WorldWideScience

Sample records for risks lessons

  1. Microplastics: addressing ecological risk through lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syberg, Kristian; Khan, Farhan R; Selck, Henriette; Palmqvist, Annemette; Banta, Gary T; Daley, Jennifer; Sano, Larissa; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2015-05-01

    Plastic litter is an environmental problem of great concern. Despite the magnitude of the plastic pollution in our water bodies, only limited scientific understanding is available about the risk to the environment, particularly for microplastics. The apparent magnitude of the problem calls for quickly developing sound scientific guidance on the ecological risks of microplastics. The authors suggest that future research into microplastics risks should be guided by lessons learned from the more advanced and better understood areas of (eco) toxicology of engineered nanoparticles and mixture toxicity. Relevant examples of advances in these two fields are provided to help accelerate the scientific learning curve within the relatively unexplored area of microplastics risk assessment. Finally, the authors advocate an expansion of the "vector effect" hypothesis with regard to microplastics risk to help focus research of microplastics environmental risk at different levels of biological and environmental organization. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Ecological risk assessment: Lessons learned?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This conference was held November 14--18, 1993 in Houston, Texas for the purpose of providing a forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on ecological risk assessment. This book is comprised of the abstracts of the presentations at this symposium. Individual abstracts have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Risk perception and risk communication: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillif, L.; Sackur, J.

    1998-01-01

    Industry can master risks but it cannot master the representations people have of these risks. This is why distortions may occur, as the public perceives risks where they are not, or in a totally deformed way. To deal with this type of situation which is dangerous in the long run, both for society and industry, it is necessary to study in detail where and how the difference between real risks and perceived risks is introduced. It then becomes possible to determine what means of action are available to manage the representations and the perceptions of risks. We shall mention two rather different examples of type of direct contact with the industrial reality; in France, we have determined policy of visits of nuclear sites (more than 10 000 people visit Cogema- la Hague site yearly), mainly addressed to school children and people living in the vicinity of the site. During these visits there is of course no question of explaining the detailed operation of the facility or the risks it generates. The purpose is to make the representation of the nuclear industry just as familiar as the representation of another large-scale technology tool: trains, dams,. In a different manner, missions are organised by Cogema - B.N.F.L.- O.R.C. (Overseas reprocessing Committee) to de dramatize the transport of high level vitrified wastes from Europe to Japan. these missions travel through those countries the ship come close to. Here, again, although the target is more the relays of opinion, the effective presence of specialized transport ship is a crucial element in putting a halt to phantasmic representations, as they are born from the remoteness of the object. (N.C.)

  4. Lessons Learned in Risk Management on NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.; Gruber, C.O.; Harris, Jeffrey H.; Rej, D.J.; Simmons, R.T.; Strykowsky, R.L.

    2010-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was designed to test physics principles of an innovative stellarator design developed by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Construction of some of the major components and subassemblies was completed, but the estimated cost and schedule for completing the project grew as the technical requirements and risks became better understood, leading to its cancellation in 2008. The project's risks stemmed from its technical challenges, primarily the complex component geometries and tight tolerances that were required. The initial baseline, which was established in 2004, was supported by a risk management plan and risk-based contingencies, both of which proved to be inadequate. Technical successes were achieved in the construction of challenging components and subassemblies, but cost and schedule growth was experienced. As part of an effort to improve project performance, a new risk management program was devised and implemented in 2007-2008. It led to a better understanding of project risks, a sounder basis for contingency estimates, and improved management tools. Although the risks were ultimately unacceptable to the sponsor, valuable lessons in risk management were learned through the experiences with the NCSX project.

  5. Lessons Learned in Risk Management on NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, G.H.; Gruber, C.O.; Harris, J.H.; Rej, D.J.; Simmons, R.T.; Strykowsky, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was designed to test physics principles of an innovative stellarator design developed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Construction of some of the major components and sub-assemblies was completed, but the estimated cost and schedule for completing the project grew as the technical requirements and risks became better understood, leading to its cancellation in 2008. The project's risks stemmed from its technical challenges, primarily the complex component geometries and tight tolerances that were required. The initial baseline, established in 2004, was supported by a risk management plan and risk-based contingencies, both of which proved to be inadequate. Technical successes were achieved in the construction of challenging components and subassemblies, but cost and schedule growth was experienced. As part of an effort to improve project performance, a new risk management program was devised and implemented in 2007-08. It led to a better understanding of project risks, a sounder basis for contingency estimates, and improved management tools. Although the risks ultimately were unacceptable to the sponsor, valuable lessons in risk management were learned through the experiences with the NCSX project

  6. Public responses to Chernobyl: lessons for risk management and communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1988-01-01

    The question of how the public in many European countries and the US perceived the danger of the radiation fallout from Chernobyl and how they reacted to the management of risk in each country is addressed. In addition, the lessons learned about communicating risk are discussed on the basis of studies of public attitudes and the effects of media coverage. (author)

  7. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  8. Risk management and lessons learned solutions for satellite product assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrère, Jean-Luc

    2004-08-01

    The historic trend of the space industry towards lower cost programmes and more generally a better economic efficiency raises a difficult question to the quality assurance community: how to achieve the same—or better—mission success rate while drastically reducing the cost of programmes, hence the cost and level of quality assurance activities. EADS Astrium Earth Observation and Science (France) Business Unit have experimented Risk Management and Lessons Learned on their satellite programmes to achieve this goal. Risk analysis and management are deployed from the programme proposal phase through the development and operations phases. Results of the analysis and the corresponding risk mitigation actions are used to tailor the product assurance programme and activities. Lessons learned have been deployed as a systematic process to collect positive and negative experience from past and on-going programmes and feed them into new programmes. Monitoring and justification of their implementation in programmes is done under supervision from the BU quality assurance function. Control of the system is ensured by the company internal review system. Deployment of these methods has shown that the quality assurance function becomes more integrated in the programme team and development process and that its tasks gain focus and efficiency while minimising the risks associated with new space programmes.

  9. Lessons learned from first generation nuclear plant probabalistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    The paper by Garrick summarizes the state-of-the-art in what are perhaps the most archetypical probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Because of its unique regulatory environment and because of the high levels of perceived (not necessarily actual) risk, the nuclear industry more than any other has been concerned with quantitative risk analysis. Garrick's paper summarizes the lessons learned from ten PRA's conducted in the nuclear industry, including six that can be characterized as full-scope risk studies. Most of the quantitative data, though, came from two especially thorough studies done for the Zion and Indian Point power plants, operated by Commonwealth Edison and Consolidated Edison respectively. The principal conclusions of the Garrick survey are that the public risk (from radiation release) is now known to be very small for commercial nuclear power plants, but that the risk to utilities (from core damage) is somewhat larger. Significant radiation releases require both core meltdown -- an event occurring only about once every 10,000 reactor-years -- and containment failure, occurring only about once in every hundred meltdowns

  10. Addressing data heterogeneity: Lessons learned from a multimedia risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oezkaynak, H.; Xue, Jianping; Butler, D.A.; Haroun, L.A.; MacDonell, M.M.; Fingleton, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    Cleanup activities are currently being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at a former chemical plant site that has been inactive for more than 20 years. The Army produced nitroaromatic explosives at the 220-acre site during the 1940s, and radioactive materials of the uranium and thorium series were processed there by DOE's predecessor agency during the 1950s and 1960s. Chemical and radioactive contaminants are present in soil, surface water, sediment, and groundwater at the site as a result of both past releases and disposal activities and subsequent contaminant migration. Samples have been collected from these media over a number of years under both DOE's environmental monitoring program and the site characterization program of the Superfund process. Results of samples analyses have been compiled in a computerized data base. These data are being evaluated in the context of potential exposure pathways that are currently present at the site or that may be present in the future, in order to estimate possible adverse impacts to human health and the environment in the absence of cleanup. This paper discusses the methodology used to address associated tasks and the lessons learned during the assessment process. Statistical issues and recommended future directions for dealing with technical aspects of this project and with similar multimedia risk assessment projects are addressed in the final discussion. 10 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. Information Risk Management: Qualitative or Quantitative? Cross industry lessons from medical and financial fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasna Saluja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises across the world are taking a hard look at their risk management practices. A number of qualitative and quantitative models and approaches are employed by risk practitioners to keep risk under check. As a norm most organizations end up choosing the more flexible, easier to deploy and customize qualitative models of risk assessment. In practice one sees that such models often call upon the practitioners to make qualitative judgments on a relative rating scale which brings in considerable room for errors, biases and subjectivity. On the other hand under the quantitative risk analysis approach, estimation of risk is connected with application of numerical measures of some kind. Medical risk management models lend themselves as ideal candidates for deriving lessons for Information Security Risk Management. We can use this considerably developed understanding of risk management from the medical field especially Survival Analysis towards handling risks that information infrastructures face. Similarly, financial risk management discipline prides itself on perhaps the most quantifiable of models in risk management. Market Risk and Credit Risk Information Security Risk Management can make risk measurement more objective and quantitative by referring to the approach of Credit Risk. During the recent financial crisis many investors and financial institutions lost money or went bankrupt respectively, because they did not apply the basic principles of risk management. Learning from the financial crisis provides some valuable lessons for information risk management.

  12. Risk intelligence: How lessons from folktales/fables contribute to the implementation of risk management in banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivave Mashingaidze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to outline credit risk in banks and how fables/folktales can provide with life lessons to implement risk management systems that should act as a stop-gate measure. Banking institutions need to show how proactively managing risk becomes a cornerstone to explore opportunities, rather than simply avoiding dynamites. Risk Intelligence gives companies the confidence to harness risk to explore new opportunities. Lessons were provided from folktales/fables from the animal kingdom. The article adopted a literature review methodology and the results were that, for a business to be successful the medicine does not lie in the policies but the therapy lies in the spirit of oneness in the banks from top management down to the shop floor employee in the branch. By working together the banks can afford to curb credit risks.

  13. Defining a risk-informed framework for whole-of-government lessons learned: A Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Shaye K; Kelsey, Shelley; Legere, J A Jim

    Lessons learned play an important role in emergency management (EM) and organizational agility. Virtually all aspects of EM can derive benefit from a lessons learned program. From major security events to exercises, exploiting and applying lessons learned and "best practices" is critical to organizational resilience and adaptiveness. A robust lessons learned process and methodology provides an evidence base with which to inform decisions, guide plans, strengthen mitigation strategies, and assist in developing tools for operations. The Canadian Safety and Security Program recently supported a project to define a comprehensive framework that would allow public safety and security partners to regularly share event response best practices, and prioritize recommendations originating from after action reviews. This framework consists of several inter-locking elements: a comprehensive literature review/environmental scan of international programs; a survey to collect data from end users and management; the development of a taxonomy for organizing and structuring information; a risk-informed methodology for selecting, prioritizing, and following through on recommendations; and standardized templates and tools for tracking recommendations and ensuring implementation. This article discusses the efforts of the project team, which provided "best practice" advice and analytical support to ensure that a systematic approach to lessons learned was taken by the federal community to improve prevention, preparedness, and response activities. It posits an approach by which one might design a systematic process for information sharing and event response coordination-an approach that will assist federal departments to institutionalize a cross-government lessons learned program.

  14. Risk Communication Strategies: Lessons Learned from Previous Disasters with a Focus on the Fukushima Radiation Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Tsuda, Toshihide; Guimaraes, Jean Remy Davee; Tondel, Martin

    2016-12-01

    It has been difficult to both mitigate the health consequences and effectively provide health risk information to the public affected by the Fukushima radiological disaster. Often, there are contrasting public health ethics within these activities which complicate risk communication. Although no risk communication strategy is perfect in such disasters, the ethical principles of risk communication provide good practical guidance. These discussions will be made in the context of similar lessons learned after radiation exposures in Goiania, Brazil, in 1987; the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, Ukraine, in 1986; and the attack at the World Trade Center, New York, USA, in 2001. Neither of the two strategies is perfect nor fatally flawed. Yet, this discussion and lessons from prior events should assist decision makers with navigating difficult risk communication strategies in similar environmental health disasters.

  15. Advances in coastal disasters risk management : Lessons from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Yasuda, T.; Tsimopoulou, V.; Kawai, H.; Kato, F.

    2012-01-01

    The earthquake and tsunami of March 2011 led to death and destruction in coastal areas in Japan. A seminar was held in June 2012 for Japanese and Dutch coastal researchers to discuss lessons for the management of the risks in coastal areas associated with tsunamis, typhoons and storm surges. The

  16. Lessons Learned From Implementation of Westinghouse Owners Group Risk-Informed Inservice Inspection Methodology for Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Paul R.; Haessler, Richard L.; McNeill, Alex; Pyne, Mark A.; West, Raymond A.

    2006-01-01

    Risk-informed inservice inspection (ISI) programs have been in use for over seven years as an alternative to current regulatory requirements in the development and implementation of ISI programs for nuclear plant piping systems. Programs using the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) (now known as the Pressurized Water Reactor Owners Group - PWROG) risk-informed ISI methodology have been developed and implemented within the U.S. and several other countries. Additionally, many plants have conducted or are in the process of conducting updates to their risk-informed ISI programs. In the development and implementation of these risk-informed ISI programs and the associated updates to those programs, the following important lessons learned have been identified and are addressed. Concepts such as 'loss of inventory', which are typically not modeled in a plant's probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model for all systems. The importance of considering operator actions in the identification of consequences associated with a piping failure and the categorization of segments as high safety significant (HSS) or low safety significant (LSS). The impact that the above considerations have had on the large early release frequency (LERF) and categorization of segments as HSS or LSS. The importance of automation. Making the update process more efficient to reduce costs associated with maintaining the risk-informed ISI program. The insights gained are associated with many of the steps in the risk-informed ISI process including: development of the consequences associated with piping failures, categorization of segments, structural element selection and program updates. Many of these lessons learned have impacted the results of the risk-informed ISI programs and have impacted the updates to those programs. This paper summarizes the lessons learned and insights gained from the application of the WOG risk-informed ISI methodology in the U.S., Europe and Asia. (authors)

  17. Financing Structure and Liquidity Risk: Lesson from Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahman Aisyah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between financing structure and bank liquidity risk. We compare the findings between Islamic and conventional banks for the case of Malaysia. We adopt four measures to represent financing structure; namely 1 real estate financing, 2 financing concentration, 3 stability of short-term financing structure and 4 stability of medium-term financing structure. Two BASEL III liquidity risk measures are tested; namely, liquidity coverage ratio (LCR and the net stable funding ratio (NSFR to measure short- and long-term liquidity risk, respectively. Based on panel data regression comprising 27 conventional and 17 Islamic banks from 1994 to 2014, our findings show that real estate financing and stability of short-term financing structure for Islamic banks are positively related to both liquidity risk measures. This implies that an increasing number of real estate financing and a stable short-term financing structure may increase Islamic banks’ short- and long-term liquidity risks. However, although real estate financing does not affect conventional banks’ liquidity risks, a stable short-term financing structure and increasing financing concentration can positively influence bank long-term liquidity risk. Our findings shed light crucial policy implications for regulatory bodies and market players in the context of liquidity risk management framework as well as the need to develop a separate framework between conventional and Islamic banking institutions.

  18. Community in Panic: Perceptions, impacts and lessons at risk communication on Pangasinan Mysterious Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Lawrence Carvajal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Communicating information about possible life threatening concerns can be very delicately difficult, and if it is not done well, the communicator can put the affected public at greater risk by creating misunderstanding or possibly inciting unwarranted panic. On February 24, 2014, a late night news program reported that a “mysterious flesh-eating illness is slowly” spreading in Pangasinan, a province in the Philippines with a population of more than three million.The news report connected two case studies from the towns of Villasis and Santa Barbara, Pangasinan to a prophecy by a self-titled prophet who forewarns of a flesh-eating disease in the said province. Just hours after the report came out that night, the hashtag #PrayForPangasinan trended on Twitter, and link of the video have been boundlessly shared on Facebook and other online social media. Anchored on the mental noise and risk perception theories, the study delves into the perceptions of risk of the affected public and determines the risk communication impacts and lessons of the Pangasinan Mysterious Disease. The findings of the study on the perceptions of risk by the affected public, the risk communication impacts and lessons on the news report is significant as the fundamental goal of risk communication is to provide meaningful, relevant and accurate information, in clear and understandable terms targeted to the concerned and affected publicand spur all concerned to a higher degree of consensus and support for a beneficial action.

  19. Applying the lessons of high risk industries to health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, P

    2003-12-01

    High risk industries such as commercial aviation and the oil and gas industry have achieved exemplary safety performance. This paper reviews how they have managed to do that. The primary reasons are the positive attitudes towards safety and the operation of effective formal safety management systems. The safety culture provides an important explanation of why such organisations perform well. An evolutionary model of safety culture is provided in which there is a range of cultures from the pathological through the reactive to the calculative. Later, the proactive culture can evolve towards the generative organisation, an alternative description of the high reliability organisation. The current status of health care is reviewed, arguing that it has a much higher level of accidents and has a reactive culture, lagging behind both high risk industries studied in both attitude and systematic management of patient risks.

  20. Engineered nanomaterial risk. Lessons learnt from completed nanotoxicology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Helinor; Pojana, Giulio; Zuin, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    PARTICLE_RISK was one of the first multidisciplinary projects funded by the European Commission's Framework Programme that was responsible for evaluating the implications of nanomaterial (NM) exposure on human health. This project was the basis for this review which identifies the challenges...... and identifying the limitations and failings of existing research. We have reflected on what commonly encountered challenges exist and explored how these issues may be resolved. In particular, the following is discussed (i) NM selection (ii) NM physico-chemical characterisation; (iii) NM dispersion; (iv...... that exist within the assessment of NM risk. We have retrospectively reflected on the findings of completed nanotoxicology studies to consider what progress and advances have been made within the risk assessment of NMs, as well as discussing the direction that nanotoxicology research is taking...

  1. Environmental chemical mutagens and genetic risks: Lessons from radiation genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1996-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed substantial progress in the development and use of a variety of in vitro and in vivo assay systems for the testing of environmental chemicals which may pose a mutagenic hazard to humans. This is also true of basic studies in chemical mutagenesis on mechanisms, DNA repair, molecular dosimetry, structure-activity relationships, etc. However, the field of quantitative evaluation of genetic risks of environmental chemicals to humans is still in it infancy. This commentary addresses the question of how our experience in estimating genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation can be helpful in similar endeavors with environmental chemical mutagens. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  2. Managing business model innovation risks - lessons for theory and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taran, Yariv; Chester Goduscheit, René; Boer, Harry

    2015-01-01

    approach, arguing from a “no risk no reward” aphorism, a sloppy implementation approach towards business model innovation may result in catastrophic, sometimes even fatal, consequences to a firm’s core business. Based on four unsuccessful business model innovation experiences, which took place in three...

  3. Aviation Safety Risk Modeling: Lessons Learned From Multiple Knowledge Elicitation Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxhoj, J. T.; Ancel, E.; Green, L. L.; Shih, A. T.; Jones, S. M.; Reveley, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aviation safety risk modeling has elements of both art and science. In a complex domain, such as the National Airspace System (NAS), it is essential that knowledge elicitation (KE) sessions with domain experts be performed to facilitate the making of plausible inferences about the possible impacts of future technologies and procedures. This study discusses lessons learned throughout the multiple KE sessions held with domain experts to construct probabilistic safety risk models for a Loss of Control Accident Framework (LOCAF), FLightdeck Automation Problems (FLAP), and Runway Incursion (RI) mishap scenarios. The intent of these safety risk models is to support a portfolio analysis of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). These models use the flexible, probabilistic approach of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) and influence diagrams to model the complex interactions of aviation system risk factors. Each KE session had a different set of experts with diverse expertise, such as pilot, air traffic controller, certification, and/or human factors knowledge that was elicited to construct a composite, systems-level risk model. There were numerous "lessons learned" from these KE sessions that deal with behavioral aggregation, conditional probability modeling, object-oriented construction, interpretation of the safety risk results, and model verification/validation that are presented in this paper.

  4. Ten practical lessons for an effective radon risk communication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. Several recent studies have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon's risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. Unfortunately, the results of these studies have not reached practitioners. This paper is for them. It summarizes the practical implications that are most crucial for planning and implementing an effective radon risk communication program--a program that will motivate people to test for radon and mitigate when radon levels are high, without unduly alarming those whose radon levels are low

  5. Falls risk assessment begins with hello: lessons learned from the use of one home health agency's fall risk tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Patricia J; Ramsay, Katherine

    2012-10-01

    Identifying older adults at risk for falls is a challenge all home healthcare agencies (HHAs) face. The process of assessing for falls risk begins with the initial home visit. One HHA affiliated with an academic medical center describes its experience in development and use of a Falls Risk Assessment (FRA) tool over a 10-year period. The FRA tool has been modified since initial development to clarify elements of the tool based on research and to reflect changes in the Outcome and Assessment Information Set (OASIS) document. The primary purpose of this article is to share a validated falls risk assessment tool to facilitate identification of fall-related risk factors in the homebound population. A secondary purpose is to share lessons learned by the HHA during the 10 years using the FRA.

  6. Risk communication in the case of the Fukushima accident: Impact of communication and lessons to be learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perko, Tanja

    2016-10-01

    Risk communication about the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in 2011 was often not transparent, timely, clear, nor factually correct. However, lessons related to risk communication have been identified and some of them are already addressed in national and international communication programmes and strategies. The Fukushima accident may be seen as a practice scenario for risk communication with important lessons to be learned. As a result of risk communication failures during the accident, the world is now better prepared for communication related to nuclear emergencies than it was 5 years ago The present study discusses the impact of communication, as applied during the Fukushima accident, and the main lessons learned. It then identifies pathways for transparent, timely, clear and factually correct communication to be developed, practiced and applied in nuclear emergency communication before, during, and after nuclear accidents. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:683-686. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Risk and Uncertainties, Analysis and Evaluation: Lessons for Adaptation and Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohe, G.; Dowlatabadi, H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper draws ten lessons from analyses of adaptation to climate change under conditions of risk and uncertainty: (1) Socio-economic systems will likely respond most to extreme realizations of climate change. (2) Systems have been responding to variations in climate for centuries. (3) Future change will effect future citizens and their institutions. (4) Human systems can be the sources of surprise. (5) Perceptions of risk depend upon welfare valuations that depend upon expectations. (6) Adaptive decisions will be made in response to climate change and climate change policy. (7) Analysis of adaptive decisions should recognize the second-best context of those decisions. (8) Climate change offers opportunity as well as risk. (9) All plausible futures should be explored. (10) Multiple methodological approaches should be accommodated. These lessons support two pieces of advice for the Third Assessment Report: (1) Work toward consensus, but not at the expense of thorough examination and reporting of the 'tails' of the distributions of the future. (2) Integrated assessment is only one unifying methodology; others that can better accommodate those tails should be encouraged and embraced. 12 refs

  8. MAVEN Information Security Governance, Risk Management, and Compliance (GRC): Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Eduardo; Gomez-Rosa, Carlos A.; Mangum, Kevin; Wasiak, Fran

    2014-01-01

    As the first interplanetary mission managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) had three IT security goals for its ground system: COMPLIANCE, (IT) RISK REDUCTION, and COST REDUCTION. In a multiorganizational environment in which government, industry and academia work together in support of the ground system and mission operations, information security governance, risk management, and compliance (GRC) becomes a challenge as each component of the ground system has and follows its own set of IT security requirements. These requirements are not necessarily the same or even similar to each other's, making the auditing of the ground system security a challenging feat. A combination of standards-based information security management based on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Risk Management Framework (RMF), due diligence by the Mission's leadership, and effective collaboration among all elements of the ground system enabled MAVEN to successfully meet NASA's requirements for IT security, and therefore meet Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) mandate on the Agency. Throughout the implementation of GRC on MAVEN during the early stages of the mission development, the Project faced many challenges some of which have been identified in this paper. The purpose of this paper is to document these challenges, and provide a brief analysis of the lessons MAVEN learned. The historical information documented herein, derived from an internal pre-launch lessons learned analysis, can be used by current and future missions and organizations implementing and auditing GRC.

  9. Complementary use of life cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: Lessons learned from chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2013-01-01

    Successful strategies to handle the potential health and environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) often rely upon the well-established frameworks of life cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA). However, current research and specific guidance on how to actually apply these two...... scientific research efforts have taken into account some key lessons learned from past experiences with chemicals at the same time that many key challenges remain to applying these frameworks to ENM. In that setting, two main proposed approaches to use LCA and RA together for ENM are identified: i) LC......-based RA, similar to traditional RA applied in a life cycle perspective, and ii) RA-complemented LCA, similar to conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life cycle steps. This study finds that these two approaches for using LCA and RA together for ENM are similar to those made for chemicals...

  10. Nurturing transdisciplinary research - lessons from live experiments in prioritising and supporting novel risk science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, J.; Armstrong, C.; Barclay, J.; Moores, A.; Whitaker, D.

    2013-12-01

    The benefits of specialization over the last 150 years have meant that science has evolved within several distinct disciplines, such as physical, social or environmental. These have generated their own cultures, languages, agendas, institutions, measures of success and cohorts of suitably branded scientists. However, we increasingly see that society and the environment are exposed to many complex, interdependent and rapidly changing risks - not only from natural hazards, but also those associated with fast expanding and ageing populations, highly interconnected and interdependent economies, rapid climate change, and increasingly limited resources. Risks derived from such interacting drivers commonly generate non-linear effects or repercussions and future risks may be very different to those of today; significantly, they span many traditional science disciplines. We thus need to have a fresh look at transdisciplinary risk science, bring in novel ideas and new blood. But what are the best practical ways of sowing the seeds and fertilizing such approaches? The presentation describes novel practical steps to achieve this, all related to building and resourcing transdisciplinary research which incorporates natural hazard science within the UK over the last 5 years. These comprise instruments to prioritise science gaps and provide funding for transdisciplinary research by a) Academic research funders - the Research Councils UK (RCUK) Risk Research Network and current research programmes; b) Government and non-governmental research funders - the Living with Environmental Change Initiative, and the UK Flooding and coastal erosion risk management research strategy - and the UK Collaborative for Development Science sponsored Disasters Research Group; and c) Business funding - through integrated risk modelling for the insurance industry. Whilst young, all these initiatives are healthy and seek to build a portfolio of small scale initiatives that will breed success and develop

  11. Risk Selection, Risk Adjustment and Choice: Concepts and Lessons from the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Randall P.; Fernandez, Juan Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Interest has grown worldwide in risk adjustment and risk sharing due to their potential to contain costs, improve fairness, and reduce selection problems in health care markets. Significant steps have been made in the empirical development of risk adjustment models, and in the theoretical foundations of risk adjustment and risk sharing. This literature has often modeled the effects of risk adjustment without highlighting the institutional setting, regulations, and diverse selection problems that risk adjustment is intended to fix. Perhaps because of this, the existing literature and their recommendations for optimal risk adjustment or optimal payment systems are sometimes confusing. In this paper, we present a unified way of thinking about the organizational structure of health care systems, which enables us to focus on two key dimensions of markets that have received less attention: what choices are available that may lead to selection problems, and what financial or regulatory tools other than risk adjustment are used to influence these choices. We specifically examine the health care systems, choices, and problems in four countries: the US, Canada, Chile, and Colombia, and examine the relationship between selection-related efficiency and fairness problems and the choices that are allowed in each country, and discuss recent regulatory reforms that affect choices and selection problems. In this sample, countries and insurance programs with more choices have more selection problems. PMID:24284351

  12. Risk Selection, Risk Adjustment and Choice: Concepts and Lessons from the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall P. Ellis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest has grown worldwide in risk adjustment and risk sharing due to their potential to contain costs, improve fairness, and reduce selection problems in health care markets. Significant steps have been made in the empirical development of risk adjustment models, and in the theoretical foundations of risk adjustment and risk sharing. This literature has often modeled the effects of risk adjustment without highlighting the institutional setting, regulations, and diverse selection problems that risk adjustment is intended to fix. Perhaps because of this, the existing literature and their recommendations for optimal risk adjustment or optimal payment systems are sometimes confusing. In this paper, we present a unified way of thinking about the organizational structure of health care systems, which enables us to focus on two key dimensions of markets that have received less attention: what choices are available that may lead to selection problems, and what financial or regulatory tools other than risk adjustment are used to influence these choices. We specifically examine the health care systems, choices, and problems in four countries: the US, Canada, Chile, and Colombia, and examine the relationship between selection-related efficiency and fairness problems and the choices that are allowed in each country, and discuss recent regulatory reforms that affect choices and selection problems. In this sample, countries and insurance programs with more choices have more selection problems.

  13. “Faster, better, and cheaper” at NASA: Lessons learned in managing and accepting risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Larry J.

    2007-11-01

    Can Earth observing missions be done "better, faster and cheaper"? In this paper I explore the management and technical issues that arose from the attempt to do things "faster, better and cheaper" at NASA. The FBC mantra lead to some failures and, more significantly, an increase in the cadence of missions. Mission cadence is a major enabler of innovation and the driver for the training and testing of the next generation of managers, engineers, and scientists. A high mission cadence is required to maintain and develop competence in mission design, management, and execution and, for an exploration-driven organization, to develop and train the next generation of leaders: the time between missions must be short enough that careers span the complete life of more than a few missions. This process reduces risk because the "lessons learned" are current and widely held. Increasing the cadence of missions has the added benefit of reducing the pressure to do everything on one particular mission thus reducing mission complexity. Since failures are inevitable in such a complex endeavor, a higher mission cadence has the advantage of providing some resiliency to the scientific program the missions support. Some failures are avoidable (often only in hindsight) but most are due to some combination of interacting factors. This interaction is often only appreciated as a potential failure mode after the fact. There is always the pressure to do more with less: the scope of the project may become too ambitious or the management and oversight of the project may be reduced to fit the money allocated, or the project time line may be lengthened due to external factors (launcher availability, budgetary constraints) without a concomitant increase in the total funding. This leads to increased risk. Risks are always deemed acceptable until they change from a "risk" to a "failure mode". Identifying and managing those risks are particularly difficult when the activities are dispersed

  14. A History of Space Toxicology Mishaps: Lessons Learned and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    After several decades of human spaceflight, the community of space-faring nations has accumulated a diverse and sometimes harrowing history of toxicological events that have plagued human space endeavors almost from the very beginning. Lessons have been learned in ground-based test beds and others were discovered the hard way - when human lives were at stake in space. From such lessons one can build a risk-management framework for toxicological events to minimize the probability of a harmful exposure, while recognizing that we cannot foresee all events. Space toxicologists have learned that relatively harmless compounds can be converted by air revitalization systems into compounds that cause serious harm to the crew. Our toxic risk management strategy now includes an assessment of the fate of any compound that might be released into the atmosphere. Propellants are highly toxic compounds, yet we have not always been able to thoroughly isolate the crew from exposure to these toxicants. Leakage of fluids from systems has resulted in hazardous conditions at times, and the behavior of such compounds inside a spacecraft has taught us how to manage potentially harmful escapes should they occur. Potential combustion events are an ever-present threat to the wellbeing of the crew. Such events have been sufficiently common that we have learned that one cannot judge the health threat of a given fire by the magnitude of the event. Management of such risks demands monitoring of combustion products. In the category of unpredictable toxic events, if one assumes that fires are predictable, we can place experience with toxic microbial metabolites, upsets during repair operations, and discharges from filters that have accumulated a substantial load of pollutants in their absorption beds. Management of such events requires a broad-spectrum, real-time analytical capability to discern the identity and concentrations of pollutants if they enter the atmosphere. Adverse events are an

  15. Engineering aspects of earthquake risk mitigation: Lessons from management of recent earthquakes, and consequential mudflows and landslides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 30 selected presentations given at the Second and Third UNDRO/USSR Training Seminars: Engineering Aspects of Earthquake Risk Assessment and Mitigation of Losses, held in Dushanbe, October 1988; and Lessons from Management of Recent Earthquakes, and Consequential Mudflows and Landslides, held in Moscow, October 1989. The annexes to the document provide information on the participants, the work programme and the resolution adopted at each of the seminars. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Developing tools for the safety specification in risk management plans: lessons learned from a pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew J P; Lettis, Sally; Chapman, Charlotte L; Evans, Stephen J W; Waller, Patrick C; Shakir, Saad; Payvandi, Nassrin; Murray, Alison B

    2008-05-01

    Following the adoption of the ICH E2E guideline, risk management plans (RMP) defining the cumulative safety experience and identifying limitations in safety information are now required for marketing authorisation applications (MAA). A collaborative research project was conducted to gain experience with tools for presenting and evaluating data in the safety specification. This paper presents those tools found to be useful and the lessons learned from their use. Archive data from a successful MAA were utilised. Methods were assessed for demonstrating the extent of clinical safety experience, evaluating the sensitivity of the clinical trial data to detect treatment differences and identifying safety signals from adverse event and laboratory data to define the extent of safety knowledge with the drug. The extent of clinical safety experience was demonstrated by plots of patient exposure over time. Adverse event data were presented using dot plots, which display the percentages of patients with the events of interest, the odds ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Power and confidence interval plots were utilised for evaluating the sensitivity of the clinical database to detect treatment differences. Box and whisker plots were used to display laboratory data. This project enabled us to identify new evidence-based methods for presenting and evaluating clinical safety data. These methods represent an advance in the way safety data from clinical trials can be analysed and presented. This project emphasises the importance of early and comprehensive planning of the safety package, including evaluation of the use of epidemiology data.

  17. Research Synthesis Methods in an Age of Globalized Risks: Lessons from the Global Burden of Foodborne Disease Expert Elicitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Angulo, Fred; Bin Hamzah, Wan Mansor

    2016-01-01

    We live in an age that increasingly calls for national or regional management of global risks. This article discusses the contributions that expert elicitation can bring to efforts to manage global risks and identifies challenges faced in conducting expert elicitation at this scale. In doing so...... it draws on lessons learned from conducting an expert elicitation as part of the World Health Organizations (WHO) initiative to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease; a study commissioned by the Foodborne Disease Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Expert elicitation is designed to fill gaps...

  18. Six physical education lessons a week can reduce cardiovascular risk in school children aged 6-13 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Klakk; Andersen, Lars B; Heidemann, Malene Søborg

    2014-01-01

    to estimate effect of intervention taking the hierarchical structure of data into account. Individual, class and school were considered random effects. Intra class correlation (ICC) was calculated. Results: Intervention significantly lowered mean of composite risk score with 0.17 SD (95% CI: -0.34 to -0.......01). Six PE lessons per week had a beneficial effect on triglycerides (TG) levels (-0.18 SD, 95% CI: -0.36 to 0.00), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (-0.22 SD, 95% CI: -0.42 to -0.02) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (-0.17 SD, 95% CI: -0.34 to 0.01). Conclusions: Six PE lessons at school can reduce children...

  19. Evaluating risk communication about fish consumption advisories: efficacy of a brochure versus a classroom lesson in Spanish and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; McDermott, Melanie Hughes; Chess, Caron; Bochenek, Eleanor; Perez-Lugo, Marla; Pflugh, Kerry Kirk

    2003-08-01

    Presentation format can influence the way target audiences understand risk-related information. Brochures or fish fact sheets are the methods traditionally used by state agencies to inform the public about fish consumption advisories and the risks from consuming fish. This study examines the efficacy of presenting information about the risks from consuming contaminated fish and shellfish in two different formats: a brochure and classroom presentation. The two instruments were developed and tested in Spanish and English, reflecting the local ethnic composition in the Newark Bay Complex. The instruments were tested on women of child-bearing age at the Women, Infants, and Children Center in Elizabeth, New Jersey. Detailed diagrams were used in both presentations, including contaminated fish species, fish preparation methods, and food chain bioaccumulation and transmission to the fetus. There were few language-related differences in the efficacy of the classroom lesson, and the main ideas were understood by both groups. Where there were significant differences in understanding about the risks from consuming fish or crabs from the contaminated waters of Newark Bay, in all cases the women exposed to the classroom lesson had a better understanding than those who read the brochure. Ninety-six percent of the women who heard the lesson understood that it was unsafe to eat fish from the port, compared to 72% of those reading the brochure. Both formats succeeded in imparting information to most women about the area under advisories, the fish species under advisories, and transmission of toxins to the fetus. Information on fish preparation was recalled less clearly, partly because women were asked to relate methods to reduce the risk from consuming fish from 11 presented, and most recalled only two or three of the list. The advantages and disadvantages of conducting short classes to women of child-bearing age are discussed.

  20. Lessons learnt from past Flash Floods and Debris Flow events to propose future strategies on risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Angels; Velasco, Marc; Escaler, Isabel

    2010-05-01

    Floods, including flash floods and debris flow events, are one of the most important hazards in Europe regarding both economic and life loss. Moreover, changes in precipitation patterns and intensity are very likely to increase due to the observed and predicted global warming, rising the risk in areas that are already vulnerable to floods. Therefore, it is very important to carry out new strategies to improve flood protection, but it is also crucial to take into account historical data to identify high risk areas. The main objective of this paper is to show a comparative analysis of the flood risk management information compiled in four test-bed basins (Llobregat, Guadalhorce, Gardon d'Anduze and Linth basins) from three different European countries (Spain, France and Switzerland) and to identify which are the lessons learnt from their past experiences in order to propose future strategies on risk management. This work is part of the EU 7th FP project IMPRINTS which aims at reducing loss of life and economic damage through the improvement of the preparedness and the operational risk management of flash flood and debris flow (FF & DF) events. The methodology followed includes the following steps: o Specific survey on the effectivity of the implemented emergency plans and risk management procedures sent to the test-bed basin authorities that participate in the project o Analysis of the answers from the questionnaire and further research on their methodologies for risk evaluation o Compilation of available follow-up studies carried out after major flood events in the four test-bed basins analyzed o Collection of the lessons learnt through a comparative analysis of the previous information o Recommendations for future strategies on risk management based on lessons learnt and management gaps detected through the process As the Floods Directive (FD) already states, the flood risks associated to FF & DF events should be assessed through the elaboration of Flood Risk

  1. Safety goals for seismic and tsunami risks: Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Genn

    2014-01-01

    water leaked through the truck entrance shutters and louver windows for the Diesel Generators’ air intakes. In view of the difficulties in predicting natural events when establishing the design basis for nuclear facilities, a drastic reappraisal of the safety design approach is essential when considering risks and uncertainties. The author proposes a new probabilistic seismic and tsunami safety goals be developed on the basis of lessons learned from the Fukushima disaster which would fortify the vulnerable systems thereby reducing seismic and tsunami risks as low as practical. The safety goal should also be used to enable stakeholders to find an answer to the question of ‘how safe is safe enough’. Through the development of the safety goals it is demonstrated that the risks of tsunami hazards are by far the largest risk to nuclear facilities in Japan due to its high recurrence period in certain regions of the country. It is essential to guard against tsunami-induced flooding and the need for more robust emergency power supply systems as well as special provisions for the disposal of hydrogen gas in the event of severe accidents

  2. Safety goals for seismic and tsunami risks: Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi disaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Genn, E-mail: sajig@bd5.so-net.ne.jp

    2014-12-15

    tsunami water leaked through the truck entrance shutters and louver windows for the Diesel Generators’ air intakes. In view of the difficulties in predicting natural events when establishing the design basis for nuclear facilities, a drastic reappraisal of the safety design approach is essential when considering risks and uncertainties. The author proposes a new probabilistic seismic and tsunami safety goals be developed on the basis of lessons learned from the Fukushima disaster which would fortify the vulnerable systems thereby reducing seismic and tsunami risks as low as practical. The safety goal should also be used to enable stakeholders to find an answer to the question of ‘how safe is safe enough’. Through the development of the safety goals it is demonstrated that the risks of tsunami hazards are by far the largest risk to nuclear facilities in Japan due to its high recurrence period in certain regions of the country. It is essential to guard against tsunami-induced flooding and the need for more robust emergency power supply systems as well as special provisions for the disposal of hydrogen gas in the event of severe accidents.

  3. Safety Culture: A Requirement for New Business Models — Lessons Learned from Other High Risk Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kecklund, L.

    2016-01-01

    -cost subcontractors can turn out to be much more expensive due to interface proliferation. Other negative effects are social dumping by external contractors and loss of competence if procurement requirements are not taking quality and safety issues into account. Based on MTO Safety’s extensive experience in the nuclear domain and work on safety management and safety culture in the aviation, railway and maritime domain, the paper will present lessons learned which are applicable to the nuclear industry for facing the major challenges ahead. Assuring safety is a fundamental requirement for obtaining a licence to operate a business in nuclear power, aviation and railways, thus safety culture is an essential requirement for a successful business. Therefore safety culture must be part of any new business model in high risk industries. In the future safety culture and leadership commitment and skills in creating safety culture will be even more important. The paper will discuss how companies and public utilities are to achieve this and how the regulators are to assess this where learning across industries is a key success factor. (author)

  4. Importance Of Quality Control in Reducing System Risk, a Lesson Learned From The Shuttle and a Recommendation for Future Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Messer, Bradley P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned from the Space Shuttle return to flight experience and the importance of these lessons learned in the development of new the NASA Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV). Specifically, the paper discusses the relationship between process control and system risk, and the importance of process control in improving space vehicle flight safety. It uses the External Tank (ET) Thermal Protection System (TPS) experience and lessons learned from the redesign and process enhancement activities performed in preparation for Return to Flight after the Columbia accident. The paper also, discusses in some details, the Probabilistic engineering physics based risk assessment performed by the Shuttle program to evaluate the impact of TPS failure on system risk and the application of the methodology to the CLV.

  5. Are parents just treading water? The impact of participation in swim lessons on parents' judgments of children's drowning risk, swimming ability, and supervision needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Sandomierski, Megan; Schwebel, David C; Hagel, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Drowning is a leading cause of child mortality globally. Strategies that have been suggested to reduce pediatric drowning risk include increased parental awareness of children's swimming ability and drowning risk, improved adult supervision of child swimmers, and providing swim lessons to children. This study explored how parents' beliefs relevant to children's drowning risk, perception of children's swimming ability, and judgments of supervision needs changed as children aged two through 5 years accumulated experience in swim lessons, and compared a parent group who received regular, detailed feedback about their child's swim skills with one that did not. Parents completed questionnaire measures near the beginning and end of a series of 10 weekly swim lessons. Results revealed that parental accuracy in judging children's swimming abilities remained relatively poor even though it improved from the beginning to the end of the swim lessons. Supervision needs were underestimated and did not vary with program or change over the course of swim lessons. Children's ability to keep themselves from drowning was overestimated and did not change over lessons or vary with program; parents believed that children could save themselves from drowning by the age of 6.21 years. Parents who had experienced a close call for drowning showed greater awareness of children's drowning risk and endorsed more watchful and proximal supervision. Results suggest that expanding learn-to-swim programs to include a parent-focused component that provides detailed tracking of swim skills and delivers messaging targeting perceptions of children's drowning risk and supervision needs may serve to maximize the drowning protection afforded by these programs. Delivering messaging in the form of 'close-call' drowning stories may prove especially effective to impact parents' supervision practices in drowning risk situations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes over swim lessons in parents' perceptions of children's supervision needs in drowning risk situations: "His swimming has improved so now he can keep himself safe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Sandomierski, Megan; Spence, Jeffrey R

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine how children's participation in swim lessons impacts parents' appraisals of children's drowning risk and need for supervision. Parents with 2-5-year old children enrolled in community swim lessons completed the same survey measures up to 4 times over an 8-month period. Multilevel regression analyses examining temporal relationships between parents' perceptions of their child's swim ability, supervision needs around water, and children's ability to keep themselves safe in drowning risk situations revealed that as children progressed through swim lessons, parents' perceptions of their child's swim ability and their belief that children are capable of keeping themselves safe around water increased. Further, the relation between parents' perceptions of swim ability and judgments of children's supervision needs was mediated through parents' judgment about their child's ability to secure their own safety near water. As parents perceive their child to be accumulating swim skills, they increasingly believe that children are capable of keeping themselves from drowning, and as a result, that less active parent supervision of their child is necessary. Implications of these findings for intervention efforts to counter this unwelcome way of thinking that may arise through continued participation in swim lessons are discussed. Incorporating a parent-focused component into children's learn-to-swim programs to promote more realistic appraisals of children's supervision needs and drowning risks may further enhance the positive benefits that swim lessons have for children's safety.

  7. Combining hazard, exposure and social vulnerability to provide lessons for flood risk management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koks, E.E.; Jongman, B.; Husby, T.G.; Botzen, W.J.W.

    2015-01-01

    Flood risk assessments provide inputs for the evaluation of flood risk management (FRM) strategies. Traditionally, such risk assessments provide estimates of loss of life and economic damage. However, the effect of policy measures aimed at reducing risk also depends on the capacity of households to

  8. Teaching Disaster Risk Management: Lessons from the Rotman School of Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRÁS TILCSIK

    Full Text Available This article describes how disaster risk management topics are taught at the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto and thus highlights opportunities for developing similar course modules on disaster risk management at other institutions. An undergraduate and MBA elective course, titled Catastrophic Failure in Organizations, contains four modules that are directly relevant to disaster risk management. The first module focuses on the need to move from risk indifference to risk sensitivity. The second module considers the importance of business continuity and crisis management plans and explores their common shortcomings. The third module uses a case study to examine the topic of prospective risk management. The fourth module focuses on the vulnerability of supply chains and other complex systems to disaster risk. The article describes the details of implementing these modules and discusses opportunities for further integration of disaster risk management topics in other parts of the curriculum.

  9. Biological Risks to Public Health: Lessons from an International Conference to Inform the Development of National Risk Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickmann, Petra; Bhatiasevi, Aphaluck; Chaib, Fadela; Baggio, Ombretta; Banluta, Christina; Hollenweger, Lilian; Maaroufi, Abderrahmane

    Biological risk management in public health focuses on the impact of outbreaks on health, the economy, and other systems and on ensuring biosafety and biosecurity. To address this broad range of risks, the International Health Regulations (IHR, 2005) request that all member states build defined core capacities, risk communication being one of them. While there is existing guidance on the communication process and on what health authorities need to consider to design risk communication strategies that meet the requirements on a governance level, little has been done on implementation because of a number of factors, including lack of resources (human, financial, and others) and systems to support effective and consistent capacity for risk communication. The international conference on "Risk communication strategies before, during and after public health emergencies" provided a platform to present current strategies, facilitate learning from recent outbreaks of infectious diseases, and discuss recommendations to inform risk communication strategy development. The discussion concluded with 4 key areas for improvement in risk communication: consider communication as a multidimensional process in risk communication, broaden the biomedical paradigm by integrating social science intelligence into epidemiologic risk assessments, strengthen multisectoral collaboration including with local organizations, and spearhead changes in organizations for better risk communication governance. National strategies should design risk communication to be proactive, participatory, and multisectoral, facilitating the connection between sectors and strengthening collaboration.

  10. Information Risk Management: Qualitative or Quantitative? Cross industry lessons from medical and financial fields

    OpenAIRE

    Upasna Saluja; Norbik Bashah Idris

    2012-01-01

    Enterprises across the world are taking a hard look at their risk management practices. A number of qualitative and quantitative models and approaches are employed by risk practitioners to keep risk under check. As a norm most organizations end up choosing the more flexible, easier to deploy and customize qualitative models of risk assessment. In practice one sees that such models often call upon the practitioners to make qualitative judgments on a relative rating scale which brings in consid...

  11. A Brief Report: Lessons Learned and Preliminary Findings of Progreso en Salud, an HIV Risk Reduction Intervention for Latina Seasonal Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanamori, Mariano; De La Rosa, Mario; Diez, Stephanie; Weissman, Jessica; Trepka, Mary Jo; Sneij, Alicia; Schmidt, Peter; Rojas, Patria

    2016-12-30

    Throughout the past decade, HIV rates in Florida-particularly South Florida, where many Latina seasonal farmworkers reside and work-have ranked among the highest in the nation. In this brief report, we delineate important lessons learned and preliminary findings from the implementation of the HIV prevention intervention Progreso en Salud (Progress in Health). Among the 114 Latina seasonal farmworker participants, there were significant increases from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the percentages of overall condom use, HIV testing, HIV/AIDS-related communications with friends, HIV knowledge, condom use self-efficacy, and correct use of condoms. Lessons learned from this study can be used to inform future HIV intervention strategies to improve the adoption and maintenance of HIV risk reduction behaviors among high-risk Latina seasonal workers and other high-risk underserved populations. Future research is needed to support our findings.

  12. A Brief Report: Lessons Learned and Preliminary Findings of Progreso en Salud, an HIV Risk Reduction Intervention for Latina Seasonal Farmworkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Kanamori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the past decade, HIV rates in Florida—particularly South Florida, where many Latina seasonal farmworkers reside and work—have ranked among the highest in the nation. In this brief report, we delineate important lessons learned and preliminary findings from the implementation of the HIV prevention intervention Progreso en Salud (Progress in Health. Among the 114 Latina seasonal farmworker participants, there were significant increases from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the percentages of overall condom use, HIV testing, HIV/AIDS-related communications with friends, HIV knowledge, condom use self-efficacy, and correct use of condoms. Lessons learned from this study can be used to inform future HIV intervention strategies to improve the adoption and maintenance of HIV risk reduction behaviors among high-risk Latina seasonal workers and other high-risk underserved populations. Future research is needed to support our findings.

  13. Risk identication of tailorable context-aware systems: a case study and lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarifi Eslami, Mohammed; Sapkota, Brahmananda; Zarghami, Alireza; Vriezekolk, E.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Wieringa, P.A.

    In this paper, we discuss possible risks posed by the application of tailorable context-aware systems in real-life practices. We use a tailorable context-aware system in the homecare domain as a case study to identify and analyse such risks. Next, we discuss which of these risks can be generalized

  14. Using prior risk-related knowledge to support risk management decisions: lessons learnt from a tunneling project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Ibsen Chivatá; Al-Jibouri, Saad S H; Halman, Johannes I M; van de Linde, Wim; Kaalberg, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The authors of this article have developed six probabilistic causal models for critical risks in tunnel works. The details of the models' development and evaluation were reported in two earlier publications of this journal. Accordingly, as a remaining step, this article is focused on the investigation into the use of these models in a real case study project. The use of the models is challenging given the need to provide information on risks that usually are both project and context dependent. The latter is of particular concern in underground construction projects. Tunnel risks are the consequences of interactions between site- and project-specific factors. Large variations and uncertainties in ground conditions as well as project singularities give rise to particular risk factors with very specific impacts. These circumstances mean that existing risk information, gathered from previous projects, is extremely difficult to use in other projects. This article considers these issues and addresses the extent to which prior risk-related knowledge, in the form of causal models, as the models developed for the investigation, can be used to provide useful risk information for the case study project. The identification and characterization of the causes and conditions that lead to failures and their interactions as well as their associated probabilistic information is assumed to be risk-related knowledge in this article. It is shown that, irrespective of existing constraints on using information and knowledge from past experiences, construction risk-related knowledge can be transferred and used from project to project in the form of comprehensive models based on probabilistic-causal relationships. The article also shows that the developed models provide guidance as to the use of specific remedial measures by means of the identification of critical risk factors, and therefore they support risk management decisions. Similarly, a number of limitations of the models are

  15. Emergency Risk Communication: Lessons Learned from a Rapid Review of Recent Gray Literature on Ebola, Zika, and Yellow Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toppenberg-Pejcic, Deborah; Noyes, Jane; Allen, Tomas; Alexander, Nyka; Vanderford, Marsha; Gamhewage, Gaya

    2018-03-20

    A rapid review of gray literature from 2015 to 2016 was conducted to identify the lessons learned for emergency risk communication from recent outbreaks of Ebola, Zika, and yellow fever. Gray literature databases and key websites were searched and requests for documents were posted to expert networks. A total of 83 documents met inclusion criteria, 68 of which are cited in this report. This article focuses on the 3 questions, out of 12 posed by World Health Organization as part of a Guideline development process, dealing most directly with communicating risk during health emergencies: community engagement, trust building, and social media. Documents were evaluated for credibility using an Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance (AACODS) checklist? and if the document contained a study, a method-specific tool was applied. A rapid content analysis of included sources was undertaken with relevant text either extracted verbatim or summarized and mapped against the questions. A database subset was created for each question and citations were assigned to the subset(s) for which they contained relevant information. Multiple designations per document were common. Database subsets were used to synthesize the results into a coherent narrative. The gray literature strongly underlines the central importance of local communities. A one-size-fits-all approach does not work. For maximum effectiveness, local communities need to be involved with and own emergency risk communication processes, preferably well before an emergency occurs. Social media can open new avenues for communication, but is not a general panacea and should not be viewed as a replacement for traditional modes of communication. In general, the gray literature indicates movement toward greater recognition of emergency risk communication as a vitally important element of public health.

  16. A global approach to risk management: lessons from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.; Kaufer, B.

    2003-01-01

    The industry's nuclear safety experts are continuously striving to minimise the possible risk and extent of a nuclear accident, while nuclear regulatory, authorities work to ensure that all safety requirements are met. Relying on a combination of deterministic and probabilistic approaches, they are obtaining positive results in terms of both risk-informed regulation and nuclear safety management. This article addresses this aspect of risk management, as well as the management of radiation exposure risk. It looks into nuclear emergency planning, preparedness and management, and stresses the importance of coordinating potential protection approaches and providing effective communication should a nuclear accident occur. (authors)

  17. Deployment of Wind Turbines in the Built Environment: Risks, Lessons, and Recommended Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Built-environment wind turbine (BEWT) projects are wind energy projects that are constructed on, in, or near buildings. These projects present an opportunity for distributed, low-carbon generation combined with highly visible statements on sustainability, but the BEWT niche of the wind industry is still developing and is relatively less mature than the utility-scale wind or traditional distributed wind sectors. The findings from this report cannot be extended to wind energy deployments in general because of the large difference in application and technology maturity. This paper investigates the current state of the BEWT industry by reviewing available literature on BEWT projects as well as interviewing project owners on their experiences deploying and operating the technology. The authors generated a series of case studies that outline the pertinent project details, project outcomes, and lessons learned. This paper integrates those information sources into recommended practices that can be utilized by future stakeholders to evaluate the feasibility of BEWTs for their unique applications and sites.

  18. The contribution of disaster management to integrated flood risk management strategies: lessons learned from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, B.; van Alphen, J

    2017-01-01

    An integrated flood risk management (IFRM) strategy consist of a comprehensive set of measures to reduce the risk: protective measures (to reduce the probability of a flood), and land use planning and disaster management (to reduce the consequences of a flood. In the Netherlands this is called a

  19. Environmental Health Risk Governance in Practice: Lessons Learned from a Flemish Case Study Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stassen, K.R.; Leroy, P.; Gislason, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Risk governance is being successfully inserted into scientific and political agendas as a way to understand and address complex problems, such as health problems that have both social and ecological dimensions. However, to date, the debate on risk governance has remained rather conceptual.

  20. Generating evidence on a risk-based monitoring approach in the academic setting – lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda von Niederhäusern

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spite of efforts to employ risk-based strategies to increase monitoring efficiency in the academic setting, empirical evidence on their effectiveness remains sparse. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate the risk-based on-site monitoring approach currently followed at our academic institution. Methods We selected all studies monitored by the Clinical Trial Unit (CTU according to Risk ADApted MONitoring (ADAMON at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland, between 01.01.2012 and 31.12.2014. We extracted study characteristics and monitoring information from the CTU Enterprise Resource Management system and from monitoring reports of all selected studies. We summarized the data descriptively. Additionally, we conducted semi-structured interviews with the three current CTU monitors. Results During the observation period, a total of 214 monitoring visits were conducted in 43 studies resulting in 2961 documented monitoring findings. Our risk-based approach predominantly identified administrative (46.2% and patient right findings (49.1%. We identified observational study design, high ADAMON risk category, industry sponsorship, the presence of an electronic database, experienced site staff, and inclusion of vulnerable study population to be factors associated with lower numbers of findings. The monitors understand the positive aspects of a risk-based approach but fear missing systematic errors due to the low frequency of visits. Conclusions We show that the factors mostly increasing the risk for on-site monitoring findings are underrepresented in the current risk analysis scheme. Our risk-based on-site approach should further be complemented by centralized data checks, allowing monitors to transform their role towards partners for overall trial quality, and success.

  1. Media coverage of Fukushima accident in the Russian press. Lessons for radiation emergency risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhova, E.; Arutyunyan, R.

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews recent results of content analysis of the Russian press and data of all-Russia public opinion polls on the subject of the Fukushima accident and discusses them in the wider context of challenges in communication of 'no risk' messages to the public in the case of a nuclear accident. Radiation risk regulation base in the low dose range is proposed to be one of the main obstacles for the communication and a new approach to emergency risk communication is proposed. (author)

  2. Formation of potential radiation risk groups to render timely targeted medical care: Lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V. K.; Kashcheev, V. V.; Zamulaeva, I. A.; Saenko, A. S.; Orlova, N. V.; Smirnova, S. G.; Korelo, A. M.; Gorsky, A. I.; Maksioutov, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses technology for establishing potential cancer risk groups, based on methods of molecular and radiation epidemiology. Assay of gene mutations at the T-cell receptor (TCR) locus as the method of molecular epidemiology was used for measuring the frequency of TCR-mutations in 320 nuclear workers of the Inst. of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE). The method of radiation epidemiology was applied to the estimation of attributable risk fraction (ARF) for solid cancers in these groups. The main estimates of radiation risk after the Chernobyl accident are in close agreement with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication, 103 models published in 2007. In nuclear workers of the IPPE with ARF ≥ 10%, the increased level of TCR-mutations occurs more often (risk ratio=9.7; 95% CI: 2.9; 32.1). (authors)

  3. Water security, risk and economic growth: lessons from a dynamical systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadson, Simon; Hall, Jim; Garrick, Dustin; Sadoff, Claudia; Grey, David; Whittington, Dale

    2016-04-01

    Investments in the physical infrastructure, human capital, and institutions needed for water resources management have been a noteworthy feature in the development of most civilisations. These investments affect the economy in two distinct ways: (i) by improving the factor productivity of water in multiple sectors of the economy, especially those that are water intensive such as agriculture and energy; and (ii) by reducing the acute and chronic harmful effects of water-related hazards like floods, droughts, and water-related diseases. The need for capital investment to mitigate these risks in order to promote economic growth is widely acknowledged, but prior work to conceptualise the relationship between water-related risks and economic growth has focused on the productive and harmful roles of water in the economy independently. Here the two influences are combined using a simple, dynamical model of water-related investment, risk, and growth at the national level. The model suggests the existence of a context-specific threshold above which growth proceeds along an 'S'-curve. In many cases there is a requirement for initial investment in water-related assets to enable growth. Below the threshold it is possible for a poverty trap to arise. The presence and location of the poverty trap is context-specific and depends on the relative exposure of productive water-related assets to risk, compared with risks faced by assets in the wider economy. Exogenous changes in the level of water-related risk (through, for example, climate and land cover change) can potentially push an economy away from a growth path towards a poverty trap. These results illustrate the value of accounting for environmental risk in models of economic growth and may offer guidance in the design of robust policies for investment in water-related productive assets to manage risk, particularly in the face of global and regional environmental change.

  4. Innovative Corporate Initiatives to Reduce Climate Risk: Lessons from East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward B. Barbier

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Businesses, investors, and insurers are requiring better quantitative assessments of their exposure to climate risks and their impact on climate change. They are incorporating these assessments in their day-to-day management and long-term investment decisions. Already, there are efforts to develop international guidelines, common policies and legal frameworks for such assessments, as well as the desire to foster climate financing. We examine recent progress in East Asia and the rest of the world in setting targets, pricing policies, and other mechanisms to reduce climate risks. We develop a model that demonstrates how reduced climate risk management may lower the total cost of capital of firms, thus making them more attractive to investors. We discuss the additional policies needed to support improved climate risk management in investment decisions, private investments in climate science, technology and innovation (STI expansion, and more widespread adoption of climate financing and principles. Central banks, financial authorities, and governments can advance this objective by creating financial incentives to support investment decision-making. This would take into account factors such as improving climate performance, establishing better climate risk management and reporting requirements to foster green STI, and developing international guidelines and common policy and legal frameworks to support better climate risk management, assessments and reporting.

  5. Pension risk management in a developing economy:lessons from the nigerian capital market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onafalujo Akin k.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The killer risk in any pension scheme is the failure of pension asset sufficiency to meet the promised benefits to retirees. A Pension Risk Management aims at ex ante arrangement to protect retirees’ standard of living. Nigeria introduced pension reforms in 2004 fatefully at the same time when extensive reforms were made in the banking sector. Prior to the Act being passed, there was a major proposition that pension funds should not be invested in Nigerian capital market. This paper reviews pension risks of the new DCS (Defined Contributory Scheme and the implications of investing pension fund in the capital market of a developing economy. A trend analysis was performed on market index and capitalization and a simulated pension asset was subjected to pension risks. Despite the asset allocation guideline on investments by the Pension Commission, there is certainly uncertainty concerning guaranteeing pension payments in future due to unmanaged pension risks. This paper suggests investment policy should accompany a DCS based on the risk appetite of workers, minimum guarantee of returns on investment of pension assets and a range of interest rates for actuarially determined annuities. Further studies may examine wither PFAs should operate as closed end or open end mutual funds.

  6. FUKUSHIMA DAI-ICHI ACCIDENT: LESSONS LEARNED AND FUTURE ACTIONS FROM THE RISK PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOON-EON YANG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident in 2011 has affected various aspects of the nuclear society worldwide. The accident revealed some problems in the conventional approaches used to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. To prevent such disastrous accidents in the future, we have to learn from them and improve the conventional approaches in a more systematic manner. In this paper, we will cover three issues. The first is to identify the key issues that affected the progress of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident greatly. We examine the accident from a defense-in-depth point of view to identify such issues. The second is to develop a more systematic approach to enhance the safety of nuclear installations. We reexamine nuclear safety from a risk point of view. We use the concepts of residual and unknown risks in classifying the risk space. All possible accident scenarios types are reviewed to clarify the characteristics of the identified issues. An approach is proposed to improve our conventional approaches used to ensure nuclear safety including the design of safety features and the safety assessments from a risk point of view. Finally, we address some issues to be improved in the conventional risk assessment and management framework and/or practices to enhance nuclear safety.

  7. Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident: Lessons Learned and Future Actions from the Risk Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jooneon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    The Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident in 2011 has affected various aspects of the nuclear society worldwide. The accident revealed some problems in the conventional approaches used to ensure the safety of nuclear installations. To prevent such disastrous accidents in the future, we have to learn from them and improve the conventional approaches in a more systematic manner. In this paper, we will cover three issues. The first is to identify the key issues that affected the progress of the Fukushima Dai-Ichi accident greatly. We examine the accident from a defense-in-depth point of view to identify such issues. The second is to develop a more systematic approach to enhance the safety of nuclear installations. We reexamine nuclear safety from a risk point of view. We use the concepts of residual and unknown risks in classifying the risk space. All possible accident scenarios types are reviewed to clarify the characteristics of the identified issues. An approach is proposed to improve our conventional approaches used to ensure nuclear safety including the design of safety features and the safety assessments from a risk point of view. Finally, we address some issues to be improved in the conventional risk assessment and management framework and/or practices to enhance nuclear safety.

  8. Lessons learned: Needs for improving human health risk assessment at USDOE Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Holtzman, S.; Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Rowe, M.D.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Anspaugh, L.R.

    1993-09-01

    Realistic health risk assessments were performed in a pilot study of three U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) sites. These assessments, covering a broad spectrum of data and methods, were used to identify needs for improving future health risk assessments at USDOE sites. Topics receiving specific recommendations for additional research include: choice of distributions for Monte Carlo simulation; estimation of risk reduction; analysis of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Database on food and nutrient intakes; investigations on effects of food processing on contaminant levels; background food and environmental concentrations of contaminants; method for handling exposures to groundwater plumes, methods for analyzing less than lifetime exposure to carcinogens; and improvement of bioaccumulation factors

  9. An Entropy Approach to Disclosure Risk Assessment: Lessons from Real Applications and Simulated Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Edoardo M.; Bai, Xue; Malin, Bradley A.

    2011-01-01

    We live in an increasingly mobile world, which leads to the duplication of information across domains. Though organizations attempt to obscure the identities of their constituents when sharing information for worthwhile purposes, such as basic research, the uncoordinated nature of such environment can lead to privacy vulnerabilities. For instance, disparate healthcare providers can collect information on the same patient. Federal policy requires that such providers share “de-identified” sensitive data, such as biomedical (e.g., clinical and genomic) records. But at the same time, such providers can share identified information, devoid of sensitive biomedical data, for administrative functions. On a provider-by-provider basis, the biomedical and identified records appear unrelated, however, links can be established when multiple providers’ databases are studied jointly. The problem, known as trail disclosure, is a generalized phenomenon and occurs because an individual’s location access pattern can be matched across the shared databases. Due to technical and legal constraints, it is often difficult to coordinate between providers and thus it is critical to assess the disclosure risk in distributed environments, so that we can develop techniques to mitigate such risks. Research on privacy protection has so far focused on developing technologies to suppress or encrypt identifiers associated with sensitive information. There is growing body of work on the formal assessment of the disclosure risk of database entries in publicly shared databases, but a less attention has been paid to the distributed setting. In this research, we review the trail disclosure problem in several domains with known vulnerabilities and show that disclosure risk is influenced by the distribution of how people visit service providers. Based on empirical evidence, we propose an entropy metric for assessing such risk in shared databases prior to their release. This metric assesses risk by

  10. How can health care organisations make and justify decisions about risk reduction? Lessons from a cross-industry review and a health care stakeholder consensus development process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujan, Mark A.; Habli, Ibrahim; Kelly, Tim P.; Gühnemann, Astrid; Pozzi, Simone; Johnson, Christopher W.

    2017-01-01

    Interventions to reduce risk often have an associated cost. In UK industries decisions about risk reduction are made and justified within a shared regulatory framework that requires that risk be reduced as low as reasonably practicable. In health care no such regulatory framework exists, and the practice of making decisions about risk reduction is varied and lacks transparency. Can health care organisations learn from relevant industry experiences about making and justifying risk reduction decisions? This paper presents lessons from a qualitative study undertaken with 21 participants from five industries about how such decisions are made and justified in UK industry. Recommendations were developed based on a consensus development exercise undertaken with 20 health care stakeholders. The paper argues that there is a need in health care to develop a regulatory framework and an agreed process for managing explicitly the trade-off between risk reduction and cost. The framework should include guidance about a health care specific notion of acceptable levels of risk, guidance about standardised risk reduction interventions, it should include regulatory incentives for health care organisations to reduce risk, and it should encourage the adoption of an approach for documenting explicitly an organisation's risk position. - Highlights: • Empirical description of industry perceptions on making risk reduction decisions. • Health care consensus development identified five recommendations. • Risk concept should be better integrated into safety management. • Education and awareness about risk concept are required. • Health systems need to start a dialogue about acceptable levels of risk.

  11. Lessons from the conviction of the L'Aquila seven: The standard probabilistic earthquake hazard and risk assessment is ineffective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Max

    2013-04-01

    An earthquake of M6.3 killed 309 people in L'Aquila, Italy, on 6 April 2011. Subsequently, a judge in L'Aquila convicted seven who had participated in an emergency meeting on March 30, assessing the probability of a major event to follow the ongoing earthquake swarm. The sentence was six years in prison, a combine fine of 2 million Euros, loss of job, loss of retirement rent, and lawyer's costs. The judge followed the prosecution's accusation that the review by the Commission of Great Risks had conveyed a false sense of security to the population, which consequently did not take their usual precautionary measures before the deadly earthquake. He did not consider the facts that (1) one of the convicted was not a member of the commission and had merrily obeyed orders to bring the latest seismological facts to the discussion, (2) another was an engineer who was not required to have any expertise regarding the probability of earthquakes, (3) and two others were seismologists not invited to speak to the public at a TV interview and a press conference. This exaggerated judgment was the consequence of an uproar in the population, who felt misinformed and even mislead. Faced with a population worried by an earthquake swarm, the head of the Italian Civil Defense is on record ordering that the population be calmed, and the vice head executed this order in a TV interview one hour before the meeting of the Commission by stating "the scientific community continues to tell me that the situation is favorable and that there is a discharge of energy." The first lesson to be learned is that communications to the public about earthquake hazard and risk must not be left in the hands of someone who has gross misunderstandings about seismology. They must be carefully prepared by experts. The more significant lesson is that the approach to calm the population and the standard probabilistic hazard and risk assessment, as practiced by GSHAP, are misleading. The later has been criticized as

  12. Using prior risk-related knowledge to support risk management decisions: lessons learnt from a tunneling project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; van de Linde, W.; Kaalberg, F.

    2014-01-01

    The authors of this article have developed six probabilistic causal models for critical risks in tunnel works. The details of the models' development and evaluation were reported in two earlier publications of this journal. Accordingly, as a remaining step, this article is focused on the

  13. Risk and Outbreak Communication: Lessons from Taiwan's Experiences in the Post-SARS Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Chen; Chen, Yu-Ling; Wei, Han-Ning; Yang, Yu-Wen; Chen, Ying-Hwei

    In addition to the impact of a disease itself, public reaction could be considered another outbreak to be controlled during an epidemic. Taiwan's experience with SARS in 2003 highlighted the critical role played by the media during crisis communication. After the SARS outbreak, Taiwan's Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC) followed the WHO outbreak communication guidelines on trust, early announcements, transparency, informing the public, and planning, in order to reform its risk communication systems. This article describes the risk communication framework in Taiwan, which has been used to respond to the 2009-2016 influenza epidemics, Ebola in West Africa (2014-16), and MERS-CoV in South Korea (2015) during the post-SARS era. Many communication strategies, ranging from traditional media to social and new media, have been implemented to improve transparency in public communication and promote civic engagement. Taiwan CDC will continue to maintain the strengths of its risk communication systems and resolve challenges as they emerge through active evaluation and monitoring of public opinion to advance Taiwan's capacity in outbreak communication and control. Moreover, Taiwan CDC will continue to implement the IHR (2005) and to promote a global community working together to fight shared risks and to reach the goal of "One World, One Health."

  14. Community rating in the absence of risk equalisation: lessons from the Irish private health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Brian; Shinnick, Edward

    2013-04-01

    Ireland's private health insurance market operates on the basis of community rating, alongside open enrolment and lifetime cover. A risk equalisation scheme was introduced in 2003 to bolster community rating. However, in July 2008 the Irish Supreme Court set aside this scheme, on the basis of the interpretation of community rating in Irish legislation. This decision has significant implications for the Irish private health insurance market. This paper reviews the development of the market, focusing in particular on community rating. The breakdown of community rating in a market with multiple insurers with differing risk profiles is discussed. Applying this to the Irish market, it can be seen that the Irish Supreme Court judgment has significant implications for the application of community rating. Specifically, while community rating operates within plans, it no longer operates across the market, leading to high-risk lives paying more, on average, than low-risk lives. It has also led to greater opportunities for insurers to engage in market segmentation. This may have relevance for the design and operation of other community rated markets.

  15. Risk assessment for prevention of morbidity and mortality: lessons for pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T M

    2008-11-01

    Medicine has changed from being a reactive process that attempts to alleviate disease only when it is clinically evident to a proactive one in which it is hoped that early intervention may reduce the impact of disease or even it developing at all. In moving the focus of treatment, this inevitably means that a greater number of individuals with lesser disease burdens are treated. The logical end-point of this process is to provide preventative measures for the entire population but this can only be done if the economic costs and negative effects of treatment are out-weighed by the benefits. In the case of pressure ulcers, it is self-evident that prevention is extremely beneficial to patients. However, the cost of some of the equipment used for prevention can be high, and therefore, the balance between the optimum level of provision, the purposes of prevention and the available funding becomes critical. Consequently a screening mechanism to better match susceptible patients with resources is essential. There are, however, many problems with such screening techniques. By looking at other specialties, we can see that it is vital to know the natural history of the disease: PSA testing reveals many men who would have died never having known they had prostate cancer, thus giving them years of worry and morbidity they would probably not previously have suffered; cardiovascular risk screening is so imprecise that risk estimates are of questionable utility; antenatal Down's syndrome risk screening is prone to data-related problems that can unexpectedly reduce the effectiveness of the test. In pressure ulcer screening, there are many tools currently in use, but few (possibly none) are really effective. Finally, this paper details some suggestions for future research to combine risk tests that may offer a prospect for improving ulcer risk screening tools.

  16. Assessing Climate Change Risks: Lessons Learned from DoD Installations in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    adaptation strategies that are aligned with DoD facilities management . Our overall guidance for climate decision-making is consistent with our original ...process of integrating climate change risk 46 management into existing business processes. With a few exceptions, the sharing of practical...Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation on Southwestern DoD Facilities and is offered as a collection of resources that DoD managers can use to plan and

  17. Perioperative risk assessment in robotic general surgery: lessons learned from 884 cases at a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchs, Nicolas C; Addeo, Pietro; Bianco, Francesco M; Gorodner, Veronica; Ayloo, Subhashini M; Elli, Enrique F; Oberholzer, José; Benedetti, Enrico; Giulianotti, Pier C

    2012-08-01

    To assess factors associated with morbidity and mortality following the use of robotics in general surgery. Case series. University of Illinois at Chicago. Eight hundred eighty-four consecutive patients who underwent a robotic procedure in our institution between April 2007 and July 2010. Perioperative morbidity and mortality. During the study period, 884 patients underwent a robotic procedure. The conversion rate was 2%, the mortality rate was 0.5%, and the overall postoperative morbidity rate was 16.7%. The reoperation rate was 2.4%. Mean length of stay was 4.5 days (range, 0.2-113 days). In univariate analysis, several factors were associated with increased morbidity and included either patient-related (cardiovascular and renal comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥ 3, body mass index [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared] surgery, malignant disease, body mass index of less than 30, hypertension, and transfusion were factors significantly associated with a higher risk for complications. American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 3 or greater, age 70 years or older, cardiovascular comorbidity, and blood loss of 500 mL or more were also associated with increased risk for mortality. Use of the robotic approach for general surgery can be achieved safely with low morbidity and mortality. Several risk factors have been identified as independent causes for higher morbidity and mortality. These can be used to identify patients at risk before and during the surgery and, in the future, to develop a scoring system for the use of robotic general surgery

  18. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all pchildhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all pchildhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  19. Fire Management Lessons Learned From the Cerro Grande (Los Alamos) Fire and Actions Needed to Reduce Fire Risks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Barry

    2000-01-01

    We are here today to discuss two related issues, lessons learned from the recent Cerro Grande fire, and, on a broader note, actions needed to mitigate current hazardous forest conditions in the interior West...

  20. Operational, quality, and risk management in the transfusion service: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Lawrence Tim

    2012-07-01

    For general health care, the difference between quality and safety has been unclear for measurable patient outcomes. In contrast, in the transfusion service (TS), the relationship between quality and safety has been direct and demonstrable. Case studies are summarized to illustrate the relationship between operations, quality management, and risk management in the TS. In blood availability for elective surgery over 3 audited intervals, the incidence of patients undergoing elective surgery without available crossmatched blood that had been requested was 1:333, 1:328, and 1:225 for pre-quality improvement, post-quality improvement, and subsequent postintervention audit assessment, respectively. In event discovery reports (EDRs) over 2 years, incidence of biologic product deviation reports (Food and Drug Administration reportable) was successfully reduced from 60 biologic product deviation reports (12%) of 507 EDRs in 2009 to 42 (12%) of 336 EDRs in 2010. In wrong blood in tube, 102 specimens were identified (by a change in patient's ABO/Rh) from 176,711 type and screen/cross-match specimens received over a 5-year interval, detected either by previous patient record of ABO/Rh or by a second specimen for blood type confirmation implemented in our TS for the last 3 years. No known cases of "mismatched" red blood cell transfusion have occurred during this interval. There is an inverse relationship between resources/time expended on quality and risk management relative to volumes of operations in the TS. Laboratory-based initiatives that improve patient safety and clinical outcomes need to have resources aligned with the personnel and time required for quality management and risk management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lessons Learned from the ECML/PKDD Discovery Challenge on the Atherosclerosis Risk Factors Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berka, Petr; Rauch, Jan; Tomečková, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2007), s. 329-344 ISSN 1335-9150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014; GA ČR GA201/05/0325 Grant - others:GA VŠE(CZ) 25/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : atherosclerosis risk * data mining * discovery challenge Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.349, year: 2007 http://www.cai.sk/ojs/index.php/cai/article/view/313

  2. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic.We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children.In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use.This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  3. Implementing Brief Interventions in Health Care: Lessons Learned from the Swedish Risk Drinking Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Nilsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Risk Drinking Project was a national implementation endeavour in Sweden, carried out from 2004 to 2010, based on a government initiative to give alcohol issues a more prominent place in routine primary, child, maternity and occupational health care. The article describes and analyses the project. Critical factors that were important for the results are identified. The magnitude of the project contributed to its reach and impact in terms of providers’ awareness of the project goals and key messages. The timing of the project was appropriate. The increase in alcohol consumption in Sweden and diminished opportunities for primary prevention strategies since entry to the European Union in 1995 have led to increased expectations for health care providers to become more actively involved in alcohol prevention. This awareness provided favourable conditions for this project. A multifaceted approach was used in the project. Most educational courses were held in workshops and seminars to encourage learning-by-doing. Motivational interviewing was an integral aspect. The concept of risk drinking was promoted in all the activities. Subprojects were tailored to the specific conditions of each respective setting, building on the skills the providers already had to modify existing work practices. Nurses were afforded a key role in the project.

  4. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8 % of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  5. Analysis of Surface Water Pollution Accidents in China: Characteristics and Lessons for Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Zhang, Tongzhu; Liu, Bo; Lu, Feng; Fang, Shurong; You, Zhen

    2016-04-01

    Understanding historical accidents is important for accident prevention and risk mitigation; however, there are no public databases of pollution accidents in China, and no detailed information regarding such incidents is readily available. Thus, 653 representative cases of surface water pollution accidents in China were identified and described as a function of time, location, materials involved, origin, and causes. The severity and other features of the accidents, frequency and quantities of chemicals involved, frequency and number of people poisoned, frequency and number of people affected, frequency and time for which pollution lasted, and frequency and length of pollution zone were effectively used to value and estimate the accumulated probabilities. The probabilities of occurrences of various types based on origin and causes were also summarized based on these observations. The following conclusions can be drawn from these analyses: (1) There was a high proportion of accidents involving multi-district boundary regions and drinking water crises, indicating that more attention should be paid to environmental risk prevention and the mitigation of such incidents. (2) A high proportion of accidents originated from small-sized chemical plants, indicating that these types of enterprises should be considered during policy making. (3) The most common cause (49.8% of the total) was intentional acts (illegal discharge); accordingly, efforts to increase environmental consciousness in China should be enhanced.

  6. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: lessons learned regarding passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1.6 10 -6 yr -1 , even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The annual frequency of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquakes) is 3.6 10 -6 yr -1 and the contribution of seismic events is 1.7 10 -5 yr -1 . Overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability

  7. The EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment: lessons learned regarding passive safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D J; Ragland, W A; Roglans, J

    1998-11-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1.6 10{sup -6} yr{sup -1}, even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The annual frequency of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquakes) is 3.6 10{sup -6} yr{sup -1} and the contribution of seismic events is 1.7 10{sup -5} yr{sup -1}. Overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability.

  8. The EBR-II probabilistic risk assessment lessons learned regarding passive safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.J.; Ragland, W.A.; Roglans, J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from the recently completed EBR-II Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and provides an analysis of the source of risk of the operation of EBR-II from both internal and external initiating events. The EBR-II PRA explicitly accounts for the role of reactivity feedbacks in reducing fuel damage. The results show that the expected core damage frequency from internal initiating events at EBR-II is very low, 1.6 10 -6 yr -1 , even with a wide definition of core damage (essentially that of exceeding Technical Specification limits). The annual frequency of damage, primarily due to liquid metal fires, from externally initiated events (excluding earthquakes) is 3.6 10 -6 yr -1 and the contribution of seismic events is 1.7 10 -5 yr -1 . Overall these results are considerably better than results for other research reactors and the nuclear industry in general and stem from three main sources: low likelihood of loss of coolant due to low system pressure and top entry double vessels; low likelihood of loss of decay heat removal due to reliance on passive means; and low likelihood of power/flow mismatch due to both passive feedbacks and reliability of rod scram capability

  9. Risk Factors Associated With Pediatric Acute Recurrent and Chronic Pancreatitis: Lessons From INSPPIRE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Soma; Ooi, Chee Y; Werlin, Steven; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Barth, Bradley; Bellin, Melena D; Durie, Peter R; Fishman, Douglas S; Freedman, Steven D; Gariepy, Cheryl; Giefer, Matthew J; Gonska, Tanja; Heyman, Melvin B; Himes, Ryan; Husain, Sohail Z; Lin, Tom K; Lowe, Mark E; Morinville, Veronique; Palermo, Joseph J; Pohl, John F; Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Troendle, David; Wilschanski, Michael; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Uc, Aliye

    2016-06-01

    Pediatric acute recurrent pancreatitis (ARP) and chronic pancreatitis (CP) are poorly understood. To characterize and identify risk factors associated with ARP and CP in childhood. A multinational cross-sectional study of children with ARP or CP at the time of enrollment to the INSPPIRE (International Study Group of Pediatric Pancreatitis: In Search for a Cure) study at participant institutions of the INSPPIRE Consortium. From August 22, 2012, to February 8, 2015, 155 children with ARP and 146 with CP (aged ≤19 years) were enrolled. Their demographic and clinical information was entered into the REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) database at the 15 centers. Differences were analyzed using 2-sample t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous variables and Pearson χ2 test or Fisher exact test for categorical variables. Disease burden variables (pain variables, hospital/emergency department visits, missed school days) were compared using Wilcoxon rank sum test. Demographic characteristics, risk factors, abdominal pain, and disease burden. A total of 301 children were enrolled (mean [SD] age, 11.9 [4.5] years; 172 [57%] female); 155 had ARP and 146 had CP. The majority of children with CP (123 of 146 [84%]) reported prior recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis. Sex distribution was similar between the groups (57% female in both). Hispanic children were less likely to have CP than ARP (17% vs 28%, respectively; odds ratio [OR] = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.29-0.92; P = .02). At least 1 gene mutation in pancreatitis-related genes was found in 48% of patients with ARP vs 73% of patients with CP (P toxic/metabolic risk factors were more common in children with ARP (21% overall; 26% in the ARP group and 15% in the CP group; OR = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.99; P = .046). Pancreatitis-related abdominal pain was a major symptom in 81% of children with ARP or CP within the last year. The disease burden was greater in the CP group compared with the ARP group

  10. Integrating toxicogenomics into human health risk assessment: lessons learned from the benzo[a]pyrene case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Moffat, Ivy D; Labib, Sarah; Bourdon-Lacombe, Julie; Kuo, Byron; Buick, Julie K; Lemieux, France; Malik, Amal I; Halappanavar, Sabina; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L

    2015-01-01

    The use of short-term toxicogenomic tests to predict cancer (or other health effects) offers considerable advantages relative to traditional toxicity testing methods. The advantages include increased throughput, increased mechanistic data, and significantly reduced costs. However, precisely how toxicogenomics data can be used to support human health risk assessment (RA) is unclear. In a companion paper ( Moffat et al. 2014 ), we present a case study evaluating the utility of toxicogenomics in the RA of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a known human carcinogen. The case study is meant as a proof-of-principle exercise using a well-established mode of action (MOA) that impacts multiple tissues, which should provide a best case example. We found that toxicogenomics provided rich mechanistic data applicable to hazard identification, dose-response analysis, and quantitative RA of BaP. Based on this work, here we share some useful lessons for both research and RA, and outline our perspective on how toxicogenomics can benefit RA in the short- and long-term. Specifically, we focus on (1) obtaining biologically relevant data that are readily suitable for establishing an MOA for toxicants, (2) examining the human relevance of an MOA from animal testing, and (3) proposing appropriate quantitative values for RA. We describe our envisioned strategy on how toxicogenomics can become a tool in RA, especially when anchored to other short-term toxicity tests (apical endpoints) to increase confidence in the proposed MOA, and emphasize the need for additional studies on other MOAs to define the best practices in the application of toxicogenomics in RA.

  11. Lessons from the pandemic: the need for new tools for risk and outbreak communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Thomas

    2011-10-17

    The influenza pandemic of 2009 revealed shortcomings in the existing guidelines for risk and outbreak communication. Concepts such as building trust proved hard to achieve in practice, whereas other issues such as communicating through the internet and coping with the political fallout of disease outbreaks are not dealt with in existing guidelines. This article surveys the current guidelines and makes recommendations for additional tools and guidelines to be developed in four areas: integrating long-term behavior change models with outbreak communications; research to develop a better understanding of communicating through the internet; research to understand how to use communications to build trust; and developing guidelines and principles to understand the political nature of disease outbreaks.

  12. The Evolution of Depleted Uranium as an Environmental Risk Factor: Lessons from Other Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Wayne E.

    2006-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) is used in both civilian and military applications. Civilian uses are primarily limited to ballast and counterweights in ships and aircraft with limited risk of environmental release. The very nature of the military use of DU releases DU into the environment. DU released into the environment from military use takes the form of large fragments that are chemically unchanged and dust in the form of oxides. DU dust is nearly insoluble, respirable and shows little mobility in the soil. Exposure to DU occurs primarily from inhalation of dust and possible hand to mouth activity. Toxicity of DU is believed to be primarily chemical in nature with radiological activity being a lesser problem. DU has been shown to have a variety of behavioral and neurological effects in experimental animals. DU has been used the Balkans, Afghanistan, and both Iraq wars and there is a high probability of its use in future conflicts. Further, other nations are developing DU weaponry; some of these nations may use DU with a greater radiological risk than those currently in use. The toxicity of DU has been studied mostly as an issue of the health of military personnel. However, many tons of DU have been left in the former theater of war and indigenous populations continue to be exposed to DU, primarily in the form of dust. Little epidemiological data exists concerning the impact of DU on these groups. It may be possible to extrapolate what the effects of DU may be on indigenous groups by examining the data on similar metals. DU has many similarities to lead in its route of exposure, chemistry, metabolic fate, target organs, and effect of experimental animals. Studies should be conducted on indigenous groups using lead as a model when ascertaining if DU has an adverse effect. PMID:16823086

  13. The Evolution of Depleted Uranium as an Environmental Risk Factor: Lessons from Other Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Briner

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Depleted uranium (DU is used in both civilian and military applications. Civilian uses are primarily limited to ballast and counterweights in ships and aircraft with limited risk of environmental release. The very nature of the military use of DU releases DU into the environment. DU released into the environment from military use takes the form of large fragments that are chemically unchanged and dust in the form of oxides. DU dust is nearly insoluble, respirable and shows little mobility in the soil. Exposure to DU occurs primarily from inhalation of dust and possible hand to mouth activity. Toxicity of DU is believed to be primarily chemical in nature with radiological activity being a lesser problem. DU has been shown to have a variety of behavioral and neurological effects in experimental animals. DU has been used the Balkans, Afghanistan, and both Iraq wars and there is a high probability of its use in future conflicts. Further, other nations are developing DU weaponry; some of these nations may use DU with a greater radiological risk than those currently in use. The toxicity of DU has been studied mostly as an issue of the health of military personnel. However, many tons of DU have been left in the former theater of war and indigenous populations continue to be exposed to DU, primarily in the form of dust. Little epidemiological data exists concerning the impact of DU on these groups. It may be possible to extrapolate what the effects of DU may be on indigenous groups by examining the data on similar metals. DU has many similarities to lead in its route of exposure, chemistry, metabolic fate, target organs, and effect of experimental animals. Studies should be conducted on indigenous groups using lead as a model when ascertaining if DU has an adverse effect.

  14. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...... for using these methods together for NM: ‘‘LC-based RA’’ (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and ‘‘RA-complemented LCA’’ (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods......While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...

  15. Risk and the neoliberal state: why post-Mitch lessons didn't reduce El Salvador's earthquake losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, B

    2001-09-01

    Although El Salvador suffered light losses from Hurricane Mitch in 1998, it benefited from the increased international aid and encouragement for advance planning, especially mitigation and prevention interventions. Thus, one would have supposed, El Salvador would have been in a very advantageous position, able more easily than its economically crippled neighbours, Honduras and Nicaragua, to implement the 'lessons of Mitch'. A review of the recovery plan tabled by the El Salvador government following the earthquakes of early 2001 shows that despite the rhetoric in favour of 'learning the lessons of Mitch', very little mitigation and prevention had actually been put in place between the hurricane (1998) and the earthquakes (2001). The recovery plan is analysed in terms of the degree to which it deals with root causes of disaster vulnerability, namely, the economic and political marginality of much of the population and environmental degradation. An explanation for the failure to implement mitigation and preventive actions is traced to the adherence by the government of El Salvador to an extreme form of neoliberal, free market ideology, and the deep fissures and mistrust in a country that follow a long and bloody civil war.

  16. Fukushima's lessons from the blue butterfly: A risk assessment of the human living environment in the post-Fukushima era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Joji M

    2016-10-01

    A series of studies on the pale grass blue butterfly that were carried out to assess the biological effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident teach 3 important lessons. First, it is necessary to have an environmental indicator species, such as the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan, that is common (not endangered), shares a living environment (air, water, and soil) with humans, and is amenable to laboratory experiments. The monitoring of such indicator species before and immediately after a nuclear accident likely reflects acute impacts caused by initial exposure. To assess transgenerational and chronic effects, continuous monitoring over time is encouraged. Second, it is important to understand the actual health status of a polluted region and comprehend the whole picture of the pollution impacts, rather than focusing on the selected effects of radiation alone. In our butterfly experiments, plant leaves from Fukushima were fed to larval butterflies to access whole-body effects, focusing on survival rate and morphological abnormalities (rather than focusing on a specific disease or biochemical marker). Our results revealed that ionizing radiation is unlikely to be the exclusive source of environmental disturbances. Airborne particulate matter from a nuclear reactor, regardless of its radioactivity, is likely equally important. Finally, our butterfly experiments demonstrate that there is considerable variation in sensitivities to nuclear pollution within a single species or even within a local population. Based on these results, it is speculated that high pollution sensitivity in humans may be caused not only by low levels of functional DNA repair enzymes but also by immunological responses to particulate matter in the respiratory tract. These lessons from the pale grass blue butterfly should be integrated in studying future nuclear pollution events and decision making on nuclear and environmental policies at the local and international levels in the post

  17. Lessons in Outbreak a Consumer perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Lessons in Outbreak a Consumer perspective. Arnout Fischer Consumer risk perceptions is not necessarily the same as an economic weighing of risks and benefits. Consumers tend to be risk averse, tend to estimate catastrophic, unnatural or involuntary risks as larger, while personal lifestyle risks

  18. A Patient Risk Model of Chemotherapy-Induced Febrile Neutropenia: Lessons Learned From the ANC Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Gary H; Poniewierski, Marek S

    2017-12-01

    Neutropenia and its complications, including febrile neutropenia (FN), represent major toxicities associated with cancer chemotherapy, resulting in considerable morbidity, mortality, and costs. The myeloid growth factors such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) have been shown to reduce the risk of neutropenia complications while enabling safe and effective chemotherapy dose intensity. Concerns about the high costs of these agents along with limited physician adherence to clinical practice guidelines, resulting in both overuse and underuse, has stimulated interest in models for individual patient risk assessment to guide appropriate use of G-CSF. In a model developed and validated by the ANC Study Group, half of patients were classified as high risk and half as low risk based on patient-, disease-, and treatment-related factors. This model has been further validated in an independent patient population. Physician-assessed risk of FN, as well as the decision to use prophylactic CSF, has been shown to correlate poorly with the FN risk estimated by the model. Additional modeling efforts in both adults and children receiving cancer treatment have been reported. Identification of patients at a high individual risk for FN and its consequences may offer the potential for optimal chemotherapy delivery and patient outcomes. Likewise, identification of patients at low risk for neutropenic events may reduce costs when such supportive care is not warranted. This article reviews and summarizes FN modeling studies and the opportunities for personalizing supportive care in patients receiving chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  19. Maximal Oxygen Uptake--Risk Predictor of NSCLC Resection in Patients With Comorbid Emphysema: Lessons From NETT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makey, Ian; Berger, Robert L; Cabral, Howard J; Celli, Bartolome; Folch, Erik; Whyte, Richard I

    2015-01-01

    We compared VO2 max values from ACCP Guidelines and from NETT's homogenous NULPD surrogate for predicting operative mortalities. Estimated mid and long-term non-cancer related survival in NETT's subset was also obtained. NETT and ACCP Guideline VO2 max values were similar in the "low" and "mid" risk operative mortality categories but NETT's "high" risk subset showed lower mortality (14% vs. 26%). Estimated non-cancer related survival in NETT "low", "mid" and "high" risk VO2 max categories at two and eight years were 100%, 74%, 59% and 48%, 26%, 14%, respectively. The lower predicted risk in NETT's "high- risk" subset raises the possibility of extending indications for potential curative resection in selected patients. The NETT surrogate also provides hitherto unavailable estimate on long-term non-cancer related survival after potential curative resection of NSCLC and suggests that the operation does not shorten eight-year longevity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk-informed local action planning against flooding: lessons learnt and way forward for a case study in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo-Rodríguez J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After 29 years of the largest flood event in modern times (with the highest recorded rainfall rate at the Iberian Peninsula with 817 mm in 24 hours, the municipality of Oliva faces the challenge of mitigating flood risk through the development and implementation of a local action plan, in line with other existent and ongoing structural measures for flood risk reduction. Located 65 km from Valencia, on the South-Eastern coast of Spain, Oliva is affected by pluvial, river and coastal flooding and it is characterized by a complex and wide-ranging geography and high seasonal variation in population. A quantitative flood risk analysis has been performed to support the definition of flood risk management strategies. This paper shows how hazard, exposure and vulnerability analyses provide valuable information for the development of a local action plan against flooding, for example by identifying areas with highest societal and economic risk levels. It is concluded that flood risk management actions, such as flood warning and monitoring or evacuation, should not be applied homogenously at local scale, but instead actions should be adapted based on spatial clustering. Implications about the impact of education and training on flood risk reduction are also addressed and discusse

  1. Critical thinking about adverse drug effects: lessons from the psychology of risk and medical decision-making for clinical psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nierenberg, Andrew A; Smoller, Jordan W; Eidelman, Polina; Wu, Yelena P; Tilley, Claire A

    2008-01-01

    Systematic biases in decision-making have been well characterized in medical and nonmedical fields but mostly ignored in clinical psychopharmacology. The purpose of this paper is to sensitize clinicians who prescribe psychiatric drugs to the issues of the psychology of risk, especially as they pertain to the risk of side effects. Specifically, the present analysis focuses on heuristic organization and framing effects that create cognitive biases in medical practice. Our purpose is to increase the awareness of how pharmaceutical companies may influence physicians by framing the risk of medication side effects to favor their products. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Revitalising Evidence-based Policy for the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030: Lessons from Existing International Science Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabine, Elizabeth

    2015-04-23

    The convergence of agreements on disaster risk reduction (DRR), development finance, sustainable development and climate change in 2015 presents a unique opportunity for coherence across these inter-related policy areas. At the same time, demand is growing for a more prominent and effective role for science and technology in providing evidence for policy, with the international community recognising that successful disaster risk reduction (DRR) depends on it. Reflecting this ambition, science is included as a core aspect of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, although the ways in which this will be implemented in practice is still unclear. This paper aims to inform the implementation of international science coordination for DRR by examining a number of existing international science partnerships used across other relevant areas of policy to understand best practice, options for coordination and lessons identified. In the field of DRR, the science-policy interface needs to be strengthened in line with the best practice described in this review. An enhanced UNISDR Scientific and Technical Advisory Group will be given the mandate for to enhance the evidence base for DRR and mobilise science and technical work in coordination with a broad range of stakeholders. The structure and function of an enhanced STAG must be as open, as inclusive and as participatory as possible in order to build trust in new and existing institutions at local, national, regional and global levels. The challenge for the international community is to facilitate evidence-based policy making by formally recognising the links between DRR, development finance, sustainable development and climate change in the upcoming post-2015 agreements.

  3. The risk-adjusted vision beyond casemix (DRG) funding in Australia. International lessons in high complexity and capitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antioch, Kathryn M; Walsh, Michael K

    2004-06-01

    Hospitals throughout the world using funding based on diagnosis-related groups (DRG) have incurred substantial budgetary deficits, despite high efficiency. We identify the limitations of DRG funding that lack risk (severity) adjustment for State-wide referral services. Methods to risk adjust DRGs are instructive. The average price in casemix funding in the Australian State of Victoria is policy based, not benchmarked. Average cost weights are too low for high-complexity DRGs relating to State-wide referral services such as heart and lung transplantation and trauma. Risk-adjusted specified grants (RASG) are required for five high-complexity respiratory, cardiology and stroke DRGs incurring annual deficits of $3.6 million due to high casemix complexity and government under-funding despite high efficiency. Five stepwise linear regressions for each DRG excluded non-significant variables and assessed heteroskedasticity and multicollinearlity. Cost per patient was the dependent variable. Significant independent variables were age, length-of-stay outliers, number of disease types, diagnoses, procedures and emergency status. Diagnosis and procedure severity markers were identified. The methodology and the work of the State-wide Risk Adjustment Working Group can facilitate risk adjustment of DRGs State-wide and for Treasury negotiations for expenditure growth. The Alfred Hospital previously negotiated RASG of $14 million over 5 years for three trauma and chronic DRGs. Some chronic diseases require risk-adjusted capitation funding models for Australian Health Maintenance Organizations as an alternative to casemix funding. The use of Diagnostic Cost Groups can facilitate State and Federal government reform via new population-based risk adjusted funding models that measure health need.

  4. A cross-sectional study of risk factors for HIV among pregnant women in Guatemala City, Guatemala: lessons for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johri, M; Morales, R E; Hoch, J S; Samayoa, B E; Sommen, C; Grazioso, C F; Boivin, J-F; Barrios Matta, I J; Baide Diaz, E L; Arathoon, E G

    2010-12-01

    Although the Central American HIV epidemic is concentrated in high-risk groups, HIV incidence is increasing in young women. From 2005 to 2007, we conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in a large public hospital and an HIV clinic in Guatemala City to describe risk factors for HIV infection and inform prevention strategies. For 4629 consenting patients, HIV status was laboratory-confirmed and participant characteristics were assessed by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Lifetime number of sexual partners ranged from 1 to 99, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1, 2). 2.6% (120) reported exchanging sex for benefits; 0.1% (3) were sex workers, 2.3% (106) had used illegal drugs, 31.1% (1421) planned their pregnancy and 31.8% (1455) experienced abuse. In logistic regression analyses, HIV status was predicted by one variable describing women's behaviour (lifetime sexual partners) and three variables describing partner risks (partner HIV+, migrant worker or suspected unfaithful). Women in our sample exhibited few behavioural risks for HIV but significant vulnerability via partner behaviours. To stem feminization of the epidemic, health authorities should complement existing prevention interventions in high-risk populations with directed efforts towards bridging populations such as migrant workers. We identify four locally adapted HIV prevention strategies.

  5. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig I.

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  6. Credit risk determinants in Sub-Saharan banking systems: Evidence from five countries and lessons learnt from Central East and South East European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychia Nikolaidou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have grown notably over the past decades due to benign macroeconomic, regulatory and financial trends. Nonetheless, downside risks remain elevated by structural issues, commodity price fluctuations, reversal of capital flows and spill-over effects from external shocks in a manner similar to the Central East and South East European (CESEE countries. In the light of the 2008–2009 Global Financial Crisis, great attention has been given to understanding the causes of banking instability with most of the research focusing on advanced economies and, to a lesser extent, large emerging markets while little attention has been paid to the bank-based financial sectors of Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, there is scarcity of studies aiming at knowledge-sharing among different emerging economies. This paper aims to identify the determinants of bank credit risk by focusing on five SSA countries: Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Uganda. Using the ARDL approach to cointegration, findings indicate that increased money supply conditions have a decreasing effect on NPLs in all counties, banking industry-specific variables play a significant role in the case of South Africa and Uganda while NPLs are driven by country-specific variables in the case of Kenya, South Africa and Zambia. The effect of the Global Financial Crisis is evidenced indirectly. Drawing on evidence from CESEE countries with long experience in banking crises, reforms and financial deepening process, the paper provides lessons for SSA countries and offers policy recommendations in the direction of strengthening banks’ balance sheets to ensure financial stability.

  7. Assessing hydrological drought risk for the irrigation sector in future climate scenarios: lessons learned from the Apulia case study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critto, Andrea; Torresan, Silvia; Ronco, Paolo; Zennaro, Federica; Santini, Monia; Trabucco, Antonio; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Climate change is already affecting the frequency of drought events which may threaten the current stocks of water resources and thus the availability of freshwater for the irrigation. The achievement of a sustainable equilibrium between the availability of water resources and the irrigation demand is essentially related to the planning and implementation of evidence-based adaptation strategies and actions. In this sense, the improvement (of existing) and the development of (new) appropriate risk assessment methods and tools to evaluate the impact of drought events on irrigated crops is fundamental in order to assure that the agricultural yields are appropriate to meet the current and future food and market demand. This study evaluates the risk of hydrological drought on the irrigated agronomic compartment of Apulia, a semi-arid region in Southern Italy. We applied a stepwise Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) procedure, based on the consecutive analysis of hazards, exposure, vulnerability and risks, integrating the qualitative and quantitative available information. Future climate projections for the timeframes 2021-2050 and 2041-2070 were provided by COSMO-CLM under the radiative forcing RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The run-off feeding the water stocks of the most important irrigation reservoirs in Apulia was then modeled with Arc-SWAT. Hence, the hazard analysis was carried out in order to estimate the degree of fulfillment of actual irrigation demand satisfied by water supply of different reservoirs in future scenarios. Vulnerability of exposed irrigated crops was evaluated depending on three factors accounting for crop yield variation vs water stress, water losses along the irrigation network, diversification of water supply. Resulting risk and vulnerability maps allowed: the identification of Reclamation Consortia at higher risk of not fulfilling their future irrigation demand (e.g. Capitanata Reclamation Consortia in RCP8.5 2041-2070 scenario); the ranking of most

  8. Understanding HIV risks among adolescent girls and young women in informal settlements of Nairobi, Kenya: Lessons for DREAMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziraba, Abdhalah; Orindi, Benedict; Muuo, Sheru; Floyd, Sian; Birdthistle, Isolde J; Mumah, Joyce; Osindo, Jane; Njoroge, Pauline; Kabiru, Caroline W

    2018-01-01

    High incidence of HIV infection among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) has been attributed to the numerous and often layered vulnerabilities that they encounter including violence against women, unfavourable power relations that are worsened by age-disparate sexual relations, and limited access to sexual and reproductive health information and services. For AGYW living in urban informal settlements (slums), these vulnerabilities are compounded by pervasive poverty, fragmented social networks, and limited access to social services including health and education. In this paper, we assess sexual risk behaviours and their correlates among AGYW in two slum settlements in Nairobi, Kenya, prior to the implementation of interventions under the Determined Resilient Empowered AIDS-free Mentored and Safe (DREAMS) Partnership. We drew on secondary data from the Transition to Adulthood study, the most recent representative study on adolescent sexual behaviour in the two settlements. The study was nested within the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS). Data were collected in 2009 from 1,390 AGYW aged 12-23 years. We estimated the proportions of AGYW reporting ever tested for HIV, condom use, multiple sexual partners and age-disparate sex by socio-demographic characteristics. "High risk" sexual behaviour was defined as a composite of these four variables and age at first sex. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with risk behaviours. Fifty-one percent of AGYW reported that they had ever tested for HIV and received results of their last test, with the proportion rising steeply by age (from 15% to 84% among those girls aged below 15 years who had sex (n = 9) had not used condoms at last sex. The likelihood of engaging in "high risk" sexual risk behaviour was higher among older AGYW (19-23 years), those in marital unions, of Luo ethnicity, out of school, living alone or with a friend (versus parents

  9. Utility of Risk Models in Decision Making After Radical Prostatectomy: Lessons from a Natural History Cohort of Intermediate- and High-Risk Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ashley E; Yousefi, Kasra; Davicioni, Elai; Ghadessi, Mercedeh; Johnson, Michael H; Sundi, Debasish; Tosoian, Jeffery J; Han, Misop; Humphreys, Elizabeth B; Partin, Alan W; Walsh, Patrick C; Trock, Bruce J; Schaeffer, Edward M

    2016-03-01

    Current guidelines suggest adjuvant radiation therapy for men with adverse pathologic features (APFs) at radical prostatectomy (RP). We examine at-risk men treated only with RP until the time of metastasis. To evaluate whether clinicopathologic risk models can help guide postoperative therapeutic decision making. Men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer undergoing RP in the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) era were identified (n=3089). Only men with initial undetectable PSA after surgery and who received no therapy prior to metastasis were included. APFs were defined as pT3 disease or positive surgical margins. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for time to event data was used to measure the discrimination performance of the risk factors. Cumulative incidence curves were constructed using Fine and Gray competing risks analysis to estimate the risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) or metastasis, taking censoring and death due to other causes into consideration. Overall, 43% of the cohort (n=1327) had APFs at RP. Median follow-up for censored patients was 5 yr. Cumulative incidence of metastasis was 6% at 10 yr after RP for all patients. Cumulative incidence of metastasis among men with APFs was 7.5% at 10 yr after RP. Among men with BCR, the incidence of metastasis was 38% 5 yr after BCR. At 10 yr after RP, time-dependent AUC for predicting metastasis by Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical or Eggener risk models was 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-0.97) and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.67-0.97) in the APF population, respectively. At 5 yr after BCR, these values were lower (0.58 [95% CI, 0.50-0.66] and 0.70 [95% CI, 0.63-0.76]) among those who developed BCR. Use of risk model cut points could substantially reduce overtreatment while minimally increasing undertreatment (ie, use of an Eggener cut point of 2.5% for treatment of men with APFs would spare 46% from treatment

  10. 'Talk To Me' - Lessons Learned In Communicating Risks To Tenants And Others Involved In The Department Of Energy's Reindustrialization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusick, Lesley T.; Golden, Karen M.

    2003-01-01

    Communicating risk information is more difficult than assessing it. The latter relies on data, formulas, theorems and mathematical relationships that, with some effort, can be logically explained to another person; it's objective. Communicating risks, however, is subjective and relies on personalities, perceptions and predisposition, as well as emotions. Most notably the emotion is fear--fear of the unknown, fear of the message, the messenger, or the impact of the information on something of value to the person asking the questions. The Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Operations Office is engaged in a Reindustrialization program to lease (and most recently, to transfer) formerly used facilities to private sector entities. The facilities are located at the East Tennessee Technology Park, originally a gaseous diffusion plant operated to enrich uranium for World War II efforts and later for use as fuel in civilian nuclear reactors

  11. Lesson Learning at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhettinger, David

    2011-01-01

    A lessons learned system is a hallmark of a mature engineering organization A formal lessons learned process can help assure that valuable lessons get written and published, that they are well-written, and that the essential information is "infused" into institutional practice. Requires high-level institutional commitment, and everyone's participation in gathering, disseminating, and using the lessons

  12. Study design and the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV: lessons from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Groot, Wim; Pavlova, Milena

    2018-01-30

    Estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV is a key activity in the surveillance of the HIV epidemic. The existing framework for considering future research needs may provide decision-makers with a basis for a fair process of deciding on the methods of the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV. This study explores the extent to which stakeholders involved with population size estimation agree with this framework, and thus, the study updates the framework. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with key informants from city and provincial governments, NGOs, research institutes, and the community of people at risk of HIV. Transcripts were analyzed and reviewed for significant statements pertaining to criteria. Variations and agreement around criteria were analyzed, and emerging criteria were validated against the existing framework. Eleven themes emerged which are relevant to the estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV in Viet Nam. Findings on missing criteria, inclusive participation, community perspectives and conflicting weight and direction of criteria provide insights for an improved framework for the prioritization of population size estimation methods. The findings suggest that the exclusion of community members from decision-making on population size estimation methods in Viet Nam may affect the validity, use, and efficiency of the evidence generated. However, a wider group of decision-makers, including community members among others, may introduce diverse definitions, weight and direction of criteria. Although findings here may not apply to every country with a transitioning economy or to every emerging epidemic, the principles of fair decision-making, value of community participation in decision-making and the expected challenges faced, merit consideration in every situation.

  13. Safety and Mission Assurance for In-House Design Lessons Learned from Ares I Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Joel M.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation identifies lessons learned in the course of the Ares I Upper Stage design and in-house development effort. The contents include: 1) Constellation Organization; 2) Upper Stage Organization; 3) Presentation Structure; 4) Lesson-Importance of Systems Engineering/Integration; 5) Lesson-Importance of Early S&MA Involvement; 6) Lesson-Importance of Appropriate Staffing Levels; 7) Lesson-Importance S&MA Team Deployment; 8) Lesson-Understanding of S&MA In-Line Engineering versus Assurance; 9) Lesson-Importance of Close Coordination between Supportability and Reliability/Maintainability; 10) Lesson-Importance of Engineering Data Systems; 11) Lesson-Importance of Early Development of Supporting Databases; 12) Lesson-Importance of Coordination with Safety Assessment/Review Panels; 13) Lesson-Implementation of Software Reliability; 14) Lesson-Implementation of S&MA Technical Authority/Chief S&MA Officer; 15) Lesson-Importance of S&MA Evaluation of Project Risks; 16) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List and Government Mandatory Inspections; 17) Lesson-Implementation of Critical Items List Mandatory Inspections; 18) Lesson-Implementation of Test Article Safety Analysis; and 19) Lesson-Importance of Procurement Quality.

  14. Vitamin D status and risk of cardiovascular events: lessons learned via systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Seth I; Tsang, Pansy; Aggarwal, Vikas; Melamed, Michal L; Srinivas, V S

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating data linking hypovitaminosis D to cardiovascular (CV) events has contributed to large increases in vitamin D testing and supplementation. To evaluate the merits of this practice, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis providing a framework for interpreting the literature associating hypovitaminosis D with increased CV events. Prospective studies were identified by search of MEDLINE and EMBASE from inception to January 2010, restricted to English language publications. Two authors independently extracted data and graded study quality. Pooled relative risks (RR) were calculated using a random effects model. Ten studies met criteria for review and 7 were included in meta-analysis. Pooled RR for CV events using FAIR and GOOD quality studies was 1.67 (95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.28) during an average follow-up of 11.8 years. There was evidence of significant heterogeneity across studies (Q statistics = 16.6, P = 0.01, I = 63.8%), which was eliminated after omitting 2 studies identified by sensitivity analysis (RR, 1.34 [1.08-1.67]; P for heterogeneity =0.33). When restricting analysis to GOOD quality studies (RR, 1.27 [1.04-1.56]), no significant heterogeneity was found (P = 0.602). Systematic review identified significant shortcomings in the literature, including variability in defining vitamin D status, seasonal adjustments, defining and determining CV outcomes, and the use of baseline vitamin D levels. In conclusion, a modest increased risk of CV events associated with hypovitaminosis D is tempered by significant limitations within the current literature. These findings underscore the importance of critical appraisal of the literature, looking beyond reported risk estimates before translating results into clinical practice.

  15. Building resilient power grids from integrated risk governance perspective: A lesson learned from china's 2008 Ice-Snow Storm disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qian

    2014-10-01

    In the past three decades, the electric energy industry made great contribution to support rapid social and economic development in China, and meanwhile has been grown at the highest rate in the human history owing to the economic reform. In its new national development plan, more investment has been put into installation of both electricity generating capacity and transmitting capacity in order to meet fast growing demand of electric energy. However, energy resources, both fossil fuel and renewable types, and energy consumption and load centers in China are not evenly distributed in both spatial and temporal dimensions. Moreover, dominated by coal as its primary energy source, the whole eastern China is now entering an environmental crisis in which pollutants emitted by coal power plants contribute a large part. To balance the regional differences in energy sources and energy consumption while meeting the steadily increasing demands for electric energy for the whole country, in addition to increase electric generating capacity, building large-scale, long-distance ultra high voltage power grids is the top priority for next five years. China is a country prone to almost all kinds of natural disasters due to its vast, complex geographical and climatic conditions. In recent years, frequent natural disasters, especially extreme weather and climate events, have threatened the safety, reliability and stability of electric energy system in China. Unfortunately, with fast growth rate but lacking of risk assessing and prevention mechanism, many infrastructure constructions, including national power grids, are facing integrated and complex economic, social, institutional and ecological risks. In this paper, based on a case analysis of the Great Ice Storm in southern China in January 2008, risks of building a resilient power grid to deal with increasing threats from extreme weathers are discussed. The paper recommends that a systematic approach based on the social

  16. Comparing military and civilian critical thinking and information processes in operational risk management: what are the lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanVactor, Jerry D; Gill, Tony

    2010-03-01

    Business continuity has expanded into a discipline that spans most functional areas of large enterprises. Both the military and financial sectors have consistently demonstrated an aptitude to expand the boundaries of continuity planning and crisis mitigation. A comparison of both enterprises is provided to see how their respective methodologies compare. Interestingly, the similarities far outweigh the differences. The paper provides commentary related to comparative insight from risk practitioners' perspectives from within the US Army, one of the largest military organisations in the world, and the Bank of Montreal, one of Canada's leading financial institutions.

  17. Driving habits and risk exposure in older drivers: lessons learned from the implementation of a self-regulation curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Vanya C; Cho, Juhee; Abendschoen-Milani, Jackie; Gielen, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    This article describes the development and pilot testing of Seniors on the MOVE (Mature Operators Vehicular Education), a safe driving education program for older adults. The study aims are to describe driving experiences and habits of a community sample of older drivers and to determine whether the program reduces their driving risk exposures. A 2-group randomized design was used. Fifty-eight participants with an average age of 70 were randomly assigned to the MOVE program or a no treatment control group. MOVE is a 4-session program designed to help older drivers better understand and utilize self-regulation skills for safer driving. Baseline and 4-week follow-up questionnaires were completed by both groups, after which the control group received the MOVE program. In the total sample, 14 percent reported having ever been in a traffic crash where someone was injured, and 10 percent reported having received a traffic citation in the past 6 months. Almost one half of the sample (47%) reported thinking about reducing the amount of driving done at night. Nearly one third were thinking about reducing the amount of driving done in unfamiliar places (32%) and the number of miles driven each week (30%). Participants reported most frequently driving between 2 to 10 miles from home, on local roadways, and between 9:00 am and 4:00 pm. Based on responses to items that measured such driving habits, a risk exposure score was created by combining driving exposure variables. Participants were categorized into lower and higher driving risk exposure groups at baseline and follow-up. There were no statistical differences in changes in higher or lower risk driving exposure variables when comparing the 2 groups. Although the impact of this program on reported driving behaviors yielded null results, descriptions of older drivers' habits and plans are informative. Because many participants were thinking about making changes to their driving habits, and many already had, the need for more

  18. Indigenous knowledge management to enhance community resilience to tsunami risk: lessons learned from Smong traditions in Simeulue island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A.; Sakurai, A.; Munadi, K.

    2017-02-01

    Knowledge accumulation and production embedded in communities through social interactions meant that the Smong tradition of indigenous knowledge of tsunami risk successfully alerted people to the 2004 tsunami, on the island of Simeulue, in Aceh, Indonesia. Based on this practical example, an indigenous management model was developed for Smong information. This knowledge management method involves the transformation of indigenous knowledge into applicable ways to increase community resilience, including making appropriate decisions and taking action in three disaster phases. First, in the pre-disaster stage, the community needs to be willing to mainstream and integrate indigenous knowledge of disaster risk reduction issues into related activities. Second, during disasters, the Smong tradition should make the community able to think clearly, act based on informed decisions, and protect themselves and others by using their indigenous knowledge. Last, in the post-disaster phase, the community needs to be strong enough to face challenges and support each other and “building back better” efforts, using local resources. The findings for the Smong tradition provide valuable knowledge about community resilience. Primary community resilience to disasters is strongly related to existing knowledge that triggers appropriate decisions and actions during pre-disaster, disaster, and post-disaster phases.

  19. From hypothetical scenario to tragic reality: A salutary lesson in risk communication and the Victorian 2009 bushfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robin; Robinson, Priscilla; Smith, Penelope

    2010-02-01

    To investigate the ways that the risk of a bushfire emergency and communication strategies are perceived by different community segments. A brief questionnaire preceded focus group discussion of a bushfire scenario with four communications from different sources. Groups were recruited to represent different community segments within a bushfire-prone peri-urban Shire in Victoria. Four groups (28 participants) were recruited. Bushfire experience was highest in the over 40-year-olds, who would use a variety of information sources, preferred to receive information from trusted local sources, such as emergency services and the council, and were more likely to be a member of a local organisation than the under 40s. Younger people used television, local papers, and friends, family and neighbours as information sources. Young parents felt disempowered through lack of local knowledge, and trusted government departments less than older residents. All wanted clear, current, specific local information about ground conditions and actions to be taken during a fire outbreak. Knowledge of and preparedness for bushfire is unequally spread throughout a bushfire community. There is a need in public health risk and emergency situations to focus on community development, information and consultation. © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Extent and agenda of emission reduction policies in front of climate risks: lessons learned from integrated models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Ph.

    2004-05-01

    After having highlighted the main difficulties met when trying to take decisions on emission reductions (i.e. disequilibrium between short term action and long term dynamics, series of uncertainties, lack of a clear information on threats), this research aims at studying the extent and the agenda of CO 2 emission reduction efforts at a global scale. First, the author explores under various perspectives the relationship between the extent of climate change and the extent of its impacts and modes of analysis of climate policies. Then, he examines how different attitudes towards the climate risk are translated into recommendations for action which are obtained by always more complex models. In order to compare results, simulations are performed, based on optimal control models belonging to the RESPONSE family. Three different options or attitudes are then studied and assessed with RESPONSE: firstly, the uncertainty on impact and damage assessment is still too important to have confidence in present assessments; secondly, while being sceptical on damage assessment, more confidence is given to climate model results, and thirdly, an explicit representation of climate damages is used to introduce rationality issues in the debate on risks

  1. Influenza risk management: lessons learned from an A(H1N1) pdm09 outbreak investigation in an operational military setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Margaret; Sebeny, Peter; Klena, John D; Demattos, Cecilia; Pimentel, Guillermo; Turner, Mark; Joseph, Antony; Espiritu, Jennifer; Zumwalt, John; Dueger, Erica

    2013-01-01

    At the onset of an influenza pandemic, when the severity of a novel strain is still undetermined and there is a threat of introduction into a new environment, e.g., via the deployment of military troops, sensitive screening criteria and conservative isolation practices are generally recommended. In response to elevated rates of influenza-like illness among U.S. military base camps in Kuwait, U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 partnered with local U.S. Army medical units to conduct an A(H1N1) pdm09 outbreak investigation. Initial clinical data and nasal specimens were collected via the existent passive surveillance system and active surveillance was conducted using a modified version of the World Health Organization/U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention influenza-like illness case definition [fever (T > 100.5˚F/38˚C) in addition to cough and/or sore throat in the previous 72 hours] as the screening criteria. Samples were tested via real-time reverse-transcription PCR and sequenced for comparison to global A(H1N1) pdm09 viruses from the same time period. The screening criteria used in Kuwait proved insensitive, capturing only 16% of A(H1N1) pdm09-positive individuals. While still not ideal, using cough as the sole screening criteria would have increased sensitivity to 73%. The results of and lessons learned from this outbreak investigation suggest that pandemic influenza risk management should be a dynamic process (as information becomes available regarding true attack rates and associated mortality, screening and isolation criteria should be re-evaluated and revised as appropriate), and that military operational environments present unique challenges to influenza surveillance.

  2. Lessons for tsunami risk mitigation from recent events occured in Chile: research findings for alerting and evacuation from interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienfuegos, R.; Catalan, P. A.; Leon, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Repetto, P.; Urrutia, A.; Tomita, T.; Orellana, V.

    2016-12-01

    In the wake of the 2010 tsunami that hit Chile, a major public effort to promote interdisciplinary disaster reseach was undertaken by the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (Conicyt) allocating funds to create the Center for Integrated Research on Natural Risks Management (CIGIDEN). This effort has been key in promoting associativity between national and international research teams in order to transform the frequent occurrence of extreme events that affect Chile into an opportunity for interdisciplinary research. In this presentation we will summarize some of the fundamental research findings regarding tsunami forecasting, alerting, and evacuation processes based on interdisciplinary field work campaigns and modeling efforts conducted in the wake of the three most recent destructive events that hit Chile in 2010, 2014, and 2015. One of the main results that we shall emphatize from these findings, is that while research and operational efforts to model and forecast tsunamis are important, technological positivisms should not undermine educational efforts that have proved to be effective in reducing casualties due to tsunamis in the near field. Indeed, in recent events that hit Chile, first tsunami waves reached the adjacent generation zones in time scales comparable with the required time for data gathering and modeling even for the most sophisticated early warning tsunami algorithms currently available. The latter emphasizes self-evacuation from coastal areas, while forecasting and monitoring tsunami hazards remain very important for alerting more distant areas, and are essential for alert cancelling especially when shelf and embayment resonance, and edge wave propagation may produce destructive late tsunami arrivals several hours after the nucleation of the earthquake. By combining some of the recent evidence we have gathered in Chile on seismic source uncertainities (both epistemic and aleatoric), tsunami hydrodynamics, the response

  3. RNAi Technology for Insect Management and Protection of Beneficial Insects from Diseases: Lessons, Challenges and Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotti, M J; Smagghe, G

    2015-06-01

    The time has passed for us to wonder whether RNA interference (RNAi) effectively controls pest insects or protects beneficial insects from diseases. The RNAi era in insect science began with studies of gene function and genetics that paved the way for the development of novel and highly specific approaches for the management of pest insects and, more recently, for the treatment and prevention of diseases in beneficial insects. The slight differences in components of RNAi pathways are sufficient to provide a high degree of variation in responsiveness among insects. The current framework to assess the negative effects of genetically modified (GM) plants on human health is adequate for RNAi-based GM plants. Because of the mode of action of RNAi and the lack of genomic data for most exposed non-target organisms, it becomes difficult to determine the environmental risks posed by RNAi-based technologies and the benefits provided for the protection of crops. A better understanding of the mechanisms that determine the variability in the sensitivity of insects would accelerate the worldwide release of commercial RNAi-based approaches.

  4. Surveillance of vector-borne pathogens under imperfect detection: lessons from Chagas disease risk (mis)measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuzzi-Souza, Thaís Tâmara Castro; Nitz, Nadjar; Cuba, César Augusto Cuba; Hagström, Luciana; Hecht, Mariana Machado; Santana, Camila; Ribeiro, Marcelle; Vital, Tamires Emanuele; Santalucia, Marcelo; Knox, Monique; Obara, Marcos Takashi; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2018-01-09

    Vector-borne pathogens threaten human health worldwide. Despite their critical role in disease prevention, routine surveillance systems often rely on low-complexity pathogen detection tests of uncertain accuracy. In Chagas disease surveillance, optical microscopy (OM) is routinely used for detecting Trypanosoma cruzi in its vectors. Here, we use replicate T. cruzi detection data and hierarchical site-occupancy models to assess the reliability of OM-based T. cruzi surveillance while explicitly accounting for false-negative and false-positive results. We investigated 841 triatomines with OM slides (1194 fresh, 1192 Giemsa-stained) plus conventional (cPCR, 841 assays) and quantitative PCR (qPCR, 1682 assays). Detections were considered unambiguous only when parasitologists unmistakably identified T. cruzi in Giemsa-stained slides. qPCR was >99% sensitive and specific, whereas cPCR was ~100% specific but only ~55% sensitive. In routine surveillance, examination of a single OM slide per vector missed ~50-75% of infections and wrongly scored as infected ~7% of the bugs. qPCR-based and model-based infection frequency estimates were nearly three times higher, on average, than OM-based indices. We conclude that the risk of vector-borne Chagas disease may be substantially higher than routine surveillance data suggest. The hierarchical modelling approach we illustrate can help enhance vector-borne disease surveillance systems when pathogen detection is imperfect.

  5. Risk management of El Chichón and Tacaná Volcanoes: Lessons learned from past volcanic crises: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Cruz-Reyna, Servando; Tilling, Robert I.

    2015-01-01

    Before 1985, Mexico lacked civil-protection agencies with a mission to prevent and respond to natural and human-caused disasters; thus, the government was unprepared for the sudden eruption of El Chichón Volcano in March–April 1982, which produced the deadliest volcanic disaster in the country’s recorded history (~2,000 fatalities). With the sobering lessons of El Chichón still fresh, scientists and governmental officials had a higher awareness of possible disastrous outcome when Tacaná Volcano began to exhibit unrest in late 1985. Seismic and geochemical studies were quickly initiated to monitor activity. At the same time, scientists worked actively with officials of the Federal and local agencies to develop the “Plan Operativo” (Operational Plan)—expressly designed to effectively communicate hazards information and reduce confusion and panic among the affected population. Even though the volcano-monitoring data obtained during the Tacaná crisis were limited, when used in conjunction with protocols of the Operational Plan, they proved useful in mitigating risk and easing public anxiety. While comprehensive monitoring is not yet available, both El Chichón and Tacaná volcanoes are currently monitored—seismically and geochemically—within the scientific and economic resources available. Numerous post-eruption studies have generated new insights into the volcanic systems that have been factored into subsequent volcano monitoring and hazards assessments. The State of Chiapas is now much better positioned to deal with any future unrest or eruptive activity at El Chichón or Tacaná, both of which at the moment are quiescent as of 2014. Perhaps more importantly, the protocols first tested in 1986 at Tacaná have served as the basis for the development of risk-management practices for hazards from other active and potentially active volcanoes in Mexico. These practices have been most notably employed since 1994 at Volcán Popocatépetl since a major

  6. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hohman-Billmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14–19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12–14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  7. Lessons learned from joint working group report on assessment and management of cancer risks from radiological and chemical hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    Regulation of radiological hazards to humans is greatly simplified by the existence of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The average RBE values or radiation weighting factors recommended by the ICRP are based on non-human data. The ICRP has also indicated that 'the standard of environmental control needed to protect man to the degree currently thought desirable will ensure that other species are not put at risk.' This statement appears to be supported by technical publications from other organizations. Two published objections by AECB staff to the scientific technical background of the ICRP statement do not offer any good reason to reject this ICRP statement. A brief summary is given of the joint working group report on the topic indicated in the title. It is noted that regulators of cancer-causing chemicals have in general paid less attention to natural sources than have the regulators of radiological hazards. Most non-human species are exposed to about 1 millisievert (mSv) equivalent dose of radiation per year from natural sources. Caribou and organisms living underground are noted as examples where radiation exposures from natural sources are considerably higher. The natural biota is in general remarkably resistant, both in the laboratory and in field studies, to the effects of high doses of radiation. A recent review by the International Atomic Agency concluded that dose rates below the equivalent of 400 mSv per year are unlikely to after the survival of non-human species. It is recommended that caution and common sense be applied in any future research on radiological protection of non-human species in the environment in Canada. Many of the proposed U.S. regulations to control chemical and radiation in the environment are not cost-effective. It is to be hoped that efforts to protect non-human species from potential radiological hazards in Canada do not slide into a similar kind of irrational quagmire. (author)

  8. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman-Billmeier, Kathryn; Nye, Margaret; Martin, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14-19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12-14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b) difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c) the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  9. Strategic crisis and risk communication during a prolonged natural hazard event: lessons learned from the Canterbury earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Potter, S.; Becker, J.; Doyle, E. E.; Jones, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    While communication products are developed for monitoring and forecasting hazard events, less thought may have been given to crisis and risk communication plans. During larger (and rarer) events responsible science agencies may find themselves facing new and intensified demands for information and unprepared for effectively resourcing communications. In a study of the communication of aftershock information during the 2010-12 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (New Zealand), issues are identified and implications for communication strategy noted. Communication issues during the responses included reliability and timeliness of communication channels for immediate and short decision time frames; access to scientists by those who needed information; unfamiliar emergency management frameworks; information needs of multiple audiences, audience readiness to use the information; and how best to convey empathy during traumatic events and refer to other information sources about what to do and how to cope. Other science communication challenges included meeting an increased demand for earthquake education, getting attention on aftershock forecasts; responding to rumor management; supporting uptake of information by critical infrastructure and government and for the application of scientific information in complex societal decisions; dealing with repetitive information requests; addressing diverse needs of multiple audiences for scientific information; and coordinating communications within and outside the science domain. For a science agency, a communication strategy would consider training scientists in communication, establishing relationships with university scientists and other disaster communication roles, coordinating messages, prioritizing audiences, deliberating forecasts with community leaders, identifying user needs and familiarizing them with the products ahead of time, and practicing the delivery and use of information via scenario planning and exercises.

  10. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: Biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eKraus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements in the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1,000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for one year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to an instrumental training class. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. These findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity during trand may inform the development of strategies for auditory

  11. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  12. Feasibility of a Brief Community-Based Train-the-Trainer Lesson to Reduce the Risk of Falls among Community Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Katherine B.; John, Deborah H.

    2014-01-01

    The Better Balance, Better Bones, Better Bodies (B-Better©) program was developed to disseminate simple home-based strategies to prevent falls and improve functional health of older adults using a train-the-trainer model. Delivered by Family & Community Education Study Group program volunteers, the lesson stresses the importance of a…

  13. Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Phelan BNS, MSc, PhD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The public health nurses’ scope of practice explicitly includes child protection within their role, which places them in a prime position to identify child protection concerns. This role compliments that of other professions and voluntary agenices who work with children. Public health nurses are in a privileged position as they form a relationship with the child’s parent(s/guardian(s and are able to see the child in its own environment, which many professionals cannot. Child protection in Ireland, while influenced by other countries, has progressed through a distinct pathway that streamlined protocols and procedures. However, despite the above serious failures have occurred in the Irish system, and inquiries over the past 20 years persistently present similar contributing factors, namely, the lack of standardized and comprehensive service responses. Moreover, poor practice is compounded by the lack of recognition of the various interactional processes taking place within and between the different agencies of child protection, leading to psychological barriers in communication. This article will explore the lessons learned for public health nurses practice in safeguarding children in the Republic of Ireland.

  14. The Knitting Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Pamela

    1987-01-01

    Based on Jean-Francois Millet's 1869 painting, "The Knitting Lesson," this lesson's goal is to introduce students in grades seven through nine to genre (everyday life) painting the nineteenth century. The lesson is also designed to show that some aspects of genre may be timeless. (BSR)

  15. Lessons learned in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodenough, D.J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews aspects of the history of radiology with the goal of identifying lessons learned, particularly in the area of radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. It is pointed out that since the days of Roentgen there has been a need not only to control and quantify the amount of radiation reaching the patient but also to optimize the imaging process to offer the greatest diagnostic benefit within allowable levels of patient dose. To this end, in diagnostic radiology, one finds the development of better films, X rays tubes, grids, screens and processing techniques, while in fluoroscopy, one sees the increased luminance of calcium tungstate. In interventional radiology, one finds an improvement in catheterization techniques and contrast agents. In nuclear medicine, the development of tracer techniques into modern cameras and isotopes such as technetium can be followed. In radiotherapy, one sees the early superficial X rays and radium sources gradually replaced with radon seeds, supervoltage, 60 Co and today's linear accelerators. Along with the incredible advances in imaging and therapeutic technologies comes the growing realization of the potential danger of radiation and the need to protect the patient (as well as physicians, ancillary personnel and the general population) from unnecessary radiation. The important lesson learned is that we must walk a tightrope, balancing the benefits and risks of any technology utilizing radiation to produce the greatest benefits at the lowest acceptable risk. The alternative techniques using non-ionizing radiation will have to be considered as part of the general armamentarium for medical imaging whenever radiation consequences are unacceptable. (author)

  16. Lessons learned bulletin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    During the past four years, the Department of Energy -- Savannah River Operations Office and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program completed various activities ranging from waste site investigations to closure and post closure projects. Critiques for lessons learned regarding project activities are performed at the completion of each project milestone, and this critique interval allows for frequent recognition of lessons learned. In addition to project related lessons learned, ER also performs lessons learned critiques. T'he Savannah River Site (SRS) also obtains lessons learned information from general industry, commercial nuclear industry, naval nuclear programs, and other DOE sites within the complex. Procedures are approved to administer the lessons learned program, and a database is available to catalog applicable lessons learned regarding environmental remediation, restoration, and administrative activities. ER will continue to use this database as a source of information available to SRS personnel

  17. A written language intervention for at-risk second grade students: a randomized controlled trial of the process assessment of the learner lesson plans in a tier 2 response-to-intervention (RtI) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Costa, Lara-Jeane C; McBee, Matthew; Anderson, Kathleen L; Yerby, Donna Carlson; Childress, Amy; Knuth, Sean B

    2013-04-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, 205 students were followed from grades 1 to 3 with a focus on changes in their writing trajectories following an evidence-based intervention during the spring of second grade. Students were identified as being at-risk (n=138), and then randomized into treatment (n=68) versus business-as-usual conditions (n=70). A typical group also was included (n=67). The writing intervention comprised Lesson Sets 4 and 7 from the Process Assessment of the Learner (PAL), and was conducted via small groups (three to six students) twice a week for 12 weeks in accordance with a response-to-intervention Tier 2 model. The primary outcome was the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-II Written Expression Scale. Results indicated modest support for the PAL lesson plans, with an accelerated rate of growth in writing skills following treatment. There were no significant moderator effects, although there was evidence that the most globally impaired students demonstrated a more rapid rate of growth following treatment. These findings suggest the need for ongoing examination of evidence-based treatments in writing for young elementary students.

  18. Lessons Learned from the Private Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robichaud, Robert J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This session is focused on lessons learned from private sector energy projects that could be applied to the federal sector. This presentation tees up the subsequent presentations by outlining the differences between private and federal sectors in objectives, metrics for determining success, funding resources/mechanisms, payback and ROI evaluation, risk tolerance/aversion, new technology adoption perspectives, and contracting mechanisms.

  19. Lesson study i Danmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning.......Der beskrives et japansk lesson study forløb, og det diskuteres i hvilket omfang, de gode japanske erfaringer kan overføres til dansk matematikundervisning....

  20. "Frankenstein." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Melanie

    Based on Mary Shelley's novel "Frankenstein," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that active readers interpret a novel (its characters, plot, setting, and theme) in different ways; and the great literature can be and has been adapted in many ways over time. The main activity of the lesson involves students…

  1. Overview of lessons learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Federline, M.; Duncan, A.

    2004-01-01

    During the Tarragona International Seminar the participating high-level specialists had very open and fruitful discussion concerning strategic decommissioning issues. The lessons learnt and possible solutions for future work issues can be found below. Although there appears to be a trend towards early dismantling, there seemed to be general agreement that technical solutions support a wide variety of safe decommissioning approaches. Thus, in terms of decommissioning strategy, it appears that no one size fits all. A flexible regulatory approach is needed in order to recognize the changing operational risks and physical conditions of facilities with time, and to optimise their dismantling. The NEA has released a comprehensive study on decommissioning strategies and costs that indicates world-wide progress. According to this report, over 50% of countries with nuclear facilities have a framework of decommissioning requirements and 60% have defined radioactive waste clearance levels. Up to about 70% of the costs of D and D are attributable to dismantling and waste management. The provisions for safety of the D and D process are closely linked to the availability of the necessary funds as and when required. A number of common factors were defined for successful implementation of decommissioning strategies: i.e. safety, technical feasibility of decommissioning options, risk-informed progression of D and D activities as project proceeds, maintenance of competency and corporate memory throughout project, waste management and disposal capability, financing that suits the scope of the project, a well-defined risk-informed and performance-based regulatory process, and establishment of effective communication with local and regional governments and key stakeholders, particularly personnel, at the earliest opportunity before decommissioning. (author)

  2. A Text Mining Approach for Extracting Lessons Learned from Project Documentation: An Illustrative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Matthies

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lessons learned are important building blocks for continuous learning in project-based organisations. Nonetheless, the practical reality is that lessons learned are often not consistently reused for organisational learning. Two problems are commonly described in this context: the information overload and the lack of procedures and methods for the assessment and implementation of lessons learned. This paper addresses these problems, and appropriate solutions are combined in a systematic lesson learned process. Latent Dirichlet Allocation is presented to solve the first problem. Regarding the second problem, established risk management methods are adapted. The entire lessons learned process will be demonstrated in a practical case study

  3. The history of a lesson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    2003-01-01

    and emphasises the need to study the history of lessons rather than the lessons of history. This approach shows that Munich is the end point of a constitutive history that begins in the failure of the Versailles treaty to create a durable European order following the First World War. The Munich lesson is thus......The article investigates the concept of lessons in IR. By means of a constructivist critique of the 'lessons literature', the article analyses one of the most important of IR lessons: that of Munich. Examining how the Munich lesson came about, the article shows the praxeological nature of lessons...... one element of the lesson of Versailles, which is a praxeology that defines how the West is to make peace, and against whom peace must be defended. The lesson of Versailles has been, at least in part, constitutive of the outbreak of the Cold War, and it continues to define the Western conception...

  4. Revision of the AESJ Standard for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Updating requirements based on the lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP Accidents (3). Fragility evaluation and outline of the updated points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Nakamura, Susumu; Mihara, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    Lessons learned from Great East Japan earthquake and other new findings had been accumulated on the fragility evaluation of buildings and components. And also new analysis and evaluation method had been proposed with the advancement of recent analysis and evaluation technology. These were reflected in revision of the AESJ Standard for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Scope of the fragility evaluation were extended to all equipment on the site, severe accident management equipment including portable equipment and earthquake concomitant incident (such as tsunami) countermeasure equipment. This article described outlines of updating points of the fragility evaluation of the AESJ Standard for Seismic PRA; (1) requirements for seismic induced other risk evaluations such as fire, inundation and tsunami, (2) simulation technology based on recent findings such as three dimensional responses of buildings / structures and its effect on equipment, (3) requirements of the fragility evaluation for various failure mode of several equipment such as severe accident management equipment, fine failure mode of buildings / structures, failures of equipment related with earthquake concomitant incidents (embankment and seawall) and spent fuel pool, and (4) requirements for the fragility evaluation of aftershocks and soil deformation due to fault displacement. (T. Tanaka)

  5. TEPCO's risk communication activities in Fukushima Prefecture in light of the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagasaki, Yoshitoyo; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the risk communication activities of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Fukushima Prefecture. It analyzed the organizational cause as the background for the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident, and concluded that the root cause of the accident is the thought that 'safety has already been secured, and operation rate and the like are important management issues, which incurred the insufficient preparedness for accident.' It has taken six measures as nuclear safety reform plans. One of these is the 'enhancement of risk communication activities.' The nuclear power leader take the initiative to disclose risk under the idea that 'there is no absolute safety (zero risk) in nuclear power,' and promote risk communication for continuously obtaining the understanding of the regional community and society about safety measures, etc. To implement risk communication, 'risk communicators' are installed, and they propose for the management and nuclear leader, about the risk perception and measures associated with public disclosure and its limit, and perform risk communication in accordance with the policy. As the examples of these initiatives, this paper introduces the cases of Fukushima Prefecture, questionnaire study, and evaluations by international organizations. (A.O.)

  6. Defining the Process of a Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Program: Lessons Learnt From Cardiac Assessment of Elite Soccer Players in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speers, Christopher; Seth, Ajai Narain; Patel, Kiran Chhaganbhai; Rakhit, Dhrubo Jyoti; Gillett, Mark James

    2017-12-14

    Retrospectively analyze the cardiac assessment process for elite soccer players, and provide team physicians with a systematic guide to managing longitudinal cardiac risk. Descriptive Epidemiology Study. Cardiac assessments incorporating clinical examination, 12-lead ECG, echocardiography, and health questionnaire. Soccer players at 5 professional clubs in England, the United Kingdom. Data was retrospectively collected, inspected, and analyzed to determine their clinical management and subsequent follow-up. Over 2 years, 265 soccer players, aged 13 to 37 years with 66% of white European ethnicity, were included in the cohort. Eleven percent had "not-normal" assessments, of these assessments, 83% were considered gray screens, falling into three broad categories: structural cardiac features (including valvular abnormalities), functional cardiac features, and electrocardiogram changes. After cardiology consultation, all assessments were grouped into low, enhanced and high-risk categories for ongoing longitudinal risk management. Overall clear-cut pathology was identified in 2%. Cardiovascular assessment is a vital tool in identifying athletes at risk of sudden cardiac death to mitigate their risk through surveillance, intervention, or participation restriction. The decision whether a player is fit to play or not requires a robust risk assessment followed by input from a multidisciplinary team that includes both the team physician and cardiologist. This educational article proposes a clinical management pathway to aid clinicians with this process. Sudden cardiac death is the important medical cause of death during exercise. The team physician should assume responsibility for the management of the longitudinal risk of their players' cardiac assessments in conjunction with sports cardiologist.

  7. Lessons From the Viagra Study: Methodological Challenges in Recruitment of Older and Minority Heterosexual Men for Research on Sexual Practices and Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into...

  8. The European Union approach to flood risk management and improving societal resilience: lessons from the implementation of the Floods Directive in six European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally J. Priest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity in flood risk management approaches is often considered to be a strength. However, in some national settings, and especially for transboundary rivers, variability and incompatibility of approaches can reduce the effectiveness of flood risk management. Placed in the context of increasing flood risks, as well as the potential for flooding to undermine the European Union's sustainable development goals, a desire to increase societal resilience to flooding has prompted the introduction of a common European Framework. We provide a legal and policy analysis of the implementation of the Floods Directive (2007/60/EC in six countries: Belgium (Flemish region, England, France, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden. Evaluation criteria from existing legal and policy literature frame the study of the Directive and its effect on enhancing or constraining societal resilience by using an adaptive governance approach. These criteria are initially used to analyze the key components of the EU approach, before providing insight of the implementation of the Directive at a national level. Similarities and differences in the legal translation of European goals into existing flood risk management are analyzed alongside their relative influence on policy and practice. The research highlights that the effect of the Floods Directive on increasing societal resilience has been nationally variable, in part because of its focus on procedural obligations, rather than on more substantive requirements. Analysis shows that despite a focus on transboundary river basin management, existing traditions of flood risk management have overridden objectives to harmonize flood risk management in some cases. The Directive could be strengthened by requiring more stringent cooperation and providing the competent authorities in international river basin districts with more power. Despite some shortcomings in directly affecting flood risk outcomes, the Directive has positively

  9. Breathing Life into Engineering: A Lesson Study Life Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Maria; Yang, Li-Ling; Briggs, May; Hession, Alicia; Koussa, Anita; Wagoner, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    A fifth grade life science lesson was implemented through a lesson study approach in two fifth grade classrooms. The research lesson was designed by a team of four elementary school teachers with the goal of emphasizing engineering practices consistent with the "Next Generation Science Standards" (NGSS) (Achieve Inc. 2013). The fifth…

  10. Assessing the impacts induced by global climate change through a multi-risk approach: lessons learned from the North Adriatic coast (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Valentina; Torressan, Silvia; Zabeo, Alex; Critto, Andrea; Glade, Thomas; Marcomini, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to pose a wide range of impacts on natural and human systems worldwide, increasing risks from long-term climate trends and disasters triggered by weather extremes. Accordingly, in the future, one region could be potentially affected by interactions, synergies and trade-offs of multiple hazards and impacts. A multi-risk risk approach is needed to effectively address multiple threats posed by climate change across regions and targets supporting decision-makers toward a new paradigm of multi-hazard and risk management. Relevant initiatives have been already developed for the assessment of multiple hazards and risks affecting the same area in a defined timeframe by means of quantitative and semi-quantitative approaches. Most of them are addressing the relations of different natural hazards, however, the effect of future climate change is usually not considered. In order to fill this gap, an advanced multi-risk methodology was developed at the Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change (CMCC) for estimating cumulative impacts related to climate change at the regional (i.e. sub-national) scale. This methodology was implemented into an assessment tool which allows to scan and classify quickly natural systems and human assets at risk resulting from different interacting hazards. A multi-hazard index is proposed to evaluate the relationships of different climate-related hazards (e.g. sea-level rise, coastal erosion, storm surge) occurring in the same spatial and temporal area, by means of an influence matrix and the disjoint probability function. Future hazard scenarios provided by regional climate models are used as input for this step in order to consider possible effects of future climate change scenarios. Then, the multi-vulnerability of different exposed receptors (e.g. natural systems, beaches, agricultural and urban areas) is estimated through a variety of vulnerability indicators (e.g. vegetation cover, sediment budget, % of urbanization

  11. Lessons for Teaching Art Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Terry, Ed.; Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    This collection of lessons is meant to be a practical guide to help teachers engage children in art criticism. The lessons generally follow a similar format. Most suggest an age group but may be modified for use with younger or older students. Several authors suggest variations and extensions for lessons that include studio activities. A broad…

  12. Lesson Planning the Kodaly Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshkoff, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the contribution of Zoltan Kodaly to music lesson planning. Emphasizes preparation, presentation, and practice as the three important strategies in teaching concepts and skills to be included in a lesson plan. Includes a sample lesson plan covering a semester and advice on choosing song material. (DK)

  13. Finance, growth, and stability : Lessons from the crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.

    This article introduces a special issue on lessons from the recent crisis on finance, growth, and stability. The papers in the special issue discuss (i) the benefits and risks of financial innovation and regulatory responses to these risks, (ii) the effect of finance and globalization on the real

  14. Internet-based control recruitment for a case-control study of major risk factors for stroke in Korea: lessons from the experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Moo; Cho, Yong-Jin; Lee, Kyung Bok; Park, Tai Hwan; Lee, Soo Joo; Han, Moon-Ku; Ko, Youngchai; Lee, Jun; Cha, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Oh, Mi-Sun; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Juneyoung; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the population-attributable risks (PARs) of 9 major risk factors for stroke in Korea through a case-control study and to test the feasibility and validity of internet-based control recruitment. From April 2008 to September 2009, controls were enrolled via internet after providing consent for participation through a web-based survey. The cases included patients who were admitted to the participating centers due to acute stroke or transient ischemic attack within 7 days of onset during the study period. Each control was age- and sex-matched with 2 cases. Adjusted odd ratios, age-standardized prevalence, and PARs were estimated for the 9 major risk factors using the prevalence of risk factors in the control group and the age and sex characteristics from Korea's national census data. In total, 1041 controls were matched to 2082 stroke cases. Because of a shortage of elderly controls in the internet-based recruitment, 248 controls were recruited off-line. The PARs were 23.44%, 10.95%, 51.32%, and 6.35% for hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and stroke history, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, obesity, coronary heart disease, and a family history of stroke were not associated with stroke. Comparison with education and religion of the control group with that mentioned in the national census data showed a notable difference. The study results imply that internet-based control recruitment for a case-control study requires careful selection of risk factors with high self-awareness and effective strategies to facilitate the recruitment of elderly participants. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Brothers Grimm. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Grimm's fairy tales, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that fairy tales connect them to earlier generations, help them think about present situations, that magic figures prominently in fairy tales, and that fairy tales can inspire readers to create original works of art. The main activity in the…

  16. DSCOVR Contamination Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    The Triana observatory was built at NASA GSFC in the late 1990's, then placed into storage. After approximately ten years it was removed from storage and repurposed as the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR). This presentation outlines the contamination control program lessons learned during the integration, test and launch of DSCOVR.

  17. Phagocytosis: history's lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manish; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y

    2013-01-01

    The assimilation of lessons from the past is an essential component of education for scientists of tomorrow. These lessons are not easy to find. History books on science are few and usually highly dramatized and biographies of scientists tend to exaggerate the pomp of scientific discovery. Both underplay the hard and laborious work that is integral to any scientific pursuit. Here we illustrate one such example. A century ago, the Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to two scientists: Ilya Metchnikoff, a Russian zoologist, for the discovery ofphagocytosis-a cell-mediated ingestion ofmicrobes; and Paul Ehrlich, a distinguished physician-scientist, for discovering a highly antigen-specific serum-derived antibody-based immune defense. These two diametrically opposing views of the host-pathogen interaction set the stage for a strife that led to seminal advancements in immunology. Mirrored in this journey are important lessons for scientists today--ubiquitously as applicable to modern scientific life as they were a century ago. This commentaryhighlights these lessons--a fitting centenary to a well-deserved recognition.

  18. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  19. Smart Consumer Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey Consortium for Consumer Education, Newark.

    Lesson plans are provided for use with different populations of pre-K through senior high school students in four different areas of consumer education. Eight units in advertising are included: A First Look at Ads (pre-K-Grade 3), Don't Judge a Book by Its Cover (Grades 1-3), Fatal Distraction (Junior High), Package Labeling (Junior High), Product…

  20. Lessons learned: A case study of an integrated way of teaching introductory physics to at-risk students at Rutgers University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etkina, E.; Gibbons, K.; Holton, B. L.; Horton, G. K.

    1999-09-01

    In order to provide a physics instructional environment in which at-risk students (particularly women and minorities) can successfully learn and enjoy introductory physics, we have introduced Extended General Physics as an option for science, science teaching, and pre-health professions majors at Rutgers University. We have taught the course for the last five years. In this new course, we have used many elements that have been proven to be successful in physics instruction. We have added a new component, the minilab, stressing qualitative experiments performed by the students. By integrating all the elements, and structuring the time the students invest in the course, we have created a successful program for students-at-risk, indeed for all students. Our aim was not only to foster successful mastery of the traditional physics syllabus by the students, but to create a sense of community through the cooperation of students with each other and their instructors. We present a template for implementation of our program elsewhere.

  1. Does knowledge of teen driving risks and awareness of current law translate into support for stronger GDL provisions? Lessons learned from one state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brendan T; Chaudhary, Neil K; Saleheen, Hassan; Borrup, Kevin; Lapidus, Garry

    2009-08-01

    Many states are considering strengthening their graduated driving licensing (GDL) systems for teenage drivers but most do not know the level of public support for proposed upgrades. This study provides a method for states to identify specific demographic groups that may differ with regard to their awareness of teen driving risks, knowledge of current GDL law, and support for GDL upgrades. A 28-item questionnaire was administered to Connecticut adults by phone survey during January 2008. We collected demographic information and whether respondents understood driving risks, were aware of the current GDL system, and whether they would support GDL upgrades. The state's motor vehicle crash file (1999-2006) was used to calculate motor vehicle crash rate among 16- and 17-year-old drivers by town and correlate that with support for GDL upgrades. Eight hundred seven people were interviewed. More women than men (92% vs. 86%, p towns (38%). Two thirds supported a passenger restriction upgrade with no differences based upon sex or geographic location. There was less support for an increased penalties in Fairfield County when compared to all other counties (55% vs. 63%, p County versus all other counties (70% vs. 58%, p < .05). Parents of Connecticut teens were more knowledgeable of current law but less supportive of GDL upgrades compared to other adults. Women were more apt to favor GDL upgrades than men. This study identifies subgroups that can be targeted for prevention activities and illustrates a useful method to assess public support for GDL upgrades.

  2. Lessons from a study in a rural community from southern Mexico: risk factors associated to transmission and reinfection of gastrointestinal parasites after albendazole treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Pérez MA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez1, Juan Antonio Pérez-Vega2, José Francisco Cen-Aguilar3, Rossanna Rodríguez-Canul21Centro de Biotecnología Genómica, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Ciudad Reynosa, Tamaulipas, 2Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN Unidad Mérida, Mérida Yucatán, 3Oficina de Investigación y validación, Centro de Bachillerato Tecnológico y Agropecuario (CBTA 13, Xmatkuil, Mérida, Yucatán, MexicoPurpose: To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites and evaluate the effect of a single dose of treatment with albendazole in a sentinel group from a rural community in southern Mexico.Methods: Stool samples were collected from 1456 individuals aged ≥1 year during consecutive days, and examined for helminth infection using the modified Stoll dilution method. Additionally, 104 individuals were treated with a single dose of albendazole and evaluated over 21 weeks to assess reinfection. Questionnaires were administered to obtain individual and household-level data pertaining to behavior, demography, and socioeconomic status. Risk factors for reinfection after albendazole administration were determined using multiple logistic regression analyses.Results: The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was 73.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 71.56%–76.14%. Albendazole was 100% effective, but eggs began to be detected by 9–12 weeks posttreatment, increasing to 100% after 21 weeks. Logistic regression analysis revealed that all individuals from this study had a probability of reinfection of 1.65× each week after treatment. The prevalence of Trichuris trichiura was 57.2% (95% CI = 54.62%–59.77% and chemotherapy was 34.7% effective. The prevalence for other minor gastrointestinal parasites ranged from 0.2% to 29.7%.Conclusion: This was a comprehensive study on gastrointestinal parasites in a rural community from southern Mexico and, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first time that the effect

  3. United States natural gas markets, contracts and risks: What lessons for the European Union and Asia-Pacific natural gas markets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talus, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the natural gas markets of the United States, the European Union and the Asia-Pacific region and their regulation and contractual structures. The article's main focus is on the United States natural gas markets. The European Union and Asia-Pacific markets are compared to this more developed market. By comparing the physical and ideological characteristics of, and differences between, the three main international gas markets, the article exposes the limits of regulatory and contractual transplants in this area of law and policy. Each of these markets is unique, which limits the opportunities for modelling certain market institutions on the basis of the more developed markets in the United States. This applies for both the EU and the Asia-Pacific region. - Highlights: • Differences in the physical markets impact regulation. • Regulatory transplants have risks. • The approach in energy policy should be based on “Law-in-Context” approach

  4. Addressing key issues in the consanguinity-related risk of autosomal recessive disorders in consanguineous communities: lessons from a qualitative study of British Pakistanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darr, A; Small, N; Ahmad, W I U; Atkin, K; Corry, P; Modell, B

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no consensus regarding services required to help families with consanguineous marriages manage their increased genetic reproductive risk. Genetic services for communities with a preference for consanguineous marriage in the UK remain patchy, often poor. Receiving two disparate explanations of the cause of recessive disorders (cousin marriage and recessive inheritance) leads to confusion among families. Further, the realisation that couples in non-consanguineous relationships have affected children leads to mistrust of professional advice. British Pakistani families at-risk for recessive disorders lack an understanding of recessive disorders and their inheritance. Such an understanding is empowering and can be shared within the extended family to enable informed choice. In a three-site qualitative study of British Pakistanis, we explored family and health professional perspectives on recessively inherited conditions. Our findings suggest, firstly, that family networks hold strong potential for cascading genetic information, making the adoption of a family-centred approach an efficient strategy for this community. However, this is dependent on provision of high-quality and timely information from health care providers. Secondly, families' experience was of ill-coordinated and time-starved services, with few having access to specialist provision from Regional Genetics Services; these perspectives were consistent with health professionals' views of services. Thirdly, we confirm previous findings that genetic information is difficult to communicate and comprehend, further complicated by the need to communicate the relationship between cousin marriage and recessive disorders. A communication tool we developed and piloted is described and offered as a useful resource for communicating complex genetic information.

  5. A review of decision support, risk communication and patient information tools for thrombolytic treatment in acute stroke: lessons for tool developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Darren; Ford, Gary A; Stobbart, Lynne; Rodgers, Helen; Murtagh, Madeleine J; Thomson, Richard G

    2013-06-18

    Tools to support clinical or patient decision-making in the treatment/management of a health condition are used in a range of clinical settings for numerous preference-sensitive healthcare decisions. Their impact in clinical practice is largely dependent on their quality across a range of domains. We critically analysed currently available tools to support decision making or patient understanding in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke with intravenous thrombolysis, as an exemplar to provide clinicians/researchers with practical guidance on development, evaluation and implementation of such tools for other preference-sensitive treatment options/decisions in different clinical contexts. Tools were identified from bibliographic databases, Internet searches and a survey of UK and North American stroke networks. Two reviewers critically analysed tools to establish: information on benefits/risks of thrombolysis included in tools, and the methods used to convey probabilistic information (verbal descriptors, numerical and graphical); adherence to guidance on presenting outcome probabilities (IPDASi probabilities items) and information content (Picker Institute Checklist); readability (Fog Index); and the extent that tools had comprehensive development processes. Nine tools of 26 identified included information on a full range of benefits/risks of thrombolysis. Verbal descriptors, frequencies and percentages were used to convey probabilistic information in 20, 19 and 18 tools respectively, whilst nine used graphical methods. Shortcomings in presentation of outcome probabilities (e.g. omitting outcomes without treatment) were identified. Patient information tools had an aggregate median Fog index score of 10. None of the tools had comprehensive development processes. Tools to support decision making or patient understanding in the treatment of acute stroke with thrombolysis have been sub-optimally developed. Development of tools should utilise mixed methods and

  6. Landslide-dammed lake at Tangjiashan, Sichuan province, China (triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake, May 12, 2008): Risk assessment, mitigation strategy, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, P.; Dang, C.; Zhuang, J.; You, Y.; Chen, X.; Scott, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Landslides and rock avalanches triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake produced 257 landslide dams, mainly situated along the eastern boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau where rivers descend approximately 3,000 m into the Sichuan Basin. The largest of these dams blocked the Tongkou River (a tributary of the Fujiang River) at Tangjiashan. The blockage, consisting of 2. 04 ?? 10 7 m 3 of landslide debris, impounded a lake with a projected maximum volume of 3. 15 ?? 10 8 m 3, potentially inundating 8. 92 km 2 of terrain. Its creation during the rainy season and the possibility of an uncontrolled release posed a serious, impending threat to at least 1. 3 million people downstream that could add substantially to the total of 69,200 individuals directly killed by the earthquake. Risk assessment of the blockage indicated that it was unlikely to collapse suddenly, and that eventual overtopping could be mitigated by notching the structure in order to create an engineered breach and achieve safe drainage of the lake. In addition to the installation of monitoring and warning instrumentation, for emergency planning we estimated several outburst scenarios equivalent to 20, 25, 33, and 50% of the dam failing suddenly, creating, respectively, 3. 35, 3. 84, 4. 22, and 4. 65 km 2 of flooded area, and overbank water depths of 4. 6, 5. 1, 5. 7, and 6. 2 m, respectively, in Mianyang, the second largest city in Sichuan Province, 48 km downstream from the blockage. Based on these scenarios, recommendations and plans for excavating a sluiceway, draining the lake, and downstream evacuation were proposed and later were implemented successfully, with the blockage breached by overtopping on June 10, less than a month after dam emplacement. The peak discharge of the release only slightly exceeded the flood of record at Mianyang City. No lives were lost, and significant property damage was avoided. Post-breaching evaluation reveals how future similar mitigation can be improved. Although

  7. Lessons from Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazari Alves, R.

    2000-01-01

    The lessons learned from the radiological accident of Goiania in 1987 derived from the observations from the Regulatory Agency which was in charge of the decontamination tasks may be consolidated into four classes: Preventive Actions, characterised as those that aim to minimise the probability of occurrence of a radiological accident; Minimisation of time between the moment of the accident occurrence and the beginning of intervention, in case a radiological accident does occur, despite all preventive measures; Intervention, which is correlated to the type of installation, its geographical location, the social classes involved and their contamination vectors; and Follow up, for which well established rules to allow continuing monitoring of the victims and rebuilding of homes are necessary. The greatest lesson of all was the need for integration of the professionals involved, from all organizations. (author)

  8. Managing chronic conditions care across primary care and hospital systems: lessons from an Australian Hospital Avoidance Risk Program using the Flinders Chronic Condition Management Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Zabeen, Sara; Smith, David; Wilson, Ellen; Miller, Cathie; Battersby, Malcolm; Masman, Kevin

    2017-08-24

    Objective The study aimed to determine the impact of the Flinders Chronic Condition Management Program for chronic condition self-management care planning and how to improve its use with Bendigo Health's Hospital Admission Risk Program (HARP). Methods A retrospective analysis of hospital admission data collected by Bendigo Health from July 2012 to September 2013 was undertaken. Length of stay during admission and total contacts post-discharge by hospital staff for 253 patients with 644 admissions were considered as outcome variables. For statistical modelling we used the generalised linear model. Results The combination of the HARP and Flinders Program was able to achieve significant reductions in hospital admissions and non-significant reduction in emergency department presentations and length of stay. The generalised linear model predicted that vulnerable patient groups such as those with heart disease (P=0.037) and complex needs (Pmanage chronic conditions through a greater focus on coordination and integration of care across primary care and hospital systems. In support of HARP, self-management interventions such as the Flinders Program aim to help individuals better manage their medical treatment and cope with the impact of the condition on their physical and mental wellbeing and thus reduce health services utilisation. What does this paper add? This paper sheds light on which patients might be more or less likely to benefit from the combination of the HARP and Flinders Program, with regard to their impact on reductions in hospital admissions, emergency department presentations and length of stay. This study also sheds light on how the Flinders Program could be better targeted towards and implemented among high-need and high-cost patients to lessen chronic disease burden on Australia's health system. What are the implications for practitioners? Programs targeting vulnerable populations and applying evidence-based chronic condition management and self

  9. Governing nanobiotechnology: lessons from agricultural biotechnology regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Robbin S.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses lessons from biotechnology to help inform the design of oversight for nanobiotechnology. Those lessons suggest the following: first, oversight needs to be broadly defined, encompassing not just regulatory findings around safety and efficacy, but also public understanding and acceptance of the technology and its products. Second, the intensity of scrutiny and review should reflect not just risks but also perceptions of risk. Finally, a global marketplace argues for uniform standards or commercially practical solutions to differences in standards. One way of designing oversight to achieve these purposes is to think about it in three phases—precaution, prudence, and promotion. Precaution comes early in the technology or product’s development and reflects real and perceived uncertainties. Prudence governs when risks and hazards have been identified, containment approaches established, and benefits broadly defined. Transparency and public participation rise to the fore. The promotional phase moves toward shaping public understanding and acceptance and involves marketing issues rather than safety ones. This flexible, three-phase approach to oversight would have avoided some of the early regulatory problems with agricultural biotechnology. It also would have led to a more risk-adjusted pathway to regulatory approval. Furthermore, it would avoid some of the arbitrary, disruptive marketing issues that have arisen.

  10. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  11. Masterwork Art Lesson: Kandinsky Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiPira, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Presents an art lesson used with sixth-grade students which also can be used with other grade levels. Explains that the artwork of Wassily Kandinsky served as inspiration for this lesson. Explains that the students learned about abstract art and used watercolors to create their own paintings in the style of Kandinsky. (CMK)

  12. Bead Game Simulation. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripp, Ken

    This lesson plan offers students the opportunity to participate in the three basic economic systems (market, command, and tradition). By working in each of the systems, students will internalize the fundamental values present in each system and will gain insights into the basic advantages and disadvantages of each system. The lesson plan provides…

  13. Simple and Practical Efficiency Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpin, Van

    2018-01-01

    The derivation of conditions necessary for Pareto efficient production and exchange is a lesson frequently showcased in microeconomic theory textbooks. Traditional delivery of this lesson is, however, limited in its scope of application and can be unnecessarily convoluted. The author shows that the universe of application is greatly expanded and a…

  14. Keiko, Killer Whale. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Keiko, the killer whale, lived for a long time in an aquarium and had to be taught to live independently; and that computer users can get updates on how Keiko is doing. The main activity of the lesson involves middle school students working in small groups to produce a…

  15. Lesson Study and History Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Kesler Lund, Alisa

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the experiences of a group of fifth-grade teachers who used lesson study, a teacher-driven form of professional development, to teach history in a project supported by a Teaching American History Grant. The project addressed the following questions: What does a lesson study cycle for history education look like? What…

  16. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  17. Lessons learned from MONJU sodium leak accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Ryodai; Ito, Kazumoto; Nagata, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    MONJU sodium leak accident was a small accident with a large public impact. There was no injures or exposure to radiation, nor was there any loss of safety function such as reactor shutdown or reactor cooling. On the contrary a social impact is considerably large, whereby the plant remains shutdown. This paper describes the lessons learned from the accident, i.e. the impact of the accident and its cause, and the features on risk management in view of social aspect as well as technical aspect. (author)

  18. Worldwide market developments : lessons for Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    A review of competitive retail electricity markets in Argentina, New Zealand, Australia and California were discussed, highlighting lessons for Alberta policy makers, market designers and electricity retailers. Some of the emerging strategies in the retail electricity marketplace such as horizontal integration, generation retailing, defensive retailing and virtual vertical integration were explored. Emphasis was on showing that electricity retailing is not an easy business. It is a business for large and existing players, and although horizontal and vertical integration have growth and profit potential, there are also risks

  19. [Lessons from a heart valve prosthesis controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, J P; Grobbee, D E

    1998-07-18

    Two lessons are to be learnt from the Björk-Shiley heart valve prosthesis tragedy. In the first place pharmacoepidemiologic studies are seriously hampered by recent privacy legislation. Individual patients carrying such a prosthesis cannot be traced and advised as to their health risks any more, because their legal autonomy has to be respected. This is clearly not to their advantage. In the second place the atmosphere of marketing and litigation and the increasing dependency of researchers on money from sources with conflicting interests is not conducive to a well-informed and balanced judgement of the epidemiological evidence of safety and efficacy of medical treatments.

  20. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Lesson PlanningTask 1As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need tobe included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasonswhy we need to plan our lessons.

  1. Classroom Management and Lesson Planning(4)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lesson Planning Task 1 As teachers,we all need to plan our lessons before we teach.Make a list of things that you think need to be included in a lesson plan.Then compare and discuss your list with another teacher.Also think about reasons why we need to plan our lessons.

  2. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  3. The Value of Identifying and Recovering Lost GN&C Lessons Learned: Aeronautical, Spacecraft, and Launch Vehicle Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Labbe, Steve; Lebsock, Kenneth L.

    2010-01-01

    Within the broad aerospace community the importance of identifying, documenting and widely sharing lessons learned during system development, flight test, operational or research programs/projects is broadly acknowledged. Documenting and sharing lessons learned helps managers and engineers to minimize project risk and improve performance of their systems. Often significant lessons learned on a project fail to get captured even though they are well known 'tribal knowledge' amongst the project team members. The physical act of actually writing down and documenting these lessons learned for the next generation of NASA GN&C engineers fails to happen on some projects for various reasons. In this paper we will first review the importance of capturing lessons learned and then will discuss reasons why some lessons are not documented. A simple proven approach called 'Pause and Learn' will be highlighted as a proven low-impact method of organizational learning that could foster the timely capture of critical lessons learned. Lastly some examples of 'lost' GN&C lessons learned from the aeronautics, spacecraft and launch vehicle domains are briefly highlighted. In the context of this paper 'lost' refers to lessons that have not achieved broad visibility within the NASA-wide GN&C CoP because they are either undocumented, masked or poorly documented in the NASA Lessons Learned Information System (LLIS).

  4. Toward safer food: perspectives on risk and priority setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Taylor, Michael R

    2005-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii ix 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. PART I Framing the Design Problem Getting to Risk-Based Food Safety Regulatory Management: Lessons from Federal Environmental Policy...

  5. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction

  6. What Could Be Future Scenarios?-Lessons from the History of Public Health Surveillance for the Future: --A keynote address presented at the 8th World Alliance for Risk Factor Surveillance (WARFS) Global Conference on October 30, 2013, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C K

    2015-01-01

    This article provides insights into the future based on a review of the past and present of public health surveillance-the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 BC in Egypt. A number of lessons and items of interest are summarised from a review of historical perspectives in the past 5,000 years and the current practice of surveillance. Some future scenarios are presented: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; and enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance.

  7. HYPNOTEACHING IN HISTORY LESSON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Budianto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Hypnoteaching in History Lesson. Historical learning is a science that can’t be separated in educating the younger generation. Through this lesson, teachers in secondary schools can provide the foundation of nationality through important events in the study of the social sciences. Many of the problems that occur in learning history, such as the boring and make sleepy. Everyone must have heard the term hypnosis, hypnotism, or hypnotherapy. Each person must also have a different view or understanding when hearing these terms. Hypnoteaching is one of the learning methods by using the art of communicating to influence learners. Hypnoteaching is a combination of five teaching-learning methods such as quantum learning, accelerate learning, power teaching, neuro-linguistic programming (NLP and hypnosis. Hypnoteaching can be done using informal hypnosis as well as formal hypnosis. Informal hypnosis is also called indirect hypnosis ie teachers can naturally make the Critical Area learners become no longer critical, through a very persuasive communication pattern. Here's what the teacher can do in Informal hypnosis: (1 get attention; (2 establishing Themes; (3 presenting the structure and regulations; (4 building relationships. If the learners are already comfortable and interested, the next step is to do a formal hypnosis before the lesson begins. Here are the steps that must be done: (1 Induction; (2 Deepening; (3 Deep level test; (4 Suggestion, and; (5 Termination.   Keywords: Historical learning, hypnoteaching, hypnosis, hypnotism, hypnotherapy, history Abstrak: Hipnoteaching dalam Pembelajaran Sejarah. Pelajaran sejarah tidak bisa dihilangkan dalam mendidik para generasi muda. Melalui pembelajaran ini, guru pada sekolah menengah pertama dapat memberikan pondasi rasa nasionalisme melalui peristiwa peristiwa penting dalam pelajaran ilmu pengetahuan social. Masalah yang sering muncul pada pembelajaran ini adalah kebosanan siswa dan

  8. Lessons learned at Lower East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, K.L.; Page, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) used several innovative strategies and technologies in conducting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) activities for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) Operable Unit (OU) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These innovations helped to cost-effectively characterize the 270-ha (670-acre), 23.3-km (14.5-mile) floodplain and to obtain a 400-parts per million (ppm) cleanup level for mercury in soil. Lessons learned during the project involve management, investigation, and risk assessment strategies and techniques. Management lessons learned include (a) how to handle the large OU, (b) how to effectively involve the community in decisions, and (c) how to select a remedy that incorporates the needs of many involved agencies. Investigation lessons learned include (a) how to design an effective sampling strategy for the site, (b) how to cost-effectively analyze a large number of samples, and (c) which of several treatment technologies is best-suited to the site. Risk assessment lessons learned include (a) how to determine an appropriate cleanup level for human health and the environment, (b) how to quantify uncertainty in the human health risk assessment, (c) how to reconcile different solubilities of different mercury species, and (d) how to best conduct the ecological risk assessment. Other CERCLA sites can benefit from lessons learned during this project whether still in the investigative stage or further along in the process. Applying these lessons can substantially reduce costs and make more efficient use of Superfund resources

  9. Higher Education ERP: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Dave; Orgill, Ken

    2001-01-01

    Shares experiences and lessons learned by chief information officers of large universities about enterprise resource planning (ERP). Specifically, provides a framework for approaching an ERP that could save universities millions of dollars. (EV)

  10. lessons from tuberous sclerosis complex

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intellectual disability, autism, specific learning disorders) and mental health disorders (e.g. depression, psychosis and anxiety disorders). The first lesson, therefore, is ... of an adolescent with TSC, facial angiofibromas and a presumed fat-poor ...

  11. Lessons of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingridge, D.

    1984-01-01

    In an earlier article the author has argued that the turbulent history of nuclear power in Britain and the USA stems from the technology itself, and has little to do with the very different institutional arrangements made for the new technology in the two countries. Nuclear plant has various features which make its planning extraordinarily difficult. Its long lead time, large unit size, capital intensity and dependence on complex infrastructure combine to ensure that mistakes are likely to be made in planning the technology and that what mistakes do occur are expensive. This article aims to expand on the earlier one in two ways; by looking at the apparent success of the French nuclear programme which seems to run counter to the thesis of the earlier article, and by trying to draw lessons from the earlier analysis for the breeder reactor. (author)

  12. Lesson "Balance in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapanova, V.

    2012-04-01

    Lesson "Balance in Nature" This simulation game-lesson (Balance in Nature) gives an opportunity for the students to show creativity, work independently, and to create models and ideas. It creates future-oriented thought connected to their experience, allowing them to propose solutions for global problems and personal responsibility for their activities. The class is divided in two teams. Each team chooses questions. 1. Question: Pollution in the environment. 2. Question: Care for nature and climate. The teams work on the chosen tasks. They make drafts, notes and formulate their solutions on small pieces of paper, explaining the impact on nature and society. They express their points of view using many different opinions. This generates alternative thoughts and results in creative solutions. With the new knowledge and positive behaviour defined, everybody realizes that they can do something positive towards nature and climate problems and the importance of individuals for solving global problems is evident. Our main goal is to recover the ecological balance, and everybody explains his or her own well-grounded opinions. In this work process the students obtain knowledge, skills and more responsible behaviour. This process, based on his or her own experience, dialogue and teamwork, helps the participant's self-development. Making the model "human↔ nature" expresses how human activities impact the natural Earth and how these impacts in turn affect society. Taking personal responsibility, we can reduce global warming and help the Earth. By helping nature we help ourselves. Teacher: Veselina Boycheva-Chapanova " Saint Patriarch Evtimii" Scholl Str. "Ivan Vazov"-19 Plovdiv Bulgaria

  13. Lessons Learned from FUSRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Darina [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Carpenter, Cliff [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Miller, Michele [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-03-06

    The US DOE Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the long-term steward for 90 sites remediated under numerous regulatory regimes including the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) sites. In addition, LM holds considerable historical information, gathered in the 1970s, to determine site eligibility for remediation under FUSRAP. To date, 29 FUSRAP sites are in LM’s inventory of sites for long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M), and 25 are with the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for remediation or in the process of being transitioned to LM. It is forecasted that 13 FUSRAP sites will transfer from the USACE to LM over the next 10 years; however, the timing of the transfers is strongly dependent upon federal funding of the ongoing remedial actions. Historically, FUSRAP sites were generally cleaned up for “unrestricted” industrial use or remediated to the “cleanup standards” at that time, and their use remained unchanged. Today, these sites as well as the adjacent properties are now changing or envisioned to have changes in land use, typically from industrial to commercial or residential uses. The implication of land-use change affects DOE’s LTS&M responsibility for the sites under LM stewardship as well as the planning for the additional sites scheduled to transition in time. Coinciding with land-use changes at or near FUSRAP sites is an increased community awareness of these sites. As property development increases near FUSRAP sites, the general public and interested stakeholders regularly inquire about the sufficiency of cleanups that impact their neighborhoods and communities. LM has used this experience to address a series of lessons learned to improve our program management in light of the changing conditions of our sites. We describe these lessons learned as (1) improved stakeholder relations, (2) enhanced LTS&M requirements for the sites, and (3) greater involvement in the transition process.

  14. Lessons learned from accidents investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga-Bello, P. [Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT), Mexico City (Mexico); Croft, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Glenn, J

    1997-12-31

    Accidents from three main practices: medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the described accidents are approached by subjects covering: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  15. Lessons learned from accident investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuniga-Bello, P.; Croft, J.R.; Glenn, J.

    1998-01-01

    Accidents in three main practices - medical applications, industrial radiography and industrial irradiators - are used to illustrate some common causes of accidents and the main lessons to be learned from them. A brief description of some of these accidents is given. Lessons learned from the accidents described are approached bearing in mind: safety culture, quality assurance, human factors, good engineering practice, defence in depth, security of sources, safety assessment and monitoring and verification compliance. (author)

  16. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  17. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  18. Lessons from Fukushima - February 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris-Suzuki, Tessa; Boilley, David; McNeill, David; Gundersen, Arnie; Beranek, Jan; Blomme, Brian; Hanaoka, Wakao; Schulz, Nina; Stensil, Shawn-Patrick; Teule, Rianne; Tumer, Aslihan; McCann, Christine; Otani, Nanako; Hirsch, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    It has been almost 12 months since the Fukushima nuclear disaster began. Although the Great East Japan earthquake and the following tsunami triggered it, the key causes of the nuclear accident lie in the institutional failures of political influence and industry-led regulation. It was a failure of human institutions to acknowledge real reactor risks, a failure to establish and enforce appropriate nuclear safety standards and a failure to ultimately protect the public and the environment. This report, commissioned by Greenpeace International, addresses what lessons can be taken away from this catastrophe. The one-year memorial of the Fukushima accident offers a unique opportunity to ask ourselves what the tragedy - which is far from being over for hundreds of thousands of Japanese people - has taught us. And it also raises the question, are we prepared to learn? There are broader issues and essential questions that still deserve our attention: - How it is possible that - despite all assurances - a major nuclear accident on the scale of the Chernobyl disaster of 1986 happened again, in one of the world's most industrially advanced countries? - Why did emergency and evacuation plans not work to protect people from excessive exposure to the radioactive fallout and resulting contamination? Why is the government still failing to better protect its citizens from radiation one year later? - Why are the over 100,000 people who suffer the most from the impacts of the nuclear accident still not receiving adequate financial and social support to help them rebuild their homes, lives and communities? These are the fundamental questions that we need to ask to be able to learn from the Fukushima nuclear disaster. This report looks into them and draws some important conclusions: 1. The Fukushima nuclear accident marks the end of the 'nuclear safety' paradigm. 2. The Fukushima nuclear accident exposes the deep and systemic failure of the very institutions that are supposed to

  19. Supporting teachers' technology integration in lesson plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Noortje

    2017-01-01

    Lesson planning offers rich opportunities for teachers to consider and implement technology in the classroom. This dissertation investigated the design and effectiveness of supplementary information to assist pre-service teachers during the lesson planning process. Based on the Technological,

  20. Value pricing pilot program : lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This "Lessons Learned Report" provides a summary of projects sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration's (FHWA's) Congestion and Value Pricing Pilot Programs from 1991 through 2006 and draws lessons from a sample of projects with the richest an...

  1. Lessons from independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptfuhrer, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of Oryx provides invaluable lessons for those who plan future energy strategies, relates the author of this paper. When Oryx became an independent oil and gas company, its reserves were declining, its stock was selling below asset values, and the price of oil seemed stuck below $15 per barrel. The message from Oryx management to Oryx employees was: We are in charge of our own destiny. We are about to create our own future. Oryx had developed a new, positive corporate culture and the corporate credit required for growth. This paper points to two basic principles that have guided the metamorphosis in Oryx's performance. The first objective was to improve operational efficiency and to identify the right performance indicators to measure this improvement. It states that the most critical performance indicator for an exploration and production company must be replacement and expansion of reserves at a competitive replacement cost. Oryx has cut its finding costs from $12 to $5 per barrel, while the BP acquisition provided proven reserves at a cost of only $4 per barrel. Another performance indicator measures Oryx's standing in the financial markets

  2. Patient safety: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagian, James P.

    2006-01-01

    The traditional approach to patient safety in health care has ranged from reticence to outward denial of serious flaws. This undermines the otherwise remarkable advances in technology and information that have characterized the specialty of medical practice. In addition, lessons learned in industries outside health care, such as in aviation, provide opportunities for improvements that successfully reduce mishaps and errors while maintaining a standard of excellence. This is precisely the call in medicine prompted by the 1999 Institute of Medicine report ''To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.'' However, to effect these changes, key components of a successful safety system must include: (1) communication, (2) a shift from a posture of reliance on human infallibility (hence ''shame and blame'') to checklists that recognize the contribution of the system and account for human limitations, and (3) a cultivation of non-punitive open and/or de-identified/anonymous reporting of safety concerns, including close calls, in addition to adverse events. (orig.)

  3. Constellation Program Lessons Learned. Volume 2; Detailed Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhatigan, Jennifer; Neubek, Deborah J.; Thomas, L. Dale

    2011-01-01

    These lessons learned are part of a suite of hardware, software, test results, designs, knowledge base, and documentation that comprises the legacy of the Constellation Program. The context, summary information, and lessons learned are presented in a factual format, as known and described at the time. While our opinions might be discernable in the context, we have avoided all but factually sustainable statements. Statements should not be viewed as being either positive or negative; their value lies in what we did and what we learned that is worthy of passing on. The lessons include both "dos" and "don ts." In many cases, one person s "do" can be viewed as another person s "don t"; therefore, we have attempted to capture both perspectives when applicable and useful. While Volume I summarizes the views of those who managed the program, this Volume II encompasses the views at the working level, describing how the program challenges manifested in day-to-day activities. Here we see themes that were perhaps hinted at, but not completely addressed, in Volume I: unintended consequences of policies that worked well at higher levels but lacked proper implementation at the working level; long-term effects of the "generation gap" in human space flight development, the need to demonstrate early successes at the expense of thorough planning, and the consequences of problems and challenges not yet addressed because other problems and challenges were more immediate or manifest. Not all lessons learned have the benefit of being operationally vetted, since the program was cancelled shortly after Preliminary Design Review. We avoid making statements about operational consequences (with the exception of testing and test flights that did occur), but we do attempt to provide insight into how operational thinking influenced design and testing. The lessons have been formatted with a description, along with supporting information, a succinct statement of the lesson learned, and

  4. What Happens at the Lesson Start?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloviita, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Transitional periods, such as lesson starts, are necessary steps from one activity to another, but they also compete with time for actual learning. The aim of the present study was to replicate a previous pilot study on lesson starts and explore possible disturbances. In total, 130 lesson starts in Finnish basic education in grades 1-9 were…

  5. Evaluation of a potential nuclear fuel repository criticality: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.R.; Evans, D.

    1995-10-01

    This paper presents lessons learned from a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the potential for a criticality in a repository containing spent nuclear fuel with high enriched uranium. The insights gained consisted of remarkably detailed conclusions about design issues, failure mechanisms, frequencies and source terms for events up to 10,000 years in the future. Also discussed are the approaches taken by the analysts in presenting this very technical report to a nontechnical and possibly antagonistic audience.

  6. Evaluation of a potential nuclear fuel repository criticality: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Evans, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents lessons learned from a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the potential for a criticality in a repository containing spent nuclear fuel with high enriched uranium. The insights gained consisted of remarkably detailed conclusions about design issues, failure mechanisms, frequencies and source terms for events up to 10,000 years in the future. Also discussed are the approaches taken by the analysts in presenting this very technical report to a nontechnical and possibly antagonistic audience

  7. Lessons of nuclear robot history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomichi, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Severe accidents occurred at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station stirred up people's great expectation of nuclear robot's deployment. However unexpected nuclear disaster, especially rupture of reactor building caused by core meltdown and hydrogen explosion, made it quite difficult to introduce nuclear robot under high radiation environment to cease accidents and dispose damaged reactor. Robotics Society of Japan (RSJ) set up committee to look back upon lessons learned from 50 year's past experience of nuclear robot development and summarized 'Lessons of nuclear robot history', which was shown on the home page website of RSJ. This article outlined it with personal comment. History of nuclear robot developed for inspection and maintenance at normal operation and for specific required response at nuclear accidents was reviewed with many examples at home and abroad for TMI, Chernobyl and JCO accidents. Present state of Fukushima accident response robot's introduction and development was also described with some comments on nuclear robot development from academia based on lessons. (T. Tanaka)

  8. TCAMS lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the CINC mobile alternate headquarters and the tech control automation, maintenance and support facility. A discussion on software cost reduction by reuse is given as well as managing risk by assessment and mitigation.

  9. [Economics] Introductory Lesson (Begin Day One). Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Roland

    This introductory lesson on teaching economics concepts contains sections on the following: purpose; objectives; time; materials needed; and step-by-step classroom procedures. The focus is on the economic problem of scarcity and opportunity costs. Attached is an original skit, "There's no such thing as a free lunch," and a chart that…

  10. Lessons learned related to packaging and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallen, C.

    1995-01-01

    The use of lessons learned as a tool for learning from past experiences is well established, especially by many organizations within the nuclear industry. Every person has, at some time, used the principles of lessons learned to adopt good work practices based on their own experiences or the experiences of others. Lessons learned can also help to avoid the recurrence of adverse practices, which is often an area that most lessons-learned programs tend to focus on. This paper will discuss how lessons learned relate to packaging and transportation issues and events experienced at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. It will also discuss the role performed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety's Office of Operating Experience Analysis and Feedback in disseminating lessons learned and operating experience feedback to the DOE complex. The central concept of lessons learned is that any organization should be able to learn from its own experiences and events. In addition, organizations should implement methodologies to scan external environments for lessons learned, to analyze and determine the relevance of lessons learned, and to bring about the necessary changes learned from these experiences. With increased concerns toward facility safety, the importance of utilizing the lessons-learned principles and the establishment of lessons-learned programs can not be overstated

  11. Leading in crisis: lessons for safety leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William W; Denham, Charles R; Burgess, L Hayley; Angood, Peter B; Keohane, Carol

    2010-03-01

    The National Quality Forum (NQF) Safe Practices are a group of 34 evidence-based Safe Practices that should be universally used to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Four of these practices specifically address leadership. A recently published book, 7 Lessons for Leading in Crisis, offers practical advice on how to lead in crisis. An analysis of how concepts from the 7 lessons could be applied to the Safe Practices was presented nationally by webinar to assess the audience's reaction to the information. The objective of this article was to present the information and the audience's reaction to it. Recommendations for direct actions that health care leaders can take to accelerate adoption of NQF Safe Practices were presented to health care leaders, followed by an immediate direct survey that used Reichheld's "Net Promoter Score" to assess whether the concepts presented were considered applicable and valuable to the audience. In a separate presentation, the challenges and crises facing nursing leaders were addressed by nursing leaders. Six hundred seventy-four hospitals, with an average of 4.5 participants per hospital, participated in the webinar. A total of 272 safety leaders responded to a survey immediately after the webinar. A Net Promoter Score assessment revealed that 58% of those surveyed rated the value of the information at 10, and 91% scored the value of the webinar to be between 8 and 10, where 10 is considered a strong recommendation that those voting would recommend this program to others. The overwhelmingly high score indicated that the principles presented were important and valuable to this national audience of health care leadership. The 2010 environment of uncertainty and shrinking financial resources poses significant risk to patients and new challenges for leaders at all levels. A values-grounded focus on personal accountability for leading in crisis situations strongly resonates with those interested in or leading patient safety initiatives.

  12. Field observations and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Joh B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    This presentation outlines observations and lessons learned from the Megaports program. It provides: (1) details of field and technical observations collected during LANL field activities at ports around the world and details of observations collected during radiation detections system testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory; (2) provides suggestions for improvement and efficiency; and (3) discusses possible program execution changes for more effective operations.

  13. For Sale: Your Lesson Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The last several years has seen an increasingly popular trend of teachers buying and selling their lesson plans and other self-created classroom materials in online marketplaces. The leader in this space is a website called Teachers Pay Teachers, which boasts 3.8 million active users. In this article, the author examines why these sites became…

  14. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  15. Lessons learned in crisis management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper will explore lessons learned following a series of natural and man-made disasters affecting the Massachusetts Mutual Life Insurance Company and/or its subsidiaries. The company employs a team of certified continuity professionals who are charged with overseeing resilience on behalf of the enterprise and leading recovery activities wherever and whenever necessary.

  16. "Pride and Prejudice". [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Jane Austen's novel "Pride and Prejudice," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that classics are those pieces of literature that continue to be popular long after they were written; classics tend to have universal themes; and Austen's writing has been updated and dramatized and, most likely, will…

  17. Machiavelli's "The Prince." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Machiavelli's book "The Prince," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Machiavelli's enumeration of leadership qualities for a prince has always been controversial; and that leaders and followers may differ in what they identify as the qualities of a good leader. The main activity of the lesson…

  18. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erp, J.B. van [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report).

  19. Lessons from The Little Prince

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munakata, Mika

    2005-01-01

    To children, The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupery (1943) may be a mystical story about a traveler among planets. For adults, the story can be appreciated for the lessons it teaches us about what it is like to be a child--and how children may perceive the world of adults. And, for science educators, particularly, The Little Prince…

  20. Basic safety principles: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erp, J.B. van

    1997-01-01

    The presentation reviews the following issues: basic safety principles and lessons learned; some conclusions from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; some recommendations from the Kemeny report on the accident at TMI; conclusions and recommendations from the Rogovin report on the accident on TMI; instrumentation deficiencies (from Rogovin report)

  1. The 'Amistad' Case. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Teaching about the Amistad case provides correlations to the National Standards for History, and Civics and Government. An overview of the events of 1839 is given in this lesson plan. Seven student activities include reading and using primary source documents, writing journal articles, viewing the movie "Amistad," and giving…

  2. Evaluating Eyewitness Reports [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This lesson offers students experience in making historical meaning from eyewitness accounts that present a range of different perspectives. Students begin with a case study in working with alternative reports of a single event: the Great Chicago Fire of 1871. First, they compare two newspaper reports on the fire, then two memoirs of the fire…

  3. Lessons in Contingent, Recursive Humility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagle, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author argues that critical work in teacher education should begin with teacher educators turning a critical eye on their own practices. The author uses Lesko's conception of contingent, recursive growth and change to analyze a lesson he observed as part of a phenomenological study aimed at understanding more about what it is…

  4. The Great Gatsby. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelasko, Ken

    Based on F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel "The Great Gatsby," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that adapting part of a novel into a dramatic reading makes students more intimate with the author's intentions and craft; and that a part of a novel may lend itself to various oral interpretations. The main activity…

  5. Charismatic Leaders: A Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Focusing upon Franklin D. Roosevelt and Adolf Hitler, these lessons for high school students in U.S. or world history courses deal with what charismatic leadership is, what circumstances and personality factors generate charismatic movements, and the role, results, and dangers of charismatic leadership. (RM)

  6. Multimedia Principle in Teaching Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari Jabbour, Khayrazad

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia learning principle occurs when we create mental representations from combining text and relevant graphics into lessons. This article discusses the learning advantages that result from adding multimedia learning principle into instructions; and how to select graphics that support learning. There is a balance that instructional designers…

  7. Constellation Lessons Learned Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L. Dale; Neubek, Deb

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the lessons learned from the Constellation Program (CxP) and identified several factors that contributed to the inability of the CxP to meet the cost and schedule commitments. The review includes a significant section on the context in which the CxP operated since new programs are likely to experience the same constraints.

  8. EMU Lessons Learned Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kevin M., Jr.; Crocker, Lori; Cupples, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    As manned space exploration takes on the task of traveling beyond low Earth orbit, many problems arise that must be solved in order to make the journey possible. One major task is protecting humans from the harsh space environment. The current method of protecting astronauts during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) is through use of the specially designed Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). As more rigorous EVA conditions need to be endured at new destinations, the suit will need to be tailored and improved in order to accommodate the astronaut. The Objective behind the EMU Lessons Learned Database(LLD) is to be able to create a tool which will assist in the development of next-generation EMUs, along with maintenance and improvement of the current EMU, by compiling data from Failure Investigation and Analysis Reports (FIARs) which have information on past suit failures. FIARs use a system of codes that give more information on the aspects of the failure, but if one is unfamiliar with the EMU they will be unable to decipher the information. A goal of the EMU LLD is to not only compile the information, but to present it in a user-friendly, organized, searchable database accessible to all familiarity levels with the EMU; both newcomers and veterans alike. The EMU LLD originally started as an Excel database, which allowed easy navigation and analysis of the data through pivot charts. Creating an entry requires access to the Problem Reporting And Corrective Action database (PRACA), which contains the original FIAR data for all hardware. FIAR data are then transferred to, defined, and formatted in the LLD. Work is being done to create a web-based version of the LLD in order to increase accessibility to all of Johnson Space Center (JSC), which includes converting entries from Excel to the HTML format. FIARs related to the EMU have been completed in the Excel version, and now focus has shifted to expanding FIAR data in the LLD to include EVA tools and support hardware such as

  9. UNLEARNED LESSONS OF CONTEMPORARY HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А Н Данилов

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the complex geopolitical situation in the global world at the end of the second decade of the 21st century as determined by the consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union and by the new world order. The author seeks to answer the questions who will define the current geopolitical situation, whose aims it will reflect, what will become the basis of new geopolitical realities, the basis of moral solidarity of humankind, and the spiritual basis of future civilizations. The new challenges give rise to a desperate struggle for different scenarios for building a happy life. Moreover, it is not clear which ideal of the future world will be widely supported as a development guideline. The recognition as such of the standard of living and development of the strongest ones becomes a real threat to the new civilization for it leads to the loss of national interests of sovereign states, and to the loss of an independent future. Today, there is an active search for new theories and concepts that will adequately explain con-temporary global processes. In this thematic context, the author identifies main lessons not learned by the world political elites. The first lesson: new states are not born in an empty place, their common history is a great advantage ensuring prospects for the further development of interstate cooperation. The second lesson: the widespread falsification of history has a negative impact on national, cultural and social-group identity in transforming societies. The third lesson: after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the post-war balance of power was destroyed together with the system of checks and balances in world politics (a bipolar model of the world. The fourth lesson: under radical social transformations, the moral system of the population devaluates with numerous crisis consequences.

  10. Risk management integration into complex project organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K.; Greanias, G.; Rose, J.; Dumas, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the approach used in designing and adapting the SIRTF prototype, discusses some of the lessons learned in developing the SIRTF prototype, and explains the adaptability of the risk management database to varying levels project complexity.

  11. NAPAP: A lesson in science, policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1993-01-01

    Perplexing environmental questions, such as acid rain and global warming, cry out for policy solutions based upon solid scientific evidence. Scientists and politicians agree on this but have trouble finding an effective way to do it. Milton Russell of the University of Tennessee and Oak Ridge National Laboratory describes a major, but only partially successful, effort that he believes contains valuable lessons for scientists and policy makers in the future. It is the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP), launched in 1980 to generate the latest scientific evidence to guide national debate on clean-air legislation. The program open-quotes created an unprecedented body of scientific research on an environmental issue of the first order,close quotes Russell says. Yet, he admits, its influence was virtually nil on the legislation that ultimately emerged on the subject. Russell blames this lack of influence on NAPAP's failure to provide adequate assessment of its research findings, its failure to communicate the results on a timely and effective basis, and on open-quotes political forces that sought legislation rather than a full explication of issues.close quotes Out of the experience, Russell finds lessons for the future: open-quotes First, if the scientific finding are to have an impact on policy, assessment must become a priority as important as scientific research. Second, for projects designed to help decision makers, scientific research must be considered a resource, not an end product. Third, timely, lucid communication must be an essential element of the project, not a marginal activity.close quotes NAPAP, Russell concludes, open-quotes proved a long-term scientific success and a short-term policy disappointment.close quotes Then he warns, open-quotes Future science programs ignore the NAPAP experience at their own risk.close quotes

  12. The individual teacher in lesson study collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skott, Charlotte Krog; Møller, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    used in lesson study research. Design/methodology/approach The authors use collective case studies. By being participant observers the authors provide detailed descriptions of two selected teachers’ lived experiences of lesson study collaboration. In addition to gain first-hand insights, the authors...... in the participation of each of the two teachers during a two-year lesson study project. By comparing these shifts the authors identify significant conditions for their individual learning. Research limitations/implications Although the study is small scale, both the insights into the different ways in which teachers...... participated and the theoretical insights might be valuable for other lesson study research approaches. Practical implications This paper provides valuable insights into conditions that might influence teachers’ participation in lesson study activities, especially in cultures with little experience of lesson...

  13. The Employed Neurosurgeon: Essential Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzil, Deborah L; Zusman, Edie E

    2017-04-01

    Neurosurgeons are highly specialized surgeons whose pride is mastery of the complexity of form and function that is the nervous system and then knowing when and how these require surgical intervention. Following years of arduous postgraduate education, neurosurgeons enter the world of practice that is not only daunting in its intricacies of regulations, mandates, and unknown business practices, but also changing at a meteoric pace. Overwhelmingly, graduating residents and fellows are choosing to practice as employed physicians, a trend that is new in its magnitude and also changed because of the rapid evolution of large health systems. Case studies of challenges other employed surgical specialists have faced can provide critical and important education for any neurosurgeon in this arena. As with the lessons of all case studies, the teachings are remarkably universal, but how those lessons apply to an individual's specific situation will require personalized adaptation. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  14. USING LITERATURE IN GEOGRAPHY LESSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROXANA HOBAI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Including in a novel information about relief, climate, vegetation, fauna and various aspects of socio-economic life can make literature a real source of geographical information. Using realistic literary works in Geography lessons has multiple benefits, which are not limited only to geographical knowledge. In this paper there are some fragments from literature, suggestions of activities about how to integrate the fragments during Geography lessons and the results of these activities. The activities are from fifth to twelfth grade, passing through a first example of water pollution resulting from a Hercules labour, through the lyricism of the aurora borealis description, through the dramatic life of a refugee from Darfur, through the Dobrudgea winter landscape, through the grey urban landscape of Bucharest in the 90s and so on. Students were put into learning situations that stimulated their creativity, developed communication competencies and enriched their general knowledge.

  15. Brentwood Lessons Learned Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, Carl H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Caton, Melanie C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcinkoski, Jason [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States)

    2017-09-26

    The purpose of this report is to document lessons learned in the installation of the hydrogen fueling station at the National Park Service Brentwood site in Washington, D.C., to help further the deployment of hydrogen infrastructure required to support hydrogen and other fuel cell technologies. Hydrogen fueling is the most difficult infrastructure component to build and permit. Hydrogen fueling can include augmenting hydrogen fueling capability to existing conventional fuel fueling stations as well as building brand new hydrogen fueling stations. This report was produced as part of the Brentwood Lessons Learned project. The project consisted of transplanting an existing modular hydrogen fueling station from Connecticut to the National Park Service Brentwood site. This relocation required design and construction at the Brentwood site to accommodate the existing station design as well as installation and validation of the updated station. One of the most important lessons learned was that simply moving an existing modular station to an operating site was not necessarily straight-forward - performing the relocation required significant effort and cost. The station has to function at the selected operating site and this functionality requires a power supply, building supports connecting to an existing alarm system, electrical grounding and lighting, providing nitrogen for purging, and providing deionized water if an electrolyzer is part of the station package. Most importantly, the station has to fit into the existing site both spatially and operationally and not disrupt existing operations at the site. All of this coordination and integration requires logistical planning and project management. The idea that a hydrogen fueling station can be simply dropped onto a site and made immediately operational is generally not realistic. Other important lessons learned include that delineating the boundaries of the multiple jurisdictions that have authority over a project for

  16. Lessons from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, M.

    1993-01-01

    At EPA there is a public outreach program that the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) has developed for radon. To meet the difficult challenge radon presented, OAR's Radon Division developed working relationships with national nonprofit groups who share a mission. These groups have well-established communication networks with their memberships for advancing their goals. Such diverse groups as the American Lung Association, the Advertising Council, the National Association of Counties (NACo), the Consumer Federation of America, the National Association of Homebuilders, and the National Safety Council have joined with EPA to reduce radon health risks. Through this alliance, EPA has been able to take advantage of communication channels that it could never replicate on tis own. Every group working with EPA disseminates the radon message through its own established channels to reach its constituency. These partners wield authority in their fields and are ideal for addressing the concerns of their audiences

  17. Lessons from nuclear disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo

    2005-01-01

    The most severe and worst of all nuclear disasters is, needless to say, the explosion of an atomic bomb. The WHO committee on the effects of nuclear war, established in 1982, concluded that the only approach to the treatment of the health effects of nuclear warfare is primary prevention, that is, the prevention of nuclear war. Nuclear disasters have also occurred in nuclear power plants and nuclear facilities, causing various damage and acute anxiety among the workers and general public, but thus far the related health effects have not always been correctly evaluated. Such problems as exposed population, individual exposed dose and health risks which are associated with these evaluation efforts are discussed here. (author)

  18. Safety lessons from aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higton, Phil

    2005-07-01

    Thirty years ago the world of Commercial Aviation provided a challenging environment. In my early flying days, aircraft accidents were not unusual, flying was seen as a risky business and those who took part, either as a provider or passenger, appeared grudgingly willing to accept the hazards involved. A reduction in the level of risk was sought in technological advances, greater knowledge of physics and science, and access to higher levels of skill through simulation, practice and experience. While these measures did have an impact, the expected safety dividend was not realized. The most experienced, technically competent individuals with the best equipment featured far too regularly in the accident statistics. We had to look at the human element, the impact of flaws or characteristics of the human condition. We call this area Human Factors. My paper describes the concept of Human Factors, its establishment as a key safety tool in aviation and the impact of this on my working life.

  19. LESSONS LEARNED THROUGH OPTIMIZATION OF THE VOLUNTARY CORRECTIVE ACTION PROCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thacker, M. S.; Freshour, P.; McDonald, W.

    2002-01-01

    Valuable experience in environmental remediation was gained at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (Sandia) by concurrently conducting Voluntary Corrective Actions (VCAs) at three Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs). Sandia combined the planning, implementation, and reporting phases of three VCAs with the goal of realizing significant savings in both cost and schedule. The lessons learned through this process have been successfully implemented within the Sandia Environmental Restoration (ER) Project and could be utilized at other locations with multiple ER sites. All lessons learned resulted from successful teaming with the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) Hazardous Waste Bureau (HWB), Sandia management, a Sandia risk assessment team, and Sandia waste management personnel. Specific lessons learned included the following: (1) potential efficiencies can be exploited by reprioritization and rescheduling of activities; (2) cost and schedule reductions can be realized by combining similar work at contiguous sites into a single effort; (3) working with regulators to develop preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) and gain regulatory acceptance for VCA planning prior to project initiation results in significant time savings throughout the remediation and permit modification processes; (4) effective and thoughtful contingency planning removes uncertainties and defrays costs so that projects can be completed without interruption; (5) timely collection of waste characterization samples allows efficient disposal of waste streams, and (6) concurrent reporting of VCA activities results in significant savings in time for the authors and reviewers

  20. Social support and child protection: Lessons learned and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ross A

    2015-03-01

    Social support has been a topic of research for nearly 50 years, and its applications to prevention and intervention have grown significantly, including programs advancing child protection. This article summarizes the central conclusions of the 1994 review of research on social support and the prevention of child maltreatment prepared for the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, and surveys advances in the field since its publication. Among the lessons learned twenty years ago are (a) the diversity of the social support needs of at-risk families and their association with child endangerment, (b) the need to supplement the emotionally affirmative aspects of social support with efforts to socialize parenting practices and monitor child well-being, (c) the desirability of integrating formal and informal sources of social support for recipients, and (d) the importance of considering the complex recipient reactions to receiving support from others. The lessons we are now learning derive from research exploring the potential of online communication to enhance social support, the neurobiology of stress and its buffering through social support, and the lessons of evaluation research that are identifying the effective ingredients of social support interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Children's Satisfaction with Private Music Lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rife, Nora A.; Shnek, Zachary M.; Lauby, Jennifer L.; Lapidus, Leah Blumberg

    2001-01-01

    Determines the language children use to express their feelings of satisfaction with private music lessons. Offers a list of statements from children about private music lessons to be used to assess those feelings. Discusses the effects of age, gender, and musical instruments on satisfaction for music educators. Includes references. (DAJ)

  2. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the second in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subjects areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior, art, music, and…

  3. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the first in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the kindergarten level: arithmetic concepts, number concepts, reading readiness, vocabulary, language, listening, social behavior,…

  4. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the third in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary grade level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning, problem solving, social behavior,…

  5. Pacemaker Primary Curriculum; Lesson Book Level D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Dorothea M.; Ross, Sheila A.

    This lesson book, which is the last in a four-level program for young children with learning difficulties, describes the purpose of and equipment and procedures for teaching lessons in the following subject areas on the primary level: arithmetic, reading, vocabulary, spelling, printing, listening, planning and problem solving, social behavior,…

  6. Lesson Planning with the Common Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Linda A.; McDuffie, Amy Roth; Tate, Cathie

    2014-01-01

    Planning a lesson can be similar to planning a road trip--a metaphor the authors use to describe how they applied research and theory to their lesson planning process. A map and mode of transportation, the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) and textbooks as resources, can lead to desired destinations, such as students engaging in…

  7. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  8. Professor's Page: Do Demonstration Lessons Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Doug

    2011-01-01

    As part of a large research and professional development project funded by the Catholic Education Office Melbourne (CEOM), called "Contemporary Teaching and Learning of Mathematics," the ACU team has been leading demonstration lessons. There is certainly not universal agreement on the worth of demonstration lessons in the mathematics…

  9. Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the process of a human space flight conjunction assessment and lessons learned from the more than twelve years of International Space Station (ISS) operations. Also, the application of these lessons learned to a recent ISS conjunction assessment with object 84180 on July 16, 2009 is also presented.

  10. Physically active academic lessons in elementary children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M

    2011-06-01

    Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. We will review the on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of an HIV Prevention Videogame: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Hieftje

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of videogames interventions is becoming an increasingly popular and effective strategy in disease prevention and health promotion; however, few health videogame interventions have been scientifically rigorously evaluated for their efficacy. Moreover, few examples of the formative process used to develop and evaluate evidence-based health videogame interventions exist in the scientific literature. The following paper provides valuable insight into the lessons learned during the process of developing the risk reduction and HIV prevention videogame intervention for young adolescents, PlayForward: Elm City Stories. 

  12. Project management lessons learned from building the Wendelstein 7-x stellerator fusion research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire-Gormaly, M.; Gittens, A.; Zhang, L., E-mail: m.freire.gormaly@utoronto.ca, E-mail: antonio.gittens@mail.utoronto.ca, E-mail: lavender.zhang@outlook.com [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is the world's largest 'stellerator' nuclear fusion reactor being commissioned in Greifswald, Germany. It will inform the international fusion energy test device (ITER). The complexity of W7- X added challenges since industrial expertise to manufacture components did not exist. The construction was completed eight years behind schedule and almost 100% over budget. Key take-away lessons in project management were revealed from W7-X which can be applied to any nuclear project. These lessons are aligned with the project management knowledge areas of schedule, stakeholder, procurement, scope, schedule, cost, communication, risk, quality, human resources and procurement management. (author)

  13. Project management lessons learned from building the Wendelstein 7-x stellerator fusion research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire-Gormaly, M.; Gittens, A.; Zhang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is the world's largest 'stellerator' nuclear fusion reactor being commissioned in Greifswald, Germany. It will inform the international fusion energy test device (ITER). The complexity of W7- X added challenges since industrial expertise to manufacture components did not exist. The construction was completed eight years behind schedule and almost 100% over budget. Key take-away lessons in project management were revealed from W7-X which can be applied to any nuclear project. These lessons are aligned with the project management knowledge areas of schedule, stakeholder, procurement, scope, schedule, cost, communication, risk, quality, human resources and procurement management. (author)

  14. A Relevant Lesson: Hitler Goes to the Mall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwin, David

    2003-01-01

    A "Motivation" eliciting the "Aim" of each lesson initiates each lesson in the orthodox "developmental lesson-plan" that has dominated classroom instruction in NYC public schools for at least the past half-century. An action-research study of 38 lesson-plans (over 5 each from 5 teachers) drawn from student-teaching…

  15. Improving Mathematics Teaching as Deliberate Practice through Chinese Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rongjin; Prince, Kyle M.; Barlow, Angela T.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how a ninth grade teacher improved an Algebra I lesson through a lesson study approach. We used multiple data sources to investigate the improvement of the lesson towards student-centered mathematics instruction, perceived benefits of the teacher, and factors associated with the improvement of teaching. The lesson group…

  16. Chernobyl: lessons of the decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsaregorodtsev, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to a drastic increase the incidents of thyroid cancer in children living at territories contaminated with radionuclides. The incidents of hemoblastoses which are etiologically closely related to radiation did not change after the incident. The lessons of the decade that passed since the accident necessitate measures aimed at alleviation of the medical consequences of the accident which are to be implemented for many years. The program of such measures should be based on a strictly scientific evaluation of each factor, that will be conductive to a most adequate state financing of this work [ru

  17. Southwest Airlines: lessons in loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Southwest Airlines continues to garner accolades in the areas of customer service, workforce management, and profitability. Since both the health care and airlines industries deal with a service rather than a product, the customer experience depends on the people who deliver that experience. Employees' commitment or "loyalty" to their customers, their employer, and their work translates into millions of dollars of revenue. What employee wants to work for "the worst employer in town?" Nine loyalty lessons from Southwest can be carried over to the health care setting for the benefit of employees and patients.

  18. Implementing US Department of Energy lessons learned programs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The DOE Lessons Learned Handbook is a two-volume publication developed to supplement the DOE Lessons Learned Standard (DOE-STD-7501-95) with information that will organizations in developing or improving their lessons learned programs. Volume 1 includes greater detail than the Standard in areas such as identification and documentation of lessons learned; it also contains sections on specific processes such as training and performance measurement. Volume 2 (this document) contains examples of program documents developed by existing lessons learned programs as well as communications material, functional categories, transmittal documents, sources of professional and industry lessons learned, and frequently asked questions about the Lessons Learned List Service.

  19. Forest fires in 2017: a useful lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battipaglia G

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires in 2017: a useful lesson. Forest fires, together with the decline of silviculture practice, are one of the most important natural disturbances affecting Mediterranean forests. The year 2017 is shaping up to be a record breaking fire season all around Southern Europe and especially in Italy for the sheer amount of hectares burned. Here we discuss about the importance of forest fire management, highlighting the role of prescribed burning and mechanical treatment (e.g., manual removal, thinning in reducing the risk of high-intensity wildfires. We report on the successful applications of those fire management techniques on the pinewoods of Vesuvio National Park and Castel Fusano Natural Reserve. The information compiled in the present article aims to demonstrate the potential relevance and impact of forest resources management for fire hazard reduction and shows the necessity of strong interaction among not only the scientific community, but also forest managers, decision makers and the civic responsibility of society at large.

  20. The Tamiflu fiasco and lessons learnt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Meenu, Meenakshi; Mohan, Prafull

    2015-01-01

    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu), a neuraminidase inhibitor, was approved for seasonal flu by US Food and Drug Administration in 1999. A number of randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis emphasized a favorable efficacy and safety profile. Majority of them were funded by Roche, which also first marketed and promoted this drug. In 2005 and 2009, the looming fear of pandemic flu led to recommendation by prominent regulatory bodies such as World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, European Medicines Agency and others for its use in treatment and prophylaxis of influenza, and it's stockpiling as a measure to tide over the crisis. Serious Adverse Events, especially neuropsychiatric events associated with Tamiflu started getting reported leading to a cascade of questions on clinical utility of this drug. A recent Cochrane review and related articles have questioned the risk-benefit ratio of the drug, besides raising doubts about the regulatory decision of approving it. The recommendations for stockpiling the said drug as given by various international organizations viz WHO have also been put to scrutiny. Although many reviewers have labeled the Tamiflu saga as a "costly mistake," the episode leaves us with some important lessons. This article takes a comprehensive relook on the subject, and we proceed to suggest some ways and means to avoid a similar situation in the future.

  1. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando

    2012-06-01

    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development.

  2. Intergenerational Lessons and 'Fabulous Stories'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenson, Sandra B; Welch, Cathryne A; Hassmiller, Susan B

    2015-10-01

    While directing the Future of Nursing: Campaign for Action, Susan B. Hassmiller, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's senior adviser for nursing, realized the value that nursing history could bring to the campaign. She decided to interview her mother, Jacqueline J. Wouwenberg, a 1947 graduate of the Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing, in order to better understand and contextualize changes that had occurred in the nursing profession during the 20th century. In collaboration with nurse historians Cathryne A. Welch and Sandra B. Lewenson, Hassmiller participated in interviewing her mother and was also interviewed herself. The stories that emerged revealed a great deal: each woman had found that nursing had given them countless opportunities that reflected the time periods in which they lived. Wouwenberg's experiences, transmitted to Hassmiller through words and actions, also served as important lessons for her daughter. This article shares five lessons: be independent and courageous, know that nursing has no bounds, follow your passion, honor diversity, and give back. It also asks readers to reflect on the relevance of nurses' work from one generation to the next..

  3. Lessons Learned for Decommissioning Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Wook; Kim, Young-gook; Kim, Hee-keun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the U.S. nuclear industrial's some key lessons learned especially for decommissioning planning based on which well informed decommissioning planning can be carried out. For a successful decommissioning, it is crucial to carry out a well-organized decommissioning planning before the decommissioning starts. This paper discussed four key factors which should be decided or considered carefully during the decommissioning planning period with introduction of related decommissioning lessons learned of U.S. nuclear industry. Those factors which have been discussed in this paper include the end state of a site, the overall decommissioning strategy, the management of the spent fuels, and the spent fuel pool island. Among them, the end state of a site should be decided first as it directs the whole decommissioning processes. Then, decisions on the overall decommissioning strategy (DECON vs. SAFSTOR) and the management of the spent fuels (wet vs. dry) should follow. Finally, the spent fuel pool island should be given due consideration because its implementation will result in much cost saving. Hopefully, the results of this paper would provide useful inputs to performing the decommissioning planing for the Kori unit 1

  4. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF QUARANTINE AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO QUARANTINE ISOLATION AND TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Chelsea; Marinkovich, Matt; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    Quarantine is designed primarily to prevent the introduction of transmissible diseases to zoological collections. Improvements in preventive medicine, disease eradication, and comprehensive pathology programs call into question current industry quarantine standards. Disease risk analysis was used at the San Diego Zoo (SDZ) and the SDZ Safari Park to eliminate quarantine isolation and transmissible disease testing for animals transferred between the two institutions. To determine if a risk-based approach might be valid between other institutions and SDZ, we reviewed quarantine data for animals arriving at SDZ from 81 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 124 other sources (e.g., non-AZA-accredited institutions, private breeders, private dealers, governmental bodies) over a 5-yr period (2009-2013). No mammal or herptile failed quarantine due to transmissible diseases of concern. Approximately 2.5% of incoming birds failed quarantine due to transmissible disease; however, all 14 failed individuals were obtained from three nonaccredited sources (private breeders, confiscation). The results of our study suggest that a risk-based approach could be used to minimize or eliminate quarantine for the transfer of animals from institutions with comprehensive disease surveillance programs and/or preshipment testing practices. Quarantine isolation with testing remains an essential defense against introducing transmissible diseases of concern when there is a lack of health knowledge about the animals being received.

  5. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Lessons Learned Applicable to the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Beck; L. F. Pincock

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify possible issues highlighted by these lessons learned that could apply to the NGNP in reducing technical risks commensurate with the current phase of design. Some of the lessons learned have been applied to the NGNP and documented in the Preconceptual Design Report. These are addressed in the background section of this document and include, for example, the decision to use TRISO fuel rather than BISO fuel used in the Peach Bottom reactor; the use of a reactor pressure vessel rather than prestressed concrete found in Fort St. Vrain; and the use of helium as a primary coolant rather than CO2. Other lessons learned, 68 in total, are documented in Sections 2 through 6 and will be applied, as appropriate, in advancing phases of design. The lessons learned are derived from both negative and positive outcomes from prior HTGR experiences. Lessons learned are grouped according to the plant, areas, systems, subsystems, and components defined in the NGNP Preconceptual Design Report, and subsequent NGNP project documents.

  6. Alternative Energy Lessons in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Julie

    2010-05-01

    In Scotland the new science curriculum for pupils aged 12 to 15 shall include the following outcomes: "Using my knowledge and understanding, I can express an informed view on a national or global environmental issue;" "I have participated in constructing a model to harness a renewable source of energy and can investigate how to optimise the output;" and "I can discuss why it is important to me and to the future of the world that alternatives to fossil fuels are developed." There will be an emphasis on creating lessons that will nurture responsible citizens, improve pupil engagement and allow students to develop their team working skills. To help teachers plan lessons to address this, the Scottish Schools Equipment Research Centre and Edinburgh University made teaching materials on four renewable energy resources. This poster describes how their suggested activities on solar cells, wind turbines, hydroelectric power stations and wave power were used in science lessons with twelve year old students. After an initial class discussion based on issues related to climate change and diminishing fossil fuel supplies, a workshop activity was carried out in three stages. The students were issued with a fact sheet about one of four imaginary islands (Skisdale, Cloudy Island, Surfsville and Sun City) and they were asked to work in teams to choose the most suitable method of generating electricity for their island. Issues such as costs, where it will be sited and environmental implications were considered. They were then asked to conduct practical activities by constructing and testing models for these forms of renewable energy. To conclude, they presented their proposal to the rest of the class with reasoned explanations. The kits used in the lessons can be purchased from Anderson Scientific (sales@andersonscientific.co.uk). The solar cells were simply connected to a voltmeter. The wind and hydroelectric groups used the same basic equipment. This was made using a small water

  7. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  8. Lessons learned from Khartoum flash flood impacts: An integrated assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Mohamad Ibrahim; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Horn, Finlay; Saad, Suhair A G

    2017-12-01

    This study aims at enabling the compilation of key lessons for decision makers and urban planners in rapidly urbanizing cities regarding the identification of representative, chief causal natural and human factors for the increased level of flash flood risk. To achieve this, the impacts of flash flood events of 2013 and 2014 in the capital of Sudan, Khartoum, were assessed using seven integrated approaches, i.e. rainfall data analysis, document analysis of affected people and houses, observational fieldwork in the worst flood affected areas, people's perception of causes and mitigation measures through household interviews, reported drinking water quality, reported water-related diseases and social risk assessment. Several lessons have been developed as follows. Urban planners must recognize the devastating risks of building within natural pathways of ephemeral watercourses. They must also ensure effective drainage infrastructures and physio-geographical investigations prior to developing urban areas. The existing urban drainage systems become ineffective due to blockage by urban waste. Building of unauthorized drainage and embankment structures by locals often cause greater flood problems than normal. The urban runoff is especially problematic for residential areas built within low-lying areas having naturally low infiltration capacity, as surface water can rapidly collect within hollows and depressions, or beside elevated roads that preclude the free flow of floodwater. Weak housing and infrastructure quality are especially vulnerable to flash flooding and even to rainfall directly. Establishment of services infrastructure is imperative for flash flood disaster risk reduction. Water supply should be from lower aquifers to avoid contaminant groundwater. Regular monitoring of water quality and archiving of its indicators help identify water-related diseases and sources of water contamination in the event of environmental disasters such as floods. Though the

  9. Health communication: lessons from research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, A V

    1981-01-01

    In discussing the lessons learned from research in the area of health communication, focus is on basic strategic issues; the scope of health communications in terms of audience, information, education and motivation approaces and India's satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE). Health communication is the process by which a health idea is transferred from a source, such as a primary health center, to a receiver, community, with the intention of changing the community's behavior. This involves the formulation of specific strategies for the conduct of health and family welfare communication. In the processs of health communication, it has been a common practice in India as well as in other developing countries to depend upon a plethora of communication media. Yet, despite maximum utilization of the mass media and interpersonal channels of communication, questions remain about the efficacy of the system in bringing about change. Thus, the need to draw upon lessons from research becomes obvious. Communication effectiveness researches have concentrated on 3 basic strategic issues: the question of physical reception of messages by the audience; interpretation or understanding of messages on the part of the audience in accordance with the intention of the communicator; and effectiveness of communication on the cognitive, affective and behavioral dimensions of the audience. Innumberable researches in communication have provided several lessons which have expanded the scope of health communication. This expansion can be observed in terms of audiences reached, information disseminated, education undertaken, and motivation provided. Research has identified several distinct groups to whom specific health messages have to be addressed. These include government and political elites, health and family welfare program administrators, and the medical profession and clinical staff. Information on health needs to include both the concept of health and the pertinent ideas

  10. Create positive contraceptive images for strongest impact in single lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Health educators attempting to deliver contraceptive information to adolescents in the classroom must seek ways to make a major impact in a very short period of time. A Planned Parenthood professional from New Jersey has developed a single-shot birth control lesson that, rather than presenting the pros and cons of various contraceptive methods, has teenagers identify themselves as at high, low, or no risk of pregnancy. Students estimate the number of classmates who are in each category and then assess whether they personally are at risk of an unintended pregnancy. In general, teens overestimate the number of classmates who are sexually active. This approach seems to make the ensuing discussion of contraceptive methods more meaningful. This discussion presents the condom and foam, the sponge, and visiting a family planning clinic. After this 40 minute presentation, fewer adolescents report being afraid of contraceptive side effects; they also have more knowledge about the efficacy and availability of different methods. A lesson in preparation is centered around a videotape entitled "Swept Away is Not Okay." It shows a teen couple going to a family planning clinic before they ever have intercourse. This strategy of encouraging adolescents to seek contraception before sexual involvement begins is considered more realistic than pressuring teens to abstain from sex. School officials and teachers have been receptive to this educational approach, viewing it as presenting important public health information.

  11. Lessons of the radiological accident in Goiania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Xavier, A.M.; Heilbron, P.F.L.

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of the lessons teamed from the radiological accident of Goiania, actions are described which a nuclear regulatory body should undertake while responding to an accident of this nature. (author)

  12. Why Gallipoli Matters: Interpreting Different Lessons

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, John

    2003-01-01

    ...? Divergent views from the lessons of Gallipoli campaign are the result of three differing operational approaches to strategic considerations that Britain and the Unites States faced in the l92Os and l93Os...

  13. Energy deregulation: lessons from the American experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiam, L.

    1997-01-01

    This article presents a brief history of US energy regulation, considers some of the important issues arising from the US experience and finally, suggests some lessons which Australia might draw from the US deregulation of energy industries. 5 refs

  14. Planning geometry lessons with learning platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    mathematics teachers’ joint planning of a lesson in geometry with a learning platform called Meebook is analyzed using the instrumental approach. It is concluded that the interface in Meebook orients the teachers work toward what the students should do rather than what they should learn, although the latter......This paper investigates how mathematics teachers plan lessons with a recently implemented Danish learning platform designed to support teachers in planning lessons in line with a recent objective-oriented curriculum. Drawing on data from observations of and interviews with teachers, three...... is a key intention behind the implementation of the platform. It is also concluded that when the teachers succeed in using learning objectives actively in their planning, the objectives support the teachers in designing lessons that correspond with their intentions. The paper concludes with a discussion...

  15. Experimental Garden Plots for Botany Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnicheva, V. V.; Vasil'eva, E. I.

    1976-01-01

    Discussion of the botany lessons used at two schools points out the need for fifth and sixth grade students to be taught the principles of plant life through observations made at an experimental garden plot at the school. (ND)

  16. Lessons from World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of World War I is reviewed, starting with a discussion of the development of nationalist movements in Europe. It is pointed out that the global disaster started with a seemingly small operation by Austria, which escalated uncontrollably into an all-destroying conflagration. A striking feature of the war was that none of the people who started it had any idea of what it would be like. Technology had changed the character of war, but old patterns of thought remained in place. We also examine the roots of the war in industrial and colonial competition, and in an arms race. Finally, parallels with current events, and the important lessons for today’s world are discussed.

  17. WPPSS debacle: explanations and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Principal explanations for the WPPSS events to date can be more or less satisfactorily derived. Five explanations appear to dominate: (1) the long and previously successful history of public power in the Pacific Northwest; (2) overoptimism by architect/engineers and consulting engineers about construction costs and construction durations; (3) laxness by bond counsel in scrutinizing and disclosing potential legal impediments to the various transactions involved; (4) WPPSS easy access to capital markets, combined with naivete in those markets; and (5) the inability of WPPSS to manage and oversee the construction process. This paper explains the specific reasons for, and the importance of, each of these five explanations for the WPPSS debacle. It then develops lessons and conclusions for the future which can be derived from this debacle. 12 references

  18. Lessons learned from external hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

  19. Lessons learned: wrong intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Oliver D; Banta, James T; Chen, Teresa C; Pritzker, Scott; Schachat, Andrew P

    2012-10-01

    To report cases involving the placement of the wrong intraocular lens (IOL) at the time of cataract surgery where human error occurred. Retrospective small case series, convenience sample. Seven surgical cases. Institutional review of errors committed and subsequent improvements to clinical protocols. Lessons learned and changes in procedures adapted. The pathways to a wrong IOL are many but largely reflect some combination of poor surgical team communication, transcription error, lack of preoperative clarity in surgical planning or failure to match the patient, and IOL calculation sheet with 2 unique identifiers. Safety in surgery involving IOLs is enhanced both by strict procedures, such as an IOL-specific "time-out," and the fostering of a surgical team culture in which all members are encouraged to voice questions and concerns. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergency preparedness lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.B.

    1987-09-01

    Emergency preparedness at nuclear power plants in the US has been considerably enhanced since the Three Mile Island accident. The Chernobyl accident has provided valuable data that can be used to evaluate the merit of some of these enhancements and to determine the need for additional improvements. For example, the USSR intervention levels of 25 rem and 75 rem for evacuation are contrasted with US Environmental Protection Agency protective action guides. The manner in which 135,000 persons were evacuated from the 30-km zone around Chernobyl is constrasted with typical US evacuation plans. Meteorological conditions and particulate deposition patterns were studied to infer characteristics of the radioactive plume from Chernobyl. Typical plume monitoring techniques are examined in light of lessons learned by the Soviets about plume behavior. This review has indicated a need for additional improvements in utility and government emergency plans, procedures, equipment, and training. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  1. Chinese Lessons from Other Peoples’ Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    as the lessons “not learned” or not adopted, the so-called “ dogs that do not bark.” While it may be difficult to parse real lessons learned from...under the barrel of the Type 95 5.8mm assault rifle. There is no muzzle brake or flash suppressor fitted and it is fed from a box magazine that

  2. With Interest It Comes To...Unconscionable Clauses in Sales Contracts. A Student's Lesson Plan [and] A Teacher's Lesson Plan [and] A Lawyer's Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Estelle; And Others

    One of a series of secondary level teaching units presenting case studies with pro and con analysis of particular legal problems, the document presents a student's lesson plan, a teacher's lesson plan, and a lawyer's lesson plan on unconscionable clauses in sales contracts. The unit acquaints students with the operation of sales contracts and…

  3. Analysing the Integration of Engineering in Science Lessons with the Engineering-Infused Lesson Rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Daugherty, Jenny L.; Custer, Rodney L.; Ross, Julia M.

    2017-01-01

    Science teachers are being called on to incorporate engineering practices into their classrooms. This study explores whether the Engineering-Infused Lesson Rubric, a new rubric designed to target best practices in engineering education, could be used to evaluate the extent to which engineering is infused into online science lessons. Eighty lessons…

  4. Beautiful Beads: A Lesson in Making Beads with Friendly Clay. AMACO[R] Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Harriet; Gamble, David

    This lesson resource includes a brief summary of the history of bead making and historic fascination with beads as adornment. A focus on design elements, color theory, craftsmanship, and technical skill in bead making is encouraged. The plan includes lesson goals and objectives; background preparation; a glossary of terms; a list of supplies; and…

  5. A Lesson about the Circular Flow. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfried, Janet

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate grade level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subjects; instructional objectives; time…

  6. Lessons Learned from Arsenic Mitigation among Private Well Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of Review Many thousands of research papers have been published on the occurrence, health effects, and mitigation of arsenic in drinking water sourced from groundwater around the world. Here, an attempt is made to summarize this large body of knowledge into a small number of lessons. Recent Findings This is an opinion paper reflecting on why we are far from the goal of eliminating this silent and widespread poison to protect the health of many millions. The lessons are drawn from research in countries representing a range of economic development and cultural contexts. The replacement of household wells with centralized water supplies has reduced population level exposure to moderate (50–100 μg/L) and high (>100 μg/L) levels of arsenic in drinking water in some countries as they become wealthier. However, there remains a very large rural population in all countries where the exposure to low levels (10–50 μg/L) of arsenic continues due to its dispersed occurrence in the environment and frequent reliance on private well. A set of natural (geological and biological), socioeconomic, and behavioral barriers to progress are summarized as lessons. They range from challenges in identifying the exposed households due to spatially heterogeneous arsenic distribution in groundwater, difficulties in quantifying the exposure let alone reducing the exposure, failures in maintaining compliance to arsenic drinking water standards, to misplaced risk perceptions and environmental justice issues. Summary Environmental health professionals have an ethical obligationtohelpAsmitigationamongprivatewellwaterhouse-holds, along with physicians, hydrogeologists, water treatment specialists, community organizations, and government. PMID:28741248

  7. Analysing the integration of engineering in science lessons with the Engineering-Infused Lesson Rubric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Daugherty, Jenny L.; Custer, Rodney L.; Ross, Julia M.

    2017-09-01

    Science teachers are being called on to incorporate engineering practices into their classrooms. This study explores whether the Engineering-Infused Lesson Rubric, a new rubric designed to target best practices in engineering education, could be used to evaluate the extent to which engineering is infused into online science lessons. Eighty lessons were selected at random from three online repositories, and coded with the rubric. Overall results documented the strengths of existing lessons, as well as many components that teachers might strengthen. In addition, a subset of characteristics was found to distinguish lessons with the highest level of engineering infusion. Findings are discussed in relation to the potential of the rubric to help teachers use research evidence-informed practice generally, and in relation to the new content demands of the U.S. Next Generation Science Standards, in particular.

  8. Integrated Programme Control Systems: Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C. W. [Babcock International Group PLC (formerly UKAEA Ltd) B21 Forss, Thurso, Caithness, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-15

    Dounreay was the UK's centre of fast reactor research and development from 1955 until 1994 and is now Scotland's largest nuclear clean up and demolition project. After four decades of research, Dounreay is now a site of construction, demolition and waste management, designed to return the site to as near as practicable to its original condition. Dounreay has a turnover in the region of Pounds 150 million a year and employs approximately 900 people. It subcontracts work to 50 or so companies in the supply chain and this provides employment for a similar number of people. The plan for decommissioning the site anticipates all redundant buildings will be cleared in the short term. The target date to achieve interim end state by 2039 is being reviewed in light of Government funding constraints, and will be subject to change through the NDA led site management competition. In the longer term, controls will be put in place on the use of contaminated land until 2300. In supporting the planning, management and organisational aspects for this complex decommissioning programme an integrated programme controls system has been developed and deployed. This consists of a combination of commercial and bespoke tools integrated to support all aspects of programme management, namely scope, schedule, cost, estimating and risk in order to provide baseline and performance management data based upon the application of earned value management principles. Through system evolution and lessons learned, the main benefits of this approach are management data consistency, rapid communication of live information, and increased granularity of data providing summary and detailed reports which identify performance trends that lead to corrective actions. The challenges of such approach are effective use of the information to realise positive changes, balancing the annual system support and development costs against the business needs, and maximising system performance. (author)

  9. The contribution of science to risk-based decision-making: lessons from the development of full-scale treatment measures for acidic mine waters at Wheal Jane, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L; Coulton, Richard H; Froggatt, Eric C

    2005-02-01

    The use of risk-based decision-making in environmental management is often assumed to rely primarily on the availability of robust scientific data and insights, while in practice socio-economic criteria are often of considerable importance. However, the relative contributions to decision-making made by scientific and socio-economic inputs are rarely assessed, and even less commonly reported. Such an assessment has been made for a major remediation project in southwest England, in which some 300 l/s of highly acidic, metalliferous mine waters are now being treated using oxidation and chemical neutralisation. In the process of reaching the decision to commission the treatment plant, a wide range of scientific studies were undertaken, including: biological impact assessments, hydrogeological investigations of the effect of pumping on the flooded mine system, and hydrological and geochemical characterisation, together with integrated catchment modelling, of pollutant sources and pathways. These investigations revealed that, despite the spectacular nature of the original mine water outburst in 1992, the ecology of the Fal estuary remains remarkably robust. No scientific evidence emerged of any grounds for concern over the estuarine ecology, even if mine water were left to flow untreated. However, a rare ecological resource known as "maerl" (a form of calcified seaweed) is harvested annually in the estuary, providing significant revenue to the local economy and underpinning the 'clean' image of local sea water. Social and environmental benefit surveys revealed strong public perceptions that any visible discoloration in the estuary must indicate a diminution in quality of the maerl, to the detriment of both the public image and economy of the area. This factor proved sufficient to justify the continued pump-and-treat operations at the mine site. Although the decisive factor in the end was socio-economic in nature, robust assessment of this factor could not have been made

  10. Feedback of safety - related operational experience: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, D [Commonwealth Edison Co. (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation considers the following aspects of feedback of safety-related operational experience: lessons learned program, objectives, personnel characteristics; three types of documents for transmitting lessons learned issues.

  11. Mini-Lessons on Language (The Round Table).

    Science.gov (United States)

    English Journal, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Describes several successful lessons that provide students with new awareness of the English language. Includes lessons focusing on language change, onomatopoeia, slang, word origin, dialect, and language functions. (MM)

  12. Lessons from Early Medicaid Expansions Under Health Reform..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Lessons from Early Medicaid Expansions Under Health Reform, Interviews with Medicaid Officials In a new study entitled Lessons from Early Medicaid Expansions Under...

  13. Feedback of safety - related operational experience: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, D.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation considers the following aspects of feedback of safety-related operational experience: lessons learned program, objectives, personnel characteristics; three types of documents for transmitting lessons learned issues

  14. Y2K lessons learned for electric grid stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Ianev, I. L.; Purvis, E. E.

    2000-01-01

    Y2K was an example of a worldwide infrastructure threat. Actions to understand infrastructure risks and mitigate infrastructure threats are a continuing and increasing part of the worlds corporate, government, and international organizations systems, and the severe implications of infrastructure failures to the health, safety, and financial well being of people and organizations are the deriving force. The IAEA conducted a number of Y2K related activities in nuclear power and fuel cycle activities. A set of these activities address the interface between electric power generation facilities and electric power grids in the region of Eastern Europe and the countries of the former Soviet Union. This addressed a continuing infrastructure risks and actions to mitigate these risk. The results were shown by events to have made positive contributions. The potential loss of nuclear power plant generation is a significant risk to electric power grids, an important critical infrastructure. Not only does the threat constitute a problem with the potential loss of the grid, loss of the electric power grid increases the probability of accidents in nuclear power plants. Recognizing that these activities addressed only one area of infrastructure risk in one region, there are some key lessons that were learned that could have general applicability

  15. Lessons Learned from L'Aquila Trial for Scientists' Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, K.; Cerase, A.; Amato, A.; Oki, S.

    2017-12-01

    The Appeal and Supreme Courts of Italy concluded that there was no bad communication by defendants except for the "glass of wine interview" which was made by a government official before the scientists' meeting. This meeting was held 6 days before the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake to discuss the outlook for the seismic activity in the L'Aquila area. However, at least two TV stations and a newspaper reported the content of the "glass of wine interview" in the next morning as it was announced by the defendant scientists. The reports triggered a domino effect of misinterpretations, which may be well acknowledged in the light of the social amplification of risk framework. These TV stations and newspaper should be also considered responsible for the bad communication. This point was missing in the sentence documents by the Appeal and Supreme Courts. Therefore, for scientists, a lesson of communication, especially during a seismic hazard crisis, is that they must carefully craft their messages and the way they circulate, both in broadcast and digital media, and follow reports released by the media on their activities. As another lesson, scientists must be aware that key concepts of safety such as "no danger" and "favorable situation", which were used in the "glass of wine interview", and the idea of probability can have different meanings for scientists, media, and citizens.

  16. N Reactor Lessons Learned workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaberlin, S.W.

    1993-07-01

    This report describes a workshop designed to introduce participants to a process, or model, for adapting LWR Safety Standards and Analysis Methods for use on rector designs significantly different than LWR. The focus of the workshop is on the ''Lessons Learned'' from the multi-year experience in the operation of N Reactor and the efforts to adapt the safety standards developed for commercial light water reactors to a graphite moderated, water cooled, channel type reactor. It must be recognized that the objective of the workshop is to introduce the participants to the operation of a non-LWR in a LWR regulatory world. The total scope of this topic would take weeks to provide a through overview. The objective of this workshop is to provide an introduction and hopefully establish a means to develop a longer term dialogue for technical exchange. This report provides outline of the workshop, a proposed schedule of the workshop, and a description of the tasks will be required to achieve successful completion of the project

  17. Achievements and Lessons from Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    2011-01-01

    For almost a quarter of a century, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider was the centerpiece of the world's high energy physics program - beginning operation in December of 1985 until it was overtaken by LHC in 2011. The aim of the this unique scientific instrument was to explore the elementary particle physics reactions with center of mass collision energies of up to 1.96 TeV. The initial design luminosity of the Tevatron was 10 30 cm -2 s -1 , however as a result of two decades of upgrades, the accelerator has been able to deliver 430 times higher luminosities to each of two high luminosity experiments, CDF and D0. Tevatron will be shut off September 30, 2011. The collider was arguably one of the most complex research instruments ever to reach the operation stage and is widely recognized for many technological breakthroughs and numerous physics discoveries. Below we briefly present the history of the Tevatron, major advances in accelerator physics, and technology implemented during the long quest for better and better performance. We also discuss some lessons learned from our experience.

  18. FRMAC-93 lessons learned report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerns, K.C.

    1994-03-01

    FRMAC-93 simulated a radiological accident at the Fort Calhoun nuclear power plant, 25 miles north of Omaha, Nebraska. The exercise involved the state Iowa and Nebraska, NRC as the lead Federal agency, FRMAC (Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center), and several federal agencies with statutory emergency responsibility. FRMAC-93 was a major 2-day field exercise designed to determine the effectiveness, coordination, and operations of a DOE-managed FRMAC. Other objectives were to ensure that appropriate priorities were established and assistance was provided to the states and the lead Federal agency by FRMAC. Day 1 involved the Fort Calhoun evaluated plume phase exercise. On Day 2, the flow of data, which was slow initially, improved so that confidence of states and other federal responders in FRMAC support capabilities was high. The impact and lessons learned from FRMAC-93 provided the necessary impetus to make organizational and operational changes to the FRMAC program, which were put into effect in the DOE exercise FREMONT at Hanford 3 months later

  19. Science and Sandy: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy's impact on the mid-Atlantic region, President Obama established a Task Force to '...ensure that the Federal Government continues to provide appropriate resources to support affected State, local, and tribal communities to improve the region's resilience, health, and prosperity by building for the future.' The author was detailed from NOAA to the Task Force between January and June 2013. As the Task Force and others began to take stock of the region's needs and develop plans to address them, many diverse approaches emerged from different areas of expertise including: infrastructure, management and construction, housing, public health, and others. Decision making in this environment was complex with many interests and variables to consider and balance. Although often relevant, science and technical expertise was not always at the forefront of this process. This talk describes the author's experience with the Sandy Task Force focusing on organizing scientific expertise to support the work of the Task Force. This includes a description of federal activity supporting Sandy recovery efforts, the role of the Task Force, and lessons learned from developing a science support function within the Task Force.

  20. From event analysis to global lessons: disaster forensics for building resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Venkateswaran, Kanmani; Szoenyi, Michael; MacClune, Karen; Mechler, Reinhard

    2016-07-01

    With unprecedented growth in disaster risk, there is an urgent need for enhanced learning and understanding of disasters, particularly in relation to the trends in drivers of increasing risk. Building on the disaster forensics field, we introduce the post-event review capability (PERC) methodology for systematically and holistically analysing disaster events, and identifying actionable recommendations. PERC responds to a need for learning about the successes and failures in disaster risk management and resilience, and uncovers the underlying drivers of increasing risk. We draw generalisable insights identified from seven applications of the methodology to date, where we find that across the globe policy makers and practitioners in disaster risk management face strikingly similar challenges despite variations in context, indicating encouraging potential for mutual learning. These lessons highlight the importance of integrated risk reduction strategies. We invite others to utilise the freely available PERC approach and contribute to building a repository of learning on disaster risk management and resilience.

  1. Knowledge and Cognitive Process Dimensions of Technology Teachers' Lesson Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathumbu, David; Rauscher, Willem; Braun, Max

    2014-01-01

    A clearly stated lesson objective is considered an essential component of a well-planned lesson. Many teachers of Technology, a relatively new subject in South African schools, teach Technology with rather limited training both in content and methodological approaches. This study sought to investigate and classify lesson objectives framed or…

  2. The physical education lesson in Turkish primary schools: Affective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study students' affective entry characteristics related to Physical Education lessons were examined based on three dimensions: interest towards the lesson, level of motivation in the lesson and educational gains. The study further aimed to investigate how these three dimensions were affected by the gender factor.

  3. Craft Lessons: Teaching Writing K-8. Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Ralph; Portalupi, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Since its publication in 1998 Craft Lessons has become a mainstay of writing teachers, both new and experienced. Practical lessons--each printed on one page--and the instructional language geared to three grade-level groupings: K-2, 3-4, and 5-8 are contained in this book. In the decade since Craft Lessons' publication the world has changed in…

  4. Plant Identification Characteristics for Deciduous Trees & Shrubs. Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, Kathy

    This manual contains a group of lesson plans designed for use with a slide series (not included here). Its purpose is to introduce students to the basic concepts and terminology used in the identification of deciduous trees and shrubs. The manual is composed of 12 lesson plans. The first lesson is an introduction to plant identification. The…

  5. Inductive & Deductive Science Thinking: A Model for Lesson Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilica, Kim; Flores, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Middle school students make great learning gains when they participate in lessons that invite them to practice their developing scientific reasoning skills; however, designing developmentally appropriate, clear, and structured lessons about scientific thinking and reasoning can be difficult. This challenge can be met through lessons that teach…

  6. A Qualitative Study on Primary School Mathematics Lesson Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongchen; Ma, Yunpeng

    2009-01-01

    Through the qualitative interviews of five implementers of primary school mathematics curriculum, this study addresses the ways in which mathematics lessons are evaluated. Results show that each evaluator recognizes different aspects of a "good lesson," however, among all criteria, the design of the lesson plan, realization of the lesson…

  7. Ocular Toxoplasmosis: Lessons from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    • A new attention to post-natally acquired infections. Previously, most attention was focused on infection during pregnancy, and the risk of congenital disease, with the feeling that infection in older individuals was benign, without a substantial risk of disease morbidity, such as ocular involvemen...

  8. ELPSA AS A LESSON DESIGN FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Lowrie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a framework for mathematics lesson design that is consistent with the way we learn about, and discover, most things in life. In addition, the framework provides a structure for identifying how mathematical concepts and understanding are acquired and developed. This framework is called ELPSA and represents five learning components, namely: Experience, Language, Pictorial, Symbolic and Applications. This framework has been used in developing lessons and teacher professional programs in Indonesia since 2012 in cooperation with the World Bank. This paper describes the theory that underlines the framework in general and in relation to each inter-connected component. Two explicit learning sequences for classroom practice are described, associated with Pythagoras theorem and probability. This paper then concludes with recommendations for using ELPSA in various institutional contexts.Keywords: ELPSA, lesson design framework, Pythagoras theorem, probability DOI: dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.62.77

  9. Lessons drawn from the operation of EDF 900MW nuclear power plants to evaluate and improve safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisbois, J.; Dupuis, M.C.; Marcille, R.

    1986-06-01

    The lessons drawn from operation are used to detect the weak points not taken sufficiently into account by the design studies and to check that system availability remains at least equal to the level defined at the design stage. In both cases, they aim at deciding what remedial actions are to be taken. The latter may result in additional obligations (modification or addition of equipment or operating rules) and, in certain cases, may slacken obligations. This paper examines in turn: how are the events recorded and then analyzed, what lessons are drawn using concrete examples, what contribution is made by probabilistic risk studies using experience feedback in evaluating overall safety [fr

  10. Applying Lessons from SN Studies to GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, Chris L.

    2009-01-01

    Supernovae and Gamma-Ray bursts display many similarities, both in their observational qualities and in the engines behind these powerful explosions. Although not identical, there is a strong synergy in the study of these two objects. There is much the gamma-ray burst field can learn from the lessons of the more-developed supernova field, but the supernova field can also learn from new techniques developed for gamma-ray burst studies. Here I review some of the 'lessons learned' from these fields to help foster this synergy.

  11. Lessons learned from early criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Four accidents involving the approach to criticality occurred during the period July, 1945, through May, 1996. These have been described in the format of the OPERATING EXPERIENCE WEEKLY SUMMARY which is distributed by the Office of Nuclear and Facility Safety. Although the lessons learned have been incorporated in standards, codes, and formal procedures during the last fifty years, this is their first presentation in this format. It is particularly appropriate that they be presented in the forum of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project Workshop closest to the fiftieth anniversary of the last of the four accidents, and that which was most instrumental in demonstrating the need to incorporate lessons learned

  12. Lessons Learned In Developing The VACIS Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orphan, Victor J.

    2011-01-01

    SAIC's development of VACIS provides useful 'lessons learned' in bridging the gap from an idea to a security or contraband detection product. From a gamma densitometer idea for solving a specific Customs Service (CS) requirement (detection of drugs in near-empty tanker trucks) in mid-1990's, SAIC developed a broad line of vehicle and cargo inspections systems (over 500 systems deployed to date) based on a gamma-ray radiographic imaging technique. This paper analyzes the reasons for the successful development of VACIS and attempts to identify ''lessons learned'' useful for future security and contraband detection product developments.

  13. Biotech Business Lessons for Defense Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    repudiates what func- tional personnel hold dear—that their hurdles are vital to some moral or ethical responsibility to protect or safeguard...94 Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Summer 2016 Biotech Business Lessons for Defense Acquisition Col David L. Peeler Jr., USAF Abstract The desire to...examples and lessons from private business sectors would serve DOD interests well. ✵ ✵ ✵ ✵ ✵ Acquisition reform! No other two words so stress or trouble

  14. Lessons Learned from ISS Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Forty years of human spaceflight activities are now culminating in the International Space Station program (ISS). The ISS involves fifteen nations, working together to create a permanently occupied orbital facility that will support scientific and potentially, commercial endeavours. The assembly of the ISS is scheduled to be completed later in this decade, after which it will be operated for at least ten years. At the strategic level, such a complex international project is highly dependent on the fifteen Partners' respective internal politics and foreign policies. On the operational level, Partners still have certain difficulties in issuing and agreeing to common technical procedures. As with almost all aspects of International Space Station cooperation, the Partners are going through a constant learning process, where they have to deal with complex political, legal and operational differences. Intergovernmental Agreement and the Memoranda of Understanding, the instruments forming the legal backbone of the International Space Station cooperation, are still lacking a fair number of arrangements that need to be created for completing and operating the Station. The whole endeavour is also a constant learning process at the operational level, as astronauts, cosmonauts, engineers and technicians on the ground with different cultural and educational backgrounds, learn to work together. One recent Space Shuttle mission to the Station showed the importance of standardising even trivial system components such as packaging labels, as it took the astronauts half a day more than planned to correctly unpack the equipment. This paper will provide a synthesis of some of the main lessons learned during the first few years of International Space Station's lifetime. Important political, legal and operational issues will be addressed and combined. This analysis will provide some guidelines and recommendations for future international space projects, such as an international human

  15. The Role of a Commander in Military Lessons Learned Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Waliński

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the role of a commander in military Lessons Learned systems. In order to achieve the aim, the paper presents (1 the architecture of the Lessons Learned capabilities in the U.S. Army, NATO and the Polish Armed Forces, (2 the commander’s role in the Lessons Learned process (3 the commander’s role in fostering Lessons Learned organisation culture. The paper is based on multiple case study analysis including Lessons Learned systems in NATO, the U.S. Army and the Polish Armed Forces.

  16. Probabilistic risk assessment methodology for risk management and regulatory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    See Meng Wong; Kelly, D.L.; Riley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and potential applications of PRA methodology for risk management and regulatory applications in the U.S. nuclear industry. The new PRA methodology centers on the development of This paper discusses the time-dependent configuration risk profile for evaluating the effectiveness of operational risk management programs at U.S. nuclear power plants. Configuration-risk profiles have been used as risk-information tools for (1) a better understanding of the impact of daily operational activities on plant safety, and (2) proactive planning of operational activities to manage risk. Trial applications of the methodology were undertaken to demonstrate that configuration-risk profiles can be developed routinely, and can be useful for various industry and regulatory applications. Lessons learned include a better understanding of the issues and characteristics of PRA models available to industry, and identifying the attributes and pitfalls in the developement of risk profiles

  17. Satellite-instrument system engineering best practices and lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Carl F.

    2009-08-01

    This paper focuses on system engineering development issues driving satellite remote sensing instrumentation cost and schedule. A key best practice is early assessment of mission and instrumentation requirements priorities driving performance trades among major instrumentation measurements: Radiometry, spatial field of view and image quality, and spectral performance. Key lessons include attention to technology availability and applicability to prioritized requirements, care in applying heritage, approaching fixed-price and cost-plus contracts with appropriate attention to risk, and assessing design options with attention to customer preference as well as design performance, and development cost and schedule. A key element of success either in contract competition or execution is team experience. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of success, however, is thorough requirements analysis and flowdown to specifications driving design performance with sufficient parameter margin to allow for mistakes or oversights - the province of system engineering from design inception to development, test and delivery.

  18. Sustainable Disaster Risk Reduction in Nigeria: Lessons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    out years of urban development by destroying infrastructure and housing and by .... productive activities, degree of organization, warning systems, political and ..... regard to note that current global climate models indicate that the sea level will ...

  19. Nuclear Knowledge Loss Risk Management (Lessons Learned, Implementation Experiences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Květoňová, Romana

    2014-01-01

    In the years 2007/2008 the Knowledge Management has emerged as one of the prime concerns in our HRM system. Based on the KM best practice data gathering, surveys and analyses, the detailed concept has been proposed and implemented primarily in our nuclear production units. Main objectives: • To identify, maintain and develop the unique knowledge; • To share the critical knowledge and the best practices; • To save the organization from critical capabilities and minimize the duplication effort; • To set up the succession planning system for the knowledge holders with potential knowledge loss; • To create effective system for the knowledge record sharing and its updating; • Further implementation of KM within production division as well as extension into another divisions

  20. A Risk Mitigation Model: Lessons Learned From Actual Insider Sabotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-07

    performance Responsibilities removed from projects Suspension of Internet access Death in family ; Divorce Financial Disagreement re: salary/compensation...Infrastructure by Information Technology Insiders, ” Monterrey , CA.: Defense Personnel Security Research and Education Center. Shaw, E.D. (2004). “The

  1. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: lessons learnt and lessons remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D Woodrow; Cohen, Mitchell I

    2017-01-01

    The Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern refers to the electrocardiographic appearance in sinus rhythm, wherein an accessory atrioventricular pathway abbreviates the P-R interval and causes a slurring of the QRS upslope - the "delta wave". It may be asymptomatic or it may be associated with orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia; however, rarely, even in children, it is associated with sudden death due to ventricular fibrillation resulting from a rapid response by the accessory pathway to atrial fibrillation, which itself seems to result from orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia. Historically, patients at risk for sudden death were characterised by the presence of symptoms and a shortest pre- excited R-R interval during induced atrial fibrillation Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern and availability of catheter ablation, there has been a need to identify risk among asymptomatic patients. Recent guidelines recommend invasive evaluation for such patients where pre-excitation clearly does not disappear during exercise testing. This strategy has a high negative predictive value only. The accuracy of this approach is under continued investigation, especially in light of other considerations: Patients having intermittent pre-excitation, once thought to be at minimal risk may not be, and the role of isoproterenol in risk assessment.

  2. Sample Lesson Plans. Management for Effective Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax County Public Schools, VA. Dept. of Instructional Services.

    This guide is part of the Management for Effective Teaching (MET) support kit, a pilot project developed by the Fairfax County (Virginia) Public Schools to assist elementary school teachers in planning, managaing, and implementing the county's curriculum, Program of Studies (POS). In this guide, a sample lesson plan of a teaching-learning activity…

  3. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

  4. Teaching about Terrorism: Lessons Learned at SWOTT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses some of the challenges and lessons for teaching undergraduate-level courses related to terrorism. The author outlines some of the primary issues that instructors can expect to face, and provides strategies for dealing with several of these challenges. The goal is to relay useful information to those teaching, or planning to…

  5. Jackie Steals Home. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulda, Arnold

    In this lesson, students draw on their previous studies of American history and culture as they analyze primary sources from "Jackie Robinson and Other Baseball Highlights, 1860s-1960s" in the American Memory collection. A close reading of two documents relating to Jackie Robinson's breaking of the racial barrier in professional baseball…

  6. Arts Impact: Lessons from ArtsBridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimshon-Santo, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    Arts Impact summarizes lessons learned at the ArtsBridge Program. It is informed by in-depth participant observation, logic modeling, and quantitative evaluation of program impact on K-12 students in inner city schools and arts students at the University of California Los Angeles over a two year period. The case study frames its analysis through a…

  7. Lessons in Spiritual Leadership from Kenyan Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngunjiri, Faith Wambura

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explicate spiritual leadership lessons of beneficence, courage, hope and ubuntu/humanness that are derived from the experiences of women leaders in Kenya. The paper seeks to connect African data with existing literature on spiritual leadership, to demonstrate where African spiritual leadership is similar…

  8. What Teachers Understand of Model Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, researchers in mathematics teacher education have identified characteristics of high quality professional development (PD). This report describes an investigation of a common approach to PD with secondary mathematics teachers, providing teachers with opportunities to experience reform-oriented model lessons as students…

  9. Most Effective Practices in Lesson Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sid T.; Pepper, Stephanie; Hanna, Shellie L.; Bell, Columbus David

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study with 130 undergraduate teacher candidates from all licensure levels, data on candidate effectiveness were examined using factor analysis. Four factors were found in effective teaching, those being lesson planning, teacher and student reflection, safe school environment, and teacher professionalism. The present study followed…

  10. Lessons learned on digital systems safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    2005-06-01

    A decade ago, in 1994, lessons learned from Halden research activities on digital systems safety were summarized in the reports HWR-374 and HWR-375, under the title 'A Lessons Learned Report on Software Dependability'. The reports reviewed all activities made at the Halden Project in this field since 1977. As such, the reports provide a wealth of information on Halden research. At the same time, the lessons learned from the different activities are made more accessible to the reader by being summarized in terms of results, conclusions and recommendations. The present report provides a new lessons learned report, covering the Halden Project research activities in this area from 1994 to medio 2005. As before, the emphasis is on the results, conclusions and recommendations made from these activities, in particular how they can be utilized by different types of organisations, such as licensing authorities, safety assessors, power companies, and software developers. The contents of the report have been edited on the basis of input from a large number of Halden work reports, involving many different authors. Brief summaries of these reports are included in the last part of the report. (Author)

  11. Oil prices: demand and supply. Lesson plan

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2005-01-01

    Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to list the determinants of demand and supply, recognize which factors will cause demand curves or supply curves to shift, determine equilibrium using a demand/supply graph, and show the effects on price and quantity when equilibrium changes.

  12. Lessons from the Electricity Auctions in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Joisa; Menezes, Flavio

    2005-01-01

    The first lesson to emerge from the recent auctions falls within a category that might be described as 'higher costs of reforms in developing economies.' These range from bidders' fears of future government-imposed price caps to technical issues, such as the potential loss of efficiency resulting from bidders' lack of knowledge about ceiling prices, reference supply, and the demand reduction mechanism

  13. A Lesson in Classroom Size Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymon, Steve

    1997-01-01

    The goal of California's classroom size reduction (CSR) program is to have 20 or fewer students in kindergarten through grade 3 classrooms. Districts receive $650 for each student in a reduced classroom. Describes how districts implemented the plan and offers five lessons from struggles and successes with CSR. A table displays average elementary…

  14. Two Approaches to Distance Education: Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Robert A.; Cartwright, G. Phillip

    1997-01-01

    Outlines lessons learned by the University of Wisconsin-Stout in implementing two distance education programs, a technology program using interactive television and a hospitality program using Lotus Notes to deliver courses. Topics discussed include program concept vs. technology as stimulus for innovation, program planning/administration,…

  15. Lessons Learned from a Consultation Process Overseas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Soto, César

    2014-01-01

    In this commentary I discuss three international school consultation experiences, highlighting aspects that serve as lessons for professional development and the implementation of effective and helpful strategies that meet the needs of children and youth in school systems. Relationships developed and maintained between the consulting teams and the…

  16. Commissioning MMS: Challenges and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Paul; Gramling, Cheryl; Reiter, Jennifer; Smith, Patrick; Stone, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses commissioning of NASA's Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission. The mission includes four identical spacecraft with a large, complex set of instrumentation. The planning for and execution of commissioning for this mission is described. The paper concludes by discussing lessons learned.

  17. Regionalization: A Story Map Lesson on Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    This lesson introduces the concept of regionalization and types of regions. After a brief introductory activity, students explore a story map to learn the material. The teacher can project the story map on a screen for all students to follow or students may work individually on computers. Working individually will allow students to set their own…

  18. Finnish Students’ Engagement in Science Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Linnansaari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing number of students who are engaged in science learning has been recognised as a problem. The pre-conditions of engagement and actual engagement were examined using a novel research method to obtain detailed information on Finnish students’ engagement in different situations and to gain a better understanding of this phenomenon. The study’s participants consisted of 68 students (31 girls, 37 boys from 9th grade and 67 students (46 girls, 21 boys from 1st grade in upper secondary school. The research aimed to answer the following question: How does Finnish students’ engagement occur in exact and life science lessons? Participants received smartphones equipped with a smartphone application that included an experience sampling method questionnaire. The smartphones were programmed to emit a signal during every science lesson and otherwise randomly during the day (from 8 am to 8 pm. The results reveal that situation and grade had significant effects on students’ pre-conditions of engagement and actual engagement. Our results also show that girls had the highest interest in life science lessons and boys in exact science lessons.

  19. [Heritage Education Lesson Plans and Slide Presentations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, Maurie

    Field tested in 27 schools and in grades four through twelve, this teaching unit stresses heritage education through the study of southern U.S. architectural styles for homes from the pioneer log structures to the 1950s ranch home. Each of the four lessons in this unit focuses around a slide presentation of 20 slides designed to fit into one…

  20. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  1. Library 101: Why, How, and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael; King, David Lee

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how and why the Library 101 Project was created and the lessons that the developers learned out of this project. The Library 101 is a project that challenges librarians to revise the paradigm of "basic" library services in order to remain relevant in this technology-driven world. It was developed by Michael Porter,…

  2. Listening Skills. Instructor/Lesson Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Carol; And Others

    This instructor/lesson guide provides instructional materials for a 4-hour course in listening skills in the workplace. Stated objectives are to help students to become more effective listeners, to assist students in obtaining an understanding of how effective they are as listeners, and to assist students in identifying bad listening habits. Two…

  3. Parental Involvement in Children's Independent Music Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena; Abrami, Philip C.; Brook, Julia; King, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine types of parental involvement associated with independent music lessons. A self-report survey was designed to explore parent characteristics, parental goals, students' musical progress, the teacher-student relationship, the practice environment, and parent behaviours during practice sessions. The extent to…

  4. Improving IT Project Portfolio Management: Lessons Learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2013-01-01

    The IT PPM improvement process is not well understood, and our knowledge about what makes IT PPM improvement succeed or fail is not well developed. This article presents lessons learned from organizations trying to improve their IT PPM practice. Based on this research IT PPM practitioners are adv...

  5. Twain's "Hannibal." Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jan; Thiese, Norma

    Writers are influenced by their environment including family, community, lifestyle, or location. One such writer was Mark Twain. With this lesson plan the learner will become familiar with and analyze life around Mark Twain's hometown, Hannibal, Missouri, during the latter half of the 19th century by using various online and print resources to…

  6. The Activity Structure of Lesson Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Robert B.; Anderson, Lorin W.

    1987-01-01

    Approaches classroom instruction and teacher effectiveness by conceptualizing the physical milieu shaping teacher-student interactions. Lessons are viewed as a series of segments with three components (purpose, activity format, and assignment) that help characterize the instructional environment. Scripts are suggested to help regulate activity…

  7. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  8. Rural Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Lessons From Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focussed on the lessons that can be garnered from the tenets of Scientific Management. We undertook an X-ray of the tenets of Scientific Management and how these tenets can be adopted to ensure the success of emerging entrepreneurs in the rural areas. Many rural entrepreneurs fail within a short period of ...

  9. Lessons learned from failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le May, I.

    2006-01-01

    Failure analysis can be a very useful tool to designers and operators of plant and equipment. It is not simply something that is done for lawyers and insurance companies, but is a tool from which lessons can be learned and by means of which the 'breed' can be improved. In this presentation, several failure investigations that have contributed to understanding will be presented. Specifically, the following cases will be discussed: 1) A fire at a refinery that occurred in a desulphurization unit. 2) The failure of a pipeline before it was even put into operation. 3) Failures in locomotive axles that took place during winter operation. The refinery fire was initially blamed on defective Type 321 seamless stainless steel tubing, but there were conflicting views between 'experts' involved as to the mechanism of failure and the writer was called upon to make an in-depth study. This showed that there were a variety of failure mechanism involved, including high temperature fracture, environmentally-induced cracking and possible manufacturing defects. The unraveling of the failure sequence is described and illustrated. The failure of an oil transmission was discovered when the line was pressure tested some months after it had been installed and before it was put into service. Repairs were made and failure occurred in another place upon the next pressure test being conducted. After several more repairs had been made the line was abandoned and a lawsuit was commenced on the basis that the steel was defective. An investigation disclosed that the material was sensitive to embrittlement and the causes of this were determined. As a result, changes were made in the microstructural control of the product to avoid similar problems in future. A series of axle failures occurred in diesel electric locomotives during winter. An investigation was made to determine the nature of the failures which were not by classical fatigue, nor did they correspond to published illustrations of Cu

  10. Reshimming of Tevatron dipoles: A Process-quality and lessons-learned perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blowers, J.N.; Carson, J.A.; Hanft, R.W.; Harding, D.J.; Robotham, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last two years corrections have been made for the skew quadrupole moment in 530 of the 774 installed dipoles in the Tevatron. This process of modifying the magnets in situ has inherent risk of degrading the performance of the superconducting accelerator. In order to manage the risk, as well as to ensure the corrections were done consistently, formal quality tools were used to plan and verify the work. The quality tools used to define the process and for quality control are discussed, along with highlights of lessons learned

  11. Reshimming of Tevatron Dipoles; A Process-Quality and Lessons-Learned Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Blowers, James N; Harding, David J; John, Carson; Robotham, William

    2005-01-01

    Over the last two years corrections have been made for the skew quadrupole moment in 530 of the 774 installed dipoles in the Tevatron. This process of modifying the magnets in situ has inherent risk of degrading the performance of the superconducting accelerator. In order to manage the risk, as well as to ensure the corrections were done consistently, formal quality tools were used to plan and verify the work. The quality tools used to define the process and for quality control are discussed, along with highlights of lessons learned.

  12. Communicating risk information and warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileti, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Major advances have occurred over the last 20 years about how to effectively communicate risk information and warnings to the public. These lessons have been hard won. Knowledge has mounted on the finding from social scientific studies of risk communication failures, successes and those which fell somewhere in between. Moreover, the last 2 decades have borne witness to the brith, cultivation, and blossoming of information sharing between those physical scientists who discover new information about risk and those communcation scientists who trace its diffusion and then measure pbulic reaction. 

  13. PUREX/UO3 Facilities deactivation lessons learned history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1996-09-19

    objectives of the project in mind can guide decisions that reduce risks with minimal manipulation of physical materials, minimal waste generation, streamline regulations and safety requirements where possible, and separate the facility from ongoing entanglements with operating systems. Thus, the ``parked car`` state is achieved quickly and directly. The PUREX Deactivation Lessons Learned History was first issued in January 1995. Since then, several key changes have occurred in the project, making it advisable to revise and update the document. This document is organized with the significant lessons learned captured at the end of each section, and then recounted in Section 11.0, ``Lessons Consolidated.`` It is hoped and believed that the lessons learned on the PUREX Deactivation Project will have value to other facilities both inside and outside the DOE complex.

  14. Regulating “big data education” in Europe: lessons learned from the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Har Carmel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available European schools are increasingly relying on vendors to collect, process, analyse, and even make decisions based on a considerable amount of student data through big data tools and methods. Consequently, portions of school’s power are gradually shifting from traditional public schools to the hands of for-profit organisations. This article discusses the current and forthcoming European Union (EU data protection regime with respect to the protection of student rights from the potential risk of outsourcing student data utilisation in Kindergarten-12th grade (K-12 educational systems. The article identifies what lessons can be drawn from recent developments in the United States (US “student data affair”. These lessons can provide a new perspective for designing a balanced policy for regulating the shift in school’s power.

  15. Resettling refugees and safeguarding their mental health: lessons learned from the Canadian Refugee Resettlement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiser, Morton

    2009-12-01

    The Ryerson University Refugee Resettlement Project (RRP), a decade-long study of 1348 Southeast Asian refugees who came to Canada between 1979 and 1981, is one of the largest, most comprehensive and longest-lived investigations of refugee resettlement ever carried out. Knowledge gleaned from the RRP about research methodology, about the resettlement experience, about the social costs of resettling refugees, about factors that promote or hinder integration, about risk and protective factors for refugee mental health, and about the refugees' consumption of mental health and social services is summarized in the form of 18 "Lessons." The lessons are offered in order to encourage and stimulate further research, as well to suggest policy and practice innovations that could help make resettlement easier, less costly, more effective, and more humane.

  16. Evaluating Failures and near Misses in Human Spaceflight History for Lessons for Future Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Studies done in the past have drawn on lessons learned with regard to human loss-of-life events. However, an examination of near-fatal accidents can be equally useful, not only in detecting causes, both proximate and systemic, but also for determining what factors averted disaster, what design decisions and/or operator actions prevented catastrophe. Binary pass/fail launch history is often used for risk, but this also has limitations. A program with a number of near misses can look more reliable than a consistently healthy program with a single out-of-family failure. Augmenting reliability evaluations with this near miss data can provide insight and expand on the limitations of a strictly pass/fail evaluation. This paper intends to show how near-miss lessons learned can provide crucial data for any new human spaceflight programs that are interested in sending man into space

  17. Lessons learned in CMAM implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, Nicky; Brown, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    -going. Despite the need to adapt protocols and approaches to each specific context, there is a need for a common research agenda and sharing of what works and does not. Concerted efforts have been made to improve information-sharing and to draw on lessons learned to advance technical and organisational challenges. However many health workers have limited access to quality information due to barriers such as internet access and language. For example, one recent initiative identified less than 10% of resources are available in French, despite high caseloads of acute malnutrition in francophone West Africa. Key actions to address challenges in information-sharing include: -Improve availability of and access to translated information -Increase use of social media, e-learning and audio-visual materials for extended reach and use of information -Stimulate interactive dialogue and sharing between practitioners for improved problem solving and learning -Strengthen the collaboration between complementary initiatives. In one decade significant advances in the adaptation and implementation of community-based management of acute malnutrition approach have been made in various contexts, but challenges to quality service delivery, scale-up and sustainability remain. It is time to draw on what we know to support scale-up and have equitable access to treatment to the millions of children who still remain outside of existing services. (author)

  18. English language-in-education: A lesson planning model for subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English language-in-education: A lesson planning model for subject teachers. ... lack of critical academic language skills in English as the Language of Learning and ... process of lesson design and the 'forward' process of lesson presentation.

  19. Sharing Lessons Learned Between Industries in EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehleisen, A.; Strucic, M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent events in nuclear industry remind us on importance of continuous sharing of the knowledge and experience gained through evaluations of incidents and accidents. We frequently use experience from our daily life activities to improve our performance and avoid some mistakes or unwanted events. In the similar way we can use other industries experience. These experiences can be applied to improve nuclear safety. For example, Safety Culture, which has a great influence on the level of nuclear power plants safety, is similarly presented in other industries. Mechanisms which led to accidents from weak safety culture in one branch of other industry could be comparable to those in nuclear industry. Some other industries have many more cumulative years of experience than nuclear industry. Aviation and Oil industries are typical representatives. Part of their experience can be used in nuclear industry too. Number of reports from nuclear power plants showed us that not only specific equipment related causes lay behind accidents; there are also other causes and contributors which are more common for all industries. Hence lessons learned in other industry should be assessed and used in nuclear industry too. In the European Union, a regional initiative has been set up in 2008 in support of EU Member State nuclear safety authorities, but also EU technical support organizations, international organizations and the broader nuclear community, to enhance nuclear safety through improvement of the use of lessons learned from operational experience of nuclear power plants (NPPs). The initiative, called ''the EU Clearinghouse on Operational Experience Feedback for NPP'', is organized as a network operated by a centralized office located at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. The reduction of occurrence and significance of events in NPPs and their safe operation is its ultimate goal. Among others EU Clearinghouse provides services such as technical and scientific

  20. Human Systems Integration in Practice: Constellation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumbado, Jennifer Rochlis

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Constellation program provided a unique testbed for Human Systems Integration (HSI) as a fundamental element of the Systems Engineering process. Constellation was the first major program to have HSI mandated by NASA's Human Rating document. Proper HSI is critical to the success of any project that relies on humans to function as operators, maintainers, or controllers of a system. HSI improves mission, system and human performance, significantly reduces lifecycle costs, lowers risk and minimizes re-design. Successful HSI begins with sufficient project schedule dedicated to the generation of human systems requirements, but is by no means solely a requirements management process. A top-down systems engineering process that recognizes throughout the organization, human factors as a technical discipline equal to traditional engineering disciplines with authority for the overall system. This partners with a bottoms-up mechanism for human-centered design and technical issue resolution. The Constellation Human Systems Integration Group (HSIG) was a part of the Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) organization within the program office, and existed alongside similar groups such as Flight Performance, Environments & Constraints, and Integrated Loads, Structures and Mechanisms. While the HSIG successfully managed, via influence leadership, a down-and-in Community of Practice to facilitate technical integration and issue resolution, it lacked parallel top-down authority to drive integrated design. This presentation will discuss how HSI was applied to Constellation, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers. This presentation will discuss how Human Systems Integration (HSI) was applied to NASA's Constellation program, the lessons learned and best practices it revealed, and recommendations to future NASA program and project managers on how to accomplish this critical function.

  1. Risk-based methodology for USNRC inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.M.; Holahan, G.M.; Chung, J.W.; Johnson, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the development and trial applications of a risk-based methodology to enhance the inspection processes for US nuclear power plants. Objectives of risk-based methods to complement prescriptive engineering approaches in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) inspection programs are presented. Insights from time-dependent risk profiles of plant configurational from Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE) studies were integrated to develop a framework for optimizing inspection efforts in NRC regulatory initiatives. Lessons learned from NRC pilot applications of the risk-based methodology for evaluation of the effectiveness of operational risk management programs at US nuclear power plant sites are also discussed

  2. Lessons learned in terms of crisis management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document outlines that nobody was prepared to the crisis which occurred after the Chernobyl accident, whether in Russia, Europe or France. In order to illustrate the fact that crisis management has been different from one country to another, the report describes how the crisis has been managed in Norway (which has been quickly reached by fallouts and with a rather high level) and in Switzerland. It comments radioactivity measurements performed in France during spring 1986 by the SCPRI, the CEA and the ISPN. It discusses the lessons drawn in France in terms of emergency situation management regarding the protection of the population, crisis management, and the French post-accidental doctrine. It comments the lessons drawn in eastern European countries, with the cooperative implication of the IRSN. International projects are evoked: the Chernobyl Centre, the French-German Initiative, the European projects (EURANOS, NERIS, FARMING, STRATEGY, MOSES and SAMEN)

  3. ELPSA as A Lesson Design Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Lowrie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a framework for mathematics lesson design that is consistent with the way we learn about, and discover, most things in life. In addition, the framework provides a structure for identifying how mathematical concepts and understanding are acquired and developed. This framework is called ELPSA and represents five learning components, namely: Experience, Language, Pictorial, Symbolic and Applications. This framework has been used in developing lessons and teacher professional programs in Indonesia since 2012 in cooperation with the World Bank. This paper describes the theory that underlines the framework in general and in relation to each inter-connected component. Two explicit learning sequences for classroom practice are described, associated with Pythagoras theorem and probability. This paper then concludes with recommendations for using ELPSA in various institutional contexts.

  4. WHC significant lessons learned 1993--1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, J.C.

    1997-12-12

    A lesson learned as defined in DOE-STD-7501-95, Development of DOE Lessons Learned Programs, is: A ``good work practice`` or innovative approach that is captured and shared to promote repeat applications or an adverse work practice or experience that is captured and shared to avoid a recurrence. The key word in both parts of this definition is ``shared``. This document was published to share a wide variety of recent Hanford experiences with other DOE sites. It also provides a valuable tool to be used in new employee and continuing training programs at Hanford facilities and at other DOE locations. This manual is divided into sections to facilitate extracting appropriate subject material when developing training modules. Many of the bulletins could be categorized into more than one section, however, so examination of other related sections is encouraged.

  5. Rock slopes and reservoirs - lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    Lessons learned about slope stability in the course of four decades of monitoring, and in some cases stabilizing, slopes along British Columbia's hydroelectric reservoirs are discussed. The lessons are illustrated by short case histories of some of the more important slopes such as Little Chief Slide, Dutchman's Ridge, Downie Slide, Checkerboard Creek and Wahleach. Information derived from the monitoring and other investigations are compared with early interpretations of geology and slope performance. The comparison serves as an indicator of progress in slope stability determination and as a measure of the value of accumulated experience in terms of the potential consequences to safety and cost savings over the long life-span of hydroelectric projects.14 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs

  6. Cryptography and the Internet: lessons and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurley, K.S.

    1996-12-31

    The popularization of the Internet has brought fundamental changes to the world, because it allows a universal method of communication between computers. This carries enormous benefits with it, but also raises many security considerations. Cryptography is a fundamental technology used to provide security of computer networks, and there is currently a widespread engineering effort to incorporate cryptography into various aspects of the Internet. The system-level engineering required to provide security services for the Internet carries some important lessons for researchers whose study is focused on narrowly defined problems. It also offers challenges to the cryptographic research community by raising new questions not adequately addressed by the existing body of knowledge. This paper attempts to summarize some of these lessons and challenges for the cryptographic research community.

  7. A Lesson in Knitting [In Bulgarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pankova - Karadjova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a non-fiction story about a grandmother teaching her six-year-old granddaughter how to knit. The child helps to wind the yarn into a ball and then patiently follows her granny's instructions, making stitch after stitch. The little girl's work is often uneven and is gently corrected. However, the small piece the child had knitted is used to patch up a tear in her grandfather's woolen glove. The lesson in knitting is transformed into a lesson in appreciation of one's work, no matter how small and insignificant it may seem. The narrative is permeated with the love between the grandmother and the child, who is the writer of the story.

  8. Material science lesson from the biological photosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Lee, Jun Ho; Ha, Heonjin; Im, Sang Won; Nam, Ki Tae

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by photosynthesis, artificial systems for a sustainable energy supply are being designed. Each sequential energy conversion process from light to biomass in natural photosynthesis is a valuable model for an energy collection, transport and conversion system. Notwithstanding the numerous lessons of nature that provide inspiration for new developments, the features of natural photosynthesis need to be reengineered to meet man's demands. This review describes recent strategies toward adapting key lessons from natural photosynthesis to artificial systems. We focus on the underlying material science in photosynthesis that combines photosystems as pivotal functional materials and a range of materials into an integrated system. Finally, a perspective on the future development of photosynthesis mimetic energy systems is proposed.

  9. TMI-2 lessons have been learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the more detailed papers which are presented in this session titled ''Advanced Light Water Reactors -- 15 Years After TMI.'' Many of the advances in the design, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants are the direct result of applying lessons learned from the 1979 TMI-2 accident. The authors believe the ''reality awakening'' which occurred following the accident should never be forgotten. Thus, this paper briefly reviews the TMI-2 accident and identifies the broad lessons learned following the accident. Then it describes briefly some indicators which show the very impressive improvements in nuclear power plant performance that have occurred over the past 10-15 years. This sets the stage for Dr. Ransom's paper which shows the continuing need for nuclear power, Dr. Beckjord's paper which describes the ''final'' TMI-2 research project and the subsequent papers which focus on advanced light water reactor developments

  10. Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity: Level II, Unit 9, Lesson 1; Force, Mass, and Distance: Lesson 2; Types of Motion and Rest: Lesson 3; Electricity and Magnetism: Lesson 4; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields: Lesson 5; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy: Lesson 6; Simple Machines and Work: Lesson 7; Gas Laws: Lesson 8; Principles of Heat Engines: Lesson 9; Sound and Sound Waves: Lesson 10; Light Waves and Particles: Lesson 11; Program. A High.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…

  11. Learning to observe mathematical learning in lesson studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Klaus; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten; Foss, Kristian Kildemoes

    2016-01-01

    This poster deals with lesson study (LS) in pre-service teacher education. In particular how to prepare for, carry out, and reflect upon, observations of pupil learning. Observation is of crucial importance to the lesson study process, and here we present a study of observation features which ena...... enable or hinder fruitful lesson study. While substantial research has been carried out in the general field of bserving pupils’ learning processes and teachers’ pedagogical practice, little is known about this in the particular setting of lesson study....

  12. Lessons Learned in Software Testing A Context-Driven Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kaner, Cem; Pettichord, Bret

    2008-01-01

    Decades of software testing experience condensed into the most important lessons learned.The world's leading software testing experts lend you their wisdom and years of experience to help you avoid the most common mistakes in testing software. Each lesson is an assertion related to software testing, followed by an explanation or example that shows you the how, when, and why of the testing lesson. More than just tips, tricks, and pitfalls to avoid, Lessons Learned in Software Testing speeds you through the critical testing phase of the software development project without the extensive trial an

  13. Radiological Control Technician: Phase 1, Site academic training lesson plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This volume provides lesson plans for training radiological control technicians. Covered here is basic radiological documentation, counting errors, dosimetry, environmental monitoring, and radiation instruments

  14. Lessons Learned from Developing SAWA: A Situation Awareness Assistant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheus, Christopher J; Kokar, Mieczyslaw M; Letkowski, Jerzy J; Call, Catherine; Baclawski, Kenneth; Hinman, Michael; Salerno, John; Boulware, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    .... During the process of its development several lessons were learned about advantages and limitations of certain approaches, techniques and technologies as they are applied to situation awareness...

  15. Analysis of Risk Management in Adapted Physical Education Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelle L.; Donovan, Jacqueline B.; Berg, Dominck A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs vary on how the topics of safe teaching and risk management are addressed. Common practices to cover such issues include requiring textbooks, lesson planning, peer teaching, videotaping, reflecting, and reading case law analyses. We used a mixed methods design to examine how risk management is…

  16. Learning lessons from natural disasters - sectorial or holistic perspectives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, M.; Blumenthal, B.; Nyberg, L.

    2009-04-01

    Lessons learning from systematic analyses of past natural disasters is of great importance for future risk reduction and vulnerability management. It is one crucial piece of a puzzle towards disaster resilient societies, together with e.g. models of future emerging climate-related risks, globalization or demographic changes. Systematic analyses of impact and management of past events have commonly been produced in many sectors, but the knowledge is seldom shared outside the own organization or produced for other actors. To increase the availability of reports and documents, the Swedish Rescue Services Agency has created the Swedish Natural Hazards Information System, in accordance with a government commission from 2005. The system gathers accident reports, investigations and in-depth analyses, together with societal additional costs and mappings of consequences from central and local governments, NGO's and private actors. Evaluation of the collection reveals large differences in quality, systematic approach, depth and extent, clearly consistent with the lack of coherent harmonization of investigation and reporting approaches. Type of hazard, degree of impact and time elapsed since present are decisive for the collected volume. LPHC (low probability high consequences) disasters usually comprise most data and analytical activities, since they often are met with surprise and highlight the failure to integrate resilience into normal societal planning. During the last 50 years, several LPHC events in Sweden have functioned as alarm clocks and entailed major changes and improvements in government policies or legislations, safety management systems, risk assessments, response training, stakeholder communication, etc. Such an event occurred in January 2005 when Northern Europe was confronted with one of the most severe storms in modern history. Accidents that caused 24 fatalities occurred (17 in Sweden), several regions in UK and Germany were flooded and extensive areas of

  17. The lessons of Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, K.C.

    1990-01-01

    This article looks at the lessons learned from the Three Mile Island incident in 1979 from the perspective of the manager of public affairs for General Public Utilities. A review of what was done, the types of information presented, the interfaces to the press, public and local and state government and why it did not work is presented. The article addresses communications and crisis management

  18. Basic Lessons in *ORA and Automap 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    screen capture showing the visualization of the agent x event graph from the Stargate Summit Meta-Network. The visualization displays the connections...for the Stargate dataset. 25.2 lessons - 201-207 A step by step run through of creating the Meta-Network from working with Excel, exporting data to...For the purpose of creating the Stargate MetaNetwork the two-episode story arc (Summit / Last Stand) was choosen as the basis for all the nodes

  19. Acquiring Procedural Skills from Lesson Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-13

    Teachers of Mathematics . Washington, D)C: NCTM . Brueckner, I..J. (1930) Diagnostic aund remedial teaching in arithmetic. Philadelphia. PA: Winston. Burton...arithmetic and algebra, fr-m multi-lesson curricula. The central hypothesis is that students and teachers obey cc: :-.entions that cause the goal hierarchy...students and • . teachers obey conventions that cause the goal hierarchy of the acquired procedure to be a particular structural function of the sequential

  20. The X-15 airplane - Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The X-15 rocket research airplane flew to an altitude of 354,000 ft and reached Mach 6.70. In almost 200 flights, this airplane was used to gather aerodynamic-heating, structural loads, stability and control, and atmospheric-reentry data. This paper describes the origins, design, and operation of the X-15 airplane. In addition, lessons learned from the X-15 airplane that are applicable to designing and testing the National Aero-Space Plane are discussed.

  1. The Joint Lessons Learned System and Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-02

    Learned: 1988-1989 As mentioned in the introduction to this chaoter, the Organizacion of the JcinC Chiefs cf Staff .OJCS) ueren significant transformatioi...Organization and Functions Manual . Washington, D.C.: HQDA, Office of the Deputy Chief 0f Staff for Operations and Plans, June 1984. ’..S. Army. Concept...U.S. Department of Defense. Joint Universal Lessons Learned System (JULLS) User’s Manual . Orlando, Florida: University of Central Florida, Institute

  2. CAT/RF Simulation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-11

    IVSS-2003-MAS-7 CAT /RF Simulation Lessons Learned Christopher Mocnik Vetronics Technology Area, RDECOM TARDEC Tim Lee DCS Corporation...developed a re- configurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) simulation for the Crew integration and Automation Test bed ( CAT ) and Robotics Follower (RF...Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) experiments. This simulation was developed as a component of the Embedded Simulation System (ESS) of the CAT

  3. Lessons learnt by US nuclear plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, W.

    2007-01-01

    Transparency means to communicate to the constituents openly and honestly, as soon as appear credible information. The author deals the subject in four fold: experience in the United States that have taught how not to communicate about nuclear energy; the successfully apply of these lessons learned to subsequent events; the need for transparency reaffirmed by more recent events; ongoing efforts by the United States industry to strengthen the core principles of transparency. (A.L.B.)

  4. Job Oriented Training ’Lessons Learned’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Job Oriented Training ’Lessons Learned’ Job Oriented Training (JOT), een vorm van trainen waarbij de cursist zelfstandig, zonder theorie vooraf...39 77 lnfo-DenV@tno.nl TNO-rapportnummer TNO-DV 2008 A447 Opdrachtnummer Datum november 2008 Auteur (s) drs. H.E. Stubbe dr. A.H. van der...onderlinge discussie over achterliggende overwegingen te stimuleren. Zij hebben op dat moment nog geen theorie aangeboden gekregen en zijn niet op de hoogte

  5. Lessons learned in applying function analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchel, G.R.; Davey, E.; Basso, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the lessons learned in undertaking and applying function analysis based on the recent experience of utility, AECL and international design and assessment projects. Function analysis is an analytical technique that can be used to characterize and asses the functions of a system and is widely recognized as an essential component of a 'systematic' approach to design, on that integrated operational and user requirements into the standard design process. (author)

  6. Lessons learned from Spain's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The commercial nuclear program in Spain dates back to the beginning of the 1960s. There are currently nine units in operation, one more has been decommissioned and a further five are in different phases of construction but under nuclear moratorium since 1983. This article gives a general overview of the program, the criteria applied, what it has meant to and required of the industry and, finally, what lessons have been learned. (author) 2 figs

  7. Organizational safety factors research lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    This Paper reports lessons learned and state of knowledge gained from an organizational factors research activity involving commercial nuclear power plants in the United States, through the end of 1991, as seen by the scientists immediately involved in the research. Lessons learned information was gathered from the research teams and individuals using a question and answer format. The following five questions were submitted to each team and individual: (1) What organizational factors appear to influence safety performance in some systematic way, (2) Should organizational factors research focus at the plant level, or should it extend beyond the plant level to the parent company, rate setting commissions, regulatory agencies, (3) How important is having direct access to plants for doing organizational factors research, (4) What lessons have been learned to date as the result of doing organizational factors research in a nuclear regulatory setting, and (5) What organizational research topics and issues should be pursued in the future? Conclusions based on the responses provided for this report are that organizational factors research can be conducted in a regulatory setting and produce useful results. Technologies pioneered in other academic, commercial, and military settings can be adopted for use in a nuclear regulatory setting. The future success of such research depends upon the cooperation of regulators, contractors, and the nuclear industry

  8. Enhancing mathematics teachers' quality through Lesson Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomibao, Laila S

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency and effectivity of the learning experience is dependent on the teacher quality, thus, enhancing teacher's quality is vital in improving the students learning outcome. Since, the usual top-down one-shot cascading model practice for teachers' professional development in Philippines has been observed to have much information dilution, and the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization demanded the need to develop mathematics teachers' quality standards through the Southeast Asia Regional Standards for Mathematics Teachers (SEARS-MT), thus, an intensive, ongoing professional development model should be provided to teachers. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of Lesson Study on Bulua National High School mathematics teachers' quality level in terms of SEARS-MT dimensions. A mixed method of quantitative-qualitative research design was employed. Results of the analysis revealed that Lesson Study effectively enhanced mathematics teachers' quality and promoted teachers professional development. Teachers positively perceived Lesson Study to be beneficial for them to become a better mathematics teacher.

  9. Research Data Curation Pilots: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the spring of 2011, the UC San Diego Research Cyberinfrastructure (RCI Implementation Team invited researchers and research teams to participate in a research curation and data management pilot program. This invitation took the form of a campus-wide solicitation. More than two dozen applications were received and, after due deliberation, the RCI Oversight Committee selected five curation-intensive projects. These projects were chosen based on a number of criteria, including how they represented campus research, varieties of topics, researcher engagement, and the various services required. The pilot process began in September 2011, and will be completed in early 2014. Extensive lessons learned from the pilots are being compiled and are being used in the on-going design and implementation of the permanent Research Data Curation Program in the UC San Diego Library. In this paper, we present specific implementation details of these various services, as well as lessons learned. The program focused on many aspects of contemporary scholarship, including data creation and storage, description and metadata creation, citation and publication, and long term preservation and access. Based on the lessons learned in our processes, the Research Data Curation Program will provide a suite of services from which campus users can pick and choose, as necessary. The program will provide support for the data management requirements from national funding agencies.

  10. Low level waste shipment accident lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rast, D.M.; Rowe, J.G.; Reichel, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    On October 1, 1994 a shipment of low-level waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project, Fernald, Ohio, was involved in an accident near Rolla, Missouri. The accident did not result in the release of any radioactive material. The accident did generate important lessons learned primarily in the areas of driver and emergency response communications. The shipment was comprised of an International Standards Organization (ISO) container on a standard flatbed trailer. The accident caused the low-level waste package to separate from the trailer and come to rest on its top in the median. The impact of the container with the pavement and median inflicted relatively minor damage to the container. The damage was not substantial enough to cause failure of container integrity. The success of the package is attributable to the container design and the packaging procedures used at the Fernald Environmental Management Project for low-level waste shipments. Although the container survived the initial wreck, is was nearly breached when the first responders attempted to open the ISO container. Even though the container was clearly marked and the shipment documentation was technically correct, this information did not identify that the ISO container was the primary containment for the waste. The lessons learned from this accident have DOE complex wide applicability. This paper is intended to describe the accident, subsequent emergency response operations, and the lessons learned from this incident

  11. Living with risk: a management question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ale, Ben J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Public authorities started to be really involved in risk management of hazardous materials some 30 years ago. Recent developments have led to fresh attention for this matter and many further developments are underway. The history of risk management and safety regulation is one of strongly variable interest, forgotten lessons and rude awakenings. The impetus exerted by accidents is short lived. Safety cases become documents to satisfy regulation rather than instruments to reduce risk. Deregulation, privatisation, and outsourcing pose new challenges to safety and risk management. Some of the unfortunate side effects have already become apparent. This invariably leads to the next disaster, which will have a striking resemblance to the previous one when abstracted from the immediate technological context. Lessons can be learned if we really want. The question remains: 'Do we?'

  12. Lessons on corporate "sustainability" disclosure from Deepwater Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    The BP oil spill highlighted shortcomings of current financial and sustainability reporting standards and practice. "Integrated reporting" aims to combine financial and social/environmental information into a single annual corporate report. But without more stringent standards, integrated reports would neglect substantial risks and, as BP's sustainability reports demonstrate, create false impressions of good practice.To be of value, integration must: 1. Require timely disclosure of enforcement notices, orders and allegations issued by regulators. 2. Require disclosure of credible scientific reports and concerns indicative of potentially catastrophic risks of a company's products and activities, regardless of scientific uncertainty. 3. Require review and disclosures of a firm's safety culture. 4. Require disclosure of any facts or circumstances needed to ensure that the management's self-portrait of its sustainability strategies, goals and progress is not materially misleading.In conducting its misleading reporting, BP largely followed Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines. GRI is soliciting input, beginning in summer 2011, on how to revise those guidelines. Since GRI may prove a leading source for sustainability disclosure rules in integrating reporting, lessons learned from the BP experience must be applied to the next GRI revisions.

  13. Provider-Sponsored Health Plans: Lessons Learned over Three Decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breon, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare's movement to value-based care is causing health systems across the country to consider whether owning or partnering with a health plan could benefit their organizations. Although organizations have different reasons for wanting to enter the insurance business, potential benefits include improving care quality, lowering costs, managing population health, expanding geographic reach, and diversifying the organization's revenue stream. However, the challenges and risks of owning a health plan are formidable: Assuming 100 percent financial risk for a patient population requires considerable financial resources, as well as competencies that are wholly different from those needed to run a hospital or physician group. For Spectrum Health, an integrated, not-for-profit health system based in Grand Rapids, Michigan, owning a health plan has been vital to fulfilling its mission of improving the health of the communities it serves, as well as its value proposition of providing highquality care at lower costs. This article weighs the pros and cons of operating a health plan; explores key business factors and required competencies that organizations need to consider when deciding whether to buy, build, or partner; examines the current environment for provider-sponsored health plans; and shares some of the lessons Spectrum Health has learned over three decades of running its health plan, Priority Health.

  14. United States Support Programme (USSP): Lessons Learned from the Management of Complex, Multi-Stakeholder Projects for International Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, R.; Tackentien, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will review USSP experiences, lessons learned, and proposed future strategies on the management of complex projects including the Universal Non-Destructive Assay Data Acquisition Platform (UNAP) instrument development task. The focus will be on identifying lessons learned to formulate strategies to minimize risk and maximize the potential of commercial success for future complex projects. Topics planned for inclusion are: 1. Initial agreement amongst all stakeholders on the justification of the need of the development including market studies of existing/near term future COTS technology capabilities; 2. Initial confirmation that there is a market for the product other than the IAEA to reduce investment risk; 3. Agreement on an accelerated initial project schedule from request acceptance to commercial unit production including per unit cost and quantities; 4. During product development, obtaining periodic customer reaffirmation of the need and quantities for the product per the existing schedule and per unit price. (author)

  15. Enabling and sustaining the activities of lay health influencers: lessons from a community-based tobacco cessation intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Heide; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Muramoto, Myra

    2010-07-01

    The authors present findings from a community-based tobacco cessation project that trained lay health influencers to conduct brief interventions. They outline four major lessons regarding sustainability. First, participants were concerned about the impact that promoting cessation might have on social relationships. "Social risk" must be addressed during training to ensure long-term sustainability. Second, formal training provided participants with an increased sense of self-efficacy, allowed them to embrace a health influencer identity, and aided in further reducing social risk. Third, material resources functioned to mediate social tensions during health intervention conversations. A variety of resources should be made available to health influencers to accommodate type of relationship, timing, and location of the interaction. Finally, project design must be attentive to the creation of a "community of practice" among health influencers as an integral part of project sustainability. These lessons have broad implications for successful health promotion beyond tobacco cessation.

  16. Hands-on lessons in ergonomics for youth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K

    2005-09-29

    Ergonomics risk factors apply to everybody. Numerous adults have experienced disabling injuries related to use of computers and other forms of technology. Now children are using technology even more than adults. Increasingly ergonomics risk factors are being recognized as present in the world of children. Outreach to schools and the surrounding community by employers may help protect the future work force. A growing body of researchers believe that children can benefit from the early introduction of ergonomics awareness and preventative measures. While individual representatives of the educational system may embrace the concept of introducing ergonomics into the classroom, a number of barriers can prevent implementation of integrated programs. Some of the barriers to introducing ergonomics in schools have been absence of a tie to educational standards, the existing demands on teaching hours, and the absence of easily executable lesson plans. Ergonomics is rarely included in teacher training and professional ergonomics expertise is needed for the development of a class-based program. As part of Strategic Vision plan for 2025, a National Laboratory identified community outreach and the future workforces as key areas for initiatives. A series of hands-on interactive modules have been developed by professional ergonomics specialists. They are being tested with elementary, middle and high school students. Where possible, the content has been tied to the educational standards in the State of California in the USA. Currently the modules include grip strength, effective breathing, optimal keyboard and mouse positions, optimizing chairs, posture and movement, backpack safety and safe lifting. Each module takes the students through a related activity or experience. An individual worksheet asks them questions about the experience and guides them to consider implications in their activities of daily living. A module on hearing is under development. The goal is to have a

  17. Lessons from 2011 - Machine protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerlauth, M.; Schmidt, R.; Wenninger, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. The LHC Machine Protection and Equipment Systems have been working extremely well during the 2011 run. Ever more failures are captured before effects on the particle beams are seen (i.e. no beam losses or orbit changes are observed). An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012

  18. Discovering Euler Circuits and Paths through a Culturally Relevant Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Rodrigue, Paulette R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a middle school discrete mathematics lesson that uses the context of catching crawfish to provide students with a hands-on experience related to Euler circuits and paths. The lesson promotes mathematical communication through the use of cooperative learning as well as connections between mathematics and the real world…

  19. Why Lesson Study Works in Japan: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaeguin, Marlon; Stephens, Max

    2014-01-01

    Japanese lesson study has attracted many international educators who have been impressed by its capacity to foster student learning and sustained professional growth of teachers. This paper reports a study on its cultural orientations that may explain why lesson study works seamlessly in Japan. Hofstede's dimensions of national culture are…

  20. World Hunger: Famine in Africa. Sample Lessons, Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Eileen; And Others

    This model social studies lesson includes a simulated interview with a relief worker describing the famine conditions in Ethiopia. A map of Africa and pictures of famine victims are included. The objectives of the lesson are to have students describe the situation in Ethiopia, analyze the causes, and evaluate solutions to the famine. In the model…

  1. Integrating UNESCO ICT-Based Instructional Materials in Chemistry Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHARLIE P. NACARIO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the effectiveness of the lessons in Chemistry integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional material on the achievement of Chemistry students at Central Bicol State University of Agriculture. It aimed to identify lessons that may be developed integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials, determine the effect of the developed lessons using the material on: conceptual understanding; science process skills; and attitude towards chemistry and gather insights from the experiences of the students and teacher. The study used the single group pretest and posttest experimental design. Descriptive, quantitative and qualitative techniques were also utilized. Quantitative data were taken from the pretest-posttest results on the Test on Conceptual Understanding, Science Process Skills and Chemistry Attitudinaire. Qualitative data were drawn from the experts’ assessment of the developed lessons and research instruments, and the insights of students and teacher. The developed lessons integrating UNESCO ICT-based instructional materials were Atomic Model and Structure, Periodic Table of Elements, Chemical Bonding, and Balancing Chemical Equation. These lessons increased the conceptual understanding of the students by topic and skill from very low mastery to average mastery level. The students have slightly improved along the different science process skills. After teaching the lessons, the students’ attitude also improved. The students became more motivated and interested in Chemistry and the lessons were student centered and entailed teacher’s competence and flexibility in computer use.

  2. From inventivity in Limerick to creativity in Aveiro: lessons learnt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wong, W

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the key lessons from an earlier HCI Educators’ conference, held in Limerick in 2006, the outcomes of which led to the theme of HCIEd 2007 – Creativity: Experiencing to Educate and Design. The paper discusses the lessons leant...

  3. Moroccan Arabic Technical Lessons for Rehab./Special Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtatou, Mohamed, Ed.

    The instructional materials in Moroccan Arabic are designed to meet the language needs of Peace Corps volunteers working in rehabilitation and special education in Morocco. The lessons are almost entirely in Arabic, and include vocabulary lists with both technical and everyday language pertaining to disabilities. Lesson topics include singing, the…

  4. The Finishing Touch: Anatomy of Expert Lesson Closures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Collin A.; Connolly, Graeme; Schempp, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Based on the idea that students remember best what is presented last, the lesson closure is commonly identified as an important component of effective teaching and has recently surfaced as a routine practice of expert teachers in sport. Despite its link to both effective and expert instruction, the lesson closure has seen scarce…

  5. Lessons of History: Organizational Factors in Three Aviation Mishaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines organizational factors that contributed to three aircraft mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. Three historical aviation mishaps were studied from a human factors perspective, and organizational factors identified and analyzed. These case studies provide valuable lessons for understanding the interaction of people with aircraft systems and with each other during flight operations.

  6. "Connecting the Dots": Munich, Iraq, and the Lessons of History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conolly-Smith, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the ways in which "lessons of history," in particular the "Munich analogy," have been misconstrued in justification of United States armed intervention since the beginning of the Cold War. While the wisdom of a hawkish foreign policy is indeed one lesson of Munich--certainly as applied to World War…

  7. "Hamlet" Meets "Chushingura": Traditions of the Revenge Tragedy. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This lesson seeks to sensitize students to the similarities and difference between cultures by comparing the Shakespearean and the Bunraki/Kabuki dramas of Japan. In the lesson, the focus of this comparison is the complex nature of revenge explored in "The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark" and "Chusingura," or "The…

  8. Gross Domestic Pizza. Active Learning Lessons. Economics International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleskiene, Irena; Venger, Anatoly; MacDonald, Rich; Davis, Debbie

    This lesson plan was developed through "Economics International," an international program to help build economic education infrastructures in the emerging market economies. It provides a lesson description; appropriate age level; economic concepts; content standards and benchmarks; related subject areas; instructional objectives; time…

  9. Go West: Imagining the Oregon Trail. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    In this lesson plan, students in grades 3-5 compare imagined travel experiences of their own with the actual experiences of 19th-century pioneers on the Oregon Trail. After the 4 lessons students will have: (1) learned about the pioneer experience on the Oregon Trail; (2) compared and contrasted modern-day travel experiences with those of the 19th…

  10. Students' perception of mathematics and science plasma lessons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to follow the lessons appropriately. Moreover, on regular basis the ministry of education should make appropriate mechanisms for the improvements of the lessons. In addition to this, trainings should be given to high school teachers for maximum utilization of the technology. Keywords: education, plasma TV, mathematics, ...

  11. Mathematics Teachers' Views of Accountability Testing Revealed through Lesson Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarema, Connie H.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of lesson study, a professional development model originating in Japan, aligns well with recommendations from research for teacher professional development. Lesson study is also an inductive research method that uncovers student thinking and, in parallel, grants teacher-educators the opportunity to study teachers' thinking about…

  12. Lessons learned from AU PSO-missions in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    The paper deals with the lessons learned from AU's PSO since 2002, and what that entails for the design of future PSO.......The paper deals with the lessons learned from AU's PSO since 2002, and what that entails for the design of future PSO....

  13. The Paper Airplane Challenge: A Market Economy Simulation. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kimberly

    This lesson plan features a classroom simulation that helps students understand the characteristics of a market economic system. The lesson plan states a purpose; cites student objectives; suggests a time duration; lists materials needed; and details a step-by-step teaching procedure. The "Paper Airplane Challenge" handout is attached. (BT)

  14. "O Mundo da Lingua Portuguesa," a Supplementary Cultural Lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    The text of a classroom lesson on the distribution and use of the Portuguese language in African countries, written in Portuguese and containing an explanation of and practice in using the definite article with African place names, is presented. The lesson is accompanied by vocabulary notes in the margin, a list of questions on the text, and a mpa…

  15. Righting Your Future: LRE Lesson Plans for Today and Tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRADLE: Center for Research and Development in Law-Related Education, Winston-Salem, NC.

    A compilation of more than 50 lesson plans on law related education, these materials were written by middle school and high school teachers from around the United States. The lessons cover a broad range of topics including "DNA Fingerprints and the Constitutional Right to Privacy"; "Censorship and Book Banning in Public Schools"; "The Death…

  16. Exploring Ethograms in the Schoolyard: A Lesson on Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graszer, Christina L.; Gnau, Katie; Melber, Leah M.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights a core lesson that has been used in a number of Lincoln Park Zoo educational programs. The lesson teaches students to conduct an ethological, or animal behavior, study on a bird. This study can be implemented in a variety of outdoor settings, including a park, schoolyard, or zoo. Using an ethogram, students will practice…

  17. The Construction of Biology Lessons: A Meta-Paradigmatic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime

    1991-01-01

    The views of Piaget, Ausubel, and Bruner have been used to present an integrated view of biology lesson construction and to assist teachers in the design and development of tools and strategies to improve their teaching. The structure of an integrated model for biology lesson construction and an example of a biolesson using the metaparadigmatic…

  18. Development of an Attitude Scale towards High School Physics Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavas, Pervin Ünlü; Çagan, Sultan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a Likert type attitude scale for high school students with regard to high school physics lessons. The research was carried out with high school students who were studying in Ankara. First, the opinions of 105 high school students about physics lessons were obtained and then 55 scale items were determined from…

  19. Lessons Learnt on Rain Forest Management for Wood Production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out with the aim of analyzing and establishing what lessons have been learnt from positive and negative experiences of various initiatives, projects and programmes aiming at sustainable management, use and conservation of rain forests in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lessons learnt from the case ...

  20. Fun on the farm: evaluation of a lesson to teach students about the spread of infection on school farm visits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith K D Hawking

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: School visits to farms are a positive educational experience but pose risks due to the spread of zoonotic infections. A lesson plan to raise awareness about microbes on the farm and preventative behaviours was developed in response to the Griffin Investigation into the E. coli outbreak associated with Godstone Farm in 2009. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the delivery of the lesson plan in increasing knowledge about the spread of infection on the farm, amongst school students. METHODS: Two hundred and twenty-five 9-11 year old students from seven junior schools in England participated. Two hundred and ten students filled in identical questionnaires covering microbes, hand hygiene, and farm hygiene before and after the lesson. Statistical analysis assessed knowledge change using difference in percentage correct answers. RESULTS: Significant knowledge improvement was observed for all sections. In the 'Farm Hygiene' section, girls and boys demonstrated 18% (p<0.001 and 11% (p<0.001 improvement, respectively (girls vs. boys p<0.004. As girls had lower baseline knowledge the greater percentage improvement resulted in similar post intervention knowledge scores between genders (girls 80%, boys 83%. CONCLUSIONS: The lesson plan was successful at increasing awareness of microbes on the farm and infection prevention measures and should be used by teachers in preparation for a farm visit.

  1. Lessons learned from the Maintenance Rule implementation at Northeast Utilities operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, K.B.; Khalil, Y.F.; Johnson, W.

    1996-01-01

    The Maintenance Rule as described in 10CFR50.65 requires holders of all operating nuclear power plants to monitor the performance of structures, systems, and components (SSCs) against licensee-established performance criteria. The Industry with the assistance of the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) developed a guideline, which includes all parts of the Maintenance Rule, to establish these performance criteria while incorporating safety and reliability of the operating plants. The NUMARC 93-01 Guideline introduced the term ''Risk Significant'' to categorize subsets of the SSCs which would require increased focus, from a Maintenance Rule perspective, in setting their performance criteria. Northeast Utilities Company (NU) operates five nuclear plants three at Millstone Station in Waterford, Connecticut; the Connecticut Yankee plant in Haddam Neck, Connecticut; and the Seabrook Station in Seabrook, New Hampshire. NU started the implementation process of the Maintenance Rule program at its five operating plants since early 1994, and have identified a population of risk significant SSCs at each plant. Recently, Northeast Utilities' Maintenance Rule Team re-examined the initial risk significant determinations to further refine these populations, and to establish consistencies among its operating units. As a result of the re-examination process, a number of inconsistencies and areas for improvement have been identified. The lessons learned provide valuable insights to consider in the future as one implements more risk based initiatives such as Graded QA and Risk-Based ISI and IST. This paper discusses the risk significance criteria, how Northeast Utilities utilized NUMARC 93-01 Guideline to determine the risk significant SSCs for its operating plants, and lessons learned. The results provided here do not include the Seabrook Station

  2. Safety of ephedra: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Madhusudan G; Carabin, Ioana G; Griffiths, James C; Burdock, George A

    2004-04-15

    The safe use of ephedra represents the best possible outcome of a convergence of variables, some with troubling potential outcomes. Commercially used ephedra and its products is prepared from Ephedra spp. and as such is subject to a variety of influences (including differences in species and strain; growth, harvest and storage conditions) all of which may influence the content of constituents (which may, in turn, affect the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of active constituents) and taken together, influences the net pharmacological effect. Further, as a natural substance with an easily perceived and desirable (i.e. weight-loss) pharmacological effect, ephedra is also susceptible to a variety of adulterants, both economic and efficacious. All of the foregoing represent potential for misadventure before ephedra even reaches the consumer. The consumer introduces a constellation of variables as well, including, but not limited to, acute and chronic diseases, inborn errors in metabolism, simultaneous use of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, dietary supplements, alcohol, illicit substances and certain foods (e.g. chocolate, caffeinated drinks), all or some of which may exert synergistic, additive or even antagonistic influences on the desired physiologic outcome. The foregoing not withstanding, the majority of the published nonclinical and clinical studies, and history of use, support the safety of ephedra at the proposed use levels. However, the reports of adverse events submitted to FDA raise concern about the risk associated with ephedra without establishing a direct causal relationship. Given the foregoing, how best can a decision on safety be made? Should the question actually be "can ephedra be as toxic as reported?"

  3. Defense Language Institute Russian Basic Course. Volumes XXVIII, Lessons 131-140. Volume XXX, Lessons 151-159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    The 19 lessons in these two volumes are intended for the advanced phase of a 159-lesson intensive audiolingual basic Russian course developed recently by the Defense Language Institute to train native speakers of English to a Level 3 second language proficiency. These third and fifth volumes contain such features as (1) texts on the Russian Civil…

  4. Lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident and responses in NRA regulatory requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2014-01-01

    The author would like to present significant lessons learned from the TEPCO’s Fukushima Dai-ichi accident and responses in regulatory requirements developed by the Nuclear Regulation Authority for power-producing light water reactors. The presentation will cover prevention of structures, systems and components failures, measures to prevent common cause failures, prevention of core damage, mitigation of severe accidents, emergency preparedness, continuous improvement of safety, use of probabilistic risk assessment, and post-accident regulation on the Fukushima Dai-ichi. (author)

  5. A Model of Microteaching Lesson Study Implementation in the Prospective History Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utami, Indah Wahyu Puji; Mashuri; Nafi'ah, Ulfatun

    2016-01-01

    Microteaching lesson study is a model to improve prospective teacher quality by incorporating several element of microteaching and lesson study. This study concern on the implementation of microteaching lesson study in prospective history teacher education. Microteaching lesson study model implemented in this study consist of three stages: plan,…

  6. Driver. D530.2 – Tools for the Lessons Learned Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, M.G. van; et al

    2016-01-01

    In this deliverable D530.2 “Tools for the Lessons Learned Framework” the overall lessons learned framework will be clarified based on the delivery D53.1 “Lessons Learned Framework Concept” and aligned with the deliverable D52.1 “Harmonized competence framework”. The Tools for the Lessons Learned

  7. Communication in reducing facility siting risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    Today, social considerations are as important as technical ones in siting new nuclear facilities. Siting any industrial facility has become extremely difficult in this era of not in my backyard (NIMBY). Even if NIMBY does not arise locally, well-organized national opposition groups can be counted on to step in to fan the flames, especially when the industrial facility has to do with anything nuclear. It is now generally recognized that the greatest risk of failure for new nuclear facilities is not technical but social. Applying lessons gained from past experience and social science research can help reduce that risk. From these lessons, six principles for public interaction and communication stand out: (1) create goodwill now; (2) involve the community early; (3) establish the need; (4) communicate controls, not risk; (5) avoid jargon; (6) understand your public

  8. Lessons from obesity prevention for the prevention of mental disorders: the primordial prevention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven

    2014-09-10

    Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Obesity prevention research since the 1970's represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet and physical activity and so there may be clear lessons from obesity prevention that apply to the prevention of mental disorders. For obesity, as for common mental disorders, adolescence represents a key period of vulnerability. In this paper we briefly discuss relationships between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and mental health, lifestyle risk factor interventions in obesity prevention research, the current state of mental health prevention, and the implications of current applications of systems thinking in obesity prevention research for lifestyle interventions. We propose a potential focus for future mental health promotion interventions and emphasise the importance of lessons available from other lifestyle modification intervention programmes.

  9. A Lesson Plan Incorporating Collaborative Strategic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江萍

    2017-01-01

    This essay is going to have an in-depth analysis of the Collaborative Strategic Reading, a four-step reading comprehen-sion strategy popular in the Western classrooms. It will start with some brief introduction about this instructional approach in company with its theoretical rationale and research evidence for its effectiveness of improving learners 'reading competence. Fo-cused on the previewing skill, the first step of the reading instruction, a modified lesson plan is designed in the Chinese high school setting, followed by justification of the major elements of the plan, and some practical implications.

  10. A Lesson Plan Incorporating Collaborative Strategic Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈江萍

    2017-01-01

    This essay is going to have an in-depth analysis of the Collaborative Strategic Reading, a four-step reading comprehen?sion strategy popular in the Western classrooms. It will start with some brief introduction about this instructional approach in company with its theoretical rationale and research evidence for its effectiveness of improving learners 'reading competence. Fo?cused on the previewing skill, the first step of the reading instruction, a modified lesson plan is designed in the Chinese high school setting, followed by justification of the major elements of the plan, and some practical implications.

  11. The Fernald Closure Project: Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Cornelius M.; Carr, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    For nearly 37 years, the U.S. Department of Energy site at Fernald - near Cincinnati, Ohio - produced 230,000 metric tons (250,000 short tons) of high-purity, low-enriched uranium for the U.S. Defense Program, generating more than 5.4 million metric tons (6 million short tons) of liquid and solid waste as it carried out its Cold War mission. The facility was shut down in 1989 and clean up began in 1992, when Fluor won the contract to clean up the site. Cleaning up Fernald and returning it to the people of Ohio was a $4.4 billion mega environmental-remediation project that was completed in October 2006. Project evolved through four phases: - Conducting remedial-investigation studies to determine the extent of damage to the environment and groundwater at, and adjacent to, the production facilities; - Selecting cleanup criteria - final end states that had to be met that protect human health and the environment; - Selecting and implementing the remedial actions to meet the cleanup goals; - Executing the work in a safe, compliant and cost-effective manner. In the early stages of the project, there were strained relationships - in fact total distrust - between the local community and the DOE as a result of aquifer contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholders groups in the decision-making process, the DOE and Fluor developed a public-participation strategy to open the channels of communication with the various parties: site leadership, technical staff and regulators. This approach proved invaluable to the success of the project, which has become a model for future environmental remediation projects. This paper will summarize the history and shares lessons learned: the completion of the uranium-production mission to the implementation of the Records of Decision defining the cleanup standards and the remedies achieved. Lessons learned fall into ten categories: - Regulatory approach with end

  12. Lessons, open questions, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grupe D.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We summarize some of the highlights of this workshop, the first of its kind dedicated to observing and modeling the tidal disruption of stars by black holes in the centers of galaxies (or star clusters. We review the lessons learned from recent observations and from theory and identify outstanding questions and areas where more theoretical and observational work is needed. We also consider upcoming observing facilities that can be used to study tidal disruption events and speculate what these new facilities may contribute to the field.

  13. HCI Lessons From PlayStation VR

    OpenAIRE

    Habgood, Jacob; Wilson, David; Moore, David; Alapont, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    PlayStation VR has quickly built up a significant user-base of over a million headsets and its own ecosystem of games across a variety of genres. These games form part of a rapidly evolving testing ground for design solutions which can usefully inform HCI design for virtual reality. This paper reviews every PlayStation VR title released in the first three months of its lifecycle in order to identify emerging themes for locomotion. These themes are discussed with respect to the lessons learned...

  14. Lessons learnt from the organ retention controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the lessons to be learnt from the organ retention controversy in the Republic of Ireland. The paper emphasises the importance of good communication between clinicians and families of deceased persons and a move away from a medical culture based on paternalism to a partnership approach between clinicians and patients based on mutual trust and understanding. A model of authorisation rather than consent is proposed as the way forward for dealing with the difficult and traumatic experience of asking families for permission to carry out a post mortem examination on their deceased child. (authors)

  15. Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  16. Transboundary Movement of Radioactively Contaminated Scrap Metal - Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizamska, M., E-mail: m.nimzamska@bnra.bg [Emergency Planning and Preparedness Division, Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-15

    Starting in 1989, Bulgaria has undergone a comprehensive transformation of its economy and social conditions. Part of this process is related to the intensive privatization that started in 2001. This privatization included facilities, as well as sites that use radioactive material for different applications - industry, medicine, agriculture, science, etc. The rapid change of property ownership and, in some cases, the resulting bankruptcy, has caused difficulties in tracing and identifying radioactive sources and materials and a deterioration of the system of safety, physical protection, etc. of radioactive material. In some cases, radioactive sources were stolen because of the value of their protective containers and sold for scrap metal. This led to the occurrence of different types of radiation incidents, mainly related to the discovery of radioactive sources in scrap metal. The consequences of these incidents include the risk of radiation exposure of the workers at scrap metal yards or reprocessing facilities and of members of the public and, in addition, radioactive contamination of the environment. The Bulgarian Nuclear Regulatory Agency (BNRA) has been responding to these incidents and has carried out a series of measures to improve the control over materials (e.g. activated or surface contaminated materials) and radioactive sources and to strengthen the preventive, monitoring, emergency preparedness and mitigating measures at facility, national and transboundary levels. This paper presents an analysis of the lessons learned by the BNRA and of the control of the transboundary movement of radioactively contaminated scrap metal through the territory of Bulgaria. (author)

  17. Empowering teenagers to prevent pregnancy: lessons from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Morrell, Robert; Christofides, Nicola

    2009-10-01

    Reducing rates of teenage pregnancy is an important part of the agenda of action for meeting most of the Millenium Development Goals. South Africa has important lessons for other countries in this regard as the rate of teenage pregnancy is high but has declined very substantially over the last twenty years. The country experiences waves of moral panic about teenage pregnancy, with assertions that current problems are rooted in accepting or even encouraging the sexual appetites of young people rather than sternly disciplining them. In this paper, we argue that the key to success in teenage pregnancy reduction has been an empowering social policy agenda that has sought to work with young people, making them aware of their rights and the risks of sexual intercourse. Furthermore, family responses and education policy have greatly reduced the potential negative impact of teenage pregnancy on the lives of teenage girls. There is tremendous scope for further progress in reducing teenage pregnancy and we argue that this lies in paying more attention to issues of gender and sexuality, including the terms and conditions under which teenagers have sex. There needs to be critical reflection and engagement with men and boys on issues of masculinity, including their role in child rearing, as well as examination within families of their engagement with supporting pregnancy prevention and responses to pregnancies.

  18. A Monetary Union in Asia? Some European Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyplosz Charles

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Monetary Union in Europe has been the natural response to the combined desire of stabilizing intra-European exchange rates and of lifting permanently all capital controls. The commitment to stable exchange rate has long been rooted in policymakers’ conviction that trade integration requires precise rules which eliminate the risk of misalignments, whether imposed by the markets or arranged by the authorities. The success in maintaining fixed-but-adjustable exchange rates within the EMS and next in adopting a single currency is largely due to the patient and progressive building institutions that became the uneasy repository of those parts of national sovereignty that have been abandoned. This experience suggests three lessons for current discussions about a monetary union in Asia. First, multilateral regional exchange rate arrangements are more conducive to an effective defense than indirect approaches like basket pegs. They probably require some limits to capital mobility. Second, adopting a single currency necessitates elaborate preparations that can only be underpinned by the gradual build up of collective institutions. Third, a monetary union requires some reasonable degree of real convergence. This implies starting with a core of sufficiently homogeneous countries. At this stage, starting with a monetary union in Asia would imply reversing the European sequencing, which started with a common market, moved on to the EMS, and liberalization of capital movements.

  19. Space Stirling Cryocooler Contamination Lessons Learned and Recommended Control Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, D. S.; Price, K.; Gully, W.; Castles, S.; Reilly, J.

    The most important characteristic of a space cryocooler is its reliability over a lifetime typically in excess of 7 years. While design improvements have reduced the probability of mechanical failure, the risk of internal contamination is still significant and has not been addressed in a consistent approach across the industry. A significant fraction of the endurance test and flight units have experienced some performance degradation related to internal contamination. The purpose of this paper is to describe and assess the contamination issues inside long life, space cryocoolers and to recommend procedures to minimize the probability of encountering contamination related failures and degradation. The paper covers the sources of contamination, the degradation and failure mechanisms, the theoretical and observed cryocooler sensitivity, and the recommended prevention procedures and their impact. We begin with a discussion of the contamination sources, both artificial and intrinsic. Next, the degradation and failure mechanisms are discussed in an attempt to arrive at a contaminant susceptibility, from which we can derive a contamination budget for the machine. This theoretical sensitivity is then compared with the observed sensitivity to illustrate the conservative nature of the assumed scenarios. A number of lessons learned on Raytheon, Ball, Air Force Research Laboratory, and NASA GSFC programs are shared to convey the practical aspects of the contamination problem. Then, the materials and processes required to meet the proposed budget are outlined. An attempt is made to present a survey of processes across industry.

  20. Cost-effective conservation planning: lessons from economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Joshua M; Dundas, Steven J; Messer, Kent D

    2013-08-15

    Economists advocate that the billions of public dollars spent on conservation be allocated to achieve the largest possible social benefit. This is "cost-effective conservation"-a process that incorporates both monetized benefits and costs. Though controversial, cost-effective conservation is poorly understood and rarely implemented by planners. Drawing from the largest publicly financed conservation programs in the United States, this paper seeks to improve the communication from economists to planners and to overcome resistance to cost-effective conservation. Fifteen practical lessons are distilled, including the negative implications of limiting selection with political constraints, using nonmonetized benefit measures or benefit indices, ignoring development risk, using incomplete cost measures, employing cost measures sequentially, and using benefit indices to capture costs. The paper highlights interrelationships between benefits and complications such as capitalization and intertemporal planning. The paper concludes by identifying the challenges at the research frontier, including incentive problems associated with adverse selection, additionality, and slippage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lessons learned from TECNATOM's participation in the construction of NPP's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, Alberto B.

    2010-01-01

    TECNATOM is a Spanish engineering company with more than 50 years of experience working for the nuclear industry across the world. TECNATOM has worked in over 30 countries in activities relating to the Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants. The company started to work in the design of new Nuclear Power Plants in the early 90's and since then has continued to collaborate with different suppliers in the design and licensing of new reactors, especially in the areas of plant systems design, Man-Machine Interface design, the construction of Main Control Room simulators, training, the qualification of equipment and PSI/ISI engineering services. New man-machine interface designs and modifications are produced for both, new Nuclear Power Plants and existing facilities. For these new designs Human Factors Engineering must be applied, as in the case of any other traditional engineering discipline. The advantages of implementing adequate Human Factors Engineering techniques in the design of nuclear reactors have become not only a fact recognized by the majority of engineers and operators, but also an explicit requirement which is regulated and mandatory for the new designs. Additionally, the major savings achieved by a Nuclear Power Plant that has an operating methodology that significantly decreases the risk of operating errors makes their implementation necessary and almost vital. This paper describes the experience and lessons learned from TECNATOM's participation in the design of reactors belonging to Generations III, III+ and IV. (authors)

  2. Project Interface Requirements Process Including Shuttle Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Garland T.

    2010-01-01

    Most failures occur at interfaces between organizations and hardware. Processing interface requirements at the start of a project life cycle will reduce the likelihood of costly interface changes/failures later. This can be done by adding Interface Control Documents (ICDs) to the Project top level drawing tree, providing technical direction to the Projects for interface requirements, and by funding the interface requirements function directly from the Project Manager's office. The interface requirements function within the Project Systems Engineering and Integration (SE&I) Office would work in-line with the project element design engineers early in the life cycle to enhance communications and negotiate technical issues between the elements. This function would work as the technical arm of the Project Manager to help ensure that the Project cost, schedule, and risk objectives can be met during the Life Cycle. Some ICD Lessons Learned during the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Life Cycle will include the use of hardware interface photos in the ICD, progressive life cycle design certification by analysis, test, & operations experience, assigning interface design engineers to Element Interface (EI) and Project technical panels, and linking interface design drawings with project build drawings

  3. Disease epidemics: Lessons for resilience in an increasingly connected world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Craig R.; DeWitte, S.N.; Kurth, M.H.; Linkov, I.

    2016-01-01

    In public health, the term resilience often refers to the personality traits that individuals possess which help them endure and recover from stressors. However, resilience as a system characteristic, especially in regards to complex social-ecological systems, can be informative for public health at scales larger than the individual. Acute shocks to systems occur against a background of existing conditions, which are crucial determinants of the eventual public health outcomes of those shocks, and in the context of complex dependencies among and between ecological and societal elements. Many components of a system's baseline condition are chronic public health concerns themselves and diminish the capacity of the system to perform in the face of acute shocks. The emerging field of resilience management is concerned with holistically assessing and improving a system's ability to prepare for and absorb disruption, and then recover and adapt across physical, information, environmental and social domains. Integrating resilience considerations into current risk- and evidence-based approaches to disease control and prevention1 can move public health efforts toward more proactive and comprehensive solutions for protecting and improving the health of communities. Here, we look to the case of the Black Death as an illustrative case of a dramatic transformation in human history, an acute shock to a system that was underlain by chronic social maladies, to derive lessons about resilience management for public health in contemporary systems.

  4. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  5. CLIL in physics lessons at grammar school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefančínová, Iveta; Valovičová, Ľubomíra

    2017-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is one of the most outstanding approaches in foreign language teaching. This teaching method has promising prospects for the future of modern education as teaching subject and foreign languages are combined to offer a better preparation for life in Europe, especially when the mobility is becoming a highly significant factor of everyday life. We realized a project called Foreign languages in popularizing science at grammar school. Within the project five teachers with approbation subjects of English, French, German and Physics attended the methodological courses abroad. The teachers applied the gained experience in teaching and linking science teaching with the teaching of foreign languages. Outputs of the project (e.g. English-German-French-Slovak glossary of natural science terminology, student activity sheets, videos with natural science orientation in a foreign language, physical experiments in foreign languages, multimedia fairy tales with natural contents, posters of some scientists) are prepared for the CLIL-oriented lessons. We collected data of the questionnaire for students concerning attitude towards CLIL. The questionnaire for teachers showed data about the attitude, experience, and needs of teachers employing CLIL in their lessons.

  6. Lessons learned from accidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz-Lopez, P.; Haywood, J.

    1996-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the only application of radiation which intentionally delivers very high doses to humans. A gross deviation from the prescribed dose or dose distribution can have severe, or even fatal consequences. Since the patient is placed directly in the beam or sources are inserted in the body, any mistake made with the beam or the sources leads almost certainly to an accidental exposure. Lessons learned from previous incidents can be used to test the vulnerability of a given facility, provided that these are adequately disseminated. The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of the lessons learned from a relatively large sample of events. The analysis has been presented as a short description followed by an identification of the triggering event and the contributing factors. These have been grouped as follows: errors in commissioning or calibration machines and sources affecting many patients; mistakes affecting individual patients such as irradiating the wrong patient, the wrong, field or site, and mistakes when entering data into or reading from the patient's chart; error due to unusual treatments or situations; equipment failure and human machine problems, including maintenance. (author). 1 ref

  7. Arms control: moral, political and historical lesson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the world's most influential policy-makers and analysts view arms control as a scientific and technological problem. They measure a nation's nuclear power exclusively by megatonnage and throw-weights leaving the intangible elements of military and political power to philosophers and historians. They tend to ignore the human and qualitative aspects of power. This is a book that shift the emphasis to aspects of the nuclear problem which are sometimes overlooked. Basically, these elements are bound up in the moral, political, and historical lessons of the nuclear age. Nonquantitative factors have been central to studies of national defense and military power since the rise of the modern nation state system. However, most students of present-day nuclear weapons tend to stress their revolutionary character. Because they are considered wholly unique, analysts tend to write about them in a historical and apolitical terms. One purpose of the collection of papers in this little volume is to redirect attention to the moral, political, and historical lessons that the nuclear age presents. What most distinguishes the writings of contributors to this volume is their use of certain well-established principles and concepts long acknowledged in military and foreign policy analysis. Thus Father Hehir asks many of the same questions that students of ethics and foreign policy have asked for four hundred years

  8. Dynasting Theory: Lessons in learning grounded theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnben Teik-Cheok Loy, MBA, MTS, Ph.D.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article captures the key learning lessons gleaned from the author’s experience learning and developing a grounded theory for his doctoral dissertation using the classic methodology as conceived by Barney Glaser. The theory was developed through data gathered on founders and successors of Malaysian Chinese family-own businesses. The main concern for Malaysian Chinese family businesses emerged as dynasting . the building, maintaining, and growing the power and resources of the business within the family lineage. The core category emerged as dynasting across cultures, where founders and successors struggle to transition from traditional Chinese to hybrid cultural and modernized forms of family business from one generation to the next. The key learning lessons were categorized under five headings: (a sorting through different versions of grounded theory, (b educating and managing research stakeholders, (c embracing experiential learning, (d discovering the core category: grounded intuition, and (e recognizing limitations and possibilities.Keywords: grounded theory, learning, dynasting, family business, Chinese

  9. 10 lessons learned by a misguided physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Barry E

    2017-07-01

    It was a great and humbling honor to receive the 2016 Distinguished Career Award from my SSIB colleagues. This paper summarizes the major points of my DCA talk at the 2016 annual meeting. It is a reflection on my 50year medical and research career and 10 lessons I have learned over those years which might be of help to young investigators near the beginning of their own research careers. These lessons include: the value of being receptive to the opportunities provided you; how clinician-scientists can serve as critical role models for young investigators like me and a history of how my career developed as a result of their influence; the importance of carefully examining your own data, particularly when it doesn't agree with your preconceived ideas; the critical role that students, postdocs and PhD (and even veterinarian) colleagues can play in developing one's career; the likelihood that your career path will have many interesting twists and turns determined by changes in your own scientific interests and how rewarding various areas of research focus are to you; the importance of building a close-knit laboratory staff family; the fact that science and romance can mix. Finally, I offer 3 somewhat self-evident free pieces of advice for building and maintaining a rewarding career. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Lessons learned on stakeholder issues in decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, P.; Pescatore, C.

    2008-01-01

    Issues of public concern during decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) are partly the same and partly different from those of the preceding phases (planning, construction and operation). While in the course of construction and operation the main challenges include meeting expectations of a higher quality of life, accommodating a growing population, mitigating construction nuisances, and assuring the safe operation of the facility, the main concerns in the D and D phase are decreasing employment rate, the eventual reduction of revenues for the municipality, the future use of the affected land and negative social impacts (e.g., out-migration). The decommissioning phase is characterised by heterogeneity of stakeholder interests and values, difficulties of reaching consensus or compromise, and difficulties in connection with the harmonization of energy production, environmental protection and sustainable socio-economic development considerations. Typically, there might also be tensions between local and regional decisions. As in other phases, the building of trust between stakeholder is crucial from the point of view of conflict management, and social lessons learnt from the siting and developments of nuclear facilities are widely applicable in the field of D and D as well. A review is presented of major lessons to be learnt from NEA activities in the field of decommissioning and stakeholder involvement. (author)

  11. Lessons learned on stakeholder issues in decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, P.; Pescatore, C. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 92 - Issy les Moulineaux (France)

    2008-07-01

    Issues of public concern during decommissioning and dismantling (D and D) are partly the same and partly different from those of the preceding phases (planning, construction and operation). While in the course of construction and operation the main challenges include meeting expectations of a higher quality of life, accommodating a growing population, mitigating construction nuisances, and assuring the safe operation of the facility, the main concerns in the D and D phase are decreasing employment rate, the eventual reduction of revenues for the municipality, the future use of the affected land and negative social impacts (e.g., out-migration). The decommissioning phase is characterised by heterogeneity of stakeholder interests and values, difficulties of reaching consensus or compromise, and difficulties in connection with the harmonization of energy production, environmental protection and sustainable socio-economic development considerations. Typically, there might also be tensions between local and regional decisions. As in other phases, the building of trust between stakeholder is crucial from the point of view of conflict management, and social lessons learnt from the siting and developments of nuclear facilities are widely applicable in the field of D and D as well. A review is presented of major lessons to be learnt from NEA activities in the field of decommissioning and stakeholder involvement. (author)

  12. Lessons learned from accidents in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Lopez, P [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Safety; Novotny, J [University Hospital St. Rafael, Leuven (Belgium); Haywood, J [South Cleveland Hospital (United Kingdom). Cleveland Medical Physics Unit

    1996-08-01

    Radiotherapy is the only application of radiation which intentionally delivers very high doses to humans. A gross deviation from the prescribed dose or dose distribution can have severe, or even fatal consequences. Since the patient is placed directly in the beam or sources are inserted in the body, any mistake made with the beam or the sources leads almost certainly to an accidental exposure. Lessons learned from previous incidents can be used to test the vulnerability of a given facility, provided that these are adequately disseminated. The purpose of this paper is to present a summary of the lessons learned from a relatively large sample of events. The analysis has been presented as a short description followed by an identification of the triggering event and the contributing factors. These have been grouped as follows: errors in commissioning or calibration machines and sources affecting many patients; mistakes affecting individual patients such as irradiating the wrong patient, the wrong, field or site, and mistakes when entering data into or reading from the patient`s chart; error due to unusual treatments or situations; equipment failure and human machine problems, including maintenance. (author). 1 ref.

  13. Lessons learned from women in leadership positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    Eileen Elias has decades of experience in leadership positions within government and nongovernmental organizations. As the first female Commissioner for Mental Health in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the US in the early 1990s, Elias gained experience on navigating gender-based challenges to attain recognized performance outcomes. From lessons learned from women leaders, educate young women entering their careers on attaining leadership positions. Comprehensive research of literature from 2012 through 2017 and interviews with women leaders representing non-Fortune 500 companies including academia, research, non-profit, for-profit, and primary and secondary education. Interviewees included:1.Gail Bassin, Co-Chief Executive Officer and Treasurer, JBS International Inc.2.Jeri Epstein, Executive Director, The Ambit Foundation3.Valerie Fletcher, Executive Director, Institute for Human Centered Design4.Christine James-Brown, President and CEO, Child Welfare League of America5.Daria Mochly-Rosen, PhD, Professor and Fellow, Chemical and Systems Biology, Stanford University School of Medicine6.Eileen O'Keefe, MD, MPH, Clinical Associate Professor and Director, Boston University Health Sciences7.Jeri Shaw, President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, JBS International Inc. A comprehensive understanding of key women leaders' lessons learned and recommendations targeting young women as they assess leadership opportunities in the public or private sectors.

  14. Development of short Indonesian lesson plan to improve teacher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianto, B.; Kamidjan; Ahmadi, A.; Asteria, P. V.

    2018-01-01

    The developmental research was motivated by the results of preliminary study through interviews, which revealed almost all of the teachers did not create lesson plan themselves. As a result of this load, the performance of the real learning in the classroom becomes inadequate. Moreover, when lesson plan was not made by teachers themselves, the learning process becomes ineffective. Therefore, this study designed to develop a prototype of the short lesson plan, in particular, Indonesian language teaching, and to investigate its effectiveness. The participants in the study were teachers who were trained through lesson study group to design short model’s lesson plan. Questionnaires and open-ended questions were used, and the quantitative and qualitative data obtained were analyzed accordingly. The analysis of the quantitative data, aided with SPSS, were frequency, percentage, and means, whereas the qualitative data were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the teachers liked the model, and they were willing to design their own lesson plan. The observation data revealed that the classroom learning process became more interactive, and classroom atmosphere was more engaging and natural because the teachers did not stick to the lesson plan made by other teachers.

  15. Experience gained from fires in nuclear power plants: Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    In 1993, the IAEA launched a programme to assist Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The review of fire safety assessment in many plants has shown that fire is one of the most important risk contributors for NPPs. Moreover, operational experience has confirmed that many events have a similar root cause, initiation and development mechanism. Therefore, many States have improved the analysis of their operational experience and its feedback. States that operate NPPs play an important role in the effort to improve fire safety by circulating their experience internationally - this exchange of information can effectively prevent potential events. When operating experience is well organized and made accessible, it can feed an improved fire hazard assessment on a probabilistic basis. The practice of exchanging operational experience seems to be bearing fruit: serious events initiated by fire are on the decline at plants in operating States. However, to maximize this effort, means for communicating operational experience need to be continuously improved and the pool of recipients of operational experience data enlarged. The present publication is the third in a series started in 1998 on fire events, the first two were: Root Cause Analysis for Fire Events (IAEA-TECDOC-1112) and Use of Operational Experience in Fire Safety Assessment of Nuclear Power Plants (IAEA-TECDOC-1134). This TECDOC summarizes the experience gained and lessons learned from fire events at operating plants, supplemented by specific Member State experiences. In addition, it provides a possible structure of an international fire and explosion event database aimed at the analysis of experience from fire events and the evaluation of fire hazard. The intended readership of this is operators of plants and regulators. The present report includes a detailed analysis of the most recent events compiled with the IAEA databases and other bibliographic sources. It represents a

  16. "Elements of Astronomy": A Television Course of 30 Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, J. P. D.; Del Pozo, E. P. G.; Rodriguez, R. R. T.; Mendez, A. M. B.; Rodriguez, E. R. F.; Gamez, R. G. D.

    2006-08-01

    It was broadcasted to all Cuba from March to December 2005, one lesson per week, transmitting three times each lesson, this means 90 hours of broadcasting. It was one of the courses of the Program "University for All", that Educative Channel produced. The Thematic: Sky Coordinates and Constellations; Astronomical Instruments; Solar System; Planets and their Moons; Comets, Asteroids and Meteoroids; Sun; Cosmic Environment and Space Weather; Stars; Galaxy and Quasars; Observable Universe; Life, Intelligent Life and Civilizations in the Universe; and History of Astronomy in Cuba. The professor staff was a group of 5 researchers of the Astronomy Department. They did an effort that each lesson had the best information level with a minimum of mathematical expressions. And were used more than 60 slides and various astronomical films fragments per lesson. To make one lesson was analyzed several astronomical films, selected a group of fragments and pre-edited into various blocks with the TV specialists, later a power point presentation was conformed using all available information on-line and bibliography. Then the lesson was recorded by the TV specialist at the Educative Channel and latter reviewed and improved by one AVID edition. The Course groundwork began in April 2003, with the first list of 12 lessons, later in June was increased to18 lessons, and started the work of "Tabloide" making; it is a journal-type book of 32 pages, equivalent to about 120 normal pages including 64 illustrations. At December 2004 the Course was increased to 30 lessons and the "Tabloide" was send to editor, later 200,000 exemplars was published. Many people followed Course and "Tabloide" was shopped in some months.

  17. Efforts to utilize risk assessment at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narumiya, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Risk assessment means the use of the outputs that have been obtained through risk identification and risk analysis (risk information), followed by the determination of the response policy by comparing these outputs with the risk of judgement standards. This paper discusses the use of risk information with multifaceted nature and its significance, and the challenges to the further penetration of these items. As the lessons and risk assessment learnt from the past accidents, this paper takes up the cases of the severe accidents of Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, and Fukushima Daiichi power stations, and discusses their causes and expansion factors. In particular, at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, important lessons were shortage in measures against the superimposition of earthquake and tsunami, and the insufficient use of risk assessment. This paper classified risk assessment from the viewpoint of risk information, and showed the contents and index for each item of risk reduction trends, risk increase trends, and measures according to the importance of risk. As the benefits of activities due to risk assessment, this paper referred to the application cases of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) of IAEA, and summarized the application activities of 10 items of risk indexes by classifying them to safety benefits and operational benefits. For example, in the item of flexible Allowed Outage Time (AOT), the avoidance of plant shutdown and the flexibility improvement of maintenance scheduling at a plant are corresponding to the above-mentioned benefits, respectively. (A.O.)

  18. The application of micro-lesson in optics teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suzhen; Mao, Xuefeng; Lu, Yongle; Wang, Yan; Luo, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve students' ability on self-study, this paper discusses the application of micro-lesson as a supplementary way in the course of optics teaching. Both geometric optics and wave optics require a lot of demos, fortunately, micro-lesson just meets this requirement. Nowadays, college education focuses on quality education, so the new nurture scheme of most universities shortened the class hours. However, the development of students and the social needs also require students to have a solid foundation. The effective way to solve this contradiction is to improve the efficiency of classroom teaching and provide the repeatable learning form, micro-lesson.

  19. Bruce A restart (execution and lessons-learned)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soini, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lessons learned with the Bruce Units 3 and 4 restart have been incorporated into the current refurbishment of Units 1 and 2. In addition, lessons learned on the lead unit (U2) are aggressively applied on the lagging unit (U1) to maximize efficiency and productivity. There will be a discussion on how this internal OPEX, along with external lessons learned, are used to continuously improve all aspects of the Bruce A Restart project management cycle, from scope selection, through planning and scheduling, to execution.

  20. Lessons and challenges from adaptation pathways planning applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, M.; Lawrence, J.; Kwakkel, J. H.; Walker, W.; Timmermans, J.; Bloemen, P.; Thissen, W.

    2015-12-01

    Planning for adaptation to dynamic risks (e.g., because of climate change) is a critical need. The concept of 'adaptive policies' is receiving increasing attention as a way of performing strategic planning that is able to address many of the inherent challenges of uncertainty and dynamic change. Several approaches for developing adaptive policies are available in the literature. One approach, for which several applications already exist, is Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways (DAPP). Pathway maps enable policy analysts, decision makers, and stakeholders to recognize potential 'locked-in' situations and to assess the flexibility, robustness, and efficacy of decision alternatives. Most of the applications of DAPP have been in deltas, coastal cities, or floodplains, often within the context of climate change adaptation. In this talk, we describe the DAPP approach and present a framework for designing signposts as adaptation signals, together with an illustrative application for the Rhine River in the Netherlands. We also draw lessons and challenges from pathways applications that differ in environment, culture, and institutional context. For example, the Dutch Delta Programme has used pathways to identify short-term decisions and long-term policy options. In Bangladesh, an application is in its early phase. Steps before generating pathways - such as long- term thinking in multiple possible futures and acknowledging uncertainties - are already a big challenge there. In New Zealand, the 'Sustainable Delta Game' has been used as the catalyst for pathways thinking by two local councils. This has led to its application in decision making for coastal and flood risk management and economic analysis of policy options.

  1. TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL LESSONS LEARNED AT THE HANFORD SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DODD, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the environmental remediation challenges facing the nation is the retrieval and permanent disposal of approximately 90 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and stores roughly 60% of this waste. An estimated 53 million gallons of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste is stored underground in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site. These SSTs range in size from 55,000 gallons to 1,000,000 gallon capacity. Approximately 30 million gallons of this waste is stored in SSTs. The SSTs were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and all have exceeded the nominal 20-year design life. Sixty-seven SSTs are known or suspected to have leaked an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of waste. The risk of additional SST leakage has been greatly reduced by removing more than 3 million gallons of interstitial liquids and supernatant and transferring the waste to the DST system since 1997 as part of the interim stabilization program. Retrieval of SST saltcake and sludge waste is underway to further reduce risks and stage feed materials for the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant. This paper presents lessons learned from retrieval of tank waste at the Hanford Site and discusses how this information is used to optimize retrieval system efficiency, improve overall cost effectiveness of retrieval operations, and ensure that HFFACO requirements are met

  2. Lessons learned in testing of Safeguards equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Susan; Farnitano, Michael; Carelli, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Full text: During the 1990s, the IAEA Department of Safeguards began a transition from analog to digital equipment. This included surveillance equipment, seals, NDA measurement systems, and other instruments. The transition to digital equipment was intended to facilitate compatibility between and integration of instruments, remote communication of data, improved data storage, and modernization. Many of the instruments are designed to operate on battery power during loss of facility power, and therefore, are designed to consume minimal power. In 2000, the IAEA experienced a number of failures in digital image surveillance (DIS) equipment. A study of the performance data revealed that the failures occurred in 'high risk' environments where the systems were exposed to neutrons. As a supporter of IAEA equipment development and implementation, the U.S. Support Program worked with the IAEA, the equipment designer, and the equipment manufacturer in special meetings on DIS to determine the cause of the failures. It was as a result of these meetings that single event upset (SEU) was determined to be the root cause of the failures. The meeting participants also identified a list of actions to improve the reliability of DIS systems. As a result of the DIS meetings and the identified actions, the U.S. Support Program approved a request from the IAEA and established Task E.125, 'Remote Monitoring and Unattended Digital Surveillance Systems.' This task is an umbrella task intended to provide a mechanism for response to IAEA needs related to improving the reliability of unattended, remote monitoring and DIS equipment. Subtasks approved under this task include: E.125.1, 'SDIS Software Consolidation and DCM-14 Audit' - This subtask involves the consolidation of a number of individual upgrades to the SDIS and review of the DCM-14 software. As the sponsor of the design of the DCM-14 by Dr. Neumann, the German Support Program is also a participant in this subtask; E.125.2, 'DIS

  3. Developing safe and reliable LNG supply chains in teh new global environment: experience and lessons from six continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ernst; Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Dweck, Jacob; Mareino, Vince; Eriksen, Remi

    2007-07-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of risk management in the context of specific recent experiences in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) business. The paper notes the overall success of the LNG business in ensuring safety and reliability, and highlights the opportunities and dangers of recent business growth. Risks are organised by theme, with focuses on politics and regulation, safety and security, environmental impact, public perception, technological innovation, cost and time management, competence and quality of assets, and harsh climates. Developers and other stakeholders are encouraged to draw lessons from these experiences when attempting to model the interplay of social, commercial and technical factors in LNG project development. (auth)

  4. Applying failure mode effects and criticality analysis in radiotherapy: Lessons learned and perspectives of enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scorsetti, Marta; Signori, Chiara; Lattuada, Paola; Urso, Gaetano; Bignardi, Mario; Navarria, Pierina; Castiglioni, Simona; Mancosu, Pietro; Trucco, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The radiation oncology process along with its unique therapeutic properties is also potentially dangerous for the patient, and thus it should be delivered under a systematic risk control. To this aim incident reporting and analysis are not sufficient for assuring patient safety and proactive risk assessment should also be implemented. The paper accounts for some methodological solutions, lessons learned and opportunities for improvement, starting from the systematic application of the failure mode effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) technique to the radiotherapy process of an Italian hospital. Materials and methods: The analysis, performed by a working group made of experts of the radiotherapy unit, was organised into the following steps: (1) complete and detailed analysis of the process (integration definition for function modelling); (2) identification of possible failure modes (FM) of the process, representing sources of adverse events for the patient; (3) qualitative risk assessment of FMs, aimed at identifying priorities of intervention; (4) identification and planning of corrective actions. Results: Organisational and procedural corrective measures were implemented; a set of safety indexes for the process was integrated within the traditional quality assurance indicators measured by the unit. A strong commitment of all the professionals involved was observed and the study revealed to be a powerful 'tool' for dissemination of patient safety culture. Conclusion: The feasibility of FMECA in fostering radiotherapy safety was proven; nevertheless, some lessons learned as well as weaknesses of current practices in risk management open to future research for the integration of retrospective methods (e.g. incident reporting or root cause analysis) and risk assessment.

  5. Spent Fuel Storage Operation - Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    Experience gained in planning, constructing, licensing, operating, managing and modifying spent fuel storage facilities in some Member States now exceeds 50 years. Continual improvement is only achieved through post-project review and ongoing evaluation of operations and processes. This publication is aimed at collating and sharing lessons learned. Hopefully, the information provided will assist Member States that already have a developed storage capability and also those considering development of a spent nuclear fuel storage capability in making informed decisions when managing their spent nuclear fuel. This publication is expected to complement the ongoing Coordinated Research Project on Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research (SPAR-III); the scope of which prioritizes facility operational practices in lieu of fuel and structural components behaviour over extended durations. The origins of the current publication stem from a consultants meeting held on 10-12 December 2007 in Vienna, with three participants from the IAEA, Slovenia and USA, where an initial questionnaire on spent fuel storage was formulated (Annex I). The resultant questionnaire was circulated to participants of a technical meeting, Spent Fuel Storage Operations - Lessons Learned. The technical meeting was held in Vienna on 13-16 October 2008, and sixteen participants from ten countries attended. A consultants meeting took place on 18-20 May 2009 in Vienna, with five participants from the IAEA, Slovenia, UK and USA. The participants reviewed the completed questionnaires and produced an initial draft of this publication. A third consultants meeting took place on 9-11 March 2010, which six participants from Canada, Hungary, IAEA, Slovenia and the USA attended. The meeting formulated a second questionnaire (Annex II) as a mechanism for gaining further input for this publication. A final consultants meeting was arranged on 20-22 June 2011 in Vienna. Six participants from Hungary, IAEA, Japan

  6. Strategic Program Planning Lessons Learned In Developing The Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, B.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Matthern, G.E.

    2003-04-24

    Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning method used by companies to identify and plan the development of technologies necessary for new products. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management has used this same method to refine requirements and identify knowledge and tools needed for completion of defined missions. This paper describes the process of applying roadmapping to clarify mission requirements and identify enhancing technologies for the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) of polluted sites after site cleanup has been completed. The nature of some contamination problems is such that full cleanup is not achievable with current technologies and some residual hazards remain. LTS maintains engineered contaminant barriers and land use restriction controls, and monitors residual contaminants until they no longer pose a risk to the public or the environment. Roadmapping was used to clarify the breadth of the LTS mission, to identify capability enhancements needed to improve mission effectiveness and efficiency, and to chart out the research and development efforts to provide those enhancements. This paper is a case study of the application of roadmapping for program planning and technical risk management. Differences between the planned and actual application of the roadmapping process are presented along with lessons learned. Both the process used and lessons learned should be of interest for anyone contemplating a similar technology based planning effort.

  7. Strategic Program Planning Lessons Learned in Developing the LTS S&T Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane Hanson; Brent Dixon; Gretchen Matthern

    2003-07-01

    Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning method used by companies to identify and plan the development of technologies necessary for new products. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management has used this same method to refine requirements and identify knowledge and tools needed for completion of defined missions. This paper describes the process of applying roadmapping to clarify mission requirements and identify enhancing technologies for the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) of polluted sites after site cleanup has been completed. The nature of some contamination problems is such that full cleanup is not achievable with current technologies and some residual hazards remain. LTS maintains engineered contaminant barriers and land use restriction controls, and monitors residual contaminants until they no longer pose a risk to the public or the environment. Roadmapping was used to clarify the breadth of the LTS mission, to identify capability enhancements needed to improve mission effectiveness and efficiency, and to chart out the research and development efforts to provide those enhancements. This paper is a case study of the application of roadmapping for program planning and technical risk management. Differences between the planned and actual application of the roadmapping process are presented along with lessons learned. Both the process used and lessons learned should be of interest for anyone contemplating a similar technology based planning effort.

  8. System Risk Balancing Profiles: Software Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John C.; Sigal, Burton C.; Gindorf, Tom

    2000-01-01

    The Software QA / V&V guide will be reviewed and updated based on feedback from NASA organizations and others with a vested interest in this area. Hardware, EEE Parts, Reliability, and Systems Safety are a sample of the future guides that will be developed. Cost Estimates, Lessons Learned, Probability of Failure and PACTS (Prevention, Avoidance, Control or Test) are needed to provide a more complete risk management strategy. This approach to risk management is designed to help balance the resources and program content for risk reduction for NASA's changing environment.

  9. Financial risks after the subprime crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leiva Büchi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The subprime financial crisis revealed some of risks that were not considered as a priority. Among others, a liquidityrisk is now considered as one of the main risks to work with by all institutions. Apart from that, it became obviousthat traditional risk management focused only on what was known and expected, ignoring analysis and testing eventswith low probability but high impact. Lastly, the subprime crisis left a number of lessons in relation to the regulationfor financial markets that must be considered when creating a new regulatory system.

  10. Towards a lessons learned system for critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, J.; Ares, J.; Garcia, R.; Pazos, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Rodriguez-Paton, A.; Silva, A.

    2007-01-01

    Failure can be a major driver for the advance of any engineering discipline and Software Engineering is no exception. But failures are useful only if lessons are learned from them. In this article we aim to make a strong defence of, and set the requirements for, lessons learned systems for safety-critical software. We also present a prototype lessons learned system that includes many of the features discussed here. We emphasize that, apart from individual organizations, lessons learned systems should target industrial sectors and even the Software Engineering community. We would like to encourage the Software Engineering community to use this kind of systems as another tool in the toolbox, which complements or enhances other approaches like, for example, standards and checklists

  11. Bards and Beatles: Connecting Spontaneity to Structure in Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Mitch

    1991-01-01

    Describes how one teacher provides minimally structured lessons that encourage senior high school students to carry their learning beyond the classroom. Describes units on business communication, research, British literature, and independent reading. (MG)

  12. Lessons From Managerial Theories for Improving Virtualness in Electronic Business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Arjen; Govindaraju, Rajesri; Govindaraju, R.; Moreno Bragado, Elisa; Moreno Bragado, Elisa; von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; Ribbers, Pieter; Swagerman, D.M.; Sieber, Pascal; Griese, Joachim

    1998-01-01

    Electronic business and virtual organisations are important research topics in the IS research community today. At the same time these research topics are very appropriate for interdisciplinary research. The panel aims: - presentation of lessons from managerial theories for improving organisational

  13. Towards a lessons learned system for critical software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: jag@udc.es; Ares, J. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: juanar@udc.es; Garcia, R. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: rafael@udc.es; Pazos, J. [Technical University of Madrid. Campus de Montegancedo, s/n. 28660, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: jpazos@fi.upm.es; Rodriguez, S. [University of A Coruna. Campus de Elvina, s/n. 15071, A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: santi@udc.es; Rodriguez-Paton, A. [Technical University of Madrid. Campus de Montegancedo, s/n. 28660, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: arpaton@fi.upm.es; Silva, A. [Technical University of Madrid. Campus de Montegancedo, s/n. 28660, Boadilla del Monte, Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: asilva@fi.upm.es

    2007-07-15

    Failure can be a major driver for the advance of any engineering discipline and Software Engineering is no exception. But failures are useful only if lessons are learned from them. In this article we aim to make a strong defence of, and set the requirements for, lessons learned systems for safety-critical software. We also present a prototype lessons learned system that includes many of the features discussed here. We emphasize that, apart from individual organizations, lessons learned systems should target industrial sectors and even the Software Engineering community. We would like to encourage the Software Engineering community to use this kind of systems as another tool in the toolbox, which complements or enhances other approaches like, for example, standards and checklists.

  14. Water — The common element: Lessons from antiquity and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water — The common element: Lessons from antiquity and the health of the environment Presidential address delivered at the 37th congress of the Southern African Society of Aquatic Scientists, Swakopmund, Namibia.

  15. Considerations for implementing an organizational lessons learned process.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fosshage, Erik D

    2013-05-01

    This report examines the lessons learned process by a review of the literature in a variety of disciplines, and is intended as a guidepost for organizations that are considering the implementation of their own closed-loop learning process. Lessons learned definitions are provided within the broader context of knowledge management and the framework of a learning organization. Shortcomings of existing practices are summarized in an attempt to identify common pitfalls that can be avoided by organizations with fledgling experiences of their own. Lessons learned are then examined through a dual construct of both process and mechanism, with emphasis on integrating into organizational processes and promoting lesson reuse through data attributes that contribute toward changed behaviors. The report concludes with recommended steps for follow-on efforts.

  16. Lessons and challenges from software quality assessment: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lessons and challenges from software quality assessment: The case of space systems software. ... esoteric software technologies and paradigms such as object oriented development, etc. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. A Reasoned Action Approach to Participation in Lesson Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Siebrichje; Roorda, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates teachers’ attitude toward Lesson Study (LS), a professional development approach which is relatively unknown in the Netherlands. The paper reports a qualitative study based on the Reasoned Action Approach, which explains how teachers’ beliefs influence their

  18. Antiretroviral therapy in a community clinic - early lessons from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antiretroviral therapy in a community clinic - early lessons from a pilot project. ... The HIV Research Unit, University of Cape Town, supplied training and ... Attention must be given to the diagnosis of tuberculosis during screening and early ART ...

  19. Applying lessons from the ecohealth approach to make food ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Applying lessons from the ecohealth approach to make food systems healthier ... the biennial Ecohealth Congress of the International Association for Ecology and ... intersectoral policies that address the notable increase in obesity, diabetes, ...

  20. A Jigsaw Lesson for Operations of Complex Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Carol A.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the cooperative learning technique of jigsaw. Details the use of a jigsaw lesson for explaining complex numbers to intermediate algebra students. Includes copies of the handouts given to the expert groups. (Author/ASK)

  1. How Asian Teachers Polish Each Lesson to Perfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, James W.; Stevenson, Harold W.

    1991-01-01

    Compares elementary mathematics instruction in Taiwan, Japan, Chicago, and Minneapolis. Finds that American teachers are overworked and devote less time to conducting lessons than Asian teachers, who employ proven inductive methods within the framework of standardized curricula. (DM)

  2. Ebola Viral Hemorrhagic Disease Outbreak in West Africa- Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to contain the Ebola epidemic. Key words: Ebola, viral hemorrhagic fever, West Africa, lessons, Uganda .... the corresponding surveillance systems for detecting priority diseases. ... A major outbreak of Yellow Fe- ver was reported in five ...

  3. Closing the gap between people and programs: lessons from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Closing the gap between people and programs: lessons from implementation of social accountability for family planning and reproductive health in Uganda. Vicky Boydell, Stella Neema, Kelsey Wright, Karen Hardee ...

  4. Winning the Peace: Building a Strategic Level Lessons Learned Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    French, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. military has developed a robust, comprehensive system to capture, analyze, and disseminate tactical-level and operational-level lessons learned from training events and ongoing conflict operations...

  5. ICT AND TEACHERS' PERFORMANCE IN TERMS OF LESSON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    Delivery Questionnaire (ICTTPLIDO) Developed by the researcher. The reliability estimate of ... teachers' performance in lesson preparation and delivery through the use of Information and ... information to accomplish the task, and evaluating ...

  6. Guest Editorial: Health financing lessons from Thailand for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest Editorial: Health financing lessons from Thailand for South Africa on the path towards universal health coverage. Mark Blecher, Anban Pillay, Walaiporn Patcharanarumol, Warisa Panichkriangkrai, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Yot Teerawattananon, Supasit Pannarunothai, Jonatan Davén ...

  7. Lessons on the Right to Health Litigation and MDGS for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mobilization are important lessons for implementing health related SDGs in South ... 6 on availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation, Goal 12 on ..... Equally, that the decision will contribute positively in benchmarking the.

  8. Regional climate science: lessons and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, P. W.; Miles, E. L.; Whitely Binder, L.

    2008-12-01

    Since its founding in 1995, the Climate Impacts Group (CIG) at the University of Washington (UW) has achieved remarkable success at translating global- and regional-scale science into forms and products that are useful to, and used by, decision-makers. From GCM scenarios to research on the connection between global climate patterns and locally important factors like floods and wildfires, CIG's strong physical science foundation is matched by a vigorous and successful outreach program. As a result, CIG and its partner the Office of Washington State Climatologist at UW have made substantial progress at bridging the gap between climate science and decision-making, and are deeply involved in advising all levels of government and many business interests on adapting to climate variability and change. This talk will showcase some of the specific activities and tools, describe lessons learned, and illustrate how such efforts fit into a "National Climate Service."

  9. The lessons of SARS in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Thomas Sik To; Yu, Wai Cho

    2010-02-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a novel coronavirus infection which broke out in Hong Kong in March 2003. Princess Margaret Hospital was designated to manage this new, mysterious and serious disease. Healthcare workers had to work under extremely stressful and often risky conditions to care for patients. Despite manpower and equipment reinforcements, staff infection occurred as a result of bodily exhaustion, working in an unfamiliar environment and lapses in infection control. Patients suffered even more, not only due to physical discomfort, but also because of the fear of isolation and death away from family and friends. Health authorities learnt their lessons in the outbreak and formulated emergency plans for future infectious disease epidemics. The healthcare infrastructure has been examined and upgraded with regard to intensive care capacity, infection control measures, professional training, manpower deployment, staff facilities, and stockpiling of drugs and personal protective equipment.

  10. Important lessons to be learnt from 'Daimler'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2014-01-01

    ” (hinreichende Wahrscheinlichkeit). Disclosure should take place when there is a “realistic prospect” (tatsächlich erwartet werden kann) that the future event will occur. Intermediate steps (Zwischenschritte) can in themselves be stock relevant. Third, under German law, as well as under US law, it is natural...... to be able to sue the quoted company itself on grounds of misleading or delayed stock announcements. Other countries, including Denmark, are gradually coming to a similar state of law, however without statutory law to guide investors. The lesson for the EU should be that common rules are needed in this field...... implemented the market abuse directive, it must have trusted the German version of it (like countries often do). However, this version demanded too high a probability that a stock relevant event would occur, and German legislation was based on the German version of the directive. The Court compared...

  11. Digital control for nuclear reactors - lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.A.; Aviles, B.N.; Lanning, D.D.

    1992-01-01

    Lessons learned during the course of the now decade-old MIT program on the digital control of nuclear reactors are enumerated. Relative to controller structure, these include the importance of a separate safety system, the need for signal validation, the role of supervisory algorithms, the significance of command validation, and the relevance of automated reasoning. Relative to controller implementation, these include the value of nodal methods to the creation of real-time reactor physics and thermal hydraulic models, the advantages to be gained from the use of real-time system models, and the importance of a multi-tiered structure to the simultaneous achievement of supervisory, global, and local control. Block diagrams are presented of proposed controllers and selected experimental and simulation-study results are shown. In addition, a history is given of the MIT program on reactor digital control

  12. Lessons learnt from WLCG service deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiers, J D

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises the main lessons learnt from deploying WLCG production services, with a focus on Reliability, Scalability, Accountability, which lead to both manageability and usability. Each topic is analysed in turn. Techniques for zero-user-visible downtime for the main service interventions are described, together with pathological cases that need special treatment. The requirements in terms of scalability are analysed, calling for as much robustness and automation in the service as possible. The different aspects of accountability - which covers measuring/tracking/logging/monitoring what is going on - and has gone on - is examined, with the goal of attaining a manageable service. Finally, a simple analogy is drawn with the Web in terms of usability - what do we need to achieve to cross the chasm from small-scale adoption to ubiquity?

  13. Lessons learned using Snodgrass hypospadias repair.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, K M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: This is a review of our experience with the Snodgrass technique for distal hypospadias repair and we point to lessons learned in improving results. METHODS: We reviewed all patients who underwent Snodgrass hypospadias repair for distal hypospadias over a four-year period by a single surgeon. Chart review followed by parental telephone interview was used to determine voiding function, cosmesis and complication rate. RESULTS: Thirty children and three adults were identified. Age at surgery ranged from seven months to 39 years. The urinary stream was straight in 94%, and 97% reported a good or satisfactory final cosmetic outcome. One patient (3.3%) developed a urethral fistula and 21% developed meatal stenosis which required general anaesthetic. CONCLUSION: The Snodgrass urethroplasty provides satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. High rates of meatal stenosis initially encountered have improved with modifications to technique which include modified meatoplasty and routine meatal dilatation by the parents.

  14. Lessons learned in wake of WPPSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenen, A.V.; Gillespie, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Several fundamentals of public power financial management have become more critical in the wake of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) default: the human and financial costs of trying to resolve problems of this complexity after they occur will require an almost unimaginable amount of time and money that could be productively employed elsewhere; the economic feasibility of the project is paramount, and is far more important than its legal security or its attractiveness to utility managers; the ratepayers' ability and willingness to pay is the key security in public power financing; management performance, not promises, will be the measure of the post WPPSS marketplace; financial flexibility is crucial. Using these lessons, the author outlines a five-step program of strategic planning for planning and managing long-term projects

  15. Lessons on collisionless reconnection from quantum fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito eNarita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic reconnection in space plasmas remains a challenge in physics in that the phenomenon is associated with the breakdown of frozen-in magnetic field in a collisionless medium. Such a topology change can also be found in superfluidity, known as the quantum vortex reconnection. We give a plasma physicists' view of superfluidity to obtain insights on essential processes in collisionless reconnection, including discussion of the kinetic and fluid pictures, wave dynamics, and time reversal asymmetry. The most important lesson from the quantum fluid is the scenario that reconnection is controlled by the physics of topological defects on the microscopic scale, and by the physics of turbulence on the macroscopic scale. Quantum vortex reconnection is accompanied by wave emission in the form of Kelvin waves and sound waves, which imprints the time reversal asymmetry.

  16. Lessons learned during Type A Packaging testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.H.; Kelly, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    For the past 6 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Facility Safety Analysis (EH-32) has contracted Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct compliance testing on DOE Type A packagings. The packagings are tested for compliance with the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A, general packaging, Type A requirements. The DOE has shared the Type A packaging information throughout the nuclear materials transportation community. During testing, there have been recurring areas of packaging design that resulted in testing delays and/or initial failure. The lessons learned during the testing are considered a valuable resource. DOE requested that WHC share this resource. By sharing what is and can be encountered during packaging testing, individuals will hopefully avoid past mistakes

  17. Vacuum performances and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baglin, V.; Bregliozzi, G.; Jimenez, J.M.; Lanza, G.

    2012-01-01

    During the LHC run 2011, a tremendous progress has been made towards the machine operation with design parameters. In the same time, the run confirmed the sensitivity of the beam vacuum system to the machine parameters. As expected, a successful scrubbing period allowed mitigating the effects of the electron cloud giving room to an entire filling of the ring with 50 ns beams. In parallel issues such as the impact of the beam screen regulation, pressures spikes and local outgassing were observed during the year. On-line mitigations and immediate compensatory measures implemented during the winter technical stop are reviewed together with their efficiencies. All unexpected pressure behaviours observed during 2011 are understood. The expected limitations while waiting for LS1 consolidation or when running with 25 ns beams are addressed. Lessons for 2012 are discussed. (authors)

  18. Sellafield Decommissioning Programme - Update and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutwyche, P. R.; Challinor, S. F.

    2003-01-01

    The Sellafield site in North West England has over 240 active facilities covering the full nuclear cycle from fuel manufacture through generation, reprocessing and waste treatment. The Sellafield decommissioning programme was formally initiated in the mid 1980s though several plants had been decommissioned prior to this primarily to create space for other plants. Since the initiation of the programme 7 plants have been completely decommissioned, significant progress has been made in a further 16 and a total of 56 major project phases have been completed. This programme update will explain the decommissioning arrangements and strategies and illustrate the progress made on a number of the plants including the Windscale Pile Chimneys, the first reprocessing plan and plutonium plants. These present a range of different challenges and requiring approaches from fully hands on to fully remote. Some of the key lessons learned will be highlighted

  19. Lessons taught by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    On nuclear development, it is natural that safety is the most important condition. However, when occurring an accident in spite of earnest efforts on safety pursuit, it is essential for a technical developer to absorb some lessons from its contents as much as possible and show an attitude to use thereafter. The Chernobyl accident brought extraordinarily large damage in the history of nuclear technology development. Therefore, the edition group of the Japan Society of Atomic Energy introduced opinions of three groups of the Society (that is, groups on reactor physics, nuclear power generation, and human-machine system research) with some description on cause analysis of the accident and its result and effect. And, here was also shown four basic difference on design between RMBK type reactor in Chernobyl and LWR type reactor supplied in Japan. (G.K.)

  20. Lessons from the history of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, John

    2008-01-01

    What is the point of teaching the history of medicine? Many historians and clinicians find it regrettable that some medical students today will graduate knowing almost nothing of such "greats" of the past as Hippocrates, Galen, Vesalius, Harvey, Lister, and Pasteur. But does this really matter? After all, traditional history of medicine curricula tended to distort medicine's past, omitting the countless errors, wrong turns, fads, blunders, and abuses, in order to tell the sanitized stories of a few scientific superheroes. Modern scholarship has seriously challenged most of these heroic dramas; few of our heroes were as farsighted, noble, or obviously correct as once thought. Joseph Lister, for example, turns out to have had filthy wards, whereas William Harvey was devoted to the Aristotelianism he was long said to have overthrown [1]. But as the history of medicine has become less romanticized, it has also become much more relevant, for it promises to impart useful lessons in the vital importance of scientific scepticism.