthe activity–rest pattern in male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) housed without or with a conspecific femaleunder 12 h light: 12 h darkness (12L:12D) or constant bright light (LLbright). Both unpaired and paired birds exhibiteda significant daily rhythm in the singing and activity behaviour, but paired birds, under 12L:12D, showed a ~2 hextension in the evening. Exposure to LLbright decayed rhythmicity, but the female presence restored rhythmic patternswithout affecting the 24 h song output. In the acoustic features, we found a significant difference in the motif durationbetween unpaired and paired male songs. Overall, these results demonstrated for the first time the role of the female inrestoring the circadian phenotype of singing behaviour in male songbirds with disrupted circadian functions, althoughhow interaction between sexes affects the circadian timing of male singing is not understood yet. It is suggested thatsocial cues rendered by a conspecific female could improve the circadian performance by restoring rhythmicity in thebiological functions of the cohabiting arrhythmic male partner.

  11. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree......A new agent-based modelling tool has been developed to allow the modelling of populations of individuals whose interactions are characterised by tightly timed dynamics. The tool was developed to model male frog calling dynamics, to facilitate research into what local rules may be employed...

  12. Risky decisions in a lottery task are associated with an increase of cocaine use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrei eWittwer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use disorder is associated with maladaptive decision-making behaviour, which strongly contributes to the harmful consequences of chronic drug use. Prior research has shown that cocaine users exhibit impaired neuropsychological test performances, particularly with regard to attention, learning, and memory but also in executive functions such as decision-making and impulse control. However, to what extent cocaine users show impaired decision-making under risk without feedback has not yet been investigated systematically. Therefore, to examine risk-taking behaviour, 31 chronic cocaine users and 26 stimulant-naïve healthy controls, who were part of the Zurich Cocaine Cognition Study, performed the Randomized Lottery Task (RALT with winning lotteries consisting of an uncertain and a certain prospect. Results revealed that risky decisions were associated with male sex, increased cocaine use in the past year, higher cocaine concentrations in the hair, and younger age. In addition, higher levels of cocaine in the hair and cumulative lifetime consumption were associated with risky decisions, whereas potentially confounding factors including cognition and psychiatric symptoms had no significant effect. Taken together, our results indicate that cocaine users who increased their consumption over a period of one year show deficits in the processing of risky information accompanied with increased risk-taking. Future research should analyse whether risky decisions could potentially serve as a prognostic marker for cocaine use disorder.

  13. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-03-01

    Despite extensive research, preventive efforts and general improvements in road safety levels, the accident risk of young male drivers remains increased. Based on a standardized survey of a random sample of 2018 male drivers at the age of 18 and 28, this study looked into attitudes and behaviours related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e., the perception of friends' speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding in both age groups. Other significant factors were: negative attitude towards speed limits, injunctive subjective norm, and the perceived risk of having an accident when speeding. In the older age group it was more common to drive faster than allowed and their speeding was largely in line with the perceived level of their friends' speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends' speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds.

  14. Telipogon peruvianus (Orchidaceae) Flowers Elicit Pre-Mating Behaviour in Eudejeania (Tachinidae) Males for Pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairampoma, Lianka; Stauffer, Fred W.; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Several neotropical orchid genera have been proposed as being sexually deceptive; however, this has been carefully tested in only a few cases. The genus Telipogon has long been assumed to be pollinated by male tachinid flies during pseudocopulatory events but no detailed confirmatory reports are available. Here, we have used an array of methods to elucidate the pollination mechanism in Telipogon peruvianus. The species presents flowers that have a mean floral longevity of 33 days and that are self-compatible, although spontaneous self-pollination does not occur. The flowers attract males of four tachinid species but only the males of an undescribed Eudejeania (Eudejeania aff. browni; Tachinidae) species are specific pollinators. Males visit the flowers during the first few hours of the day and the pollination success is very high (42% in one patch) compared with other sexually deceptive species. Female-seeking males are attracted to the flowers but do not attempt copulation with the flowers, as is usually described in sexually deceptive species. Nevertheless, morphological analysis and behavioural tests have shown an imperfect mimicry between flowers and females suggesting that the attractant stimulus is not based only on visual cues, as long thought. Challenging previous conclusions, our chemical analysis has confirmed that flowers of Telipogon release volatile compounds; however, the role of these volatiles in pollinator behaviour remains to be established. Pollinator behaviour and histological analyses indicate that Telipogon flowers possess scent-producing structures throughout the corolla. Our study provides the first confirmed case of (i) a sexually deceptive species in the Onciidinae, (ii) pollination by pre-copulatory behaviour and (iii) pollination by sexual deception involving tachinid flies. PMID:27812201

  15. Telipogon peruvianus (Orchidaceae) Flowers Elicit Pre-Mating Behaviour in Eudejeania (Tachinidae) Males for Pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Carlos; Cairampoma, Lianka; Stauffer, Fred W; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Several neotropical orchid genera have been proposed as being sexually deceptive; however, this has been carefully tested in only a few cases. The genus Telipogon has long been assumed to be pollinated by male tachinid flies during pseudocopulatory events but no detailed confirmatory reports are available. Here, we have used an array of methods to elucidate the pollination mechanism in Telipogon peruvianus. The species presents flowers that have a mean floral longevity of 33 days and that are self-compatible, although spontaneous self-pollination does not occur. The flowers attract males of four tachinid species but only the males of an undescribed Eudejeania (Eudejeania aff. browni; Tachinidae) species are specific pollinators. Males visit the flowers during the first few hours of the day and the pollination success is very high (42% in one patch) compared with other sexually deceptive species. Female-seeking males are attracted to the flowers but do not attempt copulation with the flowers, as is usually described in sexually deceptive species. Nevertheless, morphological analysis and behavioural tests have shown an imperfect mimicry between flowers and females suggesting that the attractant stimulus is not based only on visual cues, as long thought. Challenging previous conclusions, our chemical analysis has confirmed that flowers of Telipogon release volatile compounds; however, the role of these volatiles in pollinator behaviour remains to be established. Pollinator behaviour and histological analyses indicate that Telipogon flowers possess scent-producing structures throughout the corolla. Our study provides the first confirmed case of (i) a sexually deceptive species in the Onciidinae, (ii) pollination by pre-copulatory behaviour and (iii) pollination by sexual deception involving tachinid flies.

  16. Effect of Withania somnifera root extract on the sexual behaviour of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IlayI; RatnWD

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To determine the effect of a methanolic extract of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal roots on sexual competence of male rats.Methods:Male rats were orally administered 3000 mg·kg-1·day-1 of root extract for 7 days.Their sexual behaviour was evaluated 7 days prior to treatment,day 3 and 7 of treatment,and day 7,14 and 30 posttreatment by pairing each male with a receptive female.Results:The root extract induced a marked impairment in libido,sexual performance,sexual vigour,and penile erectile dysfunction.These effects were partly reversible on cessation of treatment.These antimasculine effects ane not due to changes in testosterone levels or toxicity but may be attributed to hyperprolactinemic,GABAergic,serotonergic or sedative activities of the extract.Conclusion:Use of W.Somnifera roots may be detrimental to male sexual competence.

  17. Peer influence on speeding behaviour among male drivers aged 18 and 28

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Mette; Haustein, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    with the perceived level of their friends’ speeding. In the younger age group a higher discrepancy between own and friends’ speeding was found indicating that young male drivers are socialized into increased speeding behaviour based on peer pressure. By contrast for the 28-year-olds peer pressure mainly seems...... to maintain or justify individual speeding behaviour. It is suggested that preventive measures should take these different influences of peer pressure into account by using a peer-based approach for the 18-year-olds and a more individual approach for the 28-year-olds....... related to traffic violations of male drivers. More specifically, the role of peer influence on speeding was examined in both age groups. In regression analyses it could be shown that the descriptive subjective norm, i.e. the perception of friends’ speeding, was the most important predictor of speeding...

  18. Prenatal exposure to paracetamol/acetaminophen and precursor aniline impairs masculinisation of male brain and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Finkielman, Olivia T. Ejlstrup; Jensen, Benjamin A. H.

    2017-01-01

    Paracetamol/acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol; APAP) is the preferred analgesic for pain relief and fever during pregnancy. It has therefore caused concern that several studies have reported that prenatal exposure to APAP results in developmental alterations in both the reproductive tract and...... neurobehavioral programming. These findings add to the growing body of evidence suggesting the need to limit the widespread exposure and use of APAP by pregnant women....... and precursor of APAP, aniline, resulted in a similar reduction. Decrease in neuronal number in the SDN-POA is associated with reductions in male sexual behaviour. Consistent with the changes, male mice exposed in uteri to APAP exhibited changes in urinary marking behaviour as adults and had a less aggressive...

  19. Factors influencing smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan among Malay male students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting during Ramadan provides an opportunistic setting for smoking cessation intervention. Smokers find it easy to cease smoking during Ramadan due to the religion, cultural and environmental influences. This study aims to determine the changes in smoking behaviour during Ramadan among Malay Muslim male students who were current smokers. Methods: This is cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the socio demographic characteristics and two main relevant religious perceptions on smoking (i.e. ‘Is smoking ‘haram’ and ‘Does smoking invalidate your fasting’. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire was used to evaluate smoking behaviour before and during Ramadan. The total FTND scores and the percentages according to FTDN items, before Ramadan and during Ramadan were compared to determine good or poor smoking behaviour changes. Results: The overall FTND scores and the percentage according to its items were significantly reduced. There were significant association between smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan and household income, nicotine dependence and perception that smoking is ‘haram’. The percentage of good smoking behaviour changes was higher among those with higher income, high nicotine dependence and those who are not aware that smoking is ‘haram’. Conclusion: There is a great potential in taking advantage of the Ramadan environment to encourage smoking cessation among Muslim smokers.

  20. Indiscriminate males: mating behaviour of a marine snail compromised by a sexual conflict?

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    Kerstin Johannesson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In promiscuous species, male fitness is expected to increase with repeated matings in an open-ended fashion (thereby increasing number of partners or probability of paternity whereas female fitness should level out at some optimal number of copulations when direct and indirect benefits still outweigh the costs of courtship and copulation. After this fitness peak, additional copulations would incur female fitness costs and be under opposing selection. Hence, a sexual conflict over mating frequency may evolve in species where females are forced to engage in costly matings. Under such circumstance, if females could avoid male detection, significant fitness benefits from such avoidance strategies would be predicted. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Among four Littorina species, one lives at very much higher densities and has a longer mating season than the other three species. Using video records of snail behaviour in a laboratory arena we show that males of the low-density species discriminate among male and female mucous trails, trailing females for copulations. In the high-density species, however, males fail to discriminate between male and female trails, not because males are unable to identify female trails (which we show using heterospecific females, but because females do not, as the other species, add a gender-specific cue to their trail. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there is likely a sexual conflict over mating frequency in the high-density species (L. saxatilis owing to females most likely being less sperm-limited in this species. This has favoured the evolution of females that permanently or optionally do not release a cue in the mucus to decrease excessive and costly matings resulting in unusually high frequencies of male-male copulating attempts in the wild. This is one of few examples of masking gender identity to obtain fewer matings.

  1. Behavioural effect of low-dose BPA on male zebrafish: Tuning of male mating competition and female mating preference during courtship process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Guo, Jia-Yu; Li, Xu; Zhou, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Shu-Hui; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Dong-Yan; Fang, Yong-Chun; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2017-02-01

    The ubiquity of environmental pollution by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA) is progressively considered as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Numerous toxicological studies have proved that BPA are hazardous to aquatic environment, along with alterations in the development and physiology of aquatic vertebrates. However, generally, there is a paucity in knowledge of behavioural and physiological effects of BPA with low concentration, for example, 0.22 nM (50 ng/L) and 2.2 nM (500 ng/L). Here we show that treatment of adult male zebrafish (Danio rerio) with 7 weeks low-dose (0.22 nM-2.2 nM) BPA, resulted in alteration in histological structure of testis tissue and abnormality in expression levels of genes involved in testicular steroidogenesis. Furthermore, low-dose BPA treatment decreased the male locomotion during courtship; and was associated with less courtship behaviours to female but more aggressive behaviours to mating competitor. Interestingly, during the courtship test, we observed that female preferred control male to male under low-dose BPA exposure. Subsequently, we found that the ability of female to chose optimal mating male through socially mutual interaction and dynamics of male zebrafish, which was based on visual discrimination. In sum, our results shed light on the potential behavioural and physiological effect of low-dose BPA exposure on courtship behaviours of zebrafish, which could exert profound consequences on natural zebrafish populations.

  2. Young age at first intercourse and subsequent risk-taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim: First intercourse at the age of 14 years or younger is usually considered high-risk behaviour for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It has been linked to other types of risky behaviour in women, while conflicting results have been obtained for men. The aim of the study was to estimate...... the prevalence of first intercourse at a young age in various birth cohorts of men and to determine any association with later risky behaviour. Methods: We studied 22,979 randomly selected men aged 18-45 years from the Danish general male population who responded to a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple...

  3. Morphology, testes development and behaviour of unusual triploid males in microchromosome-carrying clones of Poecilia formosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamatsch, D K; Stöck, M; Fuchs, R; Döbler, M; Wacker, R; Parzefall, J; Schlupp, I; Schartl, M

    2010-11-01

    In a microchromosome-carrying laboratory stock of the normally all-female Amazon molly Poecilia formosa triploid individuals were obtained, all of which spontaneously developed into males. A comparison of morphology of the external and internal insemination apparatus and the gonads, sperm ploidy and behaviour, to laboratory-bred F(1) hybrids revealed that the triploid P. formosa males, though producing mostly aneuploid sperm, are partly functional males that differ mainly in sperm maturation and sexual motivation from gonochoristic P. formosa males.

  4. Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-β-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher.

  5. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiba Kogiku

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm. Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external, whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size.

  6. Teen dating violence perpetration and relation to STI and sexual risk behaviours among adolescent males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Miller, Elizabeth; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration (physical, sexual or psychological violence) and association with STI and related sexual risk behaviours among urban male adolescents. Adolescent male survey participants (N=134) were aged 14-20 years, recruited from urban health centres. Using crude and adjusted logistic regression, TDV perpetration was examined in relation to self-reported: STI, having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner, and consistent condom use. Over one-third of males (45%) reported any TDV; 42% reported sexual violence perpetration, 13% reported perpetrating physical violence against a dating/sexual partner and 11% reported psychological violence, including threats of physical or sexual violence. Approximately 15% of males reported having ever had an STI, one quarter reported having sex with another person when they were only supposed to have sex with their main partner and 36% reported consistent condom use (past 3 months). In adjusted logistic regression models, TDV perpetration was significantly associated with self-reports of an STI (OR=3.3; 95% CI 1.2 to 9.2) and having sex with another person when they were supposed to be only having sex with their main partner (OR=4.8; 95% CI 2.0 to 11.4). There was no significant association between TDV perpetration and consistent condom use. Current study findings are the first within the literature on adolescents to suggest that greater STI and sexual risk behaviours among male adolescents perpetrating TDV may be one mechanism explaining increased STI among female adolescents reporting TDV victimisation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power.

  8. Routine Formation and Flexibility in Social and Non-Social Behaviour of Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Male Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Daas, S. den; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between aggression and routine-like behaviour the response of male mice of bidirectionally selected lines for attack latency to a change in the social and non-social environment has been measured. In a non-social situation the extent of routine-like behaviour was

  9. Centriole behaviour during meiosis of male germ cells of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera:Cuterebridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagio-Grassiotto, I; de Lello, E

    1996-01-01

    During the meiotic division of Dermatobia hominis spermatogenesis, the centrioles duplicate only in prophase I, giving rise to short cilia which are exposed on the cellular surface. In metaphase I they are internalized and distributed to the daughter cells. Consequently, the secondary spermatocytes have two centrioles which repeat the cycle of cilia externalization followed by internalization. The spermatids receive only one centriole, which changes into a basal body and originates a flagellum. This centriole behaviour seems to be a general feature in insect male germ cell meiosis.

  10. Neurochemical and behavioural impact of C18 fatty acids in male mice postweaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamuro, Yutaka; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Abe, Shin; Takenaga, Fumio

    2013-06-01

    Dietary components, particularly essential fatty acids, affect the expression and maintenance of normal physiological phenotypes. However, the influence of C18 fatty acids that are abundantly present in the normal diet is unclear. We focused on the behavioural and neurochemical effects of C18 fatty acids during postweaning development in male mice. An AIN-93G diet supplemented with 8% stearic acid (C18:0), 3% oleic acid (C18:1), 3% linoleic acid (C18:2) or 3% α-linolenic acid (C18:3) was provided from four weeks of age for eight weeks. At 12 weeks of age, novel exploratory behaviour and social interaction tests were carried out. One week after the last behavioural test, the brain of each mouse was removed. The frequency of social interactive behaviour was decreased by approximately 70% in the C18:0 group compared to the basal diet group, but there was no difference in cumulative time. The frequency of social interaction showed a positive correlation to cumulative time in mice fed with the experimental diets except for C18:0. Dietary C18 fatty acids following weaning had no impact on brain fatty acid composition except for the C18:3 diet. Furthermore, the neurochemical properties to be especially noted were that choline acetyltransferase activity was absolutely higher in C18:0 diet-fed mice than in the other groups, especially in the frontal cortex where it was 1.7-fold higher than in the basal diet-fed group. The present results reveal a significant possibility of neurochemical and behavioural effects of dietary fatty acids, and saturated fatty acids are of special importance during the postweaning period.

  11. Sperm-less males modulate female behaviour in Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca; Di Cosimo, Alessandro; Savini, Grazia; Fumagalli, Marco; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Malacrida, Anna R; Gasperi, Giuliano

    2016-12-01

    In the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann)(Diptera: Tephritidae), mating has a strong impact on female biology, leading to a decrease in sexual receptivity and increased oviposition and fecundity. Previous studies suggest that sperm transfer may play a role in inducing these behavioural changes. Here we report the identification of a medfly innexin gene, Cc-inx5, whose expression is limited to the germ-line of both sexes. Through RNA interference of this gene, we generated males without testes and, consequently, sperm, but apparently retaining all the other reproductive organs intact. These sperm-less males were able to mate and, like their wild-type counterparts, to induce in their partners increased oviposition rates and refractoriness to remating. Interestingly, matings to sperm-less males results in oviposition rates higher than those induced by copulation with control males. In addition, the observed female post-mating behavioural changes were congruent with changes in transcript abundance of genes known to be regulated by mating in this species. Our results suggest that sperm transfer is not necessary to reduce female sexual receptivity and to increase oviposition and fecundity. These data pave the way to a better understanding of the role/s of seminal components in modulating female post-mating responses. In the long term, this knowledge will be the basis for the development of novel approaches for the manipulation of female fertility, and, consequently, innovative tools to be applied to medfly control strategies in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in group-housed C57BL/6 male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Yasuyuki; Nagasawa, Tatsuhiro; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Aki; Tanave, Akira; Matsumoto, Yuki; Nagayama, Hiromichi; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Yasuda, Michiko T; Shimoi, Kayoko; Koide, Tsuyoshi

    2017-08-01

    Group-housed male mice exhibit aggressive behaviour towards their cage mates and form a social hierarchy. Here, we describe how social hierarchy in standard group-housed conditions affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice. Four male C57BL/6 mice were kept in each cage used in the study, and the social hierarchy was determined from observation of video recordings of aggressive behaviour. After formation of a social hierarchy, the behaviour and hippocampal gene expression were analysed in the mice. Higher anxiety- and depression-like behaviours and elevated gene expression of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone and hippocampal serotonin receptor subtypes were observed in subordinate mice compared with those of dominant mice. These differences were alleviated by orally administering fluoxetine, which is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor class. We concluded that hierarchy in the home cage affects behaviour and gene expression in male mice, resulting in anxiety- and depression-like behaviours being regulated differently in dominant and subordinate mice.

  13. Neural pathways mediating control of reproductive behaviour in male Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, J Martin; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    The sexually dimorphic medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in Japanese quail has for many years been the focus of intensive investigations into its role in reproductive behaviour. The present paper delineates a sequence of descending pathways that finally reach sacral levels of the spinal cord housing motor neurons innervating cloacal muscles involved in reproductive behaviour. We first retrogradely labeled the motor neurons innervating the large cloacal sphincter muscle (mSC) that forms part of the foam gland complex (Seiwert and Adkins-Regan, 1998, Brain Behav Evol 52:61–80) and then putative premotor nuclei in the brainstem, one of which was nucleus retroambigualis (RAm) in the caudal medulla. Anterograde tracing from RAm defined a bulbospinal pathway, terminations of which overlapped the distribution of mSC motor neurons and their extensive dorsally directed dendrites. Descending input to RAm arose from an extensive dorsomedial nucleus of the intercollicular complex (DM-ICo), electrical stimulation of which drove vocalizations. POM neurons were retrogradely labeled by injections of tracer into DM-ICo, but POM projections largely surrounded DM, rather than penetrated it. Thus, although a POM projection to ICo was shown, a POM projection to DM must be inferred. Nevertheless, the sequence of projections in the male quail from POM to cloacal motor neurons strongly resembles that in rats, cats and monkeys for the control of reproductive behaviour, as largely defined by Holstege and co-workers (e.g., Holstege et al., 1997, Neuroscience 80: 587–598). PMID:23225613

  14. Developmental exposure to Passiflora incarnata induces behavioural alterations in the male progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, André D; Ponte, Bianca; Vieira, Milene L; de Paula, Jaqueline C C; Mesquita, Suzana F P; Gerardin, Daniela C C; Moreira, Estefânia G

    2013-01-01

    Passiflora incarnata is marketed in many countries as a phytomedicine and is prescribed mainly as a sedative and anxiolytic. Even though the directions of most marketed phytomedicines recommend them to be used under medical supervision, reproductive and developmental studies are sparse and not mandatory for regulatory purposes. To evaluate the reproductive and developmental toxicity of P. incarnata, Wistar female rats were gavaged with 30 or 300 mg kg(-1) of this herb from gestational Day (GD) 0 to postnatal Day (PND) 21. P. incarnata treatment did not influence dams' bodyweight or food intake or their reproductive performance (post-implantation loss, litter size, litter weight). There was also no influence on the physical development of pups (bodyweight gain, day of vaginal opening or preputial separation) or their behaviour in the open-field at PND 22, 35 and 75. Sexual behaviour was disrupted in adult male pups exposed to 300 mg kg(-1) of P. incarnata; in this group, only 3 out of 11 pups were sexually competent. This behavioural disruption was not accompanied by alterations in plasma testosterone levels, reproductive-related organs and glands weights or sperm count. It is hypothesised that aromatase inhibition may be involved in the observed effect.

  15. Effects of Terminalia catappa seeds on sexual behaviour and fertility of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.D.Ramasooriya; M.G.Dharmasiri

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the aphrodisiac potential of Terminalia catappa Linn. seeds using a suspension of its kernel (SS) in 1% methyl cellulose in rats. Methods: Male rats were orally treated with 1500 mg/kg or 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle, and their sexual behaviour was monitored 3 h later using a receptive female. Another group of rats was orally treated with either 3000 mg/kg SS or vehicle for 7 consecutive days. Their sexual behaviour and fertility were evaluated on days 1, 4 and 7 of treatment and day 7 post-treatment by pairing overnight with a pro-oestrous female. Results: The 1500 mg/kg dose, had a marked aphrodisiac action (prolongation of ejaculation latency) but no effect on libido (% mounting, % intromission and % ejaculation), sexual vigour (mounting-and-intromission frequency), or sexual performance (intercopulatory interval). In contrast, the higher dose (3000 mg/kg) reversibly inhibited all the parameters of sexual behaviour other than mounting-and-intromission frequency and copulatory efficiency. The effects of high dose SS were not due to general toxicity, liver toxicity, haemotoxicity, stress, muscle deficiency, muscle incoordination, analgesia, hypoglycaemia or reduction in blood testosterone level. They were due to marked sedation. Conclusion: The kernel of T. catappa seeds has aphrodisiac activity and may be useful in the treatment of certain forms of sexual inadequacies, such as premature ejaculation.

  16. HIV Prevalence Trends, Risky Behaviours, and Governmental and Community Responses to the Epidemic among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. F. Chow

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of Review. Numerous studies reported the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM in China. This paper aims to investigate the overall epidemic trend and associated high-risk behaviours among Chinese MSM and to explore the governmental and community responses to the epidemic. Recent Findings. HIV prevalence among Chinese MSM increased rapidly in all Chinese regions in the past decade and disproportionally affected the Southwest China. In addition to the high-risk homosexual behaviours, overlapping bisexual, commercial, and drug use behaviours are commonly observed among Chinese MSM. The Chinese government has significantly expanded the surveillance efforts among MSM over the past decade. Community responses against HIV have been substantially strengthened with the support of international aid. However, lack of enabling legal and financial environment undermines the role of community-based organisations (CBOs in HIV surveillance and prevention. Conclusion. HIV continues to spread rapidly among MSM in China. The hidden nature of MSM and the overlapping homosexual, bisexual, and commercial behaviours remain a challenge for HIV prevention among MSM. Strong collaboration between the government and CBOs and innovative intervention approaches are essential for effective HIV surveillance and prevention among MSM in China.

  17. COMPARATIVE ETHOGRAM OF MALE SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR OF RHODE ISLAND RED AND VANARAJA FOWL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Modhukoilya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiment was conducted to compare the male sexual behaviour of Rhode Island Red and Vanaraja fowl parent stock managed under deep litter system. Twenty males and 140 females of each genetic group were selected randomly in two batches belonging to age and body weight ranges of 36-48 weeks & 2.8-4.5 kg respectively. Sexual behaviour was recorded for one hour starting at 5 PM. Every bird was observed for 20 sessions. The transformed data were analysed to identify the variation due to genetic group if any. Frequency of mounting in RIR and Vanaraja males are 1.80 ± 0.01 and 1.78 ± 0.01 respectively. Frequency (per hour of forced mounting is seen significantly (P 0.01 more in Vanaraja (1.93 ± 0.02 than that in RIR (1.77 ± 0.01. Frequency of copulation and forced copulation in RIR are 1.87 ± 0.01 and 1.62 ± 0.01 respectively; whereas in Vanaraja these values are 1.84 ± 0.01 and 1.63 ± 0.01. Frequency of male to male aggression does not differ significantly as the values are exactly the same in both genetic groups (2.29 ± 0.03. Frequency of male to female aggression in Vanaraja (2.64 ± 0.02 is significantly (P 0.05 more than that in RIR (2.56 ± 0.02. Frequency of waltzing pattern is seen significantly (P 0.01 more in RIR (2.10 ± 0.02 than in Vanaraja (1.95 ± 0.02. Frequency per hour of high step advance for both RIR and Vanaraja are 2.06 et al. 0.02 and 1.9 ± 0.02 respectively; Frequency per hour of steps off is seen more in RIR (2.00 ± 0.01 than that in Vanaraja (1.94 ± 0.01. Statistical analysis revealed significant effect of genetic group on steps off activity. It is concluded that RIR cocks appear to be more successful breeder. Vanaraja cocks have made more aggressive display of different patterns.

  18. Risk and ethical concerns of hunting male elephant: behavioural and physiological assays of the remaining elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryne Burke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1 risk of attack or damage (11 hunts, and (2 behavioural (movement dynamics and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations responses (4 hunts in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies.

  19. Self-mutilative behaviours in male alcohol-dependent inpatients and relationship with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evren, Cuneyt; Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Bilge; Cetin, Rabia; Durkaya, Mine

    2011-03-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-mutilation (SM) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in male alcohol-dependent inpatients, and to examine whether there is something unique about self-mutilaters with the PTSD/alcohol-dependence co-morbidity, compared with self-mutilaters without PTSD in this population. Participants were 156 consecutively admitted male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Patients were investigated with the Self-mutilative Behaviour Questionnaire (SMBQ), the Traumatic Experiences Checklist (TEC), the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). Among alcohol-dependent inpatients, 34.0% (n=53) were considered as group with SM. Rate of being unemployed, history of any trauma, history of suicide attempt and lifetime PTSD diagnosis were higher, whereas being married, current age, age at onset of regular alcohol use and duration of education were lower in the group with SM. Mean scores of SCL-90 subscales, TEC and MAST were higher in the SM group. Although SM might be related with PTSD among male alcohol-dependent inpatients, predictors of SM were age at onset of regular alcohol use, history of suicide attempt, anxiety, depression and hostility. Age at onset of regular alcohol use, history of suicide attempt, anxiety, depression and somatisation predicted SM in the subgroup of patients without PTSD, whereas hostility predicted SM alone in the subgroup of patients with PTSD. Results support the anti-suicide and the affect-regulation models of SM in the non-PTSD group, whereas they support the hostility model of SM in the subgroup with PTSD in alcohol-dependent inpatients. Thus, to reduce self-mutilative behaviour (SMB)among alcohol-dependent patients, clinicians must address different subjects in different subgroup patients; that is, focussing hostility in those with PTSD co-morbidity.

  20. The Effect of Timing of Female Vibrational Reply on Male Signalling and Searching Behaviour in the Leafhopper Aphrodes makarovi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Kuhelj

    Full Text Available Sexual communication in animals often involves duetting characterized by a coordinated reciprocal exchange of acoustic signals. We used playback experiments to study the role of timing of a female reply in the species-specific duet structure in the leafhopper Aphrodes makarovi (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. In leafhoppers, mate recognition and location is mediated exclusively by species- and sex-specific substrate-borne vibrational signals and a female signal emitted in reply to male advertisement calls is essential for recognition and successful location of the female. In A. makarovi, males have to initiate each exchange of vibrational signals between partners, and in a duet the beginning of a female reply overlaps the end of the male advertisement call. Results of playback treatments in which female replies were delayed and did not overlap with the male call revealed that in order to trigger an appropriate behavioural response of the male, female reply has to appear in a period less than 400 ms after the end of the initiating male call. Results also suggest that males are not able to detect a female reply while calling, since female reply that did not continue after the end of male call triggered male behaviour similar to behaviour observed in the absence of female reply. Together, our results show that vibrational duets are tightly coordinated and that the species-specific duet structure plays an important role in mate recognition in location processes.

  1. Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases and sexual behaviours among Malaysian male youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang, Halimah; Wong, Li Ping; Jani, Rohana; Low, Wah Yun

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among male youths in Malaysia. A self-administered survey was carried out on a sample of 952 never-married males aged 15-24 years. The respondents were asked about their knowledge of STDs, how these diseases get transmitted and their sexual behaviours. The data showed that 92% of the respondents knew of at least one STD (syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes, genital warts, yeast infection, trichomoniasis or HIV/AIDS). About 95% of them knew of at least one method of STD transmission. Urban and tertiary-educated male youths showed a substantially higher proportion of awareness of STDs and transmission methods compared with their rural and less-educated counterparts. The data also indicated that 10% of the study sample admitted to having had sexual experiences. There were still a large proportion of the respondents who were not aware of STDs other than syphilis and HIV/AIDS and the means of transmission, such as multiple sex partners, including those who claimed to be sexually active. Thus there is a need for more concerted efforts to disseminate information on STDs and transmission methods to a wider audience in Malaysia, especially youths in rural areas.

  2. ENERGY DRINKS CONSUMPTION AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH HYPERACTIVITY/INATTENTION BEHAVIOUR AMONG THE INTERMEDIATE AND HIGH SCHOOL MALE AND FEMALE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad S. Alsamghan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND New studies has revealed the consumption of energy drinks as a common, linked with potential risky hyperactivity/inattention behaviour among the adolescent and especially college students. To assess the prevalence of the energy drinks consumption and to evaluate hyperactivity/inattention behaviour symptoms among the adolescent intermediate and high school male and female students in Abha city. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional study. The self-administered questionnaires were distributed among students who were studying in the intermediate and high school. Schools were randomly selected and all students (N=602 participated with consent. Total sample size included 602 students, 50% students from intermediate school and 50% students from high school. The tools used in the present study to collect the information from the students were a structured standardised questionnaire includes the basics characteristic, demographic and consumption of energy drinks related information. RESULTS Prevalence of the energy drinks consumption among students studying in intermediate and high school level was 303 (50.3%. Male 162 (53.3% are more consuming energy drinks than female 141 (46.7%. Students who are studying in high school (56.1% drinking more energy drinks than students (43.9% in higher level. Mean score of SDQ was 21.53±5.414 falling in abnormal category. Mean±SD score of the hyperactivity subscale of the SDQ was 3.76±1.980. Female students 66 (21.9%, p=0.162 are more likely to score hyperactivity subscale compared to male students 52 (17.3% (Table 1. Bivariate logistic regression analysis (Table 2 revealed that there was a significance association found with risk of hyperactivity/inattention (OR=2.47, 95% Cl=1.61, 3.78 who consumed energy drinks. Most of the types of energy drinks types were associated with hyperactivity as regression analysis results shown. No association observed with study levels. CONCLUSION Energy drinks

  3. Male reproductive success and its behavioural correlates in a polygynous mammal, the Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pörschmann, Ulrich; Trillmich, Fritz; Mueller, Birte; Wolf, Jochen B W

    2010-06-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts competitive males and choosy females. Nevertheless, since molecular marker-based studies, paternity outside the expected mating patterns has increasingly been described. Even in highly polygynous systems, where paternity is expected to be strongly skewed towards large, dominant males, alternative mating tactics have been suggested. We examined reproductive success in the polygynous Galápagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki). Semiaquatic territoriality allows females to move freely and may lower the degree of polygyny otherwise suggested by both territorial behaviour and strong sexual dimorphism. We assigned paternities with 22 microsatellites and analysed how male reproductive success was related to size, dominance status, intra-sexual agonistic behaviour, proximity to females, and attendance in the colony. Male behaviour was consistent across two seasons for all parameters under consideration. Attendance was by far the most important determinant of paternal success. Skew in reproductive success towards large, dominant males was weak and dominance status played no role. This appears to be caused by an extremely long reproductive season lasting five or more months, making it difficult for any male to monopolize receptive females. Females seem to choose displaying males that were present in the colony for a long time rather than dominance per se. Sexual dimorphism in Galápagos sea lions may thus be more influenced by selection for fasting than fighting ability. Our data provide further evidence for alternative mating tactics, as several males gained relatively high reproductive success despite short attendance and hardly any involvement in agonistic interactions.

  4. Balancing the competing requirements of air-breathing and display behaviour during male-male interactions in Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alton, Lesley A; Portugal, Steven J; White, Craig R

    2013-02-01

    Air-breathing fish of the Anabantoidei group meet their metabolic requirements for oxygen through both aerial and aquatic gas exchange. Siamese fighting fish Betta splendens are anabantoids that frequently engage in aggressive male-male interactions which cause significant increases in metabolic rate and oxygen requirements. These interactions involve opercular flaring behaviour that is thought to limit aquatic oxygen uptake, and combines with the increase in metabolic rate to cause an increase in air-breathing behaviour. Air-breathing events interrupt display behaviour and increase risk of predation, raising the question of how Siamese fighting fish manage their oxygen requirements during agonistic encounters. Using open-flow respirometry, we measured rate of oxygen consumption in displaying fish to determine if males increase oxygen uptake per breath to minimise visits to the surface, or increase their reliance on aquatic oxygen uptake. We found that the increased oxygen requirements of Siamese fighting fish during display behaviour were met by increased oxygen uptake from the air with no significant changes in aquatic oxygen uptake. The increased aerial oxygen uptake was achieved almost entirely by an increase in air-breathing frequency. We conclude that limitations imposed by the reduced gill surface area of air-breathing fish restrict the ability of Siamese fighting fish to increase aquatic uptake, and limitations of the air-breathing organ of anabantoids largely restrict their capacity to increase oxygen uptake per breath. The resulting need to increase surfacing frequency during metabolically demanding agonistic encounters has presumably contributed to the evolution of the stereotyped surfacing behaviour seen during male-male interactions, during which one of the fish will lead the other to the surface, and each will take a breath of air.

  5. First report of behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes: right-biased kicking behaviour against males in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Romano, Donato; Messing, Russell H; Canale, Angelo

    2015-04-01

    Lateralisation (i.e. functional and/or structural specialisations of left and right sides of the brain) of aggressive traits has been studied in a number of vertebrates, while evidence for invertebrates is scarce. Mosquito females display aggressive responses against undesired males, performing rejection kicks with the hind legs. In this research, we examined lateralisation of kicking behaviour in females of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus. We found a right-biased population-level lateralisation of kicking behaviour. Four repeated testing phases on mosquito females confirmed the preferential use of right legs. However, when left legs were used, the mean number of kicks per rejection event was not different to that performed with right legs. Both left and right kicking behaviour lead to successful displacement of undesired partners. This is the first report about behavioural lateralisation in mosquitoes.

  6. Sexual pair-formation in a cicada mediated by acoustic behaviour of females and positive phonotaxis of males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zehai; Luo, Changqing; Roberts, J Dale; Wei, Cong

    2017-07-25

    The functions of female song found in a few cicadas have rarely been studied. In the cicada Subpsaltria yangi we investigated the acoustic behaviour and signal structure of songs produced by females, the phonotaxis of males, and mate choice, as well as the selective pressure imposed on this species by predators. Pair-formation in S. yangi occurs when males signal, females respond, then males move to signaling females, which is opposite to that in most other cicadas where females move to calling males. Females only mate once and are sexually unreceptive after copulation. Most males mate once, but ~25% mate multiply. Females display little direct evidence of mate preference or choice of males, and all mate encounters led to a successful mating. Only males are attacked by a robber fly, Philonicus albiceps, while flying to females. This imposes strong selection on males - only males who can evade predators mate. Males are also attracted to human simulations of female calls. This behaviour exposes the mating system to impacts from anthropogenic noise systems which could disrupt mating activity of this species. Our results improve the understanding of mate choice/competition in cicadas, and are valuable for future studies of the evolution of sound communication in the Cicadoidea.

  7. Personality disorder and offending behaviour: findings from the national survey of male prisoners in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amanda D.L.; Coid, Jeremy W

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have related mental disorder and antisocial personality disorder to criminal behaviour, but little is known about the associations with other personality disorders. The aim of this study was to examine independent associations between offending behaviour over the lifetime and personality disorder in a representative sample of male offenders. A two-stage survey was carried out among prisoners in all prisons in England and Wales. DSM-IV personality disorder was measured using S...

  8. Neuroendocrine profiles associated with discrete behavioural variation in Symphodus ocellatus, a species with male alternative reproductive tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, B M; Stiver, K A; Alonzo, S H; Hofmann, H A

    2016-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic plasticity are not well understood. Identifying mechanisms underlying alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs) in species for which the behavioural and fitness consequences of this variation are well characterized provides an opportunity to integrate evolutionary and mechanistic understanding of the maintenance of variation within populations. In the ocellated wrasse Symphodus ocellatus, the behavioural phenotypes of three distinct male morphs (sneakers, satellites and nesting males), which arise from a single genome, have been thoroughly characterized. To determine the neuroendocrine and genomic mechanisms associated with discrete phenotypic variation and ARTs in S. ocellatus in their natural environment, we constructed a whole-brain de novo transcriptome and compared global patterns of gene expression between sexes and male morphs. Next, we quantified circulating cortisol and 11-ketotestosterone (11-kt), mediators of male reproductive behaviours, as well as stress and gonadal steroid hormone receptor expression in the preoptic area, ventral subpallial division of the telencephalon and dorsolateral telencephalon, critical brain regions for social and reproductive behaviours. We found higher levels of 11-kt in nesting males and higher levels of cortisol in sneaker males relative to other male morphs and females. We also identified distinct patterns of brain region-specific hormone receptor expression between males such that most hormone receptors are more highly expressed in satellites and nesting males relative to sneakers and females. Our results establish the neuroendocrine and molecular mechanisms that underlie ARTs in the wild and provide a foundation for experimentally testing hypotheses about the relationship between neuromolecular processes and reproductive success.

  9. Relationship dynamics and sexual risk behaviour of male partners of female sex workers in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Martin; Siu, Godfrey E; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    Regular male partners of female sex workers (FSWs) represent an important population to reach with HIV-prevention interventions. This paper discusses the relationship dynamics and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviour of men involved with self-identified FSWs in Kampala. Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted repeat in-depth interviews with 42 male partners of FSWs attending a clinic for women at high risk of HIV-infection in Kampala. Men publicly struggled with the stigma of dating women who are considered to be engaged in a shamed profession, but privately saw meaning in these relationships. In coping with the stigma, some described the work of their partners in terms that distanced them from sex work, while others struggled to have the control that "being a man" demanded since they could not monitor all movements of their partners. Dealing with HIV disclosure was hard and seeking support was difficult for some of the men, leading to missed opportunities and guilt. Despite challenges, relationships with sex workers offered men some benefits such as access to much needed care and treatment. A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings suggest that effective interventions that are couple centred can be established to promote better health.

  10. Social context of HIV risk behaviours among male-to-female transgenders of colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, T; Operario, D; Keatley, J; Villegas, D

    2004-08-01

    To explore the social context of drug use and sexual behaviours that put male-to-female (MTF) transgenders at risk for HIV, focus groups were conducted consisting of African American, Latina and Asian and Pacific Islander MTF transgenders (N = 48) who reside or work in San Francisco, California. Participants were likely to report having unprotected sex with primary partners to signify love and emotional connection, as well as to receive gender validation from their partners. In contrast, viewing sex work with customers as a business encouraged intentious to use condoms. Safer sex intentions with customers were frequently undermined by urgent financial needs, which stemmed from transphobia, employment discrimination and costly procedures associated with gender transition. Participants reported using drugs as a way to cope with or escape life stresses associated with relationships, sex work, transphobia and financial hardship. Interventions with at-risk MTF transgenders should address the interpersonal and social context of unsafe sex and drug use, particularly the unique roles of relationship issues with male partners, stigma, discrimination and community norms regarding sex work and drug use.

  11. Male alliance behaviour and mating access varies with habitat in a dolphin social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Richard C; Cioffi, William R; Randić, Srđan; Allen, Simon J; Watson-Capps, Jana; Krützen, Michael

    2017-04-13

    Within-species variation in social structure has attracted interest recently because of the potential to explore phenotypic plasticity and, specifically, how demographic and ecological variation influence social structure. Populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) vary in male alliance formation, from no alliances to simple pairs to, in Shark Bay, Western Australia, the most complex nested alliances known outside of humans. Examination of ecological contributions to this variation is complicated by differences among populations in other potentially explanatory traits, such as phylogenetic distance, as well as female reproductive schedules, sexual size dimorphism, and body size. Here, we report our discovery of systematic spatial variation in alliance structure, seasonal movements and access to mates within a single continuous social network in the Shark Bay population. Participation in male trios (versus pairs), the sizes of seasonal range shifts and consortship rates all decrease from north to south along the 50 km length of the study area. The southern habitat, characterised by shallow banks and channels, may be marginal relative to the open northern habitat. The discovery of variation in alliance behaviour along a spatial axis within a single population is unprecedented and demonstrates that alliance complexity has an ecological component.

  12. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  13. Increased depressive behaviour in females and heightened corticosterone release in males to swim stress after adolescent social stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Iva Z; Wilton, Aleena; Styles, Amy; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2008-06-26

    We previously reported that males undergoing chronic social stress (SS) (daily 1h isolation and new cage partner on days 30-45 of age) in adolescence habituated (decreased corticosterone release) to the homotypic stressor, but females did not. Here, we report that adolescent males exposed to chronic social stress had potentiated corticosterone release to a heterotypic stressor (15 min of swim stress) compared to acutely stressed and control males. The three groups of males did not differ in depressive-like behaviour (time spent immobile) during the swim stress. Corticosterone release in socially stressed females was elevated 45 min after the swim stress compared to acutely stressed and control females, and socially stressed females exhibited more depressive behaviour (longer durations of immobility and shorter durations of climbing) than the other females during the swim stress. Separate groups of rats were tested as adults several weeks after the social stress, and there were no group differences in corticosterone release after the swim stress. The only group difference in behaviour among the adults was more time spent climbing in socially stressed males than in controls. Thus, there are sex-specific effects of social stress in adolescence on endocrine responses and depressive behaviour to a heterotypic stressor, but, unlike for anxiety, substantial recovery is evident in adulthood in the absence of intervening stress exposures.

  14. The clinical effectiveness of individual behaviour change interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour after a negative human immunodeficiency virus test in men who have sex with men: systematic and realist reviews and intervention development

    OpenAIRE

    Flowers, Paul; Wu, Olivia; Lorimer, Karen; Ahmed, Bipasha; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; MacDonald, Jennifer; Cayless, Sandi; Hutchinson, Sharon; Elliot, Lawrie; Sullivan, Ann; Clutterbuck, Dan; Rayment, Michael; McDaid, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Background:\\ud \\ud Men who have sex with men (MSM) experience significant inequalities in health and well-being. They are the group in the UK at the highest risk of acquiring a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Guidance relating to both HIV infection prevention, in general, and individual-level behaviour change interventions, in particular, is very limited.\\ud \\ud Objectives:\\ud \\ud To conduct an evidence synthesis of the clinical effectiveness of behaviour change interventions to...

  15. The Sexual Behaviour of Chagas' Disease Vectors: Chemical Signals Mediating Communication between Male and Female Triatomine Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Manrique

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical communication mechanisms that mediate sexual behaviour in triatomine bugs are reviewed with regard to source, identity, and function of sex pheromones. Males attempt to copulate but may be rejected, depending on female age and nutritional status. Triatomine males locate partners through sex pheromones emitted by the metasternal glands (MGs of females. These activate males, inducing them to leave their refuges and initiate flight. Wandering males display anemotactic orientation modulated by chemical signals emitted from female MGs. Analyses of the MG secretions of several species resulted in the identification of numerous ketones, acetals, and alcohols. Occlusion experiments showed that Brindley’s gland products were not required for mating. Metasternal gland volatiles are emitted by virgin male and female bugs, with detection over females occurring more consistently, especially during the early scotophase, suggesting female calling behaviour. Mating triatomine females have been reported to attract males that tend to copulate successively with them. Mating males prolong mating and postcopulatory mate guarding in the presence of other males. This is indicative of a polyandrous mating system in several triatomine species. Its potential advantages remain unknown, and comparative studies are required to increase our understanding of triatomine reproductive strategies.

  16. Alterations in male sexual behaviour, attractiveness and testosterone levels induced by an adult-onset calorie restriction regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Levay, Elizabeth A; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen; Paolini, Antonio G

    2008-06-26

    Despite an abundance of research on calorie restriction (CR) altering gonadal and appetite regulating hormones, the sexual behavioural consequences of CR remain to be examined systematically. This study compared the sexual behaviour, partner preference, serum testosterone and leptin levels of male adult Hooded Wistar rats administered a CR (continuous 25%, 50% CR or a temporary restriction) with ad libitum fed controls. The temporary restriction (Previous CR) failed to alter sexual behaviour, partner preference and levels of testosterone and leptin. The moderately 25% CR males did not demonstrate an impairment in sexual behaviour but did demonstrate a reduced level of attractiveness to females in one measure of partner preference. Sexual performance was affected by a substantial CR, as the CR 50% group exhibited a longer latency to the first intromission, indicating alteration in sexual arousal. Females also consistently demonstrated a clear preference for the control group compared to the CR 50% group. These findings indicate a possible reduction in the overall reproductive potential of the substantially CR animals. Testosterone levels were equally suppressed by both the 25% and 50% CR, while leptin levels were only reduced in the CR 50% group. Leptin, rather than testosterone, may have influenced the impairment in sexual behaviour only demonstrated by the substantially CR animals. Testosterone, may, however, play a role in modulating the preference of control over CR males, as attractiveness was totally reduced by a substantial CR, and partially reduced by a moderate restricted regimen.

  17. Adolescents' Neural Processing of Risky Decisions: Effects of Sex and Behavioral Disinhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Crowley

    Full Text Available Accidental injury and homicide, relatively common among adolescents, often follow risky behaviors; those are done more by boys and by adolescents with greater behavioral disinhibition (BD.Neural processing during adolescents' risky decision-making will differ in youths with greater BD severity, and in males vs. females, both before cautious behaviors and before risky behaviors.81 adolescents (PATIENTS with substance and conduct problems, and comparison youths (Comparisons, assessed in a 2 x 2 design (Comparisons x Male:Female repeatedly decided between doing a cautious behavior that earned 1 cent, or a risky one that either won 5 or lost 10 cents. Odds of winning after risky responses gradually decreased. Functional magnetic resonance imaging captured brain activity during 4-sec deliberation periods preceding responses. Most neural activation appeared in known decision-making structures. PATIENTS, who had more severe BD scores and clinical problems than Comparisons, also had extensive neural hypoactivity. Comparisons' greater activation before cautious responses included frontal pole, medial prefrontal cortex, striatum, and other regions; and before risky responses, insula, temporal, and parietal regions. Males made more risky and fewer cautious responses than females, but before cautious responses males activated numerous regions more than females. Before risky behaviors female-greater activation was more posterior, and male-greater more anterior.Neural processing differences during risky-cautious decision-making may underlie group differences in adolescents' substance-related and antisocial risk-taking. Patients reported harmful real-life decisions and showed extensive neural hypoactivity during risky-or-cautious decision-making. Males made more risky responses than females; apparently biased toward risky decisions, males (compared with females utilized many more neural resources to make and maintain cautious decisions, indicating an important

  18. Sexual behaviour and knowledge of adolescent males in the Molopo region of Bophuthatswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kau

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is one of the many public health problems facing the community in Bophuthatswana and neighbouring areas: Health professionals have attempted to address the problem yet little has been done to determine the role of the adolescent male in the prevention of this community problem. This study addresses the male adolescent’s sexual behaviour, his attitude towards contraception, contraceptive use and premarital pregnancy. The study revealed that most of the respondents commenced sexual practices at about 12years of age. These young men believed that girls should prove their fertility before marriage, although they viewed contraception as a joint responsibility between the two partners. The respondents were found to have a positive attitude towards contraception and contraceptive use, yet when they were asked what method of contraception they used since they were sexually active, only 24,5% reported use of a condom. Ignorance about reproduction and the effects of contraceptives Was confirmed When 48% of the respondents indicated that they were unaware of the fact that pregnancy could result from first coitus, and they also believed that oral contraceptives had dangerous side effects. The study further revealed that parents did not discuss teenage pregnancy and contraception with their children, instead this subject was discussed among friends at school. Respondents expressed fear when asked why the subject was never discussed with parents, some actually stated that their parents would ‘flog’ them if they initiated the subject on sex and related matters. The urgent need for formalised sex education in Bophuthatswana was expressed by 77% of the respondents.

  19. Neural and behavioural changes in male periadolescent mice after prolonged nicotine-MDMA treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, Philip A; Ishola, Azeez O; Laoye, Babafemi J; Olatunji, Babawale P; Bankole, Oluwamolakun O; Shallie, Philemon D; Ogundele, Olalekan M

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between MDMA and Nicotine affects multiple brain centres and neurotransmitter systems (serotonin, dopamine and glutamate) involved in motor coordination and cognition. In this study, we have elucidated the effect of prolonged (10 days) MDMA, Nicotine and a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment on motor-cognitive neural functions. In addition, we have shown the correlation between the observed behavioural change and neural structural changes induced by these treatments in BALB/c mice. We observed that MDMA (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) induced a decline in motor function, while Nicotine (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) improved motor function in male periadolescent mice. In combined treatment, Nicotine reduced the motor function decline observed in MDMA treatment, thus no significant change in motor function for the combined treatment versus the control. Nicotine or MDMA treatment reduced memory function and altered hippocampal structure. Similarly, a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment reduced memory function when compared with the control. Ultimately, the metabolic and structural changes in these neural systems were seen to vary for the various forms of treatment. It is noteworthy to mention that a combined treatment increased the rate of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue.

  20. Sociodemographic characteristics and HIV risk behaviour patterns of male sex workers in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, M J; Llácer, A; Mora, R; Morales, M; Castilla, J; de la Fuente, L

    2001-10-01

    This paper describes the sociodemographic and work characteristics, prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk behaviours among male sex workers (MSWs) in Madrid (Spain). Using an anonymous semi-structured questionnaire, educators attached to a mobile unit under a street-based prostitution programme surveyed 84 MSWs from several Madrid areas. Of the total surveyed: 35% were immigrants, mean age was 23 years, mean period in prostitution was four years; 21% had no primary education; 16% had injected drugs at some time; 11% reported private sexual relationships exclusively with women; 89% always used condoms in anal practices with clients; and 41% were in sexual relationships with their partners. Only 11% had ever used fortified condoms. In the preceding month, 37% had experienced condom failure, 82% without having used any lubricant. In all, 67% reported having undergone HIV testing, with a higher percentage of positive results among injecting (60%) versus non-injecting drug users (17%). Immigrants had a lower level of education, made less use of condoms, had more condom failures and, in their private lives, a greater proportion reported sexual relationships exclusively with women. In Spain, MSWs should be included in HIV prevention programmes, which ought to be specifically adapted to immigrants. Priority should be given to reducing the condom failure rate in anal intercourse, by improving access to fortified condoms.

  1. Non-pharmacological interventions designed to reduce health risks due to unhealthy eating behaviour and linked risky or excessive drinking in adults aged 18-25 years: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephanie; Parkinson, Kathryn; Kaner, Eileen; Robalino, Shannon; Stead, Martine; Power, Christine; Fitzgerald, Niamh; Wrieden, Wendy; Adamson, Ashley

    2017-03-03

    Excess body weight and heavy alcohol consumption are two of the greatest contributors to global disease. Alcohol use peaks in early adulthood. Alcohol consumption can also exacerbate weight gain. A high body mass index and heavy drinking are independently associated with liver disease but, in combination, they produce an intensified risk of damage, with individuals from lower socio-economic status groups disproportionately affected. We will conduct searches in MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC, ASSIA, Web of Knowledge (WoK), Scopus, CINAHL via EBSCO, LILACS, CENTRAL and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses for studies that assess targeted preventative interventions of any length of time or duration of follow-up that are focused on reducing unhealthy eating behaviour and linked risky alcohol use in 18-25-year-olds. Primary outcomes will be reported changes in: (1) dietary, nutritional or energy intake and (2) alcohol consumption. We will include all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) including cluster RCTs; randomised trials; non-randomised controlled trials; interrupted time series; quasi-experimental; cohort involving concurrent or historical controls and controlled before and after studies. Database searches will be supplemented with searches of Google Scholar, hand searches of key journals and backward and forward citation searches of reference lists of identified papers. Search records will be independently screened by two researchers, with full-text copies of potentially relevant papers retrieved for in-depth review against the inclusion criteria. Methodological quality of RCTs will be evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Other study designs will be evaluated using the Cochrane Public Health Review Group's recommended Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. Studies will be pooled by meta-analysis and/or narrative synthesis as appropriate for the nature of the data retrieved. It is anticipated

  2. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Brussoni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children’s health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional “good quality” studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children’s risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed.

  3. What is the Relationship between Risky Outdoor Play and Health in Children? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brussoni, Mariana; Gibbons, Rebecca; Gray, Casey; Ishikawa, Takuro; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Chabot, Guylaine; Fuselli, Pamela; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-06-08

    Risky outdoor play has been associated with promoting children's health and development, but also with injury and death. Risky outdoor play has diminished over time, concurrent with increasing concerns regarding child safety and emphasis on injury prevention. We sought to conduct a systematic review to examine the relationship between risky outdoor play and health in children, in order to inform the debate regarding its benefits and harms. We identified and evaluated 21 relevant papers for quality using the GRADE framework. Included articles addressed the effect on health indicators and behaviours from three types of risky play, as well as risky play supportive environments. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of risky outdoor play on a variety of health indicators and behaviours, most commonly physical activity, but also social health and behaviours, injuries, and aggression. The review indicated the need for additional "good quality" studies; however, we note that even in the face of the generally exclusionary systematic review process, our findings support the promotion of risky outdoor play for healthy child development. These positive results with the marked reduction in risky outdoor play opportunities in recent generations indicate the need to encourage action to support children's risky outdoor play opportunities. Policy and practice precedents and recommendations for action are discussed.

  4. Preparatory behaviours and condom use during receptive and insertive anal sex among male-to-female transgenders (Waria) in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Dijkstra, Arie; Riono, Pandu; Tb, Gagan Hartana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The male-to-female transgender (waria) is part of a key population at higher risk for HIV. This study aims to test whether psychosocial determinants as defined by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can explain behaviours related to condom use among waria. Three preparatory behaviour

  5. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  6. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  7. Behavioural evidence of male volatile pheromones in the sex-role reversed wolf spiders Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena

    2010-01-01

    The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.

  8. Repeatability of decision-making behaviour in male threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: Effects of dummy vs.Live stimuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teresa L. DZIEWECZYNSKI; Lindsay M. FORRETTE

    2011-01-01

    Individuals select from a number of behaviours when responding to various situations and the decisions they make may affect their fitness. The costs and benefits of these responses vary among individuals causing them to differ even in identical situations. One example of this type of situation is when territorial males encounter both a male and female simultaneously, generating a trade-off that likely leads to individual differences due to differing costs of various actions among males. This situation commonly occurs in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. However, for selection to act effectively, individuals must behave in a consistent manner and measuring repeatability can aid in understanding how selection may shape such trade-offs.Males of this species exhibit consistent individual differences in their response to dummy males and females but it is unknown if patterns are similar when feedback from the stimuli is present. To assess this, male threespine stickleback were tested with dummy and live male and female conspecifics, presented separately and simultaneously. While the same trends were found regardless of stimulus type, males were more aggressive towards the live conspecifics than to the dummies. Repeatability values were similar within a treatment regardless of whether live or dummy conspecifics were used, suggesting that individuals show the same level of consistency. This study adds to our understanding of consistent individual differences by demonstrating that feedback may not affect responses to conflicting stimuli and that male threespine stickleback respond in a consistent manner to both dummy and live stimuli.

  9. Behavioural determinants of gene flow in malaria vector populations: Anopheles gambiae males select large females as mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan G

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium-refractory mosquitoes are being rapidly developed for malaria control but will only succeed if they can successfully compete for mates when released into the wild. Pre-copulatory behavioural traits maintain genetic population structure in wild mosquito populations and mating barriers have foiled previous attempts to control malaria vectors through sterile male release. Methods Varying numbers of virgin male and female Anopheles gambiae Giles, from two strains of different innate sizes, were allowed to mate under standardized conditions in laboratory cages, following which, the insemination status, oviposition success and egg batch size of each female was assessed. The influence of male and female numbers, strain combination and female size were determined using logistic regression, correlation analysis and a simple mechanistic model of male competition for females. Results Male An. gambiae select females on the basis of size because of much greater fecundity among large females. Even under conditions where large numbers of males must compete for a smaller number of females, the largest females are more likely to become inseminated, to successfully oviposit and to produce large egg batches. Conclusions Sexual selection, on the basis of size, could either promote or limit the spread of malaria-refractory genes into wild populations and needs to be considered in the continued development and eventual release of transgenic vectors. Fundamental studies of behavioural ecology in malaria vectors such as An. gambiae can have important implications for malaria control and should be prioritised for more extensive investigation in the future.

  10. Differences in eating behaviours, dietary intake and body weight status between male and female Malaysian University students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, W Y; Mohd, Nasir M T; Zalilah, M S; Hazizi, A S

    2011-08-01

    University students are potentially important targets for the promotion of healthy lifestyles as this may reduce the risks of lifestyle-related disorders later in life. This cross-sectional study examined differences in eating behaviours, dietary intake, weight status, and body composition between male and female university students. A total of 584 students (59.4% females and 40.6% males) aged 20.6 +/- 1.4 years from four Malaysian universities in the Klang Valley participated in this study. Participants completed the Eating Behaviours Questionnaire and two-day 24-hour dietary recall. Body weight, height, waist circumference and percentage of body fat were measured. About 14.3% of males and 22.4% of females were underweight, while 14.0% of males and 12.3% of females were overweight and obese. A majority of the participants (73.8% males and 74.6% females) skipped at least one meal daily in the past seven days. Breakfast was the most frequently skipped meal. Both males and females frequently snacked during morning tea time. Fruits and biscuits were the most frequently consumed snack items. More than half of the participants did not meet the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) for energy, vitamin C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, iron (females only), and calcium. Significantly more males than females achieved the RNI levels for energy, protein and iron intakes. This study highlights the presence of unhealthy eating behaviours, inadequate nutrient intake, and a high prevalence of underweight among university students. Energy and nutrient intakes differed between the sexes. Therefore, promoting healthy eating among young adults is crucial to achieve a healthy nutritional status.

  11. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behaviour during Adolescence: The Influence of Personality and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Renate L E P; Murphy, Laura; Lin, Ashleigh; Bartolomé, Sandra Para; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of personality characteristics and gender on adolescents' perception of risk and their risk-taking behaviour. Male and female participants (157 females: 116 males, aged 13-20) completed self-report measures on risk perception, risk-taking and personality. Male participants perceived behaviours as less risky, reportedly took more risks, were less sensitive to negative outcomes and less socially anxious than female participants. Path analysis identified a model in which age, behavioural inhibition and impulsiveness directly influenced risk perception, while age, social anxiety, impulsiveness, sensitivity to reward, behavioural inhibition and risk perception itself were directly or indirectly associated with risk-taking behaviour. Age and behavioural inhibition had direct relationships with social anxiety, and reward sensitivity was associated with impulsiveness. The model was representative for the whole sample and male and female groups separately. The observed relationship between age and social anxiety and the influence this may have on risk-taking behaviour could be key for reducing adolescent risk-taking behaviour. Even though adolescents may understand the riskiness of their behaviour and estimate their vulnerability to risk at a similar level to adults, factors such as anxiety regarding social situations, sensitivity to reward and impulsiveness may exert their influence and make these individuals prone to taking risks. If these associations are proven causal, these factors are, and will continue to be, important targets in prevention and intervention efforts.

  12. The Role of Impulsivity in the Relation Between Negative Affect and Risky Sexual Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardin, Charles; Sharp, Carla; Garey, Lorra; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-04-03

    While risky sexual behavior associates with negative affect, and impulsivity often increases during negative affective states, little is known about the interrelations of these factors. This study examined whether impulsivity explained the relation between negative affect and risky sex among college students. Negative affect exhibited an indirect effect via impulsivity on number of sexual partners for both males and females, and on inconsistent condom use for females, but not males. Results suggest risky sex may serve to regulate negative affect, proposing the importance of negative affect in future strategies to reduce risky sex among young adults.

  13. Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites in a community of tropical butterflies: taxonomic and site associations and distinctions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashish D Tiple; Sonali V Padwad; Leonardo Dapporto; Roger L H Dennis

    2010-12-01

    Male mate location behaviour and encounter sites have been studied in 72 butterfly species at Nagpur, India, and related to taxonomy, morphology, habitat and population parameters. Species can be placed in three broad classes of mate location behaviour: invariant patrolling, invariant perching, and perch-patrol, the latter associated with increasing site fidelity, territorial defence and male assemblages. Significant taxonomic differences occur, closely related species tending to share mate location behaviours. Morphological differences are found with heavier and larger butterflies displaying greater site fidelity and territorial defence, and differences occur between individuals of species which both perch and patrol. Invariant patrolling is particularly associated with tracks through vegetation, host plant-track distributions, and high female to male numbers observed on transects; invariant perching is linked more to edge features than patrolling, and to lower population counts on transects. Species which perch-patrol, defend territories and establish male assemblages are associated with more complex vegetation structures, and have encounter sites at vegetation edges, landforms and predictable resource (host plant) concentrations. Attention is drawn to the importance of distinctive mate encounter sites for the conservation of butterfly species’ habitats.

  14. Behavioural and cognitive sex/gender differences in autism spectrum condition and typically developing males and females

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, L; Mandy, W; Petrides, K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...

  15. How Beliefs about HIV Status Affect Risky Behaviors: Evidence from Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    De Paula, A.; Shapira, G.; Todd, P. E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how beliefs about own HIV status affect decisions to engage in risky sexual behavior, as measured by having extramarital sex and/or multiple sex partners. The empirical analysis is based on a panel survey of males from the 2006 and 2008 rounds of the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project (MDICP). The paper develops a behavioral model of the belief-risky behavior relationship and estimates the causal effect of beliefs on risky behavior using the Arellano and Carras...

  16. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Eldeb, Manal; Tremblay, Jacques; Vingilis, Evelyn; Nadeau, Louise; Pruessner, Jens; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Background Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD) and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality, cognitive, and neurobiological processes are associated with the type of RD behaviours these drivers predominantly engage in. Methods Four age-matched groups of adult (19–39 years) males were recruited: 1) driving while impaired recidivists (DWI, n = 36); 2) non-alcohol reckless drivers (SPEED, n = 28); 3) drivers with a mixed RD profile (MIXED, n = 27); and 4) low-risk control drivers (CTL, n = 47). Their sociodemographic, criminal history, driving behaviour (by questionnaire and simulation performance), personality (Big Five traits, impulsivity, reward sensitivity), cognitive (disinhibition, decision making, behavioural risk taking), and neurobiological (cortisol stress response) characteristics were gathered and contrasted. Results Compared to controls, group SPEED showed greater sensation seeking, disinhibition, disadvantageous decision making, and risk taking. Group MIXED exhibited more substance misuse, and antisocial, sensation seeking and reward sensitive personality features. Group DWI showed greater disinhibition and more severe alcohol misuse, and compared to the other RD groups, the lowest level of risk taking when sober. All RD groups exhibited less cortisol increase in response to stress compared to controls. Discussion Each RD group exhibited a distinct personality and cognitive profile, which was consistent with stimulation seeking in group SPEED, fearlessness in group MIXED, and poor behavioural regulation associated with alcohol in group DWI. As these group differences were uniformly accompanied by blunted cortisol stress responses, they may reflect the disparate behavioural consequences of

  17. Personality, Executive Control, and Neurobiological Characteristics Associated with Different Forms of Risky Driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G Brown

    Full Text Available Road crashes represent a huge burden on global health. Some drivers are prone to repeated episodes of risky driving (RD and are over-represented in crashes and related morbidity. However, their characteristics are heterogeneous, hampering development of targeted intervention strategies. This study hypothesized that distinct personality, cognitive, and neurobiological processes are associated with the type of RD behaviours these drivers predominantly engage in.Four age-matched groups of adult (19-39 years males were recruited: 1 driving while impaired recidivists (DWI, n = 36; 2 non-alcohol reckless drivers (SPEED, n = 28; 3 drivers with a mixed RD profile (MIXED, n = 27; and 4 low-risk control drivers (CTL, n = 47. Their sociodemographic, criminal history, driving behaviour (by questionnaire and simulation performance, personality (Big Five traits, impulsivity, reward sensitivity, cognitive (disinhibition, decision making, behavioural risk taking, and neurobiological (cortisol stress response characteristics were gathered and contrasted.Compared to controls, group SPEED showed greater sensation seeking, disinhibition, disadvantageous decision making, and risk taking. Group MIXED exhibited more substance misuse, and antisocial, sensation seeking and reward sensitive personality features. Group DWI showed greater disinhibition and more severe alcohol misuse, and compared to the other RD groups, the lowest level of risk taking when sober. All RD groups exhibited less cortisol increase in response to stress compared to controls.Each RD group exhibited a distinct personality and cognitive profile, which was consistent with stimulation seeking in group SPEED, fearlessness in group MIXED, and poor behavioural regulation associated with alcohol in group DWI. As these group differences were uniformly accompanied by blunted cortisol stress responses, they may reflect the disparate behavioural consequences of dysregulation of the stress system. In sum, RD

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  19. SExUAL RISK BEHAVIOUR AMONGST YOUNG PEOPLE IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-08

    Nov 8, 2010 ... Poverty, migrant labour, limited resources, risky sexual ... Although in past decades, HIV-prevention programmes focused on risky sexual behaviour amongst ..... Therefore, condom promotion as a public health strategy should.

  20. Risky Behavior, Ecstasy, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Heather H.

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy is a risky behavior that continues to be a concern in the education system today. The review of the Ecstasy literature focused on the definition of risky behavior, prevalence, and other basis aspects of Ecstasy; discovering life events that are associated with Ecstasy use, the function of this behavior, interventions for substance abuse,…

  1. Breeding season influxes and the behaviour of adult male samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis albogularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzi, S P; Lawes, M

    1987-01-01

    Troops comprising a high density population of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis) in Natal province, South Africa, experienced an influx of adult males during the breeding season. Observation of one troop revealed that these males competed with one another and with two resident males for access to receptive females. Although both sexes initiated copulation, attempts to do so were more often successful if female-initiated. Males did not interact with non-receptive females and there were no recorded attempts at infanticide. Male-male interactions were agonistic in the presence of receptive females and neutral at other times. No ritualized displays of dominance and subordinance were seen. The significance of these observations for male reproductive strategies is discussed.

  2. Calorie restriction and corticosterone elevation during lactation can each modulate adult male fear and anxiety-like behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govic, Antonina; Bell, Veronica; Samuel, Anil; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G

    2014-09-01

    Early life events, such as calorie restriction (CR) and elevated glucocorticoids, can calibrate the lifelong behavioural and physiological profile of an individual. Stress reactivity in adulthood is particularly sensitive to early life events; however, the consequence to fear and anxiety-like behaviour is less clear. Consequently, the current study sought to examine the effects of post-natal CR and glucocorticoid elevation, long considered powerful programming stimuli, on the subsequent fear and anxiety behaviour of the adult offspring. Rat dams received either corticosterone (200 μg/ml) supplementation in drinking water (CORT) or a 25% CR from post-natal day (PND) 1 to 11. Responses to the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field and a predator odour (TMT; 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline) were characterised in the adult male offspring. Both treatment conditions resulted in enhanced fear responses to TMT, characterised by heightened risk assessment and increased avoidance of TMT. CORT nursed offspring further demonstrated an anxiogenic profile in the open field. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function was unchanged in CORT adult offspring, whilst corticosterone concentration was elevated by post-natal CR. CR and CORT treated dams both exhibited greater anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM. A modest and temporary enhancement of maternal care was observed in CR and CORT treated dams, with CR dams further exhibiting rapid pup retrieval latencies. The results indicate enhanced emotionality in the adult male progeny of dams exposed to CR and corticosterone supplementation during the post-natal period. The modest enhancement of maternal care observed by both treatments is unlikely to have influenced the behavioural profile of the offspring.

  3. Repeatability of decision-making behaviour in male threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus: Effects of dummy vs. live stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L. DZIEWECZYNSKI, Lindsay M. FORRETTE

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals select from a number of behaviours when responding to various situations and the decisions they make may affect their fitness. The costs and benefits of these responses vary among individuals causing them to differ even in identical situations. One example of this type of situation is when territorial males encounter both a male and female simultaneously, gene- rating a trade-off that likely leads to individual differences due to differing costs of various actions among males. This situation commonly occurs in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. However, for selection to act effectively, individuals must behave in a consistent manner and measuring repeatability can aid in understanding how selection may shape such trade-offs. Males of this species exhibit consistent individual differences in their response to dummy males and females but it is unknown if patterns are similar when feedback from the stimuli is present. To assess this, male threespine stickleback were tested with dummy and live male and female conspecifics, presented separately and simultaneously. While the same trends were found regardless of stimulus type, males were more aggressive towards the live conspecifics than to the dummies. Repeatability values were similar within a treatment regardless of whether live or dummy conspecifics were used, suggesting that individuals show the same level of consistency. This study adds to our understanding of consistent individual differences by demonstrating that feedback may not affect responses to conflicting stimuli and that male threespine stickleback respond in a consistent manner to both dummy and live stimuli [Current Zoology 57 (1: 101–108, 2011].

  4. Preparatory behaviours and condom use during receptive and insertive anal sex among male-to-female transgenders (Waria in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciptasari Prabawanti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male-to-female transgender (waria is part of a key population at higher risk for HIV. This study aims to test whether psychosocial determinants as defined by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB can explain behaviours related to condom use among waria. Three preparatory behaviours (getting, carrying, and offering a condom and two condom use behaviours (during receptive and insertive anal sex were assessed. Methods: The study involved 209 waria, recruited from five districts in Jakarta and interviewed by using structured questionnaires. Specific measures were developed to study attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC in order to predict intentions and behaviours. Results: The explained variance between intentions with regard to three preparatory behaviours and two condom uses ranged between 30 and 57%, and the variance between the actual preparatory behaviours of three preparatory and two condom uses ranged between 21 and 42%. In our study, as with several previous studies of the TPB on HIV protection behaviours, the TPB variables differed in their predictive power. With regard to intention, attitude and PBC were consistently significant predictors; attitude was the strongest predictor of intention for all three preparatory behaviours, and PBC was the strongest predictor of intention for condom use, both during receptive and insertive anal sex. TPB variables were also significantly related to the second parameter of future behaviour: actual (past behaviour. TPB variables were differentially related to the five behaviours. Attitude was predictive in three behaviours, PBC in three behaviours and subjective norms in two behaviours. Conclusions: Our results have implications for the development of interventions to target preparatory behaviours and condom use behaviours. Five behaviours and three psychological factors as defined in the TPB are to be targeted.

  5. Together we have fun: native-place networks and sexual risk behaviours among Chinese male rural-urban migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhao Yousef; Kelly, Brian C; Yang, Tingzhong

    2016-05-01

    Some scholars argue that the maintenance of social networks contributes to the lower prevalence of deviant behaviours and fewer adverse health effects among migrants. But others suggest that if migrants are embedded in homogeneous networks, such networks may enable the formation of a deviant subculture that promotes risk taking. Facing this dilemma, the present study investigates how native-place networks influence sexual risk behaviours (SRBs), specifically the pursuit of commercial sex and condomless sex with sex workers, for male rural-urban migrants. Using a multi-stage sample of 1,591 male rural-urban migrants from two major migrant-influx cities within China, we assessed migrants' general friend network ties and native place networks (townsmen in migrants' local networks) and tested their associations with SRBs. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicate that native-place network ties are associated with paying for sex (OR = 1.33, p rural-urban migrants are associated with SRBs because homogenous networks may serve as a platform for the emergence of a deviant subculture that promotes risk behaviours. A Virtual Abstract of this paper is available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Wg20I6j8XQ.

  6. The smell of virgins: mating status of females affects male swimming behaviour in Oithona davisae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuschele, Jan; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Many copepod species rely on pheromone cues to find partners. Some parasitic and benthic copepod males are able to distinguish between females of different reproductive states. Here, we demonstrate that the swimming activity and velocity of males of a pelagic copepod, Oithona davisae, increases...

  7. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    by individuals to generate their observed population behaviour. A number of existing agent-modelling frameworks are considered, but none have the ability to handle large numbers of time-dependent event-generating agents; hence the construction of a new tool, RANA. The calling behaviour of the Puerto Rican Tree...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  8. Preparatory behaviours and condom use during receptive and insertive anal sex among male-to-female transgenders (Waria) in Jakarta, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Dijkstra, Arie; Riono, Pandu; Tb, Gagan Hartana

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The male-to-female transgender (waria) is part of a key population at higher risk for HIV. This study aims to test whether psychosocial determinants as defined by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can explain behaviours related to condom use among waria. Three preparatory

  9. The Relationship between Lifestyle and Campus Eating Behaviours in Male and Female University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Rebecca A.; Berry, Tanya R.; Kennedy, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor nutritional practices and heightened levels of stress, two common attributes of university life, are strongly linked with weight gain and decreased health. Little research has examined the relationships between university students' lifestyle factors and campus eating behaviours; therefore, this study aimed to examine relationships…

  10. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benus, R.F.; Bohus, B.; Koolhaas, J.M.; Oortmerssen, G.A. van

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way ac

  11. Response of male mice to odours of female mice in different stages of oestrous cycle: self-grooming behaviour and the effect of castration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiraman, Shanmugam; SankarGanesh, Devaraj; Kannan, Soundarapandian; Kamalakkannan, Soundararajan; Nirmala, Natarajan; Archunan, Govindaraju

    2014-01-01

    The behavioural assays were carried out in a Y-maze wherein intact, castrated and testosterone-treated male mice were exposed to oestrus and non-oestrus urine samples. The intact male mice investigated more frequently and spent more time in the Y-maze arm with oestrus urine than in that with non-oestrus urine. In contrast, the castrated mice were not attracted to oestrus urine, whereas testosterone-treated mice showed preference for oestrus urine. The rate of self-grooming was higher in intact males in case of exposure to oestrus urine while the rate was lower with respect to non-oestrus urine. However, castrated mice exhibited less self-grooming behaviour which was partially restored by testosterone treatment. The results suggest that self-grooming behaviour is an indicator of detection and discrimination of oestrus by males, and supports the androgen role in male chemosensory ability to discriminate between oestrus and non-oestrus female odours.

  12. At-risk and problem gambling among Finnish youth: The examination of risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, mental health and loneliness as gender-specific correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgren Robert

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The aims were to compare past-year at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG and other at-risk behaviours (computer gaming, risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking by age and gender, and to explore how ARPG is associated with risky alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, poor mental health and loneliness in males and females. DESIGN - Data from respondents aged 15-28 (n = 822 were derived from a cross-sectional random sample of population-based data (n = 4484. The data were collected in 2011-2012 by telephone interviews. The Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI, score≥2 was used to evaluate ARPG. Prevalence rates for risk behaviours were compared for within gender-specific age groups. Regression models were gender-specific. RESULTS - The proportion of at-risk and problem gamblers was higher among males than females in all age groups except among 18-21-year-olds, while frequent computer gaming was higher among males in all age groups. The odds ratio (95% CI of being a male ARPGer was 2.57 (1.40-4.74 for risky alcohol consumption; 1.95 (1.07-3.56 for tobacco smoking; 2.63 (0.96-7.26 for poor mental health; and 4.41 (1.20-16.23 for feeling lonely. Likewise, the odds ratio (95% CI of being a female ARPGer was 1.19 (0.45-3.12 for risky alcohol consumption; 4.01 (1.43-11.24 for tobacco smoking; 0.99 (0.18-5.39 for poor mental health; and 6.46 (1.42-29.34 for feeling lonely. All 95% CIs of ARPG correlates overlapped among males and females. CONCLUSIONS - Overall, past-year at-risk and problem gambling and computer gaming seem to be more common among males than females; however, for risky alcohol consumption similar gender differences were evident only for the older half of the sample. No clear gender differences were seen in correlates associated with ARPG.

  13. Divergent Evolution of Male Aggressive Behaviour: Another Reproductive Isolation Barrier in Extremophile Poeciliid Fishes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bierbach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive isolation among locally adapted populations may arise when immigrants from foreign habitats are selected against via natural or (inter-sexual selection (female mate choice. We asked whether also intrasexual selection through male-male competition could promote reproductive isolation among populations of poeciliid fishes that are locally adapted to extreme environmental conditions [i.e., darkness in caves and/or toxic hydrogen sulphide (H2S]. We found strongly reduced aggressiveness in extremophile Poecilia mexicana, and darkness was the best predictor for the evolutionary reduction of aggressiveness, especially when combined with presence of H2S. We demonstrate that reduced aggression directly translates into migrant males being inferior when paired with males from nonsulphidic surface habitats. By contrast, the phylogenetically old sulphur-endemic P. sulphuraria from another sulphide spring area showed no overall reduced aggressiveness, possibly indicating evolved mechanisms to better cope with H2S.

  14. Male moth songs tempt females to accept mating: the role of acoustic and pheromonal communication in the reproductive behaviour of Aphomia sociella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindl, Jiří; Kalinová, Blanka; Červenka, Milan; Jílek, Milan; Valterová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Members of the subfamily Galleriinae have adapted to different selective environmental pressures by devising a unique mating process. Galleriinae males initiate mating by attracting females with either chemical or acoustic signals (or a combination of both modalities). Six compounds considered candidates for the sex pheromone have recently been identified in the wing gland extracts of Aphomia sociella males. Prior to the present study, acoustic communication had not been investigated. Signals mediating female attraction were likewise unknown. Observations of A. sociella mating behaviour and recordings of male acoustic signals confirmed that males initiate the mating process. During calling behaviour (stationary wing fanning and pheromone release), males disperse pheromone from their wing glands. When a female approaches, males cease calling and begin to produce ultrasonic songs as part of the courtship behaviour. Replaying of recorded courting songs to virgin females and a comparison of the mating efficiency of intact males with males lacking tegullae proved that male ultrasonic signals stimulate females to accept mating. Greenhouse experiments with isolated pheromone glands confirmed that the male sex pheromone mediates long-range female attraction. Female attraction in A. sociella is chemically mediated, but ultrasonic communication is also employed during courtship. Male ultrasonic songs stimulate female sexual display and significantly affect mating efficiency. Considerable inter-individual differences in song structure exist. These could play a role in female mate selection provided that the female's ear is able to discern them. The A. sociella mating strategy described above is unique within the subfamily Galleriinae.

  15. Effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove on sexual behaviour of normal male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flower bud of Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merr. & Perry. (clove has been used in Unani medicine since ancient times for the treatment of male sexual disorders. The present study is aimed to investigate the effect of 50% ethanolic extract of clove on general mating behaviour, libido, potency along with its likely gastric ulceration and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats. Methods The suspension of the extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 250, and 500 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 6 once a day for seven days. The female albino rats involved in mating were made receptive by hormonal treatment. The general mating behaviour, libido and potency were determined and compared with the standard reference drug sildenafil citrate. The probable gastric ulceration and adverse effects of the extract were also evaluated. Results Oral administration of the extract significantly increased the Mounting Frequency, Intromission Frequency; Intromission Latency, Erections; Quick Flips, Long Flips as well as aggregate of penile reflexes and caused significant reduction in the Mounting Latency and Post Ejaculatory Interval. The most appreciable effect of the extract was observed at the dose of 500 mg/kg. The test drug was also found to be devoid of any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Conclusion The results indicated that the 50% ethanolic extract of clove produced a significant and sustained increase in the sexual activity of normal male rats, without any conspicuous gastric ulceration and adverse effects. Thus, the resultant aphrodisiac effectivity of the extract lends support to the claims for its traditional usage in sexual disorders.

  16. Childhood social circumstances and health behaviour in midlife: the Metropolit 1953 Danish male birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the association between social disadvantage in childhood and adult mortality could come about through processes related to the family environment in which the child is raised. This study examines the relationship of fathers' social class with health behaviour...... in middle age and assesses the potential mediating role of cognitive function, educational status and social integration in young adulthood in these relationships. METHODS: We used data from the Metropolit cohort which includes 11 532 Danish men born in 1953 with information on fathers' social class...... at participants' birth and assessments of cognitive performance, education and social integration in early adulthood. In 2004, 6292 of these men participated in a follow-up survey on health and behaviour. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association of father's social class with smoking, alcohol...

  17. Divorce as risky behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Audrey; Ahn, Taehyun

    2010-11-01

    Given that divorce often represents a high-stakes income gamble, we ask how individual levels of risk tolerance affect the decision to divorce. We extend the orthodox divorce model by assuming that individuals are risk averse, that marriage is risky, and that divorce is even riskier. The model predicts that conditional on the expected gains to marriage and divorce, the probability of divorce increases with relative risk tolerance because risk averse individuals require compensation for the additional risk that is inherent in divorce. To implement the model empirically, we use data for first-married women and men from the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a probit model of divorce in which a measure of risk tolerance is among the covariates. The estimates reveal that a 1-point increase in risk tolerance raises the predicted probability of divorce by 4.3% for a representative man and by 11.4% for a representative woman. These findings are consistent with the notion that divorce entails a greater income gamble for women than for men.

  18. GHB differentially affects morphine actions on motor activity and social behaviours in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, C; Rodriíuez-Arias, M; Aguilar, M A; Miñarro, J

    2003-09-01

    There are several reports suggesting that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) influences the endogenous opioid system. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of GHB on motor and social activities and to examine its influence on morphine's actions on these behaviours. In a first experiment, several doses of GHB were studied but only the highest (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a decrease in spontaneous motor activity measured in an actimeter cage. When hyperactivity induced by injecting 50 mg/kg of morphine was evaluated, all the GHB doses efficiently counteracted this morphine action. Using the paradigm of isolation-induced aggression, administration of 200 mg/kg of GHB significantly decreased threat and attack without impairing motor activity and, in addition, increased time spent in social contact. GHB increased morphine's suppression of threat or nonsocial exploratory behaviours. In conclusion, the interaction between GHB and the opioid systems was confirmed, with the drug having an additive effect on morphine-affected social behaviours but counteracting morphine-induced increases in motor activity.

  19. Food restriction or sleep deprivation: which exerts a greater influence on the sexual behaviour of male rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Andersen, Monica L; Velázquez-Moctezuma, Javier; Tufik, Sergio

    2009-09-14

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of food restriction (FR) and paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD), either alone or in combination, on sexual behaviours (mount, intromission and ejaculation) in adult male rats. Diet restriction began at weaning with 6g/day of food, and the amount of food was increased by 1g/week until it reached 15g/day amount (in adulthood). During adulthood, rats under FR and those fed ad libitum were either subjected to PSD for 96h or maintained in home-cage groups. The results indicated that both FR and ad libitum sleep-deprived groups showed a significant decrease in performance and motivation to initiate sexual behaviour, reflected by the increase in mount and intromission latencies and decreased copulatory rate. FR associated with PSD reversed the adverse effects of sleep deprivation on the number of ejaculations and inter-copulatory interval. Testosterone concentrations decreased after sleep deprivation, regardless of food availability; while progesterone was significantly higher in the FR-PSD group only. In light of the limited understanding of the link between secretion patterns and neural-hormonal control of food availability related to sexual behaviour, our data indicate that sleep loss affects sexual responses, and FR was able to restore some of the sexual parameters investigated.

  20. Differences in the predatory behaviour of male and female ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šipoš

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the response of males and females of ladybirds to different densities of aphids. This was studied using Coccinella septempunctata as the predator and Rhopalosiphum padi as the prey. Interactions between this ladybird and prey were observed on barley (Hordeum vulgare. We established aphid colonies on barley at three different densities, 16, 32 and 84 aphids per pot. Adult ladybirds placed in these colonies were then observed for 10 minutes or until they flew away. We hypothesized that females should consume more aphids than males per unit time. The results of this experiment revealed that the risk of aphid mortality per plant depended on the sex of the ladybird beetle. Female ladybirds consumed significantly more aphids than males per unit time. In addition the turning rate and time spent resting differed between the sexes.

  1. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  2. Telipogon peruvianus (Orchidaceae) Flowers Elicit Pre-Mating Behaviour in Eudejeania (Tachinidae) Males for Pollination

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Several neotropical orchid genera have been proposed as being sexually deceptive; however, this has been carefully tested in only a few cases. The genus Telipogon has long been assumed to be pollinated by male tachinid flies during pseudocopulatory events but no detailed confirmatory reports are available. Here, we have used an array of methods to elucidate the pollination mechanism in Telipogon peruvianus. The species presents flowers that have a mean floral longevity of 33 days and that are...

  3. Epidemiology of eating disorders, eating disordered behaviour, and body image disturbance in males: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchison, Deborah; Mond, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Challenges to epidemiological studies of eating and related body image disturbance disorders in males include, in addition to low base rates and the predominance of residual diagnostic categories, the female-centric nature of current classification schemes and the consequent lack of appropriate assessment instruments. In this narrative review, we summarise epidemiological data regarding the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders, related body image disturbance disorders, and eating disorder features in males. Attention is focused on disorders most likely to be observed among males, such as muscle dysmorphia and muscularity-oriented excessive exercise. It is argued that, given the multiple challenges involved in research of this kind, a focus on features is more likely to advance the field than a focus on diagnoses. In terms of correlates, we focus on impairment and help-seeking, since these issues are most relevant in informing public health burden, service provision, and related issues. We end with some thoughts about current gaps in the knowledge base and directions for future research that we consider to be most promising.

  4. Suicidal behaviours in male and female users of illicit drugs recruited in drug treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-Ibar, Elisabet; Suelves, Josep Maria; Sanchez-Niubò, Albert; Domingo-Salvany, Antònia; T Brugal, M

    We assessed prevalence of suicidal ideation and plans among illicit drug users and their association with contextual factors, by gender. Cross-sectional study. In a sample of 511 illicit drug users recruited during spring 2012 in drug treatment and prevention facilities in Catalonia (Spain), the prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans in the last 12 months was assessed. Poisson regression was used to examine associations between suicidal ideation/plans and various factors (socio-demographic, psychological, illegal drug market activities and marginal income generation activities, which included any reported sex work, stealing, peddling, begging or borrowing on credit from a dealer). The average age was 37.9 years (standard deviation: 8.62); 76.3% were men. Suicidal ideation/plans were reported by 30.8% of men and 38.8% of women, with no significant differences by age or gender. Recent aggression (male prevalence ratio [PR]=2.2; female PR=1.4), psychological treatment (male PR=1.2; female PR=1.3) and illegal/marginal income generation activities (male PR=1.5; female PR=1.1) were associated with suicidal ideation/plans. Men who trafficked were more likely to have suicidal ideation/plans (PR=1.3), while prison history was positive for women (PR=1.8) and negative for men (PR=0.7). Prevalence of suicidal ideation/plans was high among illicit drug users recruited from healthcare facilities. Besides psychological variables, participation in illegal market activities and crime ought to be considered in drug users' suicidal prevention. Suicide risk needs to be evaluated in drug treatment facilities and psychological status and context contemplated. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomimetic agent based modelling using male Frog calling behaviour as a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren V.; Demazeau, Yves; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    A new agent-based modelling tool has been developed to allow the modelling of populations of individuals whose interactions are characterised by tightly timed dynamics. The tool was developed to model male frog calling dynamics, to facilitate research into what local rules may be employed...... Frog, E. coqui, is implemented as a case study for the presentation and discussion of the tool, and results from this model are presented. RANA, in its present stage of development, is shown to be able to handle the problem of modelling calling frogs, and several fruitful extensions are proposed...

  6. Ranging behaviour and time budgets of male wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus in different habitats and seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corp, N; Gorman, Martyn L; Speakman, John R

    1997-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to measure the range areas, activity patterns and time budgets of 21 adult male wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) between May 1991 and August 1992. The study investigated variation in range, total distance travelled, speed of movement and time budgets between wood mice in the nonbreeding and breeding seasons in a deciduous woodland (n = 8 and 6 respectively). We also examined habitat differences by estimating these same parameters for wood mice inhabiting maritime sand-dunes in the breeding season (n = 7). Insufficient males of an appropriate mass for radiotracking were captured to study the sand-dune mice in the nonbreeding season. Significant variation was found across both season and site. In the breeding season, in woodland, range areas were 5 times larger than during the nonbreeding season. Wood mice on the sand-dunes exploited ranges 28 times greater than their woodland counterparts. The pattern of variation in range area was parallelled by significant differences in total distances and average speeds travelled per night. Diurnal activity, c. 60 min day(-1), was frequently recorded, at both sites, but only, in the breeding season, which was attributed to the need to forage in order to maintain energy balance. The comparatively lower availability of food on the sand-dunes was considered the main factor explaining the greater range area, total distance moved, speed travelled and level of activity of animals at this site.

  7. Maladaptive and adaptive emotion regulation through music: A behavioural and neuroimaging study of males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eCarlson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non-music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n=123 were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR. Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in a subset of participants (n=56. Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.

  8. Predictors of condom use behaviour among male street labourers in urban Vietnam using a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Huy, Nguyen; P Dunne, Michael; Debattista, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    HIV risk in vulnerable groups such as itinerant male street labourers is often examined via a focus on individual determinants. This study provides a test of a modified Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model to predict condom use behaviour among male street workers in urban Vietnam. In a cross-sectional survey using a social mapping technique, 450 male street labourers from 13 districts of Hanoi, Vietnam were recruited and interviewed. Collected data were first examined for completeness; structural equation modelling was then employed to test the model fit. Condoms were used inconsistently by many of these men, and usage varied in relation to a number of factors. A modified IMB model had a better fit than the original IMB model in predicting condom use behaviour. This modified model accounted for 49% of the variance, versus 10% by the original version. In the modified model, the influence of psychosocial factors was moderately high, whilst the influence of HIV prevention information, motivation and perceived behavioural skills was moderately low, explaining in part the limited level of condom use behaviour. This study provides insights into social factors that should be taken into account in public health planning to promote safer sexual behaviour among Asian male street labourers.

  9. Male moth songs tempt females to accept mating: the role of acoustic and pheromonal communication in the reproductive behaviour of Aphomia sociella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Kindl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Members of the subfamily Galleriinae have adapted to different selective environmental pressures by devising a unique mating process. Galleriinae males initiate mating by attracting females with either chemical or acoustic signals (or a combination of both modalities. Six compounds considered candidates for the sex pheromone have recently been identified in the wing gland extracts of Aphomia sociella males. Prior to the present study, acoustic communication had not been investigated. Signals mediating female attraction were likewise unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations of A. sociella mating behaviour and recordings of male acoustic signals confirmed that males initiate the mating process. During calling behaviour (stationary wing fanning and pheromone release, males disperse pheromone from their wing glands. When a female approaches, males cease calling and begin to produce ultrasonic songs as part of the courtship behaviour. Replaying of recorded courting songs to virgin females and a comparison of the mating efficiency of intact males with males lacking tegullae proved that male ultrasonic signals stimulate females to accept mating. Greenhouse experiments with isolated pheromone glands confirmed that the male sex pheromone mediates long-range female attraction. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Female attraction in A. sociella is chemically mediated, but ultrasonic communication is also employed during courtship. Male ultrasonic songs stimulate female sexual display and significantly affect mating efficiency. Considerable inter-individual differences in song structure exist. These could play a role in female mate selection provided that the female's ear is able to discern them. The A. sociella mating strategy described above is unique within the subfamily Galleriinae.

  10. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  11. Naturalistic study of the risky situations faced by novice riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aupetit, Samuel; Gallier, Virginie; Riff, Jacques; Espié, Stéphane; Delgehier, Flavien

    2016-08-01

    This article sets out to identify the typical risky situations experienced by novice motorcyclists in the real world just after licensing. The procedure consists of a follow-up of six novices during their first two months of riding with their own motorbike instrumented with cameras. The novices completed logbooks on a daily basis in order to identify the risky situations they encountered, and were given face-to-face interviews to identify the context and their shortcomings during the reported events. Data show a large number of road configurations considered as risky by the riders (248 occurrences), especially during the first two weeks. The results revealed that a lack of hazard perception skills contributed to the majority of these incidents. These situations were grouped together to form clusters of typical incident scenarios on the basis of their similarities. The most frequent scenario corresponds to a lane change in dense traffic (15% of all incidents). The discussion shows how this has enhanced our understanding of novice riders' behaviour and how the findings can improve training and licensing. Lastly, the main methodological limitations of the study and some guidelines for improving future naturalistic riding studies are presented. Practitioner Summary: This article aims to identify the risky situations of novice motorcyclists in real roads. Two hundred forty-eight events were recorded and 13 incident scenarios identified. Results revealed that a lack of hazard perception contributed to the majority of these events. The most frequent scenario corresponds to a lane change in dense traffic.

  12. The impact of cafeteria diet feeding on physiology and anxiety-related behaviour in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, Wiebke; Klaus, Susanne; Fink, Heidrun; Langley-Evans, Simon C; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is emerging experimental evidence that hyper-energetic diets not only cause obesity but also impact on behaviour in rodents. A hyper-energetic comfort diet/cafeteria diet (CD) fed during early development programmes anxiety-related behaviour in adult age, but little is known how an obesogenic CD impacts on behaviour when fed at a later age. To this end we fed CD to Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes at either 6 weeks or 12 months old, for a period of 6 weeks. Anxiety-related behaviour was assessed in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the open field (OF). A glucose tolerance test was performed and metabolic indices, body weight and fat were measured. CD-fed young adult females, but not males, had a higher energy intake, due to an overconsumption of carbohydrates and fats. Only in adult CD-fed rats of both sexes did this overconsumption led to increased weight gain. Protein intake was reduced in all CD groups. Fat mass (subcutaneous, perirenal, gonadal) increased in most CD groups, whereas brown fat increased only in adults. Triacylglycerol, free fatty acid and total cholesterol concentrations increased predominantly in adult CD-fed rats. Glucose tolerance was only impaired in adult males. CD-fed adult males showed fewer entries into the aversive open arms and groomed more on the EPM, whereas adult females spent more time on these arms. In the OF, CD-fed females of both ages visited the inner zone more frequently and travelled a longer distance. The behavioural data suggests anxiolysis in CD-fed females and signs of increased anxiety in adult males. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that feeding CD leads to both obesity and behavioural changes in rats. Overall, these effects were more pronounced in older rats, with the behavioural effects being particularly gender dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Is ICSI Risky?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Y. W. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As assisted reproductive technology (ART methods become the mainstream of infertility treatment, it has become even more critical to reassess its safety. Following the results of a study published by the Robinson Institute in the New England Journal of Medicine, the risk of ART, especially intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, has never been so closely scrutinized. This paper traces the origins and development of ICSI, assesses the risks documented in the literature, and finally interprets the implications of the study for couples contemplating therapy. We support the need for continued vigilance towards ICSI and the importance in investigating male-factor infertility as a prequel to its use.

  14. Risky Behaviors of University Students: A Cross-Sectional Study

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    Sarp Uner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to identify certain risky behavior patterns (unsafe sex, tobacco and drug use, and binge drinking and the factors affecting these behaviors among first- and third-year students in a university. Method: The study included a total of 8407 students enrolled as first- (4392 and third- (4015 year students. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. In data analysis, respecting sampling weights, models were formed by logistic regression method to determine factors that affect the risky behaviors. Results: 731 male–1114 female students from the first year and 560 male–1096 female students from the third year were interviewed. Male students were found to be engaged in risky behaviors more frequently than females. Logistic models of the study indicated that gender, place of residence, relationship with parents, and socialization with friends have profound effects on risky behaviors. Conclusion: After leaving home, young people develop their own lifestyles, and this study demonstrates that lifestyle is the main effective factor for risky behaviors in this group. Universities need to assume more responsibility to guide students’ lives and to provide the facilities and opportunities that encourage and facilitate their adoption of a healthy lifestyle.   Key Words: University students, risky behaviours Bir Üniversitede Öğrencilerin Riskli Davranışları: Kesitsel Bir Çalışma Amaç: Bu çalışmanın amacı, bir üniversitenin birinci ve üçüncü sınıf öğrencileri arasında bazı riskli davranış modellerini (güvensiz seks, tütün ve uyuşturucu kullanımı ve aşırı alkol ve bu davranışları etkileyen faktörleri saptamaktır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın evrenini birinci (4392 ve üçüncü (4015 sınıflarda kayıtlı 8407 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Veri öğrencilerin gözlem altında doldurdukları anket aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Riskli davranışları etkileyen fakt

  15. Energy Requirement and Food Intake Behaviour in Young Adult Intact Male Cats with and without Predisposition to Overweight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Wichert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a common problem in cats. In the experimental cat family of the institute of animal nutrition besides a “normal” lean phenotype, cats with predisposition to an overweight phenotype are present. To investigate energy requirements and food intake behaviour of intact male cats of different phenotypes, six “normal” lean cats (GL and six cats disposed to overweight (GO were used. At the beginning of the experiment, all cats had an ideal body condition score of 5. To reach this the GO cats had to pass a weight-loss program. Energy requirements of the cats were determined using respiration chambers, whereas the amount and frequency of food intake was measured with a feeding station recording the data automatically. Energy requirement at weight constancy of the GO cats was even on fat-free mass (FFM significantly (P=0.02 lower (162.6 kJ/kg FFM/d than that of the “normal” lean cats (246 kJ/kg FFM/d. The GO cats also showed a higher food intake 34.5±1.5 g dry matter/kg body weight0.67 compared to the GL cats (24.0±2.1 g dry matter/kg body weight0.67(P=0.001. In conclusion quantifiable differences in food intake and behaviour in cats predisposed to overweight compared to “normal” lean cats were found.

  16. In three brain regions central to maternal behaviour, neither male nor female Phodopus dwarf hamsters show changes in oestrogen receptor alpha distribution with mating or parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, M E; Cushing, B S; Wynne-Edwards, K E

    2008-12-01

    Oestrogen receptor (ER)alpha immunoreactivity in three brain regions relevant to maternal behaviour (medial preoptic area, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial amygdala) was measured in two species of dwarf hamster that both mate during a postpartum oestrous but differ in expression of paternal behaviour. Male and female Phodopus campbelli and Phodopus sungorus were sampled as sexually naive adults, following mating to satiety, and as new parents. In all brain regions, females expressed higher levels of ER alpha than males. Species did not have an effect on ER alpha distribution except in the medial amygdala, where P. sungorus females had higher expression levels than all other groups. Behavioural status was not associated with altered ER alpha expression. These results were not expected for females and suggest that a primary activational role for oestrogen, acting through ER alpha in these regions, does not generalize to maternal behaviour in Phodopus. In males, these results are consistent with previous manipulations of the ER alpha ligand, oestrogen, and suggest that paternal behaviour in P. campbelli is likely to be regulated by developmental effects of oestrogen on the brain during early life (similar to Microtus ochrogaster), rather than through activation by oestrogen at the time of fatherhood (similar to Peromyscus californicus).

  17. Mechanisms That Link Parenting Practices to Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior: A Test of Six Competing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Sutton, Tara E; Simons, Ronald L; Gibbons, Frederick X; Murry, Velma McBride

    2016-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior, particularly among adolescents, continues to be a major source of concern. In order to develop effective education and prevention programs, there is a need for research that identifies the antecedents of such behavior. This study investigated the mediators that link parenting experiences during early adolescence to subsequent risky sexual behaviors among a diverse sample of African American youth (N = 629, 55 % female). While there is ample evidence that parenting practices (e.g., supportive parenting, harsh parenting, parental management) are antecedent to risky sexual behavior, few studies have examined whether one approach to parenting is more strongly related to risky sex than others. Using a developmental approach, the current study focused on factors associated with six theories of risky sexual behavior. While past research has provided support for all of the theories, few studies have assessed the relative contribution of each while controlling for the processes proposed by the others. The current study addresses these gaps in the literature and reports results separately by gender. Longitudinal analyses using structural equation modeling revealed that the mediating mechanisms associated with social learning and attachment theories were significantly related to the risky sexual behavior of males and females. Additionally, there was support for social control and self-control theories only for females and for life history theory only for males. We did not find support for problem behavior theory, a perspective that dominates the risky sex literature, after controlling for the factors associated with the other theories. Finally, supportive parenting emerged as the parenting behavior most influential with regard to adolescents' risky sexual behavior. These results provide insight regarding efficacious approaches to education and preventative programs designed to reduce risky sexual behaviors among adolescents.

  18. Opposing roles of the nucleus accumbens and anterior lateral hypothalamic area in the control of sexual behaviour in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippin, Tod E; Sotiropoulos, Veneta; Badih, Julia; Pfaus, James G

    2004-02-01

    Opposing roles have been implicated for the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and anterior portion of the lateral hypothalamic area (aLHA) in the regulation of sexual behaviour in male rats based on in vivo neurochemical correlates. The present study provides functional evidence supporting this hypothesis by examining the effects of lesions to these structures on copulation, noncontact erection and receptive female preference. Sexually naïve male Long-Evans rats received either bilateral 1.0- micro L injections of NMDA (10 micro g/ micro L/side) or vehicle (shams) into either the aLHA or the NAc. During repeated tests of copulation most of the sham-lesioned males, but few of the aLHA-lesioned and NAc-lesioned males, copulated to ejaculation. Most of the NAc-lesioned males also failed to intromit, whereas the majority of the aLHA-lesioned males intromitted repeatedly. During exposure to an inaccessible receptive female behind a wire-mesh screen, aLHA-lesioned males displayed facilitation of noncontact erections, whereas NAc-lesioned males displayed impaired noncontact erections. Conversely, during simultaneous exposure to inaccessible receptive and nonreceptive females in different compartments, all males spent more time in the proximity of the receptive female. These findings indicate that the aLHA plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of sexual arousal and an excitatory role in the regulation of ejaculation. Conversely, the NAc plays an excitatory role in the regulation in sexual arousal.

  19. Dating Violence and Substance Use as Longitudinal Predictors of Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula J.; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ risky sexual behavior across one year, and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents’ gender and ethnicity. Methods A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from 7 public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Results Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior. PMID:25797949

  20. Dating Violence and Substance Use as Longitudinal Predictors of Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior.

  1. Temporal patterns of rat behaviour in the central platform of the elevated plus maze. Comparative analysis between male subjects of strains with different basal levels of emotionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casarrubea, M; Faulisi, F; Caternicchia, F; Santangelo, A; Di Giovanni, G; Benigno, A; Magnusson, M S; Crescimanno, G

    2016-08-01

    We have analyzed the temporal patterns of behaviour of male rats of the Wistar and DA/Han strains on the central platform of the elevated plus maze. The ethogram encompassed 10 behavioural elements. Durations, frequencies and latencies showed quantitative differences as to walking and sniffing activities. Wistar rats displayed significantly lower latency and significantly higher durations and frequencies of walking activities. DA/Han rats showed a significant increase of sniffing duration. In addition, DA/Han rats showed a significantly higher amount of time spent in the central platform. Multivariate T-pattern analysis revealed differences in the temporal organization of behaviour of the two rat strains. DA/Han rats showed (a) higher behavioural complexity and variability and (b) a significantly higher mean number of T-patterns than Wistar rats. Taken together, T-pattern analysis of behaviour in the centre of the elevated plus maze can noticeably improve the detection of subtle features of anxiety related behaviour. We suggest that T-pattern analysis could be used as sensitive tool to test the action of anxiolytic and anxiogenic manipulations.

  2. Reproductive behaviour in the male cricket Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer. II. Neural control of the genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, M; Sakai, M

    2001-03-01

    To understand the neural mechanisms of reproductive behaviour in the male cricket, we identified motor neurones innervating the muscles in each genital organ by backfilling with cobalt/nickel and recording their extracellular spike activity from nerve bundles of the terminal abdominal ganglion during tethered copulation and spermatophore formation. During tethered copulation, at least two motor neurones innervating two ipsilateral muscles were activated during projection of the guiding rod of the phallic dorsal pouch. Only one motor neurone, innervating four ipsilateral muscles of the dorsal pouch, was responsible for spermatophore extrusion by deforming the dorsal pouch. For spermatophore transfer, three motor neurones, singly innervating three epiphallus muscles, played a major role in opening passages for haemolymph to enter the ventral lobes and median pouch by bending the epiphallus. Two ventral lobe and 3-5 median pouch motor neurones seemed to play a role in expanding or folding the two membranous structures by relaxing or contracting their muscle fibres. After spermatophore transfer, most of the genital motor neurones exhibited a rhythmic burst of action potentials causing movement of the phallic complex coupled with strong abdominal contractions. For spermatophore formation, the genital motor neurones began to accelerate their rhythmic bursts approximately 30 s prior to subgenital plate opening and then changed their activity to tonic bursting or silence. The results have allowed us to describe the timing of the onset and termination of genital muscle contraction more precisely than before, to examine the neural mechanisms of copulatory motor control and to speculate on the neural organization of the reproductive centre for spermatophore extrusion and protrusion.

  3. Neonatal Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Impair Learning Behaviour by Disrupting Hippocampal Organization in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Rakesh; Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-02-16

    Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In the present study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29 and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63. Brain weight, histology, plasma hormone profile and working memory performance were the various endpoints studied. Brain weight was significantly decreased in the mixture-exposed group at PND 29, which persisted to PND 63. Total thickness of pyramidal cell layers decreased significantly along with misalignment, shrinkage and degeneration of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of the IMI and mixture-exposed groups. The length and branch points of dendrites of pyramidal neurons were decreased significantly in mixture-exposed group at both PND 29 and PND 63. Dendritic spine density was also reduced in mixture-exposed group offspring. Testosterone level was significantly decreased only at PND 29 but corticosterone level was increased at both PND 29 and PND 6 in mixture-exposed offspring. T-maze task performance revealed significantly increased time duration and reduced path efficiency in mixture-exposed group offspring. The results thus indicate that pesticide mixture exposure could lead to changes in learning behaviour even at doses that individually did not induce any adverse effect on hippocampal organization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of birth weight and feeding system on fattening performance and feeding behaviour of Karayaka male lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yildirim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine effects of birth weight (BtW and feeding system on fattening performance and behavioural responses of lambs, after birth 28 Karayaka male lambs were divided into two BtW groups, namely a low BtW (4.1±0.06 kg and high BtW (5.0±0.09 kg. After weaning (90 days of age, seven lambs in each of these groups were fed individually ad libitum with total mixed ratio (TMR, consisted of 80% of a compound feed and 20% of roughage based on a dry matter basis (140 g crude protein and 2550 kcal ME/kg and the other seven lambs were fed on the same ingredients as that of TMR but each ingredient was put in separate troughs (free choice feeding, FCF. Therefore the lambs were distributed into four groups according to 2 (low vs high BtW × 2 (TMR vs FCF factorial design. Live weight gains and intakes of dry matter, feedstuffs and nutrients of the lambs were affected by the FCF, but not by the BtW and their interaction. The daily weight gain (P<0.01, intakes of soybean meal and corn (P<0.01, dry matter (P<0.05, protein and energy (P<0.01 of FCF-fed lambs were higher than those of TMR-fed lambs. FCF-fed lambs consumed less alfalfa hay, wheat bran and barley than TMR-fed lambs (P<0.01. The FCF increased rumination (P<0.01 and tend to rest more (P<0.05 compared to the TMR. The study suggests that FCF system can assist in enhancing the live weight gain by promoting the protein and energy intakes and by improving the welfare of lambs. 

  5. Riski- ja kriisiviestintä sosiaalisessa mediassa

    OpenAIRE

    Ruokamo, Katri; Ruonala, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön aiheena on riski- ja kriisiviestintä sosiaalisessa mediassa. Työ on toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö ja sen tarkoituksena oli luoda ohjeistus sosiaalisen median riski- ja kriisiviestintään toimeksiantajayritykselle. Työn pääasiallisena tavoitteena oli selvittää riski- ja kriisiviestinnän oikeaoppisia toimintatapoja sosiaalisen median viestintään. Osatavoitteina olivat riskien kartoitus toimeksiantajalle sekä hyvän ja huonon riski- ja kriisiviestinnän erojen määrittely. Työssä k...

  6. Enteral Nutrition and Care of Risky Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Kilicarslan Toruner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Making appropriate and effective enteral feeding is decreasing the morbidity and mortality rates of risky newborns. Most important problems during enteral feeding in risky newborns are realizing the enteral feeding needs late, not following enteral feeding protocols and errors in medical practices (misconnections etc.. The aim of this review article is to describe the gastrointestinal development, nutrition requirements, enteral nutrition, feeding intolerance and care of risky newborns. Increasing the awareness of health care professionals about this topic is promoted the quality of care in risky newborns. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 227-233

  7. Sexual risk taking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...

  8. Territorial meadow pipit males ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes) become more aggressive in female presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusková, Tereza; Petrusek, Adam; Pavel, Václav; Fuchs, Roman

    2007-08-01

    Although mate guarding as prevention of extra-pair copulation is common among birds, evidence for aggressive behaviour involving physical contact related to mate guarding in passerines is scarce and cases of the presence of one partner directly influencing the aggressiveness of the other are lacking. We investigated the intra-specific territorial behaviour of male meadow pipits ( Anthus pratensis; Passeriformes: Motacillidae) at the beginning of the breeding season by placing a pipit model accompanied by an intra-specific song playback in the territory of socially paired males and compared the responses of males whose mates were physically present during trials with those whose females were out of sight. The level of aggression of males was significantly higher in the presence of the female; half of the males in this group physically attacked the model (the most intense and risky aggressive behaviour). Physical attacks did not occur among males whose female was absent during the trial; response to the playback by most of these males was only weak. This pattern may be related to the prevention of extra-pair copulation; if the risks involved in the conflict are outweighed by potential loss of paternity, such aggressive mate guarding may pay off. The apparently overlooked effect on the territorial behaviour of a partner’s passive physical presence during conflict should be further evaluated because it may be important for the design and interpretation of results of behavioural experiments.

  9. Learning to Avoid Risky Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Malfaz, María; Miguel A. Salichs

    2011-01-01

    When a reinforcement learning agent executes actions that can cause frequent damage to itself, it can learn, by using Q-learning, that these actions must not be executed again. However, there are other actions that do not cause damage frequently but only once in a while, for example, risky actions such as parachuting. These actions may imply punishment to the agent and, depending on its personality, it would be better to avoid them. Nevertheless, using the standard Q-learning algorithm, the a...

  10. Could dromedary camels develop stereotypy? The first description of stereotypical behaviour in housed male dromedary camels and how it is affected by different management systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Padalino

    Full Text Available Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24, ii housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23, and iii housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF. Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females.

  11. Could dromedary camels develop stereotypy? The first description of stereotypical behaviour in housed male dromedary camels and how it is affected by different management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, Barbara; Aubé, Lydiane; Fatnassi, Meriem; Monaco, Davide; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2014-01-01

    Dromedary camel husbandry has recently been evolving towards a semi-intensive system, due to the changes in use of the animal and the settlement of nomadic populations. Captivity could restrict its social activities, limiting the expression of various behavioural needs and causing the manifestation of stereotypy. The aims of this trial were, firstly, to identify and describe some stereotypical behaviours in captive male dromedary camels used for artificial insemination and, secondly, to study the effects on them of the following husbandry management systems: i) housing in single boxes for 24 hours (H24), ii) housing in single boxes for 23 hours with one hour free in the paddock (H23), and iii) housing in single boxes for 22 hours 30 min with 1 h of paddock time and 30 min exposure to a female camel herd (ExF). Every day, the camels were filmed in their single box in the morning for 30 minutes to record their behavioural activities and a focal animal sampling ethogram was filled in. In this study, male camels showed both oral and locomotor stereotypy most frequently when the bulls were reared in H24. Overall, this preliminary study is a starting point in the identification of stereotypies in male camels, reporting the positive effects of spending one hour outdoor and of social interaction with females.

  12. Male emergence schedule and dispersal behaviour are modified by mate availability in heterogeneous landscapes: evidence from the orange-tip butterfly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W James Davies

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protandry (prior emergence of males in insect populations is usually considered to be the result of natural selection acting directly on eclosion timing. When females are monandrous (mate once, males in high density populations benefit from early emergence in the intense scramble competition for mates. In low density populations, however, scramble competition is reduced or absent, and theoretical models predict that protandry will be less favoured. This raises the question of how males behave in heterogeneous landscapes characterized by high density core populations in a low density continuum. We hypothesized that disadvantaged late emerging males in a core population would disperse to the continuum to find mates. We tested this idea using the protandrous, monandrous, pierid butterfly Anthocharis cardamines (the orange-tip in a core population in Cheshire, northwest England. Over a six-year period, predicted male fitness (the number of matings a male can expect during his residence time, determined by the daily ratio of virgin females to competing males consistently declined to <1 in late season. This decline affected a large proportion (∼44% of males in the population and was strongly associated with decreased male recapture-rates, which we attribute to dispersal to the surrounding continuum. In contrast, reanalysis of mark-release-recapture data from an isolated population in Durham, northeast England, showed that in the absence of a continuum very few males (∼3% emerged when fitness declined to <1 in late season. Hence the existence of a low density continuum may lead to the evolution of plastic dispersal behaviour in high density core populations, maintaining late emerging males which would otherwise be eliminated by selection. This has important theoretical consequences, since a truncated male emergence curve is a key prediction in game theoretic models of emergence timing which has so far received limited support. Our results have

  13. Sexual risk behaviour of rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional behavioural survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, T; Anderson, C; Evans, C; Rahman, M S

    2010-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) research in Bangladesh has mainly focused on key vulnerable groups (e.g. sex workers, drug users). In order to develop appropriate HIV prevention strategies in an evolving epidemic, there is a need for evidence on sexual practices in other population groups. This research aims to describe the prevalence of risky behaviours and factors affecting sexual behaviour/practices among rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka. Cross-sectional study. This paper reports on the cross-sectional survey component of a mixed methods research study amongst migrant workers in Bangladesh. The sample (n = 437) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers in Dhaka (aged 18-35 years). The survey data were analysed statistically using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Very high levels of pre- and extramarital sexual behaviour were found (84% and 51%, respectively) amongst the sample (n = 437). The reported sexual activity included high levels of risky/unsafe sex in the past year: 64% of the sample reported sex with multiple commercial sex partners (mean = 13.21), and 21.7% reported sex with other males/transgenders (mean = 2.53). Protection against risk was low: 78.2% reported that their last commercial sexual encounter was unprotected, and only 5.6% used condoms consistently. Multivariate analysis revealed that the odds of risky sexual behaviour were higher in migrant men who were not married (odds ratio 35.3, P Bangladesh, and suggests that migrant men should be a key population for HIV prevention efforts. Nonetheless, the fact that most men were having unprotected sex with sex workers reinforces the importance of continuing to target interventions towards commercial sex contexts. Copyright © 2010 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Risky driving and lifestyles in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bina, Manuela; Graziano, Federica; Bonino, Silvia

    2006-05-01

    Several studies have shown that risky driving is especially prevalent among young drivers and recent research has pointed out that driving in adolescence should be investigated in the more general context of adolescent development. The first aim of this contribution was to analyze involvement in risky driving in a normative sample of 645 Italian adolescents, boys and girls, aged 14-17, through a self-report questionnaire. A second aim was to evaluate the association between risky driving and lifestyle, defined as involvement in other health risk behaviors and leisure activities. The main results showed that many adolescents drove cars and motorcycles without the required driving license and the most frequent offences were speeding and failure to maintain a safe braking distance. Gender and age differences were also investigated. Results concerning the association between risky driving and lifestyle showed that risky driving was not an isolated behavior. Boys who displayed risky driving practices were more likely to adopt a lifestyle characterized by high involvement in antisocial behaviors, tobacco smoking, comfort eating and time spent in non-organized activities with friends. Girls involved in risky driving were more likely to be involved in other risk-taking behaviors, antisocial behaviors and drug use.

  15. The Australian national binge drinking campaign: campaign recognition among young people at a music festival who report risky drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacks-Davis Rachel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Government launched a mass media campaign in 2009 to raise awareness of the harms and costs associated risky drinking among young Australians. The aim of this study was to assess if young people attending a music festival who report frequent risky single occasions of drinking (RSOD recognise the key message of the campaign, "Binge drinking can lead to injuries and regrets", compared to young people who report less frequent RSOD. Methods A cross-sectional behavioural survey of young people (aged 16-29 years attending a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, was conducted in January 2009. We collected basic demographics, information on alcohol and other drug use and sexual health and behaviour during the previous 12 months, and measured recognition of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign key message. We calculated the odds of recognition of the key slogan of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign among participants who reported frequent RSOD (defined as reported weekly or more frequent RSOD during the previous 12 months compared to participants who reported less frequent RSOD. Results Overall, three-quarters (74.7% of 1072 participants included in this analysis recognised the campaign message. In the adjusted analysis, those reporting frequent RSOD had significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message compared to those not reporting frequent RSOD (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9, whilst females had significantly greater odds of recognising the campaign message compared to males (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.1. Conclusions Whilst a high proportion of the target group recognised the campaign, our analysis suggests that participants that reported frequent RSOD - and thus the most important group to target - had statistically significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message.

  16. A time-sequence functional analysis of mating behaviour and genital coupling in Drosophila: role of cryptic female choice and male sex-drive in the evolution of male genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadeeshan, S; Singh, R S

    2006-07-01

    Male genitalia in Drosophila exemplify strikingly rapid and divergent evolution, whereas female genitalia are relatively invariable. Whereas precopulatory and post-copulatory sexual selection has been invoked to explain this trend, the functional significance of genital structures during copulation remains obscure. We used time-sequence analysis to study the functional significance of external genitalic structures during the course of copulation, between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. This functional analysis has provided new information that reveals the importance of male-driven copulatory mechanics and strategies in the rapid diversification of genitalia. The posterior process, which is a recently evolved sexual character and present only in males of the melanogaster clade, plays a crucial role in mounting as well as in genital coupling. Whereas there is ample evidence for precopulatory and/or post-copulatory female choice, we show here that during copulation there is little or no physical female choice, consequently, males determine copulation duration. We also found subtle differences in copulatory mechanics between very closely related species. We propose that variation in male usage of novel genitalic structures and shifts in copulatory behaviour have played an important role in the diversification of genitalia in species of the Drosophila subgroup.

  17. Age-related differences in the association between stereotypic behaviour and salivary cortisol in young males with an Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F; Agnew, Linda L; Andronicos, Nicholas M

    2015-12-01

    To identify if age influenced the relationship between one of the central symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and physiological stress, the association between stereotypic behaviour (SB) and stress-related cortisol concentrations was examined in a sample of 150 young males with an ASD. Parent-rated SB was significantly correlated with cortisol concentrations for boys aged 6 years to 12 years but not for adolescents aged 13 years to 18 years. This age-related difference in this association was not a function of cortisol concentrations but was related to differences in SB across these two age groups. IQ did not have a significant effect on this relationship, suggesting that age-related learning may have been a possible pathway for reduced SB during adolescence. The aspect of SB that was most powerfully related to cortisol was general repetitive behaviour rather than movements of specific body parts. Explanations of these findings are raised for further investigation.

  18. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Tony

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271 using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they

  19. The effects of beta-endorphin infusions into the amygdala on visual and olfactory sensory processing during sexual behaviour in the male rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, A; Herbert, J

    1992-01-01

    Sexually experienced male rats infused bilaterally into the amygdala with 60 pmol beta-endorphin show decreased rate of precopulatory investigation of the female and delayed intromission latency, but copulation is left unaltered. Such males are still able to discriminate between the odours of bedding from receptive and unreceptive females, demonstrating that beta-endorphin does not impair the ability to detect sexually relevant odours. Preventing visual cues emitted by females during proceptive behaviour (by treating them with haloperidol) delayed intromission latency but had no effect on preintromission investigation. Intra-amygdaloid beta-endorphin exacerbated the effects of this treatment on the intromission latency. Inducing anosmia in males (by applying zinc sulphate solution to the olfactory mucosa) decreased their anogenital investigation and delayed their intromission latency. These effects were not enhanced by intra-amygdaloid beta-endorphin. Allowing males to investigate and initiate the first intromission prior to intra-amygdaloid infusion had no effects on subsequent intromissions. However, if following an intromission with one female and an infusion of beta-endorphin, the male was presented with an unfamiliar female then the effects of intra-amygdaloid beta-endorphin on investigation and intromission returned. These results suggest that beta-endorphin in the amygdala interferes with the processing of female-specific olfactory information. Without this processed information, classification of the female as a sexual stimulus may be impeded and thus sexual arousal delayed.

  20. Gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Sutherland, Melissa A; Kelly-Weeder, Susan

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use an ecological lens to explore gender differences in risky sexual behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. This was a secondary analysis of data from a larger behavioral intervention trial that targeted drinking behaviors among adolescents. Data from a total of 2,560 male and female urban adolescents between the ages of 14 and 21 were analyzed for personal, interpersonal, and community exposure to violence and risky sexual behavior. Violence has an impact on sexual risk. For females, carrying a weapon (p= 0.020) and feeling safe in intimate relationships (p= 0.029) were individual correlates of risky sexual behavior, while for males, race/ethnicity (p= 0.019) and being in a physical fight (p= 0.001) were significant correlates of risky sexual behavior. Risky sexual behavior among adolescents may lead to negative reproductive health outcomes. Nurse practitioners are in an excellent position to affect change in this population through their frequent contact with adolescents in a variety of community and school-based venues. Nurse practitioners are also well-prepared to identify at-risk adolescents and provide them with individualized care, education, and support. ©2012 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2012 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Dietary forage concentration and particle size affect sorting, feeding behaviour, intake and growth of Chinese Holstein male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A U R; Xia, C Q; Cao, B H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of study was to evaluate the effect of forage concentration (F:C) and forage particle length (FPL) on sorting, feeding behaviour, intake, growth and body measurements of growing calves. Twenty-eight weaned calves of body weight 156.79 ± 33.44 (mean ± SD) were used in 2 × 2 factorial arrangements with the factors FPL of hay grass (full and short) and hay grass concentrations (low, 50% and high, 65%). The treatments were as follows: full length (FL) with low F:C (50:50), FL with high F:C(65:35), short length (SL) with low F:C (50:50) and SL with high F:C (65:35). Increasing F:C and decreasing FPL enhanced sorting for short and fine particle and sorting against long particle (p behaviour, interaction for eating time and eating time per kilogram DM was present. Increasing the F:C increased the eating time in both FL and SL (p behaviour (p behaviour.

  2. Housing familiar male wildtype rats together reduces the long-term adverse behavioural and physiological effects of social defeat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, M.A.W.; Buwalda, B.; De Boer, S.F.; Meerlo, P.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Social stress in rats is known to induce long-lasting, adverse changes in behaviour and physiology, which seem to resemble certain human psychopathologies, such as depression and anxiety. The present experiment was designed to assess the influence of individual or group housing on the vulnerability

  3. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette;

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  4. Central serotonin depletion modulates the behavioural, endocrine and physiological responses to repeated social stress and subsequent c-fos expression in the brains of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K K; Martinez, M; Herbert, J

    1999-01-01

    Intraspecific confrontation has been used to study effect of depleting central serotonin on the adaptation of male rats to repeated social stress (social defeat). Four groups of adult male rats were used (serotonin depletion/sham: stressed; serotonin depletion/sham: non-stressed). Central serotonin was reduced (by 59-97%) by a single infusion of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxtryptamine (150 microg) into the cerebral ventricles; levels of dopamine and noradrenaline were unaltered (rats received appropriate uptake blockers prior to neurotoxic infusions). Sham-operated animals received solute only. Rats were then either exposed daily for 10 days to a second larger aggressive male in the latter's home cage, or simply transferred to an empty cage (control procedure). Rats with reduced serotonin failed to show the increased freezing behaviour during the pre-defeat phase of the social interaction test characteristic of sham animals. There was no change in the residents' behaviour. Core temperature increased during aggressive interaction in sham rats, and this did not adapt with repeated stress. By contrast, stress-induced hyperthermia was accentuated in serotonin-reduced rats as the number of defeat sessions increased. Basal core temperature was unaffected by serotonin depletion. Heart rate increased during social defeat, but this did not adapt with repeated stress; serotonin depletion had no effect on this cardiovascular response. Basal corticosterone was increased in serotonin-depleted rats, but the progressive reduction in stress response over days was not altered. C-fos expression in the brain was not altered in control (non-stressed) rats by serotonin reduction in the areas examined, but there was increased expression after repeated social stress in the medial amygdala of 5-HT depleted rats. These experiments show that reduction of serotonin alters responses to repeated social stress in male rats, and suggests a role for serotonin in the adaptive process.

  5. Child Maltreatment and Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Terri; Neilson, Elizabeth C; English, Diana J; Litrownik, Alan J; Margolis, Benyamin; Proctor, Laura; Dubowitz, Howard

    2017-02-01

    Risky sexual behavior is a serious public health problem. Child sexual abuse is an established risk factor, but other forms of maltreatment appear to elevate risky behavior. The mechanisms by which child maltreatment influence risk are not well understood. This study used data from 859 high-risk youth, followed through age 18. Official reports of each form of maltreatment were coded. At age 16, potential mediators (trauma symptoms and substance use) were assessed. At age 18, risky sexual behavior (more than four partners, unprotected sex, unassertiveness in sexual refusal) was assessed. Neglect significantly predicted unprotected sex. Substance use predicted unprotected sex and four or more partners but did not mediate the effects of maltreatment. Trauma symptoms predicted unprotected sex and mediated effects of emotional maltreatment on unprotected sex and on assertiveness in sexual refusal and the effects of sexual abuse on unprotected sex. Both neglect and emotional maltreatment emerged as important factors in risky sexual behavior. Trauma symptoms appear to be an important pathway by which maltreatment confers risk for risky sexual behavior. Interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior should include assessment and treatment for trauma symptoms and for history of child maltreatment in all its forms.

  6. Correlated evolution in parental care in females but not males in response to selection on paternity assurance behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Megan L; Hinde, Camilla A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2014-07-01

    According to classical parental care theory males are expected to provide less parental care when offspring in a brood are less likely to be their own, but empirical evidence in support of this relationship is equivocal. Recent work predicts that social interactions between the sexes can modify co-evolution between traits involved in mating and parental care as a result of costs associated with these social interactions (i.e. sexual conflict). In burying beetles (Nicrophorus vespilloides), we use artificial selection on a paternity assurance trait, and crosses within and between selection lines, to show that selection acting on females, not males, can drive the co-evolution of paternity assurance traits and parental care. Males do not care more in response to selection on mating rate. Instead, patterns of parental care change as an indirect response to costs of mating for females.

  7. The multivariate concentric square field test reveals different behavioural profiles in male AA and ANA rats with regard to risk taking and environmental reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Erika; Meyerson, Bengt J; Hyytiä, Petri; Nylander, Ingrid

    2007-11-02

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare the behavioural profiles in alcohol-preferring AA (Alko, alcohol) and alcohol-avoiding ANA (Alko, non-alcohol) rats. Twelve adult, alcohol-naïve male AA and ANA rats were tested in the recently established multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. The more traditional open field and elevated plus-maze tests were used as reference tests. Six weeks after the initial MCSF test, a repeated testing was used to explore differences in acquired recognition after a previous experience. The results revealed distinct differences between the two lines. The ANA rats were generally more active in the three tests. In the MCSF, parameters of risk taking and shelter seeking indicated differences between the two lines. The ANA rats had higher shelter seeking behaviour and less risk taking behaviour than the AA rats. Repeated exposure to the MCSF caused a general decrease in activity and reduction in the number of visits to the various zones, especially evident in the ANA rats. The ANA rats showed more shelter seeking than the AA rats and also more shelter seeking than in the first trial, supporting an "anxiety-like" profile in these rats. In conclusion, the parameters related to risk taking and shelter seeking revealed obvious differences between AA and ANA rats. The higher risk taking behaviour seen in the AA rats might relate to their innate propensity for high voluntary alcohol intake. The results are discussed in relation to the reported neurobiological differences and in relation to other alcohol-preferring and alcohol-avoiding rat lines.

  8. Gender differences in exposure to SRH information and risky sexual debut among poor Myanmar youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin Zaw, Phyu Phyu; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; McNeil, Edward; Htay, Thien Thien

    2013-12-05

    Globally, the proportion of youths has been steadily increasing, especially in Asia. This vulnerable population has limited exposure to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information leading to various reproductive health (RH) problems including risky sexual debut, unwanted pregnancy, unsafe abortion as well as STI/HIV infections. Among known social variations which influence youth's RH, gender differences are critical for planning necessary gender appropriate interventions. This study aimed to identify gender differences in exposure to SRH information and risky sexual debut as well as associated factors among Myanmar youths in poor suburban communities of Mandalay City. A total of 444 randomly selected youths (aged 15-24 years) from all poor, suburban communities in Mandalay City took part in our survey. Gender differences in exposure to SRH information and risky sexual debut were assessed by bivariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to confirm gender differences and identify independent factors associated with main outcomes separately for males and females as well as for both. Of 444 youths interviewed, 215 were males and 229 were females. Gender differences were seen in both exposures to SRH information (p = 0.013) and risky sexual debut (p = 0.003). These gender differences were confirmed by multivariate analysis even after adjusting for other risk factors. For exposure to SRH information, only age group and schooling status were significant factors for females. As well as those two factors, media exposure and parental guardianship were significant factors among males. Only positive norm of premarital sex increased the likelihood of risky sexual debut among males. In contrast, unwillingness at sexual debut was a risk factor and a higher education level was a protective factor for risky sexual debut among females. Limited exposure to SRH information and high risky sexual debut among poor youths were found. There were different influential

  9. Effects of perinatal diet and prenatal stress on the behavioural profile of aged male and female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Xabier; Paternain, Laura; Martisova, Eva; Milagro, Fermin I; Martínez, J Alfredo; Campión, Javier; Ramírez, María J

    2017-03-01

    The present work studies whether chronic prenatal stress (PS) influences the long-term sex-dependent neuropsychological status of offspring and the effects of an early dietary intervention in the dam. In addition, dams were fed with either a high-fat sugar diet (HFSD) or methyl donor supplemented diet (MDSD). PS procedure did not affect body weight of the offspring. MDSD induced decreases in body weight both in male and female offspring (1 month) that were still present in aged rats. HFSD induced an increase in body weight both in male and female offspring that did not persist in aged rats. In the Porsolt forced swimming test, only young males showed increases in immobility time that were reversed by MDSD. In old female rats (20 months), PS-induced cognitive impairment in both the novel object recognition test (NORT) and in the Morris water maze that was reversed by MDSD, whereas in old males, cognitive impairments and reversion by MDSD was evident only in the Morris water maze. HFSD induced cognitive impairment in both control and PS old rats, but there was no additive effect of PS and HFSD. It is proposed here that the diversity of symptoms following PS could arise from programming effects in early brain development and that these effects could be modified by dietary intake of the dam.

  10. Correlated evolution in parental care in females but not males in response to selection on paternity assurance behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Head, M.L.; Hinde, C.A.; Moore, A.J.; Royle, N.J.

    2014-01-01

    According to classical parental care theory males are expected to provide less parental care when offspring in a brood are less likely to be their own, but empirical evidence in support of this relationship is equivocal. Recent work predicts that social interactions between the sexes can modify co-e

  11. Differential effects of CB1 receptor agonism in behavioural tests of unconditioned and conditioned fear in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Jonathan J; Green, Matthew R; Hodges, Travis E; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2015-02-15

    We investigated the effects of the highly selective CB1 receptor agonist ACEA and the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 on two behavioural tests of unconditioned fear, the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT), as well as on the recall and extinction of a conditioned auditory fear. Both ACEA and AM251 increased anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM and OFT. There was no effect of either drug on recall of the conditioned fear, and ACEA enhanced and AM251 impaired fear extinction. Further, though both the low (0.1 mg/kg) and high (0.5 mg/kg) dose of ACEA facilitated fear extinction, the low dose attenuated, and the high dose potentiated, fear induced corticosterone release suggesting independent effects of the drug on fear and stress responses. Although the extent to which cannabinoids are anxiogenic or anxiolytic has been proposed to be dose-dependent, these results indicate that the same dose has differential effects across tasks, likely based in differences in sensitivities of CB1 receptors to the agonist in the neural regions subserving unconditioned and conditioned fear.

  12. Beyond general behavioral theories: structural discrepancy in young motorcyclist's risky driving behavior and its policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yi-Shih; Wong, Jinn-Tsai

    2012-11-01

    While many studies examine the mean score differences of psychological determinants between heterogeneous driver groups, this study reveals a structural discrepancy in a causal behavioral framework. Using young motorcyclists (ages 18-28) as subjects, this study investigates the various roles of key influential factors in determining risky driving behavior. Multi-group analysis of structural equation modeling shows that age and gender are two factors that can effectively distinguish heterogeneous driver groups exhibiting different decision-making mechanisms in shaping their risky driving behaviors. When encountering undesirable traffic conditions, road rage can immediately increase male motorcyclists' intentions to engage in risky driving behaviors; on the other hand, young female motorcyclists further calculate their perceived risk to determine whether to engage in risky driving behaviors. This result shows that there is a significant link between risk perception and traffic condition awareness for experienced drivers (ages 25-28), but not for younger drivers (ages 18-24). This finding shows that while well-developed theories such as planned behavior and risk homeostasis provide general frameworks to explain risky driving behavior, heterogeneous driver groups may exhibit structural discrepancies that reflect their various decision-making mechanisms. This suggests that, in addition to mean differences, understanding structural discrepancies among heterogeneous groups could help researchers identify effective intervention strategies.

  13. Managerial Stock Compensation and Risky Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Georgiana Nastasescu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between the mix of CEO equity-based compensation, namely stock options and restricted stock, and firms' risky investment. In general, the theory suggests that long-term compensation aligns CEOs' and shareholders' interests by inducing the managers to undertake risky investment, which has a positive impact on longterm well-being of the firm. However, as my results show, it is important to distinguish between types of awards since they can have different effects on the riskiness of the firm. In this respect, I answer the question how are different types of stock based compensation related to the executives' determination to increase or not the intensity of the firm's risky investment? I find that awarding the CEOs preponderantly with stock options positively affects the firm's level of R&D investment. Conversely, a higher proportion of restricted stock in the CEO's compensation is related to lower investment in (risky R&D. The inverse relation of causality also holds. Firms that make intensive R&D investments are more likely to award their CEOs with more stock options relative to restricted stock. Overall, the results are consistent with the theoretical prediction, in that the managerial compensation scheme plays an important role in determining the level of R&D investment.

  14. Risky driving behaviors in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2009-03-01

    Iran has one of the highest fatality rates due to road traffic crashes (RTC) in the world. The disability adjusted life years (DALYs) for RTC in Iran is more than 1,300,000 years, which is more than that for any other disease such as cardiovascular or cancer. We evaluated risky driving behaviors in Tehran, the capital of Iran. A retrospective analysis was conducted based on the data obtained from the Tehran Police Safety Driving Department. Offenses and crashes were studied in different municipal districts in Tehran from March 2006 to March 2007. The inclusion criteria were risky driving behaviors fined by the police. Nonbehavioral offences were excluded. There were 3,821,798 offenses in Tehran. Not wearing a seat belt was the most common (59%) example of risky driving behavior, followed by tailgating, not wearing motorcycle helmets, talking on the cell phone while driving, overtaking from the wrong side, speeding, not driving between the lanes, weaving in and out of traffic, left deviation, and changing lanes without signals. The most common causes of RTC in Tehran are speeding, overtaking from the wrong side, and the rapid changing of driving lanes. The study factors effective in preventing risky driving behaviors in Tehran is recommended. The consideration of specific characteristics of the municipal districts is necessary to reduce risky driving behaviors.

  15. Risky behaviour and psychosocial correlates in adolescents – is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children and adults globally.1 As shown in data from Cape ... was a trend for certain adverse life events to be more common in the TB-disease group. ... research with larger samples, and more comprehensive assessment of the relationship between stressors .... psychopathology, perceived social support, and correlates of.

  16. Risky sexual behaviour and associated factors among students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kim

    students of Debre Tabor University, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study ... use of substances like alcohol or drugs and involved in sex, having sex with ... Efficient knowledge of the state ... sample size was determined using 95% level of.

  17. Stress-related psychosocial factors at work, fatigue, and risky driving behavior in bus rapid transport (BRT) drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useche, Sergio A; Ortiz, Viviola Gómez; Cendales, Boris E

    2017-07-01

    There is consistent scientific evidence that professional drivers constitute an occupational group that is highly exposed to work related stressors. Furthermore, several recent studies associate work stress and fatigue with unsafe and counterproductive work behaviors. This study examines the association between stress-related work conditions of Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) drivers and risky driving behaviors; and examines whether fatigue is a mechanism that mediates the association between the two. A sample of 524 male Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) operators were drawn from four transport companies in Bogotá, Colombia. The participants answered a survey which included an adapted version of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) for BRT operators, as well as the Effort-Reward Imbalance and Job Content Questionnaires, the Subjective Fatigue subscale of the Checklist Individual Strength (CIS) and the Need for Recovery after Work Scale (NFR). Utilizing Structural Equation Models (SEM) it was found that risky driving behaviors in BRT operators could be predicted through job strain, effort-reward imbalance and social support at work. It was also found that fatigue and need for recovery fully mediate the associations between job strain and risky driving, and between social support and risky driving, but not the association between effort/reward imbalance (ERI) and risky driving. The results of this study suggest that a) stress related working conditions (Job Strain, Social Support and ERI) are relevant predictors of risky driving in BRT operators, and b) that fatigue is the mechanism which links another kind of stress related to working conditions (job strain and low social support) with risky driving. The mechanism by which ERI increases risky driving in BRT operators remains unexplained. This research suggests that in addition to the individual centered stress-reduction occupational programs, fatigue management interventions aimed to changing some working conditions may reduce

  18. Inexperience and risky decisions of young adolescents, as pedestrians and cyclists, in interactions with lorries, and the effects of competency versus awareness education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Vlakveld, W.P. Mesken, J. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Road injuries are a prime cause of death in early adolescence. Often road safety education (RSE) is used to target risky road behaviour in this age group. These RSE programmes are frequently based on the assumption that deliberate risk taking rather than lack of competency underlies risk behaviour.

  19. Inexperience and risky decisions of young adolescents, as pedestrians and cyclists, in interactions with lorries, and the effects of competency versus awareness education.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Vlakveld, W.P. Mesken, J. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2013-01-01

    Road injuries are a prime cause of death in early adolescence. Often road safety education (RSE) is used to target risky road behaviour in this age group. These RSE programmes are frequently based on the assumption that deliberate risk taking rather than lack of competency underlies risk behaviour.

  20. Differentiating Non-Suicidal Self-Injury and Risky Drinking: a Role for Outcome Expectancies and Self-Efficacy Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasking, Penelope

    2017-01-20

    Social cognitive theory articulates a role for two key thought processes in governing volitional behaviour: outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies. These cognitions are behaviour-specific, and should thus differentiate people who engage in one behaviour over another. This paper presents the results of a study applying social cognitive theory to explore how outcome expectancies and self-efficacy expectancies differentially relate to non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and risky alcohol use amongst a sample of young adults. A sample of 389 undergraduate students completed self-report questionnaires assessing their engagement in NSSI, alcohol consumption, their beliefs about the anticipated consequences of self-injury and alcohol consumption (outcome expectancies), and their belief in their ability to resist self-injury or risky drinking (resistance self-efficacy). Generally, people who self-injure rather than drink are characterised by a belief in the ability to resist drinking, coupled with stronger positive, and weaker negative, NSSI expectancies. People who self-injure are less likely to think alcohol reduces tension than people who do not self-injure. People who engaged in both NSSI and risky drinking report more anxiety than participants who engaged only in risky drinking and lowered ability to resist self-injury. Overall, the findings suggest that a unique combination of beliefs differentially predict NSSI and drinking. The pattern of results suggests potential avenues for future research to delineate why people engage in one behaviour rather than another and to inform future prevention and early intervention initiatives.

  1. Identifying parents with risky alcohol consumption habits in a paediatric unit - are screening and brief intervention appropriate methods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lene B L; Gerke, Oke; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck

    2011-01-01

    child using motivational interviewing (MI) and screening for risky alcohol behaviour by Cut down, Annoyance from others, feel Guilty, Early-morning Craving (CAGE)-C. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, and relationships were tested with a statistical significance level of 0.05, using SPSS...

  2. Mating behaviour in laevicaudatan clam shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda and functional morphology of male claspers in a phylogenetic context: a video-based analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zandra M S Sigvardt

    Full Text Available Clam shrimps are freshwater branchiopod crustaceans which often present complicated breeding systems including asexual reproduction (parthenogenesis and mixed mating systems (in androdioecious species both selfing and outcrossing occurs due to the co-presence of hermaphrodites and males. Reproductive patterns of Spinicaudata, which contains most clam shrimp species, have received much attention. Another group of clam shrimps, Laevicaudata, which holds a key position in branchiopod phylogeny, has practically not been studied. As a part of the mating process, males clasp to the carapace margin of the females with a pair (or two pairs of anterior trunk limbs modified as claspers. Previous studies have shown that clasper morphology is important in a phylogenetic context, and that some parts of the claspers in Spinicaudata and Laevicaudata may have undergone a remarkable parallel evolution. Here we have used video microscopy to study aspects of the mating behaviour, egg extrusion, and fertilization in Lynceus brachyurus (Laevicaudata. It is shown that fertilization is likely to be external and that the peculiar tri-lobed lateral lamellae of female's hind body assist in guiding the egg mass to the exopodal egg carriers where they are collected by their distal setation. The functional morphology of the male claspers was studied in detail by close-up video recordings. The movable "finger" of the clasper bends around the female's carapace edge and serves to hold the female during mating. The larger palp grasps around the female carapace margin in a way very similar to the movable "finger", possibly indirectly providing sensory input on the "finger" position. A brief comparative study of the claspers of a spinicaudatan clam shrimp showed both similarities and differences to the laevicaudatan claspers. The presence of two pairs of claspers in Spinicaudata seems to give males a better hold of the female which may play a role during extended mate guarding.

  3. Risky driving behaviors for road traffic accident among drivers in Mekele city, Northern Ethiopia

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    Hassen Abrahim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to its perception as a disease of development, road traffic accident and related injuries tend to be under recognized as a major health problem in developing countries. However, majority of the world's fatalities on the roads occur in low income and middle income countries. Since the main cause of road traffic accident is attributed to human risky behaviors, it is important to identify significant factors for risky behaviors of drivers. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional study with a sample size of 350 drivers was conducted in April 2011. The study was conducted among Taxi, Bajaj (three tire vehicles and private owned car drivers. After proportion to size allocation for Taxi (75, Baja (103 and private owned car (172 drivers, we used systematic random sampling method to identify illegible study subjects. Data was collected with face to face interview using a pretested questioner. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Results The mean age of the respondents was 28.7 (SD 9.9. Majority were 339 (96.9% males. Significant number of the study subjects 233 (66.6% had risky driving behaviors. More than a quarter 100 (28.6% had less knowledge about basic traffic signs. Majority of drivers 181 (51.7% had negative attitude towards risky driving behaviors. Significant percent of them 148 (42.3% had a habit of using mobile phone while driving vehicle and 28 (9.7% had experience of driving after drinking alcohol. All the Bajaj, 97(62.6% house car and 58(37.4% taxi unfasten their seat belt while driving. Majority 303 (86.6% followed the recommended speed limit of driving. About 66 (18.9% of them had experience of punishment or warning by traffic polices in the previous 1 year and 77 (22% ever had car accident while driving. Conclusions Drivers of secondary education and with high average monthly income were more likely to have risky driving behavior. Having supportive attitude towards risky

  4. Is audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) useful in risk behaviour assessment of female and male sex workers, Mombasa, Kenya?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Elst, Elisabeth M; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Nakamya, Phellister; Muhaari, Allan; Davies, Alun; McClelland, R Scott; Price, Matthew A; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M; Sanders, Eduard J

    2009-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa. We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, pgenders) and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p = 0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, preading skills. About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.

  5. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Siyan; Poudel, Krishna C; Yasuoka, Junko; Palmer, Paula H; Yi, Songky; Jimba, Masamine

    2010-08-12

    In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. The findings suggest the importance of considering gender-related differences in the effects of risk and protective factors

  6. Role of risk and protective factors in risky sexual behavior among high school students in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Siyan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, adolescents have become increasingly prone to engage in habitual risky sexual behavior such as early sexual initiation and unprotected sex. The objective of this study was to identify the operation of risk and protective factors in individual, family, peer, school, and community domains in predicting risky sexual behavior among male and female adolescents in Cambodia. Methods From October 2007 to January 2008, we collected data from 1,049 students aged 14 to 20 years. Risky sexual behavior was measured using a scale consisting of four items: sexual intercourse during the past three months, number of sex partners during the past three months, age at first experience of sexual intercourse, and use of condom in last sexual intercourse. The risk factors examined included substance use, depression, peer delinquency, family violence, and community violence. Studied protective factors included family support function, frequency of family dinner, and school attachment. Results Of the 1,049 students surveyed, 12.7% reported sexual intercourse during the past three months. Out of those sexually active students, 34.6% reported having two or more sex partners over the same period, and 52.6% did not use a condom during their last sexual intercourse. After controlling for other covariates, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated among male participants with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of peer delinquency, and higher family income. In contrast, risky sexual behavior did not retain its associations with any of the measured protective factors among male participants. Among female participants, a higher likelihood of risky sexual behavior remained significantly associated with higher levels of substance use, higher levels of community-violence witnessing, and lower levels of family support. Conclusions The findings suggest the importance of considering

  7. Smoking and Bone Healing - A Risky Surgical Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risky Surgical Combination A A A | Print | Share Smoking and Bone Healing – A Risky Surgical Combination Imagine ... saying that they'd prefer patients to quit smoking. There hasn't been a great deal of ...

  8. The observed effects of teenage passengers on the risky driving behavior of teenage drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce; Lerner, Neil; Singer, Jeremiah

    2005-11-01

    The association between teenage passengers and crash risks among young drivers may be due to risky driving behavior. We investigated the effect on two measures of risky driving in the presence of young male and female passengers. Vehicles exiting from parking lots at 10 high schools were observed and the occupants were identified by gender and age (teen or adult). At a nearby site, the speed and headway of passing traffic were recorded using video and LIDAR technology. Teenage drivers drove faster than the general traffic and allowed shorter headways, particularly in the presence of a male teenage passenger. Both male and female teenage drivers allowed shorter headways (relative to no passenger or a female passenger) in the presence of a male teenage passenger, while the presence of a female teenage passenger resulted in longer headways for male teenage drivers. Overall, the observed rate of high risk driving (defined as speed > or =15 mph or more above the posted speed limit and/or headway of teenage passengers was associated with risky driving behavior among teenage drivers.

  9. Self - care strategies among risky profession workers

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    Katarína Vasková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking care of oneself is crucial for maintaining one´s psychical and physical health. In the context of risky profession this topic can play an even more important role, because it can be the source of necessary information for improvement of coping capacity when one is confronted with crisis situations. The aim of the present study is to identify the most common forms of self-care among selected risky professions. In the second part is the attention focused on the comparison of the specificities of risky to non-risky professions in self-care. Methods: For data collection Self-regulation Self-care Questionnaire by authors Hricová and Lovaš (in press is used. The sample consists of two groups. In the first one participated 156 respondents, who worked in risky professions - namely police officers (60 at the age between 22 to 55 years (average age is 36.88, SD=9.49, fire fighters (46 at the age between 22 to 62 years (average age is 35.13, SD=8.31 and paramedics (50 at the age between 25 to 55 years (average age is 40.3, SD=6.62. 76.2% of the sample are men, 19.0% are women and 4,8% didn´t state their gender. The second sample consists of 161 participants who work in administrative, industry production or IT sphere. They were at the age between 23 to 61 years (average age is 38.01, SD=10.45. 74% of the sample are men and 21.7% are women. Results and discussion: Results confirmed the dominance of psychological self-care above physical among risky professions. To the forefront gets the need to live meaningful life, to fully use one´s skills and to be satisfied with one´s life and decisions. All this needs can be assigned to the necessity of sense, which could be seen as a result of everyday contact with critical and life threaten situations. Equally important sphere of self-care is the necessity of high-quality relationships, which doesn´t mean only relationships with family or friends. It is important to highlight also relationships with

  10. Is audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI useful in risk behaviour assessment of female and male sex workers, Mombasa, Kenya?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth M van der Elst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW in Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p = 0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men. Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men, intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.03 in women, and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002, in men were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001. Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2% and men (69.7% felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women mostly lacked reading skills. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.

  11. Children's Expressions of Exhilaration and Fear in Risky Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Children naturally seek and conduct exciting forms of play that involve a risk of physical injury (risky play). Even though several prior studies give descriptions of risky play, none of them deeply explore children's expressions of how they experience different kinds of risky play. This study aims to do that. The results from video observations…

  12. Risky and Cautious Decision Shifts in Small Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Timothy R.; Cline, Rebecca J.

    1979-01-01

    Identifies and compares the patterns of communication of groups making risky and cautious decision shifts. Risky- and cautious-shift group discussions displayed nonrandom and statistically different distributional and sequential structures. Findings are discussed in terms of two explanations of the risky- shift phenomenon. (JMF)

  13. Is Utilitarianism Risky? How the Same Antecedents and Mechanism Produce Both Utilitarian and Risky Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Brian J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-07-01

    Philosophers and psychologists have long been interested in identifying factors that influence moral judgment. In the current analysis, we compare the literatures on moral psychology and decision making under uncertainty to propose that utilitarian choices are driven by the same forces that lead to risky choices. Spanning from neurocognitive to hormonal to interpersonal levels of analysis, we identify six antecedents that increase both utilitarian and risky choices (ventromedial prefrontal cortex brain lesions, psychopathology, testosterone, incidental positive affect, power, and social connection) and one antecedent that reduces these choices (serotonin activity). We identify the regulation of negative affect as a common mechanism through which the effects of each antecedent on utilitarian and risky choices are explained. By demonstrating that the same forces and the same underlying mechanism that produce risky choices also promote utilitarian choices, we offer a deeper understanding of how basic psychological systems underlie moral judgment. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Risky procurement with an insider bidder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Chen, R.; Goeree, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    Procurement auctions carry substantial risk when the value of the project is highly uncertain and known only to insiders. This paper reports the results from a series of experiments comparing the performance of three auction formats in such complex and risky settings. In the experiment, every bidder

  15. Romatoid Artritte Postural Denge ve Dusme Riski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Inanir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Amac: Bu calismanin amaci Romatoid Artritin denge ve dusme riski uzerine olan etkilerini degerlendirmektir. Gerec ve yontem: Calismaya toplam 70 olgu dahil edildi; bireylerin 35’i Romatoid artrit (11 erkek, 24 kadin, 35’i ise saglikli gonullulerden (16 erkek, 19 kadin olusmakta idi. Hastalar ve saglikli gonulluler denge ve dusme riski acisindan Biodekx Denge Sistemi (BDS ile degerlendirildi. Bulgular: Romatoid Artritli hastalarin yas ortalamasi 46.47±9.47 yil, kontrol grubunun ise 42.97±9.12 yil idi. Gruplar yas ve vucut kitle indeksi (VKI acisindan degerlendirildiginde istatistiksel olarak anlamli fark saptanmadi (sirasiyla, p=0.129, p=0.207. Gruplar Genel Stabilite Indeksi (GSI ve Antero-Posterior Stabilite Indeksi(APSI acisindan degerlendirildiginde istatistiksel olarak anlamli fark tespit edildi (sirasiyla, p<0.001 ve p=0.004. Benzer sekilde, Medio-Lateral Stabilite Indeksi (MLSI ve Dusme Riski Indeksi (DRI acisindan degerlendirildiginde de istatistiksel olarak anlamli fark saptandi (sirasiyla, p<0.001 ve p<0.001. Sonuc: Bu sonuclara gore, calismamizda Romatoid Artritin denge bozuklugu ve dusme riski ile iliskili oldugu ortaya konulmustur. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 72-77

  16. Ambition: A Risky Adventure in Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughrean, M.

    2016-03-01

    This article explores how the European Space Agency made a short science fiction film about the Rosetta mission to engage audiences in the core scientific and philosophical questions of the mission, and to manage expectations regarding the risky landing of Philae on the surface of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

  17. Going for broke: dopamine influences risky choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschak, Travis M; Carelli, Regina M

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine neurons track reward by increasing or decreasing their firing rate when a reward is present or absent. In this issue of Neuron, Stopper et al. (2014) demonstrate that artificially eliminating these dopamine bursts or dips can alter risky decision-making.

  18. Parental Work Schedules and Adolescent Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen-Jui; Miller, Daniel P.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Using a large contemporary data set (the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child Supplement), the authors examined the effects of parental work schedules on adolescent risky behaviors at age 13 or 14 and the mechanisms that might explain them. Structural equation modeling suggests mothers who worked more often at night spent significantly less…

  19. A Go/No-go approach to uncovering implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael J.; Møller, Mette;

    2015-01-01

    Self-report measures of driving-related attitudes and beliefs miss potentially important precursors of driving behaviour, namely, automatic and implicit thought processes. The present study used an adapted Go/No-go Association Task to measure implicit thought without relying on the participants...... attitudes towards driving behaviour can be measured reliably with the Go/No-go Association Task. Also, the results suggest that implicit attitudes towards safe driving and risky driving, respectively, may be separable constructs, and might thus stem from different cognitive processes. Finally, implicit...

  20. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards sexual risk behaviour and perceived behavioural control among college students in Botswana

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    Gabriel Faimau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitudes towards risky sexual behaviour and perceived behavioural control among students in Botswana. Data were collected from 445 students randomly selected from the University of Botswana and Boitekanelo College. Hundred and seventy three males and 272 females participated in the study. The study established that although more than 90% of students correctly identified routes of HIV transmission, misconceptions regarding HIV/AIDS still exist. This includes the belief that people can be infected with HIV because of witchcraft and that only people who have sex with gay or homosexual partners can be infected with HIV. Majority of students were aware of various sexual risks. However, the percentage of students who indicated that “it is difficult to ask my partner to use a condom” was still relatively high (13.5% based on the assumption that students are supposed to know the consequences of sexual risky behaviour. It was also found that male students were 3.48 times more likely to negotiate sex than their female counterparts (OR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.09 − 11.13 and students who were 18 years and below were more likely to negotiate sex than students above 18 years of age (OR = 2.78, 95% CI: 1.42 − 18.32. Christians are four times less likely to negotiate sex compared to non-Christians (OR = 0.219, 95% CI: 0.095 − 0.506. More than 80% of students were comfortable discussing HIV or sex and sexuality with their friends, boyfriends/girlfriends or partners but uncomfortable discussing the same issues with their parents.

  1. Health and sexual behaviour among exchange students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Carina; Peterson, Ulla; Swahnberg, Katarina; Oscarsson, Marie

    2016-08-26

    The objective was to describe the exchange students' health and sexual behaviour associated with their exchange studies, and examine the extent to which they had received preventive efforts against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) and safer sex before departure. A cross-sectional study was conducted based on a web survey with questions about sexual behaviour, self-esteem and psychological well-being. Data were analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. A total of 136 outgoing exchange students from a Swedish University participated. Most of the exchange students rated their health as good, had psychological well-being and rated their self-esteem as being high. Approximately half of the exchange students had sex with a new partner during the exchange semester, and 87% of them had sexually risky behaviour. More than half (61%) of the exchange students had received preventive efforts before departure. No statistically significant difference regarding preventive information was found between those who reported sexually risky behaviour and those who did not. The group that had sexually risky behaviour desired free condoms and access to clinics for sexual health. CONCLUSIONS EXCHANGE STUDENTS RATED THEIR HEALTH AS GOOD, AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM PARTICIPATED IN INFORMATION SESSIONS THAT ADDRESSED PREVENTIVE EFFORTS ON HIV/STI AND SAFER SEX BEFORE DEPARTURE SEXUALLY RISKY BEHAVIOUR DURING EXCHANGE STUDIES WAS REPORTED AND HIGHLIGHTS THE NEED FOR MORE EFFECTIVE PREVENTIVE MEASURES; FOR EXAMPLE, A RECOLLECTION OF READING STI INFORMATION. © Author(s) 2016.

  2. Ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in school-age Mexican-American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Ashley S; Yin, Zenong; Codina, Edward; Zapata, Jesse T

    2006-06-01

    The study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in 1,892 Mexican-American students (M age= 14.6, SD= 1.35; 50.3% male) in South Texas. The Ethnic Identity Scale assessed ethnic identity and questions from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured risky health behaviors (mixed use of alcohol and drugs, heavy drinking, driving under the influence, regular marijuana use, regular cigarette smoking, lack of regular exercise, not eating breakfast regularly, and carrying a gun or knife to school). Logistic regression tested the relationships between ethnic identity and report of risky health behaviors controlling for potential confounders (sex, free school lunch status, grade, and self-reported school grade). Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence intervals were calculated. Results indicated that being associated with Mexican-American cultural identity was significantly associated with a decreased mixed use of alcohol and drugs (AOR= .97), heavy drinking (AOR= .98), and regular marijuana use (AOR= .97). A stronger ethnic identity was protective against engaging in risky health behaviors among these Mexican-American adolescents.

  3. How reinforcement sensitivity and perceived risk influence young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbeck, Emma L; Glendon, A Ian

    2013-05-01

    Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST), implementing Carver and White's behavior inhibition system (BIS) and behavior approach system (BAS) scales, was used to predict reported engagement in 10 risky driving behaviors: speeding (2 levels), driving under the influence of alcohol, racing other vehicles, cell phone use (hand-held and hands free), tailgating, unsafe overtaking, driving while fatigued, and not wearing a seatbelt. Participants were 165 young male and female (n=101) drivers aged 17-25 years who held a valid Australian driver's license. Effects of the explanatory variables and specific risk perceptions upon engagement in the reported risky driving behaviors were examined using SEM analyses. Also of interest was whether perceived risk mediated the relationship between the personality variables and reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. RST variables, negative reactivity, reward responsiveness and fun seeking, accounted for unique variance in young drivers' perceived risk. Reward responsiveness and perceived risk accounted for unique variance in young drivers' reported engagement in risky driving behaviors. Negative reactivity was completely mediated by perceived risk in its negative relationship with reported engagement. To better understand driving related risk decision making, future research could usefully incorporate drivers' motivation systems. This has the potential to lead to more tailored approaches to identifying risk-prone drivers and provide information for the development and implementation of media campaigns and educational programs.

  4. Gender effects in young road users on road safety attitudes, behaviours and risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Cordellieri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated gender-related effects on road safety attitudesin 2,681 young drivers (1,458 males, 54.4%; aged 18-22 who filled out several scales assessing attitudes towards road safety issues, driving behaviour in specific hypothetical situations, accident risk perception, and concerns about such a risk. We focused only on young drivers to better understand the role of gender in road safety attitudes in a period of life in which risky behaviours are widespread for males and females. Indeed, there is still no agreement as to the nature of these gender differences. According to some authors, the effects of gender on being involved in a crash due to driving skills are either non-existent or largely explained by differences in alcohol consumption. In our study, we found gender differences in road safety attitudes (i.e., negative attitude toward traffic rules and risky driving; negative attitude towards drugs and alcohol and tolerance toward speeding and in driver behaviour (i.e., errors in inattentive driving and driving violations. This result is consistent in all drivers coming from nine different European countries. Our analyses yielded an important finding concerning risk perception. The results indicate that the level of risk perception during driving is the same for males and females. However, these two groups differ in the level of concern about this risk, with males being less concerned about the risk of a road accident. This suggests that the main difference between these two groups is not strictly related to judgment of the perceived risk probability but rather to the level of concern experienced about the consequences of the risk. This difference between risk perception and worry could explain differences in the frequency of car accidents in the two groups. The present findings may provide new insights for the development of gender-based prevention programs.

  5. Optimal Investment Strategy for Risky Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Sergei Maslov; Yi-Cheng Zhang

    1998-01-01

    We design an optimal strategy for investment in a portfolio of assets subject to a multiplicative Brownian motion. The strategy provides the maximal typical long-term growth rate of investor's capital. We determine the optimal fraction of capital that an investor should keep in risky assets as well as weights of different assets in an optimal portfolio. In this approach both average return and volatility of an asset are relevant indicators determining its optimal weight. Our results are parti...

  6. Educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking among male smokers in China: a cross-sectional survey on the explanations provided by the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droomers, Mariël; Huang, Xinyuan; Fu, Wenjie; Yang, Yong; Li, Hong; Zheng, Pinpin

    2016-10-07

    We aim to describe the intention to quit smoking among Chinese male smokers from different educational backgrounds and to explain this intention from their attitude, perceived social norms and self-efficacy regarding smoking cessation. Participants were recruited from workplaces and communities to reflect the occupational distribution in three cities (Shanghai, Nanning and Mudanjiang) in China. In 2013 interviews were conducted with 3676 male smokers aged 18 years and older. Multivariate logistic regression analyses calculated educational differences in the intention to quit smoking as well as the association between the intention to quit smoking and attitude, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. Bootstrapping estimated to what extent the educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking were mediated by these three determinants. No educational disparities in the intention to quit smoking within 1 or 6 months were observed among male Chinese smokers (p=0.623 and p=0.153, respectively). A less negative attitude, a higher perceived subjective norm towards smoking cessation, and a higher perceived self-efficacy to quit smoking were all associated with intention to quit (all p values theory of planned behaviour that statistically significantly mediated the differences in the intention to quit smoking (within 1 or 6 months) between the lowest educated Chinese men and the groups with lower (β=0.039, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.071 and β=0.043, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.073), higher (β=0.041, 95% CI 0.017 to 0.075 and β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.077) and the highest education (β=0.045, 95% CI 0.019 to 0.080 and β=0.050, 95% CI 0.023 to 0.083). In order to prevent future socioeconomic disparities in smoking cessation, investment in a more stimulating social environment and norms towards smoking cessation among particularly the lowest educated Chinese men is warranted. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  7. "Half plate of rice to a male casual sexual partner, full plate belongs to the husband": Findings from a qualitative study on sexual behaviour in relation to HIV and AIDS in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwanga Joseph R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A thorough understanding of the contexts of sexual behaviour of the people who are vulnerable to HIV infection is an important component in the battle against AIDS epidemic. We conducted a qualitative study to investigate perceptions, attitudes and practices of sexually active people in three districts of northern Tanzania with the view of collecting data to inform the formulation of appropriate complementary interventions against HIV and AIDS in the study communities. Methods We conducted 96 semi-structured interviews and 48 focus group discussions with sexually active participants (18-60 years of age who were selected purposively in two fishing and one non-fishing communities. Results The study revealed a number of socio-economic and cultural factors which act as structural drivers of HIV epidemic. Mobility and migration were mentioned to be associated with the risk of HIV acquisition and transmission. Sexual promiscuous behaviour was common in all study communities. Chomolea, (a quick transactional sex was reported to exist in fishing communities, whereas extramarital sex in the bush was reported in non-fishing community which was predominantly Christian and polygamous. Traditional practices such as Kusomboka (death cleansing through unprotected sex was reported to exist. Other risky sexual behaviour and traditional practices together with their socio-economic and cultural contexts are presented in details and discussed. Knowledge of condom was low as some people mistook them for balloons to play with and as decorations for their living rooms. Acute scarcity of condoms in some remote areas such as vizingani (fishing islands push some people to make their own condoms locally known as kondomu za pepsi using polythene bags. Conclusions HIV prevention efforts can succeed by addressing sexual behaviour and its socio-economic and cultural contexts. More innovative, interdisciplinary and productive structural approaches to HIV

  8. Effect of Chronic Lead Intoxication on Risky Behavior in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Mohammadyar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With industrialization of human societies, pollutants like lead have entered in the life cycle, causing harmful effects on body organs. No sufficient studies have been done on the effects of pollutants on behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of lead on some measurable behaviors of an animal model. Methods: Forty eight male adult mice were divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Lead acetate was added at concentrations of 0, 5, 50, or 500 ppm to the drinking water of the animals for 4 weeks (28 days. On day 29, animals were placed on an Elevated Plus maze (EPM for 5 min and the time in sec spent was measured on closed arms, open arms and the end 1/3rd of the open arms. Increased time on open arms, particularly the end 1/3rd was considered to reflect an enhanced risk-accepting behavior. Results: In this study, it was shown that lead exposure caused an increased number of entrance (P=0.006 and time spent (P=0.034 by mice on open arms of the EPM. There was a positive correlation between the concentration of lead acetate and those two effects. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that lead poisoning may decrease normal anxiety in mice and increase risky behavior in this species. Clinical studies on human subjects with risky behavior are strongly suggested in order to find a possible relation between chronic exposures to lead as well as plasma concentration of lead with the extent of this kind of behavior.

  9. Risky decisions and their consequences: neural processing by boys with Antisocial Substance Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Crowley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adolescents with conduct and substance problems ("Antisocial Substance Disorder" (ASD repeatedly engage in risky antisocial and drug-using behaviors. We hypothesized that, during processing of risky decisions and resulting rewards and punishments, brain activation would differ between abstinent ASD boys and comparison boys. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared 20 abstinent adolescent male patients in treatment for ASD with 20 community controls, examining rapid event-related blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD responses during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In 90 decision trials participants chose to make either a cautious response that earned one cent, or a risky response that would either gain 5 cents or lose 10 cents; odds of losing increased as the game progressed. We also examined those times when subjects experienced wins, or separately losses, from their risky choices. We contrasted decision trials against very similar comparison trials requiring no decisions, using whole-brain BOLD-response analyses of group differences, corrected for multiple comparisons. During decision-making ASD boys showed hypoactivation in numerous brain regions robustly activated by controls, including orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, anterior cingulate, basal ganglia, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum. While experiencing wins, ASD boys had significantly less activity than controls in anterior cingulate, temporal regions, and cerebellum, with more activity nowhere. During losses ASD boys had significantly more activity than controls in orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, brain stem, and cerebellum, with less activity nowhere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Adolescent boys with ASD had extensive neural hypoactivity during risky decision-making, coupled with decreased activity during reward and increased activity during loss. These neural patterns may underlie the dangerous, excessive, sustained

  10. Correlates of alcohol consumption on heavy drinking occasions of young risky drinkers: event versus personal characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Paul; Agius, Paul A; Livingston, Michael; Callinan, Sarah; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Lim, Megan S C; Wright, Cassandra J C; Room, Robin

    2017-08-01

    Risky single-occasion drinking (RSOD) by young people is a serious public health issue, yet little is known about the specific circumstances of risky drinking occasions. This study examined the independent effects of event- and individual-specific variables on RSOD. Longitudinal cohort study measuring self-reported RSOD and event- and individual-specific variables across two drinking occasions approximately 1 year apart. Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. A sample of 710 young risky drinkers aged between 18 and 25 years and defined as engaging in risky drinking practices (males: consumed alcohol in excess of 10 Australian Standard Drinks (ASD: 10 g ethanol) in a single occasion in the previous year; females: consumed alcohol in excess of seven ASD for females in a single occasion in the previous year). Random digit-dial telephone landline survey of the most recent heavy drinking occasion and socio-demographic variables. The primary outcome was the log of the total drinks consumed in the most recent heavy drinking occasion. Event-specific (e.g. number of drinking locations) and time-varying (e.g. weekly income) and time-invariant (e.g. sex) individual-specific variables were examined as correlates of total drinks consumed. Changes in event-specific characteristics including the length of the drinking occasion (Likelihood Ratio χ(2) (2) = 24.4, P Event-specific characteristics are important predictors of the number of drinks consumed during risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) and illustrate the importance of event contexts when considering interventions targeting RSOD. The total number of drinks consumed in a RSOD session appears to rise independently with the duration of the drinking event, the number of drinking locations and the number of different types of beverage consumed. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Risky substance use and peer pressure in Swiss young men: Test of moderation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Grazioli, Véronique S; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-11-01

    Peer pressure (PP) toward misconduct is a well-known risk factor for substance use. However, the way it interacts with social factors and the associations of the aspects of PP other than PP toward misconduct have been understudied. This study examined the associations of three aspects of PP with risky substance use and tested whether the associations of PP toward misconduct were moderated by social factors. A representative sample of 5,680 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing risky alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use, PP toward misconduct, toward peer involvement, and toward peer conformity, as well as social support (SS) and neighbourhood cohesion. Multinomial logistic regression models were used. PP toward misconduct was positively associated with all substance use outcomes. The PP toward misconduct-risky alcohol use association was stronger in individuals reporting high than in those reporting low levels of PP toward peer involvement, SS, and neighbourhood cohesion. The PP toward misconduct-risky cannabis use association was stronger in individuals reporting high than in those reporting low levels of SS and neighbourhood cohesion. The PP toward misconduct-smoking association was stronger in individuals reporting high than in those reporting low levels of PP toward peer involvement. The risk for substance use associated with PP toward misconduct varies as a function of social factors. Being well connected with others (high level of PP toward peer involvement and SS), and living in a cohesive neighbourhood may amplify the risk for risky substance use associated with PP toward misconduct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Risky use and misuse of alcohol and cigarettes in psychiatric inpatients: a screening questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, Jacopo V; Casetti, Valentina; Panzani, Patrizia; Unterhauser, Juliane; Mulas, Stefania; Fanolla, Antonio; Zitelli, Claudia; Briani, Alessandro; Giupponi, Giancarlo; Maremmani, Icro; Conca, Andreas

    2016-10-01

    Mental disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs). Despite this comorbidity being firmly established, alcohol and nicotine risky use and misuse are not routinely and systematically assessed in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of risky use of alcohol, alcohol use disorder (AUD), smoking, and nicotine use disorder in people with psychiatric diagnoses and their association with age, gender, and occupational functioning. Participants were 210 patients from an inpatient psychiatric ward. Three self-reporting questionnaires were used: the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Lübeck Alcoholism Screening Test (LAST), and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Risky alcohol use or AUD was found in more than one third of patients and was more common in males than in females (p<0.01) and in young people as compared to older adults (p=0.04). Current nicotine consumption concerned over a half participants and was significantly associated with risky alcohol use and AUD (p<0.01). Patients with current SUD had the highest prevalence of both smoking (80%) and alcohol misuse (80%). Low occupational functioning was associated with both alcohol use (p=0.02) and concurrent alcohol and SUDs (p=0.03). Both alcohol and nicotine risky use and misuse are highly prevalent in people with psychiatric disorders and their concurrent abuse is common. The simultaneous use of different screening questionnaires allows the identification not only of people with frank use disorders, but also those with harmful use, facilitating early detection of people at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A note on calculating the optimal risky portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Reha H. Tütüncü

    2001-01-01

    Given a number of risky assets and a riskless asset, the set of efficient portfolios in the mean-variance optimization sense are combinations of the riskless asset and a unique optimal risky portfolio. This note shows how a simple modification of Markowitz' method of critical lines can be used to determine the optimal risky portfolio in a faster, more reliable, and more memory-efficient way than the standard approaches.

  14. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P.; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-01-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents’ sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55% male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents’ risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior. PMID:26202153

  15. Sexual behaviour does not reflect HIV-1 prevalence differences: a comparison study of Zimbabwe and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mapingure Munyaradzi P

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial heterogeneity in HIV prevalence has been observed within sub-Saharan Africa. It is not clear which factors can explain these differences. Our aim was to identify risk factors that could explain the large differences in HIV-1 prevalence among pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe, and Moshi, Tanzania. Methods Cross-sectional data from a two-centre study that enrolled pregnant women in Harare (N = 691 and Moshi (N = 2654 was used. Consenting women were interviewed about their socio-demographic background and sexual behaviour, and tested for presence of sexually transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections. Prevalence distribution of risk factors for HIV acquisition and spread were compared between the two areas. Results The prevalence of HIV-1 among pregnant women was 26% in Zimbabwe and 7% in Tanzania. The HIV prevalence in both countries rises constantly with age up to the 25-30 year age group. After that, it continues to rise among Zimbabwean women, while it drops for Tanzanian women. Risky sexual behaviour was more prominent among Tanzanians than Zimbabweans. Mobility and such infections as HSV-2, trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis were more prevalent among Zimbabweans than Tanzanians. Reported male partner circumcision rates between the two countries were widely different, but the effect of male circumcision on HIV prevalence was not apparent within the populations. Conclusions The higher HIV-1 prevalence among pregnant women in Zimbabwe compared with Tanzania cannot be explained by differences in risky sexual behaviour: all risk factors tested for in our study were higher for Tanzania than Zimbabwe. Non-sexual transmission of HIV might have played an important role in variation of HIV prevalence. Male circumcision rates and mobility could contribute to the rate and extent of spread of HIV in the two countries.

  16. Sexual risk behaviours and their correlates among gay and non-gay identified men who have sex with men and women in Chengdu and Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dandan; Zhang, Hongbo; Wang, Jun; Han, Delin; Dai, Liping; Liu, Qi; Yu, Fei; Operario, Don; She, Min; Zaller, Nickolas

    2013-10-01

    To better understand the behavioural characteristics and the factors associated with high risky behaviours among men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) with different orientation, we analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 600 MSMW in two large cities in China. Participants completed a questionnaire and underwent serological testing. Overall, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence was 26%. In multivariable analysis of risk factors for unprotected anal intercourse in the past six months, factors associated with unprotected vaginal intercourse (UVI) were as follows: gay-identified orientation, having anal sex with a boyfriend, having multiple male partners, and never or sometimes using a condom for vaginal intercourse. In multivariate analyses of risk factors for UVI in the past 12 months, factors associated with UVI were as follows: non-gay-identified MSMW, having multiple male partners, having multiple female partners, and never or sometimes using a condom for anal intercourse. This study revealed a high prevalence of HIV and risky sexual behaviours.

  17. Determinants of Male Circumcision for HIV/AIDS Prevention in East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    measures to prevent HIV infection were less likely to undertake SMC and are therefore highly vulnerable to ... HIV preventive measures. ... priority countries in sub Saharan Africa, Uganda ... to risky sexual behaviour could predict uptake of.

  18. Gender differences in the association between conduct disorder and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Holliday, Stephanie; Ewing, Brett A; Storholm, Erik D; Parast, Layla; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2017-04-01

    Despite suggestions that there are gender differences in the association between conduct disorder (CD) and risky sexual behavior, limited empirical research has examined this question. Youth (N = 616) were recruited from four primary care clinics and completed questions related to risky sexual behavior, alcohol and marijuana use, and CD. Results of stratified multivariate models indicated that the association between CD and having four or more lifetime partners, having two or more partners in the last 3 months, and engaging in condomless sex was stronger among female youth. However, the association between CD and alcohol and other drug use before sex was stronger in male youth. This is an important contribution to our understanding of gender-specific manifestations of conduct disorder, and has the potential to inform screening and brief intervention efforts for this population. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Subgrouping of risky behaviors among Iranian college students: a latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiri, Saeid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Yunesian, Masud; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Shamsipour, Mansour; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background Risky behaviors may interrupt development or cause considerable morbidity or mortality. This study’s purpose was to determine subgroups of students based on risky behaviors and assess the prevalence of risky behaviors in each of the subgroups. Participants and methods This anonymous cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2015 and November 2015, with 1,777 students from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, through multistage random sampling method. The data were analyzed by latent class analysis. Results The prevalence rates of cigarette smoking (more than or equal to ten cigarettes), hookah use (≥1 time/month), and alcohol consumption (≥1 time/month) during the last year were 12.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9–14.0), 11.6% (95% CI: 10.0–13.1), and 4.9% (95% CI: 3.8–5.9), respectively. The prevalence rates of illicit opioids (1.8%, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5), cannabis (1.2%, 95% CI: 0.7–1.7), methamphetamine (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–1.6), methylphenidate (2.5%, 95% CI: 1.7–3.2), and extramarital sex (5.5%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.6) over the last year were also estimated. Three latent classes were determined: 1) low risk; 2) cigarette and hookah smoker; and 3) high risk. It is worth mentioning that 3.7% of males and 0.4% of females were in the high risk group. Conclusion Subgrouping of college students showed that a considerable percentage of them, especially males, were classified into the high risk and cigarette and hookah smoker groups. Appropriate preventive measures that consider multiple different risky behaviors simultaneously are needed for this part of the population. PMID:27524898

  20. Pubertal Development and Peer Influence on Risky Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsch, Natalie; Harden, Kathryn Paige

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents engage in more risky behavior when they are with peers and show, on average, heightened susceptibility to peer influence relative to children and adults. However, individual differences in susceptibility to peer influence are not well understood. The current study examined whether the effect of peers on adolescents' risky decision…

  1. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiter Robert AC

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Method Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446 filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Results Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to an accident. Conclusions Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  2. Social-cognitive correlates of risky adolescent cycling behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Hans; Ruiter, Robert A C; Kok, Gerjo

    2010-07-12

    Bicycle use entails high safety and health risks especially for adolescents. Most safety education programs aimed at adolescents focus on accident statistics and risk perceptions. This paper proposes the investigation of the social-cognitive correlates of risky cycling behaviors of adolescents prior to developing safety education programs. Secondary school students aged 13 to 18 years (n = 1446) filled out questionnaires regarding bicycle behavior, risky intentions, accident experience, and social-cognitive determinants as suggested by the theory of planned behavior. Regression analysis revealed that the proximal variables (i.e., self-efficacy, attitudes towards drunk driving, personal norm regarding safekeeping of self and others, and compared risk) were able to predict 17% of the variance of risky behavior and 23% of the variance of risky intentions. The full model explained respectively 29% and 37% of the variance in risky behavior and risky intentions. Adolescents with positive attitudes towards risky behavior and low sense of responsibility report risky behavior, even when having been (close to) an accident. Adolescents realize whether they are risk takers or not. This implies that the focus of education programs should not be on risk perceptions, but on decreasing positive attitudes towards alcohol in traffic and increasing sense of responsibility instead. Cognitions regarding near accidents should be studied, the role of safe cycling self-efficacy is unclear.

  3. Silencing of the Hsf gene, the transcriptional regulator of A. gambiae male accessory glands, inhibits the formation of the mating plug in mated females and disrupts their monogamous behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottorini, Tania; Persampieri, Tania; Palladino, Pietro; Spaccapelo, Roberta; Crisanti, Andrea

    2012-11-01

    Discovering the molecular factors that shape the mating behaviour and the fertility of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria, is regarded as critical to better understand its reproductive success as well as for identifying new leads for malaria control measures. In A. gambiae mating induces complex behavioural and physiological changes in the females, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and induction of egg-laying. In other insects including Drosophila a group of proteins named Accessory gland proteins (Acps), produced by males and transferred with sperm to the female reproductive tract, have been implicated in this post-mating response. Although Acps represent a set of promising candidates for unravelling the mating physiology, their role in inducing behavioural changes in mated A. gambiae females remains largely unknown. In this work, we demonstrate that a down-regulation of a large fraction of Acp genes via silencing of the Acp regulating transcription factor Hsf, abolishes the formation of mating plug in mated females and fails to induce refractoriness of mated female to subsequent inseminations. A significant fraction of females mated to Hsf silenced males (66%) failed to receive the mating plug though seminal fluid had been transferred as documented by the presence of spermatozoa in the female sperm storage organ. Furthermore, nearly all females (95%) mated to HSF-silenced males were re-inseminated when exposed to males carrying EGPF marked sperm. Our findings provide evidence showing that Acp genes regulated by the transcription factor HSF play a key role in the function of the male accessory glands.

  4. Low clinical relevance of risky alcohol consumption in a selected group of high adherent HIV-infected patients attended in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gonzalez Baeza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, associated factors and its impact on the brain is not well established in clinically stable HIV patients. Materials and Methods: Within the PIVOT neurocognitive sub-study, effectively suppressed HIV-infected adults on either standard cART or ritonavir-boosted PI monotherapy completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT designed to detect risky alcohol consumption. They also completed a brief neuropsychological assessment (NPZ 5 composed by five measures. For this cross-sectional analysis, we calculated rates of hazardous (AUDIT=8–15 or harmful (AUDIT=16–19 consumption and likely dependence (AUDIT>20. We explored the association between risky alcohol intakes (AUDIT>8 and clinical/demographical variables, conducting logistic regressions when significant association was found (p<.05. Also, the association between cognitive performance and alcohol consumption was calculated and adjusted by potential confounders. Results: Of the 146 included participants, the majority were male (86.3%, white (81.5% and educated (mean years on formal education=15, SD=3.9. Average age was 47.6 years (SD=8.7, and 36.3% had risky consumption (29.5% hazardous, 6.2% harmful, 0.7% likely dependence. White ethnicity and male sex were positively associated with risky consumption (Table 1. After adjustments, white ethnicity remained significantly associated with risky consumption (1.64 [95% CI 0.34–2.95]; p=0.013. Better cognitive performance was associated with risky alcohol consumption in the univariate analysis (p<.001. After adjustment by ethnicity, sex and years of education, cognitive performance and risky alcohol consumption maintained significant association (0.45 [95% CI 0.19–0.70] p=0.001. Conclusions: Despite the substantially high prevalence of risky alcohol consumption, it was not associated with worse adherence, immunological or quality of life measures in this cohort of

  5. The World of WarsRisky systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

      The world of the future will not be one without wars. The many hopes we have about a future peace governed by a more or less confederal state will not make wars obsolete. Regular wars and irregular wars will continue and probably on different subjects than we are used to. The paper proposes...... that the form of war will be more about temporalities, i.e. fast interchanges or, rather, more risky protracted wars of attrition and exhaustion and less on tactical well defined territories. The West can neither dominate such wars nor establish one world that is ruled or even governed. The risk is that we have...... the systems we have. They have their own path dependencies, their temporal bindings and their own stories to tell. In the worst case, they stick to an imaginary of almighty power - and then they lose. We tend to forget that our present past will be experienced and told differently in the future past...

  6. The Neuropsychology of Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. Megan; Duperrouzel, Jacqueline; Vega, Melanie; Gonzalez, Raul

    2017-01-01

    Objective Engagement in risky sexual behavior (RSB) is a significant public health concern. A growing body of literature is elucidating the role of brain systems and neuropsychological constructs implicated in RSB, which may pave the way for novel insights and prevention efforts. Methods In this article, we review studies incorporating neuropsychology into the study of RSB across the lifespan. The review of the literature on the neuropsychology of RSB is separated into three different sections by age of participants. Background is presented on research associating RSB with neurocognitive processes and the brain systems involved. Given the overlap between RSBs and substance use, studies addressing these problems in tandem are also discussed. Results Neurocognitive constructs are implicated in RSB, including impulsivity, decision-making, and working memory. Discussion Thus far, evidence suggest that neuropsychological factors are associated with engagement in RSB. More research on the influence of neuropsychological factors on engagement in RSB is necessary and may help inform future prevention efforts. PMID:27173086

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  8. Gender Differences in the Factors Explaining Risky Behavior Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Hagit; Mesch, Gustavo

    2016-05-01

    In searching for the social and cognitive antecedents of risky online behaviors, some studies have relied on the theory of planned behavior. According to the theory, three components serve as predictors of a given behavior-attitudes toward the behavior (beliefs that people hold about a given behavior), subjective norms (perceptions of what significant others think about the behavior) and perceived behavior control (perceptions about the ease or difficulty of engaging in a particular behavior). However, none of these studies considered the possibility that these factors work differently for boys and girls. We constructed models of the possible antecedents (attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavior control) of risky behavior online and tested them using a representative sample of 495 sixth to eleventh grade students (46 % female) in a large city in Israel. We measured risky behavior online with items indicating the frequency of posting personal details, sending an insulting message and meeting face-to-face with a stranger met online. Structural equation modeling revealed that peers' subjective norms (beliefs that friends approve of engaging in risky online behaviors), parents' subjective norms (beliefs that parents accept involvement in risky online behaviors) and perceived behavior control were related to boys' risky behavior online, whereas for girls, only parents' subjective norms had such an association. Expanding the models to include other factors underscored that family factors were most strongly associated with girls' risky behavior online.

  9. Socioeconomic disadvantage and indicators of risky alcohol-drinking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Suominen, Sakari; Car, Josip; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to establish how the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risky drinking depends on the indicator of risky alcohol-drinking patterns. Alcohol-drinking Finnish men (n = 9316) and women (n = 11,888) aged 20-54 years at baseline participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) postal survey in 1998. Socioeconomic disadvantage was measured by low educational level, history of previous unemployment among those currently employed, current unemployment, being on disability pension and history of experiencing financial hardships. Indicators of risky drinking were hazardous weekly intake (≥24 and ≥16 Finnish standard drinks for men and women, respectively), frequency of intoxications/drunkenness, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs. The study participants were also followed up for 7 years for alcohol-specific hospitalizations and deaths. Socioeconomic gradient in risky drinking was observed across all indicators of risky drinking, but the gradient was relatively larger in patterns of risky drinking representing high-intensity drinking occasions such as alcohol-induced hangovers and pass-outs. No marked gender differences were observed. These results highlight the need to take into account the multidimensionality of risky alcohol-drinking patterns as a contributing factor in the socioeconomic gradient in alcohol use.

  10. Brain size affects the behavioural response to predators in female guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bijl, Wouter; Thyselius, Malin; Kotrschal, Alexander; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-08-07

    Large brains are thought to result from selection for cognitive benefits, but how enhanced cognition leads to increased fitness remains poorly understood. One explanation is that increased cognitive ability results in improved monitoring and assessment of predator threats. Here, we use male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata), artificially selected for large and small brain size, to provide an experimental evaluation of this hypothesis. We examined their behavioural response as singletons, pairs or shoals of four towards a model predator. Large-brained females, but not males, spent less time performing predator inspections, an inherently risky behaviour. Video analysis revealed that large-brained females were further away from the model predator when in pairs but that they habituated quickly towards the model when in shoals of four. Males stayed further away from the predator model than females but again we found no brain size effect in males. We conclude that differences in brain size affect the female predator response. Large-brained females might be able to assess risk better or need less sensory information to reach an accurate conclusion. Our results provide experimental support for the general idea that predation pressure is likely to be important for the evolution of brain size in prey species.

  11. Don’t Drink and… Avoid Risky Sex of Your Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pertold, Filip

    -specific attitudes toward sexual behavior. Second, pre-determined individual pre-secondary-school alcohol consumption is used to control for self-selection into schools of individuals with specific attitudes toward alcohol. As opposed to Waddell (2010), I find that female drinking affects the male propensity to have......I estimate the effect of opposite-gender peer drinking on individual risky sexual behavior among Czech youth. The identification strategy relies on two main controls for individual and group-specific unobservables. First, younger schoolmates’ sexual behavior is a control for school...... unprotected sex, while male drinking does not have such an effect on female behavior. This finding corresponds to the fact that females have usually older sexual partners than males....

  12. Patterns of alcohol consumption and risky sexual behavior: a cross-sectional study among Ugandan university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhry, Vikas; Agardh, Anette; Stafström, Martin; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2014-02-06

    As reflected in elevated rates of sexually transmitted infections, there is a high prevalence of risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students. It has been assumed that alcohol contributes to risky sexual behavior. However, perhaps owing to methodological issues, this relationship has found only mixed support in empirical research. The present study analyzes the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior at the global, situational, and event level among Uganda university students with sexual experience. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 among 1954 students at Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda, using a self-administered questionnaire. Alcohol use was measured as consumption over the previous 12 months, during situations related to sexual activity and on the most recent occasion of sexual intercourse. Risky sexual behavior was defined as having two or more sexual partners in the previous 12 months or inconsistent condom use with new partners. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze the association between alcohol use and risky sexual behavior separately for males and females. Even after adjusting for confounders, the odds ratio (OR) of having two or more sexual partners in the past year indicated a statistically significant association with alcohol use on all levels (global, situational, and event) for both males and females. The ORs of inconsistent condom use with a new partner were significant for males who often consumed alcohol in relation to sexual activity--even after adjusting for potential confounders (OR, 1.75; confidence interval, 1.01-3.08). The risk of inconsistent condom use with a new partner was twice as high for females who often consumed alcohol in relation to sexual activity, although this association was not statistically significant. The study supports previous research that alcohol consumption is associated with having multiple sexual partners. Inconsistent

  13. Alcohol Can Be a Risky Guest At Holiday Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162488.html Alcohol Can Be a Risky Guest at Holiday Parties ... a part of the festivities. Unfortunately, so are alcohol-related accidents and deaths. Many people who attend ...

  14. Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps Is Risky

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps is Risky Printer-friendly ... approved only to treat a certain type of malaria (uncomplicated malaria) caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ...

  15. Meds May Curb Risky Behaviors for Kids with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meds May Curb Risky Behaviors for Kids With ADHD Study found drug abuse, STDs and injuries were ... Despite concerns that the stimulants used to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might raise the risk of drug abuse, ...

  16. Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Your Summer Fun Print version Risky Drinking Can Put a Chill on Your Summer Fun Summer ... adults involve the use of alcohol. 1 Swimmers can get in over their heads. Alcohol impairs judgment ...

  17. Risky Arbitrage Strategies: Optimal Portfolio Choice and Economic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jun; Timmermann, Allan G

    2009-01-01

    We define risky arbitrages as self-financing trading strategies that have a strictly positive market price but a zero expected cumulative payoff. A continuous time cointegrated system is used to model risky arbitrages as arising from a mean-reverting mispricing component. We derive the optimal trading strategy in closed-form and show that the standard textbook arbitrage strategy is not optimal. In a calibration exercise, we show that the optimal strategy makes a sizeable difference in economi...

  18. Reported contraceptive use, risk behaviours and STIs among military conscripts in Estonian defence forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Parker, R; Regier, Michael D; Widmeyer, Joseph; Honaker, John; Rüütel, Kristi

    2015-10-01

    Limited research exists on sexually transmitted infection (STI) and risk behaviour among military personnel. Published research on condom use and types of contraceptives used yield mixed results, yet, the perception that military members are at higher risk for STIs remains. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to measure factors such as condom use, contraceptive methods, and risky behaviours (i.e. drug use and sex with commercial sex workers) and investigate differences between ethnic groups, where culture could influence behaviour. Data were collected from a recruited population of 584 male, military conscripts in northeastern Europe. Using multinomial logistic regression models, statistically significant findings include an interaction between the use of contraceptive methods of Russians with casual partners and ethnicity, with higher odds of effective methods used among Estonians with regular partners (OR = 8.13) or casual partners (OR = 11.58) and Russians with regular partners (OR = 4.98). Effective contraceptive methods used less frequently with casual partners by ethnic Russians is important in providing education and risk reduction services to young, male conscripts. These findings may be used as a baseline to inform health education and STI prevention programmes tailored to military members in Eastern Europe in the absence of other published studies.

  19. Source of information, knowledge, and sexual behaviour related to HIV/AIDS amongst university students in an inland territory of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela L. Sammarco

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Italian university students were investigated for: sources of information about HIV, knowledge of HIV risk behaviours, as well as sexual behaviours and condom use. A self completed anonymous questionnaire was administered to 430 university students in Campobasso, Italy (mean age 23,1; males 35,8%. Although TV, radio and the printed press were the most common sources of HIV information (>60% of respondents, most respondents preferred to receive information from physicians or resource centres (50 and 51%. Most students (>97% were aware that specific sexual behaviours (unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse and sharing of needles with illegal injecting drug users could transmit HIV. Most students (>50% did not regularly use condoms (despite understanding their protective effect, and continued to engage in behaviours considered risky. Males were significantly more likely than females to engage in vaginal sex (84 vs. 67% or anal sex (37 vs. 13% with both regular and casual partners. Although knowledge of HIV in itself is not enough to produce behaviour change, increases in students’ levels of knowledge may be useful.

  20. The role of protein in the sexual behaviour of males of Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae: mating success, copula duration and number of copulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sordi Joachim-Bravo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the influence of protein ingestion during the early adult phase on the sexual behavior of males of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824. The following parameters were evaluated: mating success (ability to be chosen by females, number of copulations, and copula duration. Experiments were carried out using a fifteen-year old laboratory lineage with the occasional introduction of wild flies. Two groups of adult males fed a high-protein diet during their larval phase were given either a high-protein diet (based on Brewer's yeast, concentration = 6.5 g/100 ml or a no-protein diet. Both groups of males were exposed to females fed either a high-protein diet or a no-protein diet and were subsequently evaluated for the parameters listed above. All experiments were conducted at 25ºC, 70% R.H. and with a photoperiod of L12:D12. The number of copulations was the only parameter affected by adult diet. Males fed a high-protein diet and exposed to females fed a no-protein diet had a greater number of copulations compared with males fed a no-protein diet.

  1. Sexual behaviours and preconception health in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual behaviours have been recognized as a threat for sexual and reproductive health. AIM: This article shows the results of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk" in relation to determining how a large sample of university students in Italy cope with preconception health, especially in the domains of sexual transmitted infections (STIs, fertility and vaccination preventable disease. METHODS: Twentythree questions of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey about sexual behaviour and reproductive health were analysed. Besides, results were stratified for sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: 19.7% of students have had first sexual intercourse before age 15. 21.8% of female students used emergency contraception. 66.4% of the 74.0% sexual active students reported using contraceptives, but about 32% of them used methods ineffective against STIs. A general low coverage for rubella, measles and mumps vaccination was revealed. 63.7% of men and 30.9% of woman never had urologic or gynaecological examinations. DISCUSSION: Overall, young adults in Italy are not still enough sensitized on fertility and preconception care. High schools and universities should increase awareness towards preservation of male and female fertility and preconception care.

  2. The dopamine transporter gene, a spectrum of most common risky behaviors, and the legal status of the behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Guo

    Full Text Available This study tests the specific hypothesis that the 9R/9R genotype in the VNTR of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 exerts a general protective effect against a spectrum of risky behaviors in comparison to the 10R/9R and 10R/10R genotypes, drawing on three-time repeated measures of risky behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood on about 822 non-Hispanic white males from the Add Health study. Our data have established two empirical findings. The first is a protective main effect in the DAT1 gene against risky behaviors. The second finding is that the protective effect varies over age, with the effect prominent at ages when a behavior is illegal and the effect largely vanished at ages when the behavior becomes legal or more socially tolerated. Both the protective main effect and the gene-lifecourse interaction effect are replicated across a spectrum of most common risky behaviors: delinquency, variety of sexual partners, binge drinking, drinking quantity, smoking quantity, smoking frequency, marijuana use, cocaine use, other illegal drug use, and seatbelt non-wearing. We also compared individuals with the protective genotype and individuals without it in terms of age, physical maturity, verbal IQ, GPA, received popularity, sent popularity, church attendance, two biological parents, and parental education. These comparisons indicate that the protective effect of DAT1*9R/9R cannot be explained away by these background characteristics. Our work demonstrates how legal/social contexts can enhance or reduce a genetic effect on risky behaviors.

  3. The Sexual Behaviour of Secondary School Adolescent Students in Tanzania: Patterns and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan Mohan Laddunuri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A surge of sexual interest occurs around puberty and continues through adolescence. Heightened adolescent sexuality may be caused by a number of factors, including bodily changes, sexual hormones, social forces, and rehearsal for adult gender roles. The main objective of the present study is to understand the patterns and trends of adolescent students’ sexual behaviour in Tanzania.Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted and 550 secondary school students (13 to 19 years old were recruited by using a multistage random sampling technique from Tanzania’s secondary schools. The data collection tool was a structured questionnaire. Data were analysed by using SPSS software package version 16.Results: More than one third (40.2% of the participant students had experienced intercourse with mean age 17.2±1.8 years and one sixth (17.6% of the participants had multiple sexual partners. The mean age for hugging, kissing and breast fondling was significantly younger when compared to the sexual intercourse. Most (78.5% of the students had used contraceptives but the frequency of contraception was less than half (48.6% “always”. The main reasons beyond sexual debut were “just for fun” (37% and “peer pressure” (27.6%. A male student was 1.46 times more likely to have had intercourse than a female. Parental education was the most significant association with sexual debut of adolescents and the odds ratio indicates that sexual intercourse among students is decreasing with the increasing of parental education.Conclusion: A relatively high sexual intercourse has been recorded and risky sexual behaviour also existed among the respondents. Hence, there is a need to promote specific intervention programmes built upon those factors which are associated with an increased likelihood for early sexual debut and risky sexual behaviour.

  4. Sexual behaviour in adolescents and young people attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic, Ile Ife, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olasode Olayinka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available WHO estimates that 20% of persons living with HIV/AIDS are in their 20s and one out of twenty adolescents contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD each year. A total of 303 adolescents and youths (10-24 years of age attending an STD clinic were subjected to a questionnaire to assess sexual behavioural patterns that predisposed them to STD. Scope of the questions included age at initiation of sexual intercourse, partner at first exposure, number of sexual partners, use of condoms, exposure to commercial sex workers (CSWs, previous infection with STDs and role of alcohol. Their diagnosis was based on history, clinical findings and laboratory confirmation. Adolescents and youths accounted for 30% of the total number of patients attending the STD clinic during this period. The male to female ratio was 1:0.95. Ninety-six percent (290 were single while 4% (13 were married. Seventy-two percent (217 were students. Age at onset of sexual activity was 10-20 years in 80%, 85% practiced risky sexual behaviour, patronising casual partners was frequent especially after alcohol use, 10% had been exposed to CSWs, condom use was poor, number of sexual partners varied between 1 and 5 and previous infections were not professionally treated. Adolescents and young people are sexually active and practice risky sexual behavioural patterns. Adolescents and youths account for a high percentage of patients patronising the STD clinic. Sexual education and youth friendly reproductive health services are urgently needed to curb the spread of HIV/AIDS/STDs.

  5. Sexual behaviours and associated factors among students at Bahir Dar University: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-12-06

    Sexual behaviour is the core of sexuality matters in adolescents and youths. Their modest or dynamic behaviour vulnerable them to risky sexual behaviours. In Ethiopia, there is scarcity of multicentered representative data on sexual behaviours in students to have a national picture at higher education. This study therefore conducted to assess sexual behaviours and associated factors at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted among Bahir Dar University students from December to February 2013. Multistage sampling and self administered questionnaires were employed. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and mean were used to describe the study participants in relation to relevant variables. Multivariate analysis was carried for those variables that had a p-value of ≤ 0.2 in the bivariate analysis to identify the predictor variables. Of the 817 study participants, 297 (36.4%) students had ever had sex. The mean age at first sexual practice was 18.6 years. Unprotected sex, having multiple sex partners, sex with commercial sex workers and sex for the exchange of money was practiced by 184 (62%), 126 (42.7%), 22 (7.4%) and 12 (4%) of sexually active students, respectively. The proportion of attending night clubs and watching porn videos was 130 (15.8%) and 534 (65.4%), respectively. Male respondents had significant positive association with watching porn videos (AOR = 4.8, CI = 3.49 - 6.54) and attending night clubs (AOR = 3.9, CI = 2.3 - 6.7). Watching porn videos, attending night clubs, khat chewing and taking alcohol frequently were significantly associated for ever had sex and having multiple sexual partners. Khat chewing practice (AOR = 8.5, CI =1.31 - 55.5) and attending night clubs (AOR = 4.6, CI = 1.8 - 11.77) had statistical significant association with the purpose of sexual intercourse for the sake of money and for having sex with commercial sex workers, respectively. Significant number of students had different risky sexual

  6. Relationship between Migration and HIV Risky Behavior:a Comparative Study of Returning Migrants and Non Migrants Based on Rural Out-of-school Youth in Jilin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guang Rong; JI Cheng Ye; YANG Xing Hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the relationship between migration and HIV risky behavior when controlling for gender, age, and educational levels and to evaluate the gender differences in migration, HIV knowledge, and HIV risky behaviors among rural youth in China. Methods A cross-sectional, anonymous, investigative questionnaire for 1710 unmarried, out-of-school rural youth, aged between 15 and 24 years, was handed out in Gongzhuling county of Jilin province, China. Results 58.5%of participants had a history of migration, irrespective of gender. There were gender differences observed in other factors such as drug abuse (4.3%for males and 5.5%for females, P Conclusion Among rural youth, the HIV risky behavior such as drug abuse, selling sex, and lack of condom use, is significantly related to migration, while premarital sex and multiple sexual partners seem unrelated to migration.

  7. [Youth drinking as en example of relationship between risk behaviour and knowledge on its effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona-Wolny, Weronika; Brudecki, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    Using psychoactive substances like smoking, drinking or drugs are most common risky behaviour. In the article only drinking as an examples was analysed. Knowledge about alcohol health effects and its dependence on undertaking risky behaviour, alcohol-advertisement perception, sex and group were analysed. Between 2001 and 2005 343 sportsmen and 400 students as a control group were participated in research. Questionnaire diagnosed alcohol-related behaviour and alcohol-advertisement perceptions were used. Knowledge about effects of alcohol acting contains 11 questions. Chi-square test and multifactor analysis of variances were used. Results show that knowledge level depends only from group belonging and is higher in students than sportsmen. Susceptibility to undertaking risky behaviour occurs more frequently in control than in sport group, in man then woman, and in person with who pay attention to alcohol advertisements.

  8. Is Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT or its shorter versions more useful to identify risky drinkers in a Chinese population? A diagnostic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H K Yip

    Full Text Available To examine the diagnostic performance of shorter versions of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT, including Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-C, in identifying risky drinkers in primary care settings using conventional performance measures, supplemented by decision curve analysis and reclassification table.A cross-sectional study of adult males in general outpatient clinics in Hong Kong. The study included only patients who reported at least sometimes drinking alcoholic beverages. Timeline follow back alcohol consumption assessment method was used as the reference standard. A Chinese translated and validated 10-item AUDIT (Ch-AUDIT was used as a screening tool of risky drinking.Of the participants, 21.7% were classified as risky drinkers. AUDIT-C has the best overall performance among the shorter versions of Ch-AUDIT. The AUC of AUDIT-C was comparable to Ch-AUDIT (0.898 vs 0.901, p-value = 0.959. Decision curve analysis revealed that when the threshold probability ranged from 15-30%, the AUDIT-C had a higher net-benefit than all other screens. AUDIT-C improved the reclassification of risky drinking when compared to Ch-AUDIT (net reclassification improvement = 0.167. The optimal cut-off of AUDIT-C was at ≥5.Given the rising levels of alcohol consumption in the Chinese regions, this Chinese translated 3-item instrument provides convenient and time-efficient risky drinking screening and may become an increasingly useful tool.

  9. Does Fertility Status Influence Impulsivity and Risk Taking in Human Females? Adaptive Influences on Intertemporal Choice and Risky Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Kaighobadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Informed by the research on adaptive decision making in other animal species, this study investigated human females' intertemporal and risky choices across the ovulatory cycle. We tested the hypothesis that at peak fertility, women who are exposed to environments that signal availability of higher quality mates (by viewing images of attractive males, become more impulsive and risk-seeking in economic decision tasks. To test this, we collected intertemporal and risky choice measures before and after exposure to images of either attractive males or neutral landscapes both at peak and low fertility conditions. The results showed an interaction between women's fertility status and image type, such that women at peak fertility viewing images of attractive men chose the smaller, sooner monetary reward option less than women at peak fertility viewing neutral images. Neither fertility status nor image type influenced risky choice. Thus, though exposure to images of men altered intertemporal choices at peak fertility, this occurred in the opposite direction than predicted—i.e., women at peak fertility became less impulsive. Nevertheless, the results of the current study provide evidence for shifts in preferences over the ovulatory cycle and opens future research on economic decision making.

  10. The typological approach to the risky behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main research problem is focused on the following question: Is it possible to identify specific patterns of interaction between precipitating and protective factors for the risky behavior among adolescents. The research was conducted on the sample of 204 adolescents of both genders (18 to 20 years old. Specific personality traits and socio-demographic characteristics are manifested as the most important precipitating and/or protective factors for the risky behavior. The frame of reference for personality assessment was the alternative five-factor model (Zuckerman, 2002, specified in the ZKPQ-50-CC questionnaire, and consisted of the five biologically determined personality traits: activity, aggressiveness/hostility, impulsive sensation seeking, neuroticism/anxiety and sociability. Latent dimensions of the risky behavior: risky activities and life - conditions, were extracted by applying the homogeneity analyses (HOMALS. The matrix of squared Euclidean distances (in the common space of factor scores on the principal components of ZKPQ questionnaire, scores on HOMALS dimensions and school grades was a subject of the Ward hierarchical cluster analysis method, extracting three clusters. According to the discriminant functions: risk proneness and pro-social activity, the clusters were identified: the group of pro-social oriented adolescents, the aloof group and the group of adolescents prone to risky behavior. The results have considerable implications for the prevention programs’ development and implementation.

  11. Acute stress does not affect risky monetary decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sokol-Hessner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.

  12. Acute stress does not affect risky monetary decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Raio, Candace M; Gottesman, Sarah P; Lackovic, Sandra F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-01

    The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.

  13. Driving Behaviour Profile of Drivers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Derserri Y.; Lee, Hoe C.; Patomella, Ann-Helen; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    The symptomatology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can make driving risky, but little is known about the on-road driving behaviour of individuals with ASD. This study assessed and compared the on-road driving performance of drivers with and without ASD, and explored how the symptomatology of ASD hinders or facilitates on-road driving…

  14. A survey of risk behaviour for contracting HIV among adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry • September 2012. 329. Introduction ... behaviour may lead patients to engage in HIV-related risk ... or drugs, having sex with risky partners (intravenous drug users and sex .... Level of education and sexual orientation did not affect HIV .... them in private rooms, and looking after them under one-.

  15. Optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonchuay, Chanwit [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand); Ongsakul, Weerakorn, E-mail: ongsakul@ait.asi [Energy Field of Study, School of Environment, Resources and Development, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2011-02-15

    In this paper, an optimal risky bidding strategy for a generating company (GenCo) by self-organising hierarchical particle swarm optimisation with time-varying acceleration coefficients (SPSO-TVAC) is proposed. A significant risk index based on mean-standard deviation ratio (MSR) is maximised to provide the optimal bid prices and quantities. The Monte Carlo (MC) method is employed to simulate rivals' behaviour in competitive environment. Non-convex operating cost functions of thermal generating units and minimum up/down time constraints are taken into account. The proposed bidding strategy is implemented in a multi-hourly trading in a uniform price spot market and compared to other particle swarm optimisation (PSO). Test results indicate that the proposed SPSO-TVAC approach can provide a higher MSR than the other PSO methods. It is potentially applicable to risk management of profit variation of GenCo in spot market.

  16. Sexual behaviour among Ugandan university students: A gender perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Mehra, Devika

    2013-01-01

    Feminisation of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa is an important public health concern. Therefore, it is crucial that we understand the various risk factors that shape unsafe sexual behaviours among young people in Uganda. The overall aim of this thesis was to gain a deeper understanding of the various factors that have an association with risky sexual behaviours among Ugandan university students, focusing on a gender perspective. This knowledge can contribute to effective policy f...

  17. Risky business: how insurance companies gamble with your health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, J

    1993-01-01

    Under a patchwork of state laws and virtually no federal oversight, a decade of risky investments, questionable business dealings, lavish spending, and help-yourself ethics in the insurance industry is playing a hidden role in the crisis in affordable medical coverage. Skyrocketing medical costs are the main culprit, but financial losses have put pressure on insurers to raise premiums and cancel risky policyholders. The losses also are a major factor in the sharp increase in life/health insurance company failures, which can leave policyholders stranded.

  18. Exposure to the 'SIDA dans la Cité' AIDS prevention television series in Côte' d'Ivoire, sexual risk behaviour and condom use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D; Meekers, D; Tambashe, B

    2003-06-01

    This study assesses factors associated with viewing of 'SIDA dans la Cite', a weekly television soap opera on AIDS in Côte d'Ivoire, and the relationship between 'SIDA dans la Cite' viewing, sexual risk behaviour and condom use. The study uses across-sectional survey of 2150 respondents aged 15-49 in three regions. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the effect of'SIDA dans la Cite' exposure on condom use. The results show that 65% of the sample had seen at least one 'SIDA dans la Cite' episode. Among viewers, 27% of males and 41% of females had seen ten or more episodes. Persons who had risky sexual partners were particularly likely to watch the programme. Women who had seen ten or more episodes were 1.4 times more likely than non-viewers to have used a condom in last sex. Men who had seen ten or more episodes were 2. 7 times more likely to have used a condom. We conclude that television soap operas on AIDS, such as 'SIDA dans la Cite',can be an important tool for promoting condom use. The programme was most appealing to viewers who engaged in risky behaviour, who are the core transmitters of the virus. HIV prevention programmes that provide continuous information, through multiple media channels or through series of broadcasts, are likely to have the greatest impact on condom use.

  19. 凹唇姜(Boesenbergia rotunda)对雄性大鼠性行为的影响%Effects of Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. On sexual behaviour of male rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Sudwan; K. Saenphet; S. Aritajat; N. Sitasuwan

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of Boesenbergia rotunda (Krachai) on sexual behaviour in male albino rats. Methods:Thirty-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups: experimental groups were gavaged with the ethanolic extract of the rhizome of B. rotunda at doses of 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg and a control group received distilled water, for 60 days. Sexual behaviour, reproductive organs, diameter of seminiferous tubule, epididymal sperm density,and androgenic hormones were evaluated. Results: Within 30-min observation, there was no significant difference of courtship behaviour, mount frequency (MF), intromission frequency (IF), mount latency (ML), intromission latency(IL), copulatory efficiency or intercopulatory interval in male rats. In three 10-min intervals over a 30-min period,courtship behaviour and MF during the first 10-min were significantly higher than those in the second and third 10-min observation in all groups, whereas IF had no significant difference. All doses of B. rotunda extract significantly increased the relative testicular weight and the diameter of the seminiferous tubules. The dose of 60 mg/kg also significantly increased the relative weight of the seminal vesicle. Nevertheless, the sperm density, serum testosterone and androstenedione levels were not affected by the B. rotunda extract. Conclusion: B. rotunda does not affect sexual behaviour nor serum androgenic levels.%目的:研究凹唇姜(泰国沙姜)对雄性白化大鼠性行为的影响.方法:将32只Wistar大鼠平均分为四组.实验组喂凹唇姜根茎的乙醇提取物,剂量分别为60 mg/kg、120 mg/kg、240 mg/kg.对照组以进食蒸馏水作对照.60天后检测大鼠的性行为、生殖器官、输精管直径、附睾中精子的密度和雄激素水平.结果:在30分钟的观察期内雄性大鼠的求偶行为、爬高次数(MF)、插入次数(IF)、爬高潜伏期(ML)、插入潜伏期(IL)、交配效率和交配间隔没有显著的差别.30

  20. Risky individuals and the politics of genetic research into aggressiveness and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Elisa; Levitt, Mairi

    2008-11-01

    New genetic technologies promise to generate valuable insights into the aetiology of several psychiatric conditions, as well as a wider range of human and animal behaviours. Advances in the neurosciences and the application of new brain imaging techniques offer a way of integrating DNA analysis with studies that are looking at other biological markers of behaviour. While candidate 'genes for' certain conditions, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, are said to be 'un-discovered' at a faster rate than they are discovered, many studies are being conducted on personality traits such as aggressiveness and anti-social traits. The clinical applicability and implications of these studies are often discussed within the scientific community. However, little attention has so far been paid to their possible policy implications in relation to criminality management and to Criminal Law itself. Similarly, the related ethical issues arising in the field of crime control, and the tensions between enhancing security for society and protecting civil liberties, are currently under-explored. This paper investigates these ethical issues by focusing on the views of those professionals - including judges, lawyers, probation officers and social workers - who work with individuals 'deemed at risk' of violent and aggressive behaviours. It also discusses and problematizes mainstream rhetoric and arguments around the notion of 'risky individuals'.

  1. Male Gender Role Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Daig, Isolde

    2010-01-01

    Background: Men have a higher alcohol and cigarette consumption than women, they use more drugs, they have twice as high a suicide rate and only a minority of men attend on preventive medical checkups. Hypotheses: The central questions of the present study pertained to the identification of dysfunctional aspects of a male self concept and the possible correlations with risk behaviour of men in different age stages. One possible explanation for this high risk behaviour may be higher mascul...

  2. How Risky Are Recessions for Top Earners?

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Guvenen; Greg Kaplan; Jae Song

    2014-01-01

    How sensitive are the earnings of top earners to business cycles? And, how does the business cycle sensitivity of top earners vary by industry? We use a confidential dataset on earnings histories of US males from the Social Security Administration. On average, individuals in the top 1% of the earnings distribution are slightly more cyclical than the population average. But there are large differences across sectors: Top earners in Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate (FIRE) and Construction fa...

  3. Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk taking behaviour in travellers to Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabada, Miguel M; Mozo, Karen; Pantenburg, Birte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    The risks associated with alcohol intoxication are rarely discussed during pre-travel counselling. However, alcohol immoderation abroad may increase the exposure to health risks. Few studies have addressed alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviour in travellers to South America. From October to December of 2004, travellers leaving the city of Cusco in Peru were asked to fill out anonymous questionnaires regarding demographics, self-reported alcohol consumption, illness and risk behaviour for sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and travellers diarrhoea. Most travellers (87.2%) consumed alcohol and 20.4% reported inebriation in Cusco. Those admitting inebriation were more likely to be male, single, Cusco were more likely to seek medical attention, change itinerary, and report decreased satisfaction with the trip experience. In the multivariate analysis, inebriation was independently associated with reporting higher numbers of unsafe food choices, illicit drug use, and risky sexual activity. It is concluded that alcohol intoxication during travel was associated with increased risk taking behaviour for common travel related conditions. Although travel related illnesses were not associated with inebriation, some markers of illness severity were more often reported by those who admitted intoxication. Risk for heavy alcohol use abroad should be assessed during the pre-travel visit in certain groups and appropriate counselling should be provided.

  4. Allometric variation among juvenile, adult male and female eastern bearded dragons Pogona barbata (Cuvier, 1829), with comments on the behavioural implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotherspoon, Danny; Burgin, Shelley

    2011-02-01

    The functional significance of allometric change in reptiles has received limited attention and the reason for such changes has been regarded as 'obscure'. In this paper we report data on the Australian Pogona barbata, the eastern bearded dragon, from across their range and review changes in allometric growth among juveniles, and adult males and females and consider the functional relevance of these changes. There were significant differences in the population for mass, tail length, tail width, rear leg length and jaw length. These differences were consistent with differences required in locomotor performance and thus habitat use, together with access to different preferred dietary components. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceptions of parents on how religion influences adolescents' sexual behaviours in two Ghanaian communities: implications for HIV and AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osafo, Joseph; Asampong, Emmanuel; Langmagne, Sussan; Ahiedeke, Clement

    2014-08-01

    To understand the role of religion in the sexual behaviours of adolescents, the views of parents who are key agents of socialization were examined from two south-eastern communities in Ghana. Focus Group interviews were conducted with mothers (and female caregivers) of adolescents and one with fathers (and male caregivers) of adolescents. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Findings indicated that parents from one community perceived religion as playing a double-edged role in adolescents' sexual behaviours as on one hand it played a protective role by restraining adolescents from risky sexual behaviours; on the other hand it disparaged the existing traditional measures that regulated adolescents' sexual behaviour. However, parents from the other community found a collaborative interface between the existing social control measures-communal socialization and proscriptive morality with religious ethics. Religious socialization, social capital theory and the concept of social suffering are used to explain some of the findings of this study. Implications for HIV and AIDS education and prevention are also discussed.

  6. Frequent Nonprescription Stimulant Use and Risky Behaviors in College Students: The Role of Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Adam M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; Balkhi, Amanda M.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; Cottler, Linda B.; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. Participants: A sample of 555 college students was…

  7. Expectation and cooperation in prisoner's dilemmas: The moderating role of game riskiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gary Ting Tat; Au, Wing Tung

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigated the effect of risk orientation, game riskiness, and expectation of cooperation on cooperation in one-shot prisoner's dilemmas (PD). Participants in pairs played PD games that varied on game riskiness such that for half of the games cooperation was more risky than defection (more risky games) while for another half cooperation was less risky (less risky games). They estimated how likely it was that the other player was going to cooperate (expectation of cooperation) before they made their cooperation/defection decision on each game. Supporting the Goal/Expectation Hypothesis, we replicated the effect that expectation of cooperation enhanced cooperation. We also found that risk-seeking individuals cooperated more in more risky games whereas risk-averse individuals cooperated more in less risky games. More importantly, we found that game riskiness moderated the effect of expectation of cooperation on cooperation. The positive effect of expectation of cooperation on cooperation was stronger for more risky games than for less risky games. Our results illustrated how the relation between expectation and cooperation as stipulated by the Goal/Expectation Hypothesis was moderated by riskiness of the situations.

  8. Adolescents risky MP3-player listening and its psychosocial correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Analogue to occupational noise-induced hearing loss, MP3-induced hearing loss may be evolving into a significant social and public health problem. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study investigated correlates of adolescents' risky MP3-player listening behavior primarily infor

  9. Relationship Between Methamphetamine Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Fang Yen

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse and risky sexual behavior have been identified as behaviors that can endanger adolescent psychosocial development. This study examined the relationship between methamphetamine (MAMP use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents. Risky sexual behavior was compared not only between MAMP users and non-users, but also between high-frequency and low-frequency MAMP users. We compared the sexual intercourse histories of 85 adolescents formally charged as MAMP users with those of 170 gender-matched adolescents with no record of MAMP use. MAMP usage characteristics were compared between users who had and those who had not experienced sexual intercourse. Previous sexual experience was more likely in MAMP users than in non-users. MAMP users were also more likely to have had a greater total number of sexual partners and were more likely to have had unplanned sex under the influence of alcohol. High-frequency MAMP use was associated with increased tendencies to engage in unprotected sex and to use MAMP before sexual intercourse. In general, the chance of sexual intercourse increased in proportion to frequency of MAMP use. Given the clear link between MAMP use and risky sexual behavior, risk-reduction programs directed at teen MAMP users are urgently needed.

  10. Brief Report: Associations between Emotional Competence and Adolescent Risky Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessler, Danielle M.; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines associations between emotional competence (i.e., awareness, regulation, comfort with expression) and adolescent risky behavior. Children from a longitudinal study participated at age 9 and 16 (N = 88). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with children about their emotional experiences and coded for areas of…

  11. Locus of control and investment in risky assets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salamanca, N.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.; Montizaan, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    Using representative household panel data, we show that the investment behavior of households is related to the economic locus of control of household heads. A household's internal locus of control in economic issues is positively related to its decision to hold risky assets as well as its share of

  12. Pessimism, Trauma, Risky Sex: Covariates of Depression in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanholm, Eric; Vosvick, Mark; Chng, Chwee-Lye

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explain variance in depression in students (N = 648) using a model incorporating sexual trauma, pessimism, and risky sex. Method: Survey data collected from undergraduate students receiving credit for participation. Results: Controlling for demographics, a hierarchical linear regression analysis [Adjusted R[superscript 2] = 0.34,…

  13. Distortion of Probability and Outcome Information in Risky Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKay, Michael L.; Patino-Echeverri, Dalia; Fischbeck, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that information is distorted during decision making, but very few studies have assessed the distortion of probability and outcome information in risky decisions. In two studies involving six binary decisions (e.g., banning blood donations from people who have visited England, because of "mad cow disease"),…

  14. "It Is Riskier": Preschoolers' Reasoning of Risky Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforidou, Zoi

    2017-01-01

    Risk is a fundamental component of well-being and is interconnected with all aspects of child development. The aim of this paper is to explore children's (N = 50) own perspectives and perceptions of risky situations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and images were used as prompts. Children aged five to six years were asked to identify…

  15. Delay Discounting Mediates Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Risky Sexual Behavior for Low Self-Control Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Rachel E; Holmes, Christopher; Farley, Julee P; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen

    2015-09-01

    Parent-adolescent relationship quality and delay discounting may play important roles in adolescents' sexual decision making processes, and levels of self-control during adolescence could act as a buffer within these factors. This longitudinal study included 219 adolescent (55 % male; mean age = 12.66 years at Wave 1; mean age = 15.10 years at Wave 2) and primary caregiver dyads. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was utilized to determine whether delay discounting mediated the association between parent-adolescent relationship quality and adolescents' risky sexual behavior and how this mediated association may differ between those with high versus low self-control. The results revealed parent-adolescent relationship quality plays a role in the development of risky sexual behavior indirectly through levels of delay discounting, but only for adolescents with low self-control. These findings could inform sex education policies and health prevention programs that address adolescent risky sexual behavior.

  16. Observation of public health risk behaviours, risk communication and hand hygiene at Kansas and Missouri petting zoos--2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdozain, G; KuKanich, K; Chapman, B; Powell, D

    2013-06-01

    Outbreaks of human illness have been linked to visiting settings with animal contact throughout developed countries. This study details an observational study of hand hygiene tool availability and recommendations; frequency of risky behaviour; and handwashing attempts by visitors in Kansas (9) and Missouri (4), USA, petting zoos. Handwashing signs and hand hygiene stations were available at the exit of animal-contact areas in 10/13 and 8/13 petting zoos, respectively. Risky behaviours were observed being performed at all petting zoos by at least one visitor. Frequently observed behaviours were as follows: children (10/13 petting zoos) and adults (9/13 petting zoos) touching hands to face within animal-contact areas; animals licking children's and adults' hands (7/13 and 4/13 petting zoos, respectively); and children and adults drinking within animal-contact areas (5/13 petting zoos each). Of 574 visitors observed for hand hygiene when exiting animal-contact areas, 37% (n = 214) of individuals attempted some type of hand hygiene, with male adults, female adults and children attempting at similar rates (32%, 40% and 37%, respectively). Visitors were 4.8× more likely to wash their hands when a staff member was present within or at the exit to the animal-contact area (136/231, 59%) than when no staff member was present (78/343, 23%; P zoos with a fence as a partial barrier to human-animal contact were 2.3× more likely to wash their hands (188/460, 40.9%) than visitors allowed to enter the animals' yard for contact (26/114, 22.8%; P zoos outlining risks associated with animal contact, or providing recommendations for precautions to be taken to reduce these risks. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes investigated by three-colour FISH on 35,142 sperm nuclei from two 47,XYY males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevret, E; Rousseaux, S; Monteil, M; Usson, Y; Cozzi, J; Pelletier, R; Sele, B

    1997-03-01

    Meiotic segregation of sex chromosomes from two fertile 47,XYY men was analysed by a three-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation procedure. This method allows the identification of hyperhaploidies (spermatozoa with 24 chromosomes) and diploidies (spermatozoa with 46 chromosomes), and their meiotic origin (meiosis I or II). Alpha-satellite probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 1 were observed simultaneously in 35,142 sperm nuclei. For both 47,XYY men (24,315 sperm nuclei analysed from one male and 10,827 from the other one) the sex ratio differs from the expected 1:1 ratio (P XYY men compared with control sperm (142,050 sperm nuclei analysed from five control men), whereas the rates of hyperhaploidy XY, disomy X and disomy 1 were not significantly different from those of control sperm. These results support the hypothesis that the extra Y chromosome is lost before meiosis with a proliferative advantage of the resulting 46,XY germ cells. Our observations also suggest that a few primary spermatocytes with two Y chromosomes are able to progress through meiosis and to produce Y-bearing sperm cells. A theoretical pairing of the three gonosomes in primary spermatocytes with an extra sex chromosome, compatible with active spermatogenesis, is proposed.

  18. Association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students- a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Devika; Kyagaba, Emmanuel; Ostergren, Per-Olof; Agardh, Anette

    2014-04-16

    Little is known about the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors and if this differs by gender, among university students. Academic performance can create psychological pressure in young students. Poor academic performance might thus potentially contribute to risky sexual behavior among university students. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported academic performance and risky sexual behaviors, and whether gender affects this relationship among Ugandan university students. In 2010, 1,954 students participated in a cross-sectional survey, conducted at Mbarara University of Science and Technology in southwestern Uganda (72% response rate). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used for the analysis. 1,179 (60.3%) students in our study sample reported having debuted sexually. Of these 440 (42.2%) used condoms inconsistently with new sexual partners, and 344 (33.6%) had had multiple sexual partners. We found a statistically significant association between poor academic performance and inconsistent condom use with a new sex partner and this association remained significant even after adjusting for all the potential confounders. There was no such association detected regarding multiple sexual partners. We also found that gender modified the effect of poor academic performance on inconsistent condom use. Females, who were poor academic performers, were found to be at a higher risk of inconsistent condom use than their male counterparts. Interventions should be designed to provide extra support to poor academic performers, which may improve their performance and self-esteem, which in turn might reduce their risky sexual behaviors.

  19. Fatalism and its implications for risky road use and receptiveness to safety messages: a qualitative investigation in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayani, A; King, M J; Fleiter, J J

    2012-12-01

    Given the increasing vehicle numbers and expanding road construction in developing countries, the importance of safe road user behaviour is critical. Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a significant problem in Pakistan; however, the factors that contribute to RTCs in Pakistan are not well researched. Fatalistic beliefs are a potential barrier to the enhancement of road safety, especially participation in health-promoting and injury prevention behaviours, and also contribute to risk taking. Fatalistic beliefs relating to road safety have been found in some developing countries, although research is scarce and indicates that the nature and extent of fatalism differs in each country. Qualitative research was undertaken with a range of drivers, religious orators, police and policy makers to explore associations between fatalism, risky road use and associated issues. Findings indicate that fatalistic beliefs are pervasive in Pakistan, are strongly linked with religion, present a likely barrier to road safety messages and contribute to risky road use. Fatalism appears to be a default attribution of RTC and the intensity of belief in fate surpasses the kinds of fatalism noted in the limited existing literature. These findings have importance to developing road safety countermeasures in countries where fatalistic beliefs are strong.

  20. Get a license, buckle up, and slow down: risky driving patterns among saudis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Robinson, Margaret; Jaber, Sara; Mikhitarian, Sarah; Wilson, Shelley; Memish, Ziad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Almazroa, Mohammad A; Mokdad, Ali H

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic injuries are the largest cause of loss of disability-adjusted life years for men and women of all ages in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, but data on driving habits there are lacking. To inform policymakers on drivers' abilities and driving habits, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey 2013. We surveyed a representative sample of 5,235 Saudi males aged 15 years or older on wearing seat belts, exceeding speed limits, and using a handheld cell phone while driving. Male and female respondents were surveyed on wearing seat belts as passengers. Among Saudi males, 71.7% reported having had a driver's license, but more than 43% of unlicensed males drove a vehicle. Among drivers, 86.1% engaged in at least one risky behavior while driving. Older and unlicensed drivers were more likely to take risks while driving. This risk decreased among the more educated, current smokers, and those who are physically active. Up to 94.9% and 98.5% of respondents reported not wearing a seat belt in the front and the back passenger seats, respectively. The high burden of road traffic injuries in the Kingdom is not surprising given our findings. Our study calls for aggressive monitoring and enforcement of traffic laws. Awareness and proper education for drivers and their families should be developed jointly by the Ministries of Health, Interior Affairs, and Education and provided through their channels.

  1. Investigating the potential causal relationship between parental knowledge and youth risky behavior: a propensity score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippold, Melissa A; Coffman, Donna L; Greenberg, Mark T

    2014-12-01

    This longitudinal study aims to explore the potential causal relationship between parental knowledge and youth risky behavior among a sample of rural, early adolescents (84 % White, 47 % male). Using inverse propensity weighting, the sample was adjusted by controlling for 33 potential confounding variables. Confounding variables include other aspects of the parent-child relationship, parental monitoring, demographic variables, and earlier levels of problem behavior. The effect of parental knowledge was significant for youth substance and polysubstance use initiation, alcohol and cigarette use, attitudes towards substance use, and delinquency. Our results suggest that parental knowledge may be causally related to substance use during middle school, as the relationship between knowledge and youth outcomes remained after controlling for 33 different confounding variables. The discussion focuses on understanding issues of causality in parenting and intervention implications.

  2. Heritable temperament pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D; Hyde, Luke W

    2016-12-01

    Early callous-unemotional behaviours identify children at risk for antisocial behaviour. Recent work suggests that the high heritability of callous-unemotional behaviours is qualified by interactions with positive parenting. To examine whether heritable temperament dimensions of fearlessness and low affiliative behaviour are associated with early callous-unemotional behaviours and whether parenting moderates these associations. Using an adoption sample (n = 561), we examined pathways from biological mother self-reported fearlessness and affiliative behaviour to child callous-unemotional behaviours via observed child fearlessness and affiliative behaviour, and whether adoptive parent observed positive parenting moderated pathways. Biological mother fearlessness predicted child callous-unemotional behaviours via earlier child fearlessness. Biological mother low affiliative behaviour predicted child callous-unemotional behaviours, although not via child affiliative behaviours. Adoptive mother positive parenting moderated the fearlessness to callous-unemotional behaviour pathway. Heritable fearlessness and low interpersonal affiliation traits contribute to the development of callous-unemotional behaviours. Positive parenting can buffer these risky pathways. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  3. Facilitation and inhibition of male rat ejaculatory behaviour by the respective 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptor agonists 8-OH-DPAT and anpirtoline, as evidenced by use of the corresponding new and selective receptor antagonists NAD-299 and NAS-181

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillegaart, Viveka; Ahlenius, Sven

    1998-01-01

    Ejaculatory problems and anorgasmia are well-known side-effects of the SSRI antidepressants, and a pharmacologically induced increase in serotonergic neurotransmission inhibits ejaculatory behaviour in the rat. In the present study the role of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors in the mediation of male rat ejaculatory behaviour was examined by use of selective agonists and antagonists acting at these 5-HT receptor subtypes.The 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (0.25–4.00 μmol kg−1 s.c.) produced an expected facilitation of the male rat ejaculatory behaviour, and this effect was fully antagonized by pretreatment with the new selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist (R)-3-N,N-dicyclobutylamino-8-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-5-carboxamide hydrogen (2R,3R) tartrate monohydrate (NAD-299) (1.0 μmol kg−1 s.c.). NAD-299 by itself (0.75–3.00 μmol kg−1 s.c.) did not affect the male rat ejaculatory behaviour.The 5-HT1B receptor agonist anpirtoline (0.25–4.00 μmol kg−1 s.c.) produced a dose-dependent inhibition of the male rat ejaculatory behaviour, and this effect was fully antagonized by pretreatment with the 5-HT1B receptor antagonist isamoltane (16 μmol kg−1 s.c.) as well as by the new and selective antagonist (R)-(+)-2-(3-morpholinomethyl-2H-chromene-8-yl)oxymethylmorpholino methansulphonate (NAS-181) (16 μmol kg−1 s.c.). Isamoltane (1.0–16.0 μmol kg−1 s.c.) and NAD-181 (1.0–16.0 μmol kg−1 s.c.) had no, or weakly facilitatory effects on the male rat ejaculatory behaviour. The non-selective 5-HT1 receptor antagonist (−)-pindolol (8 μmol kg−1 s.c.), did not antagonize the inhibition produced by anpirtoline.The present results demonstrate opposite effects, facilitation and inhibition, of male rat ejaculatory behaviour by stimulation of 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors, respectively, suggesting that the SSRI-induced inhibition of male ejaculatory dysfunction is due to 5-HT1B receptor stimulation. PMID:9886765

  4. Multi-system influences on adolescent risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Thompson, Elaine Adams; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne

    2010-12-01

    We examined multi-system influences on risky sexual behavior measured by cumulative sexual risk index and number of nonromantic sexual partners among 4,465 single, sexually experienced adolescents. Hierarchical Poisson regression analyses were conducted with Wave I-II data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Individual and family factors predicted both outcome measures. Neighborhood set predicted cumulative sexual risk index only, and peer factors predicted the number of nonromantic sexual partners only. School set did not predict either outcome. There were significant associations among risky sexual behavior, drug use, and delinquent behaviors. The results highlight the need for multifaceted prevention programs that address relevant factors related to family, peer and neighborhood influence as well as individual factors among sexually active adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Practices and perception of risk in human immunodeficiency virus infected males who have sex with other males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new

  6. Preventing Risky Drinking in Veterans Treated with Prescription Opioids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE April 2017 2. REPORT TYPE ANNUAL 3. DATES COVERED 1April2016 - 31March2017 4. TITLE AND...engaging in risky drinking are at heightened risk for drug interactions, including overdose and other negative effects, particularly if they are also...messages. We propose to conduct a study in which returning OEF/OIF individuals and other veterans receiving medical care at the Philadelphia VAMC (N

  7. Reducing Risky Alcohol Use: What Health Care Systems Can Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Amity E; Brolin, Mary; Stewart, Maureen T; Evans, Brooke; Horgan, Constance

    2016-04-27

    Risky, non-dependent alcohol use is prevalent in the United States, affecting 25% of adults (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014b). Massachusetts has higher rates of alcohol use and binge drinking than most states (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2015). Serious physical, social, and economic consequences result. Excessive alcohol use contributes to cancer, cardiovascular disease, sleep disorders, birth defects, motor vehicle injuries, and suicide, and it complicates management of chronic illnesses (Green, McKnight-Eily, Tan, Mejia, & Denny, 2016; Laramee et al., 2015; Mokdad, Marks, Stroup, & Gerberding, 2004; Rehm et al., 2009). Excessive alcohol use is one of the top causes of death, and over 240 alcohol-related deaths occur daily in the US (Mokdad et al., 2004; Stahre, Roeber, Kanny, Brewer, & Zhang, 2014). In comparison, 78 people die from an opioid overdose each day (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2016). Excessive drinking is estimated to cost over $249 billion annually in the US and $5.6 billion in the Commonwealth (Sacks, Gonzales, Bouchery, Tomedi, & Brewer, 2015). This issue brief describes the scope of the risky drinking problem in the US and associated costs and consequences. The brief then examines the evidence base for tools to address risky drinking and outlines policy strategies that health care system stakeholders may employ to address further this critical public health issue. Screening and brief intervention (SBI) is an evidence-based, cost-effective practice to address risky alcohol use, typically using a short validated screening tool followed by a brief counseling session if a patient screens positive. Research shows SBI conducted in primary care outpatient settings significantly reduces alcohol use (Bertholet, Daeppen, Wietlisbach, Fleming, & Burnand, 2005b; Bien, Miller, & Tonigan, 1993; Kaner et al., 2009; Saitz, 2010a), hospitalizations (Fleming, Barry, Manwell, Johnson, & London, 1997b

  8. IMPACT OF ASPIRATIONS ON RISK JUDGMENT AND ON RISKY CHOICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sokołowska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presented experiments are aimed at determining: (1 whether risk perception and risk acceptance are two distinct psychological processes and (2 how aspirations affect each process. It has been tested whether risk is independent of and preferences are depend on aspirations. In Experiment 172 employees of a high-tech company were presented with pairs of risky projects. The aspiration level was de fined as the target return on the project and was set through an explicit instruction. In Experiment 2 93 bridge players were presented with pairs of contracts – one a sure thing and the other a risky one. The aspiration level was related to the team IMP points after the first part of a knockout tournament and was set through an instruction. In both experiments with a between-subject design, two different aspiration levels were set for each group. All respondents were asked to judge riskiness of presented options and to select one. The results indicate that risk perception is insensitive to changes in aspirations, but preferences are. This supports distinctness of risk perception and risk cceptance.

  9. A Mixture IRT Analysis of Risky Youth Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes eFinch

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study reported in this manuscript used a mixture item response model with data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey 2009 (N = 16,410 to identify subtypes of adolescents at-risk for engaging in unhealthy behaviors, and to find individual survey items that were most effective at identifying such students within each subtype. The goal of the manuscript is twofold: 1 To demonstrate the utility of the mixture item response theory model for identifying subgroups in the population and for highlighting the use of group specific item response parameters and 2 To identify typologies of adolescents based on their propensity for engaging in sexually and substance use risky behaviors. Results indicate that 4 classes of youth exist in the population, with differences in risky sexual behaviors and substance use. The first group had a greater propensity to engage in risky sexual behavior, while group 2 was more likely to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol. Group 3 was the most likely to use other substances, such as marijuana, methamphetamine, and other mind altering drugs, and group 4 had the lowest propensity for engaging in any of the sexual or substance use behaviors included in the survey. Finally, individual items were identified for each group that can be most effective at identifying individuals at greatest risk. Further proposed directions of research and the contribution of this analysis to the existing literature are discussed.

  10. Urbanisation, poverty and sexual behaviour: the tale of five African cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Meredith J; Dodoo, F Nii-Amoo; Jayaraman, Anuja

    2011-01-01

    The question of how urbanisation and poverty are linked in sub-Saharan Africa is an increasingly pressing one. The urban character of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa exacerbates concern about the urbanisation - poverty relationship. Recent empirical work has linked urban poverty, and particularly slum residence, to risky sexual behaviour in Kenya's capital city, Nairobi. This paper explores the generalisability of these assertions about the relationship between urban poverty and sexual behaviour using Demographic and Health Survey data from five African cities: Accra (Ghana), Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania), Harare (Zimbabwe), Kampala (Uganda) and Nairobi (Kenya). The study affirms that, although risky behaviour varies across the five cities, slum residents demonstrate riskier sexual behaviour compared with non-slum residents. There is earlier sexual debut, lower condom usage and more multiple sexual partners among women residing in slum households regardless of setting, suggesting a relatively uniform effect of urban poverty on sexual risk behaviour.

  11. Accident history, risk perception and traffic safe behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueutsa, Robert; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi

    2017-09-01

    This study clarifies the associations between accident history, perception of the riskiness of road travel and traffic safety behaviours by taking into account the number and severity of accidents experienced. A sample of 525 road users in Cameroon answered a questionnaire comprising items on perception of risk, safe behaviour and personal accident history. Participants who reported involvement in more than three accidents or involvement in a severe accident perceived road travel as less risky and also reported behaving less safely compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. The results have practical implications for the prevention of traffic accidents. Practitioner Summary: The associations between accident history, perceived risk of road travel and safe behaviour were investigated using self-report questionnaire data. Participants involved in more than three accidents, or in severe accidents, perceived road travel as less risky and also reported more unsafe behaviour compared with those involved in fewer, or less severe accidents. Campaigns targeting people with a less serious, less extensive accident history should aim to increase awareness of hazards and the potential severity of their consequences, as well as emphasising how easy it is to take the recommended preventive actions. Campaigns targeting those involved in more frequent accidents, and survivors of serious accidents, should address feelings of invulnerability and helplessness.

  12. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Östergren Per-Olof

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80% out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3, early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7, as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0, but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners

  13. Experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among Ugandan university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Growing worldwide evidence shows that the experience of sexual coercion is fairly prevalent among young people and is associated with risky sexual behavior thereafter. The causal mechanisms behind this are unclear but may be dependent on specific contextual determinants. Little is known about factors that could buffer the negative effects of coercion. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the experience of sexual coercion and risky sexual behavior among university students of both sexes in Uganda. Methods In 2005, 980 (80%) out of a total of 1,220 students enrolled in Mbarara University of Science and Technology in Uganda participated in a self-administered questionnaire covering socio-demographic and religious factors, social capital, mental health, alcohol use, and sexual behavior. A validated scale of six items was used to assess the experience of sexual coercion. Logistic regression analyses were applied to control for confounders. Potential buffering factors were analyzed by testing for effect modification. Results Fifty-nine percent of those who responded had previously had sexual intercourse. Among the male students 29.0%, and among the female students 33.1% reported having had some experience of sexual coercion. After controlling for age, gender, and educational level of household of origin, role of religion and trust in others sexual coercion was found to be statistically significantly associated with previously had sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI; 1.1-2.3), early sexual debut (OR 2.4, 95% CI; 1.5-3.7), as well as with having had a great number of sexual partners (OR 1.9, 95% CI; 1.2-3.0), but not with inconsistent condom use. Scoring low on an assessment of mental health problems, reporting high trust in others, or stating that religion played a major role in one's family of origin seemed to buffer the negative effect that the experience of sexual coercion had on the likelihood of having many sexual partners. Conclusion The findings

  14. Subgrouping of risky behaviors among Iranian college students: a latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiri S

    2016-07-01

    also estimated. Three latent classes were determined: 1 low risk; 2 cigarette and hookah smoker; and 3 high risk. It is worth mentioning that 3.7% of males and 0.4% of females were in the high risk group.Conclusion: Subgrouping of college students showed that a considerable percentage of them, especially males, were classified into the high risk and cigarette and hookah smoker groups. Appropriate preventive measures that consider multiple different risky behaviors simultaneously are needed for this part of the population. Keywords: alcohol drinking, sexual behavior, latent class analysis, risk behaviors, drug abuse, substance abuse

  15. Children's Risky Play from an Evolutionary Perspective: The Anti-Phobic Effects of Thrilling Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter; Leif Edward Ottesen Kennair

    2011-01-01

    This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers) that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors tha...

  16. The discrepancy between risky and riskless utilities: a matter of framing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalmeier, P F; Bezembinder, T G

    1999-01-01

    Utilities differ according to whether they are derived from risky (gamble) and riskless (visual analog scale, time-tradeoff) assessment methods. The discrepancies are usually explained by assuming that the utilities elicited by risky methods incorporate attitudes towards risk, whereas riskless utilities do not. In (cumulative) prospect theory, risk attitude is conceived as consisting of two components: a decision-weight function (attentiveness to changes in, or sensitivity towards, chance) and a utility function (sensitivity towards outcomes). The authors' data suggest that a framing effect is a hitherto unrecognized and important factor in causing discrepancies between risky and riskless utilities. They collected risky evaluations with the gamble method, and riskless evaluations with difference measurement. Risky utilities were derived using expected-utility theory and prospect theory. With the latter approach, sensitivity towards outcomes and sensitivity towards chance are modeled separately. When the hypothesis that risky utilities from prospect theory coincide with riskless utilities was tested, it was rejected (n = 8, F(1,7) = 132, p = 0.000), suggesting that a correction for sensitivity towards chance is not sufficient to resolve the difference between risky and riskless utilities. Next, it was assumed that different gain/loss frames are induced by risky and riskless elicitation methods. Indeed, identical utility functions were obtained when the gain/loss frames were made identical across methods (n = 7), suggesting that framing was operative. The results suggest that risky and riskless utilities are identical after corrections for sensitivity towards chance and framing.

  17. Study of Drivers’ Behaviour at a Passive Railway Crossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kasalica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Problem: The number of killed and injured persons in incidents at railway level crossings is generally increasing on the Serbian Railways, particularly at passive crossings. In this paper we researched the direct behaviour of road traffic participants at a conventional railway passive crossing. Method: Direct observational study of drivers’ behaviour at a level crossing. Results: Sixty-one road vehicle drivers were observed in the moments of train approach. The probability of crossing varies depending on the train distance and the time the driver has to cross the crossing. The drivers who have limited visibility cannot estimate the speed of the approaching train well and make more risky decisions. Conclusion: This study shows that the number of “risky crossings” is worrying as the result of such crossings is a large number of accidents with fatal consequences at the passive crossings in Serbia.

  18. Risk behaviour and noise exposure among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, Margareta C; Erlandsson, Soly I

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents in Western society often expose themselves to high levels of sound in gyms, rock concerts, discotheques etc. As these behaviours are as threatening to young people's health as more traditional risk behaviours are, our aim in the present study was to analyze the relationship between self-exposure to noise, risk behaviours and risk judgements among 310 Swedish adolescents aged 15-20 (167 men; 143 women). Adolescents' behaviour in different traditional risk situations correlated with behaviour in noisy environments, while judgements about traditional risks correlated with judgements regarding noise exposure. It is an interesting finding that although young women judge risk situations as generally more dangerous than young men do, they nevertheless behave in the same way. We suggest that this difference is a social and cultural phenomenon which underscores the importance of adopting a gender perspective in the analysis of risk factors. Adolescents reporting permanent tinnitus judged loud music as more risky than adolescents with no symptoms and they did not listen to loud music as often as those with occasional tinnitus. Research on hearing prevention for young people needs to acknowledge and make use of theories on risk behaviour, especially due to the existence of a relationship between adolescents' risk-taking in noisy environments and other types of risk-taking. Similarly, theories on risk behaviour should acknowledge noise as a risk factor.

  19. Individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use, sexual risk behaviours on sexually transmitted infections among young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people: results from the GOANNA survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Ward, James; Bryant, Joanne; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Worth, Heather; Pitts, Marian; Kaldor, John M

    2016-07-19

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been increasing among Australian Indigenous young people for over two decades. Little is known about the association between alcohol and other drug use and sexual risk behaviours and diagnosis of STIs among this population. A cross-sectional, community based self-administered survey was conducted among young Aboriginal people aged 16-29 years of age. Questionnaires included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, sexual risk behaviours alcohol and other drug use and health service access including self-reported history of diagnosis with a STI. Logistic regression models and population attributable risks were used to assess individual and population level impacts of illicit drug use on high risk sexual behaviours and ever reported diagnosis of an STI. Of the 2877 participants, 2320 (81 %) identified as sexually active and were included in this study. More than 50 % of the study population reported that they had used at least one illicit drug in past year. Cannabis, ecstasy and methamphetamines were the three most commonly used illicit drugs in the past year. The prevalence of self-reported STI diagnosis was 25 %. Compared with people who did not report using illicit drugs, risky alcohol use and sexual behaviours including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners in the past year and sex with casual partners were all significantly higher among illicit drug users. In adjusted analysis, participants who reported using illicit drugs were significantly more likely to engage in sexual risk behaviours and to ever have been diagnosed with an STI. Adjusted Odds Ratios ranged from 1.86 to 3.00 (males) and from 1.43 to 2.46 (females). At the population level, more than 70 % of the STI diagnoses were attributed to illicit drug-use and sexual risk behaviours for males and females. Illicit drug use in this population is relatively high compared to other similar aged populations in Australia. Illicit drug use was

  20. Risky Zoographies: The Limits of Place in Avian Flu Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Porter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Global anxieties about avian influenza stem from a growing recognition that highly-virulent, highly-mobile disease vectors infiltrate human spaces in ways that are difficult to perceive, and even more difficult to manage. This article analyses a participatory health intervention in Việt Nam to explore how avian influenza threats challenge long-held understandings of animals’ place in the environment and society. In this intervention, poultry farmers collaborated with health workers to illustrate maps of avian flu risks in their communities. Participant-observation of the risk-mapping exercises shows that health workers treated poultry as commodities, and located these animals in environments that could be transformed and dominated by humans. However, these maps did not sufficiently represent the physical and social landscapes where humans and poultry coexist in Việt Nam. As such, farmers located poultry in environments dominated by risky nonhuman forces such as winds, waterways, and other organisms. I argue that these divergent risk maps demonstrate how ecological factors, interpersonal networks, and global market dynamics combine to engender a variety of interspecies relationships, which in turn shape the location of disease risks in space. I develop the term risky zoographies to signal the emergence of competing descriptions of animals and their habitats in zoonotic disease contexts. This concept suggests that as wild animals, livestock products, and microbial pathogens continue to globalise, place-based health interventions that limit animals to particular locales are proving inadequate. Risky zoographies signal the inextricability of nonhuman animals from human spaces, and reveal interspecies interactions that transect and transcend environments.

  1. Parents' and peers' contribution to risky driving of male teen drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Kaplan, Sigal; Lotan, Tsippy

    2015-01-01

    The current study joins efforts devoted to understanding the associations of parents' personality, attitude, and behavior, and to evaluating the added contribution of peers to the driving behavior of young drivers during their solo driving. The study combines data gathered using in-vehicle data r...

  2. A Comparison of Two Models of Risky Sexual Behavior During Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braje, Sopagna Eap; Eddy, J Mark; Hall, Gordon C N

    2016-01-01

    Two models of risky sexual behavior (RSB) were compared in a community sample of late adolescents (N = 223). For the traumagenic model, early negative sexual experiences were posited to lead to an association between negative affect with sexual relationships. For the cognitive escape model, depressive affect was posited to lead to engagement in RSB as a way to avoid negative emotions. The current study examined whether depression explained the relationship between sexual trauma and RSB, supporting the cognitive escape model, or whether it was sexual trauma that led specifically to RSB, supporting the traumagenic model. Physical trauma experiences were also examined to disentangle the effects of sexual trauma compared to other emotionally distressing events. The study examined whether the results would be moderated by participant sex. For males, support was found for the cognitive escape model but not the traumagenic model. Among males, physical trauma and depression predicted engagement in RSB but sexual trauma did not. For females, support was found for the traumagenic and cognitive escape model. Among females, depression and sexual trauma both uniquely predicted RSB. There was an additional suppressor effect of socioeconomic status in predicting RSB among females. Results suggest that the association of trauma type with RSB depends on participant sex. Implications of the current study for RSB prevention efforts are discussed.

  3. Male-male pheromone signalling in a lekking Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widemo, Fredrik; Johansson, Björn G

    2006-03-22

    Interest in sex pheromones has mainly been focused on mate finding, while relatively little attention has been given to the role of sex pheromones in mate choice and almost none to competition over mates. Here, we study male response to male pheromones in the lekking Drosophila grimshawi, where males deposit long-lasting pheromone streaks that attract males and females to the leks and influence mate assessment. We used two stocks of flies and both stocks adjusted their pheromone depositing behaviour in response to experimental manipulation, strongly indicating male ability to distinguish between competitors from qualitative differences in pheromone streaks alone. This is the first example of an insect distinguishing between individual odour signatures. Pheromone signalling influenced competition over mates, as males adjusted their investment in pheromone deposition in response to foreign pheromone streaks. Both sexes adapt their behaviour according to information from olfactory cues in D. grimshawi, but the relative benefits from male-female, as compared to male-male signalling, remain unknown. It seems likely that the pheromone signalling system originally evolved for attracting females to leks. The transition to a signalling system for conveying information about individuals may well, however, at least in part have been driven by benefits from male-male signalling.

  4. Your resting brain CAREs about your risky behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine L Cox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on the neural correlates of risk-related behaviors and personality traits has provided insight into mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological decision-making. Task-based neuroimaging studies implicate a distributed network of brain regions in risky decision-making. What remains to be understood are the interactions between these regions and their relation to individual differences in personality variables associated with real-world risk-taking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC methods to investigate differences in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture associated with beliefs about the consequences of risky behavior. We obtained an individual measure of expected benefit from engaging in risky behavior, indicating a risk seeking or risk-averse personality, for each of 21 participants from whom we also collected a series of R-fMRI scans. The expected benefit scores were entered in statistical models assessing the RSFC of brain regions consistently implicated in both the evaluation of risk and reward, and cognitive control (i.e., orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, lateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate. We specifically focused on significant brain-behavior relationships that were stable across R-fMRI scans collected one year apart. Two stable expected benefit-RSFC relationships were observed: decreased expected benefit (increased risk-aversion was associated with 1 stronger positive functional connectivity between right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and right insula, and 2 weaker negative functional connectivity between left nucleus accumbens and right parieto-occipital cortex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Task-based activation in the IFG and insula has been associated with risk-aversion, while activation in the nucleus accumbens and parietal cortex has been associated with both

  5. Risky Cerebrovascular Anatomic Orientation: Implications for Brain Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagm, Alhusain; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Yanagawa, Takao; Hongo, Kazuhiro

    2016-12-01

    This study documents a risky vascular anatomic orientation that might play an important role in the postoperative hemodynamics following anterior cerebral artery (ACA) revascularization. A 71-year-old woman presented with uncontrollable frequent right lower limb transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) attributed to a left cerebral ischemic lesion due to severe left ACA stenosis. She underwent successful left-sided superficial temporal artery-ACA bypass using interposed vascular graft. The patient awoke satisfactory from anesthesia; however, on postoperative day 1, she developed right-sided hemiparesis. Extensive postoperative investigations disclosed that watershed shift infarction was considered the etiology for this neurologic deterioration.

  6. Drugs, alcohol and sexual health: opportunities to influence risk behaviour.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Alcohol and drug consumption can affect judgment and may contribute towards an increased likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behaviour. In this cross sectional survey of clients attending STI services levels of drug and alcohol use were assessed using two standardised drug and alcohol screening instruments (the PAT and the SDS). Findings The rates of hazardous alcohol consumption were similar to those found among patients attending A&E departments. Approximately 15% of ...

  7. Relationships amongst psychological determinants, risk behaviour, and road crashes of young adolescent pedestrians and cyclists : implications for road safety education programmes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twisk, D.A.M. Commandeur, J.J.F. Vlakveld, W.P. Shope, J.T. & Kok, G.

    2015-01-01

    Road safety education (RSE) assumes that psychological determinants predict risk behaviour, and subsequently that risky road behaviour predicts crash involvement. This study examined the validity of this assumption, by analysing these relationships in two age groups of teen cyclists and pedestrians:

  8. A risky occupation? (Un)healthy lifestyle behaviors among Danish seafarers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjarnoe, Lulu; Leppin, Anja

    2014-12-01

    Sedentary working conditions, smoking, unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise are some of the lifestyle risk factors that form a potentially growing problem for seafarers within certain parts of the maritime sector creating a heightened risk for chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Health promotion initiatives to combat this negative development requires as a first step identifying the magnitude of the different risk factors. A survey was conducted in 2007-08 with two Danish shipping companies on seafarers' health, wellbeing, diet, smoking and physical activity. In addition, a health profile was offered to the respondents, consisting of physiological measurements, such as fitness rating, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol measurement and blood pressure. The response rate in the questionnaire study was 57% (n = 360) of which 76% (n = 272) of the respondents received a health profile. Results (males) showed 44% daily smokers compared with 32% in the general Danish adult male population. Twenty-five percent of the seafarers were obese with a BMI > 30 compared with 12% of the Danish adult male population. Fifty-one percent of the respondents were defined as having metabolic syndrome, compared with 20% of the Danish adult male population. Seafaring is a risky occupation when looking at the seafarers' health and wellbeing. The results of this survey confirm the need for health promotion interventions such as smoking cessation courses, healthy cooking courses and physical exercise programs, etc. that can enable healthier lifestyle. The challenge will be to take into account the special seafaring conditions when implementing the interventions. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Reproductive health knowledge, attitude and behaviour of unmarried male youths in construction sites%建筑工地未婚男性青少年生殖健康知识、态度及行为研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞成; 周猷; 赵银珠; 侯丽艳; 程怡民

    2011-01-01

    目的:了解流动人口中的未婚男性青少年生殖健康知识、态度及行为现状.方法:采用流行病学现况研究方法,对四川省成都市建筑工地的647名<24岁未婚男性流动人口进行问卷调查.结果:生殖健康知识问卷共16题,答对≥10题的占29.8%,<10题的占70.2%;logistic回归(Forward LR法)筛选分析发现,性生活史是得分低的危险因素(OR=1.560);年龄(OR =0.911)、在本厂工作时间(OR =0.500)、文化程度(OR=0.751)高的人知识得分高.相关态度分析表明,34.8%的人拒绝与患有性病的同事交往,28.3%的人要求将患有性病的同事赶出工地;50.2%的人拒绝与感染艾滋病毒(HIV)的同事交往,41.0%的人要求将感染HIV的同事赶出工地.17.8%的人(13/73)有多性伴史.结论:建筑工地流动未婚男性青少年的生殖健康知识水平较低,需加强生殖健康知识的教育,同时要减少其对性病、艾滋病患者的歧视.%Objective: To explore the reproductive health knowledge, attitude and behaviour of unmarried male youths among floating population. Methods: A cross - sectional study was conducted to investigate 647 unmarried male youths below 24 years old among floating population in construction sites of Chengdu. Results; In the total 16 questions, only 29. 8% answered more than 10 correctly. The result of logistic regression indicated that risk factor of low score of health knowledge was sexual history ( OR = 1.560 ). The protective factors for high score included age (OR =0.911), duration of service ( OR = 0.500), and educational level ( OR =0.751). About 34. 8% of the participants admitted that they refused to contact with colleagues who had sexually transmitted diseases ( STD) , and 28.3% thought colleagues with STD should be fired. About 50.2% refused to contact with HIV - infected colleagues, and 41.0% thought they should be fired. Thirteen (17.8% ) respondents had a history of multiple sex partners. Conclusion

  10. PERCEPTIONS OF BEER ADVERTISING AND RISKY DRINKING AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ślaski, Sławomir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The main purpose of the research was to determine whether individuals at risk of drinking are people particularly susceptible to the effects of alcohol and viewing ads can be an incentive for re–consumption of alcohol. Material and method. The study group (40 persons were selected from 30 0 students, who used alcohol in a risky manner, and the control group (40 persons was selected, where alcohol was used with a little risk, or not at all. To assess the subjects selected product – beer (in the form of advertising leaflets, which was recently introduced into the Polish market. The Attitudes Questionnaire to view the Product was used in the study and contained scales: cognitive, emotional and behavioral component. To study perception of advertising the Advertising Scale was applied. To identify groups of people who use alcohol in a risky way, AUDIT Test was used. Results and conclusions. People at risk of drinking, liked beer more than those not at risk of addiction, and more often drink beer, have a more positive attitude towards the advertising of beer in emotional sphere, the above estimate of beer advertising in terms of potency, better evaluate the advertising of beer in terms of positive mood caused by it, and better evaluate beer advertising and its effectiveness in term of impact.

  11. Interventions in sports settings to reduce risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wiggers, John H; Vashum, Khanrin P; Hodder, Rebecca K; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-01-21

    Elevated levels of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm have been reported for sportspeople and supporters compared to non-sporting populations. Limited systematic reviews have been conducted to assess the effect of interventions targeting such behaviours. A review was undertaken to determine if interventions implemented in sports settings decreased alcohol consumption and related harms. Studies were included that implemented interventions within sports settings; measured alcohol consumption or alcohol-related injury or violence and were either randomised controlled trials, staggered enrollment trials, stepped-wedged trials, quasi-randomised trials, quasi-experimental trials or natural experiments. Studies without a parallel comparison group were excluded. Studies from both published and grey literature were included. Two authors independently screened potential studies against the eligibility criteria, and two authors independently extracted data from included studies and assessed risk of bias. The results of included studies were synthesised narratively. The title and abstract of 6382 papers and the full text of 45 of these papers were screened for eligibility. Three studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. One of the included studies was a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a cognitive-behavioural intervention with athletes within an Olympic training facility in the USA. The study reported a significant change in alcohol use between pre-test and follow-up between intervention and control groups. The other two studies were RCTs in community sports clubs in Ireland and Australia. The Australian study found a significant intervention effect for both risky alcohol consumption at sports clubs and overall risk of alcohol-related harm. The Irish study found no significant intervention effect. A limited number of studies have been conducted to assess the effect of interventions implemented in sports settings on alcohol consumption and related

  12. Sexual Behaviour of Rural College Youth in Maharashtra,India: An Intervention Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Ghule; Balaiah Donta

    2008-01-01

    Objective To promote healthy sexual behaviour among rural college youth. Methods The intervention study consisted a sample of 1 500(800 male and 700 female) in baseline and 1 953 (1 022 male and 931 female) college going students in post intervention,in the age groups 15—24 years from 8 colleges in Thane district of Maharashtra.The interventions included dissemination of IEC(Information,Education and Communication),counselling in colleges and provision of health care services at rural health centers in the experimental area.Male and female teachers and peer leaders were trained to provide IEC.Chi-square test was carried out to find out the association between contributing factors and sexual behaviour. Results Post intervention results showed that overall any sexual experience (coital/non—coital) increased by 2.6%and 1.0%among male students and 4.6% and 0.8% among female students in control and experimental groups respectively which suggests that in the control area physical closeness and sexual relationship has increased between sexes.A significant improvement was noted in the usage of condom during their sexual intercourse in experimental group.The provision of IEC in college settings,peer leader training and orientation to teachers helped students and teachers to initiate a dialogue on reproductive health issues.Intervention programs helped college youth to develop the skills,make informed decisions about engaging in sexual intercourse and using contraceptives in a social context that sometimes encourages risky sexual behaviour.The study found that peer interaction was exposure to erotic material;habits and working status among boys and peer interaction and place of study among girls were closely associated with their coital and non—coital sex experience.Conclusion A scientifically developed,need based and demand driven reproductive health service package for male and female students in colleges can help them to develop their knowledge

  13. Categorising Risky Play--How Can We Identify Risk-Taking in Children's Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen

    2007-01-01

    There is a growing debate on the balance between making sure our children are safe versus letting the children play in physically and emotionally stimulating and challenging environments. The focus is now on children's right to do risky play. There are no studies categorising risky play. The present study has aimed to do this. Qualitative…

  14. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  15. The Evolutionary Basis of Risky Adolescent Behavior: Implications for Science, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Del Giudice, Marco; Dishion, Thomas J.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Gray, Peter; Griskevicius, Vladas; Hawley, Patricia H.; Jacobs, W. Jake; James, Jenee; Volk, Anthony A.; Wilson, David Sloan

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an evolutionary model of risky behavior in adolescence and contrasts it with the prevailing developmental psychopathology model. The evolutionary model contends that understanding the evolutionary functions of adolescence is critical to explaining why adolescents engage in risky behavior and that successful intervention…

  16. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  17. From Racial Discrimination to Risky Sex: Prospective Relations Involving Peers and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Weng, Chih-Yuan; Murry, Velma M.; Simons, Leslie G.; Simons, Ronald L.; Lorenz, Frederick O.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated how early experience with racial discrimination affected the subsequent risky sexual behaviors of a diverse sample of African American youths (N = 745). The analyses focused on 3 risk-promoting factors thought to mediate the hypothesized discrimination--risky sex relation: negative affect, affiliation with deviant peers,…

  18. The Role of Religiosity in the Relationship between Parents, Peers, and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents' participation in risky sexual…

  19. The Evolutionary Basis of Risky Adolescent Behavior: Implications for Science, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Del Giudice, Marco; Dishion, Thomas J.; Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Gray, Peter; Griskevicius, Vladas; Hawley, Patricia H.; Jacobs, W. Jake; James, Jenee; Volk, Anthony A.; Wilson, David Sloan

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes an evolutionary model of risky behavior in adolescence and contrasts it with the prevailing developmental psychopathology model. The evolutionary model contends that understanding the evolutionary functions of adolescence is critical to explaining why adolescents engage in risky behavior and that successful intervention…

  20. Identifying Mediators of the Influence of Family Factors on Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Burt, Callie Harbin; Tambling, Rachel Blyskal

    2013-01-01

    Participation in risky sexual behaviors has many deleterious consequences and is a source of concern for parents as well as practitioners, researchers, and public policy makers. Past research has examined the effect of family structure and supportive parenting on risky sexual behaviors among emerging adults. In the present study, we attempt to…

  1. Peer Rejection, Affiliation with Deviant Peers, Delinquency, and Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Risky sexual behavior poses significant health risks by increasing sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. Previous research has documented many factors related to risky sexual behavior. This study adds to the literature by proposing a prospective, developmental model of peer factors related to risky sexual behavior. Developmental pathways to risky sexual behavior were examined in a sample of 517 individuals (51% female; 82% European American, 16% African American, 2% other) followed from age 5 to 27. Structural equation models examined direct and indirect effects of peer rejection (assessed via peer nominations at ages 5, 6, 7, and 8), affiliation with deviant peers (assessed via self-report at ages 11 and 12), and delinquency (assessed via maternal report at ages 10 and 16) on risky sexual behavior (assessed via self-report at age 27). More peer rejection during childhood, affiliation with deviant peers during pre- adolescence, and delinquency in childhood and adolescence predicted more risky sexual behavior through age 27, although delinquency at age 16 was the only risk factor that had a significant direct effect on risky sexual behavior through age 27 above and beyond the other risk factors. Peer rejection was related to subsequent risk factors for girls but not boys. Peer risk factors as early as age 5 shape developmental pathways through childhood and adolescence and have implications for risky sexual behavior into adulthood. PMID:25150986

  2. Suicidal behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J

    2001-01-01

    -Prevention of suicidal behaviour remains difficult, despite increasing knowledge of its determinants. Health service efforts hardly affect suicide rates. -Recent shifts in the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour are rising rates among the young and increasing use of violent methods. these can be lin

  3. Perception of risk of HIV infections and sexual behaviour of the sexually active university students in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomazana, Njabulo; Maharaj, Pranitha

    2014-01-01

    The study sought to establish university students' perceptions of risk of HIV infections. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 345 sexually active students at two universities in Zimbabwe (one state and one private). Results revealed that above a quarter of the respondents felt at risk of getting HIV due to their regular partners' sexual behaviours and more than half felt at risk of getting HIV due to their casual partners' sexual behaviours. In addition, a third of the respondents acknowledged the HIV risk due to their own sexual behaviours. More state university respondents felt exposed to HIV infections due to own sexual behaviours than their private university counterparts. Despite these revelations, only 66.56% had earlier thought of their chances of getting infected with HIV. Personal HIV risk perceptions were low, reported by 27.76% of the sexually active respondents. Almost all respondents described their fellows' sexual behaviours as either risky or very risky.

  4. A comparison of family interventions to address adolescent risky behaviors: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsui-Sui; Gibbs, Marilyn Beth; Clemen-Stone, Susan; Duffy, Sonia

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this integrative review is to describe, compare, and synthesize traditional and computer-based family interventions that aim to change adolescents' risky sexual behaviors and substance abuse. Family interventions have been shown to generate protective effects for preventing adolescents from risky behaviors. It is not clear, however, whether there are significant differences or similarities in the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. An integrative literature review was conducted to describe and compare the designs and effects of traditional and computer-based family interventions. Both interventions have generated significant effects on reducing risky behavior among adolescents. Interventions guided by theory, tailored to participants' culture/gender, and which included sufficient boosting dosages in their designs demonstrated significant short- or long-term effects in terms of reducing adolescents' risky behaviors. Regardless of delivery method, well-designed family interventions are noted to maximize familial protective effects and reduce risky behaviors.

  5. Evaluating the Hispanic Paradox in the Context of Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior: The Role of Parent Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Hollis C; Callahan, Tiffany; Schmiege, Sarah J; Ewing, Sarah W Feldstein

    2016-05-01

    In the United States, Hispanic adolescents are at elevated risk for negative outcomes related to risky sexual behavior. To evaluate potential protective factors for this group, we examined the fit of the Hispanic Paradox for sexual behavior among high-risk youth and the moderating role of parent monitoring. We enrolled 323 justice-involved Hispanic youth (73% male; mean age 16 years), and measured generational status, parent monitoring (monitoring location, who children spend time with outside of school, family dinner frequency), and sexual risk behavior. There were no main effects for generational status on sexual behavior. Parent monitoring of location moderated the relationship between generational status and sexual behavior, such that greater monitoring of location was associated with less risky sexual behavior, but only for youth second generation and above. Rather than direct evidence supporting the Hispanic Paradox, we found a more nuanced relationship for generational status in this sample. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sex-related alcohol expectancies as moderators of the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermen, K H; Cooper, M L; Agocha, V B

    1998-01-01

    Alcohol is frequently identified as a potential contributor to HIV-related sexual risk taking. Drawing on alcohol expectancy explanations for postdrinking behavior, the present study tested the hypothesis that adolescents who drink alcohol on a given occasion will be more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking behavior to the extent that they believe that alcohol disinhibits sexual behavior or promotes sexual risk taking. The combined effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies and alcohol use in sexual situations were investigated using interview data from a representative sample of 907 (476 male) sexually experienced adolescents (13 to 19 years) who had ever consumed alcohol. Regression analyses on a composite measure of risk taking revealed that for two of three intercourse occasions examined alcohol use was associated with greater risk taking primarily among respondents who expected alcohol to increase risky sexual behavior. The results lend support to expectancy theories of alcohol's effects on sexual risk taking and raise the possibility that providing overly simplistic warnings that "alcohol leads to risky sex" may paradoxically increase the likelihood that individuals will fail to act prudently when intoxicated. Preventive interventions might beneficially focus on weakening, rather than strengthening, individuals' expectancies with regard to the impact of alcohol on sexual behavior, so that self-protective behavior will be more likely to occur even during intoxication.

  7. [Socioeconomic status and risky health behaviors in Croatian adult population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilić, Leta; Dzakula, Aleksandar

    2013-03-01

    Based on the previous research, there is strong association between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high morbidity and mortality rates. Even though association between SES and risky health behaviors as the main factors influencing health has been investigated in Croatian population, some questions are yet to be answered. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, smoking and excessive drinking in low, middle, and high socioeconomic group of adult Croatian population included in the cohort study on regionalism of cardiovascular health risk behaviors. We also investigated the association between SES measured by income, education and occupation, as well as single SES indicators, and risky health behaviors. We analyzed data on 1227 adult men and women (aged 19 and older at baseline) with complete data on health behaviors, SES and chronic diseases at baseline (2003) and 5-year follow up. Respondents were classified as being healthy or chronically ill. SES categories were derived from answers to questions on monthly household income, occupation and education by using two-step cluster analysis algorithm. At baseline, for the whole sample as well as for healthy respondents, SES was statistically significantly associated with unhealthy diet (whole sample/healthy respondents: p = 0.001), physical inactivity (whole sample/healthy respondents p = 0.44/ p = 0.007), and smoking (whole sample/healthy respondents p < 0.001/p = 0.002). The proportion of respondents with unhealthy diet was greatest in the lowest social class, smokers in the middle and physically inactive in the high social class. During the follow up, smoking and physical inactivity remained statistically significantly associated with SES. In chronically ill respondents, only smoking was statistically significantly associated with SES, at baseline and follow up (p = 0.001/p = 0.002). The highest share of smokers was in the middle social class. Results of our

  8. Online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth: associations to background factors, behaviours and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Linda S; Bladh, Marie; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-10-01

    Sexual activity online may result in positive experiences for young people, or lead them to engage in risky behaviours possibly resulting in sexual assault or abuse. The aim of our study was to investigate associations between online sexual behaviours among Swedish youth and background factors as well as aspects of well-being. The behaviours investigated were: having sex online with a contact met online, having sex with an online contact offline, posting sexual pictures online, and selling sex online. We used data from a representative sample of 3,432 Swedish youth who were asked about their lifetime experiences as well as their experiences within the previous year. We hypothesized that more advanced online sexual behaviours were associated with more problematic background factors, worse psychosocial well-being and riskier behaviours in general. Bivariate relationships were evaluated followed by a multiple logistic regression model. Our data suggested that most Swedish youth do not perform any of the assessed online sexual behaviours. Young people who reported online sexual behaviour showed a more problematic background, rated their health as poorer, had a more sexualized life and had experienced more sexual or physical abuse. Professionals who work with young people need to help them better evaluate potential risks online and offer support when needed. Youths who sell sex online are especially at risk and need extra attention, as they might be in greater need of protection and therapeutic support.

  9. Sexual Behaviour and Contraceptive Usage of Secondary School Adolescents in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Oladokun; IO Morhason-Bello; CA Enakpene; KM Owonikoko; JO Akinyemi; KA Obisesan

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence and pattern of sexual activity as well as the contraceptive practices among the selected secondary school adolescents in Ibadan,Nigeria.Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among the selected senior secondary school students in Ibadan, following a stratified multistage random sampling technique.Results There were 695 respondents out of which the females constituted 51% and the males were 49%. Less than one third (28.3%) of the respondents have had previous sexual exposure at the time of the study. The median age of sexual debut among the sexually exposed was 15 years in both the males and the females. Bivariate analysis of sociodemographic characteristics of respondents with previous sexual exposure showed that, sex, religion, father's and mother's educational background and level of class were statistically significant(P<0. 001). Further analysis using logistic regression model revealed that male respondents were 3 times more likely than females (95% CI 1.92-4.56) to have had sexual experience while those whose mother had tertiary educational background were less likely to have had previous sexual experience compared with those with secondary and lower educational background (OR= 1.76, 95% CI 1.11-2. 77). Of all the sociodemographic characteristics of respondents considered with the age of sexual partners using bivariate analysis showed that only level of class was significant (P=0. 018). Less than half of the sexually active males (44.2%) were using various methods of contraception, while 54.4% of the sexually active females were using different types of modern methods.Conclusion It is quite obvious that risky sexual behaviours are in practice among the secondary school students studied and by extension in the country.It therefore means that reproductive health issues especially concerning the adolescents will have to be openly discussed by all with our youths while abstinence/chastity should be

  10. Behavioral Decision Research Intervention Reduces Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Julie S; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Fischhoff, Baruch; Murray, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    Although adolescents are at disproportionate risk for sexually transmitted infections, most sex education programs have shown little effect on sexual behavior. An interactive video intervention developed by our team has been identified as one of a few programs that have been documented to reduce sexually transmitted infections in this population. Building on behavioral decision research, we used a mental models approach to interview young women about their sexual decisions, finding, among other things, the strong role of perceived social norms. We based our intervention on these results, aiming to help young women identify and implement personally and socially acceptable decision strategies. A randomized controlled trial found that the video reduced risky sexual behavior and the acquisition of chlamydia infection. We recently revised the video to suit more diverse audiences, and upgraded it to modern standards of cinematography and interactivity. It is now in field trial.

  11. Do parental involvement laws deter risky teen sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Silvie; Dee, Thomas S; Joyce, Ted

    2013-09-01

    Parental involvement (PI) laws require that physicians notify or obtain consent from a parent(s) of a minor seeking an abortion before performing the procedure. Several studies suggest that PI laws curb risky sexual behavior because teens realize that they would be compelled to discuss a subsequent pregnancy with a parent. We show that prior evidence based on gonorrhea rates overlooked the frequent under-reporting of gonorrhea by race and ethnicity, and present new evidence on the effects of PI laws using more current data on the prevalence of gonorrhea and data that are novel to this literature (i.e., chlamydia rates and data disaggregated by year of age). We improve the credibility of our estimates over those in the existing literature using an event-study design in addition to standard difference-in-difference-in-differences (DDD) models. Our findings consistently suggest no association between PI laws and rates of sexually transmitted infections or measures of sexual behavior.

  12. Risky health seeking practice among pregnant women in rural Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørby, Laila

    2007-01-01

    delays, Culture, Field and Capital, Democratic Republic Congo (DRC). Title: Risky health seeking practice, among pregnant women in rural Congo (DRC). Background Statement: Worldwide more than half a million women still die each year of pregnancy and childbirth related reasons. Most of these women live...... about 60 % of the women have a professional help at birth, and even fewer delivers in a health centre, which is far from the Unicef and WHO goal trying to combat high Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). In the southern and rural part of DRC, is a small well equipped and well staffed dispensary and maternity...... professional assistance for normal pregnancy and delivery; delay in reaching an adequate medical facility, which includes accessibility, availability and cost of transportation and conditions of roads; and delays in obtaining the care needed to manage the situation. Following that I have analysed...

  13. Risky choice in younger versus older adults: Affective context matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumi Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Earlier frameworks have indicated that older adults tend to experience decline in their deliberative decisional capacity, while their affective abilities tend to remain intact (Peters, Hess, Vastfjall, and Auman, 2007. The present study applied this framework to the study of risky decision-making across the lifespan. Two versions of the Columbia Card Task (CCT were used to trigger either affective decision-making (i.e., the ``warm'' CCT or deliberative decision-making (i.e., the ``cold'' CCT in a sample of 158 individuals across the lifespan. Overall there were no age differences in risk seeking. However, there was a significant interaction between age and condition, such that older adults were relatively more risk seeking in the cold condition only. In terms of everyday decision-making, context matters and risk propensity may shift within older adults depending upon the context.

  14. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Risky Sexual Behavior and Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall H. Medoff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: incidence of abortion in the United States has steadily declined since 1990. The question is why? Approach: This study, using multiple linear regression, examines whether women’s unprotected sexual activity is deterred by the risk of contracting AIDS as reflected in decreased abortion rates. Results: The empirical evidence consistently finds that the prevalence of AIDS reduces the risky (unprotected sexual activity of women of childbearing ages 15-44 as reflected in their abortion rates. The empirical results remain robust for the abortion rates of teens ages 15-17 and for teens ages 15-19. Conclusion: The empirical results suggest that the behavioral modification induced by the prevalence of AIDS accounted for 21% of the decrease in abortion rates over the time period 1992-2005.

  15. Risky business: When humor increases and decreases status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterly, T Bradford; Brooks, Alison Wood; Schweitzer, Maurice E

    2017-03-01

    Across 8 experiments, we demonstrate that humor can influence status, but attempting to use humor is risky. The successful use of humor can increase status in both new and existing relationships, but unsuccessful humor attempts (e.g., inappropriate jokes) can harm status. The relationship between the successful use of humor and status is mediated by perceptions of confidence and competence. The successful use of humor signals confidence and competence, which in turn increases the joke teller's status. Interestingly, telling both appropriate and inappropriate jokes, regardless of the outcome, signals confidence. Although signaling confidence typically increases status and power, telling inappropriate jokes signals low competence and the combined effect of high confidence and low competence harms status. Rather than conceptualizing humor as a frivolous or ancillary behavior, we argue that humor plays a fundamental role in shaping interpersonal perceptions and hierarchies within groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Social inclusion facilitates risky mating behavior in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Donald F; Brown, Christina M; Young, Steven G; Bernstein, Michael J; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2011-07-01

    Although past research has reliably established unique effects of social exclusion on human cognition and behavior, the current research focuses on the unique effects of social inclusion. Recent evidence indicates that social inclusion leads to enhanced prioritization of reproductive interests. The current study extends these findings by showing that the pursuit of these inclusion-induced reproductive goals occurs in sex-specific ways. Across three experiments, social inclusion led men, but not women, to endorse riskier, more aggressive mating strategies compared to control and socially excluded participants. Specifically, included men were more likely to endorse sexual aggression (Experiment 1), high-risk mate poaching behaviors (Experiment 2), and high-risk mate retention tactics (Experiment 3). These results demonstrate that the experience of social inclusion can affect sex-differentiated preferences for risky mating strategies.

  17. Health promoting behaviours and lifestyle characteristics of students at seven universities in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Stock, Christiane; John, Jill; Deeny, Pat; Phillips, Ceri; Snelgrove, Sherrill; Adetunji, Hamed; Hu, Xiaoling; Parke, Sian; Stoate, Mary; Mabhala, Andi

    2011-12-01

    University students' wellbeing and health promoting and damaging behaviours are important and comprise many parameters. The purpose of this study was to assess a range of health behaviours and lifestyle characteristics of 3,706 undergraduate students from seven universities in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. We compared differences in these parameters between males and females, and across the participating universities. A self-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic information (e.g., gender, age), nutrition, dietary intake and food consumption patterns, as well as the importance of healthy eating, three levels of physical activity, restful sleep, tobacco smoking, use of illicit substance (recreational drugs), frequency of binge drinking and problem drinking. The data was collected in 2007-2008. While females generally reported lower use of tobacco, illicit substances and alcohol (binge drinking/problem drinking) and consumed more fruits and vegetables, male students had a higher level of physical activity, consumed less sweets and had more restful sleep. When lifestyle characteristics of students were compared between the different universities we observed some 'clustering' of the parameters under study, whereby favourable health practices would be exhibited at some universities; and conversely, the clustering of less favourable practices exhibited at other participating sites. We conclude that only a minority of students exhibited positive health practices above recommended levels and the level of binge drinking and problem drinking was high. This calls for increased awareness of university administrators, leaders and policy makers to the risky health habits of their students. The observed clustering effects also indicate the need for local (university-specific) health profiles as basis and guidance for relevant health promotion programmes at universities.

  18. Determination of Risky Health Behaviors of Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Kalkim

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AiM: This study was planned as a descriptive study in order to investigate risky health behaviors of immigrant and non immigrant adolescents. METHODS: The study was performed in a high school situated Izmir between the dates of October and November 2008. Sample group of this research was included 293 immigrant and 813 non immigrant adolescents. Data were collected by using Socio-demographic question form and and Health Risk Behaviors Scale. Data were collected from students with a technical pencil-paper by researcher in classroom. Frequencies, one way anova (post-hoc bonferroni and independent t test were used with Stastical Package for Social Science 13.0 program for statistical analysis of data. Written consent was taken from Izmir Directorate of Education to carry out the study. Oral consent was taken from the school manager and the students. RESULTS: Mean age of adolescents was 15.42+/-0.03. It was determined that risky health behaviors mean score (t: 2.161, p: 0.031 and physical activity (t: 2.132, p: 0.033, nutrition (t:3.030, p: 0.003, hygiene (t: 3.850, p: 0.000 sub-scales mean scores of immigrant adolescent were statistically higher than non immigrant adolescents (p<0.05. CONCLUSiONS: Consequently, this study was important to health professionals worked primary health services and school health services The study have significant data about migration affects on health behaviors of adolescent to show health professionals worked primary care and school health services and to plan health services towards adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(4.000: 289-294

  19. Analysis of sexual behaviour and condom use among male STD patients in Shanghai%上海市男性性病患者性行为及避孕套使用情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方可娟; 薛丽; 韩耀玲

    2001-01-01

    this study is to explore the background characteristics, sexual behaviours and condom use among male attendees of a large STD clinic in Shanghai. The information collected is intended to inform health education programs.   Methods: From May 26, 1998 to December 22,1998, 2 266 male STD clients(1 517 currently married, 664 never-married, and 85 widower or divorced) were recruited at a large STD clinic in Shanghai. A structural questionnaire was administered by trained investigators to collect information on participants' socio-demographic background,sexual behaviours and condom use.   Results: Clients frequently engaged in higher risk sexual behaviours such as having multiple sexual partners and infrequently using condoms. Clients on average had two sexual partners in the 12 months before interview, and nearly one-third of clients had visited prostitutes in the 12 months before interview. After controlling for other factors, clients who were older and living in suburban areas were more likely to have visited prostitutes in the same period. Although over one-third of participants had ever used a condom, less than 1% had persisted in the condom use during the 12 months before interview. After controlling for other factors, younger clients and clients with more sexual partners in the last 12 months were slightly more likely to have used condoms than older clients. Clients with primary or less and senior middle educational level compared with those with college or more educational level, the latter have higher odds, whereas the former have lower odds of previous condom use. Being farmer is associated with a lower odds of having previously used condom, and being office worker is associated with a higher odds of previous condom use. Also after controlling for other factors, younger clients, clients being blue collar worker in commerce or service trades and office worker, widower or divorced clients and those having more sexual partners in the last 12 months have a

  20. Risky exposures and national estimate of HCV seroprevalence among school children in urban Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Abdel Maksoud, Ahmed; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2016-12-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality all over the world, particularly in Egypt. Limited data are available concerning the national seroprevalence and the possible modes of transmission of HCV in the pediatric age group. The aim of this study was to obtain a better estimate of the national hepatitis C seroprevalence and the possible risky exposures among healthy school children in Alexandria; the second biggest city in Egypt. HCV knowledge and counseling for school children were also investigated. A total of 500 school children, age between 6 and 15 years were evaluated for HCV seropositivity and interviewed for potential disease risk factors. The seropositivity for Anti-HCV Ab was 2.8 %. About 71.4 % of seropositive children were 10-15 years old. Urban residence, chronic disease, male circumcision and invasive procedures were detected as significant risk factors for acquiring HCV infection among the studied children. The level of awareness of hepatitis C among school children was very low (3.6 %) and was correlated with the age and educational level. HCV infection continues to occur in children and is frequently unrecognized. This mandates immediate intervention and robust control strategies in the settings of exposure combined with health education programs to limit further HCV spread.

  1. Infectious disease, injection practices, and risky sexual behavior among anabolic steroid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Eric J; Yadao, Michael A; Shah, Bijal M; Lau, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other performance-enhancing drugs (PEDs) are commonly misused to increase muscle size and strength, as well as improve physical appearance. Many AAS and certain PEDs are administered via injection and therefore pose a risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Further, AAS users may be more likely to take part in high-risk sexual behaviors than non-AAS users. This review explores the prevalence of infectious diseases as well as risky injection practices and sexual behaviors of AAS users in the current literature. A comprehensive MEDLINE search (1984-17 April 2015) for English language reports was performed on AAS users. Ten studies analyzed the prevalence of HIV infection, 6 studies analyzed HBV infection, and 6 studies analyzed HCV infection; 20 studies analyzed injection practices and 7 studies analyzed high-risk sexual behaviors of AAS users. HIV, HBV, HCV, and SSTIs have been associated with AAS users. In particular, HIV infection seems much higher among homosexual male AAS users. AAS users also take part in high-risk injection practices but to a much lower extent than intravenous drug users. AAS users are also more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors than the general population. Clinicians and health-policy leaders may utilize these findings to implement strategies to decrease the spread of infectious diseases.

  2. Befriending Risky Peers: Factors Driving Adolescents' Selection of Friends with Similar Marijuana Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Haye, Kayla; Green, Harold D; Pollard, Michael S; Kennedy, David P; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents often befriend peers who are similar to themselves on a range of demographic, behavioral, and social characteristics, including substance use. Similarities in lifetime history of marijuana use have even been found to predict adolescent friendships, and we examine whether this finding is explained by youth's selection of friends who are similar on a range of more proximate, observable characteristics that are risk factors for marijuana use. Using two waves of individual and social network data from two high schools that participated in Add Health (N = 1,612; 52.7% male), we apply longitudinal models for social networks to test whether or not several observable risky attributes (psychological, behavioral, and social) predict adolescent friendship choices, and if these preferences explain friend's similarities on lifetime marijuana use. Findings show that similarities on several risk factors predict friendship choices, however controlling for this, the preference to befriend peers with a similar history of marijuana use largely persists. The results highlight the range of social selection processes that lead to similarities in marijuana use among friends and larger peer groups, and that also give rise to friendship groups whose members share similar risk factors for substance use. Friends with high "collective risk" are likely to be important targets for preventing the onset and social diffusion of substance use in adolescents.

  3. Behavioural Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    McLean, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Behavioural Modernity explores the changing politics of representation and ethics of care in curatorial practice, necessitated by an increasing blurring of boundaries between the human, the technological, and the planetary.

  4. Sickness Behaviour:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adaptive function for hyperthermia and ... on immunity. However ... infectious disorders probably lies in the ... nervous system, and thus behaviour, .... Fever: Basic ... system. In Ader R, Felten DL,. Cohen N, editors. Psychoneuro- immunology.

  5. Is higher risk sex common among male or female youths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres

    2015-01-01

    There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.

  6. Reported risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad E. Hoque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, youths aged 15–24 years are at a higher risk of HIV infections than other age groups, and female youths are at a greater risk than their male counterparts. An essential step in controlling the pandemic of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs is to help adolescents to reduce or avoid unsafe sexual practices.Objective: This study was designed to establish risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students.Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in September 2009 amongst full-time female undergraduate students. A multi-stage sampling method was used to recruit 391 students for the study.Results: The mean age of the students was 21.4 ± 3.2 years (range 17–45 years. More than half (52.4% of the students were sexually active. The median age at first sexual intercourse was 19.0 years (range 12–24 years. Participants who had multiple sexual partners had a median of 2 (range, 2–4 sexual partners. The majority (89.3% of the students used contraceptives. Almost half (41.5%, sometimes or rarely, used contraceptives during sex. With regard to substance use, 57.5% and 6.9% respectively drank alcohol and used drugs. Sexually active students had 1.5 times (OR = 1.5, p = 0.04, (OR = Odds Ratio, more chances of consuming alcohol than those who were not sexually active. Students with multiple sexual partners were 7 times more likely to consume alcohol compared to those who did not have multiple partners (OR = 6.9, p = 0.004. Students with multiple sexual partners had 3.5 times more chances of taking drugs compared to students with one steady partner (OR = 3.5, p = 0.038.Conclusion: A large number of female university students are engaging in risky sexual practices. University Management should concentrate on developing and implementing policies to promote safer sexual practices, in particular targeting consequences of STIs and HIV and methods to minimise the risk.

  7. Reported risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad E. Hoque

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, youths aged 15–24 years are at a higher risk of HIV infections than other age groups, and female youths are at a greater risk than their male counterparts. An essential step in controlling the pandemic of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs is to help adolescents to reduce or avoid unsafe sexual practices.Objective: This study was designed to establish risky sexual practices amongst female undergraduate students.Method: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in September 2009 amongst full-time female undergraduate students. A multi-stage sampling method was used to recruit 391 students for the study.Results: The mean age of the students was 21.4 ± 3.2 years (range 17–45 years. More than half (52.4% of the students were sexually active. The median age at first sexual intercourse was 19.0 years (range 12–24 years. Participants who had multiple sexual partners had a median of 2 (range, 2–4 sexual partners. The majority (89.3% of the students used contraceptives. Almost half (41.5%, sometimes or rarely, used contraceptives during sex. With regard to substance use, 57.5% and 6.9% respectively drank alcohol and used drugs. Sexually active students had 1.5 times (OR = 1.5, p = 0.04, (OR = Odds Ratio, more chances of consuming alcohol than those who were not sexually active. Students with multiple sexual partners were 7 times more likely to consume alcohol compared to those who did not have multiple partners (OR = 6.9, p = 0.004. Students with multiple sexual partners had 3.5 times more chances of taking drugs compared to students with one steady partner (OR = 3.5, p = 0.038.Conclusion: A large number of female university students are engaging in risky sexual practices. University Management should concentrate on developing and implementing policies to promote safer sexual practices, in particular targeting consequences of STIs and HIV and methods to minimise the risk.

  8. Remote copulation: male adaptation to female cannibalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daiqin; Oh, Joelyn; Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaz

    2012-08-23

    Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula. Remote copulation increases the total amount of sperm transferred, and thus probably enhances paternity. We conclude that the mechanism may have evolved in response to sexual cannibalism and female-controlled short copulation duration.

  9. Male teachers' experiences of own aggression

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    understanding of aggressive behaviour, Transformative Learning Theory ... Male teachers who are aggressive typically use verbal, sexual, or physical assault. ... regard of other individuals' human values and reduces criticism of one's own ...

  10. Towards a gender perspective in qualitative research on voluntary medical male circumcision in east and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Guillermo; Triviño Durán, Laura; Gasch, Angel; Desmond, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization endorsed voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in 2007 as an effective method to provide partial protection against heterosexual female-to-male transmission of HIV in regions with high rates of such transmission, and where uptake of VMMC is low. Qualitative research conducted in east and southern Africa has focused on assessing acceptability, barriers to uptake of VMMC and the likelihood of VMMC increasing men's adoption of risky sexual behaviours. Less researched, however, have been the perceptions of women and sexual minorities towards VMMC, even though they are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS transmission than are heterosexual men. The purpose of this paper is to identify core areas in which a gendered perspective in qualitative research might improve the understanding and framing of VMMC in east and southern Africa. Issues explored in this analysis are risk compensation, the post-circumcision appearance of the penis, inclusion of men who have sex with men as study respondents and the antagonistic relation between VMMC and female genital cutting. If biomedical and social science researchers explore these issues in future qualitative inquiry utilising a gendered perspective, a more thorough understanding of VMMC can be achieved, which could ultimately inform policy and implementation.

  11. Peer harassment and risky behavior among sexual minority girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The role of peer harassment in the association between sexual minority status and adolescent risky behavior was examined for 15-year-olds in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 957). The findings, although exploratory, suggest the importance of gender. For girls, peer harassment was best viewed as a moderator of the link between sexual minority status and increased risky behavior. It intensified an existing association, reflecting the gendered nature of the impact of sexual minority status on the adolescent social context. For boys, peer harassment was primarily a mediator, such that sexual minority status was associated with more risky behavior via elevated harassment, although sexual minority status itself was associated with lower risky behavior overall.

  12. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachs, Sebastian; Junger, Marianne; Sittichai, Ruthaychonee

    2015-01-01

    This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet

  13. An instrument design to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments: Case study of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sammarraie, Munadil Khaleel Faaeq; Faieq, Alaa K.; Al-Qasa, Khaled

    2016-08-01

    Electronic Government (eG) has become a vital tool to serve the beneficiaries; therefore, it has received the attention of many Information System (IS) researchers. Due to the importance of the sustainability of IS, this paper identifies the emergence of a clear gape to measure the sustainability of IS in risky circumstances, such as wars, conflicts and violence; nowadays, the risky issue is increasing remarkably. This paper expands previous studies whose focus was on investigating the sustainability of electronic services unsecured countries in the world. Consequently, a need for a specific tool to measure the sustainability of technology among the users in risky conditions has become urgent. Based on the findings, it can be confirmed that this instrument is reliable to measure the sustainability of technology in risky environments.

  14. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wachs, Sebastian; Junger, M.; Sittichai, Ruthaychonee

    2015-01-01

    This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet

  15. Risking Your Health : Causes, Consequences, and Interventions to Prevent Risky Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    de Walque, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Behaviors that pose risks for an individual’s health and that also represent important threats for public health, such as drug use, smoking, alcohol, unhealthy eating causing obesity, and unsafe sex, are highly prevalent in low income countries, even though they are traditionally associated with richer countries. Individual choices are an important part of the risky behaviors. Risking Your Health: Causes, Consequences, and Interventions to Prevent Risky Behaviors explore how those choices...

  16. Decomposing the Riskiness of Corporate Foreign Currency Lending: the Case of Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Vonnák, Dzsamila

    2015-01-01

    I decompose the factors contributing to the riskiness of foreign currency borrowers. I compare counterfactual default probabilities of local and foreign currency borrowers estimated on disaggregated data. My results suggest that the currency mismatch with the depreciation of the local currency is the most important factor contributing to the riskiness of foreign currency borrowers, though boom-period excessive risk taking of banks is also concentrated in foreign currency lending.

  17. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Wachs; Marianne Junger; Ruthaychonee Sittichai

    2015-01-01

    This study (1) reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber) bullying roles; and (2) investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet Use (CIU), online grooming victimization, and sexting) and risky offline activities (bad behavior in school, drinking alcohol and truancy) than non-involved adolescents. The sample comprised self-r...

  18. Adolescent Propensity to Engage in Health Risky Behaviors: The Role of Individual Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Mir M. Ali; Dwyer, Debra S.; Vanner, Elizabeth A.; Alexander Lopez

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we create indices of resilience to identify adolescents at risk of smoking, drinking alcohol, and using illegal drugs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, three manifestations of resilience were identified: overall-resilience, self/family-resilience, and self-resilience. Our analysis reveals that the overall-resilient were less likely to engage in risky behaviors. The self/family resilient were more likely to engage in risky behaviors, but consu...

  19. I Did What Last Night? Adolescent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Sarah Markowitz

    2005-01-01

    Risky sexual behaviors by teenagers have shown to be strongly correlated with drug and alcohol consumption. The purpose of this study is to examine the question of whether alcohol and drug use increases the likelihood that teenagers will engage in four risky sexual behaviors: having sex, sex with multiple partners, sex without a condom, and sex without birth control. Two-stage least squares and a reduced form model are used to account for the potential endogeneity of substance use. The findin...

  20. I Did What Last Night?!!! Adolescent Risky Sexual Behaviors and Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Grossman; Sara Markowitz

    2002-01-01

    This purpose of this paper is to examine the causal impact of substance use on risky sexual behaviors by teenagers. Risky sexual behaviors, which include unprotected sex and multiple partners, are highly correlated with alcohol and illicit drug use, although the nature of the causal relationship is in question. This study uses two-stage least squares and reduced form models to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual behaviors by gender. Data come from the Youth Risk Behavior...

  1. High parental monitoring prevents adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices in Harar, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadeta Dessie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Emerging findings have shown that high parental monitoring of adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH communications between parents and adolescents and good parenting styles prevent adolescents from engaging in risky sexual practices. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations of parental monitoring, parent–adolescent SRH communications, and parenting styles with risky sexual practices among adolescents in Harar, Ethiopia. Designs: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on adolescents aged 13–18 who had sexual initiations. Adolescents who failed to use any contraceptive method and/or condom during last sexual intercourse and who experienced multiple sexual partners in the 12 months prior to the study were taken as ‘at risk’. In view of these, the adolescents risk count ranged from zero to three – greater number indicates higher count of risky sexual practices. Poisson regression model was used to examine the associations and p<0.05 indicated a statistical significance. Results: It was found out that 301 of 633 (47.55%; 95% CI=43.62%, 51.45% adolescents experienced one or more risky sexual practices. High parental monitoring compared to low decreases the Incidence Rate of engaging in risky sexual practices by 28% (adjusted incidence rate ratio, or IRR=0.72; 95% CI=0.520, 0.986. Those who had a satisfactory level of SRH communications with their parents compared to poor communicators experianced less incidence rate of risky sexual practices which was marginal (adjusted IRR=0.82; 95% CI=0.637, 1.051. Conclusions: A significant proportion of the adolescents engaged in one or more risky sexual practices. Importantly, high parental monitoring decreases the likelihood of these risky practices. Therefore, parents need to be encouraged to keep an eye on their young children.

  2. KNOWLEDGE, BEHAVIOUR AND ATTITUDES REGARDING HIV/AIDS AMONG UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN AN IRISH UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASHAM CHOUDHARY

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in an Irish University among undergraduate students in 2012. A web questionnaire consisted of items related to HIV/AIDS knowledge, behaviour and attitudes was sent to all undergraduate students aged 18 years or above. Despite the fact that majority of students were aware about the transmission of HIV/AIDS, this study showed that students were less likely to translate their knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission into healthy behaviour. In addition, they engaged in risky sexual behaviour which increases the likelihood of acquiring HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  3. Risky business or not? FIFOs, sexual risk taking and the Australian mining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mullan, Cathy; Debattista, Joseph; Browne, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed The fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in, drive-out (DIDO) models of mining in Australia have led to concerns about adverse health and psychosocial impacts. Despite speculation that increased levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Australia, including HIV, are associated with FIFO/DIDO work, we know little about sexual risk-taking behaviours in mining populations. This study explores differences in sexual risk taking and perceptions of risk between FIFO/DIDO miners and residential miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a sample (n=444) of male miners working in Queensland, Australia. The self-completed survey contained 49 questions relating to knowledge, attitudes and behaviour and included demographic information and specific items related to sex and relationships. Results FIFO/DIDO status was not associated with any differential sexual risk-taking behaviours, except for an increased probability of reporting 'ever being diagnosed with an STI'; 10.8% of FIFO/DIDO respondents versus 3.6% of others (x(2) (1)=4.43, P=0.35). Conclusions Our results appear to counter anecdotal evidence that FIFO/DIDO miners engage in higher sexual risk behaviours when compared with residential miners. So what? Anecdotal evidence linking the rise of sexually transmitted infections with the FIFO/DIDO mining workforce could drive costly and unnecessary approaches to prevention. Further research, surveillance and monitoring are required to inform health promotion interventions.

  4. HIV related risk behaviours among taxi drivers and their assistants in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: descriptive cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Yihunie; Tamene, Habtamu

    2014-04-08

    Risk taking behaviours in relation to HIV among the mobile population is a growing public health concern in many developing countries, including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to describe risky sexual behaviours and associated factors among male taxi drivers and assistants in Addis Ababa. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design with multistage cluster sampling procedure was employed to select 615 individuals for interview. Seventy six percent of the respondents were sexually active. Nearly 31% of the respondents reported casual sex and 7% of them did not use a condom with their most recent casual sex partner. More than half (58.5%) of the respondents had no condom use efficacy. Condom breakage and/or slippage during sex had been encountered by 44% of respondents with casual partners and sex during menstruation had ever occurred among 17% of respondents. Eleven percent had experienced sex with female sex workers. Thirty-three percent of the respondents were unfaithful to their spouse/steady partners. Multivariate analysis revealed that living with parents [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.14-3.60)], non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 3.7(2.13-6.31)], never taken VCT [AOR 95% CI; 3.5(1.84-6.72)], middle-class monthly cash gain [AOR 95% CI; 0.5(0.25-0.98)] and more years of experience working on a taxi [AOR 95% CI; 0.17(0.60-0.47)] were statistically significant to influence lifetime abstinence. Non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 0.53(0.37-0.78)], never taken VCT [AOR 95% CI; 0.54(0.36-0.88)] and higher monthly cash gain [AOR 95% CI; 2.9(1.14-7.19)] had a statistically significant association with condom use efficacy. Living with parents [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.31-3.72)], living with friends [AOR 95% CI; 6.4(3.13-12.89)] and non-khat chewers [AOR 95% CI; 2(1.34-3.53)] were risk factors found to be associated with faithfulness. Risky sexual behaviours in this sub-population were considerable and associated factors were found to be multidimensional. Therefore, there is a need for robust

  5. Consumer behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Energy-saving programmes are increasingly targeted at children to encourage household energy conservation. A study involving the assignment of energy-saving interventions to Girl Scouts shows that a child-focused intervention can improve energy-saving behaviours among children and their parents....

  6. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urethra. Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome — in which a male is born with ... or major abdominal or pelvic surgery Having a history of undescended testicles Being born with a fertility ...

  7. Decision-making for risky gains and losses among college students with Internet gaming disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Wei Yao

    Full Text Available Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD tend to exhibit disadvantageous risky decision-making not only in their real life but also in laboratory tasks. Decision-making is a complex multifaceted function and different cognitive processes are involved in decision-making for gains and losses. However, the relationship between impaired decision-making and gain versus loss processing in the context of IGD is poorly understood. The main aim of the present study was to separately evaluate decision-making for risky gains and losses among college students with IGD using the Cups task. Additionally, we further examined the effects of outcome magnitude and probability level on decision-making related to risky gains and losses respectively. Sixty college students with IGD and 42 matched healthy controls (HCs participated. Results indicated that IGD subjects exhibited generally greater risk taking tendencies than HCs. In comparison to HCs, IGD subjects made more disadvantageous risky choices in the loss domain (but not in the gain domain. Follow-up analyses indicated that the impairment was associated to insensitivity to changes in outcome magnitude and probability level for risky losses among IGD subjects. In addition, higher Internet addiction severity scores were associated with percentage of disadvantageous risky options in the loss domain. These findings emphasize the effect of insensitivity to losses on disadvantageous decisions under risk in the context of IGD, which has implications for future intervention studies.

  8. Alcohol--a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepusić, Dubravko; Radović-Radovcić, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol use has been linked to risky sexual practices among adolescents. However, limited research on alcohol use and risky sexual behavior has been conducted among female adolescents. This study examined a high quantity of alcohol as a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among female adolescents. Three hundred ninety-three adolescent females aged 15-21 were assessed for alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants also provided 2 swab specimens that were assayed for STDs. Use of high alcohol quantity was defined as > or = 3 drinks in 1 sitting. Binary generalized estimating equation models were conducted assessing the impact of alcohol use at baseline on risky sexual behavior and STDs over a 12-month period. Age, intervention group and baseline outcome measures were entered as covariates. The results indicated that use of high alcohol quantity predicted inconsistent condom use, high sexual sensation seeking, multiple sexual partners, sex while high on alcohol or drugs, and having anal sex during 12-month follow-up period. These findings suggest that STD-related behavioral interventions for adolescents should discuss the link between alcohol and STD-risk behavior. Deeper understanding of alcohol as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among female adolescents is of paramount importance for development of efficient prevention programs at individual and community levels. The risk of acquiring an STD is higher among teenagers than among adults.

  9. Decision-making for risky gains and losses among college students with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan-Wei; Chen, Pin-Ru; Li, Song; Wang, Ling-Jiao; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Yip, Sarah W; Chen, Gang; Deng, Lin-Yuan; Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) tend to exhibit disadvantageous risky decision-making not only in their real life but also in laboratory tasks. Decision-making is a complex multifaceted function and different cognitive processes are involved in decision-making for gains and losses. However, the relationship between impaired decision-making and gain versus loss processing in the context of IGD is poorly understood. The main aim of the present study was to separately evaluate decision-making for risky gains and losses among college students with IGD using the Cups task. Additionally, we further examined the effects of outcome magnitude and probability level on decision-making related to risky gains and losses respectively. Sixty college students with IGD and 42 matched healthy controls (HCs) participated. Results indicated that IGD subjects exhibited generally greater risk taking tendencies than HCs. In comparison to HCs, IGD subjects made more disadvantageous risky choices in the loss domain (but not in the gain domain). Follow-up analyses indicated that the impairment was associated to insensitivity to changes in outcome magnitude and probability level for risky losses among IGD subjects. In addition, higher Internet addiction severity scores were associated with percentage of disadvantageous risky options in the loss domain. These findings emphasize the effect of insensitivity to losses on disadvantageous decisions under risk in the context of IGD, which has implications for future intervention studies.

  10. Passport to promiscuity or lifesaver: press coverage of HPV vaccination and risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Alice; Wardle, Jane; Stephenson, Judith; Waller, Jo

    2010-03-01

    A significant minority of parents are concerned about adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. The way the HPV vaccine is reported in the media has the potential to influence public understanding and vaccination decisions. The present study examined the content of articles published between 2003 and 2008 in British national newspapers that addressed the issue of adolescents engaging in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination. We used mixed methods to analyze 92 articles in which the issue was mentioned. Qualitative framework analysis highlighted three main types of discussion: news stories proposing that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behavior following HPV vaccination, counterarguments insisting that adolescents will not engage in risky sexual behavior after HPV vaccination, and parents' views of the issue of risky sexual behavior. The results indicated that newspapers provide parents with broadly positive descriptive norms about vaccination; however, the issue that adolescents will engage in risky sexual behaviors following HPV vaccination is regularly discussed in the national press and has the potential to increase parents' concerns about vaccination.

  11. Risky Group Decision-Making Method for Distribution Grid Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cunbin; Yuan, Jiahang; Qi, Zhiqiang

    2015-12-01

    With rapid speed on electricity using and increasing in renewable energy, more and more research pay attention on distribution grid planning. For the drawbacks of existing research, this paper proposes a new risky group decision-making method for distribution grid planning. Firstly, a mixing index system with qualitative and quantitative indices is built. On the basis of considering the fuzziness of language evaluation, choose cloud model to realize "quantitative to qualitative" transformation and construct interval numbers decision matrices according to the "3En" principle. An m-dimensional interval numbers decision vector is regarded as super cuboids in m-dimensional attributes space, using two-level orthogonal experiment to arrange points uniformly and dispersedly. The numbers of points are assured by testing numbers of two-level orthogonal arrays and these points compose of distribution points set to stand for decision-making project. In order to eliminate the influence of correlation among indices, Mahalanobis distance is used to calculate the distance from each solutions to others which means that dynamic solutions are viewed as the reference. Secondly, due to the decision-maker's attitude can affect the results, this paper defines the prospect value function based on SNR which is from Mahalanobis-Taguchi system and attains the comprehensive prospect value of each program as well as the order. At last, the validity and reliability of this method is illustrated by examples which prove the method is more valuable and superiority than the other.

  12. Risky Adaptation: The Effect of Temperature Extremes on HIV Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R.

    2016-12-01

    Previous work has linked rainfall shock to an increase in HIV prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper we take advantage of repeated waves of the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) and a new high resolution climate dataset for the African continent to test the non-linear relationship between temperature and HIV. We find a strong and significant relationship between recent high temperatures and increases in HIV prevalence in a region. We then test the effect of temperature on risk factors that may contribute to this increase. High temperatures are linked to an increase in sexual violence, number of partners and a decrease in condom usage - all of which may contribute to the uptake in HIV rate. This paper contributes to the literature on adaptation from two standpoints. First, we suggest that some behavioral changes that are classed as adaptations, in the sense that they allow for consumption smoothing in the face of extreme temperatures, may carry unexpected risks to the individuals involved. Second, we find preliminary evidence that the relationship between temperature and these risky behaviors is diminished in regions prone to higher temperatures, suggesting some adaptation is possible in the long run.

  13. Framing From Experience: Cognitive Processes and Predictions of Risky Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Mehlhorn, Katja

    2016-07-01

    A framing bias shows risk aversion in problems framed as "gains" and risk seeking in problems framed as "losses," even when these are objectively equivalent and probabilities and outcomes values are explicitly provided. We test this framing bias in situations where decision makers rely on their own experience, sampling the problem's options (safe and risky) and seeing the outcomes before making a choice. In Experiment 1, we replicate the framing bias in description-based decisions and find risk indifference in gains and losses in experience-based decisions. Predictions of an Instance-Based Learning model suggest that objective probabilities as well as the number of samples taken are factors that contribute to the lack of framing effect. We test these two factors in Experiment 2 and find no framing effect when a few samples are taken but when large samples are taken, the framing effect appears regardless of the objective probability values. Implications of behavioral results and cognitive modeling are discussed.

  14. HIV-related risky practices among Brazilian young men, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia Landmann Szwarcwald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral surveillance surveys have been carried among military conscripts, in Brazil, since 1996. This paper presents the results of the 2007 survey and compares actual findings with those obtained in previous studies carried out in the period 1999-2002. The conscripts were selected with a two stage sampling stratified by geographical region. The study included a self-reported questionnaire and blood collection for HIV and syphilis testing. Data from 35,432 conscripts aged 17-20 years old were analyzed. The findings show a reduction in regular condom use, with fixed and casual partners, mainly among those with poor educational level. The proportion of conscripts that have sex with other men was maintained (3.2%, but the index of risky sexual behavioral showed worsening results in this group. Also, the HIV prevalence rate increased from 9 to 11.3 per 10,000 in 2007, though the increase was not statistically significant. In conclusion, the evidences found in this paper indicate the need of reformulate policy among young adults.

  15. Drug packaging in 2015: risky industry choices and lax regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Prescrire examined the packaging quality of 240 drugs in 2015. No new advances were identified, but drug packaging continues to expose patients to a variety of dangers. Some past advances persist: for example, INNs are often more legible, and recent patient leaflets tend to be clearer and more informative. But these measures are not applied to all drugs, and are rarely applied retroactively to older drugs. The overall picture in 2015 is that many drugs are difficult to identify, risky or downright dangerous to prepare, or supplied with patient leaflets that fail to correctly inform patients about their medication. And measures to prevent drug poisoning in children need to be completely rethought. It is high time for regulators and policy makers to take the issue of drug packaging seriously, so blatant are the signs of their failure to do so: the increasing use of bulk bottles for new drugs; failure to implement guidelines on safe drug packaging (unit-dose presentations, appropriate dosing devices, etc.); and expanding umbrella brands which, given the dangers they pose to patients, should be banned instead. All things considered, healthcare professionals and patients must remain vigilant and report any dangers they identify. A major European initiative on drug packaging is becoming increasingly necessary.

  16. Male sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Terrie B

    2010-05-01

    It should be recognized that sexuality in the aging male is of such import that a complete sexual history must be performed. By taking a complete sexual history, facts can be obtained that will allow for appropriate focus relating to a holistic evaluation and will enable us to dispel antiquated sexual myths pertaining to the aging male. If initiated by the history taker, questions concerning sexuality may be discussed more comfortably by the patient. Erectile dysfunction, male sexual response cycle, testosterone, sexually transmitted diseases, human immunodeficiency virus, long-term illness, along with religion and culture are explored in this article with the aim of improving one's knowledge base, self reflection, and awareness of the importance of male sexuality. A complete understanding and appreciation of the aging male's medical history, surgical history, social history, and emotional history as well as his sexual, cultural, and religious concepts will allow the health care provider to better analyze information, and to recommend and provide appropriate advice and treatment to the aging male patient.

  17. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  18. An assessment of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and associated risky behavior among inmates of Kaduna convict prison: the implications for Prevention Programmes in Nigerian Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitu, K; Iliyasu, Z; Joshua, I A

    2009-01-01

    Prisoners worldwide have a significantly higher prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite this, little is known of inmates' knowledge, behaviour and access to services, especially in developing countries. This study assessed the characteristics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude and associated risky behavior among inmates of a prison in northern Nigeria. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was administered on a cross-section of 374 inmates of Kaduna convict prison in northern Nigeria. Information was elicited on their sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitude and indulgence in risky behaviour. About 96.1% of the inmates had heard about AIDS. Majority of them (70%) were ignorant of the causative agent; however, knowledge of route of disease transmission was high, with 91%, 67% and 46.7% of inmates mentioning sexual activity, unscreened blood transfusion and sharing unsterilized blades, respectively. They listed abstinence, faithfulness, use of condoms, new needles, syringes and blades as protective measures. Overall, 39.5%, 48.7% and 11.8% of the respondents had good, fair and poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS, respectively. Only 64 (14.9%) inmates reported having sexual intercourse in prison. These sexual encounters were homosexual in 56.2% of cases and heterosexual in 43.8% of cases. Only 28 (43.8%) of the sexually active inmates claimed to have used condoms regularly. Respectively, 72.3% and 70.8% of inmates shared barbing clippers and razor blades. There was a strong association between educational attainment and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (2 = 28.3 df = 6 P < 0.0001). Although more than two thirds of the inmates had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS, there were gaps, misconceptions and high-risk behaviour. Well-designed information, education an communication (IEC) programmes on AIDS should be developed for inmates of prisons nationwide.

  19. HIV Infection among Young People in Northwest Tanzania: The Role of Biological, Behavioural and Socio-Demographic Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Lemme

    Full Text Available Young people are at high risk of HIV and developing appropriate prevention programmes requires an understanding of the risk factors for HIV in this age group. We investigated factors associated with HIV among participants aged 15-30 years in a 2007-8 cross-sectional survey nested within a community-randomised trial of the MEMA kwa Vijana intervention in 20 rural communities in northwest Tanzania.We analysed data for 7259(53% males and 6476(47% females. Using a proximate-determinant conceptual framework and conditional logistic regression, we obtained sex-specific Odds Ratios (ORs for the association of HIV infection with socio-demographic, knowledge, behavioural and biological factors.HSV-2 infection was strongly associated with HIV infection (females: adjOR 4.4, 95%CI 3.2-6.1; males: adjOR 4.2, 95%CI 2.8-6.2. Several socio-demographic factors (such as age, marital status and mobility, behavioural factors (condom use, number and type of sexual partnerships and biological factors (blood transfusion, lifetime pregnancies, genital ulcers, Neisseria gonorrhoeae were also associated with HIV infection. Among females, lifetime sexual partners (linear trend, p<0.001, ≥2 partners in the past year (adjOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.4-2.8, ≥2 new partners in the past year (adjOR 1.9 95%CI 1.2, 3.3 and concurrent partners in the past year (adjOR 1.6 95%CI 1.1, 2.4 were all associated with HIV infection.Efforts must be intensified to find effective interventions to reduce HSV-2. Effective behavioural interventions focusing on reducing the number of sexual partnerships and risk behaviour within partnerships are also needed. An increase in risky sexual behaviour may occur following marriage dissolution or when a young woman travels outside of her community and interventions addressing the needs of these subgroups of vulnerable women may be important.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00248469.

  20. Student Sex: More or Less Risky than Other Young Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor

    2015-01-01

    Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…

  1. Impact of self esteem on risky sexual behaviors among Nigerian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enejoh, Victor; Pharr, Jennifer; Mavegam, Bertille Octavie; Olutola, Ayodotun; Karick, Haruna; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2016-01-01

    Although improved knowledge is often the first approach in HIV prevention for adolescents, studies have shown that despite being well informed, adolescents still engage in risky sexual behavior (RSB). Low self-esteem has been considered to be a psychological explanation for behavioral problems, but little is known about the impact of self-esteem on RSB among adolescents in Nigeria. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adolescents with high self-esteem demonstrate lower RSB compared to those with low self-esteem. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 361 adolescents in 9 secondary schools in Jos Plateau, Nigeria. The Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale was used to measure self-esteem and the Brief HIV Screener (BHS) was used to measure RSB. All data were analyzed using SPSS 21. Chi square and odds ratios were calculated to determine differences in BHS questions based on predetermined low or high self-esteem categories. Independent t-test were utilized to determine difference in mean BHS scores based on self-esteem categories. Participants were 169 male (46.8%) and 192 female (53.2%) with a mean age of 16.9. Mean self-esteem score was 27.6 with no significant difference in self-esteem scores by gender. Adolescents with low self-esteem were 1.7 times more likely to be sexually active and had a higher mean BHS scores compared to adolescents with high self-esteem. Programs aimed at reducing RSB and in-turn HIV/AIDS should consider interventions to raise adolescents' self-esteem.

  2. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....

  3. School-based HIV/AIDS education is associated with reduced risky sexual behaviors and better grades with gender and race/ethnicity differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-qiang; Fisher, Monica A; Kuller, Lewis H

    2014-04-01

    Although studies indicate school-based HIV/AIDS education programs effectively reduce risky behaviors, only 33 states and the District of Columbia in US mandate HIV/AIDS education. Ideally, school-based HIV/AIDS education should begin before puberty, or at the latest before first sexual intercourse. In 2011, 20% US states had fewer schools teaching HIV/AIDS prevention than during 2008; this is worrisome, especially for more vulnerable minorities. A nationally representative sample of 16 410 US high-school students participating in 2009 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was analyzed. Multiple regression models assessed the association between HIV/AIDS education and risky sexual behaviors, and academic grades. HIV/AIDS education was associated with delayed age at first sexual intercourse, reduced number of sex partners, reduced likelihood to have forced sexual intercourse and better academic grades, for sexually active male students, but not for female students. Both male and female students who had HIV/AIDS education were less likely to inject drugs, drink alcohol or use drugs before last sexual intercourse, and more likely to use condoms. Minority ethnic female students were more likely to have HIV testing. The positive effect of HIV/AIDS education and different gender and race/ethnicity effects support scaling up HIV/AIDS education and further research on the effectiveness of gender-race/ethnicity-specific HIV/AIDS curriculum.

  4. Robot-Assisted Risky Intervention, Search, Rescue and Environmental Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki K. Habib

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become the solution to many long-standing problems, and while current technologies may be effective, it is far from fully addressing the hug, complex, difficult and challenging tasks associated with disaster missions and risky intervention. The challenge is in finding creative, reliable and applicable technical solutions in such highly constrained and uncertain environment. In addition, it is necessary to overcome constrains on resources by developing innovative, cost effective and practical technology. Robotics can play important intelligent and technological roles that support first response equipment in harsh and dangerous environments while replacing rescue personnel from entering unreachable or unsafe places. Robotics solutions that are well adapted to local conditions of unstructured and unknown environment can greatly improve safety and security of personnel as well as work efficiency, productivity and flexibility. Solving and fulfilling the needs of such tasks presents challenges in robotic mechanical structure and mobility, sensors and sensor fusion, autonomous and semi autonomous control, planning and navigation, and machine intelligence. This paper categorizes the source of disasters and associated missions, and highlights the needs for suitable and reliable technology and technical and functional requirements of robotic systems to fulfill task objectives. In addition, it shows that robotic technologies can be used for disasters prevention or early warning, intervention and recovery efforts during disasters with all possible kinds of relevant missions while ensuring quality of service and safety of human beings. Some of these missions may include: demining, search and rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance and risk assessment, evacuation assistance, intrusion/victim detection and assessment, etc.

  5. Robot-Assisted Risky Intervention, Search, Rescue and Environmental Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki K. Habib

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Technology has become the solution to many long-standing problems, and while current technologies may be effective, it is far from fully addressing the hug, complex, difficult and challenging tasks associated with disaster missions and risky intervention. The challenge is in finding creative, reliable and applicable technical solutions in such highly constrained and uncertain environment. In addition, it is necessary to overcome constrains on resources by developing innovative, cost effective and practical technology. Robotics can play important intelligent and technological roles that support first response equipment in harsh and dangerous environments while replacing rescue personnel from entering unreachable or unsafe places. Robotics solutions that are well adapted to local conditions of unstructured and unknown environment can greatly improve safety and security of personnel as well as work efficiency, productivity and flexibility. Solving and fulfilling the needs of such tasks presents challenges in robotic mechanical structure and mobility, sensors and sensor fusion, autonomous and semi autonomous control, planning and navigation, and machine intelligence. This paper categorizes the source of disasters and associated missions, and highlights the needs for suitable and reliable technology and technical and functional requirements of robotic systems to fulfill task objectives. In addition, it shows that robotic technologies can be used for disasters prevention or early warning, intervention and recovery efforts during disasters with all possible kinds of relevant missions while ensuring quality of service and safety of human beings. Some of these missions may include: demining, search and rescue, surveillance, reconnaissance and risk assessment, evacuation assistance, intrusion/victim detection and assessment, etc.

  6. [Food behaviour and obesity: insights from decision neuroscience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Olivia; Basso, Frédéric; Huguet, Pascal; Plassmann, Hilke; Oullier, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Neuroimaging allows to estimate brain activity when individuals are doing something. The location and intensity of this estimated activity provides information on the dynamics and processes that guide choice behaviour and associated actions that should be considered a complement to behavioural studies. Decision neuroscience therefore sheds new light on whether the brain evaluates and compares alternatives when decisions are made, or if other processes are at stake. This work helped to demonstrate that the situations faced by individuals (risky, uncertain, delayed in time) do not all have the same (behavioural) complexity, and are not underlined by activity in the cerebral networks. Taking into account brain dynamics of people (suffering from obesity or not) when making food consumption decisions might allow for improved strategies in public health prevention, far from the rational choice theory promoted by neoclassical economics. © 2011 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  7. Alcohol Dependence and Altered Engagement of Neural Networks in Risky Decisions

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    Xi eZhu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is associated with heightened risk tolerance and altered decision- making. This raises the question as to whether alcohol dependent patients (ADP are incapable of proper risk assessment. We investigated how healthy controls (HC and ADP engage neural networks to cope with the increased cognitive demands of risky decisions. We collected fMRI data while 34 HC and 16 ADP played a game that included safe and risky trials. In safe trials, participants accrued money at no risk of a penalty. In risky trials, reward and risk simultaneously increased as participants were instructed to decide when to stop a reward accrual period. If the participant failed to stop before an undisclosed time, the trial would bust and participants would not earn the money from that trial. Independent Component Analysis was used to identify networks engaged during the anticipation and the decision execution of risky compared with safe trials. Like HC, ADP demonstrated distinct network engagement for safe and risky trials at anticipation. However, at decision execution, ADP exhibited severely reduced discrimination in network engagement between safe and risky trials. Although ADP behaviorally responded to risk they failed to appropriately modify network engagement as the decision continued, leading ADP to assume similar network engagement regardless of risk prospects. This may reflect disorganized network switching and a facile response strategy uniformly adopted by ADP across risk conditions. We propose that aberrant salience network (SN engagement in ADP might contribute to ineffective network switching and that the role of the SN in risky decisions warrants further investigation.

  8. Risky behavior in gambling tasks in individuals with ADHD--a systematic literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Groen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to gain insight into the relationship between Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and risky performance in gambling tasks and to identify any potential alternate explanatory factors. METHODS: PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing individuals with ADHD to normal controls (NCs in relation to their risky performance on a gambling task. In total, fourteen studies in children/adolescents and eleven studies in adults were included in the review. RESULTS: Half of the studies looking at children/adolescents with ADHD found evidence that they run more risks on gambling tasks when compared to NCs. Only a minority of the studies on adults with ADHD reported aberrant risky behavior. The effect sizes ranged from small to large for both age groups and the outcome pattern did not differ between studies that applied an implicit or explicit gambling task. Two studies demonstrated that comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD and conduct disorder (CD increased risky behavior in ADHD. Limited and/or inconsistent evidence was found that comorbid internalizing disorders (IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and different forms of reward influenced the outcomes. CONCLUSION: The evidence for increased risky performance of individuals with ADHD on gambling tasks is mixed, but is stronger for children/adolescents with ADHD than for adults with ADHD, which may point to developmental changes in reward and/or penalty sensitivity or a publication bias for positive findings in children/adolescents. The literature suggests that comorbid ODD/CD is a risk factor in ADHD for increased risky behavior. Comorbid IDs, ADHD subtype, methylphenidate use, and the form of reward received may affect risky performance in gambling tasks; however, these factors need further examination. Finally, the implications of the findings for ADHD models and the ecological validity of gambling tasks

  9. Adolescents' preference for technology-based emergency department behavioral interventions: does it depend on risky behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Choo, Esther K; Spirito, Anthony; Mello, Michael J

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to (1) determine the prevalence of technology use and interest in technology-based interventions among adolescent emergency department patients and (2) examine the association between interest in an intervention and self-reported risky behaviors. Adolescents (age, 13-17 years) presenting to an urban pediatric emergency department completed a survey regarding baseline technology use, risky behaviors, and interest in and preferred format for behavioral health interventions. Questions were drawn from validated measures when possible. Descriptive statistics and χ2 tests were calculated to identify whether self-reported risky behaviors were differentially associated with intervention preference. Two hundred thirty-four patients (81.8% of eligible) consented to participate. Almost all used technology, including computers (98.7%), social networking (84.9%), and text messaging (95.1%). Adolescents reported high prevalence of risky behaviors as follows: unintentional injury (93.2%), peer violence exposure (29.3%), dating violence victimization (23.0%), depression or anxiety (30.0%), alcohol use (22.8%), drug use (36.1%), cigarette use (16.4%), and risky sexual behaviors (15.1%). Most were interested in receiving behavioral interventions (ranging from 93.6% interest in unintentional injury prevention, to 73.1% in smoking cessation); 45% to 93% preferred technology-based (vs in person, telephone call, or paper) interventions for each topic. Proportion interested in a specific topic and proportion preferring a technology-based intervention did not significantly differ by self-reported risky behaviors. Among this sample of adolescent emergency department patients, high rates of multiple risky behaviors are reported. Patients endorsed interest in receiving interventions for these behaviors, regardless of whether they reported the behavior. Most used multiple forms of technology, and approximately 50% preferred a technology-based intervention format.

  10. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of male hypogonadism can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy. Symptoms Hypogonadism can begin during fetal development, before puberty or during adulthood. Signs and symptoms depend on when the condition ... enough testosterone during fetal development, the result may be impaired ...

  11. A longitudinal study of student-teacher relationship quality, difficult temperament, and risky behavior from childhood to early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Reio, Thomas G; Stipanovic, Natalie; Taylor, Jennifer E

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 4 1/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N=1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate paths from (a) background characteristics to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, (b) temperament to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, and (c) student-teacher relationship quality to risky behavior. Findings indicate that students' family income, gender, receipt of special services, and more difficult temperament were associated with risky behavior. In addition, student-teacher conflict was a mediator. Students with more difficult temperaments were more likely to report risky behavior and to have conflict in their relationships with teachers. More conflict predicted more risky behavior. Closer student-teacher relationships were associated with less risky behavior. Results suggest negative relationships, specifically student-teacher relationships, may increase the risk that certain adolescents will engage in risky behavior.

  12. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Sylvia; Suefuji, Masaki; Schrempf, Alexandra; Heinze, Jürgen

    2012-06-15

    The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless ("ergatoid") males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection at the colony level rather than the individual level.

  13. The dynamics of male-male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cremer Sylvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless (“ergatoid” males. Here, we analyse for how long young males are defenceless after eclosion, and how early adult males can detect the presence of rival males. Results We found that old ergatoid males consistently won fights against ergatoid males younger than two days. Old males did not differentiate between different types of unpigmented pupae several days before emergence, but had more frequent contact to ready-to-eclose pupae of female sexuals and winged males than of workers and ergatoid males. In rare cases, old ergatoid males displayed alleviated biting of pigmented ergatoid male pupae shortly before adult eclosion, as well as copulation attempts to dark pupae of female sexuals and winged males. Ergatoid male behaviour may be promoted by a closer similarity of the chemical profile of ready-to-eclose pupae to the profile of adults than that of young pupae several days prior to emergence. Conclusion Young ergatoid males of C. obscurior would benefit greatly by hiding their identity from older, resident males, as they are highly vulnerable during the first two days of their adult lives. In contrast to the winged males of the same species, which are able to prevent ergatoid male attacks by chemical female mimicry, young ergatoids do not seem to be able to produce a protective chemical profile. Conflicts in male-male competition between ergatoid males of different age thus seem to be resolved in favour of the older males. This might represent selection

  14. Young Women, Sexual Behaviour and Sexual Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Hoggart

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers young people's sexual decision-making in the context of New Labour's policies on teenage pregnancy. In 1999, the newly formed Social Exclusion Unit sought to understand why the UK had the highest number of teenage conceptions in Europe (SEU 1999. One of the conclusions was that young people in the UK are engaging in "risky" rather than "safe" sex. Although New Labour has since developed policies designed to help young people avoid what is seen as risky sexual activity, there is a tension in sexual health policy between the overall aim of providing young people with the knowledge and confidence to practice "safe sex", and an underlying belief amongst many in the undesirability of "underage sex". This is partly a legacy of disagreements evident in the 1980s and 1990s when some organisations argued against sex education and contraceptive provision for young people on the grounds that it encouraged promiscuous and risky behaviour. The paper shows how alternative meanings of risk and responsibility are present in young mothers' own representations of their sexual decision-making. It does this through an analysis of two research projects on Young Women, Sex and Choices. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601283

  15. Traditional, Cyber and Combined Bullying Roles: Differences in Risky Online and Offline Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Wachs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study (1 reports frequency rates of mutually exclusive traditional, cyber and combined (both traditional and cyber bullying roles; and (2 investigates whether adolescents belonging to particular bullying roles show higher levels of involvement in risky online activities (Compulsive Internet Use (CIU, online grooming victimization, and sexting and risky offline activities (bad behavior in school, drinking alcohol and truancy than non-involved adolescents. The sample comprised self-reports of 1928 German, Dutch and Thai adolescents (Age = 12–18; M = 14.52; SD = 1.6. The results revealed age, sex and country differences in bullying frequency rates. CIU, sending of sexts and risky offline activities were most strongly associated with combined bully-victims. The receiving of sexts was most strongly associated with combined bullies; and online grooming victimization was most strongly related to cyber bully-victims. Another important finding is that the associations between risky offline activities and combined bullying are stronger than for traditional and cyber bullying. The findings contribute to better understanding of the associations between varying bullying roles and risky online and offline activities among adolescents. In sum, the results underscore the need to promote life skills rather than adopting more conventional approaches, which focus almost exclusively on reduction of risks.

  16. Research of the Effect of Risky Choice Framing Effect on Personal Taxpaying Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qishen Zhou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of risky choice framing effect in the taxpaying decision process. To promote personal tax compliance, this study takes the risky choice framing effect into the research of taxpaying compliance activity, analyses taxpayers' psychological principles in decision-making and studies risky choice framing effect in framing effects. Experimental method has been adopted in this study to analyze the effect of risky choice framing effect. The analysis results show that the taxpayer's compliance decision does not exist significant risky choice framing effect when the tax rate is low, whereas it shows such character significantly when the tax rate increases to a certain degree. It also discovers the existence of withholding phenomenon. Taxpayers on the condition of tax reimbursement show a higher degree of compliance compared to those who are in the condition of paying conscience money. According to the findings of this research, considering the current situation of China’s taxpaying, three policy recommendations has been proposed to increase the degree of personal tax compliance. These recommendations include the policies of taxes paid in advance and annual income tax report and decreasing the marginal tax rate.

  17. Children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective: the anti-phobic effects of thrilling experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen

    2011-06-21

    This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers) that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors that both provide the child with an exhilarating positive emotion and expose the child to the stimuli they previously have feared. As the child's coping skills improve, these situations and stimuli may be mastered and no longer be feared. Thus fear caused by maturational and age relevant natural inhibition is reduced as the child experiences a motivating thrilling activation, while learning to master age adequate challenges. It is concluded that risky play may have evolved due to this anti-phobic effect in normal child development, and it is suggested that we may observe an increased neuroticism or psychopathology in society if children are hindered from partaking in age adequate risky play.

  18. Sibling differences in parent-child conflict and risky behavior: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2012-08-01

    To better understand why siblings growing up in the same family are often as different as unrelated individuals, this study explored the role of differential experiences with parents in the development of sibling differences. Cross-lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether differential parent-child conflict predicted sibling differences in risky behavior over time, or vice versa. Participants were mothers, fathers, and the 2 eldest adolescent siblings (mean ages at Time 1 = 15.12 and 12.58 years) from 355 European American, working- and middle-class families. On 3 occasions over a 2-year period, mothers and fathers reported on their conflict with each of the 2 siblings, and siblings reported on their own risky behavior. Results revealed that, controlling for sibling age differences and average levels of conflict and risky behavior at Time 1, youths who had more conflict with their mothers and fathers in relation to their siblings subsequently engaged in relatively more risky behavior. Also, youths who engaged in more risky behavior in relation to their siblings experienced relatively more conflict with their fathers, but not mothers, at later time points. Findings highlight the importance of examining both family dynamics and child characteristics in understanding sibling differentiation, and illuminate potential differences in parenting processes involving mothers versus fathers.

  19. Children's Risky Play from an Evolutionary Perspective: The Anti-Phobic Effects of Thrilling Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article views children's risky play from an evolutionary perspective, addressing specific evolutionary functions and especially the anti-phobic effects of risky play. According to the non-associative theory, a contemporary approach to the etiology of anxiety, children develop fears of certain stimuli (e.g., heights and strangers that protect them from situations they are not mature enough to cope with, naturally through infancy. Risky play is a set of motivated behaviors that both provide the child with an exhilarating positive emotion and expose the child to the stimuli they previously have feared. As the child's coping skills improve, these situations and stimuli may be mastered and no longer be feared. Thus fear caused by maturational and age relevant natural inhibition is reduced as the child experiences a motivating thrilling activation, while learning to master age adequate challenges. It is concluded that risky play may have evolved due to this anti-phobic effect in normal child development, and it is suggested that we may observe an increased neuroticism or psychopathology in society if children are hindered from partaking in age adequate risky play.

  20. Adolescent male health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years.

  1. Determinants of personality and risky road behaviors at work in drivers of medical transport vehicles in the Wielkopolska (Greater Poland Voivodeship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Cybulski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality determinants are an important predicator of road behaviors in drivers. The main objective of the study was to determine the relationship between personality determinants (neuroticism, extraversion, level of anxiety – features and distinguishable risky behaviors of drivers of medical transport vehicles. Material and Methods: The study covered 106 male drivers from the Wielkopolskie Voivodeship, working in health care, having a license to drive emergency vehicles. To achieve the research objectives a questionnaire was developed and applied. It concerned risky road behaviors among drivers of medical transport. The personality suitability was determined using the questionnaire methods on self-assessment: Polish versions of Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised (EPQ-R and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI questionnaire. Results: It was shown that drivers with introverted characteristics declare driving vehicles of reduced technical efficiency more often than extroverts. The level of the anxiety as a trait A-characteristic affects the display of distracting behaviors, making decisions about driving a vehicle that is inefficient, driving in a bad psychophysical condition, as well as maintaining too small distance from the preceding vehicle. The higher the intensity of anxiety characteristics, the higher the intensity of given behaviors. Conclusions: Based on the study results, it can be assumed that there is a relationship between determinants of personality and the display of risky behaviors of drivers of medical transport vehicles. Thus it can be concluded that the level of extraversion and anxiety as a trait are the differentiating characteristics of respondents. Med Pr 2014;65(4:485–496

  2. Risky sexual behavior in american white college women: the role of sex guilt and sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayment, Heidi A; Aronson, Bethany

    2002-11-01

    Ninety-five sexually active White American female college students participated in a questionnaire study about their sexual behavior in the past 12 months. A path model was tested in order to assess specific hypothesized predictors of risky sexual behavior. As predicted, participants with greater sex guilt reported using condoms more and having had fewer sexual partners. The findings of this study suggest that White American female college students are at some degree of risk due to risky sexual behavior. Taking into account attitudes about sexuality and past sexual abuse along with the requisite training in condom use self-efficacy may enhance the success of interventions designed to reduce risky sexual behavior among White American female college students.

  3. The role of religiosity in the relationship between parents, peers, and adolescent risky sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landor, Antoinette; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Brody, Gene H; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2011-03-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents' participation in risky sexual behavior (early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use). Structural equation modeling, using longitudinal data from a sample of 612 African American adolescents (55% female), provided support for the model. The results indicated that parental religiosity influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior through its impact on authoritative parenting, adolescent religiosity, and adolescent affiliation with less sexually permissive peers. Some mediating mechanisms differed by the gender of the respondent, suggesting a "double-standard" for daughters but not for sons. Findings also indicated the importance of messages about sexual behavior that are transmitted to adolescents by their peers. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Parenting behaviors during risky driving by teens with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, Nicole K; Fabiano, Gregory A; Morris, Karen L; Shucard, Jennifer M; Leo, Brittany A; Bieniek, Courtney

    2014-03-01

    Parenting practices for teen drivers with ADHD were observed via a video monitor installed in vehicles. All teens had recently completed a driver education course and were in the driving permit stage of a graduated driver-licensing program. Parent behaviors were coded during drives when teens were driving safely and during drives when teens engaged in risky driving. The overall frequency of positive parenting strategies was low, regardless of whether teens drove safely or engaged in risky driving. Although the rate of negative feedback was also low, parents engaged in significantly more criticism and were rated by an observer to appear angrier when teens were driving in a risky manner. No other differences in parent behaviors associated with the quality of teen driving were observed. The inconsistencies between observed parenting behaviors and those parenting practices recommended as effective with teens with ADHD are discussed. The need for further research addressing effective strategies for teaching teens with ADHD to drive is highlighted.

  5. Child abuse, early maladaptive schemas, and risky sexual behavior in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  6. The Role of Religiosity in the Relationship Between Parents, Peers, and Adolescent Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented a negative relationship between religion and risky sexual behavior. Few studies, however, have examined the processes whereby religion exerts this effect. The present study develops and tests a model of various mechanisms whereby parental religiosity reduces the likelihood of adolescents’ participation in risky sexual behavior (early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use). Structural equation modeling, using longitudinal data from a sample of 612 African American adolescents (55% female), provided support for the model. The results indicated that parental religiosity influenced adolescent risky sexual behavior through its impact on authoritative parenting, adolescent religiosity, and adolescent affiliation with less sexually permissive peers. Some mediating mechanisms differed by the gender of the respondent, suggesting a “double-standard” for daughters but not for sons. Findings also indicated the importance of messages about sexual behavior that are transmitted to adolescents by their peers. Theoretical and policy implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21052800

  7. Impaired fear extinction retention and increased anxiety-like behaviours induced by limited daily access to a high-fat/high-sugar diet in male rats: Implications for diet-induced prefrontal cortex dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kathryn D; Reichelt, Amy C

    2016-12-01

    Anxiety disorders and obesity are both common in youth and young adults. Despite increasing evidence that over-consumption of palatable high-fat/high-sugar "junk" foods leads to adverse neurocognitive outcomes, little is known about the effects of palatable diets on emotional memories and fear regulation. In the present experiments we examined the effects of daily 2h consumption of a high-fat/high-sugar (HFHS) food across adolescence on fear inhibition and anxiety-like behaviour in young adult rats. Rats exposed to the HFHS diet exhibited impaired retention of fear extinction and increased anxiety-like behaviour in an emergence test compared to rats fed a standard diet. The HFHS-fed rats displayed diet-induced changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) function which were detected by altered expression of GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons and the stable transcription factor ΔFosB which accumulates in the PFC in response to chronic stimuli. Immunohistochemical analyses of the medial PFC revealed that animals fed the HFHS diet had fewer parvalbumin-expressing cells and increased levels of FosB/ΔFosB expression in the infralimbic cortex, a region implicated in the consolidation of fear extinction. There was a trend towards increased IBA-1 immunoreactivity, a marker of microglial activation, in the infralimbic cortex after HFHS diet exposure but expression of the extracellular glycoprotein reelin was unaffected. These findings demonstrate that a HFHS diet during adolescence is associated with reductions of prefrontal parvalbumin neurons and impaired fear inhibition in adulthood. Adverse effects of HFHS diets on the mechanisms of fear regulation may precipitate a vulnerability in obese individuals to the development of anxiety disorders.

  8. Experiences with food insecurity and risky sex among low-income people living with HIV/AIDS in a resource-rich setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry J Whittle

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forty-nine million individuals are food insecure in the United States, where food insecurity and HIV/AIDS are prevalent among the urban poor. Food insecurity is associated with risky sexual behaviours among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV. No qualitative studies, however, have investigated the mechanisms underlying this relationship either in a resource-rich setting or among populations that include men who have sex with men (MSM. Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 34 low-income PLHIV receiving food assistance in the San Francisco Bay Area. The interviews explored experiences with food insecurity and perceived associations with sexual risk behaviours. Interviews were conducted in English, audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed according to content analysis methods using an inductive-deductive approach. Results: Food insecurity was reported to be a strong contributor to risky sexual practices among MSM and female participants. Individuals described engaging in transactional sex for food or money to buy food, often during times of destitution. Participants also explained how food insecurity could lead to condomless sex despite knowledge of and desire to use safe sexual practices, largely because the need to obtain food in the short term was prioritized over the desire to use barrier protection. Conclusions: Our data extend previous research by demonstrating that food insecurity contributes to transactional and unprotected sex among urban poor individuals in a resource-rich setting, including among MSM. These findings underscore the importance of public health and social intervention efforts focused on structural inequalities.

  9. The Comparison of Risky Decision Making in Opium Abuser and Healthy Matched Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Risky decision making is one of the most basic mechanisms of impulsive and addictive behaviors. The purpose of present study was the comparison of risky decision making in opium abuser and healthy matched individuals. Method: In present cross sectional study, 50 opium abusers compared to 50 healthy who were matched on age and gender. Balloon Analogue Risk Taking Task was used for evaluation of risk taking in participant of both groups. Results: The results showed that opium abusers have had higher scores on number of plumbing balloon and exploded balloon in BART task than normal individuals. Conclusion: Opium abusers have higher risk taking than normal individuals.

  10. Adolescent propensity to engage in health risky behaviors: the role of individual resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Dwyer, Debra S; Vanner, Elizabeth A; Lopez, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we create indices of resilience to identify adolescents at risk of smoking, drinking alcohol, and using illegal drugs. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, three manifestations of resilience were identified: overall-resilience, self/family-resilience, and self-resilience. Our analysis reveals that the overall-resilient were less likely to engage in risky behaviors. The self/family resilient were more likely to engage in risky behaviors, but consumed less. The self-resilient had reduced risk for smoking and drinking alcohol but elevated risk for using illegal drugs and being in an addictive stage of smoking and drinking, if participating.

  11. Prospect theory or construal level theory? Diminishing sensitivity vs. psychological distance in risky decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Stefan T; van de Kuilen, Gijs

    2012-01-01

    Attitudes toward risks are central to organizational decisions. These attitudes are commonly modeled by prospect theory. Construal level theory has been proposed as an alternative theory of risky choice, accounting for psychological distance deriving from temporal, spatial and social aspects of risk that are typical of agency situations. Unnoticed in the literature, the two theories make contradicting predictions. The current study investigates which theory provides a better description of risky decisions in the presence of temporal, spatial, and social factors. We find that the psychophysical effects modeled by prospect theory dominate the psychological distance effects of construal level theory.

  12. Modelling Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This book reflects and expands on the current trend in the building industry to understand, simulate and ultimately design buildings by taking into consideration the interlinked elements and forces that act on them. This approach overcomes the traditional, exclusive focus on building tasks, while....... The chapter authors were invited speakers at the 5th Symposium "Modelling Behaviour", which took place at the CITA in Copenhagen in September 2015....... posing new challenges in all areas of the industry from material and structural to the urban scale. Contributions from invited experts, papers and case studies provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of the field, as well as perspectives from related disciplines, such as computer science...

  13. Maternal Models of Risk: Links between Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior in African American Female Caregivers and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakefield, Tiffany; Wilson, Helen; Donenberg, Geri

    2012-01-01

    African American (AA) adolescent girls are at heightened risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and thus knowledge of factors related to risky sexual behavior in this population is crucial. Using Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977), this paper examines pathways from female caregivers' risky sexual behavior and substance use to…

  14. Risky Decision Making in a Laboratory Driving Task Is Associated with Health Risk Behaviors during Late Adolescence but Not Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Kahn, Rachel; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Chiu, Pearl; Steinberg, Laurence; King-Casas, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is characterized by increasing incidence of health risk behaviors, including experimentation with drugs and alcohol. To fill the gap in our understanding of the associations between risky decision-making and health risk behaviors, we investigated associations between laboratory-based risky decision-making using the Stoplight task and…

  15. A meta-analytic review of the relationship between adolescent risky sexual behavior and impulsivity across gender, age, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dir, Allyson L; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Cyders, Melissa A

    2014-11-01

    Impulsivity is frequently included as a risk factor in models of adolescent sexual risk-taking; however, findings on the magnitude of association between impulsivity and risky sexual behavior are variable across studies. The aims of the current meta-analysis were to examine (1) how specific impulsivity traits relate to specific risky sexual behaviors in adolescents, and (2) how the impulsivity-risky sex relationship might differ across gender, age, and race. Eighty-one studies were meta-analyzed using a random effects model to examine the overall impulsivity-risky sex relationship and relationships among specific impulsivity traits and risky sexual behaviors. Overall, results revealed a significant, yet small, association between impulsivity and adolescent risky sexual behavior (r=0.19, psexual behaviors as compared to negative outcomes related to these behaviors. Gender moderated the overall relationship (β=0.22, p=0.04), such that effect sizes were significantly larger in samples with more females. Age, race, study design, and sample type did not moderate the relationship, although there was a pattern suggesting smaller effects for adolescents in juvenile detention settings. Adolescent samples with more females showed a larger impulsivity-risky sex relationship, suggesting that impulsivity may be a more important risk factor for risky sex among adolescent females. Research and treatment should consider gender differences when investigating the role of impulsivity in adolescent sexual risk-taking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A national study of male involvement among families in contact with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Jennifer L

    2009-08-01

    Few studies inform the frequency and type of adult male involvement in families in contact with child welfare, and even fewer explore how male involvement relates to child welfare outcomes. This study employed data from a sample of 3,978 families in contact with the U.S. child welfare system, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. The nature of male involvement in these families and its relationship to (a) caseworkers' perception of children's risk for maltreatment rereport and (b) entry into out-of-home care were explored. Results indicate that most caregivers report male involvement, distinct types of male involvement are related to the likelihood of out-of-home care, and households that include nonparental adult males are perceived by caseworkers as relatively risky. No m