WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk-based process safety

  1. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The objectives of the risk-based indicator programme. The characteristics of the risk-based indicators. The objectives of risk-based safety indicators - in monitoring safety; in PSA applications. What indicators? How to produce the risk based indicators? PSA requirements

  2. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.

    2001-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: 1. Risk-based safety indicators: Typology of risk-based indicators (RBIs); Tools for defining RBIs; Requirements for the PSA model; Data sources for RBIs; Types of risks monitored; RBIs and operational safety indicators; Feedback from operating experience; PSO model modification for RBIs; RBI categorization; RBI assessment; RBI applications; Suitable RBI applications. 2. Proposal for risk-based indicators: Acquiring information from operational experience; Method of acquiring safety relevance coefficients for the systems from a PSA model; Indicator definitions; On-line indicators. 3. Annex: Application of RBIs worldwide. (P.A.)

  3. Risk based limits for Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, A.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    OSR limits are designed to protect the assumptions made in the facility safety analysis in order to preserve the safety envelope during facility operation. Normally, limits are set based on ''worst case conditions'' without regard to the likelihood (frequency) of a credible event occurring. In special cases where the accident analyses are based on ''time at risk'' arguments, it may be desirable to control the time at which the facility is at risk. A methodology has been developed to use OSR limits to control the source terms and the times these source terms would be available, thus controlling the acceptable risk to a nuclear process facility. The methodology defines a new term ''gram-days''. This term represents the area under a source term (inventory) vs time curve which represents the risk to the facility. Using the concept of gram-days (normalized to one year) allows the use of an accounting scheme to control the risk under the inventory vs time curve. The methodology results in at least three OSR limits: (1) control of the maximum inventory or source term, (2) control of the maximum gram-days for the period based on a source term weighted average, and (3) control of the maximum gram-days at the individual source term levels. Basing OSR limits on risk based safety analysis is feasible, and a basis for development of risk based limits is defensible. However, monitoring inventories and the frequencies required to maintain facility operation within the safety envelope may be complex and time consuming

  4. Optimized work control process to improve safety and reliability in a risk-based and deregulated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jon G.; Jeffries, Jeffrey D. E.; Mairs, Todd P.; Rahn, Frank J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of strategic models to assist power generating plants to improve their work control processes. These models include mechanisms to continually keep the process up to date. Included in the work control process are elements for system cost/performance analysis, life-cycle maintenance planning, on-line scheduling and look-ahead techniques, and schedule implementation to conduct work on the asset. The paper also discusses how risk management associated with work control issues that effect the safety and reliability, as well as O and M costs, is integrated into this strategy. The work control process is a pervasive and critical element in the successful implementation of operations and work management programs. While providing a method to implement maintenance activities in a cost-effective manner, the work control process improves plant safety and system reliability

  5. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Stian [Section for Control Systems, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Stian.Ruud@dnv.com; Mikkelsen, Age [Section for Lifting Appliances, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Age.Mikkelsen@dnv.com

    2008-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented.

  6. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, Stian; Mikkelsen, Age

    2008-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented

  7. Risk based maintenance to increase safety and decrease costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Risk-Based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants for the last eight years by a team working through the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD). System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the Probabilistic Risk Analysis or Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed to meet the Individual Plant Evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for the Maintenance Rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low risk-significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. Pilot studies on risk-based testing indicate that about 60% of pumps and 25 to 30% of valves in plants are high safety-significant The reduction in inspection and testing reduces the person-rem exposure and resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publications by the ASME CRTD which are referenced. (author)

  8. Risk Classification and Risk-based Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent activities to revamp and emphasize the need to streamline processes and activities for Class D missions across the agency have led to various interpretations of Class D, including the lumping of a variety of low-cost projects into Class D. Sometimes terms such as Class D minus are used. In this presentation, mission risk classifications will be traced to official requirements and definitions as a measure to ensure that projects and programs align with the guidance and requirements that are commensurate for their defined risk posture. As part of this, the full suite of risk classifications, formal and informal will be defined, followed by an introduction to the new GPR 8705.4 that is currently under review.GPR 8705.4 lays out guidance for the mission success activities performed at the Classes A-D for NPR 7120.5 projects as well as for projects not under NPR 7120.5. Furthermore, the trends in stepping from Class A into higher risk posture classifications will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion about risk-based safety and mission assuranceat GSFC.

  9. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  10. German data for risk based fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of data are necessary to perform risk based fire safety assessments and, in particular, to quantify the fire event tree considering the plant specific conditions. Data on fire barriers, fire detection and extinguishing, including also data on secondary effects of a fire, have to be used for quantifying the potential hazard and damage states. The existing German database on fires in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very small. Therefore, in general generic data, mainly from US databases, are used for risk based safety assessments. Due to several differences in the plant design and conditions generic data can only be used as conservative assumptions. World-wide existing generic data on personnel failures in case of fire fighting have only to be adapted to the plant specific conditions inside the NPP to be investigated. In contrary, unavailabilities of fire barrier elements may differ strongly depending on different standards, testing requirements, etc. In addition, the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment may vary depending on type and manufacturer. The necessity for more detailed and for additional plant specific data was the main reason for generating updated German data on the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment/features in NPPs to support risk based fire safety analyses being recommended to be carried out as an additional tool to deterministic fire hazard analyses in the frame of safety reviews. The results of these investigations revealed a broader and more realistic database for technical reliability of active fire protection means, but improvements as well as collection of further data are still necessary. (author)

  11. Toward a Safety Risk-Based Classification of Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2016-01-01

    There is a trend of growing interest and demand for greater access of unmanned aircraft (UA) to the National Airspace System (NAS) as the ongoing development of UA technology has created the potential for significant economic benefits. However, the lack of a comprehensive and efficient UA regulatory framework has constrained the number and kinds of UA operations that can be performed. This report presents initial results of a study aimed at defining a safety-risk-based UA classification as a plausible basis for a regulatory framework for UA operating in the NAS. Much of the study up to this point has been at a conceptual high level. The report includes a survey of contextual topics, analysis of safety risk considerations, and initial recommendations for a risk-based approach to safe UA operations in the NAS. The next phase of the study will develop and leverage deeper clarity and insight into practical engineering and regulatory considerations for ensuring that UA operations have an acceptable level of safety.

  12. Application of risk-based methodologies to prioritize safety resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Hosler, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) started a program entitled risk-based prioritization in 1992. The purpose of this program is to provide generic technical support to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost control using state-of-the-art risk methods. The approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. Specifically, those items or events that have high risk significance would receive the most attention, while those with little risk content would command fewer resources. As quantified in a companion paper,close-quote the potential O ampersand M cost reduction inherent in this approach is very large. Furthermore, risk-based methods should also lead to safety improvements. This paper outlines the way that the EPRI technical work complements the technical, policy, and regulatory initiatives taken by others in the industry and provides an example of the approach as used to prioritize motor-operated valve (MOV) testing in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letter 89-10

  13. Validation of risk-based performance indicators: Safety system function trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.; Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Usher, J.L.; Oden, N.

    1989-10-01

    This report describes and applies a process for validating a model for a risk-based performance indicator. The purpose of the risk-based indicator evaluated, Safety System Function Trend (SSFT), is to monitor the unavailability of selected safety systems. Interim validation of this indicator is based on three aspects: a theoretical basis, an empirical basis relying on statistical correlations, and case studies employing 25 plant years of historical data collected from five plants for a number of safety systems. Results using the SSFT model are encouraging. Application of the model through case studies dealing with the performance of important safety systems shows that statistically significant trends in, and levels of, system performance can be discerned which thereby can provide leading indications of degrading and/or improving performances. Methods for developing system performance tolerance bounds are discussed and applied to aid in the interpretation of the trends in this risk-based indicator. Some additional characteristics of the SSFT indicator, learned through the data-collection efforts and subsequent data analyses performed, are also discussed. The usefulness and practicality of other data sources for validation purposes are explored. Further validation of this indicator is noted. Also, additional research is underway in developing a more detailed estimator of system unavailability. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end...

  15. Fusion reactor passive safety and ignitor risk-based regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, M.

    1995-01-01

    Passive design features are more reliable than operator action of successful operation of active safety systems. Passive safety has usually been adopted for fission. The achievement of an inventory-based passive safety is difficult if the fusion reactor uses neutronic reactions. Ignitor is a high-magnetic field tokamak designed to study the physics of ignited plasmas. The safety goal for Ignitor is classification as a mobility-based passively safe machine

  16. A risk-based auditing process for pharmaceutical manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Susan; Dana, Bob; Rangavajhula, Vijaya; Rönninger, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share ideas on developing a risk-based model for the scheduling of audits (both internal and external). Audits are a key element of a manufacturer's quality system and provide an independent means of evaluating the manufacturer's or the supplier/vendor's compliance status. Suggestions for risk-based scheduling approaches are discussed in the article. Pharmaceutical manufacturers are required to establish and implement a quality system. The quality system is an organizational structure defining responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources that the manufacturer has established to ensure quality throughout the manufacturing process. Audits are a component of the manufacturer's quality system and provide a systematic and an independent means of evaluating the manufacturer's overall quality system and compliance status. Audits are performed at defined intervals for a specified duration. The intention of the audit process is to focus on key areas within the quality system and may not cover all relevant areas during each audit. In this article, the authors provide suggestions for risk-based scheduling approaches to aid pharmaceutical manufacturers in identifying the key focus areas for an audit.

  17. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim

    2015-01-01

    action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health. Scope and approach The advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring the safety of food chemicals, allergens, ingredients and microorganisms were...

  18. Risk-based safety performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, S.; Prohaska, G.; Flodin, Y.; Grint, G.; Habermacher, H.; Hallman, A.; Isasia, R.; Melendez, E.; Verduras, E.; Karsa, Z.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Koeberlein, K.; Schwaeger, C.; Matahri, N.; Moravcik, I.; Tkac, M.; Preston, J.

    2003-01-01

    In a Concerted Action (CA), sponsored by the European Commission within its 5th Framework Program, a consortium of eleven partners from eight countries has reviewed and evaluated the application of Safety Performance Indicators (SPIs), which - in combination with other tools - can be used to monitor and improve the safety of nuclear power plants. The project was aimed at identification of methods that can be used in a risk-informed regulatory system and environment, and to exploit PSA techniques for the development and use of meaningful additional/alternative SPIs. The CA included the review of existing indicator systems, and the collection of information on the experience from indicator systems by means of a specific questionnaire. One of the most important and challenging issues for nuclear plant owners and/or regulators is to recognize early signs of deterioration in safety performance, caused by influences from management, organization and safety culture (MOSC), before actual events and/or mishaps take place. Most of the existing SPIs as proposed by various organizations are considered as 'lagging' indicators, that is, they are expected to show an impact only when a downward trend has already started. Furthermore, most of the available indicators are at a relatively high level, such that they will not provide useful information on fundamental weaknesses causing the problem in the first place. Regulators' and utilities' views on the use of a Safety Performance Indicator System have also been a part of the development of the CA. (author)

  19. Guidance on the implementation of a risk based safety performance monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewell, R.T.; Kuritzky, A.S.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1997-05-01

    The principal objective of the present study is to review and evaluate existing Performance Indicator (PI) monitoring programs, and to develop and demonstrate an overall PSA-based methodology and framework for the monitoring and use of risk-based PIs and SIs (Safety Indicator), that would enable: Identification of trends and patterns in safety performance at a specific plant and a population of plants; Assessment of the significance of the trends and patterns; Identification of precursors of accident sequences and safety reductions; Identification of the most critical functional areas of concern, especially as they relate to a defense-in-depth safety philosophy; Comparison of safety performance trends at a plant with those at comparable plants; Incorporation of the PIs and SIs into a risk- and performance-based decision process. To support the overall project objective, it is important that information needs and data collection procedures are clearly outlined. Of key significance in this regard is the premise that a performance monitoring system should not be burdened by an excessive number of low-level PIs that may have only a peripheral relationship to safety. Other supporting objectives of the study include: To identify and discuss other issues pertaining to the practical implementation of a safety performance monitoring system (outlining the databases and algorithms needed); and to demonstrate implementation of the preliminary guidance for monitoring and use of the selected set of PIs and SIs, within the proposed framework, via application to the operating history of a NPP having a PSA and readily available event data

  20. Risk-Based Fire Safety Experiment Definition for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, G. E.; Ho, V. S.; Marcus, E.; Perry, A. T.; Thompson, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    Risk methodology is used to define experiments to be conducted in space which will help to construct and test the models required for accident sequence identification. The development of accident scenarios is based on the realization that whether damage occurs depends on the time competition of two processes: the ignition and creation of an adverse environment, and the detection and suppression activities. If the fire grows and causes damage faster than it is detected and suppressed, then an accident occurred. The proposed integrated experiments will provide information on individual models that apply to each of the above processes, as well as previously unidentified interactions and processes, if any. Initially, models that are used in terrestrial fire risk assessments are considered. These include heat and smoke release models, detection and suppression models, as well as damage models. In cases where the absence of gravity substantially invalidates a model, alternate models will be developed. Models that depend on buoyancy effects, such as the multizone compartment fire models, are included in these cases. The experiments will be performed in a variety of geometries simulating habitable areas, racks, and other spaces. These simulations will necessitate theoretical studies of scaling effects. Sensitivity studies will also be carried out including the effects of varying oxygen concentrations, pressures, fuel orientation and geometry, and air flow rates. The experimental apparatus described herein includes three major modules: the combustion, the fluids, and the command and power modules.

  1. Risk-based approach to long-term safety assessment for near surface disposal of radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, C.W.; Kim, K.I.; Lee, J.I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the Korean regulatory approach to safety assessment consistent with probabilistic, risk-based long-term safety requirements for near surface disposal facilities. The approach is based on: (1) From the standpoint of risk limitation, normal processes and probabilistic disruptive events should be integrated in a similar manner in terms of potential exposures; and (2) The uncertainties inherent in the safety assessment should be reduced using appropriate exposure scenarios. In addition, this paper emphasizes the necessity of international guidance for quantifying potential exposures and the corresponding risks from radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  2. Health economics and outcomes methods in risk-based decision-making for blood safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Brian; Janssen, Mart P

    2015-08-01

    Analytical methods appropriate for health economic assessments of transfusion safety interventions have not previously been described in ways that facilitate their use. Within the context of risk-based decision-making (RBDM), health economics can be important for optimizing decisions among competing interventions. The objective of this review is to address key considerations and limitations of current methods as they apply to blood safety. Because a voluntary blood supply is an example of a public good, analyses should be conducted from the societal perspective when possible. Two primary study designs are recommended for most blood safety intervention assessments: budget impact analysis (BIA), which measures the cost to implement an intervention both to the blood operator but also in a broader context, and cost-utility analysis (CUA), which measures the ratio between costs and health gain achieved, in terms of reduced morbidity and mortality, by use of an intervention. These analyses often have important limitations because data that reflect specific aspects, for example, blood recipient population characteristics or complication rates, are not available. Sensitivity analyses play an important role. The impact of various uncertain factors can be studied conjointly in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The use of BIA and CUA together provides a comprehensive assessment of the costs and benefits from implementing (or not) specific interventions. RBDM is multifaceted and impacts a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Gathering and analyzing health economic evidence as part of the RBDM process enhances the quality, completeness, and transparency of decision-making. © 2015 AABB.

  3. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, S.M.; Boobis, A.R.; Bridges, J.; Cockburn, A.; Dekant, W.; Hepburn, P.; Houben, G.F.; König, J.; Nauta, M.J.; Schuermans, J.; Bánáti, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management

  4. Health economics and outcomes methods in risk-based decision-making for blood safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custer, Brian; Janssen, Mart P.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical methods appropriate for health economic assessments of transfusion safety interventions have not previously been described in ways that facilitate their use. Within the context of risk-based decision-making (RBDM), health economics can be important for optimizing decisions among competing

  5. A strategy for the risk-based inspection of pressure safety valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, C.-H.; Chen, C.-H.; Chao, Y.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of a pressure safety valve (PSV) is to protect the life and safety of pressure vessels in a pressurized system. If a weakened PSV fails to function properly, a catastrophic event might occur if no other protective means are provided. By utilizing the as-received test data and statistical analysis of the aging conditions of PSVs in lubricant process units, a risk-based inspection (RBI) system was developed in this study. First of all, the characteristics of PSV were discussed from the practical viewpoint of engineering inspection and maintenance. The as-received test data, which shows obvious PSV damage, will be separated from the data used in the following statistical analysis. Then, the relationship between the aging conditions and the corresponding PSV parameters was analyzed by using the statistical technique-analysis of variance (ANOVA). Finally, a strategy for semi-quantitative RBI is proposed. Also, a definitive estimated inspection interval for every PSV is suggested. The outcome indicated most of the risks result from a few PSVs, for which the corresponding inspection intervals will be shorter than the 2 years in accordance with relative standards and local government regulations

  6. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim; Cockburn, Andrew; Dekant, Wolfgang; Hepburn, Paul; Houben, Geert F.; König, Jürgen; Nauta, Maarten; Schuermans, Jeroen; Bánáti, Diána

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundFood legislation in the European Union and elsewhere includes both hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring safety. In hazard-based approaches, simply the presence of a potentially harmful agent at a detectable level in food is used as a basis for legislation and/or risk management action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health.Scope and approachThe advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-ba...

  7. A Study on the Estimation Method of Risk Based Area for Jetty Safety Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeong-Wook Nam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the importance of safety-monitoring systems was highlighted by the unprecedented collision between a ship and a jetty in Yeosu. Accordingly, in this study, we introduce the concept of risk based area and develop a methodology for a jetty safety-monitoring system. By calculating the risk based areas for a ship and a jetty, the risk of collision was evaluated. To calculate the risk based areas, we employed an automatic identification system for the ship, stopping-distance equations, and the regulation velocity near the jetty. In this paper, we suggest a risk calculation method for jetty safety monitoring that can determine the collision probability in real time and predict collisions using the amount of overlap between the two calculated risk based areas. A test was conducted at a jetty control center at GS Caltex, and the effectiveness of the proposed risk calculation method was verified. The method is currently applied to the jetty-monitoring system at GS Caltex in Yeosu for the prevention of collisions.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, William E.; Blandford, Edward; Kim, Lance

    2009-01-01

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public

  10. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PSA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur, then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, to minimize the risk from components being unavailable, becomes difficult, because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. Controlling plant configuration from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser controls in areas unimportant to risk. Risk-based configuration control approaches can be used to replace parts of nuclear power plant Technical Specifications. With the advances in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) technology, such approaches to improve Technical Specifications and operational safety are feasible. In this paper, we present an analysis of configuration risks, and a framework for risk-based configuration control to achieve the desired control of risk-significant configurations during plant operation

  11. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  12. Risk-Based Predictive Maintenance for Safety-Critical Systems by Using Probabilistic Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based maintenance (RBM aims to improve maintenance planning and decision making by reducing the probability and consequences of failure of equipment. A new predictive maintenance strategy that integrates dynamic evolution model and risk assessment is proposed which can be used to calculate the optimal maintenance time with minimal cost and safety constraints. The dynamic evolution model provides qualified risks by using probabilistic inference with bucket elimination and gives the prospective degradation trend of a complex system. Based on the degradation trend, an optimal maintenance time can be determined by minimizing the expected maintenance cost per time unit. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated and demonstrated by a collision accident of high-speed trains with obstacles in the presence of safety and cost constrains.

  13. Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues

  14. Application of the risk-based strategy to the Hanford tank waste organic-nitrate safety issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, V.L.; Colson, S.D.; Ferryman, T.; Gephart, R.E.; Heasler, P.; Scheele, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the results from application of the Risk-Based Decision Management Approach for Justifying Characterization of Hanford Tank Waste to the organic-nitrate safety issue in Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). Existing chemical and physical models were used, taking advantage of the most current (mid-1997) sampling and analysis data. The purpose of this study is to make specific recommendations for planning characterization to help ensure the safety of each SST as it relates to the organic-nitrate safety issue. An additional objective is to demonstrate the viability of the Risk-Based Strategy for addressing Hanford tank waste safety issues.

  15. Risk-based analysis of business process executions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alizadeh, M.; Zannone, N.

    2016-01-01

    Organizations need to monitor their business processes to ensure that what actually happens in the system is compliant with the prescribed behavior. Deviations from the prescribed behavior may correspond to violations of security requirements and expose organizations to severe risks. Thus, it is

  16. Risk based modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, O.J.V.; Baker, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Risk based analysis is a tool becoming available to both engineers and managers to aid decision making concerning plant matters such as In-Service Inspection (ISI). In order to develop a risk based method, some form of Structural Reliability Risk Assessment (SRRA) needs to be performed to provide a probability of failure ranking for all sites around the plant. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) can then be carried out to combine these possible events with the capability of plant safety systems and procedures, to establish the consequences of failure for the sites. In this way the probability of failures are converted into a risk based ranking which can be used to assist the process of deciding which sites should be included in an ISI programme. This paper reviews the technique and typical results of a risk based ranking assessment carried out for nuclear power plant pipework. (author)

  17. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakzad, Nima, E-mail: nkhakzad@gmail.com [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Reniers, Genserik [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Antwerp Research Group on Safety and Security (ARGoSS), Faculty of Applied Economics, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Research Group CEDON, Campus Brussels, KULeuven, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A Bayesian network methodology has been developed to estimate the total probability of major accidents in chemical plants. • Total probability of accidents includes the probability of individual accidents and potential domino effects. • The methodology has been extended to calculate on-site and off-site risks. • The results of the risk analysis have been used in a multi-criteria decision analysis technique to risk-based design of chemical plants. - Abstract: Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum.

  18. New approach for risk based inspection of H2S based Process Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Sharma, Pavan K.; Santosh, T.V.; Hari Prasad, M.; Vaze, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study looks into improving the consequence evaluation in risk based inspection. • Ways to revise the quantity factors used in qualitative approach. • New approach based on computational fluid dynamics along with probit mathematics. • Demonstrated this methodology along with a suitable case study for the said issue. - Abstract: Recent trend in risk informed and risk based approaches in life management issues have certainly put the focus on developing estimation methods for real risk. Idea of employing risk as an optimising measure for in-service inspection, termed as risk based inspection, was accepted in principle from late 80s. While applying risk based inspection, consequence of failure from each component needs to be assessed. Consequence evaluation in a Process Plant is a crucial task. It may be noted that, in general, the number of components to be considered for life management is very large and hence the consequence evaluation resulting from their failures (individually) is a laborious task. Screening of critical components is usually carried out using simplified qualitative approach, which primarily uses influence factors for categorisation. This necessitates logical formulation of influence factors and their ranges with a suitable technical basis for acceptance from regulators. This paper describes application of risk based inspection for H 2 S based Process Plant along with the approach devised for handling the influence factor related to the quantity of H 2 S released

  19. The challenge of defining risk-based metrics to improve food safety: inputs from the BASELINE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, Gerardo; De Cesare, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    In 2002, the Regulation (EC) 178 of the European Parliament and of the Council states that, in order to achieve the general objective of a high level of protection of human health and life, food law shall be based on risk analysis. However, the Commission Regulation No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs requires that food business operators ensure that foodstuffs comply with the relevant microbiological criteria. Such criteria define the acceptability of a product, a batch of foodstuffs or a process, based on the absence, presence or number of micro-organisms, and/or on the quantity of their toxins/metabolites, per unit(s) of mass, volume, area or batch. The same Regulation describes a food safety criterion as a mean to define the acceptability of a product or a batch of foodstuff applicable to products placed on the market; moreover, it states a process hygiene criterion as a mean indicating the acceptable functioning of the production process. Both food safety criteria and process hygiene criteria are not based on risk analysis. On the contrary, the metrics formulated by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2004, named Food Safety Objective (FSO) and Performance Objective (PO), are risk-based and fit the indications of Regulation 178/2002. The main aims of this review are to illustrate the key differences between microbiological criteria and the risk-based metrics defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and to explore the opportunity and also the possibility to implement future European Regulations including PO and FSO as supporting parameters to microbiological criteria. This review clarifies also the implications of defining an appropriate level of human protection, how to establish FSO and PO and how to implement them in practice linked to each other through quantitative risk assessment models. The contents of this review should clarify the context for application of the results collected during the EU funded project named BASELINE (www

  20. Integration of laboratory bioassays into the risk-based corrective action process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D.; Messina, F.; Clark, J.

    1995-01-01

    Recent data generated by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and others indicate that residual hydrocarbon may be bound/sequestered in soil such that it is unavailable for microbial degradation, and thus possibly not bioavailable to human/ecological receptors. A reduction in bioavailability would directly equate to reduced exposure and, therefore, potentially less-conservative risk-based cleanup soil goals. Laboratory bioassays which measure bioavailability/toxicity can be cost-effectively integrated into the risk-based corrective action process. However, in order to maximize the cost-effective application of bioassays several site-specific parameters should be addressed up front. This paper discusses (1) the evaluation of parameters impacting the application of bioassays to soils contaminated with metals and/or petroleum hydrocarbons and (2) the cost-effective integration of bioassays into a tiered ASTM type framework for risk-based corrective action

  1. PSA requirements for use in the safety management. Risk based indicators and the configurational control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show the role of the risk based indicators- namely the core damage frequency (CDFI), the core damage probability indicators (CDPI) and the importance of the equipment together- in the risk based configuration control. 1 fig

  2. Risk-based Strategy to Determine Testing Requirement for the Removal of Residual Process Reagents as Process-related Impurities in Bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinshu; Li, Kim; Miller, Karen; Raghani, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to recommend a risk-based strategy for determining clearance testing requirements of the process reagents used in manufacturing biopharmaceutical products. The strategy takes account of four risk factors. Firstly, the process reagents are classified into two categories according to their safety profile and history of use: generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and potential safety concern (PSC) reagents. The clearance testing of GRAS reagents can be eliminated because of their safe use historically and process capability to remove these reagents. An estimated safety margin (Se) value, a ratio of the exposure limit to the estimated maximum reagent amount, is then used to evaluate the necessity for testing the PSC reagents at an early development stage. The Se value is calculated from two risk factors, the starting PSC reagent amount per maximum product dose (Me), and the exposure limit (Le). A worst-case scenario is assumed to estimate the Me value, that is common. The PSC reagent of interest is co-purified with the product and no clearance occurs throughout the entire purification process. No clearance testing is required for this PSC reagent if its Se value is ≥1; otherwise clearance testing is needed. Finally, the point of the process reagent introduction to the process is also considered in determining the necessity of the clearance testing for process reagents. How to use the measured safety margin as a criterion for determining PSC reagent testing at process characterization, process validation, and commercial production stages are also described. A large number of process reagents are used in the biopharmaceutical manufacturing to control the process performance. Clearance testing for all of the process reagents will be an enormous analytical task. In this article, a risk-based strategy is described to eliminate unnecessary clearance testing for majority of the process reagents using four risk factors. The risk factors included

  3. Process and plant safety

    CERN Document Server

    Hauptmanns, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Accidents in technical installations are random events. Hence they cannot be totally avoided. Only the probability of their occurrence may be reduced and their consequences be mitigated. The book proceeds from hazards caused by materials and process conditions to indicating technical and organizational measures for achieving the objectives of reduction and mitigation. Qualitative methods for identifying weaknesses of design and increasing safety as well as models for assessing accident consequences are presented. The quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of safety measures is explained. The treatment of uncertainties plays a role there. They stem from the random character of the accident and from lacks of knowledge on some of the phenomena to be addressed. The reader is acquainted with the simulation of accidents, safety and risk analyses and learns how to judge the potential and limitations of mathematical modelling. Risk analysis is applied amongst others to “functional safety” and the determinat...

  4. WTS - Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) application supports a new SMS-structured process designed to focus on safety oversight of systems and processes rather than...

  5. Risk-based configuration control: Application of PRA in improving technical specifications and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations form a risk perspective. The configurations of particular interest involve components which are down during power operation. Controlling plant configurations from a risk-perspective can provide more direct risk control and also more operational flexibility by allowing looser control in areas unimportant to risk

  6. Assessing Risk-Based Performance Indicators in Safety-Critical Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    TONT Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    The paper proposes framework for a multidisciplinary nuclear risk and safety assessment by modeling uncertainty and combining diverse evidence provided in such a way that it could be used to represent an entire argument about a system's dependability. The identified safety issues are being treated by means of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The behavior simulation of power plant in thepresence of risk factors is analyzed from the vulnerability, risk and functional safety viewpoints, hi...

  7. Accident Management ampersand Risk-Based Compliance With 40 CFR 68 for Chemical Process Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Taylor, R.P. Jr.; Ashbaugh, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    A risk-based logic model is suggested as an appropriate basis for better predicting accident progression and ensuing source terms to the environment from process upset conditions in complex chemical process facilities. Under emergency conditions, decision-makers may use the Accident Progression Event Tree approach to identify the best countermeasure for minimizing deleterious consequences to receptor groups before the atmospheric release has initiated. It is concluded that the chemical process industry may use this methodology as a supplemental information provider to better comply with the Environmental Protection Agency's proposed 40 CFR 68 Risk Management Program rule. An illustration using a benzene-nitric acid potential interaction demonstrates the value of the logic process. The identification of worst-case releases and planning for emergency response are improved through these methods, at minimum. It also provides a systematic basis for prioritizing facility modifications to correct vulnerabilities

  8. Risk-based evaluation tool for safety-related maintenance involving scaffolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.; Azizi, M.; Massman, M.

    1988-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has expressed a general concern that transient materials in and around safety systems at nuclear power plants represent a seismic safety hazard to the plant, in particular, the uncontrolled use of scaffolding during maintenance activities. Currently, most plants perform a seismic safety analysis for all uses of scaffolding near safety-related equipment to determine appropriate tie-down locations, scaffolding reinforcements, etc. This is both time-consuming and, for the most part, unnecessary. A workable engineering solution based on risk analysis techniques has been developed and is being used at the Palo Verde nuclear generating station (PVNGS)

  9. A completely new design and regulatory process - A risk-based approach for new nuclear power plants. Annex 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritterbusch, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    In the de-regulated electric power market place that is developing in the USA, competition from alternative electric power sources has provided significant downward pressure on the costs of new construction projects. Studies by the Electric Power Research Institute have shown that, in the USA, the capital cost of new nuclear plants must be decreased by at least 35% to 40% relative to the cost of Advanced Light Water Reactors designed in the early 1990s in order to be competitive with capital costs of gas-fired electric power plants. The underlying reasons for the high capital costs estimated for some nuclear plants are (1) long construction times, (2) the high level of 'defense-in-depth' or safety margin, included throughout the design and licensing process, and (3) the use of out-dated design methods and information. Probabilistic Safety Assessments are being used to develop a more accurate assessment of real plant risk and to provide relief if it can be demonstrated that plant equipment is not providing a significant contribution to plant safety. Westinghouse addressed some of these cost drivers in the development of the AP-600 passive plant design. However, because of relatively inexpensive natural gas plant alternative, we need to reduce the costs even further. Therefore, the AP-600 design is now being up-rated to a 1000 MWe design, AP-1000. The development of AP1000 is described in another paper being presented at this meeting. Westinghouse is also managing a project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, which is aimed at developing an all-new 'risk-based' approach to design and regulation. Methodologies being developed use risk-based information to the extent practical and 'defense-in-depth' only when necessary to address uncertainties in models and equipment performance. Early results, summarized in this paper, include (1) the initial framework for a new design and regulatory process and (2) a sample design analysis which shows that the Emergency Core

  10. Risk-based reconfiguration of safety monitoring system using dynamic Bayesian network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohda, Takehisa; Cui Weimin

    2007-01-01

    To prevent an abnormal event from leading to an accident, the role of its safety monitoring system is very important. The safety monitoring system detects symptoms of an abnormal event to mitigate its effect at its early stage. As the operation time passes by, the sensor reliability decreases, which implies that the decision criteria of the safety monitoring system should be modified depending on the sensor reliability as well as the system reliability. This paper presents a framework for the decision criteria (or diagnosis logic) of the safety monitoring system. The logic can be dynamically modified based on sensor output data monitored at regular intervals to minimize the expected loss caused by two types of safety monitoring system failure events: failed-dangerous (FD) and failed-safe (FS). The former corresponds to no response under an abnormal system condition, while the latter implies a spurious activation under a normal system condition. Dynamic Bayesian network theory can be applied to modeling the entire system behavior composed of the system and its safety monitoring system. Using the estimated state probabilities, the optimal decision criterion is given to obtain the optimal diagnosis logic. An illustrative example of a three-sensor system shows the merits and characteristics of the proposed method, where the reasonable interpretation of sensor data can be obtained

  11. The safety monitor and RCM workstation as complementary tools in risk based maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawson, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) represents a proven technique for rendering maintenance activities safer, more effective, and less expensive, in terms of systems unavailability and resource management. However, it is believed that RCM can be enhanced by the additional consideration of operational plant risk. This paper discusses how two computer-based tools, i.e., the RCM Workstation and the Safety Monitor, can complement each other in helping to create a living preventive maintenance strategy. (author)

  12. Probabilistic safety analysis and risk-based inspection of nuclear research reactors: state-of-the-art and implementation proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Raíssa O.; Vasceoncelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington A.; Silva Júnior, Silvério F.; Raso, Amanda L.; Mesquita, Amir Z., E-mail: raissaomarques@gmail.com, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: silvasf@cdtn.br, E-mail: amandaraso@hotmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Industrial facilities systems deteriorate over time during operation, thus increasing the possibility of accidents. Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) classifies such systems by their risk information with the purpose of prioritizing inspection efforts. RBI can reduce inspection activities, resulting in lower risk levels, and maintaining reliability and safety in acceptable levels. Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI) is a RBI approach used in nuclear industry. RI-ISI uses outcomes from Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to plan In-Service Inspections (ISI). Despite nuclear research reactors are simpler and have lower risks than power reactors, the application of PSA to them may be useful for safety improvements once they are more flexible, provide easier access to its core, and allow changes in fuel configurations in case of experimental tests. Ageing management of structures, systems and components important to safety of a nuclear research reactor throughout its lifetime is also required to assure continued adequacy of safety levels, reliable operation, and compliance with operational limits and conditions. This includes periodic review of ISI programs in which monitoring of material deterioration and aging effects are considered, and that can be supported by the RBI approach. A review of state-of-the-art of PSA and RBI applications to nuclear reactors is presented in this work. Advantages to apply these methodologies are also analyzed. PSA and RBI implementation proposal applied to nuclear research reactors is also presented, as well as its application to a TRIGA research nuclear reactor using computer codes developed by ReliaSoft® Corporation. (author)

  13. Probabilistic safety analysis and risk-based inspection of nuclear research reactors: state-of-the-art and implementation proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, Raíssa O.; Vasceoncelos, Vanderley de; Soares, Wellington A.; Silva Júnior, Silvério F.; Raso, Amanda L.; Mesquita, Amir Z.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial facilities systems deteriorate over time during operation, thus increasing the possibility of accidents. Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) classifies such systems by their risk information with the purpose of prioritizing inspection efforts. RBI can reduce inspection activities, resulting in lower risk levels, and maintaining reliability and safety in acceptable levels. Risk-Informed In-Service Inspection (RI-ISI) is a RBI approach used in nuclear industry. RI-ISI uses outcomes from Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to plan In-Service Inspections (ISI). Despite nuclear research reactors are simpler and have lower risks than power reactors, the application of PSA to them may be useful for safety improvements once they are more flexible, provide easier access to its core, and allow changes in fuel configurations in case of experimental tests. Ageing management of structures, systems and components important to safety of a nuclear research reactor throughout its lifetime is also required to assure continued adequacy of safety levels, reliable operation, and compliance with operational limits and conditions. This includes periodic review of ISI programs in which monitoring of material deterioration and aging effects are considered, and that can be supported by the RBI approach. A review of state-of-the-art of PSA and RBI applications to nuclear reactors is presented in this work. Advantages to apply these methodologies are also analyzed. PSA and RBI implementation proposal applied to nuclear research reactors is also presented, as well as its application to a TRIGA research nuclear reactor using computer codes developed by ReliaSoft® Corporation. (author)

  14. Risk-based Process Development of Biosimilars as Part of the Quality by Design Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalai, Dénes; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, several quality by design (QbD) studies demonstrated the benefit of systematic approaches for biopharmaceutical development. However, only very few studies identified biosimilars as a special case of product development. The targeted quality profile of biosimilars is strictly defined by the originator's product characteristic. Moreover, the major source of prior knowledge is the experience with the originator product itself. Processing this information in biosimilar development has a major effect on risk management and process development strategies. The main objective of this contribution is to demonstrate how risk management can facilitate the implementation of QbD in early-stage product development with special emphasis on fitting the reported approaches to biosimilars. Risk assessments were highlighted as important tools to integrate prior knowledge in biosimilar development. The risk assessment process as suggested by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH Q9) was reviewed and three elements were identified to play a key role in targeted risk assessment approaches: proper understanding of target linkage, risk assessment tool compliance, and criticality threshold value. Adjusting these steps to biosimilar applications helped to address some unique challenges of these products such as a strictly defined quality profile or a lack of process knowledge. This contribution demonstrates the need for tailored risk management approaches for the risk-based development of biosimilars and provides novel tools for the integration of additional knowledge available for these products. The pharmaceutical industry is facing challenges such as profit loss and price competition. Companies are forced to rationalize business models and to cut costs in development as well as manufacturing. These trends recently hinder the implementation of any concepts that do not offer certain financial benefit or promise a long return of investment. Quality by

  15. Risk-based design of process systems using discrete-time Bayesian networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakzad, Nima; Khan, Faisal; Amyotte, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Temporal Bayesian networks have gained popularity as a robust technique to model dynamic systems in which the components' sequential dependency, as well as their functional dependency, cannot be ignored. In this regard, discrete-time Bayesian networks have been proposed as a viable alternative to solve dynamic fault trees without resort to Markov chains. This approach overcomes the drawbacks of Markov chains such as the state-space explosion and the error-prone conversion procedure from dynamic fault tree. It also benefits from the inherent advantages of Bayesian networks such as probability updating. However, effective mapping of the dynamic gates of dynamic fault trees into Bayesian networks while avoiding the consequent huge multi-dimensional probability tables has always been a matter of concern. In this paper, a new general formalism has been developed to model two important elements of dynamic fault tree, i.e., cold spare gate and sequential enforcing gate, with any arbitrary probability distribution functions. Also, an innovative Neutral Dependency algorithm has been introduced to model dynamic gates such as priority-AND gate, thus reducing the dimension of conditional probability tables by an order of magnitude. The second part of the paper is devoted to the application of discrete-time Bayesian networks in the risk assessment and safety analysis of complex process systems. It has been shown how dynamic techniques can effectively be applied for optimal allocation of safety systems to obtain maximum risk reduction.

  16. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakzad, Nima; Reniers, Genserik

    2015-12-15

    Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk-Based Approach for Microbiological Food Safety Management in the Dairy Industry: The Case of Listeria monocytogenes in Soft Cheese Made from Pasteurized Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Maffre, Alexandre; Sanaa, Moez

    2014-01-01

    According to Codex Alimentarius Commission recommendations, management options applied at the process production level should be based on good hygiene practices, HACCP system, and new risk management metrics such as the food safety objective. To follow this last recommendation, the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment is an appealing approach to link new risk-based metrics to management options that may be applied by food operators. Through a specific case study, Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese made from pasteurized milk, the objective of the present article is to practically show how quantitative risk assessment could be used to direct potential intervention strategies at different food processing steps. Based on many assumptions, the model developed estimates the risk of listeriosis at the moment of consumption taking into account the entire manufacturing process and potential sources of contamination. From pasteurization to consumption, the amplification of a primo-contamination event of the milk, the fresh cheese or the process environment is simulated, over time, space, and between products, accounting for the impact of management options, such as hygienic operations and sampling plans. A sensitivity analysis of the model will help orientating data to be collected prioritarily for the improvement and the validation of the model. What-if scenarios were simulated and allowed for the identification of major parameters contributing to the risk of listeriosis and the optimization of preventive and corrective measures. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Risk-based performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, M.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.; Lofgren, E.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of risk-based indicators is to monitor plant safety. Safety is measured by monitoring the potential for core melt (core-melt frequency) and the public risk. Targets for these measures can be set consistent with NRC safety goals. In this process, the performance of safety systems, support systems, major components, and initiating events can be monitored using measures such as unavailability, failure or occurrence frequency. The changes in performance measures and their trends are determined from the time behavior of monitored measures by differentiation between stochastical and actual variations. Therefore, degradation, as well as improvement in the plant safety performance, can be determined. The development of risk-based performance indicators will also provide the means to trace a change in the safety measures to specific problem areas which are amenable to root cause analysis and inspection audits. In addition, systematic methods will be developed to identify specific improvement policies using the plant information system for the identified problem areas. The final product of the performance indicator project will be a methodology, and an integrated and validated set of software packages which, if properly interfaced with the logic model software of a plant, can monitor the plant performance as plant information is provided as input

  19. Soils Project Risk-Based Corrective Action Evaluation Process with ROTC 1 and ROTC 2, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Sloop, Christina

    2012-04-01

    This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process the NNSA/NSO Soils Activity uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process is used to establish FALs in accordance with the risk-based corrective action (RBCA) process stipulated in Chapter 445 of the Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) as described in the ASTM International (ASTM) Method E1739-95 (NAC, 2008; ASTM, 1995). It is designed to provide a set of consistent standards for chemical and radiological corrective actions.

  20. Safety cases and siting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlay, Daniel; Ewing, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Central to any process for building a deep-mined geologic repository for high-activity radioactive waste is the development of a safety case. To date, such cases, in various forms have been elaborated for a variety of concepts for geologic disposal, including in salt, clay, argillite, crystalline rock (granite and gneiss) and volcanic tuff formations. In addition to the technical effort required to develop a safety case, increasingly nations have come to believe that it is also critical to obtain the consent of the region or community where the facility might be located. The purpose of this paper is to explore issues associated with just one aspect of consent-based siting: How can such a process be designed so that willingness to accept a site for a repository continues to be meaningful even as new technical knowledge and insights emerge during site characterisation? In short, what is the meaning of 'informed consent' in the context of repository development? (authors)

  1. Risk-based Regulatory Evaluation Program methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Sanders, G.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Asselin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this DOE-supported Regulatory Evaluation Progrwam are to analyze and evaluate the safety importance and economic significance of existing regulatory guidance in order to assist in the improvement of the regulatory process for current generation and future design reactors. A risk-based cost-benefit methodology was developed to evaluate the safety benefit and cost of specific regulations or Standard Review Plan sections. Risk-based methods can be used in lieu of or in combination with deterministic methods in developing regulatory requirements and reaching regulatory decisions

  2. Relationship of safety culture and process safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, Claire; O'Connor, T. Michael; Mannan, M. Sam

    2006-01-01

    Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These 'guidelines' are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations

  3. Multi-site risk-based project planning, optimization, sequencing, & budgeting process and tool for the integrated facility disposition project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, J.G.; Castillo, C.; Huntsman, J.; Killoy, S.; Lucek, H.; Marks, T.C.

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex Transformation, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) was tasked with developing an integrated plan for the decommissioning of over 400 facilities and 300 environmental remediation units, as well as the many reconfiguration and modernization projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Complex. Manual scheduling of remediation activities is time-consuming and inherently introduces bias of the scheduler or organization into the process. Clearly a well-defined process, quantitative risk-based tool was needed to develop an objective, unbiased baseline sequence and schedule with a sound technical foundation for the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP). Faced with limited available data, innovation was needed to extrapolate intelligent relative data for key risk parameters based on known data elements. The IFDP Supermodel was customized and expanded to provide this capability for conceptual planning of diverse project portfolios and multiple sites. (author)

  4. Risk-Based Disposal Plan for PCB Paint in the TRA Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Montgomery

    2008-05-01

    This Toxic Substances Control Act Risk-Based Polychlorinated Biphenyl Disposal plan was developed for the Test Reactor Area Fluorinel Dissolution Process Mockup and Gamma Facilities Waste System, located in Building TRA-641 at the Reactor Technology Complex, Idaho National Laboratory Site, to address painted surfaces in the empty canal under 40 CFR 761.62(c) for paint, and under 40 CFR 761.61(c) for PCBs that may have penetrated into the concrete. The canal walls and floor will be painted with two coats of contrasting non-PCB paint and labeled as PCB. The canal is covered with open decking; the access grate is locked shut and signed to indicate PCB contamination in the canal. Access to the canal will require facility manager permission. Protective equipment for personnel and equipment entering the canal will be required. Waste from the canal, generated during ultimate Decontamination and Decommissioning, shall be managed and disposed as PCB Bulk Product Waste.

  5. Risk-based analysis for prioritization and processing in the Los Alamos National Laboratory 94-1 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerigter, S.T.; DeMuth, N.S.; Tietjen, G.

    1996-10-01

    A previous report, open-quotes Analysis of LANL Options for Processing Plutonium Legacy Materials,close quotes LA-UR-95-4301, summarized the development of a risk-based prioritization methodology for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility at Technical Area-55 (TA-55). The methodology described in that report was developed not only to assist processing personnel in prioritizing the remediation of legacy materials but also to evaluate the risk impacts of schedule modifications and changes. Several key activities were undertaken in the development of that methodology. The most notable was that the risk assessments were based on statistically developed data from sampling containers in the vault and evaluating their condition; the data from the vault sampling programs were used as the basis for risk estimates. Also, the time-dependent behavior of the legacy materials was explicitly modeled and included in the risk analysis. The results indicated that significant reductions in program risk can be achieved by proper prioritization of the materials for processing

  6. Strengthening air traffic safety management by moving from outcome-based towards risk-based evaluation of runway incursions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroeve, Sybert H.; Som, Pradip; Doorn, Bas A. van; Bakker, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Current safety management of aerodrome operations uses judgements of severity categories to evaluate runway incursions. Incident data show a small minority of severe incursions and a large majority of less severe incursions. We show that these severity judgements are mainly based upon the outcomes of runway incursions, in particular on the closest distances attained. As such, the severity-based evaluation leads to coincidental safety management feedback, wherein causes and risk implications of runway incursions are not well considered. In this paper we present a new framework for the evaluation of runway incursions, which effectively uses all runway incursions, which judges same types of causes similarly, and which structures causes and risk implications. The framework is based on risks of scenarios associated with the initiation of runway incursions. As a basis an inventory of scenarios is provided, which can represent almost all runway incursions involving a conflict with an aircraft. A main step in the framework is the assessment of the conditional probability of a collision given a runway incursion scenario. This can be effectively achieved for large sets of scenarios by agent-based dynamic risk modelling. The results provide detailed feedback on risks of runway incursion scenarios, thus enabling effective safety management. - Highlights: • Current evaluation of runway incursions is primarily based on their outcomes. • A new framework assesses collision risk given initiation of runway incursions. • Agent-based dynamic risk modelling can evaluate the risks of many scenarios. • A developed scenario inventory can represent almost all runway incursions. • The framework provides detailed feedback to safety management.

  7. Safety guides development process in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butragueno, J.L.; Perello, M.

    1979-01-01

    Safety guides have become a major factor in the licensing process of nuclear power plants and related nuclear facilities of the fuel cycle. As far as the experience corroborates better and better engineering methodologies and procedures, the results of these are settled down in form of standards, guides, and similar issues. This paper presents the actual Spanish experience in nuclear standards and safety guides development. The process to develop a standard or safety guide is shown. Up to date list of issued and on development nuclear safety guides is included and comments on the future role of nuclear standards in the licensing process are made. (author)

  8. Safety analyses for reprocessing and waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    Presentation of an incident analysis of process steps of the RP, simplified considerations concerning safety, and safety analyses of the storage and solidification facilities of the RP. A release tree method is developed and tested. An incident analysis of process steps, the evaluation of the SRL-study and safety analyses of the storage and solidification facilities of the RP are performed in particular. (DG) [de

  9. Chemical process safety at fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, D.A.

    1997-08-01

    This NUREG provides broad guidance on chemical safety issues relevant to fuel cycle facilities. It describes an approach acceptable to the NRC staff, with examples that are not exhaustive, for addressing chemical process safety in the safe storage, handling, and processing of licensed nuclear material. It expounds to license holders and applicants a general philosophy of the role of chemical process safety with respect to NRC-licensed materials; sets forth the basic information needed to properly evaluate chemical process safety; and describes plausible methods of identifying and evaluating chemical hazards and assessing the adequacy of the chemical safety of the proposed equipment and facilities. Examples of equipment and methods commonly used to prevent and/or mitigate the consequences of chemical incidents are discussed in this document

  10. Investigating road safety management processes in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähi, H. Muhlrad, N. Buttler, I. Gitelman, V. Bax, C. Dupont, E. Giustiniani, G. Machata, K. Martensen, H. Papadimitriou, E. Persia, L. Talbot, R. Vallet, G. & Yannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    The work package 1 of the EC FP7 project DaCoTA investigates road safety management processes in Europe. It has drafted a model to investigate the state of the art of road safety policy-making and management at the national level and to define “good practice”. The DaCoTA “good practice”

  11. Safety Considerations in the Chemical Process Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Stanley M.

    There is an increased emphasis on chemical process safety as a result of highly publicized accidents. Public awareness of these accidents has provided a driving force for industry to improve its safety record. There has been an increasing amount of government regulation.

  12. Behavior based safety process - a pragmatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.K.; Malaikar, N.L.; Belokar, S.G.; Arora, Yashpal

    2009-01-01

    Materials handling, processing and storage of hazardous chemicals has grown exponentially. The chemical industries has reacted to the situation by introducing numerous safety systems such as IS18001, 'HAZOP', safety audits, risk assessment, training etc, which has reduced hazards and improved safety performance, but has not totally eliminated exposure to the hazards. These safety systems aim to bring change in attitude of the persons which is difficult to change or control. However, behaviour of plant personnel can be controlled or improved upon, which should be our aim. (author)

  13. Safety monitoring in process and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esparza, V. Jr.; Sebo, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    Safety Functions provide a method of ensuring the safe operation of any large-scale processing plant. Successful implementation of safety functions requires continuous monitoring of safety function values and trends. Because the volume of information handled by a plant operator occassionally can become overwhelming, attention may be diverted from the primary concern of maintaining plant safety. With this in mind EG and G, Idaho developed various methods and techniques for use in a computerized Safety Function Monitoring System and tested the application of these techniques using a simulated nuclear power plant, the Loss-of-Fluid Test Facility (LOFT) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This paper presents the methods used in the development of a Safety Function Monitoring System

  14. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    Reinsurance companies are stating a high increase in natural hazard related losses, both insured and economic losses, within the last decades on a global scale. This ongoing trend can be described as a product of the dynamic in the natural and in the anthroposphere. To analyze the potential impact of natural hazard process to a certain insurance portfolio or to the society in general, reinsurance companies or risk management consultants have developed loss models. However, those models are generally not fitting the scale dependent demand on regional scales like it is appropriate (i) for analyses on the scale of a specific province or (ii) for portfolio analyses of regional insurance companies. Moreover, the scientific basis of most of the models is not transparent documented and therefore scientific evaluations concerning the methodology concepts are not possible (black box). This is contrary to the scientific principles of transparency and traceability. Especially in mountain regions like the European Alps with their inherent (i) specific characteristic on small scales, (ii) the relative high process dynamics in general, (iii) the occurrence of gravitative mass movements which are related to high relief energy and thus only exists in mountain regions, (iv) the small proportion of the area of permanent settlement on the overall area, (v) the high value concentration in the valley floors, (vi) the exposition of important infrastructures and lifelines, and others, analyses must consider these circumstances adequately. Therefore, risk-based analyses are methodically estimating the potential consequences of hazard process on the built environment standardized with the risk components (i) hazard, (ii) elements at risk, and (iii) vulnerability. However, most research and progress have been made in the field of hazard analyses, whereas the other both components are not developed accordingly. Since these three general components are influencing factors without any

  15. Architecture-Led Safety Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Contents Acknowledgments iv Abstract v 1 Introduction 1 2 Architecture -Led Processes and ALSA 2 3 ALSA Practices 5 3.1 Example System 8 4 Identify... Architecture Models 13 5 Identify Operational Hazards and Hazard Contributors 15 5.1 System Partitioning 15 5.2 Operational Context as a Control

  16. Safety rewetting process by imersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, V.Q.

    1981-09-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the slow transient phenomena encountered during emergency core cooling rewetting of pressurized water reactors was done. To perform this study a low pressure and low heat flux water loop was used, with two basic tests sections, one tubular and another annular. After being heated by the Joule effect, the test section was quenched at a constant flow rate by bottom flooding of water at room temperature. The effects of wall temperature and fluid flow rate in tjhe performance of the rewetting process were investigated. Our results were in good agreement with those obtained by other laboratories. (Author) [pt

  17. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  18. Risk-based and deterministic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Brown, N.W.

    1995-07-01

    Both risk-based and deterministic methods are used for regulating the nuclear industry to protect the public safety and health from undue risk. The deterministic method is one where performance standards are specified for each kind of nuclear system or facility. The deterministic performance standards address normal operations and design basis events which include transient and accident conditions. The risk-based method uses probabilistic risk assessment methods to supplement the deterministic one by (1) addressing all possible events (including those beyond the design basis events), (2) using a systematic, logical process for identifying and evaluating accidents, and (3) considering alternative means to reduce accident frequency and/or consequences. Although both deterministic and risk-based methods have been successfully applied, there is need for a better understanding of their applications and supportive roles. This paper describes the relationship between the two methods and how they are used to develop and assess regulations in the nuclear industry. Preliminary guidance is suggested for determining the need for using risk based methods to supplement deterministic ones. However, it is recommended that more detailed guidance and criteria be developed for this purpose

  19. Early Engagement of Safety and Mission Assurance Expertise Using Systems Engineering Tools: A Risk-Based Approach to Early Identification of Safety and Assurance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darpel, Scott; Beckman, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Decades of systems engineering practice have demonstrated that the earlier the identification of requirements occurs, the lower the chance that costly redesigns will needed later in the project life cycle. A better understanding of all requirements can also improve the likelihood of a design's success. Significant effort has been put into developing tools and practices that facilitate requirements determination, including those that are part of the model-based systems engineering (MBSE) paradigm. These efforts have yielded improvements in requirements definition, but have thus far focused on a design's performance needs. The identification of safety & mission assurance (S&MA) related requirements, in comparison, can occur after preliminary designs are already established, yielding forced redesigns. Engaging S&MA expertise at an earlier stage, facilitated by the use of MBSE tools, and focused on actual project risk, can yield the same type of design life cycle improvements that have been realized in technical and performance requirements.

  20. Krsko periodic safety review project prioritization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic, I.; Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.; Lambright, J.

    2004-01-01

    Definition of a Krsko Periodic Safety Review (PSR) project is a comprehensive safety review of a plant after last ten years of operation. The objective is a verification by means of a comprehensive review using current methods that Krsko NPP remains safety when judged against current safety objectives and practices and that adequate arrangements are in place to maintain plant safety. This objective encompasses the three main criteria or goals: confirmation that the plant is as safe as originally intended, determination if there are any structures, systems or components that could limit the life of the plant in the foreseeable future, and comparison the plant against modern safety standards and to identify where improvements would be beneficial at justifiable cost. Krsko PSR project is structured in the three phases: Phase 1: Preparation of Detailed 10-years PSR Program, Phase 2: Performing of 10-years PSR Program and preparing of associated documents (2001-2003), and Phase 3: Implementation of the prioritized compensatory measures and modifications (development of associated EEAR, DMP, etc.) after agreement with the SNSA on the design, procedures and time-scales (2004-2008). This paper presents the NEK PSR results of work performed under Phase 2 focused on the ranking of safety issues and prioritization of corrective measures needed for establishing an efficient action plan. Safety issues were identified in Phase 2 during the following review processes: Periodic Safety Review (PSR) task; Krsko NPP Regulatory Compliance Program (RCP) review; Westinghouse Owner Group (WOG) catalog items screening/review; SNSA recommendations (including IAEA RAMP mission suggestions/recommendations).(author)

  1. Quantitative safety goals for the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovic, V.; O'Donnell, L.F.

    1981-01-01

    The paper offers a brief summary of the current regulatory background in the USA, emphasizing nuclear, related to the establishment of quantitative safety goals as a way to respond to the key issue of 'how safe is safe enough'. General Atomic has taken a leading role in advocating the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques in the regulatory process. This has led to understanding of the importance of quantitative safety goals. The approach developed by GA is discussed in the paper. It is centred around definition of quantitative safety regions. The regions were termed: design basis, safety margin or design capability and safety research. The design basis region is bounded by the frequency of 10 -4 /reactor-year and consequences of no identifiable public injury. 10 -4 /reactor-year is associated with the total projected lifetime of a commercial US nuclear power programme. Events which have a 50% chance of happening are included in the design basis region. In the safety margin region, which extends below the design basis region, protection is provided against some events whose probability of not happening during the expected course of the US nuclear power programme is within the range of 50 to 90%. Setting the lower mean frequency to this region of 10 -5 /reactor-year is equivalent to offering 90% assurance that an accident of given severity will not happen. Rare events with a mean frequency below 10 -5 can be predicted to occur. However, accidents predicted to have a probability of less than 10 -6 are 99% certain not to happen at all, and are thus not anticipated to affect public health and safety. The area between 10 -5 and 10 -6 defines the frequency portion of the safety research region. Safety goals associated with individual risk to a maximum-exposed member of public, general societal risk and property risk are proposed in the paper

  2. Microbial safety of minimally processed foods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novak, John S; Sapers, Gerald M; Juneja, Vijay K

    2003-01-01

    ...-course meals. All are expected to be portioned and minimally processed to balance the naturalness of unaltered foods with a concern for safety. Yet the responsibility for proper food preparation and handling remains with the naïve modern consumer, who may be less adept in food preparations than his or her less sophisticated ancestors. As a result,...

  3. Safety Assurance Process for FRMS : EJcase Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stewart, S.; Koornneef, F.; Akselsson, R.; Barton, P.

    2009-01-01

    Chapter 6: Safety Assurance Process for FRMS - eJcase Implementation The European Commission HILAS project (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems - a project supported by the European Commission’s 6th Framework between 2005-2009) was focused on using human factors knowledge and

  4. Implementing process safety management in gas processing operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodman, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard entitled Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Explosives and Blasting Agents was finalized February 24, 1992. The purpose of the standard is to prevent or minimize consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, flammable, or explosive chemicals. OSHA believes that its rule will accomplish this goal by requiring a comprehensive management program that integrates technologies, procedures, and management practices. Gas Processors Association (GPA) member companies are significantly impacted by this major standard, the requirements of which are extensive and complex. The purpose of this paper is to review the requirements of the standard and to discuss the elements to consider in developing and implementing a viable long term Process Safety Management Program

  5. Process safety management for highly hazardous chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Purpose of this document is to assist US DOE contractors who work with threshold quantities of highly hazardous chemicals (HHCs), flammable liquids or gases, or explosives in successfully implementing the requirements of OSHA Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). Purpose of this rule is to prevent releases of HHCs that have the potential to cause catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures.

  6. Development and application of the Safe Performance Index as a risk-based methodology for identifying major hazard-related safety issues in underground coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha

    The underground coal mining industry has been under constant watch due to the high risk involved in its activities, and scrutiny increased because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-07. In the aftermath of the incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address the various issues related to a safe working environment in the mines. Risk analysis in any form should be done on a regular basis to tackle the possibility of unwanted major hazard-related events such as explosions, outbursts, airbursts, inundations, spontaneous combustion, and roof fall instabilities. One of the responses by the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) in 2007 involved a new pattern of violations (POV) process to target mines with a poor safety performance, specifically to improve their safety. However, the 2010 disaster (worst in 40 years) gave an impression that the collective effort of the industry, federal/state agencies, and researchers to achieve the goal of zero fatalities and serious injuries has gone awry. The Safe Performance Index (SPI) methodology developed in this research is a straight-forward, effective, transparent, and reproducible approach that can help in identifying and addressing some of the existing issues while targeting (poor safety performance) mines which need help. It combines three injury and three citation measures that are scaled to have an equal mean (5.0) in a balanced way with proportionate weighting factors (0.05, 0.15, 0.30) and overall normalizing factor (15) into a mine safety performance evaluation tool. It can be used to assess the relative safety-related risk of mines, including by mine-size category. Using 2008 and 2009 data, comparisons were made of SPI-associated, normalized safety performance measures across mine-size categories, with emphasis on small-mine safety performance as compared to large- and

  7. Risk-based determination of design pressure of LNG fuel storage tanks based on dynamic process simulation combined with Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Yeelyong; Chang, Kwangpil; Seo, Yutaek; Chang, Daejun

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a new methodology that combines dynamic process simulation (DPS) and Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) to determine the design pressure of fuel storage tanks on LNG-fueled ships. Because the pressure of such tanks varies with time, DPS is employed to predict the pressure profile. Though equipment failure and subsequent repair affect transient pressure development, it is difficult to implement these features directly in the process simulation due to the randomness of the failure. To predict the pressure behavior realistically, MCS is combined with DPS. In MCS, discrete events are generated to create a lifetime scenario for a system. The combination of MCS with long-term DPS reveals the frequency of the exceedance pressure. The exceedance curve of the pressure provides risk-based information for determining the design pressure based on risk acceptance criteria, which may vary with different points of view. - Highlights: • The realistic operation scenario of the LNG FGS system is estimated by MCS. • In repeated MCS trials, the availability of the FGS system is evaluated. • The realistic pressure profile is obtained by the proposed methodology. • The exceedance curve provides risk-based information for determining design pressure

  8. 40 CFR 68.65 - Process safety information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.65 Process safety... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Process safety information. 68.65... compilation of written process safety information before conducting any process hazard analysis required by...

  9. Risk-Based Tailoring of the Verification, Validation, and Accreditation/Acceptance Processes (Adaptation fondee sur le risque, des processus de verification, de validation, et d’accreditation/d’acceptation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    AGARD doivent comporter la dénomination « RTO » ou « AGARD » selon le cas, suivi du numéro de série. Des informations analogues, telles que le titre ...MSG-054 Risk-Based Tailoring of the Verification, Validation, and Accreditation/ Acceptance Processes (Adaptation fondée sur le risque, des...MSG-054 Risk-Based Tailoring of the Verification, Validation, and Accreditation/ Acceptance Processes (Adaptation fondée sur le risque, des

  10. Status of the safety certification process of the TRANSRAPID system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomerius, J [TUEV Rheinland, Koeln (Germany). Inst. fuer Software, Elektronik, Bahntechnik

    1996-12-31

    Since 20 years TUeV Rheinland is involved in safety certification of maglev technology of the TRANSRAPID type. The process applied is called PASC (Programm Accompanying Safety Certification). The paper reports on safety assessment of relevant subsystems and components (TR07, OCS, guideway components) as well as safety certification in the final program. (HW)

  11. Risk-based regulation: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, man has witnessed a gradual but steady movement toward increased usage of risk-based methods and results in the regulatory process. The ''risk perspective'' as a supportive view to existing (non-risk-based or deterministic) information used in decision making has a firm foothold now in most countries that regulate nuclear power. Furthermore, in the areas outside the nuclear power field, such as health risk assessment, risk-based information is used increasingly to make decisions on potential impacts of chemical, biological, and radiological exposures. Some of the principal concepts and issues that are pertinent to risk-based regulation are reviewed. There is a growing interest in most countries in the use of risk-based methods and results to facilitate decision-making associated with regulatory processes. A summary is presented of the challenges and opportunities related to expanded use of risk-based regulation

  12. Risk-based maintenance-Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Plant and equipment, however well designed, will not remain safe or reliable if it is not maintained. The general objective of the maintenance process is to make use of the knowledge of failures and accidents to achieve the possible safety with the lowest possible cost. The concept of risk-based maintenance was developed to inspect the high-risk components usually with greater frequency and thoroughness and to maintain in a greater manner, to achieve tolerable risk criteria. Risk-based maintenance methodology provides a tool for maintenance planning and decision making to reduce the probability of failure of equipment and the consequences of failure. In this paper, the risk analysis and risk-based maintenance methodologies were identified and classified into suitable classes. The factors affecting the quality of risk analysis were identified and analyzed. The applications, input data and output data were studied to understand their functioning and efficiency. The review showed that there is no unique way to perform risk analysis and risk-based maintenance. The use of suitable techniques and methodologies, careful investigation during the risk analysis phase, and its detailed and structured results are necessary to make proper risk-based maintenance decisions

  13. Criticality safety of solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachimori, Shoichi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    1987-01-01

    The article presents some comments on criticality safety of solvent extraction processes. When used as an extracting medium, tributyl phosphate extracts nitric acid and water, in addition to nitrates of U and Pu, into the organic phase. The amount of these chemical species extracted into the organic phase is dependent on and restricted by the concentrations of tributyl phosphate and other components. For criticality control, measures are taken to decrease the concentration of tributyl phosphate in the organic phase, in addition to control of the U and Pu concentrations in the feed water phase. It should be remembered that complexes of tributyl phosphate with nitrates of such metals as Pu(IV), Pu(VI), U(IV) and Th(IV) do not dissolve uniformly in the organic phase. In criticality calculation for solution-handling systems, U and Pu are generally assumed to have a valence of 6 and 4, respectively. In the reprocessing extraction process, however, U and Pu can have a valence of 4, and 3 and 6, respectively. The organic phase and aqueous phase contact in a counter-current flow. U and Pu will be accumulated if they are not brought out of the extraction system by this flow. (Nogami, K.)

  14. Application of risk-based inspection methods for cryogenic equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Risk-based Inspection (RBI) is widely applied across the world as part of Pressure Equipment Integrity Management, especially in the oil and gas industry, to generally reduce costs compared with time-based approaches and assist in assigning resources to the most critical equipment. One of the challenges in RBI is to apply it for low temperature and cryogenic applications, as there are usually no degradation mechanisms by which to determine a suitable probability of failure in the overall risk assessment. However, the assumptions used for other degradation mechanisms can be adopted to determine, qualitatively and semi-quantitatively, a consequence of failure within the risk assessment. This can assist in providing a consistent basis for the assumptions used in ensuring adequate process safety barriers and determining suitable sizing of relief devices. This presentation will discuss risk-based inspection in the context of cryogenic safety, as well as present some of the considerations for the risk assessme...

  15. Safety analysis of SISL process module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report provides an assessment of various postulated accidental occurrences within an experimental process module which is part of a Special Isotope Separation Laboratory (SISL) currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The process module will contain large amounts of molten uranium and various water-cooled structures within a vacuum vessel. Special emphasis is therefore given to potential accidental interactions of molten uranium with water leading to explosive and/or rapid steam formation, as well as uranium oxidation and the potential for combustion. Considerations are also given to the potential for vessel melt-through. Evaluations include mechanical and thermal interactions and design implications both in terms of design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accident scenarios. These scenarios include both single- and multiple-failure modes leading to various contact modes and locations within the process module for possible thermal interactions. The evaluations show that a vacuum vessel design based upon nominal operating conditions would appear sufficient to meet safety requirements in connection with both design basis as well as once-in-a-lifetime accidents. Controlled venting requirements for removal of steam and hydrogen in order to avoid possible long-term pressurization events are recommended. Depending upon the resulting accident conditions, the vacuum system (i.e., the roughing system) could also serve this purpose. Finally, based upon accident evaluations of this study, immediate shut-off of all coolant water following an incident leak is not recommended, as such action may have adverse effects in terms of cool-down requirements for the melt crucibles etc. These requirements have not been assessed as part of this study

  16. Obtaining Valid Safety Data for Software Safety Measurement and Process Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Victor r.; Zelkowitz, Marvin V.; Layman, Lucas; Dangle, Kathleen; Diep, Madeline

    2010-01-01

    We report on a preliminary case study to examine software safety risk in the early design phase of the NASA Constellation spaceflight program. Our goal is to provide NASA quality assurance managers with information regarding the ongoing state of software safety across the program. We examined 154 hazard reports created during the preliminary design phase of three major flight hardware systems within the Constellation program. Our purpose was two-fold: 1) to quantify the relative importance of software with respect to system safety; and 2) to identify potential risks due to incorrect application of the safety process, deficiencies in the safety process, or the lack of a defined process. One early outcome of this work was to show that there are structural deficiencies in collecting valid safety data that make software safety different from hardware safety. In our conclusions we present some of these deficiencies.

  17. Process safety improvement--quality and target zero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The "plan, do, check, act" improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  18. Process safety improvement-Quality and target zero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Scyoc, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The 'plan, do, check, act' improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given

  19. Process safety improvement-Quality and target zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Scyoc, Karl [Det Norske Veritas (U.S.A.) Inc., DNV Energy Solutions, 16340 Park Ten Place, Suite 100, Houston, TX 77084 (United States)], E-mail: karl.van.scyoc@dnv.com

    2008-11-15

    Process safety practitioners have adopted quality management principles in design of process safety management systems with positive effect, yet achieving safety objectives sometimes remain a distant target. Companies regularly apply tools and methods which have roots in quality and productivity improvement. The 'plan, do, check, act' improvement loop, statistical analysis of incidents (non-conformities), and performance trending popularized by Dr. Deming are now commonly used in the context of process safety. Significant advancements in HSE performance are reported after applying methods viewed as fundamental for quality management. In pursuit of continual process safety improvement, the paper examines various quality improvement methods, and explores how methods intended for product quality can be additionally applied to continual improvement of process safety. Methods such as Kaizen, Poke yoke, and TRIZ, while long established for quality improvement, are quite unfamiliar in the process safety arena. These methods are discussed for application in improving both process safety leadership and field work team performance. Practical ways to advance process safety, based on the methods, are given.

  20. The practice of safety culture construction in radiation processing enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Xiangshan; Zhang Yue; Yang Bin; Xu Tao; Liu Wei; Hao Jiangang

    2014-01-01

    Security is an integral part of the process of business operations. The radiation processing enterprises due to their own particularity, more need to focus on the operation of the safety factors, the construction of corporate safety culture is of great significance in guiding carry out the work of the Radiation Protection. Radiation processing enterprises should proceed from their own characteristics, the common attitude of security systems and security construction, and constantly improved to ensure the personal safety of radiation workers in the area of safety performance. (authors)

  1. Leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement: impact on process quality and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Kathleen L; Stock, Gregory N; Gowen, Charles R

    2014-10-01

    Successful amelioration of medical errors represents a significant problem in the health care industry. There is a need for greater understanding of the factors that lead to improved process quality and patient safety outcomes in hospitals. We present a research model that shows how transformational leadership, safety climate, and continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiatives are related to objective quality and patient safety outcome measures. The proposed framework is tested using structural equation modeling, based on data collected for 204 hospitals, and supplemented with objective outcome data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The results provide empirical evidence that a safety climate, which is connected to the chief executive officer's transformational leadership style, is related to CQI initiatives, which are linked to improved process quality. A unique finding of this study is that, although CQI initiatives are positively associated with improved process quality, they are also associated with higher hospital-acquired condition rates, a measure of patient safety. Likewise, safety climate is directly related to improved patient safety outcomes. The notion that patient safety climate and CQI initiatives are not interchangeable or universally beneficial is an important contribution to the literature. The results confirm the importance of using CQI to effectively enhance process quality in hospitals, and patient safety climate to improve patient safety outcomes. The overall pattern of findings suggests that simultaneous implementation of CQI initiatives and patient safety climate produces greater combined benefits.

  2. Electronics and data processing for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Industrial installations, and in particular installations involving risk, are more and more monitored and controlled by computerized systems. The use of such systems raises questions about their contribution to the installation safety and about the qualities required in these systems to avoid additional risk. The February 1995 Electronics Days were organized by the CEA-LETI Department of Electronics and Nuclear Instrumentation to try to answer these questions. Four sessions were organized on the following topics: computerized systems and functioning safety, components and architectures, softwares and norms, and tools and methods. Only the communications dealing with the safety of computerized systems and components involved in nuclear applications have been retained (17 over 36). (J.S.)

  3. Optimization of frying process in food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaglia, G.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanics of frying are fairly simple. Hot oil serves as a heat exchange medium in which heat is transferred to the food being fried. As a result, the heat converts water within the food to steam and melts the fat within the food. The steam and fat then migrate from the interior of the food through the exterior and into the oil. Conversely, some of the frying oil is absorbed into the food being fried. The chemistry occurring in the frying oil and in the food being fried includes a myriad of thermal and oxidative reactions involving lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and minor food constituents. Decomposition products by autoxidation above 100°C, polimerization without oxigen between 200-300°C and thermal oxidation at 200°C, can be produced in frying oil and their amounts are related to different chemical and physical parameters such as temperature, heating time, type of oil used and food being fried, oil turnover rate, management of the oil and finally type of equipment used. Different studies have remarked as the toxicity of these by-products, is due to their chemistry and concentration. Since the prime requirement in food quality is the safety of the products, attainable through preventive analysis of the risks and total control through all frying processes, in this work the critical points of particular importance are identify and showed: Oil composition, and in particular its antioxidant capacity. Proper fryer design. Food/oil ratio. Good manufactured practice. Beside the quality screening has to be direct towards the chemical quality evaluation by easy and rapid analysis of oil (colour, polar compounds, free fatty acids and antioxidant capacity and food fried (panel test and/or consumer test. Conclusion, to maintain high quality in the frying medium, choose efficient equipment, select a fat with desirable flavour and good antioxidant capacity, eliminate crackling as soon and often as possible, choose better components with minimal but

  4. Integrating system safety into the basic systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    The basic elements of a systems engineering process are given along with a detailed description of what the safety system requires from the systems engineering process. Also discussed is the safety that the system provides to other subfunctions of systems engineering.

  5. Microbial and preservative safety of fresh and processed fruit salads ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The producers and traders of fresh fruit and the processers should implement quality management practices and safety standards in farming, fresh fruit, processing and storage. This is to ensure safety, enhance consumption of fruits and fruit products for health of consumers and eliminate wastage. Key words: Fresh fruit, ...

  6. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2010-11-01

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  7. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina (ed.) (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  8. Interface management: Effective communication to improve process safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brian; Berger, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Failure to successfully communicate maintenance activities, abnormal conditions, emergency response procedures, process hazards, and hundreds of other items of critical information can lead to disaster, regardless of the thoroughness of the process safety management system. Therefore, a well-functioning process safety program depends on maintaining successful communication interfaces between each involved employee or stakeholder and the many other employees or stakeholders that person must interact with. The authors discuss a process to identify the critical 'Interfaces' between the many participants in a process safety management system, and then to establish a protocol for each critical interface

  9. Organizational processes and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landy, F.J.; Jacobs, R.R.; Mathieu, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the effects organizational factors have on the risk associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. The described research project addresses three methods for identifying the organizational factors that impact safety. The first method consists of an elaborate theory-based protocol dealing with decision making procedures, interdepartmental coordination of activities, and communications. The second, known as goals/means/measures protocol, deals with identifying safey related goals. The third method is known as behaviorally anchored rating scale development. The paper discusses the importance of the convergence of these three methods to identify organizational factors essential to reactor safety

  10. Safety assessment of the liquid-fed ceramic melter process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.; Partain, W.L.

    1980-08-01

    As part of its development program for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste, Pacific Northwest Laboratory assessed the safety issues for a complete liquid-fed ceramic melter (LFCM) process. The LFCM process, an adaption of commercial glass-making technology, is being developed to convert high-level liquid waste from the nuclear fuel cycle into glass. This safety assessment uncovered no unresolved or significant safety problems with the LFCM process. Although in this assessment the LFCM process was not directly compared with other solidification processes, the safety hazards of the LFCM process are comparable to those of other processes. The high processing temperatures of the glass in the LFCM pose no additional significant safety concerns, and the dispersible inventory of dried waste (calcine) is small. This safety assessment was based on the nuclear power waste flowsheet, since power waste is more radioactive than defense waste at the time of solidification, and all accident conditions for the power waste would have greater radiological consequences than those for defense waste. An exhaustive list of possible off-standard conditions and equipment failures was compiled. These accidents were then classified according to severity of consequence and type of accident. Radionuclide releases to the stack were calculated for each group of accidents using conservative assumptions regarding the retention and decontamination features of the process and facility. Two recommendations that should be considered by process designers are given in the safety assessment

  11. The Two C”s of the Risk-Based Approach to Goal based Standards: Challenges and Caveats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Zachariadis, Panos

    2007-01-01

    industry has begun to move from a reactive to a proactive approach to safety through “Formal Safety Assessment” (FSA) and “Goal Based Standards” (GBS). FSA was introduced by the IMO as “a rational and systematic process for accessing the risk related to maritime safety and the protection of the marine...... environment and for evaluating the costs and benefits of IMO’s options for reducing these risks”. The recent GBS approach aims to be another proactive instrument, and there has been recent discussion in the IMO on the possible links between FSA and GBS. This paper attempts to clarify some widely used......, but confusing to many, notions such as Risk Based Rulemaking vs. Risk Based Design, and IMO's GBS Traditional Approach vs. Safety Level Approach, and the implications of their use, or misuse, to future ship rulemaking, design and safety. The paper elaborates on some identified weaknesses of the risk based...

  12. Are classical process safety concepts relevant to nanotechnology applications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyotte, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    The answer to the question posed by the title of this paper is yes - with adaptation to the specific hazards and challenges found in the field of nanotechnology. The validity of this affirmative response is demonstrated by relating key process safety concepts to various aspects of the nanotechnology industry in which these concepts are either already practised or could be further applied. This is accomplished by drawing on the current author's experience in process safety practice and education as well as a review of the relevant literature on the safety of nanomaterials and their production. The process safety concepts selected for analysis include: (i) risk management, (ii) inherently safer design, (iii) human error and human factors, (iv) safety management systems, and (v) safety culture.

  13. Risk-based SMA for Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This presentation conveys an approach for risk-based safety and mission assurance applied to cubesats. This presentation accompanies a NASA Goddard standard in development that provides guidance for building a mission success plan for cubesats based on the risk tolerance and resources available.

  14. Study of a risk-based piping inspection guideline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shiaw-Wen; Hwang, Wen-Tsung; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    2007-02-01

    A risk-based inspection system and a piping inspection guideline model were developed in this study. The research procedure consists of two parts--the building of a risk-based inspection model for piping and the construction of a risk-based piping inspection guideline model. Field visits at the plant were conducted to develop the risk-based inspection and strategic analysis system. A knowledge-based model had been built in accordance with international standards and local government regulations, and the rational unified process was applied for reducing the discrepancy in the development of the models. The models had been designed to analyze damage factors, damage models, and potential damage positions of piping in the petrochemical plants. The purpose of this study was to provide inspection-related personnel with the optimal planning tools for piping inspections, hence, to enable effective predictions of potential piping risks and to enhance the better degree of safety in plant operations that the petrochemical industries can be expected to achieve. A risk analysis was conducted on the piping system of a petrochemical plant. The outcome indicated that most of the risks resulted from a small number of pipelines.

  15. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article follows on the Part I, where the basic processes on uncontrolled aerodromes were introduced. The uncontrolled aerodromes face with the growing traffic and from that result the higher workload on AFIS officer. This means a higher potential for dangerous situations.The article describes some models of sub-processes and creates several safety indicators related to the operation at uncontrolled aerodromes. Thanks to monitoring and evaluation of safety indicators can be adopted targeted safety measures and thus increase safety on small uncontrolled aerodromes.

  16. A graded approach to safety documentation at processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowen, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) has over 40 major Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) in preparation for non-reactor facilities. These facilities include nuclear material production facilities, waste management facilities, support laboratories and environmental remediation facilities. The SARs for these various projects encompass hazard levels from High to Low, and mission times from startup, through operation, to shutdown. All of these efforts are competing for scarce resources, and therefore some mechanism is required for balancing the documentation requirements. Three of the key variables useful for the decision making process are Depth of Safety Analysis, Urgency of Safety Analysis, and Resource Availability. This report discusses safety documentation at processing facilities

  17. Safety applications of computer based systems for the process industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bologna, Sandro; Picciolo, Giovanni; Taylor, Robert

    1997-11-01

    Computer based systems, generally referred to as Programmable Electronic Systems (PESs) are being increasingly used in the process industry, also to perform safety functions. The process industry as they intend in this document includes, but is not limited to, chemicals, oil and gas production, oil refining and power generation. Starting in the early 1970's the wide application possibilities and the related development problems of such systems were recognized. Since then, many guidelines and standards have been developed to direct and regulate the application of computers to perform safety functions (EWICS-TC7, IEC, ISA). Lessons learnt in the last twenty years can be summarised as follows: safety is a cultural issue; safety is a management issue; safety is an engineering issue. In particular, safety systems can only be properly addressed in the overall system context. No single method can be considered sufficient to achieve the safety features required in many safety applications. Good safety engineering approach has to address not only hardware and software problems in isolation but also their interfaces and man-machine interface problems. Finally, the economic and industrial aspects of the safety applications and development of PESs in process plants are evidenced throughout all the Report. Scope of the Report is to contribute to the development of an adequate awareness of these problems and to illustrate technical solutions applied or being developed

  18. The Evolution of Process Safety: Current Status and Future Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannan, M Sam; Reyes-Valdes, Olga; Jain, Prerna; Tamim, Nafiz; Ahammad, Monir

    2016-06-07

    The advent of the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century increased the volume and variety of manufactured goods and enriched the quality of life for society as a whole. However, industrialization was also accompanied by new manufacturing and complex processes that brought about the use of hazardous chemicals and difficult-to-control operating conditions. Moreover, human-process-equipment interaction plus on-the-job learning resulted in further undesirable outcomes and associated consequences. These problems gave rise to many catastrophic process safety incidents that resulted in thousands of fatalities and injuries, losses of property, and environmental damages. These events led eventually to the necessity for a gradual development of a new multidisciplinary field, referred to as process safety. From its inception in the early 1970s to the current state of the art, process safety has come to represent a wide array of issues, including safety culture, process safety management systems, process safety engineering, loss prevention, risk assessment, risk management, and inherently safer technology. Governments and academic/research organizations have kept pace with regulatory programs and research initiatives, respectively. Understanding how major incidents impact regulations and contribute to industrial and academic technology development provides a firm foundation to address new challenges, and to continue applying science and engineering to develop and implement programs to keep hazardous materials within containment. Here the most significant incidents in terms of their impact on regulations and the overall development of the field of process safety are described.

  19. Designing a risk-based surveillance program for Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in Norwegian dairy herds using multivariate statistical process control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whist, A C; Liland, K H; Jonsson, M E; Sæbø, S; Sviland, S; Østerås, O; Norström, M; Hopp, P

    2014-11-01

    Surveillance programs for animal diseases are critical to early disease detection and risk estimation and to documenting a population's disease status at a given time. The aim of this study was to describe a risk-based surveillance program for detecting Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in Norwegian dairy cattle. The included risk factors for detecting MAP were purchase of cattle, combined cattle and goat farming, and location of the cattle farm in counties containing goats with MAP. The risk indicators included production data [culling of animals >3 yr of age, carcass conformation of animals >3 yr of age, milk production decrease in older lactating cows (lactations 3, 4, and 5)], and clinical data (diarrhea, enteritis, or both, in animals >3 yr of age). Except for combined cattle and goat farming and cattle farm location, all data were collected at the cow level and summarized at the herd level. Predefined risk factors and risk indicators were extracted from different national databases and combined in a multivariate statistical process control to obtain a risk assessment for each herd. The ordinary Hotelling's T(2) statistic was applied as a multivariate, standardized measure of difference between the current observed state and the average state of the risk factors for a given herd. To make the analysis more robust and adapt it to the slowly developing nature of MAP, monthly risk calculations were based on data accumulated during a 24-mo period. Monitoring of these variables was performed to identify outliers that may indicate deviance in one or more of the underlying processes. The highest-ranked herds were scattered all over Norway and clustered in high-density dairy cattle farm areas. The resulting rankings of herds are being used in the national surveillance program for MAP in 2014 to increase the sensitivity of the ongoing surveillance program in which 5 fecal samples for bacteriological examination are collected from 25 dairy herds

  20. Management and organizational indicators of process safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hemel, S.B.; Connelly, E.M.; Haas, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    This study is part of a Nuclear Regulatory Commission research element on organizational factors in plant safety under the Human Factors research program. This paper reports that the study investigated the chemical industry, to find leading management or organizational tools which could be useful for the NRC. After collecting information form a variety of information sources, the authors concentrated our study on two types of indicators currently in use: the first is audit- or review-based, and concentrates on programmatic factors; the second, based on frequent behavioral observations, concentrates on the management of individual worker behaviors. The authors analyzed data on the relationships between the leading indictors and direct indictors such as accident and injury rates in three case studies, to determine whether sufficient evidence of validity and utility exists to justify consideration of these indicators as public safety indicators. This paper states that on the basis of statistical associations and other evidence, the authors concluded that the two indicator types have promise for use as plant safety performance indicators, and that further development and testing of the candidate indicators should be performed

  1. Risk-based methodology for USNRC inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.M.; Holahan, G.M.; Chung, J.W.; Johnson, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the development and trial applications of a risk-based methodology to enhance the inspection processes for US nuclear power plants. Objectives of risk-based methods to complement prescriptive engineering approaches in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) inspection programs are presented. Insights from time-dependent risk profiles of plant configurational from Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE) studies were integrated to develop a framework for optimizing inspection efforts in NRC regulatory initiatives. Lessons learned from NRC pilot applications of the risk-based methodology for evaluation of the effectiveness of operational risk management programs at US nuclear power plant sites are also discussed

  2. Study on 'Safety qualification of process computers used in safety systems of nuclear power plants'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, K.; Hoermann, E.

    1991-01-01

    The study aims at developing safety standards for hardware and software of computer systems which are increasingly used also for important safety systems in nuclear power plants. The survey of the present state-of-the-art of safety requirements and specifications for safety-relevant systems and, additionally, for process computer systems has been compiled from national and foreign rules. In the Federal Republic of Germany the KTA safety guides and the BMI/BMU safety criteria have to be observed. For the design of future computer-aided systems in nuclear power plants it will be necessary to apply the guidelines in [DIN-880] and [DKE-714] together with [DIN-192]. With the aid of a risk graph the various functions of a system, or of a subsystem, can be evaluated with regard to their significance for safety engineering. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The Configuration Control; The Risk-based Configuration Control (during power operation mode, and during shutdown mode). PSA requirements. Use of Risk-based Configuration Control System. Configuration Management (basic elements, benefits, information requirements)

  4. Incorporation of Safety into Design Process : A Systems Engineering Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests integrating the best safety practices with the design process. This integration enriches the exploration experience for designers and adds extra values and competitor advantages for customers. The paper introduces the safety cube for combining common blocks for design, hazard

  5. 49 CFR 1106.4 - The Safety Integration Plan process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Safety Integration Plan process. 1106.4 Section 1106.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... CONSIDERATION OF SAFETY INTEGRATION PLANS IN CASES INVOLVING RAILROAD CONSOLIDATIONS, MERGERS, AND ACQUISITIONS...

  6. Uncertainty in safety : new techniques for the assessment and optimisation of safety in process industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouvroye, J.L.; Nieuwenhuizen, J.K.; Brombacher, A.C.; Stavrianidis, P.; Spiker, R.Th.E.; Pyatt, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    At this moment there is no standardised method for the assessment for safety in the process industry. Many companies and institutes use qualitative techniques for safety analysis while other companies and institutes use quantitative techniques. The authors of this paper will compare different

  7. Fissile materials principles of criticality safety in handling and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This Swedish Standard consists of the English version of the International Standard ISO 1709-1975-Nuclear energy. Fissile materials. Principles of criticality safety in handling and processing. (author)

  8. Use of nanotechnology in food processing, packaging and safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of nanotechnology in food processing, packaging and safety – review. ... application of nanotechnology in food packaging and food contact materials, ... developing active antimicrobial and antifungal surfaces, and sensing as well as ...

  9. PNRA Process for Utilizing Experience Feedback for Enhancing Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Z.H.

    2016-01-01

    One of the elements essential for any organization to become a learning organization is to learn from its own and others experience. The importance of utilizing experience feedback for enhancing operational safety is highlighted in nuclear industry again and again and this has resulted in establishment of several national and international forums. In addition, IAEA action plan on nuclear safety issued after Fukushima accident further highlighted the importance of experience sharing among nuclear community to enhance global nuclear safety regime. PNRA utilizes operating experience feedback gathered through different sources in order to improve its regulatory processes. During the review of licensing submissions, special emphasis is given to utilize the lessons learnt from experience feedback relating to nuclear industry within and outside the country. This emphasis has gradually resulted in various safety improvements in the facilities and processes. Accordingly, PNRA has developed a systematic process of evaluation of international operating experience feedback with the aim to create safety conscious approach. This process includes collecting information from different international forums such as IAEA, regulatory bodies of other countries and useful feedback of past accidents followed by its screening, evaluation and suggesting recommendations both for PNRA and its licensees. As a result of this process, several improvements concerning regulatory inspection plans of PNRA as well as in regulatory decision making and operational practices of licensees have been highlighted. This paper will present PNRA approach for utilizing experience feedback in its regulatory processes for enhancing / improving nuclear safety. (author)

  10. Safety assessment as basis for the decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Danchiv, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the safety assessment for a new near surface repository, particularly for the early stage of repository development using ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) safety assessment methodology. In this stage of the repository life cycle the main purpose of the safety assessment is to demonstrate that the plant is capable to be constructed and operated safely. The paper is based on development of the ASAM (Application of the Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Disposal Facilities) Decision Support Subgroup of the Common Aspects Working Group. The implications of decision making for the application of the ISAM methodology on post-closure safety assessment are analysed. Some important elements of the decision-making process with impact on key components of the ISAM process are described. Following the development of Decision Support Subgroup of the ASAM Common Aspects Working Group the proposed change of ISAM methodology is analysed. This approach puts all activities in a decision context where the first iteration of the safety assessment is based on the existing state of knowledge and the initial engineering design. Confidence in the process is accomplished through the direct inclusion of all decision makers and stakeholders in the formulation of decisions, the definition of the state of knowledge, and decision making activities. The decision process is developed in context of undertaking assessments with little site-specific information, this situation is specifically for new planned repository. Limited site-specific information can result in a high degree of uncertainty, therefore it is important first of all to identify the sources of uncertainty arising from the limited nature of the site-specific information and then to apply appropriate approaches to manage the uncertainties and to determine whether the uncertainties are important to the overall safety of the disposal facility

  11. Risk-Based Explosive Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER P0D9 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. Air...U.S. Government is joint author of the work and has the right to use, modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose the work . PA...weaknesses of this methodology are that its criteria are inflexible to site-specific operations and require obtaining waivers or exemptions for

  12. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrick

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses

  13. Interim process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrick (ed.)

    2004-08-01

    This report is a documentation of buffer processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. The report is part of the interim reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can, see further the Interim main report. The final SR-Can reporting will support SKB's application to build an Encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and is to be produced in 2006. The purpose of this report is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment in the safety assessment. The documentation is thus from a scientific point of not exhaustive since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. The purpose is further to determine the handling of each process in the safety assessment and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling. The process documentation in the SR 97 version of the Process report is a starting point for this SR-Can interim version. As further described in the Interim main report, the list of relevant processes has been reviewed and slightly extended by comparison to other databases. Furthermore, the backfill has been included as a system part of its own, rather than being described together with the buffer as in SR 97. Apart from giving an interim account of the documentation and handling of buffer processes in SR-Can, this report is meant to serve as a template for the forthcoming documentation of processes occurring in other parts of the repository system. A complete list of processes can be found in the Interim FEP report for the safety assessment SR-Can. All material presented in this document is preliminary in nature and will possibly be updated as the SR-Can project progresses.

  14. Cultural safety as an ethic of care: a praxiological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEldowney, Rose; Connor, Margaret J

    2011-10-01

    New writings broadening the construct of cultural safety, a construct initiated in Aotearoa New Zealand, are beginning to appear in the literature. Therefore, it is considered timely to integrate these writings and advance the construct into a new theoretical model. The new model reconfigures the constructs of cultural safety and cultural competence as an ethic of care informed by a postmodern perspective. Central to the new model are three interwoven, co-occurring components: an ethic of care, which unfolds within a praxiological process shaped by the context. Context is expanded through identifying the three concepts of relationality, generic competence, and collectivity, which are integral to each client-nurse encounter. The competence associated with cultural safety as an ethic of care is always in the process of development. Clients and nurses engage in a dialogue to establish the level of cultural safety achieved at given points in a care trajectory.

  15. Safety analysis of tritium processing system based on PHA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Wanfa; Luo Deli; Tang Tao

    2012-01-01

    Safety analysis on primary confinement of tritium processing system for TBM was carried out with Preliminary Hazard Analysis. Firstly, the basic PHA process was given. Then the function and safe measures with multiple confinements about tritium system were described and analyzed briefly, dividing the two kinds of boundaries of tritium transferring through, that are multiple confinement systems division and fluid loops division. Analysis on tritium releasing is the key of PHA. Besides, PHA table about tritium releasing was put forward, the causes and harmful results being analyzed, and the safety measures were put forward also. On the basis of PHA, several kinds of typical accidents were supposed to be further analyzed. And 8 factors influencing the tritium safety were analyzed, laying the foundation of evaluating quantitatively the safety grade of various nuclear facilities. (authors)

  16. Enhancing Safety of Artificially Ventilated Patients Using Ambient Process Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Christian; Gerka, Alexander; Lüpkes, Christian; Röhrig, Rainer; Hein, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach for enhancing the safety of artificially ventilated patients using ambient process analysis. We propose to use an analysis system consisting of low-cost ambient sensors such as power sensor, RGB-D sensor, passage detector, and matrix infrared temperature sensor to reduce risks for artificially ventilated patients in both home and clinical environments. We describe the system concept and our implementation and show how the system can contribute to patient safety.

  17. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the processes that take place at the beginning of each duty of dispatcher at uncontrolled aerodromes.Thanks to modeling and analysis of these processes, there is a possible to find critical ones and implement precise targeted safety measures.

  18. Quantification of microbial quality and safety in minimally processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    To find a good equilibrium between quality and margin of safety of minimally processed foods, often various hurdles are used. Quantification of the kinetics should be used to approach an optimum processing and to select the main aspects. Due to many factors of which the exact quantitative effect is

  19. Verification and validation process for the safety software in KNICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee-Choon; Lee, Jang-Soo; Kim, Jang-Yeol

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Verification and Validation (V and V ) process for safety software of Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Digital Reactor Protection System (DRPS), and Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) that are being developed in Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System (KNICS) projects. Specifically, it presents DRPS V and V experience according to the software development life cycle. The main activities of DRPS V and V process are preparation of software planning documentation, verification of Software Requirement Specification (SRS), Software Design Specification (SDS) and codes, and testing of the integrated software and the integrated system. In addition, they include software safety analysis and software configuration management. SRS V and V of DRPS are technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, preparing integrated system test plan, software safety analysis, and software configuration management. Also, SDS V and V of RPS are technical evaluation, licensing suitability evaluation, inspection and traceability analysis, formal verification, preparing integrated software test plan, software safety analysis, and software configuration management. The code V and V of DRPS are traceability analysis, source code inspection, test case and test procedure generation, software safety analysis, and software configuration management. Testing is the major V and V activity of software integration and system integration phase. Software safety analysis at SRS phase uses Hazard Operability (HAZOP) method, at SDS phase it uses HAZOP and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), and at implementation phase it uses FTA. Finally, software configuration management is performed using Nu-SCM (Nuclear Software Configuration Management) tool developed by KNICS project. Through these activities, we believe we can achieve the functionality, performance, reliability and safety that are V

  20. Process management - critical safety issues with focus on risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanne, Johan M.

    2005-12-01

    Organizational changes focused on process orientation are taking place among Swedish nuclear power plants, aiming at improving the operation. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has identified a need for increased knowledge within the area for its regulatory activities. In order to analyze what process orientation imply for nuclear power plant safety a number of questions must be asked: 1. How is safety in nuclear power production created currently? What significance does the functional organization play? 2. How can organizational forms be analysed? What consequences does quality management have for work and for the enterprise? 3. Why should nuclear power plants be process oriented? Who are the customers and what are their customer values? Which customers are expected to contribute from process orientation? 4. What can one learn from process orientation in other safety critical systems? What is the effect on those features that currently create safety? 5. Could customer values increase for one customer without decreasing for other customers? What is the relationship between economic and safety interests from an increased process orientation? The deregulation of the electricity market have caused an interest in increased economic efficiency, which is the motivation for the interest in process orientation. among other means. It is the nuclear power plants' owners and the distributors (often the same corporations) that have the strongest interest in process orientation. If the functional organization and associated practices are decomposed, the prerequisites of the risk management regime changes, perhaps deteriorating its functionality. When nuclear power operators consider the introduction of process orientation, the Nuclear Power Inspectorate should require that 1. The operators perform a risk analysis beforehand concerning the potential consequences that process orientation might convey: the analysis should contain a model specifying how safety is currently

  1. Chemical process safety management within the Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piatt, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Although the Department of Energy (DOE) is not well known for its chemical processing activities, the DOE does have a variety of chemical processes covered under OSHA's Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (the PSM Standard). DOE, like industry, is obligated to comply with the PSM Standard. The shift in the mission of DOE away from defense programs toward environmental restoration and waste management has affected these newly forming process safety management programs within DOE. This paper describes the progress made in implementing effective process safety management programs required by the PSM Standard and discusses some of the trends that have supported efforts to reduce chemical process risks within the DOE. In June of 1994, a survey of chemicals exceeding OSHA PSM or EPA Risk Management Program threshold quantities (TQs) at DOE sites found that there were 22 processes that utilized toxic or reactive chemicals over TQs; there were 13 processes involving flammable gases and liquids over TQs; and explosives manufacturing occurred at 4 sites. Examination of the survey results showed that 12 of the 22 processes involving toxic chemicals involved the use of chlorine for water treatment systems. The processes involving flammable gases and liquids were located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and Naval petroleum Reserve sites

  2. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  3. Test process for the safety-critical embedded software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ahyoung; Choi, Byoungju; Lee, Jangsoo

    2004-01-01

    Digitalization of nuclear Instrumentation and Control (I and C) system requires high reliability of not only hardware but also software. Verification and Validation (V and V) process is recommended for software reliability. But a more quantitative method is necessary such as software testing. Most of software in the nuclear I and C system is safety-critical embedded software. Safety-critical embedded software is specified, verified and developed according to V and V process. Hence two types of software testing techniques are necessary for the developed code. First, code-based software testing is required to examine the developed code. Second, after code-based software testing, software testing affected by hardware is required to reveal the interaction fault that may cause unexpected results. We call the testing of hardware's influence on software, an interaction testing. In case of safety-critical embedded software, it is also important to consider the interaction between hardware and software. Even if no faults are detected when testing either hardware or software alone, combining these components may lead to unexpected results due to the interaction. In this paper, we propose a software test process that embraces test levels, test techniques, required test tasks and documents for safety-critical embedded software. We apply the proposed test process to safety-critical embedded software as a case study, and show the effectiveness of it. (author)

  4. Quality and Safety Assurance of Iron Casts and Manufacturing Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Kukla S.

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM). An analysis of wor...

  5. Implementation of safety goals in NRC's regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murley, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    In May 1983 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a policy statement on Safety Goals For Nuclear Power Plant Operation. The Commission at the same time judged that a two-year evaluation period was necessary to judge the effectiveness of the goals and design objectives, and directed the staff to develop information and understanding as to how to further define and use the design objectives and the cost-benefit guidelines. In carrying out the Commission's mandate, the staff framed three major questions to be addressed during the safety goal evaluation period. These three questions are: 1) to what extent is it practical to use safety goals in the regulatory process. 2) Should the quantitative design objectives be modified or supplemented. If so, how. 3) How should the safety goals be implemented at the end of the evaluation period. The staff's conclusions are discussed

  6. Technical safety appraisal of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    On June 27, 1989, Secretary of Energy, Admiral James D. Watkins, US Navy (Retired), announced a 10-point initiative to strengthen environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) programs and waste management operations in the Department of Energy (DOE). One of the initiatives involved conducting independent Tiger Team Assessments (TTA) at DOE operating facilities. A TTA of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was performed during June and July 1991. Technical Safety Appraisals (TSA) were conducted in conjunction with the TTA as its Safety and Health portion. However, because of operational constraints the the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), operated for the DOE by Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Inc. (WINCO), was not included in the Safety and Health Subteam assessment at that time. This TSA, conducted April 12 - May 8, 1992, was performed by the DOE Office of Performance Assessment to complete the normal scope of the Safety and Health portion of the Tiger Team Assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of TSAs is to evaluate and strengthen DOE operations by verifying contractor compliance with DOE Orders, to assure that lessons learned from commercial operations are incorporated into facility operations, and to stimulate and encourage pursuit of excellence; thus, the appraisal addresses more issues than would be addressed in a strictly compliance-oriented appraisal. A total of 139 Performance Objectives have been addressed by this appraisal in 19 subject areas. These 19 areas are: organization and administration, quality verification, operations, maintenance, training and certification, auxiliary systems, emergency preparedness, technical support, packaging and transportation, nuclear criticality safety, safety/security interface, experimental activities, site/facility safety review, radiological protection, worker safety and health compliance, personnel protection, fire protection, medical services and natural

  7. A software engineering process for safety-critical software application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Heon; Kim, Hang Bae; Chang, Hoon Seon; Jeon, Jong Sun

    1995-01-01

    Application of computer software to safety-critical systems in on the increase. To be successful, the software must be designed and constructed to meet the functional and performance requirements of the system. For safety reason, the software must be demonstrated not only to meet these requirements, but also to operate safely as a component within the system. For longer-term cost consideration, the software must be designed and structured to ease future maintenance and modifications. This paper presents a software engineering process for the production of safety-critical software for a nuclear power plant. The presentation is expository in nature of a viable high quality safety-critical software development. It is based on the ideas of a rational design process and on the experience of the adaptation of such process in the production of the safety-critical software for the shutdown system number two of Wolsung 2, 3 and 4 nuclear power generation plants. This process is significantly different from a conventional process in terms of rigorous software development phases and software design techniques, The process covers documentation, design, verification and testing using mathematically precise notations and highly reviewable tabular format to specify software requirements and software requirements and software requirements and code against software design using static analysis. The software engineering process described in this paper applies the principle of information-hiding decomposition in software design using a modular design technique so that when a change is required or an error is detected, the affected scope can be readily and confidently located. it also facilitates a sense of high degree of confidence in the 'correctness' of the software production, and provides a relatively simple and straightforward code implementation effort. 1 figs., 10 refs. (Author)

  8. Expert evaluation in NPP safety important systems licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, A Yastrebenetsky; Vasilchenko, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    Expert evaluation of nuclear power plant safety important systems modernization is an integral part of these systems licensing process. The paper contains some aspects of this evaluation which are based on Ukrainian experience of VVER-1000 and VVER-440 modernization. (authors)

  9. Expert evaluation in NPP safety important systems licensing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhail, A Yastrebenetsky; Vasilchenko, V.N. [Ukrainian State Scientific Technical Center of Nuclear and Radiation Safety (Ukraine)

    2001-07-01

    Expert evaluation of nuclear power plant safety important systems modernization is an integral part of these systems licensing process. The paper contains some aspects of this evaluation which are based on Ukrainian experience of VVER-1000 and VVER-440 modernization. (authors)

  10. Configuration and Data Management Process and the System Safety Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivers, Charles Herbert; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of the configuration management (CM) and the Data Management (DM) functions and provides a perspective of the importance of configuration and data management processes to the success of system safety activities. The article addresses the basic requirements of configuration and data management generally based on NASA configuration and data management policies and practices, although the concepts are likely to represent processes of any public or private organization's well-designed configuration and data management program.

  11. Image processing for safety assessment in civil engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Belen; Pomares, Juan C; Irles, Ramon; Espinosa, Julian; Mas, David

    2013-06-20

    Behavior analysis of construction safety systems is of fundamental importance to avoid accidental injuries. Traditionally, measurements of dynamic actions in civil engineering have been done through accelerometers, but high-speed cameras and image processing techniques can play an important role in this area. Here, we propose using morphological image filtering and Hough transform on high-speed video sequence as tools for dynamic measurements on that field. The presented method is applied to obtain the trajectory and acceleration of a cylindrical ballast falling from a building and trapped by a thread net. Results show that safety recommendations given in construction codes can be potentially dangerous for workers.

  12. Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Korhonen, J. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland); Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    System vendors nowadays propose software-based technology even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature of software faults and the way they cause system failures new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)', financed together by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. As a part of the OHA-work a reference model for the licensing process for software-based safety automation systems is defined. The licensing process is defined as the set of interrelated activities whose purpose is to produce and assess evidence concerning the safety and reliability of the system/application to be licensed and to make the decision about the granting the construction and operation permissions based on this evidence. The parties of the licensing process are the authority, the licensee (the utility company), system vendors and their subcontractors and possible external independent assessors. The responsibility about the production of the evidence in first place lies at the licensee who in most cases rests heavily on the vendor expertise. The evaluation and gauging of the evidence is carried out by the authority (possibly using external experts), who also can acquire additional evidence by using their own (independent) methods and tools. Central issue in the licensing process is to combine the quality evidence about the system development process with the information acquired through tests, analyses and operational experience. The purpose of the licensing process described in this report is to act as a reference model both for the authority and the licensee when planning the licensing of individual applications

  13. Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, P.; Korhonen, J.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2000-12-01

    System vendors nowadays propose software-based technology even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature of software faults and the way they cause system failures new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)', financed together by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. As a part of the OHA-work a reference model for the licensing process for software-based safety automation systems is defined. The licensing process is defined as the set of interrelated activities whose purpose is to produce and assess evidence concerning the safety and reliability of the system/application to be licensed and to make the decision about the granting the construction and operation permissions based on this evidence. The parties of the licensing process are the authority, the licensee (the utility company), system vendors and their subcontractors and possible external independent assessors. The responsibility about the production of the evidence in first place lies at the licensee who in most cases rests heavily on the vendor expertise. The evaluation and gauging of the evidence is carried out by the authority (possibly using external experts), who also can acquire additional evidence by using their own (independent) methods and tools. Central issue in the licensing process is to combine the quality evidence about the system development process with the information acquired through tests, analyses and operational experience. The purpose of the licensing process described in this report is to act as a reference model both for the authority and the licensee when planning the licensing of individual applications. Many of the

  14. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon

    2016-01-01

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  15. Safety implications of computerized process control in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    Modern nuclear power plants are making increasing use of computerized process control because of the number of potential benefits that accrue. This practice not only applies to new plants but also to those in operation. Here, the replacement of both conventional process control systems and outdated computerized systems is seen to be of benefit. Whilst this contribution is obviously of great importance to the viability of nuclear electricity generation, it must be recognized that there are major safety concerns in taking this route. However, there is the potential for enhancing the safety of nuclear power plants if the full power of microcomputers and the associated electronics is applied correctly through well designed, engineered, installed and maintained systems. It is essential that areas where safety can be improved be identified and that the pitfalls are clearly marked so that they can be avoided. The deliberations of this Technical Committee Meeting are a step on the road to this goal of improved safety through computerized process control. This report also contains the papers presented at the technical committee meeting by participants. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 15 presentations. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Use of safety analysis results to support process operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvonen, I.; Heino, P.

    1990-01-01

    Safety and risk analysis carried out during the design phase of a process plant produces useful knowledge about the behavior and the disturbances of the system. This knowledge, however, often remains to the designer though it would be of benefit to the operators and supervisors of the process plant, too. In Technical Research Centre of Finland a project has been started to plan and construct a prototype of an information system to make use of the analysis knowledge during the operation phase. The project belongs to a Nordic KRM project (Knowledge Based Risk Management System). The information system is planned to base on safety and risk analysis carried out during the design phase and completed with operational experience. The safety analysis includes knowledge about potential disturbances, their causes and consequences in the form of Hazard and Operability Study, faut trees and/or event trees. During the operation disturbances can however, occur, which are not included in the safety analysis, or the causes or consequences of which have been incompletely identified. Thus the information system must also have an interface for the documentation of the operational knowledge missing from the analysis results. The main tasks off the system when supporting the management of a disturbance are to identify it (or the most important of the coexistent ones) from the stored knowledge and to present it in a proper form (for example as a deviation graph). The information system may also be used to transfer knowledge from one shift to another and to train process personnel

  17. Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Waste from PyroGreen Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hee Jae; Ham, In hye; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The main object of PyroGreen processes is decontaminating SNFs into intermediate level waste meeting U.S. WIPP contact-handled (CH) waste characteristics to achieve long-term radiological safety of waste disposal. In this paper, radiological impact of PyroGreen waste disposal is probabilistically assessed using domestic input parameters for safety assessment of disposal. PyroGreen processes is decontamination technology using pyro-chemical process developed by Seoul National University in collaboration with KAERI, Chungnam University, Korea Hydro-Nuclear Power and Yonsei University. Advanced Korean Reference Disposal System (A-KRS) design for vitrified waste is applied to develop safety assessment model using GoldSim software. The simulation result shows that PyroGreen vitrified waste is expected to satisfy the regulatory dose limit criteria, 0.1 mSv/yr. With small probability, however, radiological impact to public can be higher than the expected value after 2E5-year. Although the result implies 100 times safety margin even in that case, further study will be needed to assess the sensitivity of other input parameters which can affect the radiological impact for long-term.

  18. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka Pm; Luning, Pieternel A

    2014-08-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries' efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers' food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict raw material control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Criticality safety for deactivation of the Rover dry headend process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Rover dry headend process combusted Rover graphite fuels in preparation for dissolution and solvent extraction for the recovery of 235 U. At the end of the Rover processing campaign, significant quantities of 235 U were left in the dry system. The Rover Dry Headend Process Deactivation Project goal is to remove the remaining uranium bearing material (UBM) from the dry system and then decontaminate the cells. Criticality safety issues associated with the Rover Deactivation Project have been influenced by project design refinement and schedule acceleration initiatives. The uranium ash composition used for calculations must envelope a wide range of material compositions, and yet result in cost effective final packaging and storage. Innovative thinking must be used to provide a timely safety authorization basis while the project design continues to be refined

  20. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, Kristina

    2006-09-01

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS- repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The following excerpts describe the methodology, and clarify the role of this process report in the assessment. The repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository, will evolve over time. Future states of the system will depend on the initial state of the system, a number of radiation related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical and biological processes acting within the repository system over time, and external influences acting on the system. A methodology in ten steps has been developed for SR-Can described below. Identification of factors to consider (FEP processing): This step consists of identifying all the factors that need to be included in the analysis. Experience from earlier safety assessments and KBS-specific and international databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are utilised. Based on the results of the FEP processing, an SR-Can FEP catalogue, containing FEPs to be handled in SR-Can, has been established. The initial state of the system is described based on the design specifications of the KBS repository, a descriptive model of the repository site and a site-specific layout of the repository. The initial state of the fuel and the engineered components is that immediately after deposition, as described in the SR-Can Initial state report. The initial state of the geosphere and the biosphere is that of the natural system prior to excavation, as described in the site descriptive models. The repository layouts adapted to the sites are provided in underground

  1. Geosphere process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, Kristina [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-09-15

    This report documents geosphere processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS- repository, and forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The following excerpts describe the methodology, and clarify the role of this process report in the assessment. The repository system, broadly defined as the deposited spent nuclear fuel, the engineered barriers surrounding it, the host rock and the biosphere in the proximity of the repository, will evolve over time. Future states of the system will depend on the initial state of the system, a number of radiation related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical and biological processes acting within the repository system over time, and external influences acting on the system. A methodology in ten steps has been developed for SR-Can described below. Identification of factors to consider (FEP processing): This step consists of identifying all the factors that need to be included in the analysis. Experience from earlier safety assessments and KBS-specific and international databases of relevant features, events and processes influencing long-term safety are utilised. Based on the results of the FEP processing, an SR-Can FEP catalogue, containing FEPs to be handled in SR-Can, has been established. The initial state of the system is described based on the design specifications of the KBS repository, a descriptive model of the repository site and a site-specific layout of the repository. The initial state of the fuel and the engineered components is that immediately after deposition, as described in the SR-Can Initial state report. The initial state of the geosphere and the biosphere is that of the natural system prior to excavation, as described in the site descriptive models. The repository layouts adapted to the sites are provided in underground

  2. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, John C. [Tourgee and Associates Inc., 11459 Cronhill Drive, Suite A, Owings Mills, MD 21117 (United States)]. E-mail: jbirkmire@taiengineering.com; Lay, James R. [5644 High Tor Hill, Columbia, MD 21045 (United States)]. E-mail: jim.lay21045@gmail.com; McMahon, Mona C. [General Physics Corporation, 6095 Marshalee Drive, Suite 300, Elkridge, MD 21075 (United States)]. E-mail: mmcmahon@gpworldwide.com

    2007-04-11

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally.

  3. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkmire, John C.; Lay, James R.; McMahon, Mona C.

    2007-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally

  4. Risk-based prioritization at Hanford Nuclear Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Mosely, M.T.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the method used to incorporate risk-based decision making into the Hanford resource allocation process. This method, the Revised Priority Planning Grid, is used as a tool to calculate benefits and benefit-to-cost ratios for comparison of environmental cleanup activities. The tool is based on Hanford Site objectives. Benefits are determined by estimating the impact on those objectives resulting from funding specific environmental management activities. Impacts are also a function of the weights associated with the objectives. These weights in the Revised Priority Planning Grid reflect US Development of Energy management values, which were obtained through a formal value-elicitation process. With modification to the objectives and weights, the Revised Priority Planning Grid could be used in different situations. By factoring in environmental, safety, and health risk and assigning higher scores to those activities that provide the most benefit, the Revised Priority Planning Grid is a reproducible, scientific way of scoring competing activities or interests

  5. Industrial high pressure applications. Processes, equipment and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggers, Rudolf (ed.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Industrial high pressure processes open the door to many reactions that are not possible under 'normal' conditions. These are to be found in such different areas as polymerization, catalytic reactions, separations, oil and gas recovery, food processing, biocatalysis and more. The most famous high pressure process is the so-called Haber-Bosch process used for fertilizers and which was awarded a Nobel prize. Following an introduction on historical development, the current state, and future trends, this timely and comprehensive publication goes on to describe different industrial processes, including methanol and other catalytic syntheses, polymerization and renewable energy processes, before covering safety and equipment issues. With its excellent choice of industrial contributions, this handbook offers high quality information not found elsewhere, making it invaluable reading for a broad and interdisciplinary audience.

  6. The future of host cell protein (HCP) identification during process development and manufacturing linked to a risk-based management for their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracewell, Daniel G; Francis, Richard; Smales, C Mark

    2015-09-01

    The use of biological systems to synthesize complex therapeutic products has been a remarkable success. However, during product development, great attention must be devoted to defining acceptable levels of impurities that derive from that biological system, heading this list are host cell proteins (HCPs). Recent advances in proteomic analytics have shown how diverse this class of impurities is; as such knowledge and capability grows inevitable questions have arisen about how thorough current approaches to measuring HCPs are. The fundamental issue is how to adequately measure (and in turn monitor and control) such a large number of protein species (potentially thousands of components) to ensure safe and efficacious products. A rather elegant solution is to use an immunoassay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) based on polyclonal antibodies raised to the host cell (biological system) used to synthesize a particular therapeutic product. However, the measurement is entirely dependent on the antibody serum used, which dictates the sensitivity of the assay and the degree of coverage of the HCP spectrum. It provides one summed analog value for HCP amount; a positive if all HCP components can be considered equal, a negative in the more likely event one associates greater risk with certain components of the HCP proteome. In a thorough risk-based approach, one would wish to be able to account for this. These issues have led to the investigation of orthogonal analytical methods; most prominently mass spectrometry. These techniques can potentially both identify and quantify HCPs. The ability to measure and monitor thousands of proteins proportionally increases the amount of data acquired. Significant benefits exist if the information can be used to determine critical HCPs and thereby create an improved basis for risk management. We describe a nascent approach to risk assessment of HCPs based upon such data, drawing attention to timeliness in relation to biosimilar

  7. A 'Toolbox' Equivalent Process for Safety Analysis Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Eng, Tony

    2004-01-01

    Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2002-1 (Quality Assurance for Safety-Related Software) identified a number of quality assurance issues on the use of software in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities for analyzing hazards, and designing and operating controls that prevent or mitigate potential accidents. The development and maintenance of a collection, or 'toolbox', of multiple-site use, standard solution, Software Quality Assurance (SQA)-compliant safety software is one of the major improvements identified in the associated DOE Implementation Plan (IP). The DOE safety analysis toolbox will contain a set of appropriately quality-assured, configuration-controlled, safety analysis codes, recognized for DOE-broad, safety basis applications. Currently, six widely applied safety analysis computer codes have been designated for toolbox consideration. While the toolbox concept considerably reduces SQA burdens among DOE users of these codes, many users of unique, single-purpose, or single-site software may still have sufficient technical justification to continue use of their computer code of choice, but are thwarted by the multiple-site condition on toolbox candidate software. The process discussed here provides a roadmap for an equivalency argument, i.e., establishing satisfactory SQA credentials for single-site software that can be deemed ''toolbox-equivalent''. The process is based on the model established to meet IP Commitment 4.2.1.2: Establish SQA criteria for the safety analysis ''toolbox'' codes. Implementing criteria that establish the set of prescriptive SQA requirements are based on implementation plan/procedures from the Savannah River Site, also incorporating aspects of those from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (SNL component) and the Yucca Mountain Project. The major requirements are met with evidence of a software quality assurance plan, software requirements and design documentation, user's instructions, test report, a

  8. Process Control Systems in the Chemical Industry: Safety vs. Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Hahn; Thomas Anderson

    2005-04-01

    Traditionally, the primary focus of the chemical industry has been safety and productivity. However, recent threats to our nation’s critical infrastructure have prompted a tightening of security measures across many different industry sectors. Reducing vulnerabilities of control systems against physical and cyber attack is necessary to ensure the safety, security and effective functioning of these systems. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security has developed a strategy to secure these vulnerabilities. Crucial to this strategy is the Control Systems Security and Test Center (CSSTC) established to test and analyze control systems equipment. In addition, the CSSTC promotes a proactive, collaborative approach to increase industry's awareness of standards, products and processes that can enhance the security of control systems. This paper outlines measures that can be taken to enhance the cybersecurity of process control systems in the chemical sector.

  9. Management by process based systems and safety focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydnert, Bo; Groenlund, Bjoern

    2005-12-01

    An initiative from The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate led to this study carried out in the late autumn of 2005. The objective was to understand in more detail how an increasing use of process management affects organisations, on the one hand regarding risks and security, on the other hand regarding management by objectives and other management and operative effects. The main method was interviewing representatives of companies and independent experts. More than 20 interviews were carried out. In addition a literature study was made. All participating companies are using Management Systems based on processes. However, the methods chosen, and the results achieved, vary extensively. Thus, there are surprisingly few examples of complete and effective management by processes. Yet there is no doubt that management by processes is effective and efficient. Overall goals are reached, business results are achieved in more reliable ways and customers are more satisfied. The weaknesses found can be translated into a few comprehensive recommendations. A clear, structured and acknowledged model should be used and the processes should be described unambiguously. The changed management roles should be described and obeyed extremely legibly. New types of process objectives need to be formulated. In addition one fact needs to be observed and effectively fended off. Changes are often met by mental opposition on management level, as well as among co-workers. This fact needs attention and leadership. Safety development is closely related to the design and operation of a business management system and its continual improvement. A deep understanding of what constitutes an efficient and effective management system affects the understanding of safety. safety culture and abilities to achieve safety goals. Concerning risk, the opinions were unambiguous. Management by processes as such does not result in any further risks. On the contrary. Processes give a clear view of production and

  10. The Implementation and Maintenance of a Behavioral Safety Process in a Petroleum Refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Wanda V.; McSween, Terry E.; Medina, Rixio E.; Rost, Kristen; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2010-01-01

    A values-centered and team-based behavioral safety process was implemented in a petroleum oil refinery. Employee teams defined the refinery's safety values and related practices, which were used to guide the process design and implementation. The process included (a) a safety assessment; (b) the clarification of safety-related values and related…

  11. Safety Evaluation for Hull Waste Treatment Process in JNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, H.; Kurakata, K.

    2002-01-01

    Hull wastes and some scrapped equipment are typical radioactive wastes generated from reprocessing process in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). Because hulls are the wastes remained in the fuel shearing and dissolution, they contain high radioactivity. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has started the project of Hull Waste Treatment Facility (HWTF) to treat these solid wastes using compaction and incineration methods since 1993. It is said that Zircaloy fines generated from compaction process might burn and explode intensely. Therefore explosive conditions of the fines generated in compaction process were measured. As these results, it was concluded that the fines generated from the compaction process were not hazardous material. This paper describes the outline of the treatment process of hulls and results of safety evaluation

  12. The safety relief valve handbook design and use of process safety valves to ASME and International codes and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Hellemans, Marc

    2009-01-01

    The Safety Valve Handbook is a professional reference for design, process, instrumentation, plant and maintenance engineers who work with fluid flow and transportation systems in the process industries, which covers the chemical, oil and gas, water, paper and pulp, food and bio products and energy sectors. It meets the need of engineers who have responsibilities for specifying, installing, inspecting or maintaining safety valves and flow control systems. It will also be an important reference for process safety and loss prevention engineers, environmental engineers, and plant and process designers who need to understand the operation of safety valves in a wider equipment or plant design context. . No other publication is dedicated to safety valves or to the extensive codes and standards that govern their installation and use. A single source means users save time in searching for specific information about safety valves. . The Safety Valve Handbook contains all of the vital technical and standards informat...

  13. Contribution of computerization to alarm processing: A French safety view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cette, W [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire

    1997-09-01

    Following the TMI accident and according to the requirement of the French safety authority, very important studies were performed by the French utility, Electricite de France (EDF), and assessed by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) on reactor operation in conventional control rooms, particularly on alarm processing. These studies dealt with the man-machine interface, as well as design and exploitation requirements, presentation and management of alarm signals, and associated operating documents. The conclusions of these studies have led to improvements in French conventional control rooms. The current state of these control rooms and links between alarm sets and operating documents will be shortly presented in the first part of the paper. More recently, the computerized means implemented in the PWR 1400 MWe control rooms (N4) profoundly modified reactor operation. In particular, major advances concern alarm processing in comparison with conventional control rooms. The N4 plants provide a more rigorous approach in processing and presentation of alarms than in the past. Indeed, EDF wanted to have less alarms switched on during plant upsets and to make them more characteristic of a specific situation of the process. For example, computerization makes it easier to validate or inhibit alarms according to the situation, to allow the operator to manage alarm presentation and to propose on-line alarm sheets to the operator etc. This approach in comparison with conventional control rooms, and the IPSN assessment will be presented in the second part of this paper. (author).

  14. Contribution of computerization to alarm processing: A French safety view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cette, W.

    1997-01-01

    Following the TMI accident and according to the requirement of the French safety authority, very important studies were performed by the French utility, Electricite de France (EDF), and assessed by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) on reactor operation in conventional control rooms, particularly on alarm processing. These studies dealt with the man-machine interface, as well as design and exploitation requirements, presentation and management of alarm signals, and associated operating documents. The conclusions of these studies have led to improvements in French conventional control rooms. The current state of these control rooms and links between alarm sets and operating documents will be shortly presented in the first part of the paper. More recently, the computerized means implemented in the PWR 1400 MWe control rooms (N4) profoundly modified reactor operation. In particular, major advances concern alarm processing in comparison with conventional control rooms. The N4 plants provide a more rigorous approach in processing and presentation of alarms than in the past. Indeed, EDF wanted to have less alarms switched on during plant upsets and to make them more characteristic of a specific situation of the process. For example, computerization makes it easier to validate or inhibit alarms according to the situation, to allow the operator to manage alarm presentation and to propose on-line alarm sheets to the operator etc. This approach in comparison with conventional control rooms, and the IPSN assessment will be presented in the second part of this paper. (author)

  15. Risk-based plant performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Azarm, M.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tasked by the 1979 President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, the U.S. nuclear power industry has put into place a performance indicator program as one means for showing a demonstrable record of achievement. Largely through the efforts of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), plant performance data has, since 1983, been collected and analyzed to aid utility management in measuring their plants' performance progress. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has also developed a set of performance indicators. This program, conducted by NRC's Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), is structured to present information on plant operational performance in a manner that could enhance the staff's ability to recognize changes in the safety performance. Both organizations recognized that performance indicators have limitations and could be subject to misinterpretation and misuse with the potential for an adverse impact on safety. This paper reports on performance indicators presently in use, e.g., unplanned automatic scrams, unplanned safety system actuation, safety system failures, etc., which are logically related to safety. But, a reliability/risk-based method for evaluating either individual indicators or an aggregated set of indicators is not yet available

  16. A risk-based approach for identifying constituents of concern in oil sands process-affected water from the Athabasca Oil Sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Andrew D; Kinley, Ciera M; Hendrikse, Maas; Gaspari, Daniel P; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Iwinski, Kyla J; Castle, James W; Haakensen, Monique C; Peru, Kerry M; Headley, John V; Rodgers, John H

    2017-04-01

    Mining leases in the Athabasca Oil Sands (AOS) region produce large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) containing constituents that limit beneficial uses and discharge into receiving systems. The aim of this research is to identify constituents of concern (COCs) in OSPW sourced from an active settling basin with the goal of providing a sound rational for developing mitigation strategies for using constructed treatment wetlands for COCs contained in OSPW. COCs were identified through several lines of evidence: 1) chemical and physical characterization of OSPW and comparisons with numeric water quality guidelines and toxicity endpoints, 2) measuring toxicity of OSPW using a taxonomic range of sentinel organisms (i.e. fish, aquatic invertebrates, and a macrophyte), 3) conducting process-based manipulations (PBMs) of OSPW to alter toxicity and inform treatment processes, and 4) discerning potential treatment pathways to mitigate ecological risks of OSPW based on identification of COCs, toxicological analyses, and PBM results. COCs identified in OSPW included organics (naphthenic acids [NAs], oil and grease [O/G]), metals/metalloids, and suspended solids. In terms of species sensitivities to undiluted OSPW, fish ≥ aquatic invertebrates > macrophytes. Bench-scale manipulations of the organic fractions of OSPW via PBMs (i.e. H 2 O 2 +UV 254 and granular activated charcoal treatments) eliminated toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia (7-8 d), in terms of mortality and reproduction. Results from this study provide critical information to inform mitigation strategies using passive or semi-passive treatment processes (e.g., constructed treatment wetlands) to mitigate ecological risks of OSPW to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk-based decisionmaking (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.

  18. Demonstration of risk-based approaches to nuclear plant regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Darling, S.S.; Oddo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes generic technical support EPRI is providing to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of risk-based regulations (RBR). A risk-based regulatory approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate safety resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. This approach will reduce O ampersand M costs, and also improve nuclear plant safety. In order to enhance industry, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and public confidence in RBR, three things need to be shown: (1) manpower/resource savings are significant for both NRC and industry; (2) the process is doable in a reasonable amount of time; and (3) the process, if uniformly applied, results in demonstrably cheaper power and safer plants. In 1992, EPRI performed a qualitative study of the key RBR issues contributing to high O ampersand M costs. The results are given on Table 1. This study is being followed up by an in-depth quantitative cost/benefit study to focus technical work on producing guidelines/procedures for licensing submittals to NRC. The guidelines/procedures necessarily will be developed from successful demonstration projects such as the Fitzpatrick pilot plant study proposed by the New York Power Authority and other generic applications. This paper presents three examples: two motor operated valve projects performed by QUADREX Energy Services Corporation working with utilities in responding to NRC Generic Letter 89-10, and a third project working with Yankee Atomic Electric Company on service water systems at a plant in its service system. These demonstration projects aim to show the following: (1) the relative ease of putting together a technical case based on RBR concepts; (2) clarity in differentiating the various risk trade-offs, and in communicating overall reductions in risk with NRC; and (3) improved prioritization of NRC directives

  19. Radio-Frequency Applications for Food Processing and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yang; Tang, Juming; Wang, Yifen; Koral, Tony L

    2018-03-25

    Radio-frequency (RF) heating, as a thermal-processing technology, has been extending its applications in the food industry. Although RF has shown some unique advantages over conventional methods in industrial drying and frozen food thawing, more research is needed to make it applicable for food safety applications because of its complex heating mechanism. This review provides comprehensive information regarding RF-heating history, mechanism, fundamentals, and applications that have already been fully developed or are still under research. The application of mathematical modeling as a useful tool in RF food processing is also reviewed in detail. At the end of the review, we summarize the active research groups in the RF food thermal-processing field, and address the current problems that still need to be overcome.

  20. Radiation processing of food to ensure food safety and security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Satyendra

    2016-01-01

    Radiation processing of food utilizes the controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations such as γ-rays , electrons and X-rays on food. Gamma-rays and X-rays are short wavelength radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum. The approved sources of gamma radiation for food processing are radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV) wherein the latter two are generated by machines using electricity. γ-radiation can penetrate deep into the food materials causing the desired effects. Irradiation works by disrupting the biological processes that lead to decay. While interacting with water and other biomolecules that constitute the food and living organisms, radiation energy is absorbed by these molecules. The interactions of radiation and radiolytic products of water with DNA impair the reproduction of microorganism and insects, and thus help in achieving the desired objectives pertaining to food safety and security

  1. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  2. Radiation processing of minimally processed fruits and vegetables to ensure microbiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandekar, J.R.; Saroj, S.D.; Shashidhar, R.; Dhokane, V.S.; Hajare, S.N.; Nagar, V.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are in demand as they offer ready rich source of nutrients and convenience to consumers. However, these products are often unsafe due to contamination with harmful pathogens. Therefore, a study was carried out to analyze microbiological quality of minimally processed fruits, vegetables and sprouts and to optimize radiation dose necessary to ensure safety of these commodities. Microbiological quality of these products was found to be poor. Decimal reduction dose (D 10 ) for Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in these minimally processed foods (MPF) were in the range of 164 to 588 Gy. Radiation processing with 2 kGy dose of gamma radiation resulted in 5 log reduction of S. Typhimurium and 4 log reduction of L. monocytogenes. The treatment did not significantly affect nutritional, organoleptic and textural properties. These results suggest that radiation processing can ensure safety of these products. (author)

  3. Multi-site risk-based project planning, optimization, sequencing and budgeting process and tool for the integrated facility disposition project - 59394

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jerel; Castillo, Carlos; Huntsman, Julie; Lucek, Heather; Marks, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Faced with the DOE Complex Transformation, NNSA was tasked with developing an integrated plan for the decommissioning of over 400 facilities and 300 environmental remediation units, as well as the many reconfiguration and modernization projects at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Y-12 Complex. Manual scheduling of remediation activities is time-consuming, labor intensive, and inherently introduces bias and unaccounted for aspects of the scheduler or organization in the process. Clearly a tool was needed to develop an objective, unbiased baseline optimized project sequence and schedule with a sound technical foundation for the Integrated Facility Disposition Project (IFDP). In generating an integrated disposition schedule, each project (including facilities, environmental sites, and remedial action units) was identified, characterized, then ranked relative to other projects. Risk matrices allowed for core project data to be extrapolated into probable contamination levels, relative risks to the public, and other technical and risk parameters to be used in the development of an overall ranking. These matrices ultimately generated a complete data set that were used in the Ranking and Sequencing Model (RSM), commonly referred to as the SUPER model, for its numerous abilities to support D and D planning, prioritization, and sequencing

  4. Controlled versus automatic processes: which is dominant to safety? The moderating effect of inhibitory control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaoshan Xu

    Full Text Available This study explores the precursors of employees' safety behaviors based on a dual-process model, which suggests that human behaviors are determined by both controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Employees' responses to a self-reported survey on safety attitudes capture their controlled cognitive process, while the automatic association concerning safety measured by an Implicit Association Test (IAT reflects employees' automatic cognitive processes about safety. In addition, this study investigates the moderating effects of inhibition on the relationship between self-reported safety attitude and safety behavior, and that between automatic associations towards safety and safety behavior. The results suggest significant main effects of self-reported safety attitude and automatic association on safety behaviors. Further, the interaction between self-reported safety attitude and inhibition and that between automatic association and inhibition each predict unique variances in safety behavior. Specifically, the safety behaviors of employees with lower level of inhibitory control are influenced more by automatic association, whereas those of employees with higher level of inhibitory control are guided more by self-reported safety attitudes. These results suggest that safety behavior is the joint outcome of both controlled and automatic cognitive processes, and the relative importance of these cognitive processes depends on employees' individual differences in inhibitory control. The implications of these findings for theoretical and practical issues are discussed at the end.

  5. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  6. Exploiting data from safety investigations and processes to assess performance of safety management aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative way to use records from safety investigations as a means to support the evaluation of safety management (SM) aspects. Datasets from safety investigation reports and progress records of an aviation organization were analyzed with the scope of assessing safety

  7. Maintenance evaluation using risk based criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Valle, A.

    1996-01-01

    The maintenance evaluation is currently performed by using economic and, in some case, technical equipment failure criteria, however this is done to a specific equipment level. In general, when statistics are used the analysis for maintenance optimization are made isolated and whit a post mortem character; The integration provided by mean of Probabilistic Safety assessment (PSA) together with the possibilities of its applications, allow for evaluation of maintenance on the basis of broader scope criteria in regard to those traditionally used. The evaluate maintenance using risk based criteria, is necessary to follow a dynamic and systematic approach, in studying the maintenance strategy, to allow for updating the initial probabilistic models, for including operational changes that often take place during operation of complex facilities. This paper proposes a dynamic evaluation system of maintenance task. The system is illustrated by means of a practical example

  8. Risk-based regulation: A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarborough, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the early development of regulations for nuclear power plants, risk was implicitly considered through qualitative assessments and engineering reliability principles and practices. Examples included worst case analysis, defense in depth, and the single failure criterion. However, the contributions of various systems, structures, components and operator actions to plant safety were not explicitly assessed since a methodology for this purpose had not been developed. As a consequence of the TMI accident, the use of more quantitative risk methodology and information in regulation such as probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) increased. The use of both qualitative and quantitative consideration of risk in regulation has been a set of regulations and regulatory guides and practices that ensure adequate protection of public health and safety. Presently, the development of PRA techniques has developed to the point that safety goals, expressed in terms of risk, have been established to help guide further regulatory decision making. This paper presents the personal opinions of the author as regards the use of risk today in nuclear power plant regulation, areas of further information needs, and necessary plans for moving toward a more systematic use of risk-based information in regulatory initiatives in the future

  9. Safety aspects in a chemical exchange process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a chemical exchange process involving solid liquid exchange, studies have been undertaken to enrich 10 B isotope of boron using ion exchange chromatography in which a strong base anion exchange resin in hydroxyl form is equilibrated with boric acid solution in presence of mannitol (a complexing reagent to boric acid) to enhance the acidity and hence the isotopic exchange separation factor for 10 B = 11 B exchange reaction. Using the electrochemical techniques such as pH-metry and conductimetry, the choice of a suitable complexing reagent was made amongst ethylene glycol, propylene glycol, dextrose and mannitol for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron and monitoring of band movements using these electrochemical techniques. The optimum conditions for the regeneration of strong base anion exchange resins of type-I and type-II were determined for cost-effective separation of isotopes of boron by ion exchange chromatography. The possibility of using unspent alkali content of the effluent was also exploited. Removal of carbonate impurity from Rayon grade caustic lye (used as regenerant after dilution) and recycling of Ba(OH) 2 was studied to avoid waste disposal problems. This process is an industrially viable process. The various safety aspects followed during operation of this plant are described in this paper. (author)

  10. Quality and Safety Assurance of Iron Casts and Manufacturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this work focuses on the aspects of quality and safety assurance of the iron cast manufacturing processes. Special attention was given to the processes of quality control and after-machining of iron casts manufactured on automatic foundry lines. Due to low level of automation and huge work intensity at this stage of the process, a model area was established which underwent reorganization in accordance with the assumptions of the World Class Manufacturing (WCM. An analysis of work intensity was carried out and the costs were divided in order to identify operations with no value added, particularly at individual manufacturing departments. Also an analysis of ergonomics at work stations was carried out to eliminate activities that are uncomfortable and dangerous to the workers' health. Several solutions were proposed in terms of rationalization of work organization at iron cast after-machining work stations. The proposed solutions were assessed with the use of multi-criteria assessment tools and then the best variant was selected based on the assumed optimization criteria. The summary of the obtained results reflects benefits from implementation of the proposed solutions.

  11. Laser cutting: industrial relevance, process optimization, and laser safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haferkamp, Heinz; Goede, Martin; von Busse, Alexander; Thuerk, Oliver

    1998-09-01

    the angle between the normal of the cutting front and the laser beam axis. Beneath process optimization and control further work is focused on the characterization of particulate and gaseous laser generated air contaminants and adequate safety precautions like exhaust and filter systems.

  12. Rework and workarounds in nurse medication administration process: implications for work processes and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbesleben, Jonathon R B; Savage, Grant T; Wakefield, Douglas S; Wakefield, Bonnie J

    2010-01-01

    Health care organizations have redesigned existing and implemented new work processes intended to improve patient safety. As a consequence of these process changes, there are now intentionally designed "blocks" or barriers that limit how specific work actions, such as ordering and administering medication, are to be carried out. Health care professionals encountering these designed barriers can choose to either follow the new process, engage in workarounds to get past the block, or potentially repeat work (rework). Unfortunately, these workarounds and rework may lead to other safety concerns. The aim of this study was to examine rework and workarounds in hospital medication administration processes. Observations and semistructured interviews were conducted with 58 nurses from four hospital intensive care units focusing on the medication administration process. Using the constant comparative method, we analyzed the observation and interview data to develop themes regarding rework and workarounds. From this analysis, we developed an integrated process map of the medication administration process depicting blocks. A total of 12 blocks were reported by the participants. Based on the analysis, we categorized them as related to information exchange, information entry, and internal supply chain issues. Whereas information exchange and entry blocks tended to lead to rework, internal supply chain issues were more likely to lead to workarounds. A decentralized pharmacist on the unit may reduce work flow blocks (and, thus, workarounds and rework). Work process redesign may further address the problems of workarounds and rework.

  13. Lessons learned from process incident databases and the process safety incident database (PSID) approach sponsored by the Center for Chemical Process Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepeda, Adrian L.

    2006-01-01

    Learning from the experiences of others has long been recognized as a valued and relatively painless process. In the world of process safety, this learning method is an essential tool since industry has neither the time and resources nor the willingness to experience an incident before taking corrective or preventative steps. This paper examines the need for and value of process safety incident databases that collect incidents of high learning value and structure them so that needed information can be easily and quickly extracted. It also explores how they might be used to prevent incidents by increasing awareness and by being a tool for conducting PHAs and incident investigations. The paper then discusses how the CCPS PSID meets those requirements, how PSID is structured and managed, and its attributes and features

  14. Radiation processing of leafy vegetables to ensure their microbial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khade, H.D.; Jain, M.P.; Satyendra, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    Leafy vegetables which are consumed in raw form such as spinach, coriander and mint were found to be heavily burdened with microbial load including presumptive coliform, an indicator of pathogenic contaminations. Total aerobic plate counts in fresh spinach, coriander and mint samples collected from different location of Mumbai and nearby cities were found to be in the order of ∼ 10 7 to ∼ 10 8 CFU/g. In these samples yeast and mould count was in the order of ∼10 5 CFU/g and presumptive coliform in the order of ∼ 10 4 to ∼10 5 CFU/g. As per USFDA coliform load in the food commodity should be nil. The finding thus indicates that these fresh vegetables are not safe for raw consumption. Hence there is utmost need of process which can ensure the safety by reducing their microbial load below permissible level (<10 4 CFU/gm) and coliform load to nil without affecting the appearance and quality of such produce. In this study gamma radiation was used for hygienization of leafy vegetables. The sample were first cleaned in potable water followed by sodium hypochlorite wash (200 ppm for 20 min), air dried, packed in styrofoam based tray, wrapped with cling film and radiation processed at 1 to 2.5 kGy and stored at 4 and 10℃ . Post irradiation microbiological analysis of radiation processed samples was carried out at in 2 kGy irradiated samples total plate count was below ∼10 3 CFU/g and presumptive coliform count was below detectable level. Yeast and mould count in these samples also reduced to below ∼ 10 3 CFU/g. Based on the study the following combination treatment can be given to raw leafy vegetables, washing with potable water (5 min) → sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm 20 min) wash → Air drying → Packaging in styrofoam based tray and wrapping with cling film → Irradiation at 2 kGy → storage at 4℃ . Besides ensuring safety the treatment also resulted in increased shelf life extension of the commodities up to 20 days. (author)

  15. Irradiation: An effective mode of processing food for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossel, D.A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Markedly improved measures of hygiene, including those attaining generally accepted GMP, are effective in reducing the contamination rate markedly, without completely eliminating the pathogens concerned though. Attempts to identify contaminated consignments by sampling examination were demonstrated to be unsuccessful, even when linked to certification by producing countries. The only practicable solution of this serious health problem has to rely on terminal processing for safety, as introduced in the twenties in the dairy industry and somewhat later in the manufacture of egg products. Gamma irradiation (radicidation) at a level of <= 4 kGy was found to be most effective for a more than adequate degree of elimination of pathogens as judged by Risk Analysis. Radicidation for this purpose did not entail immediate flora changes or even shifts in the microbial community structure secondary to slight temperature abuse, that presented any health risk. Neither were organisms isolated that could not be identified with types customarily encountered in fresh or processed food. Consequently, health authorities and the food industry alike henceforth have means available to protect consumers against the perennial food-transmitted enteric infectious diseases by the application of low amounts of ionizing energy. They should not postpone these or similar measures of intervention unnecessarily because otherwise they risk being blamed by history for being reprehensibly over-anxious

  16. Management by process based systems and safety focus; Verksamhetsstyrning med process-baserade ledningssystem och saekerhetsfokus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydnert, Bo; Groenlund, Bjoern [SIS Forum AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2005-12-15

    An initiative from The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate led to this study carried out in the late autumn of 2005. The objective was to understand in more detail how an increasing use of process management affects organisations, on the one hand regarding risks and security, on the other hand regarding management by objectives and other management and operative effects. The main method was interviewing representatives of companies and independent experts. More than 20 interviews were carried out. In addition a literature study was made. All participating companies are using Management Systems based on processes. However, the methods chosen, and the results achieved, vary extensively. Thus, there are surprisingly few examples of complete and effective management by processes. Yet there is no doubt that management by processes is effective and efficient. Overall goals are reached, business results are achieved in more reliable ways and customers are more satisfied. The weaknesses found can be translated into a few comprehensive recommendations. A clear, structured and acknowledged model should be used and the processes should be described unambiguously. The changed management roles should be described and obeyed extremely legibly. New types of process objectives need to be formulated. In addition one fact needs to be observed and effectively fended off. Changes are often met by mental opposition on management level, as well as among co-workers. This fact needs attention and leadership. Safety development is closely related to the design and operation of a business management system and its continual improvement. A deep understanding of what constitutes an efficient and effective management system affects the understanding of safety. safety culture and abilities to achieve safety goals. Concerning risk, the opinions were unambiguous. Management by processes as such does not result in any further risks. On the contrary. Processes give a clear view of production and

  17. EFFICIENT QUANTITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT OF JUMP PROCESSES: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOOD SAFETY

    OpenAIRE

    Nganje, William E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic framework for efficient quantitative risk assessment from the simplest general risk, combining three parameters (contamination, exposure, and dose response) in a Kataoka safety-first model and a Poisson probability representing the uncertainty effect or jump processes associated with food safety. Analysis indicates that incorporating jump processes in food safety risk assessment provides more efficient cost/risk tradeoffs. Nevertheless, increased margin of safety...

  18. Radiation and Heterogeneous processes and hydrogen safety of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agayev, T.N.; Eyubov, K.T.; Aliyev, S.M.; Faradjzade, I.A.; Imanova, G.T.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the development of the quantitative and probabilistic analysis of safety of atomic power stations, interest in major accidents which can lead to overheating and fusion of an active zone has increased now. One of the major processes from the point of view of assessment of accident consequences with damage of an active zone is process of hydrogen formation. In the real work sources of hydrogen formation at various stages of accident with loss of the coolant of water-to-water power reactors are considered. The role of different processes of hydrogen formation depends on temperature, an amount of water and steam in an active zone and some other parameters. In this regard we have tried to formulate approach to creation of mathematical model of dynamics of hydrogen formation at accident in which the factors mentioned above would be considered. At the first stage of accident which lasted several tens of seconds depressurization of the first contour and loss of pressure took place. Water of the first contour under normal conditions of operation contained radiolytic hydrogen which concentration significantly exceeded its solubility with an atmospheric pressure. Therefore the dissolved hydrogen was emitted in a gas phase at a rupture of the pipeline. The second stage of accident is characterized by water vaporization from the first contour. During this period the amount of water in an active zone is constant and also water temperature in an active zone is constant. At last, at the third stage of accident there is water vaporization from an active zone also a warming up of the heat allocating assembly and constructional materials of an active zone.

  19. Individual differences in drivers' cognitive processing of road safety messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Sherrie-Anne; White, Melanie J; Lewis, Ioni M

    2013-01-01

    acceptance measures. As predicted, the degree of initial processing of the content of the social gain-framed message mediated the relationship between the reward sensitive trait and message effectiveness. Initial processing of the physical loss-framed message partially mediated the relationship between the punishment sensitive trait and both message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. These results show that reward sensitivity and punishment sensitivity traits influence cognitive processing of gain-framed and loss-framed message content, respectively, and subsequently, message effectiveness and behavioural intention ratings. Specifically, a range of road safety messages (i.e., gain-frame and loss-frame messages) could be designed which align with the processing biases associated with personality and which would target those individuals who are sensitive to rewards and those who are sensitive to punishments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Role of Patient Safety in the Device Purchasing Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Todd R; Zhang, Jiajie; Patel, Vimla L; Keselman, Alla; Tang, Xiaozhou; Brixey, Juliana J; Paige, Danielle; Turley, James P

    2005-01-01

    To examine how patient safety considerations are incorporated into medical device purchase decisions, individuals involved in recent infusion pump purchasing decisions at three different health care...

  1. Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) reactor evaluation study: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results of an independent study by United Engineers and Constructors (UNITED) of the SECURE-P Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS) Reactor Concept which is presently under development by the Swedish light water reactor vendor ASEA-ATOM of Vasteras, Sweden. This study was performed to investigate whether there is any realistic basis for believing that the PIUS reactor could be a viable competitor in the US energy market in the future. Assessments were limited to the technical, economic and licensing aspects of PIUS. Socio-political issues, while certainly important in answering this question, are so broad and elusive that it was considered that addressing them with the limited perspective of one small group from one company would be of questionable value and likely be misleading. Socio-political issues aside, the key issue is economics. For this reason, the specific objectives of this study were to determine if the estimated PIUS plant cost will be competitive in the US market and to identify and evaluate the technical and licensing risks that might make PIUS uneconomical or otherwise unacceptable

  2. Safety review and approval process for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.D.; Howe, H.J.; Howe, K.E.

    1983-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has undergone an extensive safety and enviromental analysis involving Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ebasco/Grumman Industrial Subcontractor Team, and other organizations. This analysis, which is continuing during the TFTR operational phase, has been facilitated by the preparation, review and approval of several documents, including an Environmental Statement (Draft and Final), a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR), a Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), Operations Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Safety Requirements (SRs), and various Operating and Maintenance Manuals. Through TFTR Safety Group participation in formal system design evaluations, change control boards, and reviews of project procurement and installation documentation, the TFTR Management Configuration Control System assures that all aspects of the project, including proposed design, installation and operational changes, receive prompt and thorough safety analyses. These efforts will continue as the TFTR Program moves into the neutral beam and D-T operational phases. The safety review and approval experience that has been acquired on the TFTR Project should serve as a foundation for similar efforts on future fusion devices

  3. Risk-based technical specifications program: Site interview results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.R.; Baker, A.J.; Johnson, R.L.

    1991-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute and Pacific Gas and Electric Company are sponsoring a program directed at improving Technical Specifications using risk-based methods. The major objectives of the program are to develop risk-based approaches to improve Technical Specifications and to develop an Interactive Risk Advisor (IRA) prototype. The IRA is envisioned as an interactive system that is available to plant personnel to assist in controlling plant operation. Use of an IRA is viewed as a method to improve plant availability while maintaining or improving plant safety. In support of the program, interviews were conducted at several PWR and BWR plant sites, to elicit opinions and information concerning risk-based approaches to Technical Specifications and IRA requirements. This report presents the results of these interviews, including the functional requirements of an IRA. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  4. CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMIT EVALUATION PROGRAM (CSLEP's) AND QUICK SCREENS: ANSWERS TO EXPEDITED PROCESSING LEGACY CRITICALITY SAFETY LIMITS AND EVALUATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOFFER, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war, the need for operating weapons production facilities has faded. Criticality Safety Limits and controls supporting production modes in these facilities became outdated and furthermore lacked the procedure based rigor dictated by present day requirements. In the past, in many instances, the formalism of present day criticality safety evaluations was not applied. Some of the safety evaluations amounted to a paragraph in a notebook with no safety basis and questionable arguments with respect to double contingency criteria. When material stabilization, clean out, and deactivation activities commenced, large numbers of these older criticality safety evaluations were uncovered with limits and controls backed up by tenuous arguments. A dilemma developed: on the one hand, cleanup activities were placed on very aggressive schedules; on the other hand, a highly structured approach to limits development was required and applied to the cleanup operations. Some creative approaches were needed to cope with the limits development process

  5. Nuclear reactor safety: on the history of the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.

    1981-01-01

    This manuscript is derived from a long report which examines the history of the evolution of light water reactor safety. The central portion of the document provides a historical view of the development of siting policy and the major safety issues which interacted strongly with siting policy. A very incomplete selection of the very many important issues and developments in light water reactor safety is also included. Coverage of the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has deliberately been abbreviated to include only a few selected aspects

  6. A risk-based sensor placement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ronald W.; Kulesz, James J.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors to protect population against the exposure to, and effects of, known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Risk is calculated as a quantitative value representing population at risk from exposure at standard exposure levels. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as the frequency of wind speed and direction pairs. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate risk values. Sensor locations are determined via an iterative dynamic programming algorithm whereby threats detected by sensors placed in prior iterations are removed from consideration in subsequent iterations. In addition to the risk-based placement algorithm, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor. This is the fraction of the total risk accounted for by placement of the sensor. Thus, the criteria for halting the iterative process can be the number of sensors available, a threshold marginal utility value, and/or a minimum cumulative utility achieved with all sensors

  7. [Innovation in healthcare processes and patient safety using clinical simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, E; Maestre, J M; Díaz-Mendi, A R; Ansorena, L; Del Moral, I

    2016-01-01

    Many excellent ideas are never implemented or generalised by healthcare organisations. There are two related paradigms: thinking that individuals primarily change through accumulating knowledge, and believing that the dissemination of that knowledge within the organisation is the key element to facilitate change. As an alternative, a description and evaluation of a simulation-based inter-professional team training program conducted in a Regional Health Service to promote and facilitate change is presented. The Department of Continuing Education completed the needs assessment using the proposals presented by clinical units and management. Skills and behaviors that could be learned using simulation were selected, and all personnel from the units participating were included. Experiential learning principles based on clinical simulation and debriefing, were used for the instructional design. The Kirkpatrick model was used to evaluate the program. Objectives included: a) decision-making and teamwork skills training in high prevalence diseases with a high rate of preventable complications; b) care processes reorganisation to improve efficiency, while maintaining patient safety; and, c) implementation of new complex techniques with a long learning curve, and high preventable complications rate. Thirty clinical units organised 39 training programs in the 3 public hospitals, and primary care of the Regional Health Service during 2013-2014. Over 1,559 healthcare professionals participated, including nursing assistants, nurses and physicians. Simulation in healthcare to train inter-professional teams can promote and facilitate change in patient care, and organisational re-engineering. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Оn the issue of setting priorities in the organization of risk-based supervision over the safety of consumer products traded on the common economic space of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Yu. Popova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Significant volumes of mutual trade between the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union, combined with the urgency of protecting the population against the risks of negative impacts on the health products are aiming to optimize the supervision of the products traded in the market. One of the ways to optimize is the transition to a risk-based model of health service activities and choice of products for top-priority (priority control. The approaches to the selection of priorities are offered, based on the account of the product use, consumer contingent specificity, known types of hazards, results of inspection and enforcement activities. It was found that the priority products exported by EASE member countries on the common market and forming potentially the greatest risk of harm to the health of consumers may include: dairy products; bird eggs (FEACN group 04; fats and oils of animal or vegetable origin and their cleavage products; prepared edible fats; waxes of animal or vegetable origin (FEACN group 15; sugar and sugar confectionery (FEACN group 17; meat, fish or crustaceans, mollusks or other aquatic invertebrates (FEACN group 16; alcoholic and soft drinks and so on. (FEACN group 22; vegetables, roots and tubers (FEACN group 07; toys, games and sports equipment (FEACN group 95. In relation to these groups of products the priority study of the risk profile required, as well as the development of algorithms and regulations of the supervisory and control measures and improvement of laboratory support methods.

  9. A practical approach for implementing risk-based inservice testing of pumps at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Maret, D.; Seniuk, P.; Smith, L.

    1996-01-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development's (CRTD) Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inservice Testing has developed guidelines for risk-based inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves. These guidelines are intended to help the ASME Operation and Maintenance (OM) Committee to enhance plant safety while focussing appropriate testing resources on critical components. This paper describes a practical approach for implementing those guidelines for pumps at nuclear power plants. The approach, as described in this paper, relies on input, direction, and assistance from several entities such as the ASME Code Committees, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the National Laboratories, as well as industry groups and personnel with applicable expertise. Key parts of the risk-based IST process that are addressed here include: identification of important failure modes, identification of significant failure causes, assessing the effectiveness of testing and maintenance activities, development of alternative testing and maintenance strategies, and assessing the effectiveness of alternative testing strategies with present ASME Code requirements. Finally, the paper suggests a method of implementing this process into the ASME OM Code for pump testing

  10. A practical approach for implementing risk-based inservice testing of pumps at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, R.S. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maret, D.; Seniuk, P.; Smith, L.

    1996-12-01

    The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Center for Research and Technology Development`s (CRTD) Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inservice Testing has developed guidelines for risk-based inservice testing (IST) of pumps and valves. These guidelines are intended to help the ASME Operation and Maintenance (OM) Committee to enhance plant safety while focussing appropriate testing resources on critical components. This paper describes a practical approach for implementing those guidelines for pumps at nuclear power plants. The approach, as described in this paper, relies on input, direction, and assistance from several entities such as the ASME Code Committees, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the National Laboratories, as well as industry groups and personnel with applicable expertise. Key parts of the risk-based IST process that are addressed here include: identification of important failure modes, identification of significant failure causes, assessing the effectiveness of testing and maintenance activities, development of alternative testing and maintenance strategies, and assessing the effectiveness of alternative testing strategies with present ASME Code requirements. Finally, the paper suggests a method of implementing this process into the ASME OM Code for pump testing.

  11. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  12. A feasibility study for Arizona's roadway safety management process using the Highway Safety Manual and SafetyAnalyst : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    To enable implementation of the American Association of State Highway Transportation (AASHTO) Highway Safety Manual using : SaftetyAnalyst (an AASHTOWare software product), the Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) studied the data assessment :...

  13. Modelling of safety barriers including human and organisational factors to improve process safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markert, Frank; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Thommesen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    It is believed that traditional safety management needs to be improved on the aspect of preparedness for coping with expected and unexpected deviations, avoiding an overly optimistic reliance on safety systems. Remembering recent major accidents, such as the Deep Water Horizon, the Texas City....... A valuable approach is the inclusion of human and organisational factors into the simulation of the reliability of the technical system using event trees and fault trees and the concept of safety barriers. This has been demonstrated e.g. in the former European research project ARAMIS (Accidental Risk...

  14. Lessons Learned from a Five-year Evaluation of the Belgian Safety Culture Oversight Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Belgian Regulatory Body has implemented a Safety Culture oversight process since 2010. In a nutshell, this process is based on field observations provided by inspectors or safety analysts during any contact with a licencee (inspections, meetings, phone calls, etc). These observations are recorded within an observation (excel) sheet—aiming at describing factual and contextual issues — and are linked to IAEA Safety Culture attributes. It should be stressed that the purpose of the process is not to give a comprehensive view of a licencee safety culture but to address findings that require attention or action on the part of a licencee. In other words, gathering safety culture observations aims at identifying cultural, organizational or behavioural issues in order to feed a regulatory response to potential problems. Safety Culture Observations (SCO) are then fully integrated in routine inspection activities and must be seen as an input of the overall oversight process. As a result, the assessment of the SCO is inserted within the yearly safety evaluation report performed by Bel V and transmitted to the licencee. However, observing safety culture is not a natural approach for engineers. Guidance, training and coaching must be provided in order to open up safety dimensions to be captured. In other words, a SCO process requires a continuous support in order to promote a holistic and systemic view of safety.

  15. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  16. A quantitative risk-based model for reasoning over critical system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This position paper suggests the use of a quantitative risk-based model to help support reeasoning and decision making that spans many of the critical properties such as security, safety, survivability, fault tolerance, and real-time.

  17. USNRC licensing process as related to nuclear criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketzlach, N.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Code of Federal Regulations establishes procedures and criteria for the issuance of licenses to receive title to, own, acquire, deliver, receive, possess, use, and initially transfer special nuclear material; and establishes and provides for the terms and conditions upon which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will issue such licenses. Section 70.22 of the regulations, ''Contents of Applications'', requires that applications for licenses contain proposed procedures to avoid accidental conditions of criticality. These procedures are elements of a nuclear criticality safety program for operations with fissionable materials at fuels and materials facilities (i.e., fuel cycle facilities other than nuclear reactors) in which there exists a potential for criticality accidents. To assist the applicant in providing specific information needed for a nuclear criticality safety program in a license application, the NRC has issued regulatory guides. The NRC requirements for nuclear criticality safety include organizational, administrative, and technical requirements. For purely technical matters on nuclear criticality safety these guides endorse national standards. Others provide guidance on the standard format and content of license applications, guidance on evaluating radiological consequences of criticality accidents, or guidance for dealing with other radiation safety issues. (author)

  18. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data requirements for the ferrocyanide safety issue developed through the data quality objectives (DQO) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Meacham, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Waste Tank Safety Issue at the Hanford Site by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Westinghouse Hanford Company. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented so that decision makers can determine the type, quantity, and quality of data required for addressing tank safety issues. The decision logic diagrams and error tolerance equations also are provided. Finally, the document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements

  19. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...... in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  20. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, Lars; Lilja, Christina

    2010-12-01

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  1. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, Lars; Lilja, Christina (eds.)

    2010-12-15

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Site. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process reports in the assessment, is described in the SR-Site Main report /SKB 2011/

  2. INVENSYS PROCESS SYSTEMSNUCLEAR POWER PLANTCONTROL AND SAFETY SOLUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govan, J.; Dragoev, D.

    2004-01-01

    The Invensys has the headquarters in London and operates in more than 60 countries. Our standard nuclear certified 1E production products have been installed in many NPPs, including Kozloduy. The implementation and services, associated within your nuclear power industry, can realise benefits from Invensys on Safety, Reliability, and growth in local implementation schemes using our financial secure portfolio. The company also services a variety of industries including hydrocarbons, chemicals, oil and gas, nuclear power and utilities, rail, telecommunications, paper, food and beverage, dairy, pharmaceuticals and personal care - to perform with greater efficiency, safety and cost effectiveness. This insures he non-obsolesce of the products and long lasting support. (author)

  3. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process

  4. Nuclear safety inspection in treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of unit 1, TNPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunming; Song Chenxiu; Zhao Pengyu; Hou Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes treatment process for SG heat exchange tubes deficiency of Unit 1, TNPS, nuclear safety inspection of Northern Regional Office during treatment process for deficiency and further inspection after deficiency had been treated. (authors)

  5. Compliance as process: Work safety in the Chinese construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Na

    2016-01-01

    China is facing a key challenge of achieving compliance in many regulatory areas. Responding to such issue, this research reports on an exploratory empirical study of how the regulated construction businesses comply with work safety rules in China. Building on the existing literature, it develops a

  6. Management of health, safety and environment in process industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijm, Nijs Jan; Fiévez, C.; Gerbec, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present status of industrial HSE management in a number of EU member states is reviewed, with a focus on the integration of health, safety and environment in single management systems. The review provides insight into the standards and paradigms adopted by industry, and it identifies trends...

  7. FOOD safety and hygiene - Systematic layout planning of food processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Donk, DP; Gaalman, G

    2004-01-01

    Hygiene and food safety have been dealt with from different fields of science such as biology and health, and from different angles such as HACCP and GMP. Little systematically ordered knowledge is available for the analysis of a layout, taking hygienic factors into account. HACCP and GMP are

  8. Practical risk-based decision making: Good decisions made efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Guthrie, V.; Walker, D.; Singer, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotics and Process Systems Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company have teamed with JBF Associates, Inc. to address risk-based robotic planning. The objective of the project is to provide systematic, risk-based relative comparisons of competing alternatives for solving clean-up problems at DOE facilities. This paper presents the methodology developed, describes the software developed to efficiently apply the methodology, and discusses the results of initial applications for DOE. The paper also addresses current work in applying the approach to problems in other industries (including an example from the hydrocarbon processing industry)

  9. Potential use of advanced process control for safety purposes during attack of a process plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteley, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Many refineries and commodity chemical plants employ advanced process control (APC) systems to improve throughputs and yields. These APC systems utilize empirical process models for control purposes and enable operation closer to constraints than can be achieved with traditional PID regulatory feedback control. Substantial economic benefits are typically realized from the addition of APC systems. This paper considers leveraging the control capabilities of existing APC systems to minimize the potential impact of a terrorist attack on a process plant (e.g., petroleum refinery). Two potential uses of APC are described. The first is a conventional application of APC and involves automatically moving the process to a reduced operating rate when an attack first begins. The second is a non-conventional application and involves reconfiguring the APC system to optimize safety rather than economics. The underlying intent in both cases is to reduce the demands on the operator to allow focus on situation assessment and optimal response planning. An overview of APC is provided along with a brief description of the modifications required for the proposed new applications of the technology

  10. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengolini, A.; Debarberis, L.

    2008-01-01

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well

  11. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organisational culture in hazardous installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengolini, A; Debarberis, L

    2008-06-30

    Safety performance indicators are widely collected and used in hazardous installations. The IAEA, OECD and other international organisations have developed approaches that strongly promote deployment of safety performance indicators. These indicators focus mainly on operational performance, but some of them also address organisational and safety culture aspects. However, operators of hazardous installations, in particular those with limited resources and time constraints, often find it difficult to collect the large number of different safety performance indicators. Moreover, they also have difficulties with giving a meaning to the numbers and trends recorded, especially to those that should reflect a positive safety culture. In this light, the aim of this article is to address the need to monitor and assess progress on implementation of a programme to enhance safety and organisational culture. It proposes a specific process-view approach to effectiveness evaluation of organisational and safety culture indicators by means of a multi-level system in which safety processes and staff involvement in defining improvement activities are central. In this way safety becomes fully embedded in staff activities. Key members of personnel become directly involved in identifying and supplying leading indicators relating to their own daily activity and become responsible and accountable for keeping the measurement system alive. Besides use of lagging indicators, particular emphasis is placed on the importance of identifying and selecting leading indicators which can be used to drive safety performance for organisational and safety culture aspects as well.

  12. The safety culture change process performed in Polish research reactor MARIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golab, Andrzej

    2002-01-01

    The Safety Culture Change Process Performed in research reactor MARIA is described in this paper. The essential issues fulfilled in realization of the Safety Culture Enhancement Programme are related to the attitude and behaviour of top management, co-operating groups, operational personnel, relations between the operating organization and the supervising and advising organizations. Realization of this programme is based on changing the employees understanding of safety, changing their attitudes and behaviours by means of adequate training, requalification process and performing the broad self-assessment programme. Also a high level Quality Assurance Programme helps in development of the Safety Culture. (author)

  13. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2015-01-01

    frameworks, we have in recent years pursued an agenda of translating hard-real-time embedded safety critical programs written in the Safety Critical Java Profile [33] into networks of timed automata [4] and subjecting those to automated analysis using the UPPAAL model checker [10]. Several tools have been...... built and the tools have been used to analyse a number of systems for properties such as worst case execution time, schedulability and energy optimization [12–14,19,34,36,38]. In this paper we will elaborate on the theoretical underpinning of the translation from Java programs to timed automata models...... and briefly summarize some of the results based on this translation. Furthermore, we discuss future work, especially relations to the work in [16,24] as Java recently has adopted first class higher order functions in the form of lambda abstractions....

  14. Strategies and criteria for risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability or statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, so that the risk from components being unavailable is minimized, becomes difficult because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. In this paper, we discuss the strategies and criteria for risk-based configuration control in nuclear power plants. In developing these strategies and criteria, the primary objective is to obtain more direct risk control but the added benefit is the effective use of plant resources. Implementation of such approaches can result in replacement/modification of parts of Technical Specifications. Specifically, the risk impact or safety impact of a configuration depends upon four factors: (1) The configuration components which are simultaneously down (i.e., inoperable); (2) the backup components which are known to be up (i.e., operable); (3) the duration of time the configuration exists (the outage time); and (4) the frequency at which the configuration occurs. Risk-based configuration control involves managing these factors using risk analyses and risk insights. In this paper, we discuss each of the factors and illustrate how they can be controlled. The information and the tools needed in implementing configuration control are also discussed. The risk-based calculation requirements in achieving the control are also delineated. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Importance of the licensing process on the safety culture in the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, E.S.; Sousa, A.L.B. de; Paiva, R.L.C. de; Mezrahi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities licensing processes is to ensure the safety of these installations in their entire life cycle (in the installation site selection, designing, construction, pre-operational tests, operational and decommissioning phases). The Brazilian licensing process requires from the operator, among others, before the operating license: (I) a Site Report and a Final Safety Analysis Report, ensuring that all safety related issues are adequately analyzed and understood; (II) a formal structured Management System focused on the installation safety; and (III) dissemination of safety related information to all involved operator employees and subcontractors. Therefore, these requirements reflect in an adequate operator actions and practices, ensuring a working environment with a high level of safety culture. (author)

  16. Importance of the licensing process on the safety culture in the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, E.S.; Sousa, A.L.B. de; Paiva, R.L.C. de; Mezrahi, A., E-mail: emotta@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities licensing processes is to ensure the safety of these installations in their entire life cycle (in the installation site selection, designing, construction, pre-operational tests, operational and decommissioning phases). The Brazilian licensing process requires from the operator, among others, before the operating license: (I) a Site Report and a Final Safety Analysis Report, ensuring that all safety related issues are adequately analyzed and understood; (II) a formal structured Management System focused on the installation safety; and (III) dissemination of safety related information to all involved operator employees and subcontractors. Therefore, these requirements reflect in an adequate operator actions and practices, ensuring a working environment with a high level of safety culture. (author)

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  18. IAEA Issues Report on Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts has delivered its report on a mission it conducted from 21-31 January 2012 to review Japan's process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) officials delivered the IAEA Mission Report to Japanese officials yesterday and made it publicly available today. Following the 11 March 2011 accident at TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) announced the development of a revised safety assessment process for the nation's nuclear power reactors. At the request of the Government of Japan, the IAEA organized a team of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts and visited Japan to review NISA's approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. A Preliminary Summary Report was issued on 31 January. 'The mission report provides additional information regarding the team's recommendations and overall finding that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, Director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. The IAEA safety review mission held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES), and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. In its report delivered today

  19. Safety analysis of IFR fuel processing in the Argonne National Laboratory Fuel Cycle Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charak, I; Pedersen, D.R.; Forrester, R.J.; Phipps, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) includes on-site processing and recycling of discharged core and blanket fuel materials. The process is being demonstrated in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL's Idaho site. This paper describes the safety analyses that were performed in support of the FCF program; the resulting safety analysis report was the vehicle used to secure authorization to operate the facility and carry out the program, which is now under way. This work also provided some insights into safety-related issues of a commercial IFR fuel processing facility. These are also discussed

  20. Buffer and backfill process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrik (comp.)

    2006-09-15

    This document compiles information on processes in the buffer and deposition tunnel backfill relevant for long-term safety of a KBS-repository. It supports the safety assessment SR-Can, which is a preparatory step for a safety assessment that will support the licence application for a final repository in Sweden. The purpose of the process reports is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment of the processes in the safety assessment. The documentation is not exhaustive from a scientific point of view, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. However, it must be sufficiently detailed to motivate, by arguments founded on scientific understanding, the treatment of each process in the safety assessment. The purpose is further to determine how to handle each process in the safety assessment at an appropriate degree of detail, and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling.

  1. Buffer and backfill process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrik

    2006-09-01

    This document compiles information on processes in the buffer and deposition tunnel backfill relevant for long-term safety of a KBS-repository. It supports the safety assessment SR-Can, which is a preparatory step for a safety assessment that will support the licence application for a final repository in Sweden. The purpose of the process reports is to document the scientific knowledge of the processes to a level required for an adequate treatment of the processes in the safety assessment. The documentation is not exhaustive from a scientific point of view, since such a treatment is neither necessary for the purposes of the safety assessment nor possible within the scope of an assessment. However, it must be sufficiently detailed to motivate, by arguments founded on scientific understanding, the treatment of each process in the safety assessment. The purpose is further to determine how to handle each process in the safety assessment at an appropriate degree of detail, and to demonstrate how uncertainties are taken care of, given the suggested handling

  2. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept

  3. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Haas

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels—individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community—to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training.

  4. 78 FR 32010 - Pipeline Safety: Public Workshop on Integrity Verification Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No... Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: This notice is announcing a public workshop to be held on the concept of ``Integrity Verification Process.'' The Integrity...

  5. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  6. Usage of information safety requirements in improving tube bending process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livshitz, I. I.; Kunakov, E.; Lontsikh, P. A.

    2018-05-01

    This article is devoted to an improvement of the technological process's analysis with the information security requirements implementation. The aim of this research is the competition increase analysis in aircraft industry enterprises due to the information technology implementation by the example of the tube bending technological process. The article analyzes tube bending kinds and current technique. In addition, a potential risks analysis in a tube bending technological process is carried out in terms of information security.

  7. Risk-based inspection in the context of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Wellington A.; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Rabello, Emerson G.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power plant owners have to consider several aspects like safety, availability, costs and radiation exposure during operation of nuclear power plants. They also need to demonstrate to regulatory bodies that risk assessment and inspection planning processes are being implemented in effective and appropriate manner. Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) is a methodology that, unlike time-based inspection, involves a quantitative assessment of both failure probability and consequence associated with each safety-related item. A correctly implemented RBI program classifies individual equipment by its risks and prioritizes inspection efforts based on this classification. While in traditional deterministic approach, the inspection frequencies are constant, in the RBI approach the inspection interval for each item depends on the risk level. Regularly, inspection intervals from RBI result in risk levels lower or equal than deterministic inspection intervals. According to the literature, RBI solutions improve integrity and reduce costs through a more effective inspection. Risk-Informed In-service Inspection (RI-ISI) is the equivalent term used in the nuclear area. Its use in nuclear power plants around world is briefly reviewed in this paper. Identification of practice methodologies for performing risk-based analyses presented in this paper can help both Brazilian nuclear power plant operator and regulatory body in evaluating the RI-ISI technique feasibility as a tool for optimizing inspections within nuclear plants. (author)

  8. Risk-based inspection in the context of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Wellington A.; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Rabello, Emerson G., E-mail: soaresw@cdtn.br, E-mail: vasconv@cdtn.br, E-mail: egr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear power plant owners have to consider several aspects like safety, availability, costs and radiation exposure during operation of nuclear power plants. They also need to demonstrate to regulatory bodies that risk assessment and inspection planning processes are being implemented in effective and appropriate manner. Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) is a methodology that, unlike time-based inspection, involves a quantitative assessment of both failure probability and consequence associated with each safety-related item. A correctly implemented RBI program classifies individual equipment by its risks and prioritizes inspection efforts based on this classification. While in traditional deterministic approach, the inspection frequencies are constant, in the RBI approach the inspection interval for each item depends on the risk level. Regularly, inspection intervals from RBI result in risk levels lower or equal than deterministic inspection intervals. According to the literature, RBI solutions improve integrity and reduce costs through a more effective inspection. Risk-Informed In-service Inspection (RI-ISI) is the equivalent term used in the nuclear area. Its use in nuclear power plants around world is briefly reviewed in this paper. Identification of practice methodologies for performing risk-based analyses presented in this paper can help both Brazilian nuclear power plant operator and regulatory body in evaluating the RI-ISI technique feasibility as a tool for optimizing inspections within nuclear plants. (author)

  9. Risk based inspection for atmospheric storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agus; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is an attack that occurs on a metallic material as a result of environment's reaction.Thus, it causes atmospheric storage tank's leakage, material loss, environmental pollution, equipment failure and affects the age of process equipment then finally financial damage. Corrosion risk measurement becomesa vital part of Asset Management at the plant for operating any aging asset.This paper provides six case studies dealing with high speed diesel atmospheric storage tank parts at a power plant. A summary of the basic principles and procedures of corrosion risk analysis and RBI applicable to the Process Industries were discussed prior to the study. Semi quantitative method based onAPI 58I Base-Resource Document was employed. The risk associated with corrosion on the equipment in terms of its likelihood and its consequences were discussed. The corrosion risk analysis outcome used to formulate Risk Based Inspection (RBI) method that should be a part of the atmospheric storage tank operation at the plant. RBI gives more concern to inspection resources which are mostly on `High Risk' and `Medium Risk' criteria and less on `Low Risk' shell. Risk categories of the evaluated equipment were illustrated through case study analysis outcome.

  10. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  11. Safety risk assessment using analytic hierarchy process (AHP) during planning and budgeting of construction projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminbakhsh, Saman; Gunduz, Murat; Sonmez, Rifat

    2013-09-01

    The inherent and unique risks on construction projects quite often present key challenges to contractors. Health and safety risks are among the most significant risks in construction projects since the construction industry is characterized by a relatively high injury and death rate compared to other industries. In construction project management, safety risk assessment is an important step toward identifying potential hazards and evaluating the risks associated with the hazards. Adequate prioritization of safety risks during risk assessment is crucial for planning, budgeting, and management of safety related risks. In this paper, a safety risk assessment framework is presented based on the theory of cost of safety (COS) model and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The main contribution of the proposed framework is that it presents a robust method for prioritization of safety risks in construction projects to create a rational budget and to set realistic goals without compromising safety. The framework provides a decision tool for the decision makers to determine the adequate accident/injury prevention investments while considering the funding limits. The proposed safety risk framework is illustrated using a real-life construction project and the advantages and limitations of the framework are discussed. Copyright © 2013 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Phenomenological analyses and their application to the Defense Waste Processing Facility probabilistic safety analysis accident progression event tree. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinich, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Gough, S.T.; Bailey, R.T.; Kearnaghan, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    In the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for the Savannah River Site (SRS), risk-based perspectives have been included per US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23. The NUREG-1150 Level 2/3 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methodology was selected as the basis for calculating facility risk. The backbone of this methodology is the generation of an Accident Progression Event Tree (APET), which is solved using the EVNTRE computer code. To support the development of the DWPF APET, deterministic modeling of accident phenomena was necessary. From these analyses, (1) accident progressions were identified for inclusion into the APET; (2) branch point probabilities and any attendant parameters were quantified; and (3) the radionuclide releases to the environment from accidents were determined. The phenomena of interest for accident progressions included explosions, fires, a molten glass spill, and the response of the facility confinement system during such challenges. A variety of methodologies, from hand calculations to large system-model codes, were used in the evaluation of these phenomena

  13. How important is vehicle safety in the new vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaanie; Charlton, Judith; Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Whilst there has been a significant increase in the amount of consumer interest in the safety performance of privately owned vehicles, the role that it plays in consumers' purchase decisions is poorly understood. The aims of the current study were to determine: how important vehicle safety is in the new vehicle purchase process; what importance consumers place on safety options/features relative to other convenience and comfort features, and how consumers conceptualise vehicle safety. In addition, the study aimed to investigate the key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase. Participants recruited in Sweden and Spain completed a questionnaire about their new vehicle purchase. The findings from the questionnaire indicated that participants ranked safety-related factors (e.g., EuroNCAP (or other) safety ratings) as more important in the new vehicle purchase process than other vehicle factors (e.g., price, reliability etc.). Similarly, participants ranked safety-related features (e.g., advanced braking systems, front passenger airbags etc.) as more important than non-safety-related features (e.g., route navigation systems, air-conditioning etc.). Consistent with previous research, most participants equated vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than vehicle crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The key parameters associated with ranking 'vehicle safety' as the most important consideration in the new vehicle purchase were: use of EuroNCAP, gender and education level, age, drivers' concern about crash involvement, first vehicle purchase, annual driving distance, person for whom the vehicle was purchased, and traffic infringement history. The findings from this study are important for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion and publicity of vehicle safety features

  14. The main chemical safety problems in main process of nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Fengli; Zhao Shangui; Liu Xinhua; Zhang Chunlong; Lu Dan; Liu Yuntao; Yang Xiaowei; Wang Shijun

    2014-01-01

    There are many chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing. The reaction conditions and the products are different so that the chemical safety problems are different. In the paper the chemical reactions in the aqueous process of nuclear fuel reprocessing are described and the main chemical safety problems are analyzed. The reference is offered to the design and accident analysis of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. (authors)

  15. ESTIMATION OF PROCESSES REALIZATION RISK AS A MANNER OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN THE INTEGRATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Karkoszka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Realization of quality, environmental and occupational health and safety policy using the proposed model of processes' integrated risk estimation leads to the improvement of the analyzed productive processes by the preventive and corrective actions, and in consequence - to their optimization from the point of view of products' quality and in the aspect of quality of environmental influence and occupational health and safety.

  16. ESTIMATION OF PROCESSES REALIZATION RISK AS A MANNER OF SAFETY MANAGEMENT IN THE INTEGRATED SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Karkoszka

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Realization of quality, environmental and occupational health and safety policy using the proposed model of processes' integrated risk estimation leads to the improvement of the analyzed productive processes by the preventive and corrective actions, and in consequence - to their optimization from the point of view of products' quality and in the aspect of quality of environmental influence and occupational health and safety.

  17. Safety, Liveness and Run-time Refinement for Modular Process-Aware Information Systems with Dynamic Sub Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Slaats, Tijs

    2015-01-01

    and verification of flexible, run-time adaptable process-aware information systems, moved into practice via the Dynamic Condition Response (DCR) Graphs notation co-developed with our industrial partner. Our key contributions are: (1) A formal theory of dynamic sub-process instantiation for declarative, event......We study modularity, run-time adaptation and refinement under safety and liveness constraints in event-based process models with dynamic sub-process instantiation. The study is part of a larger programme to provide semantically well-founded technologies for modelling, implementation......-based processes under safety and liveness constraints, given as the DCR* process language, equipped with a compositional operational semantics and conservatively extending the DCR Graphs notation; (2) an expressiveness analysis revealing that the DCR* process language is Turing-complete, while the fragment cor...

  18. The micro-processor controlled process radiation monitoring system for reactor safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, K.; Noguchi, A.; Kumagami, S.; Gotoh, Y.; Kumahara, T.; Arita, S.

    1986-01-01

    Digital computers are soon expected to be applied to various real-time safety and safety-related systems in nuclear power plants. Hitachi is now engaged in the development of a micro-processor controlled process radiation monitoring system, which operates on digital processing methods employed with a log ratemeter. A newly defined methodology of design and test procedures is being applied as a means of software program verification for these safety systems. Recently implemented micro-processor technology will help to achieve an advanced man-machine interface and highly reliable performance. (author)

  19. Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendure, A.O.

    1995-03-01

    Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making is as much of a challenge as properly using the tool once it has been selected. Failure to consider customer and stakeholder requirements and the technical bases and differences in risk-based decision making tools will produce confounding and/or politically unacceptable results when the tool is used. Selecting a risk-based decisionmaking tool must therefore be undertaken with the same, if not greater, rigor than the use of the tool once it is selected. This paper presents a process for selecting a risk-based tool appropriate to a set of prioritization or resource allocation tasks, discusses the results of applying the process to four risk-based decision-making tools, and identifies the ``musts`` for successful selection and implementation of a risk-based tool to aid in decision making.

  20. 77 FR 66638 - The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals; Extension of the Office of Management...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Process Safety Management...: The Standard on Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119). OMB Number...

  1. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  2. Project transition to risk based corrective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, J.M.; Cormier, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Many states have adopted or are considering the adoption of the America Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard E 1739, Standard for Risk Based Corrective Action (RBCA) Applied to Petroleum Release Sites. This standard is being adopted to regulate leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites. The case studies of two LUST sites in Michigan will be presented to demonstrate the decision making process and limiting factors involved in transitioning sites to the RBCA program. Both of these case studies had been previously investigated and one was actively remediated. The first case study involves a private petroleum facility where soil and ground water have been impacted. Remediation involved a ground water pump and treat system. Subsequent monitoring during system operation indicated that analytical data were still above the Tier 1 RBSLs but below the Tier 2 SSTLs. The closure strategy that was developed was based on the compounds of concern that were below the SSTLs. A deed restriction was also developed for the site as an institutional control. The second LUST site exhibited BTEX concentrations in soil and ground water above the Tier 1 RBSLs. Due to the exceedence of the Tier 1 RBSLs, the second site required a Tier 2 assessment to develop SSTLs as remedial objectives and remove hot spots in the soil and treat the ground water to achieve closure. Again, a deed restriction was instituted along with a performance monitoring plan

  3. Maritime Safety – Stakeholders in Information Exchange Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Wolejsza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the methodology and research results on identification of potential users of the ESABALT system, which is targeted towards improving the situational awareness in the Baltic Sea region. We describe the technique of analysing the stakeholders involved in maritime sector processes, especially in maritime transport processes, while also taking into account their different classification criteria. The resulting list of stakeholders is used to identify system users and their classification into user profiles groups. This study will form the basis for the identification of user requirements of the ESABALT system.

  4. Initialization of Safety Assessment Process for the Croatian Radioactive Waste repository on Trgovska gora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokner, V.; Levanat, I.; Subasic, D.

    2000-01-01

    An iterative process of safety assessment, presently focusing on the site-specific evaluation of the post-closure phase for the prospective LILW repository on Trgovska gora in Croatia, has recently been initiated. The primary aim of the first assessment iterations is to provide the experts involved, the regulators and the general public with a reasonable assurance that the applicable long term performance and safety objectives can be met. Another goal is to develop a sufficient understanding of the system behavior to support decisions about the site investigation, the facility design, the waste acceptance criteria and the closure conditions. In this initial phase, the safety assessment is structured in a manner following closely methodology of the ISAM. The International Programme for Improving Long Term Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities the IAEA coordinated research program started in 1997. Results of the safety assessment first iteration will be organized and presented in the form of a preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR), expected to be completed in the second part of the year 2000. As the first report on the initiated safety assessment activities, the PSAR will describe the concept and aims of the assessment process. Particular emphasis will be placed on description of the key elements of a safety assessment approach by: a) defining the assessment context; b) providing description of the disposal system; c) developing and justifying assessment scenarios; d) formulating and implementing models; and e) interpreting the scoping calculations. (author)

  5. Radiation Safety Professional Certification Process in a Multi-Disciplinary Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.; Jones, P.; Ilson, R.

    2004-01-01

    There is no one set of criteria that defines the radiation safety professional in Canada. The many varied positions, from university and medical to industry and mining, define different qualifications to manage radiation safety programs. The national regulatory body has to assess many different qualifications when determining if an individual is acceptable to be approved for the role of radiation safety officer under any given licence. Some professional organizations specify education requirements and work experience as a prerequisite to certification. The education component specifies a degree of some type but does not identify specific courses or competencies within that degree. This could result in individuals with varying levels of radiation safety experience and training. The Canadian Radiation Protection Association (CRPA), responding to a need identified by the membership of the association, has initiated a process where the varying levels of knowledge of radiation safety can be addressed for radiation safety professionals. By identifying a core level set of radiation safety competencies, the basic level of radiation safety officer for smaller organizations can be met. By adding specialty areas, education can be pursued to define the more complex needs of larger organizations. This competency based process meets the needs of licensees who do not require highly trained health physicists in order to meet the licensing requirements and at the same time provides a stepping stone for those who wish to pursue a more specialized health physics option. (Author) 8 refs

  6. Simulation codes of chemical separation process of spent fuel reprocessing. Tool for process development and safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakura, Toshihide; Sato, Makoto; Matsumura, Masakazu; Morita, Yasuji

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the succeeding development and utilization of Extraction System Simulation Code for Advanced Reprocessing (ESSCAR). From the viewpoint of development, more tests with spent fuel and calculations should be performed with better understanding of the physico-chemical phenomena in a separation process. From the viewpoint of process safety research on fuel cycle facilities, it is important to know the process behavior of a key substance; being highly reactive but existing only trace amount. (author)

  7. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-09-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5°C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant ( P10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

  8. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-10-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5 deg. C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant (P< 0.05) with values ranging between 4.28 and 4.39 kg of force. The total bacterial counts at 5 deg. C for non-irradiated and 0.5 kGy irradiated samples were 6.3x10{sup 5} cfu/g, 3.0x10{sup 2} and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially.

  9. Irradiation treatment of minimally processed carrots for ensuring microbiological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf Chaudry, Muhammad; Bibi, Nizakat; Khan, Misal; Khan, Maazullah; Badshah, Amal; Jamil Qureshi, Muhammad

    2004-01-01

    Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are very common in developed countries and are gaining popularity in developing countries due to their convenience and freshness. However, minimally processing may result in undesirable changes in colour, taste and appearance due to the transfer of microbes from skin to the flesh. Irradiation is a well-known technology for elimination of microbial contamination. Food irradiation has been approved by 50 countries and is being applied commercially in USA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on the quality of minimally processed carrots. Fresh carrots were peeled, sliced and PE packaged. The samples were irradiated (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 kGy) and stored at 5 deg. C for 2 weeks. The samples were analyzed for hardness, organoleptic acceptance and microbial load at 0, 7th and 15th day. The mean firmness of the control and all irradiated samples remained between 4.31 and 4.42 kg of force, showing no adverse effect of radiation dose. The effect of storage (2 weeks) was significant (P 5 cfu/g, 3.0x10 2 and few colonies(>10) in all other irradiated samples(1.0, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy) after 2 weeks storage. No coliform or E. coli were detected in any of the samples (radiated or control) immediately after irradiation and during the entire storage period in minimally processed carrots. A dose of 2.0 kGy completely controlled the fungal and bacterial counts. The irradiated samples (2.0 kGy) were also acceptable sensorially

  10. Application of risk-based methods to inservice testing of check valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Closky, N.B.; Balkey, K.R.; McAllister, W.J. [and others

    1996-12-01

    Research efforts have been underway in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and industry to define appropriate methods for the application of risk-based technology in the development of inservice testing (IST) programs for pumps and valves in nuclear steam supply systems. This paper discusses a pilot application of these methods to the inservice testing of check valves in the emergency core cooling system of Georgia Power`s Vogtle nuclear power station. The results of the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) are used to divide the check valves into risk-significant and less-risk-significant groups. This information is reviewed by a plant expert panel along with the consideration of appropriate deterministic insights to finally categorize the check valves into more safety-significant and less safety-significant component groups. All of the more safety-significant check valves are further evaluated in detail using a failure modes and causes analysis (FMCA) to assist in defining effective IST strategies. A template has been designed to evaluate how effective current and emerging tests for check valves are in detecting failures or in finding significant conditions that are precursors to failure for the likely failure causes. This information is then used to design and evaluate appropriate IST strategies that consider both the test method and frequency. A few of the less safety-significant check valves are also evaluated using this process since differences exist in check valve design, function, and operating conditions. Appropriate test strategies are selected for each check valve that has been evaluated based on safety and cost considerations. Test strategies are inferred from this information for the other check valves based on similar check valve conditions. Sensitivity studies are performed using the PSA model to arrive at an overall IST program that maintains or enhances safety at the lowest achievable cost.

  11. The API methodology for risk-based inspection (RBI) analysis for the petroleum and petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one petroleum and petrochemical companies are currently sponsoring a project within the American Petroleum Institute (API) to develop risk-based inspection (RBI) methodology for application in the refining and petrochemical industry. This paper describes that particular RBI methodology and provides a summary of the three levels of RBI analysis developed by the project. Also included is a review of the first pilot project to validate the methodology by applying RBI to several existing refining units. The failure for pressure equipment in a process unit can have several undesirable effects. For the purpose of RBI analysis, the API RBI program categorizes these effects into four basic risk outcomes: flammable events, toxic releases, major environmental damage, and business interruption losses. API RBI is a strategic process, both qualitative and quantitative, for understanding and reducing these risks associated with operating pressure equipment. This paper will show how API RBI assesses the potential consequences of a failure of the pressure boundary, as well as assessing the likelihood (probability) of failure. Risk-based inspection also prioritizes risk levels in a systematic manner so that the owner-user can then plan an inspection program that focuses more resources on the higher risk equipment; while possibly saving inspection resources that are not doing an effective job of reducing risk. At the same time, if consequence of failure is a significant driving force for high risk equipment items, plant management also has the option of applying consequence mitigation steps to minimize the impact of a hazardous release, should one occur. The target audience for this paper is engineers, inspectors, and managers who want to understand what API Risk-Based Inspection is all about, what are the benefits and limitations of RBI, and how inspection practices can be changed to reduce risks and/or save costs without impacting safety risk. (Author)

  12. IRSN global process for leading a comprehensive fire safety analysis for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormieres, Yannick; Lacoue, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    A fire safety analysis (FSA) is requested to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures set by the operator. A recent document written by IRSN outlines a global process for such a comprehensive fire safety analysis. Thanks to the French nuclear fire safety regulation evolutions, from prescriptive requirements to objective requirements, the proposed fire safety justification process focuses on compliance with performance criteria for fire protection measures. These performance criteria are related to the vulnerability of targets to effects of fire, and not only based upon radiological consequences out side the installation caused by a fire. In his FSA, the operator has to define the safety functions that should continue to ensure its mission even in the case of fire in order to be in compliance with nuclear safety objectives. Then, in order to maintain these safety functions, the operator has to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures, defined according to defence in depth principles. To reach the objective, the analysis process is based on the identification of targets to be protected in order to maintain safety functions, taken into account facility characteristics. These targets include structures, systems, components and personal important to safety. Facility characteristics include, for all operating conditions, potential ignition sources and fire protections systems. One of the key points of the fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. Given the large number of possible fire scenarios, it is then necessary to evaluate 'reference fires' which are the worst case scenarios of all possible fire scenarios and which are used by the operator for the design of fire protection measures. (authors)

  13. The Conceptual Framework for Ensuring Economic Safety of Corporate Integration Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutsaliuk Oleksii M.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective growth of the number of displays and influence of negative factors of threats from the environment actualizes the issue of ensuring economic safety of national economic entities. The article notes that simultaneously with counteracting threats enterprises are working for development, one form of which is the establishment of corporate structures and implementation of integration processes. It is proposed to ensure achieving the desired level of the corporate structure economic safety through optimizing the correlation of resources and competencies, skills and technologies for their use within the integrated logistics value chain. In this case it is the implementation of the integration process that serves as an instrument for achieving this optimal correlation, and the level of economic safety is considered as one of the optimization criteria. The system of authors’ hypotheses is taken as the basis for ensuring economic safety of the corporate integration process. Each of the hypotheses corresponds to a set of conceptual principles aimed at practical implementation of the proposed approaches. Within these conceptual principles the relationship between incentives and benefits of integration and the basis for ensuring their safety is presented, the differences between safety of functioning and safety of development are studied, the use of the methodology of logistics to harmonize the interests of participants of the corporate structure is justified, the relevance of applying the resource approach to manage the integration and development safety is proved. The graphical representation of causal relationships between the proposed conceptual principles allowed formalizing the subject area of studying corporate integration safety

  14. Practicing chemical process safety: a look at the layers of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Roy E.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation will review a few public perceptions of safety in chemical plants and refineries, and will compare these plant workplace risks to some of the more traditional occupations. The central theme of this paper is to provide a 'within-the-fence' view of many of the process safety practices that world class plants perform to pro-actively protect people, property, profits as well as the environment. It behooves each chemical plant and refinery to have their story on an image-rich presentation to stress stewardship and process safety. Such a program can assure the company's employees and help convince the community that many layers of safety protection within our plants are effective, and protect all from harm

  15. CESAR cost-efficient methods and processes for safety-relevant embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The book summarizes the findings and contributions of the European ARTEMIS project, CESAR, for improving and enabling interoperability of methods, tools, and processes to meet the demands in embedded systems development across four domains - avionics, automotive, automation, and rail. The contributions give insight to an improved engineering and safety process life-cycle for the development of safety critical systems. They present new concept of engineering tools integration platform to improve the development of safety critical embedded systems and illustrate capacity of this framework for end-user instantiation to specific domain needs and processes. They also advance state-of-the-art in component-based development as well as component and system validation and verification, with tool support. And finally they describe industry relevant evaluated processes and methods especially designed for the embedded systems sector as well as easy adoptable common interoperability principles for software tool integratio...

  16. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulmeister, K [Div. of Life Sciences, Dept. of Radiation Protection, Oesterreichisches Forschungszentrum Seibersdorf, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations (IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  17. International laser safety standardization. From the European perspective with an emphasis on materials processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulmeister, K.

    1997-08-01

    This report reviews international standards relevant to the safety of laser products and laser installations, with an emphasis on the safety of laser materials processing from the European perspective. In the first paragraphs an overview of the international standards organisations, their relative roles and ways of developing new standards is given. In the second part of the report, work currently underway in the respective standards committees is summarised and specific standards dealing with different aspects of laser safety are discussed. An appendix contains a list of standards organised in standards organisations IEC, ISO and EN). (author)

  18. [Process management in the hospital pharmacy for the improvement of the patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, R; Perelló-Juncá, A; Parès-Marimòn, R M; Serrais-Benavente, J; Ferrandez-Martí, D; Sala-Robinat, R; Camacho-Calvente, A; Campabanal-Prats, C; Solà-Anderiu, I; Sanchez-Caparrós, S; Gonzalez-Estrada, J; Martinez-Olalla, P; Colomer-Palomo, J; Perez-Mañosas, R; Rodríguez-Gallego, D

    2013-01-01

    To define a process management model for a hospital pharmacy in order to measure, analyse and make continuous improvements in patient safety and healthcare quality. In order to implement process management, Igualada Hospital was divided into different processes, one of which was the Hospital Pharmacy. A multidisciplinary management team was given responsibility for each process. For each sub-process one person was identified to be responsible, and a working group was formed under his/her leadership. With the help of each working group, a risk analysis using failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed, and the corresponding improvement actions were implemented. Sub-process indicators were also identified, and different process management mechanisms were introduced. The first risk analysis with FMEA produced more than thirty preventive actions to improve patient safety. Later, the weekly analysis of errors, as well as the monthly analysis of key process indicators, permitted us to monitor process results and, as each sub-process manager participated in these meetings, also to assume accountability and responsibility, thus consolidating the culture of excellence. The introduction of different process management mechanisms, with the participation of people responsible for each sub-process, introduces a participative management tool for the continuous improvement of patient safety and healthcare quality. Copyright © 2012 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. MANAGEMENT PROCESS OF HEALTH AND SAFETY RISK IN THE NIGERIA CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Akwu, Ifeoma Claris

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the state of health and safety risk management practices in the building sector of the construction industry with the objective to examine the health and safety risk management processes adopted by the construction industry in Nigeria; the study adopted the survey and case study research design. It employed the use of Delphi’s technique in the distribution of questionnaire and made use of chi-square analytical technique for the analysis of gathered data. The findings reveal...

  20. Modern licensing approaches for analysis of important to safety processes in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, M.; Groudev, P.; Pavlova, M.; Stoyanov, S.

    2008-01-01

    It is presented within the paper the modern approaches for analysis of important to safety assessment processes in Nuclear Power Plants, included Bulgarian Regulatory Agency's requirements for quantity assessment of these processes applying deterministic and probabilistic approaches for establishing and confirming the design basis and defence-in-depth effectiveness. (authors)

  1. Food safety issues of high pressure processed fruit/vegetable juices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Houška, M.; Strohalm, J.; Totušek, J.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Gabrovská, D.; Otová, B.; Gresová, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 1 (2007), s. 157-162 ISSN 0895-7959 R&D Projects: GA MZe QF3287 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Vegetable juices * High pressure processing * Food safety * Anti-mutagenic activity Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2007

  2. Safety evaluation report of hot cell facilities for demonstration of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Gil Sung; Choung, W. M.; Ku, J. H.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Park, S. W.; Bek, S. Y.; Lee, E. P.

    2004-10-01

    The advanced spent fuel conditioning process(ACP) proposed to reduce the overall volume of the PWR spent fuel and improve safety and economy of the long-term storage of spent fuel. In the next phase(2004∼2006), the hot test will be carried out for verification of the ACP in a laboratory scale. For the hot test, the hot cell facilities of α- type and auxiliary facilities are required essentially for safe handling of high radioactive materials. As the hot cell facilities for demonstration of the ACP, a existing hot cell of β- type will be refurbished to minimize construction expenditures of hot cell facility. Up to now, the detail design of hot cell facilities and process were completed, and the safety analysis was performed to substantiate secure of conservative safety. The design data were submitted for licensing which was necessary for construction and operation of hot cell facilities. The safety investigation of KINS on hot cell facilities was completed, and the license for construction and operation of hot cell facilities was acquired already from MOST. In this report, the safety analysis report submitted to KINS was summarized. And also, the questionnaires issued from KINS and answers of KAERI in process of safety investigation were described in detail

  3. Incident Reporting to Improve Patient Safety: The Effects of Process Variance on Pediatric Patient Safety in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼConnell, Karen J; Shaw, Kathy N; Ruddy, Richard M; Mahajan, Prashant V; Lichenstein, Richard; Olsen, Cody S; Funai, Tomohiko; Blumberg, Stephen; Chamberlain, James M

    2018-04-01

    Medical errors threaten patient safety, especially in the pediatric emergency department (ED) where overcrowding, multiple handoffs, and workflow interruptions are common. Errors related to process variance involve situations that are not consistent with standard ED operations or routine patient care. We performed a planned subanalysis of the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network incident reporting data classified as process variance events. Confidential deidentified incident reports (IRs) were collected and classified by 2 independent investigators. Events categorized as process variance were then subtyped for severity and contributing factors. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The study intention was to describe and measure reported medical errors related to process variance in 17 EDs in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network from 2007 to 2008. Between July 2007 and June 2008, 2906 eligible reports were reviewed. Process variance events were identified in 15.4% (447/2906). The majority were related to patient flow (35.4%), handoff communication (17.2%), and patient identification errors (15.9%). Most staff involved included nurses (47.9%) and physicians (28%); trainees were infrequently reported. The majority of events did not result in harm (65.7%); 17.9% (80/447) of cases were classified as unsafe conditions but did not reach the patient. Temporary harm requiring further treatment or hospitalization was reported in 5.6% (25/447). No events resulted in permanent harm, near death, or death. Contributing factors included human factors (92.1%), in particular handoff communication, interpersonal skills, and compliance with established procedures, and system-level errors (18.1%), including unclear or unavailable policies and inadequate staffing levels. Although process variance events accounted for approximately 1 in 6 reported safety events, very few led to patient harm. Because human and system-level factors contributed to

  4. A concurrent diagnosis of microbiological food safety output and food safety management system performance: Cases from meat processing industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Jacxsens, L.; Rovira, J.; Oses Gomez, S.; Uyttendaele, M.; Marcelis, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Stakeholder requirements force companies to analyse their food safety management system (FSMS) performance to improve food safety. Performance is commonly analysed by checking compliance against preset requirements via audits/inspections, or actual food safety (FS) output is analysed by

  5. A risk-based approach to scheduling audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönninger, Stephan; Holmes, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    The manufacture and supply of pharmaceutical products can be a very complex operation. Companies may purchase a wide variety of materials, from active pharmaceutical ingredients to packaging materials, from "in company" suppliers or from third parties. They may also purchase or contract a number of services such as analysis, data management, audit, among others. It is very important that these materials and services are of the requisite quality in order that patient safety and company reputation are adequately protected. Such quality requirements are ongoing throughout the product life cycle. In recent years, assurance of quality has been derived via audit of the supplier or service provider and by using periodic audits, for example, annually or at least once every 5 years. In the past, companies may have used an audit only for what they considered to be "key" materials or services and used testing on receipt, for example, as their quality assurance measure for "less important" supplies. Such approaches changed as a result of pressure from both internal sources and regulators to the time-driven audit for all suppliers and service providers. Companies recognised that eventually they would be responsible for the quality of the supplied product or service and audit, although providing only a "snapshot in time" seemed a convenient way of demonstrating that they were meeting their obligations. Problems, however, still occur with the supplied product or service and will usually be more frequent from certain suppliers. Additionally, some third-party suppliers will no longer accept routine audits from individual companies, as the overall audit load can exceed one external audit per working day. Consequently a different model is needed for assessing supplier quality. This paper presents a risk-based approach to creating an audit plan and for scheduling the frequency and depth of such audits. The approach is based on the principles and process of the Quality Risk Management

  6. 76 FR 12611 - Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework-Basel II; Establishment of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... necessary to calculate its required minimum risk-based capital requirements under both the general risk... to the advanced approaches rules must calculate and compare its minimum tier 1 and total risk-based... sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or...

  7. Development and application of proposed ASME Section XI Code changes for risk-based inspection of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    This synopsis has been written to describe a perspective on the development and application of ASME Section XI Code changes for risk-based inspection of piping. The content is specifically related to the use of risk-based technology for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of piping and efforts made to support the ASME Research/Westinghouse Owners Group/Millstone Unit 3 approach for use of this technology. The opinions contained herein may or may not reflect those of the ASME Codes and Standards Committees responsible for these activities. In order to take such a detailed technical subject and put it into an understandable format, the author has chosen to provide an analogy to simplify what is actually taking place. Risk-based technology in the ISI of piping can be likened to the process of making and using specifically ground prescription glasses to allow for better vision. It provides a process to develop and use these uniquely ground glasses that will dynamically focus on all the locations and obstacles within a plant's piping systems that could cause that plant to trip and fall; more importantly it identifies the locations where the fall could possibly hurt someone else. In this way, Nuclear Safety is being addressed

  8. Application of Proteomics in Food Technology and Food Biotechnology: Process Development, Quality Control and Product Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Gašo-Sokač

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human food is a very complex biological mixture and food processing and safety are very important and essential disciplines. Proteomics technology using different high-performance separation techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, one-dimensional and multidimensional chromatography, combined with high-resolution mass spectrometry has the power to monitor the protein composition of foods and their changes during the production process. The use of proteomics in food technology is presented, especially for characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, detection of batch-to-batch variations and quality control of the final product. Further attention is paid to the aspects of food safety, especially regarding biological and microbial safety and the use of genetically modified foods.

  9. Mitigation of fire damage and escalation by fireproofing: A risk-based strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio; Di Padova, Annamaria; Barbaresi, Tiziana; Tallone, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Passive fire protection by the application of fireproofing materials is a crucial safety barrier in the prevention of the escalation of fire scenarios. Fireproofing improves the capacity of process items and of support structures to maintain their structural integrity during a fire, preventing or at least delaying the collapse of structural elements. Maintenance and cost issues require, however, to apply such protection only where an actual risk of severe fire scenarios is present. Available methodologies for fireproofing application in on-shore installation do not consider the effect of jet-fires. In the present study, a risk-based methodology aimed at the protection from both pool fire and jet fire escalation was developed. The procedure addresses both the prevention of domino effect and the mitigation of asset damage due to the primary fire scenario. The method is mainly oriented to early design application, allowing the identification of fireproofing zones in the initial phases of lay-out definition.

  10. Game prototype for understanding safety issues of life boat launching process.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Min; Chang, Jian; Dodwell, M.; Jekins, J.; Yang, H.J.; Zhang, Jian J.

    2016-01-01

    Novel advanced game techniques provide us with new possibilities to mimic a complicated training process, with the benefit of safety enhancement. In this paper, we design and implement a 3D game which imitates the lifeboat launching process. Lifeboat launching is such a complex but vital process which can on one side saving people's life on sea and on the other side associating many potential hazards. It involves both the tractor manoeuvres and boat operations. The primary objective of the ga...

  11. Process hazards analysis (PrHA) program, bridging accident analyses and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.A.; McKernan, S.A.; Vigil, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recently the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Technical Area 55 (TA-55) was revised and submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE). As a part of this effort, over seventy Process Hazards Analyses (PrHAs) were written and/or revised over the six years prior to the FSAR revision. TA-55 is a research, development, and production nuclear facility that primarily supports US. defense and space programs. Nuclear fuels and material research; material recovery, refining and analyses; and the casting, machining and fabrication of plutonium components are some of the activities conducted at TA-35. These operations involve a wide variety of industrial, chemical and nuclear hazards. Operational personnel along with safety analysts work as a team to prepare the PrHA. PrHAs describe the process; identi fy the hazards; and analyze hazards including determining hazard scenarios, their likelihood, and consequences. In addition, the interaction of the process to facility systems, structures and operational specific protective features are part of the PrHA. This information is rolled-up to determine bounding accidents and mitigating systems and structures. Further detailed accident analysis is performed for the bounding accidents and included in the FSAR. The FSAR is part of the Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) that defines the safety envelope for all facility operations in order to protect the worker, the public, and the environment. The DSA is in compliance with the US. Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 830, Nuclear Safety Management and is approved by DOE. The DSA sets forth the bounding conditions necessary for the safe operation for the facility and is essentially a 'license to operate.' Safely of day-to-day operations is based on Hazard Control Plans (HCPs). Hazards are initially identified in the PrI-IA for the specific operation and act as input to the HCP. Specific protective features important to worker

  12. Risk-based environmental assessment for uranium mines – some Canadian and Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, M.; Woods, P.; McKee, M.

    2014-01-01

    The uranium producing countries of Canada and Australia have independently developed regulatory frameworks emphasising the importance of human health and ecological risk assessments as core tools for ensuring protection of the environment and public. The value of such an approach is presented as well as practical lessons learned through recent applications of this regulatory model. In May 2000, the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Act was replaced by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA). This law created the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, whose mission is to protect the health, safety and security of persons and the environment; and to implement Canada’s international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. From an environmental perspective, the new law added a requirement for the protection of the environment and non-human biota, and a responsibility over hazardous substances in addition to nuclear ones. The NSCA requires the prevention of unreasonable risk to, and adequate provision for the protection of, the environment and the health and safety of the public. It was decided that environmental and public protection would recognize the principles of pollution prevention and ALARA, and that it would be risk based. For Class 1 facilities and uranium mines and mills, Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessments are the core of both the Environmental Assessment process and the licensing process under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The Ecological Risk Assessment informs the Effluent and Environmental Monitoring Programs with the resultant monitoring data used to reinforce the risk assessments on a cyclical basis throughout the lifespan of the facility. A number of standards and regulatory documents have been completed supporting this environmental protection framework. In this presentation, a case study is used to illustrate the use of ERA for decision making. In the last decade or so in Australia uranium mining proposals normally require

  13. An Evaluation Methodology Development and Application Process for Severe Accident Safety Issue Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Martin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A general evaluation methodology development and application process (EMDAP paradigm is described for the resolution of severe accident safety issues. For the broader objective of complete and comprehensive design validation, severe accident safety issues are resolved by demonstrating comprehensive severe-accident-related engineering through applicable testing programs, process studies demonstrating certain deterministic elements, probabilistic risk assessment, and severe accident management guidelines. The basic framework described in this paper extends the top-down, bottom-up strategy described in the U.S Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.203 to severe accident evaluations addressing U.S. NRC expectation for plant design certification applications.

  14. Data requirements for the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue developed through the data quality objectives process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, J.E.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Babad, H.; Buck, J.W.; Anderson, C.M.; Pulsipher, B.A.; Toth, J.J.; Turner, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    This document records the data quality objectives (DQO) process applied to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue at the Hanford Site. Specifically, the major recommendations and findings from this Ferrocyanide DQO process are presented. The decision logic diagrams and decision error tolerances also are provided. The document includes the DQO sample-size formulas for determining specific tank sampling requirements, and many of the justifications for decision thresholds and decision error tolerances are briefly described. More detailed descriptions are presented in other Ferrocyanide Safety Program companion documents referenced in this report. This is a living document, and the assumptions contained within will be refined as more data from sampling and characterization become available

  15. Process value of care safety: women's willingness to pay for perinatal services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anezaki, Hisataka; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the process value of care safety from the patient's view in perinatal services. Cross-sectional survey. Fifty two sites of mandated public neonatal health checkup in 6 urban cities in West Japan. Mothers who attended neonatal health checkups for their babies in 2011 (n = 1316, response rate = 27.4%). Willingness to pay (WTP) for physician-attended care compared with midwife care as the process-related value of care safety. WTP was estimated using conjoint analysis based on the participants' choice over possible alternatives that were randomly assigned from among eight scenarios considering attributes such as professional attendance, amenities, painless delivery, caesarean section rate, travel time and price. The WTP for physician-attended care over midwife care was estimated 1283 USD. Women who had experienced complications in prior deliveries had a 1.5 times larger WTP. We empirically evaluated the process value for safety practice in perinatal care that was larger than a previously reported accounting-based value. Our results indicate that measurement of process value from the patient's view is informative for the evaluation of safety care, and that it is sensitive to individual risk perception for the care process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care.

  16. Measurement tools and process indicators of patient safety culture in primary care. A mixed methods study by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Dianne; Wensing, Michel; Esmail, Aneez; Valderas, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: There is little guidance available to healthcare practitioners about what tools they might use to assess the patient safety culture. Objective: To identify useful tools for assessing patient safety culture in primary care organizations in Europe; to identify those aspects of performance that should be assessed when investigating the relationship between safety culture and performance in primary care. Methods: Two consensus-based studies were carried out, in which subject matter experts and primary healthcare professionals from several EU states rated (a) the applicability to their healthcare system of several existing safety culture assessment tools and (b) the appropriateness and usefulness of a range of potential indicators of a positive patient safety culture to primary care settings. The safety culture tools were field-tested in four countries to ascertain any challenges and issues arising when used in primary care. Results: The two existing tools that received the most favourable ratings were the Manchester patient safety framework (MaPsAF primary care version) and the Agency for healthcare research and quality survey (medical office version). Several potential safety culture process indicators were identified. The one that emerged as offering the best combination of appropriateness and usefulness related to the collection of data on adverse patient events. Conclusion: Two tools, one quantitative and one qualitative, were identified as applicable and useful in assessing patient safety culture in primary care settings in Europe. Safety culture indicators in primary care should focus on the processes rather than the outcomes of care. PMID:26339832

  17. Development methodology for the software life cycle process of the safety software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, S. S.; Cha, K. H.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Han, H. B.

    2002-01-01

    A methodology for developing software life cycle processes (SLCP) is proposed to develop the digital safety-critical Engineered Safety Features - Component Control System (ESF-CCS) successfully. A software life cycle model is selected as the hybrid model mixed with waterfall, prototyping, and spiral models and is composed of two stages , development stages of prototype of ESF-CCS and ESF-CCS. To produce the software life cycle (SLC) for the Development of the Digital Reactor Safety System, the Activities referenced in IEEE Std. 1074-1997 are mapped onto the hybrid model. The SLCP is established after the available OPAs (Organizational Process Asset) are applied to the SLC Activities, and the known constraints are reconciled. The established SLCP describes well the software life cycle activities with which the Regulatory Authority provides

  18. Development methodology for the software life cycle process of the safety software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. H.; Lee, S. S. [BNF Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, K. H.; Lee, C. S.; Kwon, K. C.; Han, H. B. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    A methodology for developing software life cycle processes (SLCP) is proposed to develop the digital safety-critical Engineered Safety Features - Component Control System (ESF-CCS) successfully. A software life cycle model is selected as the hybrid model mixed with waterfall, prototyping, and spiral models and is composed of two stages , development stages of prototype of ESF-CCS and ESF-CCS. To produce the software life cycle (SLC) for the Development of the Digital Reactor Safety System, the Activities referenced in IEEE Std. 1074-1997 are mapped onto the hybrid model. The SLCP is established after the available OPAs (Organizational Process Asset) are applied to the SLC Activities, and the known constraints are reconciled. The established SLCP describes well the software life cycle activities with which the Regulatory Authority provides.

  19. Safety measures for integrity test apparatus for IS process. Sulfuric acid decomposition section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroki; Kubo, Shinji; Iwatsuki, Jin; Onuki, Kaoru

    2013-07-01

    Hazardous substances such as sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen iodide acid are employed in thermochemical Iodine-Sulfur (IS) process. It is necessary to take safety measure against workers and external environments to study experimentally on IS process. Presently we have been conducting to verify the soundness of main components made of engineering material in actual corrosive condition. An integrity test apparatus for the components of sulfuric acid decomposition was set up. We will use the hazardous substances such as sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide and perform the experiment in pressurized condition in this integrity test. Safety measures for the test apparatus, operation and abnormal situation were considered prior to starting the test. This report summarized the consideration results for the safety measures on the integrity test apparatus for the components of sulfuric acid decomposition. (author)

  20. A holistic approach to control process safety risks: Possible ways forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasman, H.J.; Knegtering, B.; Rogers, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Pursuing process safety in a world of continuously increasing requirements is not a simple matter. Keeping balance between producing quality and volume under budget constraints while maintaining an adequate safety level proves time and time again a difficult task given that evidently major accidents cannot be avoided. Lack of resilience from an organizational point of view to absorb unwanted and unforeseen disturbances has in recent years been put forward as a major cause, while organizational erosive drift is shown to be responsible for complacency and degradation of safety attitude. A systems approach to safety provides a new paradigm with the promise of new comprehensive tools. At the same time, one realizes that risk assessment will fall short of identifying and quantifying all possible scenarios. First, human error is in most assessments not included. It is even argued that determining human failure probability by decomposing it to basic elements of error is not possible. Second, the crux of the systemic approach is that safety is an emergent property, which means the same holds for the technological aspect: risk is not fully predictable from failure of components. By surveying and applying recent literature, besides analysing, this paper proposes a way forward by considering resilience of a socio-technical system both from an organizational and a technical side. The latter will for a large part be determined by the plant design. Sufficient redundancy and reserve shall be kept to preserve sufficient resilience, but the question that rises is how. Available methods are risk assessment and process simulation. It is helpful that the relation between risk and resilience analysis has been recently defined. Also, in a preliminary study the elements of resilience of a process have become listed. In the latter, receiving and interpreting weak signals to boost situational awareness plays an important role. To maintain alertness on the functioning of a safety management

  1. How important is vehicle safety for older consumers in the vehicle purchase process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Sjaan; Clark, Belinda; Hoareau, Effie; Charlton, Judith L; Newstead, Stuart V

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the importance of vehicle safety to older consumers in the vehicle purchase process. Older (n = 102), middle-aged (n = 791), and younger (n = 109) participants throughout the eastern Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales, and Queensland who had recently purchased a new or used vehicle completed an online questionnaire about their vehicle purchase process. When asked to list the 3 most important considerations in the vehicle purchase process (in an open-ended format), older consumers were mostly likely to list price as their most important consideration (43%). Similarly, when presented with a list of vehicle factors (such as price, design, Australasian New Car Assessment Program [ANCAP] rating), older consumers were most likely to identify price as the most important vehicle factor (36%). When presented with a list of vehicle features (such as automatic transmission, braking, air bags), older consumers in the current study were most likely to identify an antilock braking system (41%) as the most important vehicle feature, and 50 percent of older consumers identified a safety-related vehicle feature as the highest priority vehicle feature (50%). When asked to list up to 3 factors that make a vehicle safe, older consumers in the current study were most likely to list braking systems (35%), air bags (22%), and the driver's behavior or skill (11%). When asked about the influence of safety in the new vehicle purchase process, one third of older consumers reported that all new vehicles are safe (33%) and almost half of the older consumers rated their vehicle as safer than average (49%). A logistic regression model was developed to predict the profile of older consumers more likely to assign a higher priority to safety features in the vehicle purchasing process. The model predicted that the importance of safety-related features was influenced by several variables, including older consumers' beliefs that they could protect themselves

  2. Risk-based decision making for terrorism applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Robin L; Liebe, Robert M; Bestafka, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the anti-terrorism risk-based decision aid (ARDA), a risk-based decision-making approach for prioritizing anti-terrorism measures. The ARDA model was developed as part of a larger effort to assess investments for protecting U.S. Navy assets at risk and determine whether the most effective anti-terrorism alternatives are being used to reduce the risk to the facilities and war-fighting assets. With ARDA and some support from subject matter experts, we examine thousands of scenarios composed of 15 attack modes against 160 facility types on two installations and hundreds of portfolios of 22 mitigation alternatives. ARDA uses multiattribute utility theory to solve some of the commonly identified challenges in security risk analysis. This article describes the process and documents lessons learned from applying the ARDA model for this application.

  3. An Analysis of Trainers' Perspectives within an Ecological Framework: Factors that Influence Mine Safety Training Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Emily J; Hoebbel, Cassandra L; Rost, Kristen A

    2014-09-01

    Satisfactory completion of mine safety training is a prerequisite for being hired and for continued employment in the coal industry. Although training includes content to develop skills in a variety of mineworker competencies, research and recommendations continue to specify that specific limitations in the self-escape portion of training still exist and that mineworkers need to be better prepared to respond to emergencies that could occur in their mine. Ecological models are often used to inform the development of health promotion programs but have not been widely applied to occupational health and safety training programs. Nine mine safety trainers participated in in-depth semi-structured interviews. A theoretical analysis of the interviews was completed via an ecological lens. Each level of the social ecological model was used to examine factors that could be addressed both during and after mine safety training. The analysis suggests that problems surrounding communication and collaboration, leadership development, and responsibility and accountability at different levels within the mining industry contribute to deficiencies in mineworkers' mastery and maintenance of skills. This study offers a new technique to identify limitations in safety training systems and processes. The analysis suggests that training should be developed and disseminated with consideration of various levels-individual, interpersonal, organizational, and community-to promote skills. If factors identified within and between levels are addressed, it may be easier to sustain mineworker competencies that are established during safety training.

  4. Development of safety analysis and constraint detection techniques for process interaction errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Tseng, Wan-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Among the new failure modes introduced by computer into safety systems, the process interaction error is the most unpredictable and complicated failure mode, which may cause disastrous consequences. This paper presents safety analysis and constraint detection techniques for process interaction errors among hardware, software, and human processes. Among interaction errors, the most dreadful ones are those that involve run-time misinterpretation from a logic process. We call them the 'semantic interaction errors'. Such abnormal interaction is not adequately emphasized in current research. In our static analysis, we provide a fault tree template focusing on semantic interaction errors by checking conflicting pre-conditions and post-conditions among interacting processes. Thus, far-fetched, but highly risky, interaction scenarios involve interpretation errors can be identified. For run-time monitoring, a range of constraint types is proposed for checking abnormal signs at run time. We extend current constraints to a broader relational level and a global level, considering process/device dependencies and physical conservation rules in order to detect process interaction errors. The proposed techniques can reduce abnormal interactions; they can also be used to assist in safety-case construction.

  5. Development of safety analysis and constraint detection techniques for process interaction errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Chin-Feng, E-mail: csfanc@saturn.yzu.edu.tw [Computer Science and Engineering Dept., Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Lin; Tseng, Wan-Hui [Computer Science and Engineering Dept., Yuan-Ze University, Taiwan (China)

    2011-02-15

    Among the new failure modes introduced by computer into safety systems, the process interaction error is the most unpredictable and complicated failure mode, which may cause disastrous consequences. This paper presents safety analysis and constraint detection techniques for process interaction errors among hardware, software, and human processes. Among interaction errors, the most dreadful ones are those that involve run-time misinterpretation from a logic process. We call them the 'semantic interaction errors'. Such abnormal interaction is not adequately emphasized in current research. In our static analysis, we provide a fault tree template focusing on semantic interaction errors by checking conflicting pre-conditions and post-conditions among interacting processes. Thus, far-fetched, but highly risky, interaction scenarios involve interpretation errors can be identified. For run-time monitoring, a range of constraint types is proposed for checking abnormal signs at run time. We extend current constraints to a broader relational level and a global level, considering process/device dependencies and physical conservation rules in order to detect process interaction errors. The proposed techniques can reduce abnormal interactions; they can also be used to assist in safety-case construction.

  6. Ethical issues in engineering design processes ; regulative frameworks for safety and sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorp, A. van

    2007-01-01

    The ways designers deal with ethical issues that arise in their consideration of safety and sustainability in engineering design processes are described. In the case studies, upon which this article is based, a difference can be seen between normal and radical design. Designers refer to regulative

  7. Safety assessment for the IS process in a hydrogen production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam Chul

    2005-08-01

    A substitute energy development have been required due to the dry up of the fossil fuel and an environmental problem. Consequently, among substitute energy to be discussed, producing hydrogen from water which does not release carbon is a very promising technology. Also, Iodine-Sulfur(IS) thermochemical water decomposition is one of the promising process which is used to produce hydrogen efficiently using the high temperature gas-cooled reactor(HTGR) as an energy source that is possible to supply heat over 1000 .deg. C. In this study, to make a safety assessment of the hydrogen production using the IS process, an initiating events analysis and an accident scenario modeling considering the relief system were carried out. A method for initiating event identification used the Master Logic Diagram(MLD) that is logical and deductive. As a result, 9 initiating events that cause a leakage of the chemical material were identified. 6 accident scenario based on the initiating event are identified and quantified to the event trees. The frequency of the chemical material leakage produced by IS process is estimated relatively high to the value of 1.22x10 -4 /y. Therefore, it requires more effort on safety of the hydrogen production which can be considered as a part of the nuclear system and safety management research to increase social acceptability. Moreover, these methods will be helpful to the safety assessment of the hydrogen production system of the IS process in general

  8. Conservation of Life as a Unifying Theme for Process Safety in Chemical Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, James A.; Davis, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of "conservation of life" as a concept and unifying theme for increasing awareness, application, and integration of process safety in chemical engineering education. Students need to think of conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and conservation of life as equally important in engineering design and analysis.…

  9. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  10. Progress and safety aspects in process heat utilization from nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1995-01-01

    Report about the Status and the Progress in the Various Programs and Projects in the Federal Republic of Germany in Process Heat Utilization from the High Temperature Reactor and on Recent Changes of the Atomic Law in the Federal Republic of Germany with Big Influence on the Safety of Nuclear Energy Technology. (author)

  11. Buffer, backfill and closure process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellin, Patrik

    2010-11-01

    This report gives an account of how processes in buffer, deposition tunnel backfill and the closure important for the long-term evolution of a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel, will be documented in the safety assessment SR-Site

  12. Validation of a functional model for integration of safety into process system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, J.; Lind, M.; Zhang, X.

    2015-01-01

    with the process system functionalities as required for the intended safety applications. To provide the scientific rigor and facilitate the acceptance of qualitative modelling, this contribution focuses on developing a scientifically based validation method for functional models. The Multilevel Flow Modeling (MFM...

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes of Produce and Seafood Processors and Food Safety Educators Regarding Nonthermal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Richard, Nicole L.; Gable, Robert K.; Worobo, Randy W.

    2016-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was designed and administered to measure knowledge of and attitudes toward food safety impacts of nonthermal processing technologies of shellfish and produce industry personnel and extension educators. An online survey was sent via e-mail notification with the survey link through professional listserves. The survey…

  14. Preliminary Evaluation of an Aviation Safety Thesaurus' Utility for Enhancing Automated Processing of Incident Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Francesca; Castle, Joseph; McIntosh, Dawn; Srivastava, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    This document presents a preliminary evaluation the utility of the FAA Safety Analytics Thesaurus (SAT) utility in enhancing automated document processing applications under development at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). Current development efforts at ARC are described, including overviews of the statistical machine learning techniques that have been investigated. An analysis of opportunities for applying thesaurus knowledge to improving algorithm performance is then presented.

  15. Safety and environmental process for the design and construction of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brereton, S.J., LLNL

    1998-05-27

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) laser fusion experimental facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This paper describes the safety and environmental processes followed by NIF during the design and construction activities.

  16. 78 FR 47012 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... for quality assurance programs in Appendix B to 10 CFR Part 50 as they apply to software development... is one of six RG revisions addressing computer software development and use in safety related systems... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0195] Developing Software Life Cycle Processes Used in...

  17. Seafood research from fish to dish : quality, safety and processing of wild and farmed fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this book, scientists from various disciplines address the advances in seafood research with respect to quality, safety, consumer’s demands and processing of wild and farmed fish. The nutritional properties of marine lipids and lipid oxidation from model systems to seafood are presented. Several

  18. Buffer, backfill and closure process report for the safety assessment SR-Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellin, Patrik (ed.)

    2010-11-15

    This report gives an account of how processes in buffer, deposition tunnel backfill and the closure important for the long-term evolution of a KBS-3 repository for spent nuclear fuel, will be documented in the safety assessment SR-Site

  19. Safety assessment in development and operation of modular continuous-flow processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockmann, N.; Thenée, P.; Fleischer-Trebes, C.; Laudadio, G.; Noël, T.

    2017-01-01

    Improved safety is one of the main drivers for microreactor application in chemical process development and small-scale production. Typical examples of hazardous chemistry are presented indicating potential risks also in miniaturized equipment. Energy balance and kinetic parameters describe the heat

  20. Feasibility assessment of a risk-based approach to technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atefi, B.; Gallagher, D.W.

    1991-05-01

    To assess the potential use of risk and reliability techniques for improving the effectiveness of the technical specifications to control plant operational risk, the Technical Specifications Branch of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated an effort to identify and evaluate alternative risk-based approaches that could bring greater risk perspective to these requirements. In the first phase four alternative approaches were identified and their characteristics were analyzed. Among these, the risk-based approach to technical specifications is the most promising approach for controlling plant operational risk using technical specifications. The second phase of the study concentrated on detailed characteristics of the real time risk-based approach. It is concluded that a real time risk-based approach to technical specifications has the potential to improve both plant safety and availability. 33 figs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Improved safety culture and labor-management relations attributed to changing at-risk behavior process at Union Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Changing At-Risk Behavior (CAB) is a safety process that is being conducted at Union Pacifics San Antonio Service Unit (SASU) with the aim of improving road and yard safety. CAB is an example of a proactive safety risk-reduction method called Clea...

  2. Safety conditions and native microbial flora of three processing units in Alentejo , Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Laranjo, Marta; Potes, M.E; Elias, M.

    2014-01-01

    Portugal as other Mediterranean countries has a great diversity of dry fermented sausages. This traditional sausage production is highly diverse and products possess very particular organoleptic characteristics, which please consumers. These sensory characteristics are related not only to the manufacturing process, but also to the house microbial flora. On the other hand, the safety of fermented products is always difficult to achieve due to their processing technology and final characteristi...

  3. 13 CFR 120.1000 - Risk-Based Lender Oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Lender Oversight. 120.1000 Section 120.1000 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1000 Risk-Based Lender Oversight. (a) Risk-Based Lender...

  4. Nuclear criticality safety analysis summary report: The S-area defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The S-Area Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) can process all of the high level radioactive wastes currently stored at the Savannah River Site with negligible risk of nuclear criticality. The characteristics which make the DWPF critically safe are: (1) abundance of neutron absorbers in the waste feeds; (2) and low concentration of fissionable material. This report documents the criticality safety arguments for the S-Area DWPF process as required by DOE orders to characterize and to justify the low potential for criticality. It documents that the nature of the waste feeds and the nature of the DWPF process chemistry preclude criticality

  5. Development of new risk based regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, L.

    1999-01-01

    A short presentation of the oil and gas industry in Norway, and a brief overview of the regulatory regime in the petroleum sector in Norway is given. Risk analysis has been performed in Norway since 1981 and the various applications will be described. These risk analyses are quite different from a nuclear PSA and some of these differences will be commented. Risk based optimisation techniques such as RCM (Reliability Centred Maintenance) and Risk Based Inspection is used in the industry, with very limited support from the risk analysis. Some of the limitation that exist when such techniques are imported from other industries will be commented on. NPD (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) is revising our regulations and some of the future plants when it comes to risk informed regulatory requirements will be presented. (au)

  6. Secure Software Configuration Management Processes for nuclear safety software development environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, I.-Hsin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The proposed method emphasizes platform-independent security processes. → A hybrid process based on the nuclear SCM and security regulations is proposed. → Detailed descriptions and Process Flow Diagram are useful for software developers. - Abstract: The main difference between nuclear and generic software is that the risk factor is infinitely greater in nuclear software - if there is a malfunction in the safety system, it can result in significant economic loss, physical damage or threat to human life. However, secure software development environment have often been ignored in the nuclear industry. In response to the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) revised the Regulatory Guide (RG 1.152-2006) 'Criteria for use of computers in safety systems of nuclear power plants' to provide specific security guidance throughout the software development life cycle. Software Configuration Management (SCM) is an essential discipline in the software development environment. SCM involves identifying configuration items, controlling changes to those items, and maintaining integrity and traceability of them. For securing the nuclear safety software, this paper proposes a Secure SCM Processes (S 2 CMP) which infuses regulatory security requirements into proposed SCM processes. Furthermore, a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) is adopted to describe S 2 CMP, which is intended to enhance the communication between regulators and developers.

  7. Leading safety performance indicators for resilience assessment of radiopharmaceuticals production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.b, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.b, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana; Vidal, Mario C.R., E-mail: mvidal@ergonomia.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEP/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia de Producao. Grupo de Ergonomia e Novas Tecnologias (GENTE)

    2011-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluorodeoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuro psychiatry. This paper presents a leading safety performance indicators framework to assess the resilience of radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The organizations that use resilience indicators will be able to pro actively evaluate and manage safety. (author)

  8. Leading safety performance indicators for resilience assessment of radiopharmaceuticals production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.

    2011-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are radiation-emitting substances used in medicine for radiotherapy and imaging diagnosis. A Research Institute, located in Rio de Janeiro, produces three radiopharmaceuticals: the sodium iodate is used in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunctions, the meta-iodo-benzyl guanidine is used in the diagnosis of cardiac diseases, and the fluorodeoxyglucose is used in diagnosis in cardiology, oncology, neurology and neuro psychiatry. This paper presents a leading safety performance indicators framework to assess the resilience of radiopharmaceuticals production processes. The organizations that use resilience indicators will be able to pro actively evaluate and manage safety. (author)

  9. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  10. Cost-Efficient Methods and Processes for Safety Relevant Embedded Systems (CESAR) - An Objective Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Graham

    For developing embedded safety critical systems, industrial companies have to face increasing complexity and variety coupled with increasing regulatory constraints, while costs, performances and time to market are constantly challenged. This has led to a profusion of enablers (new processes, methods and tools), which are neither integrated nor interoperable because they have been developed more or less independently (addressing only a part of the complexity: e.g. Safety) in the absence of internationally recognized open standards. CESAR has been established under ARTEMIS, the European Union's Joint Technology Initiative for research in embedded systems, with the aim to improve this situation and this pa-per will explain what CESAR's objectives are, how they are expected to be achieved and, in particular, how current best practice can ensure that safety engineering requirements can be met.

  11. Use of Foodomics for Control of Food Processing and Assessing of Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josić, D; Peršurić, Ž; Rešetar, D; Martinović, T; Saftić, L; Kraljević Pavelić, S

    Food chain, food safety, and food-processing sectors face new challenges due to globalization of food chain and changes in the modern consumer preferences. In addition, gradually increasing microbial resistance, changes in climate, and human errors in food handling remain a pending barrier for the efficient global food safety management. Consequently, a need for development, validation, and implementation of rapid, sensitive, and accurate methods for assessment of food safety often termed as foodomics methods is required. Even though, the growing role of these high-throughput foodomic methods based on genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic techniques has yet to be completely acknowledged by the regulatory agencies and bodies. The sensitivity and accuracy of these methods are superior to previously used standard analytical procedures and new methods are suitable to address a number of novel requirements posed by the food production sector and global food market. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk assessment by the occupational safety and health at work in the process of geological exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staletović Novica M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of risk assessment in terms of safety and health at work in the process of geological work/ drilling. Optimization model estimates OH & S risk for work place qualified driller, is in line with the provisions of the Mining and Geological exploration, the Law on Safety and Health at Work, the application of the requirements of ISO 31000 and criteria Kinny methods. Model estimates OH & S risks is the basis for the development and implementation of the management system of protection of health and safety at work according to BS OHSAS 18001: 2008 model is applied, checked and verified the approved exploration areas during execution and supervision applied geological exploration (of metals on the territory of the Republic of Serbia.

  13. Recognising safety critical events: can automatic video processing improve naturalistic data analyses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozza, Marco; González, Nieves Pañeda

    2013-11-01

    New trends in research on traffic accidents include Naturalistic Driving Studies (NDS). NDS are based on large scale data collection of driver, vehicle, and environment information in real world. NDS data sets have proven to be extremely valuable for the analysis of safety critical events such as crashes and near crashes. However, finding safety critical events in NDS data is often difficult and time consuming. Safety critical events are currently identified using kinematic triggers, for instance searching for deceleration below a certain threshold signifying harsh braking. Due to the low sensitivity and specificity of this filtering procedure, manual review of video data is currently necessary to decide whether the events identified by the triggers are actually safety critical. Such reviewing procedure is based on subjective decisions, is expensive and time consuming, and often tedious for the analysts. Furthermore, since NDS data is exponentially growing over time, this reviewing procedure may not be viable anymore in the very near future. This study tested the hypothesis that automatic processing of driver video information could increase the correct classification of safety critical events from kinematic triggers in naturalistic driving data. Review of about 400 video sequences recorded from the events, collected by 100 Volvo cars in the euroFOT project, suggested that drivers' individual reaction may be the key to recognize safety critical events. In fact, whether an event is safety critical or not often depends on the individual driver. A few algorithms, able to automatically classify driver reaction from video data, have been compared. The results presented in this paper show that the state of the art subjective review procedures to identify safety critical events from NDS can benefit from automated objective video processing. In addition, this paper discusses the major challenges in making such video analysis viable for future NDS and new potential

  14. Research and design of hanger and support series of nuclear safety class process piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Chengzhang; Shi Jiemin

    1995-12-01

    Hangers and supports of nuclear safety class piping are an important part of primary system piping in a nuclear power plant. They will directly affect the reliability of operation, the period at construction and the investment for a nuclear power plant. It is an absolutely necessary job for Pakistan Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Project to research and design a series of piping supports in accordance with ASME-III NF. It is also an important designing for developing nuclear power plant later in China. After working over two years, a series of piping supports of nuclear safety class which have 57 types and more than 2460 specifications have been designed. This series is perfect, and can satisfy the requirements of piping final designing for nuclear power plant. This series of hangers and supports is mainly used in the process piping of nuclear safety class 1,2,3. They can also be used in other piping of nuclear safety class and piping with aseismic requirement of non-nuclear safety class

  15. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.; Vesely, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective test and maintenance practices that control risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety

  16. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective tests and maintenance practices that control; risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Study of operational risk-based configuration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W E [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States); Samanta, P K; Kim, I S [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report studies aspects of a risk-based configuration control system to detect and control plant configurations from a risk perspective. Configuration control, as the term is used here, is the management of component configurations to achieve specific objectives. One important objective is to control risk and safety. Another is to operate efficiently and make effective use of available resources. PSA-based evaluations are performed to study configuration to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability for two plants. Some equipment configurations can cause large core-melt frequency and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. The insights from this evaluation are used to develop the framework for an effective risk-based configuration control system. The focal points of such a system and the requirements for tools development for implementing the system are defined. The requirements of risk models needed for the system, and the uses of plant-specific data are also discussed. 18 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  19. Food Safety Impacts from Post-Harvest Processing Procedures of Molluscan Shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, George L

    2016-04-18

    Post-harvest Processing (PHP) methods are viable food processing methods employed to reduce human pathogens in molluscan shellfish that would normally be consumed raw, such as raw oysters on the half-shell. Efficacy of human pathogen reduction associated with PHP varies with respect to time, temperature, salinity, pressure, and process exposure. Regulatory requirements and PHP molluscan shellfish quality implications are major considerations for PHP usage. Food safety impacts associated with PHP of molluscan shellfish vary in their efficacy and may have synergistic outcomes when combined. Further research for many PHP methods are necessary and emerging PHP methods that result in minimal quality loss and effective human pathogen reduction should be explored.

  20. Risk based regulation: a convenient concept for legislation and regulation in the field of technical risks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Legislation and regulation concerning risk activities are traditionally based on deterministic safety measures. This may lead to inefficient results: sometimes the law requires safety measures which are - from an economic viewpoint - not justified because of their poor cost-effectiveness; sometimes it does not require safety measures although they would be very efficient. The risk based regulation approach wants to make the law more efficient and to get more safety at less costs. Legislation and regulation should be based on terms of risk rather than on deterministic rules. Risk should be expressed in quantitative terms and risk regulation should be based on the cost-effectiveness of safety measures. Thus a most efficient (in the sense of the economic analysis of the law) strategy for safety and environmental law could be established. The approach is economically reasonable and theoretically convincing. Its practical implementation however raises a lot of technical and legal questions. The project 'Risk Based Regulation' (1996-1999), sponsored by the Swiss National Fund for Scientific Research, intends to evaluate the practical feasibility of the approach from a technical and a legal view. It contains a general part which describes the risk based regulation approach and its legal and technical questions, case studies which try to practically implement the risk based regulation approach; the case studies are: storage and management of explosives in the army, storage and management of explosives for non-military purposes, safety at work, accident prevention in the non-professional field (mainly road accidents), fire protection, transportation of dangerous goods, waste disposal: traditional waste, waste disposal: radioactive waste, nuclear energy (reactor safety), a synthesis with recommendations for the future legislation and regulation in the field of technical risks. The paper presents the project and its preliminary results. (author)

  1. Wireless Sensing Based on RFID and Capacitive Technologies for Safety in Marble Industry Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Iacopetti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents wireless sensing systems to increase safety and robustness in industrial process control, particularly in industrial machines for marble slab working. The process is performed by abrasive or cutting heads activated independently by the machine controller when the slab, transported on a conveyer belt, is under them. Current slab detection systems are based on electromechanical or optical devices at the machine entrance stage, suffering from deterioration and from the harsh environment. Slab displacement or break inside the machine due to the working stress may result in safety issues and damages to the conveyer belt due to incorrect driving of the working tools. The experimented contactless sensing techniques are based on four RFID and two capacitive sensing technologies and on customized hardware/software. The proposed solutions aim at overcoming some limitations of current state-of-the-art detection systems, allowing for reliable slab detection, outside and/or inside the machine, while maintaining low complexity and at the same time robustness to industrial harsh conditions. The proposed sensing devices may implement a wireless or wired sensor network feeding detection data to the machine controller. Data integrity check and process control algorithms have to be implemented for the safety and reliability of the overall industrial process.

  2. Does compliance to patient safety tasks improve and sustain when radiotherapy treatment processes are standardized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Pascale A M; Houben, Ruud; Benders, Jos; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Vandijck, Dominique; Marneffe, Wim; Backes, Huub; Groothuis, Siebren

    2014-10-01

    To realize safe radiotherapy treatment, processes must be stabilized. Standard operating procedures (SOP's) were expected to stabilize the treatment process and perceived task importance would increase sustainability in compliance. This paper presents the effects on compliance to safety related tasks of a process redesign based on lean principles. Compliance to patient safety tasks was measured by video recording of actual radiation treatment, before (T0), directly after (T1) and 1.5 years after (T2) a process redesign. Additionally, technologists were surveyed on perceived task importance and reported incidents were collected for three half-year periods between 2007 and 2009. Compliance to four out of eleven tasks increased at T1, of which improvements on three sustained (T2). Perceived importance of tasks strongly correlated (0.82) to compliance rates at T2. The two tasks, perceived as least important, presented low base-line compliance, improved (T1), but relapsed at T2. The reported near misses (patient-level not reached) on accelerators increased (P improvements sustained after 1.5 years, indicating increased stability. Perceived importance of tasks correlated positively to compliance and sustainability. Raising the perception of task importance is thus crucial to increase compliance. The redesign resulted in increased willingness to report incidents, creating opportunities for patient safety improvement in radiotherapy treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Processes and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matt R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station Program at NASA is constantly seeking to improve the processes and systems that support safe space operations. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with 3 goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data; and increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes. These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based structured data system that includes strong process support and supports integration with other information systems. Along with the data systems, ISS is evolving its submission requirements and safety process requirements to support the improved model. In contrast to existing operations (where paper processes and electronic file repositories are used for safety data management) the web-based solution provides the program with dramatically faster access to records, the ability to search for and reference specific data within records, reduced workload for hazard updates and approval, and process support including digital signatures and controlled record workflow. In addition, integration with other key data systems provides assistance with assessments of flight readiness, more efficient review and approval of operational controls and better tracking of international safety certifications. This approach will also provide new opportunities to streamline the sharing of data with ISS international partners while maintaining compliance with applicable laws and respecting restrictions on proprietary data. One goal of this paper is to outline the approach taken by the ISS Progrm to determine requirements for the new system and to devise a practical and efficient implementation strategy. From conception through implementation, ISS and NASA partners utilized a user-centered software development approach focused on user research and iterative design methods. The user-centered approach used on

  4. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  5. Measuring safety in aviation : empirical results about the relation between safety outcomes and safety management system processes, operational activities and demographic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, Steffen; Karanikas, Nektarios; Piric, Selma; van Aalst, Robbert; de Boer, Robert Jan; Roelen, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    A literature review conducted as part of a research project named “Measuring Safety in Aviation – Developing Metrics for Safety Management Systems” revealed several challenges regarding the safety metrics used in aviation. One of the conclusions was that there is limited empirical evidence about the

  6. Implementing and measuring safety goals and safety culture. 3. Shifting to a Coaching Culture Through a 360-Degree Assessment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, Bruce A.; Maciuska, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Error-free operation is the ultimate objective of any safety culture. Ginna Training and Operations has embarked on an approach directed at further developing coaching skills, attitudes, and values. To accomplish this, a 360-deg assessment process designed to enhance coaching skills, attitudes, and values has been implemented. The process includes measuring participants based on a set of values and an individual self-development plan based on the feedback from the 360-deg assessment. The skills and experience of the people who make up that culture are irreplaceable. As nuclear organizations mature and generations retire, knowledge and skills must be transferred to the incoming generations without a loss in performance. The application of a 360- deg assessment process can shift the culture to include coaching in a strong command and control environment. It is a process of change management strengthened by experience while meeting the challenge to improve human performance by changing workplace attitudes. At Ginna, training programs and new processes were initiated to pursue the ultimate objective: error-free operation. The overall objective of the programs is to create a common knowledge base and the skill required to consistently incorporate ownership of 'coach and collaborate' responsibility into a strong existing 'command and control' culture. This involves the role of coach; the role of communications; and concept integration, which includes communications, coaching, and team dimensional training (TDT). The overall objective of the processes, TDT and shifting to a coaching culture through the application of a 360-deg assessment process, is to provide guidance for applying the skills learned in the programs. As depicted in Fig. 1, the TDT (a process that identifies 'strengths and challenges') can be greatly improved by applying good communications and coaching practices. As the training programs were implemented, the participants were observed and coached in

  7. Aspects of radiation safety in the tin mining and processing industries in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, M S

    1987-04-01

    This study was undertaken at the request of the Malaysian nuclear regulatory authorities with the following objectives: to examine the individual steps in the mining, beneficiation, by-product treatment and smelting of tin-bearing minerals so as to highlight possible radiation safety effects and radiological environmental impacts; to make preliminary measurements on operations which are representative of the various steps in the processing of these minerals so as to determine the type and extent of future radiological survey programs; to examine the need for specific measurement techniques with a view to determining future training requirements. A representative operation of each of the steps in the tin mining and processing industry was visited, measurements were made and samples were collected to assess both the in-plant safety and offsite environmental effects of the operation. The results of measurements of gamma dose-rates, radon daughters-in-air, thoron daughters-in-air and radioactive respirable dusts are presented.

  8. Guidelines regarding the review process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  9. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views.

  10. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views. [fr

  11. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views [fr

  12. Guidelines regarding the review process under the convention on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  13. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  14. Guidelines regarding the review process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of national reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views

  15. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    These guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views [es

  16. Guidelines regarding the Review Process under the Convention on Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    These Guidelines, established by the Contracting Parties pursuant to Article 22 of the Convention, are intended to be read in conjunction with the text of the Convention. Their purpose is to provide guidance to the Contracting Parties on the process for reviewing National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention and thereby to facilitate the efficient review of implementation by the Contracting Parties of their obligations under the Convention. The aim of the review process should be to achieve a thorough examination of National Reports submitted in accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, so that Contracting Parties can learn from each other's solutions to common and individual nuclear safety problems and, above all, contribute to improving nuclear safety worldwide through a constructive exchange of views. [es

  17. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Velthuis, A G J

    2014-02-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process standards. To select farms for an audit that present higher risks, a statistical analysis was conducted to test the relationship between the outcome of farm audits and bulk milk laboratory results before the audit. The analysis comprised 28,358 farm audits and all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. The overall outcome of each farm audit was classified as approved or rejected. Laboratory results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acids (FFA), and cleanliness of the milk (CLN). The bulk milk laboratory results were significantly related to audit outcomes. Rejected audits are likely to occur on dairy farms with higher mean levels of SCC, TBC, ADR, and BAB. Moreover, in a multivariable model, maxima for TBC, SCC, and FPD as well as standard deviations for TBC and FPD are risk factors for negative audit outcomes. The efficiency curve of a risk-based selection approach, on the basis of the derived regression results, dominated the current random selection approach. To capture 25, 50, or 75% of the population with poor process standards (i.e., audit outcome of rejected), respectively, only 8, 20, or 47% of the population had to be sampled based on a risk-based selection approach. Milk quality information can thus be used to preselect high-risk farms to be audited more frequently. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bayesian risk-based acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.; Abramson, L.R.; Johnson, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Mechanistic (or deterministic) analysis is traditionally performed in the process of designing a new nuclear reactor or reactor core and also as part of the safety analysis of existing reactors or reload cores. Mechanistic accident analysis is characterized by the specification of an initial operating condition, an initiating event, and subsequent system faults. These subsequent faults are often chosen, through such mechanisms as the worst single failure criterion, so as to maximize the consequences of the accident. Thus, the behavior of all reactor system hardware is prescribed before this analysis begins. Mechanistic analysis then attempts to predict the dynamic response of the system and usually involves detailed reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic predictions of the system behavior, including such parameters as power distributions in the reactor core, coolant temperatures and flow rates, and fuel clad temperature distributions. The objective of this analysis has typically been to establish and verify reactor operating limits and technical specifications, so that severe core damage (SCD) is prevented for a wide variety of reactor accidents

  19. The Making of discussion groups in a combined process of internal evaluation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, S.; Buedo, J. L.; La Salabarnada, E.; Navajas, J.; Silla, I.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the design and evaluation of safety culture conducted in the Cofrentes nuclear plant. The process has combined the use of different methodologies and techniques and has allowed the participation of different internal and external stake holders. For internal assessment discussion groups were conducted. These groups, which were designed and analyzed by the CIEMAT, were led by employees from different levels of Cofrentes.

  20. MO-E-9A-01: Risk Based Quality Management: TG100 In Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huq, M [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Palta, J [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Dunscombe, P [Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, AB (Canada); Thomadsen, B [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-06-15

    One of the goals of quality management in radiation therapy is to gain high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. To accomplish these goals professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has published many quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and quality management (QM) guidance documents. In general, the recommendations provided in these documents have emphasized on performing device-specific QA at the expense of process flow and protection of the patient against catastrophic errors. Analyses of radiation therapy incidents find that they are most often caused by flaws in the overall therapy process, from initial consult through final treatment, than by isolated hardware or computer failures detectable by traditional physics QA. This challenge is shared by many intrinsically hazardous industries. Risk assessment tools and analysis techniques have been developed to define, identify, and eliminate known and/or potential failures, problems, or errors, from a system, process and/or service before they reach the customer. These include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and establishment of a quality management program that best avoids the faults and risks that have been identified in the overall process. These tools can be easily adapted to radiation therapy practices because of their simplicity and effectiveness to provide efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of treatment processes. Task group 100 (TG100) of AAPM has developed a risk-based quality management program that uses these tools. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based QM program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process. Learn how to perform a FMEA analysis for a given process. Learn what

  1. MO-E-9A-01: Risk Based Quality Management: TG100 In Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M; Palta, J; Dunscombe, P; Thomadsen, B

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of quality management in radiation therapy is to gain high confidence that patients will receive the prescribed treatment correctly. To accomplish these goals professional societies such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) has published many quality assurance (QA), quality control (QC), and quality management (QM) guidance documents. In general, the recommendations provided in these documents have emphasized on performing device-specific QA at the expense of process flow and protection of the patient against catastrophic errors. Analyses of radiation therapy incidents find that they are most often caused by flaws in the overall therapy process, from initial consult through final treatment, than by isolated hardware or computer failures detectable by traditional physics QA. This challenge is shared by many intrinsically hazardous industries. Risk assessment tools and analysis techniques have been developed to define, identify, and eliminate known and/or potential failures, problems, or errors, from a system, process and/or service before they reach the customer. These include, but are not limited to, process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), fault tree analysis (FTA), and establishment of a quality management program that best avoids the faults and risks that have been identified in the overall process. These tools can be easily adapted to radiation therapy practices because of their simplicity and effectiveness to provide efficient ways to enhance the safety and quality of treatment processes. Task group 100 (TG100) of AAPM has developed a risk-based quality management program that uses these tools. This session will be devoted to a discussion of these tools and how these tools can be used in a given radiotherapy clinic to develop a risk based QM program. Learning Objectives: Learn how to design a process map for a radiotherapy process. Learn how to perform a FMEA analysis for a given process. Learn what

  2. Risk-based remediation: Approach and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Benson, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The principle objective of remedial actions is to protect human health and the environment. Risk assessments are the only defensible tools available to demonstrate to the regulatory community and public that this objective can be achieved. Understanding the actual risks posed by site-related contamination is crucial to designing cost-effective remedial strategies. All to often remedial actions are overdesigned, resulting in little to no increase in risk reduction while increasing project cost. Risk-based remedial actions have recently been embraced by federal and state regulators, industry, government, the scientific community, and the public as a mechanism to implement rapid and cost-effective remedial actions. Emphasizing risk reduction, rather than adherence to ambiguous and generic standards, ensures that only remedial actions required to protect human health and the environment at a particular site are implemented. Two sites are presented as case studies on how risk-based approaches are being used to remediate two petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The sites are located at two US Air Force Bases, Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) in Oscoda, Michigan and Malmstrom AFB in Great Falls, Montana

  3. Nuclear insurance risk assessment using risk-based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents American Nuclear Insurers' (ANI's) and Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters' (MAELU's) process and experience for conducting nuclear insurance risk assessments using a risk-based methodology. The process is primarily qualitative and uses traditional insurance risk assessment methods and an approach developed under the auspices of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in which ANI/MAELU is an active sponsor. This process assists ANI's technical resources in identifying where to look for insurance risk in an industry in which insurance exposure tends to be dynamic and nonactuarial. The process is an evolving one that also seeks to minimize the impact on insureds while maintaining a mutually agreeable risk tolerance

  4. Use of irradiation to ensure the microbiological safety of processed meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.; Lachica, R.V.; Huhtanen, C.N.; Wierbicki, E.

    1986-01-01

    Research studies are reviewed, concerning the use of ionizing radiation to extend the shelf life and improve the safety of processed meats. Topics include: the historical background of food irradiation research; the determination of fractional destruction (D) values for a microorganism at a given irradiation dose; the effect of chilling and of NaCl on D values; and a brief review of the irradiation research for different cured and uncured meats (bacon; ham; frankfurters; corned beef and pork sausage; and beef, chicken, and pork). Guidelines for producing safe processed meats through irradiation are included

  5. Risk-based decisionmaking in the DOE: Challenges and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J.; Moses, M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary mission of the Environmental Management Program is to protect human health and the environment, the first goal of which must be, to address urgent risks and threats. Another is to provide for a safe workplace. Without credible risk assessments and good risk management practices, the central environmental goals cannot be met. Principles for risk analysis which include principles for risk assessment, management, communication, and priority setting were adopted. As recommended, Environmental Management is using risk-based decision making in its budget process and in the implementation of its program. The challenges presented in using a risk-based Decision making process are to integrate risk assessment methods and cultural and social values so as to produce meaningful priorities. The different laws and regulations governing the Department define risk differently in implementing activities to protect human health and the environment, therefore, assumptions and judgements in risk analysis vary. Currently, the Environmental Management Program is developing and improving a framework to incorporate risk into the budget process and to link the budget, compliance requirements and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities

  6. Risk-based decisionmaking in the DOE: Challenges and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J.; Moses, M. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The primary mission of the Environmental Management Program is to protect human health and the environment, the first goal of which must be, to address urgent risks and threats. Another is to provide for a safe workplace. Without credible risk assessments and good risk management practices, the central environmental goals cannot be met. Principles for risk analysis which include principles for risk assessment, management, communication, and priority setting were adopted. As recommended, Environmental Management is using risk-based decision making in its budget process and in the implementation of its program. The challenges presented in using a risk-based Decision making process are to integrate risk assessment methods and cultural and social values so as to produce meaningful priorities. The different laws and regulations governing the Department define risk differently in implementing activities to protect human health and the environment, therefore, assumptions and judgements in risk analysis vary. Currently, the Environmental Management Program is developing and improving a framework to incorporate risk into the budget process and to link the budget, compliance requirements and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities.

  7. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werme, Lars

    2006-10-01

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The report is written by, and for, experts in the relevant scientific fields. It should though be possible for a generalist in the area of long-term safety assessments of geologic nuclear waste repositories to comprehend the contents of the report. The report is an important part of the documentation of the SR-Can project and an essential reference within the project, providing a scientifically motivated plan for the handling of geosphere processes. It is, furthermore, foreseen that the report will be essential for reviewers scrutinising the handling of geosphere issues in the SR-Can assessment. Several types of fuel will be emplaced in the repository. For the reference case with 40 years of reactor operation, the fuel quantity from boiling water reactors, BWR fuel, is estimated at 7,000 tonnes, while the quantity from pressurized water reactors, PWR fuel, is estimated at about 2,300 tonnes. In addition, 23 tonnes of mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) fuel of German origin from BWR and PWR reactors and 20 tonnes of fuel from the decommissioned heavy water reactor in Aagesta will be disposed of. To allow for future changes in the Swedish nuclear programme, the safety assessment assumes a total of 6,000 canister corresponding to 12,000 tonnes of fuel

  8. Fuel and canister process report for the safety assessment SR-Can

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werme, Lars (ed.)

    2006-10-15

    This report documents fuel and canister processes identified as relevant to the long-term safety of a KBS-3 repository. It forms an important part of the reporting of the safety assessment SR-Can. The detailed assessment methodology, including the role of the process report in the assessment, is described in the SR-Can Main report. The report is written by, and for, experts in the relevant scientific fields. It should though be possible for a generalist in the area of long-term safety assessments of geologic nuclear waste repositories to comprehend the contents of the report. The report is an important part of the documentation of the SR-Can project and an essential reference within the project, providing a scientifically motivated plan for the handling of geosphere processes. It is, furthermore, foreseen that the report will be essential for reviewers scrutinising the handling of geosphere issues in the SR-Can assessment. Several types of fuel will be emplaced in the repository. For the reference case with 40 years of reactor operation, the fuel quantity from boiling water reactors, BWR fuel, is estimated at 7,000 tonnes, while the quantity from pressurized water reactors, PWR fuel, is estimated at about 2,300 tonnes. In addition, 23 tonnes of mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) fuel of German origin from BWR and PWR reactors and 20 tonnes of fuel from the decommissioned heavy water reactor in Aagesta will be disposed of. To allow for future changes in the Swedish nuclear programme, the safety assessment assumes a total of 6,000 canister corresponding to 12,000 tonnes of fuel.

  9. Monitoring the Long-Term Effectiveness of Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) Implementation Through Use of a Performance Dashboard Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinney, Michael D.; Barrick, William D.

    2008-01-01

    This session will examine a method developed by Federal and Contractor personnel at the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) to examine long-term maintenance of DOE Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) criteria, including safety culture attributes, as well as identification of process improvement opportunities. This process was initially developed in the summer of 2000 and has since been expanded to recognize the importance of safety culture attributes, and associated safety culture elements, as defined in DOE M 450.4-1, 'Integrated Safety Management System Manual'. This process has proven to significantly enhance collective awareness of the importance of long-term ISMS implementation as well as support commitments by NNSA/NSO personnel to examine the continued effectiveness of ISMS processes

  10. Evaluation of transport safety analysis processes of radioactive material performed by a regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattar, Patricia Morais

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive substances have many beneficial applications, ranging from power generation to uses in medicine, industry and agriculture. As a rule, they are produced in different places from where they are used, needing to be transported. In order for transport to take place safely and efficiently, national and international standards must be complied with. This research aims to assess the safety analysis processes for the transport of radioactive material carried out by the regulatory body in Brazil, from the point of view of their compliance with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) standards. The self-assessment methodology named SARIS, developed by the AIEA, was used. The following steps were carried out: evaluation of the Diagnosis and Processes Mapping; responses to the SARIS Question Set and complementary questions; SWOT analysis; interviews with stakeholders and evaluation of a TranSAS mission conducted by the IAEA in 2002. Considering only SARIS questions, processes are 100% adherent. The deepening of the research, however, led to the development of twenty-two improvement proposals and the identification of nine good practices. The results showed that the safety analysis processes of the transport of radioactive material are being carried out in a structured, safe and reliable way but also that there is much opportunity for improvement. The formulation of an action plan, based on the presented proposals, can bring to the regulatory body many benefits. This would be an important step towards convening an external evaluation, providing greater reliability and transparency to the regulatory body´s processes. (author)

  11. Impact of shutdown risk on risk-based assessment of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deriot, S.

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes the current work performed by the Research and Development Division of EDF concerning risk-based assessment of Operating Technical Specifications (OTS). The current risk-based assessment of OTS at EDF is presented. Then, the level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment of unit 3 of the Paluel nuclear power station (called PSA 1300) is described. It is fully computerized and takes into account the risk in shutdown states. A case study is presented. It shows that the fact of considering shutdown risk suggests that the current OTS should be modified

  12. Cernavoda NPP risk - Based test and maintenance planning - Methodology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, G.; Popa, P.; Petrescu, A.; Naum, M.; Gutu, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Cernavoda Power Plant starts the commercial operation in November 1996. During operation of the nuclear power plant, several mandatory tests and maintenance are performed on stand-by safety system components to ensure their availability in case of accident. The basic purpose of such activities is the early detection of any failure and degradation, and timely correction of deteriorations. Because of the large number of such activities, emphasis on plant safety and allocation of resources becomes difficult. The probabilistic model and methodology can be effectively used to obtain the risk significance of these activities so that the resources are directed to the most important areas. The proposed Research Contract activity is strongly connected with other safety related areas under development. Since, the Cernavoda Probabilistic Safety Evaluation Level 1 PSA Study (CPSE) was performed and now the study is revised taking into account the as-built information, it is recommended to implement into the model the necessary modeling features to support further PSA application, especially related to Test and Maintenance optimization. Methods need to be developed in order to apply the PSA model including risk information together with other needed information for Test and Maintenance optimization. Also, in parallel with the CPSE study updating, the software interface for the PSA model is under development (Risk Monitor Software class), methods and models needing to be developed for the purpose of using it for qualified monitoring of Test and Maintenance Strategy efficiency. Similar, the Data Collection System need to be appropriate for the purpose of an ongoing implementation of a risk - based Test and Maintenance Strategy. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig

  13. Development of the Risk-Based Inspection Techniques and Pilot Plant Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Risk-based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants. System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the probabilistic risk analysis or probabilistic safety analysis developed to meet the individual plant evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for maintenance rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low-risk significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of pilot plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates that safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. The reduction in inspection reduces the person-rem exposure resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publication by the ASME CRTD

  14. Lessons Learned from Process Safety Management: A Practical Guide to Defence in Depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langerman, N., E-mail: neal@chemical-safety.com [Advanced Chemical Safety, Inc., San Diego (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Full text: Beginning with the experiences of Alfred Nobel, the chemical enterprise has learned from failures and implemented layers of protection to prevent unwanted incidents. Nobel developed dynamite as a more stable alternative to nitroglycerin, a process we would today call “inherently safer technology”. In recent years, the USA has issued regulations requiring formal “risk management plans” to identify and mitigate production risks. The USA set up the “Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board” as an independent investigator of serious chemical enterprise incidents with a mission to issue recommendations aimed at preventing repeated incidents based on lessons learned. Following a particularly violent explosion in Texas in 1989, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration issued the “Process Safety Management” (PSM) rule. PSM is a singular guide to defence in depth for preventing large-scale production incidents. The formalism is equally applicable to the chemical enterprise and the nuclear installation enterprise. This presentation will discuss the key elements of PSM and offer suggestions on using PSM as a guide to developing multiple layers of protection. The methods of PSM are applicable to Nuclear Generating Stations, research reactors, fuel reprocessing plants and fissile material storage and handling. Examples from both the chemical and nuclear enterprises will be used to illustrate key points. (author)

  15. Identification and evaluation of priorities in the business process of a risk or safety organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Kuei-Yung; Thekdi, Shital A.; Lambert, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Agencies are increasingly following principles and guidelines for the coordination of risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication in large-scale programs. In particular, there is a challenge to comply with the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) memorandum “Updated Principles for Risk Analysis” among other guidelines. This paper demonstrates a systemic approach to achieve compliance of a risk program with administrative and organizational principles and guidelines for risk analysis. The paper suggests three canonical questions as the mission of such a program: (i) what sources of risks are to be managed by the program, (ii) how should multiple risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication activities be administered and coordinated, and what should be the basis for resource allocation to these activities, and (iii) how will the performance of the program be monitored and evaluated. The paper demonstrates a re-prioritization of policy initiatives of the program based on emergent and future conditions. The approach is useful to agencies implementing risk or safety organizational guidelines such as those of the OMB, the US Government Accountability Office, the US Department of Homeland Security, the US Department of Defense, and others. This paper will be of interest to risk managers; agencies; and risk and safety analysts engaged in the conception, implementation, and evaluation of risk or safety programs. - Highlights: ► We develop a systemic approach for management of a risk or safety program. ► The approach includes business process models and policy prioritization. ► The results support organizations to implement risk and safety programs.

  16. Radiation technology in finishing process improves health, safety and environment (HSE) in the furniture manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shakri Mat Seman

    1999-01-01

    In furniture manufacturing, processes like cross cutting, molding, planning, shaping, turning, assembling and finishing are involved. The most significant types of negative impact of these processes are such as dust emission, noise, hazardous work, health risk, emission of organic solvent, toxic chemicals emission and chemical waste. In the finishing process, a number of negative effects that will cause health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance. This article highlights the environmental problems in the furniture finishing processes and how the radiation technology can reduce these negative impacts. The drawbacks that hamper the manufacturers from adopting this technology are also discussed. The objective of the paper is to create the awareness among the industrialist and consumers on the HSE hazardous in furniture finishing and steps can be taken to improve

  17. HOW INTERNAL RISK - BASED AUDIT APPRAISES THE EVALUATION OF RISKS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dorosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the nature and function of the internal risk-based audit process approach to create patterns of risks and methods of evaluation. Deals with the relationship between the level of maturity of the risk of the company and the method of risk-based internal audit. it was emphasized that internal auditing provides an independent and objective opinion to an organization’s management as to whether its risks are being managed to acceptable levels.

  18. How Differences Between Manager and Clinician Perceptions of Safety Culture Impact Hospital Processes of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jason; Mazurenko, Olena; Kazley, Abby Swanson; Ford, Eric W

    2017-11-04

    Evidenced-based processes of care improve patient outcomes, yet universal compliance is lacking, and perceptions of the quality of care are highly variable. The purpose of this study is to examine how differences in clinician and management perceptions on teamwork and communication relate to adherence to hospital processes of care. Hospitals submitted identifiable data for the 2012 Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' Hospital Compare. The dependent variable was a composite, developed from the scores on adherence to acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia process of care measures. The primary independent variables reflected 4 safety culture domains: communication openness, feedback about errors, teamwork within units, and teamwork between units. We assigned each hospital into one of 4 groups based on agreement between managers and clinicians on each domain. Each hospital was categorized as "high" (above the median) or "low" (below) for clinicians and managers in communication and teamwork. We found a positive relationship between perceived teamwork and communication climate and processes of care measures. If managers and clinicians perceived the communication openness as high, the hospital was more likely to adhere with processes of care. Similarly, if clinicians perceived teamwork across units as high, the hospital was more likely to adhere to processes of care. Manager and staff perceptions about teamwork and communications impact adherence to processes of care. Policies should recognize the importance of perceptions of both clinicians and managers on teamwork and communication and seek to improve organizational climate and practices. Clinician perceptions of teamwork across units are more closely linked to processes of care, so managers should be cognizant and try to improve their perceptions.

  19. Impact of the specialization from failures data in probability safety analysis for process plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Antonio C.O.; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this paper is to show the Bayesian inference in reliability studies, which are used to failures, rates updating in safety analyses. It is developed the impact of its using in quantitative risk assessments (QRA) for industrial process plants. With this approach we find a structured and auditable way of showing the difference between an industrial installation with a good project and maintenance structure from another one that shows a low level of quality in these areas. In general the evidence from failures rates and as follow the frequency of occurrence from scenarios, which the risks taken in account in ERA, are taken from generics data banks, instead of, the installation in analysis. The use of this methodology in probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) for nuclear plants is commonly used when you need to find the final fault tree event evaluation applied to a scenario, but it is not showed in a PSA level III. (author)

  20. Marked point process framework for living probabilistic safety assessment and risk follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjas, Elja; Holmberg, Jan

    1995-01-01

    We construct a model for living probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) by applying the general framework of marked point processes. The framework provides a theoretically rigorous approach for considering risk follow-up of posterior hazards. In risk follow-up, the hazard of core damage is evaluated synthetically at time points in the past, by using some observed events as logged history and combining it with re-evaluated potential hazards. There are several alternatives for doing this, of which we consider three here, calling them initiating event approach, hazard rate approach, and safety system approach. In addition, for a comparison, we consider a core damage hazard arising in risk monitoring. Each of these four definitions draws attention to a particular aspect in risk assessment, and this is reflected in the behaviour of the consequent risk importance measures. Several alternative measures are again considered. The concepts and definitions are illustrated by a numerical example

  1. Health and safety consequences of medical isotope processing at the Hanford Site 325 building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D. L.

    1997-11-19

    Potential activities associated with medical isotope processing at the Hanford Site 325 Building laboratory and hot cell facilities are evaluated to assess the health and safety consequences if these activities are to be implemented as part of a combined tritium and medical isotope production mission for the Fast Flux Text Facility (FFTF). The types of activities included in this analysis are unloading irradiated isotope production assemblies at the 325 Building, recovery and dissolution of the target materials, separation of the product isotopes as required, and preparation of the isotopes for shipment to commercial distributors who supply isotopes to the medical conunuriity. Possible consequences to members of the public and to workers from both radiological and non-radiological hazards are considered in this evaluation. Section 2 of this docinnent describes the assumptions and methods used for the health and safety consequences analysis, section 3 presents the results of the analysis, and section 4 summarizes the results and conclusions from the analysis.

  2. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan

    2005-02-01

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  3. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Coupled Processes in Safety Assessments. Report of Task 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden)

    2005-02-15

    A part (Task 4) of the International DECOVALEX III project on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) processes focuses on T-H-M modelling applications in safety and performance assessment of deep geological nuclear waste repositories. A previous phase, DECOVALEX II, saw a need to improve such modelling. In order to address this need Task 4 of DECOVALEX III has: Analysed two major T-H-M experiments (Task 1 and Task 2) and three different Bench Mark Tests (Task 3) set-up to explore the significance of T-H-M in some potentially important safety assessment applications. Compiled and evaluated the use of T-H-M modelling in safety assessments at the time of the year 2000. Organised a forum a forum of interchange between PA-analysts and THM modelers at each DECOVALEX III workshop. Based on this information the current report discusses the findings and strives for reaching recommendations as regards good practices in addressing coupled T-H-M issues in safety assessments. The full development of T-H-M modelling is still at an early stage and it is not evident whether current codes provide the information that is required. However, although the geosphere is a system of fully coupled processes, this does not directly imply that all existing coupled mechanisms must be represented numerically. Modelling is conducted for specific purposes and the required confidence level should be considered. It is necessary to match the confidence level with the modelling objective. Coupled THM modelling has to incorporate uncertainties. These uncertainties mainly concern uncertainties in the conceptual model and uncertainty in data. Assessing data uncertainty is important when judging the need to model coupled processes. Often data uncertainty is more significant than the coupled effects. The emphasis on the need for THM modelling differs among disciplines. For geological radioactive waste disposal in crystalline and other similar hard rock formations DECOVALEX III shows it is essential to

  4. Historical evolution of process safety and major-accident hazards prevention in Spain. Contribution of the pioneer Joaquim Casal.

    OpenAIRE

    Planas Cuchi, Eulàlia; Arnaldos Viger, Josep; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Muñoz Messineo, Miguel Ángel; Pastor Ferrer, Elsa; Vílchez Sánchez, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting the evolution of process safety in Spain from various points of view. In first place, a study of the accidents occurred in this country in the process industry and in the transportation of chemical substances is presented. After this, the starting point of the process safety research in Spain and its evolution during the years are explained. The importance of this topic has also been reflected in the chemical engineering studies in some Spanish universities. Ther...

  5. Risk-based optimization of land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van; Peters, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale land reclamations are generally constructed by means of a landfill well above mean sea level. This can be costly in areas where good quality fill material is scarce. An alternative to save materials and costs is a ‘polder terminal’. The quay wall acts as a flood defense and the terminal level is well below the level of the quay wall. Compared with a conventional terminal, the costs are lower, but an additional flood risk is introduced. In this paper, a risk-based optimization is developed for a conventional and a polder terminal. It considers the investment and residual flood risk. The method takes into account both the quay wall and terminal level, which determine the probability and damage of flooding. The optimal quay wall level is found by solving a Lambert function numerically. The terminal level is bounded by engineering boundary conditions, i.e. piping and uplift of the cover layer of the terminal yard. It is found that, for a representative case study, the saving of reclamation costs for a polder terminal is larger than the increase of flood risk. The model is applicable to other cases of land reclamation and to similar optimization problems in flood risk management. - Highlights: • A polder terminal can be an attractive alternative for a conventional terminal. • A polder terminal is feasible at locations with high reclamation cost. • A risk-based approach is required to determine the optimal protection levels. • The depth of the polder terminal yard is bounded by uplifting of the cover layer. • This paper can support decisions regarding alternatives for port expansions.

  6. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C.G.; Morales-Aizpurua, I.C.; Destro, M.T.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D 10 -values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage

  7. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C.G.; Morales-Aizpurua, I.C.; Destro, M.T.; Franco, B.D.G.M.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.W.; Landgraf, M. E-mail: landgraf@usp.br

    2004-10-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D{sub 10}-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  8. Combination of minimal processing and irradiation to improve the microbiological safety of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goularte, L.; Martins, C. G.; Morales-Aizpurúa, I. C.; Destro, M. T.; Franco, B. D. G. M.; Vizeu, D. M.; Hutzler, B. W.; Landgraf, M.

    2004-09-01

    The feasibility of gamma radiation in combination with minimal processing (MP) to reduce the number of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in iceberg lettuce ( Lactuca sativa, L.) (shredded) was studied in order to increase the safety of the product. The reduction of the microbial population during the processing, the D10-values for Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 inoculated on shredded iceberg lettuce as well as the sensory evaluation of the irradiated product were evaluated. The immersion in chlorine (200 ppm) reduced coliform and aerobic mesophilic microorganisms by 0.9 and 2.7 log, respectively. D-values varied from 0.16 to 0.23 kGy for Salmonella spp. and from 0.11 to 0.12 kGy for E. coli O157:H7. Minimally processed iceberg lettuce exposed to 0.9 kGy does not show any change in sensory attributes. However, the texture of the vegetable was affected during the exposition to 1.1 kGy. The exposition of MP iceberg lettuce to 0.7 kGy reduced the population of Salmonella spp. by 4.0 log and E. coli by 6.8 log without impairing the sensory attributes. The combination of minimal process and gamma radiation to improve the safety of iceberg lettuce is feasible if good hygiene practices begins at farm stage.

  9. General principles of the nuclear criticality safety for handling, processing and transportation fissile materials in the USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vnukov, V.S.; Rjazanov, B.G.; Sviridov, V.I.; Frolov, V.V.; Zubkov, Y.N.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the general principles of nuclear criticality safety for handling, processing, transportation and fissile materials storing. Measures to limit the consequences of critical accidents are discussed for the fuel processing plants and fissile materials storage. The system of scientific and technical measures on nuclear criticality safety as well as the system of control and state supervision based on the rules, limits and requirements are described. The criticality safety aspects for various stages of handling nuclear materials are considered. The paper gives descriptions of the methods and approaches for critical risk assessments for the processing facilities, plants and storages. (Author)

  10. Handbook of methods for risk-based analysis of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Mankamo, T.; Vesely, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operations (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements are based on deterministic analyses and engineering judgments. Improvements in these requirements are facilitated by the availability of plant-specific Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs). The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Office of Research sponsored research to develop systematic, risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. A handbook of methods summarizing such risk-based approaches has been completed in 1994. It is expected that this handbook will provide valuable input to NRC's present work in developing guidance for using PRA in risk-informed regulation. The handbook addresses reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), managing plant configurations, and scheduling maintenance

  11. Implications of safety requirements for the treatment of THMC processes in geological disposal systems for radioactive waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Bernier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mission of nuclear safety authorities in national radioactive waste disposal programmes is to ensure that people and the environment are protected against the hazards of ionising radiations emitted by the waste. It implies the establishment of safety requirements and the oversight of the activities of the waste management organisation in charge of implementing the programme. In Belgium, the safety requirements for geological disposal rest on the following principles: defence-in-depth, demonstrability and the radiation protection principles elaborated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP. Applying these principles requires notably an appropriate identification and characterisation of the processes upon which the safety functions fulfilled by the disposal system rely and of the processes that may affect the system performance. Therefore, research and development (R&D on safety-relevant thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC issues is important to build confidence in the safety assessment. This paper points out the key THMC processes that might influence radionuclide transport in a disposal system and its surrounding environment, considering the dynamic nature of these processes. Their nature and significance are expected to change according to prevailing internal and external conditions, which evolve from the repository construction phase to the whole heating–cooling cycle of decaying waste after closure. As these processes have a potential impact on safety, it is essential to identify and to understand them properly when developing a disposal concept to ensure compliance with relevant safety requirements. In particular, the investigation of THMC processes is needed to manage uncertainties. This includes the identification and characterisation of uncertainties as well as for the understanding of their safety-relevance. R&D may also be necessary to reduce uncertainties of which the magnitude does not allow

  12. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission regulatory process for decommissioning a uranium mining facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scissons, K.; Schryer, D.M.; Goulden, W.; Natomagan, C.

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates uranium mining in Canada. The CNSC regulatory process requires that a licence applicant plan for and commit to future decommissioning before irrevocable decisions are made, and throughout the life of a uranium mine. These requirements include conceptual decommissioning plans and the provision of financial assurances to ensure the availability of funds for decommissioning activities. When an application for decommissioning is submitted to the CNSC, an environmental assessment is required prior to initiating the licensing process. A case study is presented for COGEMA Resources Inc. (COGEMA), who is entering the decommissioning phase with the CNSC for the Cluff Lake uranium mine. As part of the licensing process, CNSC multidisciplinary staff assesses the decommissioning plan, associated costs, and the environmental assessment. When the CNSC is satisfied that all of its requirements are met, a decommissioning licence may be issued. (author)

  13. Chemical safety of cassava products in regions adopting cassava production and processing - experience from Southern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyirenda, D.B.; Chiwona-Karltun, L.; Chitundu, M.

    2011-01-01

    and perceptions concerning cassava and chemical food safety. Chips, mixed biscuits and flour, procured from households and markets in three regions of Zambia (Luapula-North, Western and Southern) as well as products from the Northern, Central and Southern regions of Malawi, were analyzed for total cyanogenic...... of products commercially available on the market. Risk assessments disclose that effects harmful to the developing central nervous system (CNS) may be observed at a lower exposure than previously anticipated. We interviewed farmers in Zambia and Malawi about their cultivars, processing procedures......The cassava belt area in Southern Africa is experiencing an unforeseen surge in cassava production, processing and consumption. Little documentation exists on the effects of this surge on processing procedures, the prevailing levels of cyanogenic glucosides of products consumed and the levels...

  14. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  15. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  16. Safety case for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. Features, events and processes 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    Features, Events and Processes sits within Posiva Oy's Safety Case 'TURVA-2012' portfolio and has the objective of presenting the main features, events and processes (FEPs) that are considered to be potentially significant for the long-term safety of the planned KBS-3V repository for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto. The primary purpose of this report is to support Performance Assessment, Formulation of Radionuclide Release Scenarios, Assessment of the Radionuclide Release Scenarios for the Repository System and Biosphere Assessment by ensuring that the scenarios are comprehensive and take account of all significant FEPs. The main FEPs potentially affecting the disposal system are described for each relevant subsystem component or barrier (i.e. the spent nuclear fuel, the canister, the buffer and tunnel backfill, the auxiliary components, the geosphere and the surface environment). In addition, a small number of external FEPs that may potentially influence the evolution of the disposal system are described. The conceptual understanding and operation of each FEP is described, together with the main features (variables) of the disposal system that may affect its occurrence or significance. Olkiluoto-specific issues are considered when relevant. The main uncertainties (conceptual and parameter/data) associated with each FEP that may affect understanding are also documented. Indicative parameter values are provided, in some cases, to illustrate the magnitude or rate of a process, but it is not the intention of this report to provide the complete set of numerical values that are used in the quantitative safety assessment calculations. Many of the FEPs are interdependent and, therefore, the descriptions also identify the most important direct couplings between the FEPs. This information is used in the formulation of scenarios to ensure the conceptual models and calculational cases are both comprehensive and representative. (orig.)

  17. Criteria for the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) safety evaluation process for fragrance ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Api, A M; Belsito, D; Bruze, M; Cadby, P; Calow, P; Dagli, M L; Dekant, W; Ellis, G; Fryer, A D; Fukayama, M; Griem, P; Hickey, C; Kromidas, L; Lalko, J F; Liebler, D C; Miyachi, Y; Politano, V T; Renskers, K; Ritacco, G; Salvito, D; Schultz, T W; Sipes, I G; Smith, B; Vitale, D; Wilcox, D K

    2015-08-01

    The Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Inc. (RIFM) has been engaged in the generation and evaluation of safety data for fragrance materials since its inception over 45 years ago. Over time, RIFM's approach to gathering data, estimating exposure and assessing safety has evolved as the tools for risk assessment evolved. This publication is designed to update the RIFM safety assessment process, which follows a series of decision trees, reflecting advances in approaches in risk assessment and new and classical toxicological methodologies employed by RIFM over the past ten years. These changes include incorporating 1) new scientific information including a framework for choosing structural analogs, 2) consideration of the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC), 3) the Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) for dermal sensitization, 4) the respiratory route of exposure, 5) aggregate exposure assessment methodology, 6) the latest methodology and approaches to risk assessments, 7) the latest alternatives to animal testing methodology and 8) environmental risk assessment. The assessment begins with a thorough analysis of existing data followed by in silico analysis, identification of 'read across' analogs, generation of additional data through in vitro testing as well as consideration of the TTC approach. If necessary, risk management may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Remote control of safety and technological mining processes in underground coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjanovic, D. (Elektronska Industrija RO IRI OOUR Razvoj, Nis (Yugoslavia))

    1989-02-01

    Discusses importance of data relevant to remote monitoring of production and safety at work in underground coal mines. The EI PS 2000 multi-purpose system developed by Elektronska Industrija, Nis, for use with AP-X1 and AP-X2 microcomputers in Serbian mines is described. Component parts include the CUM-8 central unit, the CIP-8 communication interface processor, the SNM-64 disjunction unit, the NM-64 energy supply unit and the CRT alarm monitor. This system is designed to warn of mine fires, methane and coal dust explosions, to help in evacuating mine crews, to control production processes and mine management and other functions. 8 refs

  19. Current role of the USNRC safety research program in support of the regulatory process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, S.

    1979-01-01

    The current role of the USNRC's safety research program is shown. Some aspects of this role in the wake of the TMI accident are discused as well as some historical perspective on the development of USNRC's program, its relationship with the NRC mission, an overview of the program activities and some recent research results, and finally the impact of the TMI accident in clarifiying needs for expedited and new research activities, including the need for a greatly enhanced use of probabilistic analysis techniques to improve the coherence of its regulatory process. (author)

  20. Final safety analysis report (FSAR) for waste receiving and processing (WRAP) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    This safety analysis report provides a summary description of the WRAP Facility, focusing on significant safety-related characteristics of the location and facility design. This report demonstrates that adherence to the safety basis wi11 ensure necessary operational safety considerations have been addressed sufficiently and justifies the adequacy of the safety basis in protecting the health and safety of the public, workers, and the environment

  1. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-12-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an `expert panel.` The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC`s increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate.

  2. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an 'expert panel.' The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC's increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the open-quotes expert panelclose quotes and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate

  3. Redox processes in the safety case of deep geological repositories of radioactive wastes. Contribution of the European RECOSY Collaborative Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duro, L.; Bruno, J.; Grivé, M.; Montoya, V.; Kienzler, B.; Altmaier, M.; Buckau, G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The RECOSY project produced results relevant for the Safety Case of nuclear disposal. • We classify the safety related features where RECOSY has contributed. • Redox processes effect the retention of radionuclides in all repository subsystems. - Abstract: Redox processes influence key geochemical characteristics controlling radionuclide behaviour in the near and far field of a nuclear waste repository. A sound understanding of redox related processes is therefore of high importance for developing a Safety Case, the collection of scientific, technical, administrative and managerial arguments and evidence in support of the safety of a disposal facility. This manuscript presents the contribution of the specific research on redox processes achieved within the EURATOM Collaborative Project RECOSY (REdox phenomena COntrolling SYstems) to the Safety Case of nuclear waste disposal facilities. Main objectives of RECOSY were related to the improved understanding of redox phenomena controlling the long-term release or retention of radionuclides in nuclear waste disposal and providing tools to apply the results to Performance Assessment and the Safety Case. The research developed during the project covered aspects of the near-field and the far-field aspects of the repository, including studies relevant for the rock formations considered in Europe as suitable for hosting an underground repository for radioactive wastes. It is the intention of this paper to highlight in which way the results obtained from RECOSY can feed the scientific process understanding needed for the stepwise development of the Safety Case associated with deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes

  4. Definition and means of maintaining the process vacuum liquid detection interlock systems portion of the PFP safety envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LINTHO, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to record the technical evaluation of the Technical Safety Requirements described in the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Technical Requirements, HNF-SD-CP-OSR-010/Rev.1, Section 3.1.1, ''Criticality Prevention System.'' This document also defines the Safety Envelope (SE) for the liquid detection interlock system in the Process Vacuum System. The SE is derived FR-om information in the Plutonium Finishing Plant Final Safety Analysis Report (PFP FSAR), HNF-SD-CP-SAR-021, Rev 4, and the Criticality Safety Analysis Report (CSAR) for the 26-inch Hg Vacuum System, WHC-SD-SQA-CSA-20159, Rev 0-A. This document, with its appendices, provides the following: (1) The system functional requirements for determining system operability (Section 3). (2) Evaluations of equipment to determine the safety envelope boundary for the system (Section 4 list of SE boundary drawings). (3) A list of the safety envelope equipment (Appendix B). (4) Functional requirements for the individual safety envelope equipment, including appropriate set points and process parameters (Section 4). (5) A list of the operational and surveillance procedures necessary to operate and maintain the system equipment within the safety envelope (Sections 5 and 6 and Appendix A)

  5. Application of REVEAL-W to risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezfuli, H.; Meyer, J.; Modarres, M.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past two years, the concept of risk-based configuration control has been introduced to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the nuclear industry. Converting much of the current, deterministically based regulation of nuclear power plants to risk-based regulation can result in lower levels of risk while relieving unnecessary burdens on power plant operators and regulatory staff. To achieve the potential benefits of risk-based configuration control, the risk models developed for nuclear power plants should be (1) flexible enough to effectively support necessary risk calculations, and (2) transparent enough to encourage their use by all parties. To address these needs, SCIENTECH, Inc., has developed the PC-based REVEAL W (formerly known as SMART). This graphic-oriented and user-friendly application software allows the user to develop transparent complex logic models based on the concept of the master plant logic diagram. The logic model is success-oriented and compact. The analytical capability built into REVEAL W is generic, so the software can support different types of risk-based evaluations, such as probabilistic safety assessment, accident sequence precursor analysis, design evaluation and configuration management. In this paper, we focus on the application of REVEAL W to support risk-based configuration control of nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Waste-acceptance criteria and risk-based thinking for radioactive-waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The US system of radioactive-waste classification and its development provide a reference point for the discussion of risk-based thinking in waste classification. The official US system is described and waste-acceptance criteria for disposal sites are introduced because they constitute a form of de facto waste classification. Risk-based classification is explored and it is found that a truly risk-based system is context-dependent: risk depends not only on the waste-management activity but, for some activities such as disposal, it depends on the specific physical context. Some of the elements of the official US system incorporate risk-based thinking, but like many proposed alternative schemes, the physical context of disposal is ignored. The waste-acceptance criteria for disposal sites do account for this context dependence and could be used as a risk-based classification scheme for disposal. While different classes would be necessary for different management activities, the waste-acceptance criteria would obviate the need for the current system and could better match wastes to disposal environments saving money or improving safety or both

  7. Performance Measurement of Location Enabled e-Government Processes: A Use Case on Traffic Safety Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, D.; Vancauwenberghe, G.

    2016-12-01

    The European Union Location Framework (EULF), as part of the Interoperable Solutions for European Public Administrations (ISA) Programme of the EU (EC DG DIGIT), aims to enhance the interactions between governments, businesses and citizens by embedding location information into e-Government processes. The challenge remains to find scientific sound and at the same time practicable approaches to estimate or measure the impact of location enablement of e-Government processes on the performance of the processes. A method has been defined to estimate process performance in terms of variables describing the efficiency, effectiveness, as well as the quality of the output of the work processes. A series of use cases have been identified, corresponding to existing e-Government work processes in which location information could bring added value. In a first step, the processes are described by means of BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) to better understand the process steps, the actors involved, the spatial data flows, as well as the required input and the generated output. In a second step the processes are assessed in terms of the (sub-optimal) use of location information and the potential enhancement of the process by better integrating location information and services. The process performance is measured ex ante (before using location enabled e-Government services) and ex-post (after the integration of such services) in order to estimate and measure the impact of location information. The paper describes the method for performance measurement and highlights how the method is applied to one use case, i.e. the process of traffic safety monitoring. The use case is analysed and assessed in terms of location enablement and its potential impact on process performance. The results of applying the methodology on the use case revealed that performance is highly impacted by factors such as the way location information is collected, managed and shared throughout the

  8. Corrosion Assessment by Using Risk-Based Inspection Method for Petrochemical Plant - Practical Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Song Chun; Song, Ki Hun

    2009-01-01

    Corrosion assessment has a number of uses but the use considered here is as a precursor to Risk-Based Inspection (RBI) planning. Systematic methods consisting of technical modules of RBI program were used to assess the effect of specific corrosion mechanism on the probability of failure in equipment of petrochemical plants. Especially in part of the damage and corrosion assessment, screening step involved evaluating the combinations of process conditions and construction materials for each equipment item in order to determine which damage mechanisms are potentially active. For general internal corrosion, either API 510 or API 570 was applied as the damage rate in the calculation to determine the remaining life and inspection frequency. In some cases, a measured rate of corrosion may not be available. The technical modules of RBI program employ default values for corrosion, typically derived from published data or from experience with similar processes, for use until inspection results are available. This paper describes the case study of corrosion and damage assessment by using RBI methodology in petrochemical plant. Specifically, this paper reports the methodology and the results of its application to the petrochemical units using the KGS-RBI TM program, developed by the Korea Gas Safety Corporation to suit Korean situation in conformity with API 581 Codes

  9. IAEA Expert Team Completes Mission to Review Japan's Nuclear Power Plant Safety Assessment Process, 31 January 2012, Tokyo, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a review of Japan's two-stage process for assessing nuclear safety at the nation's nuclear power plants. The team began its work on 23 January and delivered a Preliminary Summary Report to Japanese officials today and plans to finish the final report by the end of February. National safety assessments and their peer review by the IAEA are a key component of the IAEA's Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, which was approved by the Agency's 152 Member States following last year's nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. At the request of the Government of Japan, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) organized a 10-person team to review the Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency's (NISA) approach to the Comprehensive Assessments for the Safety of Existing Power Reactor Facilities and how NISA examines the results submitted by nuclear operators. The IAEA safety review mission consisted of five IAEA and three international nuclear safety experts. To help its review, the team held meetings in Tokyo with officials from NISA, the Japanese Nuclear Energy Safety (JNES) Organization, and the Kansai Electric Power Company (KEPCO), and the team visited the Ohi Nuclear Power Station to see an example of how Japan's Comprehensive Safety Assessment is being implemented by nuclear operators. 'We concluded that NISA's instructions to power plants and its review process for the Comprehensive Safety Assessments are generally consistent with IAEA Safety Standards', said team leader James Lyons, director of the IAEA's Nuclear Installation Safety Division. In its Preliminary Summary Report delivered today, the team highlighted a number of good practices and identified some improvements that would enhance the overall effectiveness of the Comprehensive Safety Assessment process. Good practices identified by the mission team include: Based on NISA instructions and commitments of the

  10. Processing techniques for data from the Kuosheng Unit 1 shakedown safety-relief-valve tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Rompel, S.L.; Weaver, H.J.; Altenbach, T.J.

    1982-08-01

    This report describes techniques developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laobratory, Livermore, CA for processing original data from the Taiwan Power Company's Kuosheng MKIII Unit 1 Safety Relief Valve Shakedown Tests conducted in April/May 1981. The computer codes used, TPSORT, TPPLOT, and TPPSD, form a special evaluation system for treating the data from its original packed binary form to ordered, calibrated ASCII transducer files and then to production of time-history plots, numerical output files, and spectral analyses. Using the data processing techniques described, a convenient means of independently examining and analyzing a unique data base for steam condensation phenomena in the MARKIII wetwell is described. The techniques developed for handling these data are applicable to the treatment of similar, but perhaps differently structured, experiment data sets

  11. A Deterministic Safety Assessment of a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae; Choi, Jong Won

    2012-01-01

    A GoldSim template program for a safety assessment of a hybrid-typed repository system, called 'A-KRS', in which two kinds of pyro-processed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyro-processing of PWR nuclear spent fuels are disposed of, has been developed. This program is ready both for a deterministic and probabilistic total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios. The A-KRS has been deterministically assessed with 5 various normal and abnormal scenarios associated with nuclide release and transport in and around the repository. Dose exposure rates to the farming exposure group have been evaluated in accordance with all the scenarios and then compared among other.

  12. People detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B.; Cota, Raphael E.; Ramos, Bruno L.

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the development of a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The final objective is to track people online in videos, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during the execution of working tasks in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a real nuclear plant at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Argonauta nuclear research reactor. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta's room, supplying the data needed. Both video processing and statistical signal processing techniques may be used for detection, segmentation and tracking people in video. This first paper reports people segmentation in video using background subtraction, by two different approaches, namely frame differences, and blind signal separation based on the independent component analysis method. Results are commented, along with perspectives for further work. (author)

  13. Results of the probabilistic safety assessment to the cobalt-therapy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaragut Llanes, J.J.; Ferro, R.; Lozano, B.; De la Fuente Puch, Andres; Dumenigo Gonzalez, Cruz; Troncoso, M.; Perez, Y.; Alemany, J.; Leon, L.; Amador, R.; Lazo, R.; Labrador, F.; Blanco, A.; Betancourt, L.; Crespo, D.; Silvestre, I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) to the Cobalt Therapy Treatment Process in the Oncological Unit of Pinar del Rio city to evaluate occupational, public and medical exposures during cobalt therapy treatment. Equipment's Failures Modes and Human Error were evaluated for each system and treatment stage aimed at obtaining an exhaustive list of the deviations with a reasonable probability to occur and may produce significant adverse outcomes. The lowest exposures probabilities correspond to the public exposures during the treatment process; around 10-10 per year, being the workers exposures around 10-4 per year. Regarding the patient, exposures frequencies vary in dependence of the extent to which the error affect individual treatment, individual patients, or all the patients treated on a specific unit

  14. People detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B., E-mail: seixas@lps.ufrj.b, E-mail: eduardo@lps.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica; Cota, Raphael E.; Ramos, Bruno L., E-mail: brunolange@poli.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (EP/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletronica e de Computacao

    2011-07-01

    This work describes the development of a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The final objective is to track people online in videos, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during the execution of working tasks in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a real nuclear plant at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Argonauta nuclear research reactor. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta's room, supplying the data needed. Both video processing and statistical signal processing techniques may be used for detection, segmentation and tracking people in video. This first paper reports people segmentation in video using background subtraction, by two different approaches, namely frame differences, and blind signal separation based on the independent component analysis method. Results are commented, along with perspectives for further work. (author)

  15. A hazard and probabilistic safety analysis of a high-level waste transfer process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Sasser, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a safety analysis of a transfer process for high-level radioactive and toxic waste. The analysis began with a hazard assessment that used elements of What If, Checklist, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and Hazards and Operability Study (HAZOP) techniques to identify and rough-in accident sequences. Based on this preliminary analysis, the most significant accident sequences were developed further using event trees. Quantitative frequency estimates for the accident sequences were based on operational data taken from the historical record of the site where the process is performed. Several modeling challenges were encountered in the course of the study. These included linked initiating and accident progression events, fire propagation modeling, accounting for administrative control violations, and handling mission-phase effects

  16. Safety of vendor-prepared foods: evaluation of 10 processing mobile food vendors in Manhattan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Bryan M; Volel, Caroline; Finkel, Madelon

    2003-01-01

    Unsanitary food handling is a major public health hazard. There are over 4,100 mobile food vendors operating in New York City, and of these, approximately forty percent are processing vendors--mobile food units on which potentially hazardous food products are handled, prepared, or processed. This pilot study assesses the food handling practices of 10 processing mobile food vendors operating in a 38-block area of midtown Manhattan (New York City) from 43rd Street to 62nd Street between Madison and Sixth Avenues, and compares them to regulations stipulated in the New York City Health Code. Ten processing mobile food vendors located in midtown Manhattan were observed for a period of 20 minutes each. Unsanitary food handling practices, food storage at potentially unsafe temperatures, and food contamination with uncooked meat or poultry were recorded. Over half of all vendors (67%) were found to contact served foods with bare hands. Four vendors were observed vending with visibly dirty hands or gloves and no vendor once washed his or her hands or changed gloves in the 20-minute observation period. Seven vendors had previously cooked meat products stored at unsafe temperatures on non-heating or non-cooking portions of the vendor cart for the duration of the observation. Four vendors were observed to contaminate served foods with uncooked meat or poultry. Each of these actions violates the New York City Code of Health and potentially jeopardizes the safety of these vendor-prepared foods. More stringent adherence to food safety regulations should be promoted by the New York City Department of Health.

  17. WE-B-BRC-00: Concepts in Risk-Based Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    Prospective quality management techniques, long used by engineering and industry, have become a growing aspect of efforts to improve quality management and safety in healthcare. These techniques are of particular interest to medical physics as scope and complexity of clinical practice continue to grow, thus making the prescriptive methods we have used harder to apply and potentially less effective for our interconnected and highly complex healthcare enterprise, especially in imaging and radiation oncology. An essential part of most prospective methods is the need to assess the various risks associated with problems, failures, errors, and design flaws in our systems. We therefore begin with an overview of risk assessment methodologies used in healthcare and industry and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. The rationale for use of process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) by TG-100 will be described, as well as suggestions for the way forward. This is followed by discussion of radiation oncology specific risk assessment strategies and issues, including the TG-100 effort to evaluate IMRT and other ways to think about risk in the context of radiotherapy. Incident learning systems, local as well as the ASTRO/AAPM ROILS system, can also be useful in the risk assessment process. Finally, risk in the context of medical imaging will be discussed. Radiation (and other) safety considerations, as well as lack of quality and certainty all contribute to the potential risks associated with suboptimal imaging. The goal of this session is to summarize a wide variety of risk analysis methods and issues to give the medical physicist access to tools which can better define risks (and their importance) which we work to mitigate with both prescriptive and prospective risk-based quality management methods. Learning Objectives: Description of risk assessment methodologies used in healthcare and industry Discussion of radiation oncology

  18. WE-B-BRC-00: Concepts in Risk-Based Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Prospective quality management techniques, long used by engineering and industry, have become a growing aspect of efforts to improve quality management and safety in healthcare. These techniques are of particular interest to medical physics as scope and complexity of clinical practice continue to grow, thus making the prescriptive methods we have used harder to apply and potentially less effective for our interconnected and highly complex healthcare enterprise, especially in imaging and radiation oncology. An essential part of most prospective methods is the need to assess the various risks associated with problems, failures, errors, and design flaws in our systems. We therefore begin with an overview of risk assessment methodologies used in healthcare and industry and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. The rationale for use of process mapping, failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) and fault tree analysis (FTA) by TG-100 will be described, as well as suggestions for the way forward. This is followed by discussion of radiation oncology specific risk assessment strategies and issues, including the TG-100 effort to evaluate IMRT and other ways to think about risk in the context of radiotherapy. Incident learning systems, local as well as the ASTRO/AAPM ROILS system, can also be useful in the risk assessment process. Finally, risk in the context of medical imaging will be discussed. Radiation (and other) safety considerations, as well as lack of quality and certainty all contribute to the potential risks associated with suboptimal imaging. The goal of this session is to summarize a wide variety of risk analysis methods and issues to give the medical physicist access to tools which can better define risks (and their importance) which we work to mitigate with both prescriptive and prospective risk-based quality management methods. Learning Objectives: Description of risk assessment methodologies used in healthcare and industry Discussion of radiation oncology

  19. Integrating natural language processing expertise with patient safety event review committees to improve the analysis of medication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Allan; Harriott, Nicole; Walters, Donna M; Foley, Hanan; Morrissey, Richard; Ratwani, Raj R

    2017-08-01

    Many healthcare providers have implemented patient safety event reporting systems to better understand and improve patient safety. Reviewing and analyzing these reports is often time consuming and resource intensive because of both the quantity of reports and length of free-text descriptions in the reports. Natural language processing (NLP) experts collaborated with clinical experts on a patient safety committee to assist in the identification and analysis of medication related patient safety events. Different NLP algorithmic approaches were developed to identify four types of medication related patient safety events and the models were compared. Well performing NLP models were generated to categorize medication related events into pharmacy delivery delays, dispensing errors, Pyxis discrepancies, and prescriber errors with receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve of 0.96, 0.87, 0.96, and 0.81 respectively. We also found that modeling the brief without the resolution text generally improved model performance. These models were integrated into a dashboard visualization to support the patient safety committee review process. We demonstrate the capabilities of various NLP models and the use of two text inclusion strategies at categorizing medication related patient safety events. The NLP models and visualization could be used to improve the efficiency of patient safety event data review and analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Public administration of processes for supporting of inner ecology safety in Ukraine: organizational and legal aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. О. Romanenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper studied the legal framework that regulates social relations in the field of internal environmental safety and provides a unified state policy and the exercise of powers by the authorities at all levels. Thus, in the legal field there are the gaps on many issues that are important in solving the tasks, including the powers and responsibilities of the various subjects of law in an extreme situation, as well as management and leadership of emergency rescue activity and other urgent works in disaster areas. It is established that to increase the state’s role in protecting the population from emergency situations of natural character, it is necessary to achieve a qualitative change in the legal status of government, the formation of relevant legislation and conduct regulation. In general, the process of regulation in addressing the problems of population protection from emergency situations of different nature must be carry out through the systematization of the national, regional and local levels regulations that are relevant to the issues of prevention and liquidation of emergency situations; also we must eliminate inconsistencies in current legislation and coordinate the national legislation with international. Based on analysis of existing and unresolved problems of internal environmental safety it is necessity to implement new mechanisms of state influence to prevent environmental degradation, the use of methods and means of protecting the population from current anthropogenic influences; reorganization of the territory, defining the boundaries of zones of sanitary, medical and sanitary survey of the population; ensuring internal environmental safety is realized with the help of legal, operational and rescue, functional and territorial public administration practices; the use of multi-state management controls that are able to simultaneously influence the situation in the sphere of nature.

  1. Risk-based inspection--Development of guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Effective inservice inspection programs can play a significant role in minimizing equipment and structural failures. Most of the current inservice inspection programs for light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant components are based on experience and engineers' qualitative judgment. These programs include only an implicit consideration of risk, which combines the probability of failure of a component under its operation and loading conditions and the consequences of such failure, if it occurs. This document recommends appropriate methods for establishing a risk-based inspection program for LWR nuclear power plant components. The process has been built from a general methodology (Volume 1) and has been expanded to involve five major steps: defining the system; evaluating qualitative risk assessment results; using this and information from plant probabilistic risk assessments to perform a quantitative risk analysis; selecting target failure probabilities; and developing an inspection program for components using economic decision analysis and structural reliability assessment methods

  2. Case studies: Risk-based analysis of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Minton, L.A.; Gaertner, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The SOCRATES computer program uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) or a system level risk analysis to calculate changes in risk due to changes in the surveillance test interval and/or the allowed outage time stated in the technical specification. The computer program can accommodate various testing strategies (such as staggered or simultaneous testing) to allow modeling of component testing as it is carried out at a plant. The methods and computer program are an integral part of a larger decision process aimed at determining benefits from technical specification changes. These benefits can include cost savings to the utilities by reducing forced shutdowns with no adverse impacts on risk. Three summaries of case study applications are included to demonstrate the types of results that can be achieved through risk-based evaluation of technical specifications. (orig.)

  3. Electromagnetic Processing as a Way of Increasing Microbiological Safety of Animal Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, O. M.; Kolosova, M. M.; Filipovich, L. A.; Aksenov, V. A.

    2017-05-01

    The article shows the possibility of using the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency (EMF UHF) for drying and disinfecting of such animal waste as pig manure and poultry droppings. The studied modes included the following options: processing exposure of 60, 90, 120 sec, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. The method of UHF processing of manure and poultry droppings is environmentally safe and effective in neutralizing the pathogenic microflora, as well as larvae and eggs of worms. The following processing mode of animal waste in the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency was recognized as optimal: exposure of 90 seconds, the capacity of 60 kW, the frequency of 915 MHz. This option leads to the complete destruction of pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the eggs and larvae of worms. As a result of this processing, a high level of microbiological safety of pig manure and poultry droppings is achieved that allows using them as organic fertilizers. The peculiarities of some species of pathogenic fungi developing on the surface of the wheat grain are shown. Pre-processed animal waste (pig manure and and poultry droppings) were applied in experimental variants. Used organic fertilizers underwent electromagnetic processing of ultra-high frequency. The qualitative composition of the microflora on the surface of the grain depends on the type of animal waste (manure or droppings) and used dose. The safest part of the microflora of grain was marked with the application of the UHF-processed pig manure and poultry droppings in doses of 10 t/ha.

  4. Microbial processes need to be addressed in a competent safety case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Karsten; Hallbeck, Lotta

    2014-01-01

    corrosive to metal canisters. Some microbes may mobilise radionuclides. This paper presents a brief compilation of various aspects regarding microbial processes than must be addressed in safety cases. (authors)

  5. Product, not process! Explaining a basic concept in agricultural biotechnologies and food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliabue, Giovanni

    2017-12-01

    Most life scientists have relentlessly recommended any evaluative approach of agri-food products to be based on examination of the phenotype, i.e. the actual characteristics of the food, feed and fiber varieties: the effects of any new cultivar (or micro-organism, animal) on our health are not dependent on the process(es), the techniques used to obtain it.The so-called "genetically modified organisms" ("GMOs"), on the other hand, are commonly framed as a group with special properties - most frequently seen as dubious, or even harmful.Some social scientists still believe that considering the process is a correct background for science-based understanding and regulation. To show that such an approach is utterly wrong, and to invite scientists, teachers and science communicators to explain this mistake to students, policy-makers and the public at large, we imagined a dialogue between a social scientist, who has a positive opinion about a certain weight that a process-based orientation should have in the risk assessment, and a few experts who offer plenty of arguments against that view. The discussion focuses on new food safety.

  6. Process economics and safety considerations for the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane using the M1 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroi, Chinmoy; Gaffney, Anne M.; Fushimi, Rebecca

    2017-12-01

    Olefins or unsaturated hydrocarbons play a vital role as feedstock for many industrially significant processes. Ethylene is the simplest olefin and a key raw material for consumer products. Oxidative Dehydrogenation (ODH) is one of the most promising new routes for ethylene production that can offer a significant advantage in energy efficiency over the conventional steam pyrolysis process. This study is focused on the ODH chemistry using the mixed metal oxide MoVTeNbOx catalysts, generally referred to as M1 for the key phase known to be active for dehydrogenation. Using performance results from the patent literature a series of process simulations were conducted to evaluate the effect of feed composition on operating costs, profitability and process safety. The key results of this study indicate that the ODH reaction can be made safer and more profitable without use of an inert diluent and furthermore by replacing O2 with CO2 as an oxidant. Modifications of the M1 catalyst composition in order to adopt these changes are discussed.

  7. Making the business case for process safety using value-at-risk concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Jayming S.; Ford, David M.; Mannan, M. Sam

    2004-01-01

    An increasing emphasis on chemical process safety over the last two decades has led to the development and application of powerful risk assessment tools. Hazard analysis and risk evaluation techniques have developed to the point where quantitatively meaningful risks can be calculated for processes and plants. However, the results are typically presented in semi-quantitative 'ranked list' or 'categorical matrix' formats, which are certainly useful but not optimal for making business decisions. A relatively new technique for performing valuation under uncertainty, value at risk (VaR), has been developed in the financial world. VaR is a method of evaluating the probability of a gain or loss by a complex venture, by examining the stochastic behavior of its components. We believe that combining quantitative risk assessment techniques with VaR concepts will bridge the gap between engineers and scientists who determine process risk and business leaders and policy makers who evaluate, manage, or regulate risk. We present a few basic examples of the application of VaR to hazard analysis in the chemical process industry

  8. Risk based test interval and maintenance optimisation - Application and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, E.

    1999-10-01

    The project is part of an IAEA co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Development of Methodologies for Optimisation of Surveillance Testing and Maintenance of Safety Related Equipment at NPPs'. The purpose of the project is to investigate the sensitivity of the results obtained when performing risk based optimisation of the technical specifications. Previous projects have shown that complete LPSA models can be created and that these models allow optimisation of technical specifications. However, these optimisations did not include any in depth check of the result sensitivity with regards to methods, model completeness etc. Four different test intervals have been investigated in this study. Aside from an original, nominal, optimisation a set of sensitivity analyses has been performed and the results from these analyses have been compared to the original optimisation. The analyses indicate that the result of an optimisation is rather stable. However, it is not possible to draw any certain conclusions without performing a number of sensitivity analyses. Significant differences in the optimisation result were discovered when analysing an alternative configuration. Also deterministic uncertainties seem to affect the result of an optimisation largely. The sensitivity of failure data uncertainties is important to investigate in detail since the methodology is based on the assumption that the unavailability of a component is dependent on the length of the test interval

  9. Construction Process Simulation and Safety Analysis Based on Building Information Model and 4D Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhenzhong; ZHANG Jianping; DENG Ziyin

    2008-01-01

    Time-dependent structure analysis theory has been proved to be more accurate and reliable com-pared to commonly used methods during construction. However, so far applications are limited to partial pe-riod and part of the structure because of immeasurable artificial intervention. Based on the building informa-tion model (BIM) and four-dimensional (4D) technology, this paper proposes an improves structure analysis method, which can generate structural geometry, resistance model, and loading conditions automatically by a close interlink of the schedule information, architectural model, and material properties. The method was applied to a safety analysis during a continuous and dynamic simulation of the entire construction process.The results show that the organic combination of the BIM, 4D technology, construction simulation, and safety analysis of time-dependent structures is feasible and practical. This research also lays a foundation for further researches on building lifecycle management by combining architectural design, structure analy-sis, and construction management.

  10. Criticality accident in uranium fuel processing plant. Questionnaires from Research Committee of Nuclear Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, Isao; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    The Research Committee of Nuclear Safety carried out a research on criticality accident at the JCO plant according to statement of president of the Japan Atomic Energy Society on October 8, 1999, of which results are planned to be summarized by the constitutions shown as follows, for a report on the 'Questionnaires of criticality accident in the Uranium Fuel Processing Plant of the JCO, Inc.': general criticality safety, fuel cycle and the JCO, Inc.; elucidation on progress and fact of accident; cause analysis and problem picking-up; proposals on improvement; and duty of the Society. Among them, on last two items, because of a conclusion to be required for members of the Society at discussions of the Committee, some questionnaires were send to more than 1800 of them on April 5, 2000 with name of chairman of the Committee. As results of the questionnaires contained proposals and opinions on a great numbers of fields, some key-words like words were found on a shape of repeating in most questionnaires. As they were thought to be very important nuclei in these two items, they were further largely classified to use for summarizing proposals and opinions on the questionnaires. This questionnaire had a big characteristic on the duty of the Society in comparison with those in the other organizations. (G.K.)

  11. Handbook of methods for risk-based analysis of technical specification requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements were based on deterministic analysis and engineering judgments. Experiences with plant operation indicate that some elements of the requirements are unnecessarily restrictive, while others may not be conducive to safety. Improvements in these requirements are facilitated by the availability of plant specific Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The use of risk and reliability-based methods to improve TS requirements has gained wide interest because these methods can: Quantitatively evaluate the risk and justify changes based on objective risk arguments; Provide a defensible basis for these requirements for regulatory applications. The US NRC Office of Research is sponsoring research to develop systematic risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. The handbook of methods, which is being prepared, summarizes such risk-based methods. The scope of the handbook includes reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), defenses against common-cause failures, managing plant configurations, and scheduling maintenances. For each topic, the handbook summarizes methods of analysis and data needs, outlines the insights to be gained, lists additional references, and presents examples of evaluations

  12. Handbook of methods for risk-based analysis of Technical Specification requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1993-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements were based on deterministic analysis and engineering judgments. Experiences with plant operation indicate that some elements of the requirements are unnecessarily restrictive, while others may not be conducive to safety. Improvements in these requirements are facilitated by the availability of plant specific Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). The use of risk and reliability-based methods to improve TS requirements has gained wide interest because these methods can: quantitatively evaluate the risk impact and justify changes based on objective risk arguments. Provide a defensible basis for these requirements for regulatory applications. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Office of Research is sponsoring research to develop systematic risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. The handbook of methods, which is being prepared, summarizes such risk-based methods. The scope of the handbook includes reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), defenses against common-cause failures, managing plant configurations, and scheduling maintenances. For each topic, the handbook summarizes methods of analysis and data needs, outlines the insights to be gained, lists additional references, and presents examples of evaluations

  13. Cost effectiveness of risk-based closures at UST sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, K.M.; Baker, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    Risk-based closures have been achieved at Underground Storage Tank (UST) sites throughout the country for a major transportation company. The risk-based closures were cost-effective because a streamlined risk-based approach was used instead of the generic baseline risk assessment approach. USEPA has recently provided guidance encouraging the use of risk-based methodology for achieving closure at UST sites. The risk-based approach used in achieving the site closures involved an identification of potential human and ecological receptors and exposure pathways, and a comparison of maximum onsite chemical concentrations to applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). The ARARs used in the evaluation included Federal and/or State Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for groundwater and risk-based screening levels for soils. If the maximum concentrations were above the screening levels, a baseline risk assessment was recommended. In several instances, however, the risk-based approach resulted in a regulatory agency acceptance of a ''no further action'' alternative at UST sites which did not pose a significant threat to human health and the environment. The cost of the streamlined risk-based approach is approximately $3,500, while a baseline risk assessment for the same UST site could cost up to $10,000 or more. The use of the streamlined risk-based approach has proven to be successful for achieving a ''no further action'' outcome for the client at a reasonable cost

  14. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  15. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zueng-Sang Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1 food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2 a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3 risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4 soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.

  16. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  17. Risk analysis of heat recovery steam generator with semi quantitative risk based inspection API 581

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prayogo, Galang Sandy, E-mail: gasandylang@live.com; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang (Indonesia); Kim, Seon Jin [Department of Mechanical & Automotive Engineering of Pukyong National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-19

    Corrosion is a major problem that most often occurs in the power plant. Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) is an equipment that has a high risk to the power plant. The impact of corrosion damage causing HRSG power plant stops operating. Furthermore, it could be threaten the safety of employees. The Risk Based Inspection (RBI) guidelines by the American Petroleum Institute (API) 58 has been used to risk analysis in the HRSG 1. By using this methodology, the risk that caused by unexpected failure as a function of the probability and consequence of failure can be estimated. This paper presented a case study relating to the risk analysis in the HRSG, starting with a summary of the basic principles and procedures of risk assessment and applying corrosion RBI for process industries. The risk level of each HRSG equipment were analyzed: HP superheater has a medium high risk (4C), HP evaporator has a medium-high risk (4C), and the HP economizer has a medium risk (3C). The results of the risk assessment using semi-quantitative method of standard API 581 based on the existing equipment at medium risk. In the fact, there is no critical problem in the equipment components. Damage mechanisms were prominent throughout the equipment is thinning mechanism. The evaluation of the risk approach was done with the aim of reducing risk by optimizing the risk assessment activities.

  18. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2010-01-01

    Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan. PMID:21139851

  19. Prediction of the safety level in a tritium processing facility through predictive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghel, Vasile

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The safety level of a nuclear facility for personnel and environment depends generally on the technological process quality of operation and maintenance and particularly on several technical, technological, economic, and human factors. The role of maintenance is fundamental because it is determined by all the technical, economic and human elements as parts of an integrated system dominated by an important feedback from upstream activities which eventually define the life cycle of the nuclear facility considered. In the maintenance activity as in case of any dynamic area, new elements may appear which, sometimes, require new methods of approach. For considered installation which is a Nuclear Detritiation Plant (NDP) operating as a division of the National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies - ICSI, Rm.Valcea, in order to ensure a safety level in operation as high as possible through predictive maintenance, the fuzzy theory and software LabVIEW were applied. The final aim is to achieve the best practices in maintenance of the tritium processing plant. The safety in operation of the NDP equipment and installations is directly related with the maintenance achieved by improving the reliability through methods and advanced techniques. The maintainability is the capacity of an industrial product, in given utilization conditions, to be maintained and re-established up to achieve specified functions. In general the reliability on some interval is a probability conditioned by good operation at the beginning of the interval, representing thus the probability as the element which operated at t = t 0 to operate in the interval (t 0 , t 1 ). The failure is a fundamental event in the reliability theory. Breakdown (failure) is understood as the stop process of the function required from a given product, the failure representing the effect upon that process. The operation of a product on a certain duration can be a 'success' or a

  20. Safety of parsley intended for processing depending on the cultivation technology and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobereżny Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect the value of parsley for consumption include its taste, flavour and dietary utility (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and iron, raw fibre, proteins as well as the content of hazardous substances, especially nitrogen compounds. A study was carried out in 2013–2015 to determine the effect of the cultivation technology and storage on the safety of parsley intended for processing. The study material was taken from an experiment where the following fertilisers were applied to the ground: nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N∙ha−1 and magnesium (0; 30 kg Mg∙ha−1. Parsley roots were stored for six months in a storage room at +1°C and RH 95%. The content of nitrates (V and (III was determined by the ion selective method immediately after the harvest and after storage in parsley roots.

  1. Improved people detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B., E-mail: seixas@lps.ufrj.br, E-mail: eduardo@smt.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Eletrica; Waintraub, Fabio, E-mail: fabiowaintraub@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Departamento de Engenharia Eletronica e de Computacao

    2013-07-01

    This work describes improvements in a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The objective is to track people online in video, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during working tasks executed in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a nuclear research reactor, Argonauta. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta room, supplying the data needed. Video processing methods were combined for detecting and tracking people in video. More specifically, segmentation, performed by background subtraction, was combined with a tracking method based on color distribution. The use of both methods improved the overall results. An alternative approach was also evaluated, by means of blind source signal separation. Results are commented, along with perspectives. (author)

  2. Improved people detection in nuclear plants by video processing for safety purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Seixas, Jose M.; Silva, Eduardo Antonio B.; Waintraub, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    This work describes improvements in a surveillance system for safety purposes in nuclear plants. The objective is to track people online in video, in order to estimate the dose received by personnel, during working tasks executed in nuclear plants. The estimation will be based on their tracked positions and on dose rate mapping in a nuclear research reactor, Argonauta. Cameras have been installed within Argonauta room, supplying the data needed. Video processing methods were combined for detecting and tracking people in video. More specifically, segmentation, performed by background subtraction, was combined with a tracking method based on color distribution. The use of both methods improved the overall results. An alternative approach was also evaluated, by means of blind source signal separation. Results are commented, along with perspectives. (author)

  3. Risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Sanaa, Moez; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) allows evaluating the public health impact of food safety targets to support the control of foodborne pathogens. We estimate the risk reduction of setting microbiological criteria (MCs) for Campylobacter on broiler meat in 25 European countries......, applying quantitative data from the 2008 EU baseline survey. We demonstrate that risk based MCs can be derived without explicit consideration of Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives. Published QMRA models for the consumer phase and dose response provide a relation between Campylobacter...

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of a modified process hepatitis B vaccine in healthy neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Gianmaria; McCarson, Barbara J; Reisinger, Keith S; Martin, Jason C; Stek, Jon E; Atkins, Barbara M; Nadig, Karin B; Liska, Vladimir; Schödel, Florian P; Bhuyan, Prakash K

    2012-02-14

    A manufacturing process using a modified adjuvant was developed to optimize the consistency and immunogenicity for recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (control: RECOMBIVAX-HB™). This modified process hepatitis B vaccine (mpHBV), which was previously shown to have an acceptable safety and immunogenicity profile in young adults, has now been studied in newborn infants. Healthy 1-10-day-old neonates (N=566) received 3 intramuscular doses (5μg hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] per dose) of either mpHBV or control at Day 1, and Months 1 and 6. Serum antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) was assayed at Month 7 (1 month Postdose 3). Anti-HBs geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroprotection rates (SPRs) (% of subjects with an anti-HBs titer ≥10mIU/mL) were compared at Month 7. After each dose, injection-site adverse experiences (AEs) and axillary temperatures were recorded for 5 days; systemic AEs were recorded for Days 1-14. Month 7 SPR was 97.9% for the mpHBV group and 98.9% for the control. The GMT was 843.7mIU/mL for the mpHBV group and 670.1mIU/mL for the control. The GMT ratio (mpHBV/control) was 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94, 1.69), meeting the prespecified non-inferiority criteria. The percentages of subjects reporting any AE, injection-site AEs, or systemic AEs were similar across the 2 vaccination groups. There were no serious AEs. The safety profile of mpHBV was comparable to that of the control vaccine. The geometric mean antibody titer for mpHBV was higher than control vaccine in this infant population, but the difference did not meet the predefined statistical criterion for superiority. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The regulatory process, nuclear safety research and the fuel cycle in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, P.

    1996-01-01

    The main legislation governing the safety of nuclear installations in the United Kingdom is the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (HSWA) and the associated relevant statutory provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 (as amended). The HSWA sought to simplify and unify all industrial safety legislation and set in place the Health and Safety Commission (HSC) and its executive arm, the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). The Health and Safety Executive's Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) regulates the nuclear activities on such sites through HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (NII). Under the Nuclear Installations Act (NIA) no corporate body may use any site for the purpose of installing or operating any reactor, other than such a reactor comprised in a means of transport, or other prescribed installation unless the operator has been granted a nuclear site licence by the Health and Safety Executive. Nuclear fuel cycle facilities are examples of such prescribed installations. (J.P.N.)

  6. Safety Philosophy in Process Heat Plants Coupled to High Temperature Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Revankar, Shripad T.

    2011-01-01

    With the future availability of fossil fuel resources in doubt, high temperature nuclear reactors have the potential to be an important technology in the near term. Due to a high coolant outlet temperature, high temperature reactors (HTR) can be used to drive chemical plants that directly utilize process heat. Additionally, the high temperature improves the thermodynamic efficiency of the energy utilization. Many applications of high temperature reactors exist as a thermal driving vector for endothermic chemical process plants. Hydrogen generation using the General Atomics (GA) sulfur iodine (SI) cycle is one promising application of high temperature nuclear heat. The main chemical reactions in the SI cycle are: 1. I 2 +SO 2 + 2H 2 O → 2HI + H 2 SO 4 (Bunsen reaction) 2. H 2 SO 4 → H 2 O + SO 2 + 1/2O 2 (Sulfuric acid decomposition) 3. 2HI → H 2 + I 2 (Hydrogen Iodide decomposition). With the exception of hydrogen and oxygen, all relevant reactants are recycled within the process. However, there are many unresolved safety and operational issues related to implementation of such a coupled plant

  7. Improving Safety, Quality and Efficiency through the Management of Emerging Processes: The TenarisDalmine Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonometti, Patrizia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this contribution is to describe a new complexity-science-based approach for improving safety, quality and efficiency and the way it was implemented by TenarisDalmine. Design/methodology/approach: This methodology is called "a safety-building community". It consists of a safety-behaviour social self-construction…

  8. GASVOL 18'' gas pipeline - risk based inspection study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoernoey, Ola H.; Etterdal, Birger A. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Guarize, Rosimar; Oliveira, Luiz F.S. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV) (Brazil); Faertes, Denise; Dias, Ricardo [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper describes a risk based approach and inspection planning as part of the Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) system for the 95.5 km long 18'' GASVOL gas pipeline in the South eastern region of Brazil transporting circa 5 000 000 m3 dry gas per day. Pipeline systems can be subject to several degradation mechanisms and inspection and monitoring are used to ensure system integrity. Modern pipeline regulations and codes are normally based on a core safety or risk philosophy. The detailed design requirements presented in design codes are practical interpretations established so as to fulfill these core objectives. A given pipeline, designed, constructed and installed according to a pipeline code is therefore the realization of a structure, which, along its whole length, meets the applicable safety objectives of that code. The main objective of Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) is to control and document the integrity of the pipeline for its whole service life, and to do this in a cost-effective manner. DNV has a specific approach to RBI planning, starting with an initial qualitative assessment where pipelines and damage type are ranked according to risk and potential risk reduction by an inspection and then carried forward to a quantitative detailed assessment where the level of complexity and accuracy can vary based on availability of information and owner needs. Detailed assessment requires significant effort in data gathering. The findings are dependent upon the accuracy of the inspection data, and on DNV's interpretation of the pipeline reference system and simplifications in the inspection data reported. The following specific failure mechanisms were investigated: internal corrosion, external corrosion, third party interference, landslides and black powder. RBI planning, in general words, is a 'living process'. In order to optimize future inspections, it is essential that the analyses utilize the most recent information regarding

  9. A UMLS-based spell checker for natural language processing in vaccine safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Fang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Institute of Medicine has identified patient safety as a key goal for health care in the United States. Detecting vaccine adverse events is an important public health activity that contributes to patient safety. Reports about adverse events following immunization (AEFI from surveillance systems contain free-text components that can be analyzed using natural language processing. To extract Unified Medical Language System (UMLS concepts from free text and classify AEFI reports based on concepts they contain, we first needed to clean the text by expanding abbreviations and shortcuts and correcting spelling errors. Our objective in this paper was to create a UMLS-based spelling error correction tool as a first step in the natural language processing (NLP pipeline for AEFI reports. Methods We developed spell checking algorithms using open source tools. We used de-identified AEFI surveillance reports to create free-text data sets for analysis. After expansion of abbreviated clinical terms and shortcuts, we performed spelling correction in four steps: (1 error detection, (2 word list generation, (3 word list disambiguation and (4 error correction. We then measured the performance of the resulting spell checker by comparing it to manual correction. Results We used 12,056 words to train the spell checker and tested its performance on 8,131 words. During testing, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV for the spell checker were 74% (95% CI: 74–75, 100% (95% CI: 100–100, and 47% (95% CI: 46%–48%, respectively. Conclusion We created a prototype spell checker that can be used to process AEFI reports. We used the UMLS Specialist Lexicon as the primary source of dictionary terms and the WordNet lexicon as a secondary source. We used the UMLS as a domain-specific source of dictionary terms to compare potentially misspelled words in the corpus. The prototype sensitivity was comparable to currently available

  10. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Process report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribi, Peter; Johnson, Lawrence; Suter, Daniel; Smith, Paul; Pastina, Barbara; Snellman, Margit

    2008-01-01

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. In the KBS-3H design alternative, each canister, with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, is placed in a perforated steel cylinder prior to emplacement; the entire assembly is called the supercontainer. Several supercontainers are positioned along parallel, 100-300 m long deposition drifts, which are sealed following waste emplacement using drift end plugs. Bentonite distance blocks separate the supercontainers, one from another, along the drift. Steel compartment plugs can be used to seal off drift sections with higher inflow, thus isolating the different compartments within the drift. The present report describes the main processes potentially affecting the long-term safety of the system, covering radiation-related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical (including microbiological) and radionuclide transport-related processes. The process descriptions deal sequentially with the main sub-systems: fuel/cavity in canister, cast iron insert and copper canister, buffer and other bentonite components, supercontainer

  11. Safety assessment for a KBS-3H spent nuclear fuel repository at Olkiluoto. Process report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gribi, Peter; Johnson, Lawrence; Suter, Daniel; Smith, Paul; Pastina, Barbara; Snellman, Margit

    2008-01-15

    The KBS-3 method, based on multiple barriers, is the proposed spent fuel disposal method both in Sweden and Finland. KBS-3H and KBS-3V are the two design alternatives of the KBS-3 spent fuel disposal method. Posiva and SKB have conducted a joint research, demonstration and development (RDandD) programme in 2002-2007 with the overall aim of establishing whether KBS-3H represents a feasible alternative to the reference alternative KBS-3V. The overall objectives of the present phase covering the period 2004-2007 have been to demonstrate that the horizontal deposition alternative is technically feasible and to demonstrate that it fulfils the same long-term safety requirements as KBS-3V. The safety studies conducted as part of this programme include a safety assessment of a preliminary design of a KBS-3H repository for spent nuclear fuel located about 400 m underground at the Olkiluoto site, which is the proposed site for a spent fuel repository in Finland. In the KBS-3H design alternative, each canister, with a surrounding layer of bentonite clay, is placed in a perforated steel cylinder prior to emplacement; the entire assembly is called the supercontainer. Several supercontainers are positioned along parallel, 100-300 m long deposition drifts, which are sealed following waste emplacement using drift end plugs. Bentonite distance blocks separate the supercontainers, one from another, along the drift. Steel compartment plugs can be used to seal off drift sections with higher inflow, thus isolating the different compartments within the drift. The present report describes the main processes potentially affecting the long-term safety of the system, covering radiation-related, thermal, hydraulic, mechanical, chemical (including microbiological) and radionuclide transport-related processes. The process descriptions deal sequentially with the main sub-systems: fuel/cavity in canister, cast iron insert and copper canister, buffer and other bentonite components, supercontainer

  12. Overview of the U. S. flight safety process for space nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The two current types of nuclear power sources used in U. S. spacecraft are described along with the flight safety philosophies governing their use. In the case of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, the design philosophy consists of containment, immobilization, and recovery of the nuclear materials. For reactors, the emphasis is on maintaining a subcritical configuration in all credible accident environments. To document the safety activities, a safety analysis report is prepared for each mission. These reports, which are based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology pioneered by the space nuclear safety community, are subjected to an interagency safety review before a recommendation is made to approve the launch of a nuclear-powered spacecraft

  13. Risk based rulemaking and design - Proceed with caution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariadis, Panos; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2007-01-01

    The trend towards a risk based regulatory framework at IMO and within classification societies is expanding while some voices claim that a full ship risk based scantlings design approach can be immediately implementable. This paper attempts to clarify some widely used, but confusing to many, noti...

  14. 12 CFR 652.70 - Risk-based capital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... risk-based capital level is the sum of the following amounts: (a) Credit and interest rate risk. The... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital level. 652.70 Section 652.70 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE...

  15. Process management - critical safety issues with focus on risk management; Processtyrning - kritiska saekerhetsfraagor med inriktning paa riskhantering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, Johan M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). The Tema Inst. - Technology and Social Change

    2005-12-15

    Organizational changes focused on process orientation are taking place among Swedish nuclear power plants, aiming at improving the operation. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has identified a need for increased knowledge within the area for its regulatory activities. In order to analyze what process orientation imply for nuclear power plant safety a number of questions must be asked: 1. How is safety in nuclear power production created currently? What significance does the functional organization play? 2. How can organizational forms be analysed? What consequences does quality management have for work and for the enterprise? 3. Why should nuclear power plants be process oriented? Who are the customers and what are their customer values? Which customers are expected to contribute from process orientation? 4. What can one learn from process orientation in other safety critical systems? What is the effect on those features that currently create safety? 5. Could customer values increase for one customer without decreasing for other customers? What is the relationship between economic and safety interests from an increased process orientation? The deregulation of the electricity market have caused an interest in increased economic efficiency, which is the motivation for the interest in process orientation. among other means. It is the nuclear power plants' owners and the distributors (often the same corporations) that have the strongest interest in process orientation. If the functional organization and associated practices are decomposed, the prerequisites of the risk management regime changes, perhaps deteriorating its functionality. When nuclear power operators consider the introduction of process orientation, the Nuclear Power Inspectorate should require that 1. The operators perform a risk analysis beforehand concerning the potential consequences that process orientation might convey: the analysis should contain a model specifying how safety is currently

  16. Review of geosphere-biosphere interface processes and their handling in the safety case of Posiva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahdenperae, A.-M.

    2006-12-01

    The report describes list of databases of the Features, Events and Processes (FEPs) on the basis of the current knowledge and ranks them for their potential importance of radionuclide transport in the Safety Case. Due to vast amount of FEPs, only those assessed as potentially significant for the geosphere-biosphere interface zone (GBIZ) are described in detail. However, for scientific understanding also general main FEPs in the GBIZ are incorporated whether they affect directly radionuclide transport or not. The geosphere-biosphere interface zone, or the boundaries between the geosphere and biosphere modelling domains of the safety assessment, has been raised to an important issue but, according to the reports, it has so far taken into account rather poorly or not at all. Thus, it is acknowledged that a genuine site-specific treatment and incorporation of (deeper) overburden and aquifers into the biosphere models are needed to cover all relevant FEPs and to treat properly the zone in the modeling chain of groundwater flow and geosphere and biosphere transport of radionuclides. The principal variability in the GBIZ, especially in the biosphere, is driven by climatic change. The change from bedrock groundwater to bioavailable region takes place without gaps in the top bedrock to the overburden. However, it is important to recognise that there are regions in GBIZ that overlap the geosphere and biosphere model domains problems envisaged with the treatment of the GBIZ are associated with defining the boundary conditions for both far field and biosphere models. The GBIZ is not a separate modelling domain and the processes and events affecting the transport of radionuclides within the GBIZ should not be considered to be unidirectional. The biosphere is a diverse system under continuous development and impossible to model accurately. Thus, some inherent uncertainty already in the conceptual level of modelling has to be accepted. In addition of needs to handle spatial and

  17. Effects of moulds on the safety and processing quality of Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Marija D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and wheat products are frequently subjected to mould infestations. Many of them are potential producers of various mycotoxins. Some of the consequences, due to the infestations by genus Fusarium and Alternaria, are mostly: yield loss, decrease of biological and technological quality, and unacceptable quality of infected kernels for the production and processing into human food because of the possible presence of mycotoxins. It is unknown whether and how the contaminated grains are distributed during milling into various flour streams and finished products. Wholegrain flours and related products contain all anatomic parts of kernels, including mycotoxins. It is a known fact that mycotoxins are resistant to thermal degradation, so they do not loose their toxicity during processing. Moulds from genus Fusarium spp. and Alternaria spp. synthesize mycotoxins, mostly zearalenon and ochratoxin A. The aim of the investigation was to examine mould contamination of wheat grain, as well as to identify the isolated species, especially those capable of producing toxins, and to determine their impact on technological quality, safety and sanitary condition of wheat. Six varieties of wheat, contaminated with moulds, were investigated. Each sample was separated manually into four fractions: sound kernels, black germ kernels, kernels infected slightly and those infected severely with Fusarium spp.

  18. Applying the Precaution Adoption Process Model to the Acceptance of Mine Safety and Health Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Emily J

    2018-03-01

    Mineworkers are continually introduced to protective technologies on the job. Yet, their perceptions toward the technologies are often not addressed until they are actively trying to use them, which may halt safe technology adoption and associated work practices. This study explored management and worker perspectives toward three technologies to forecast adoption and behavioral intention on the job. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 21 mineworkers and 19 mine managers to determine the adoption process stage algorithm for workers and managers, including perceived barriers to using new safety and health technologies. Differences between workers and managers were revealed in terms of readiness, perceptions, and initial trust in using technologies. Workers, whether they had or had not used a particular technology, still had negative perceptions toward its use in the initial introduction and integration at their mine site, indicating a lengthy time period needed for full adoption. The key finding from these results is that a carefully considered and extended introduction of technology for workers in Stage 3 (undecided to act) is most important to promote progression to Stage 5 (decided to act) and to avoid Stage 4 (decided not to act). In response, organizational management may need to account for workers' particular stage algorithm, using the Precaution Adoption Process Model, to understand how to tailor messages about protective technologies, administer skill-based trainings and interventions that raise awareness and knowledge, and ultimately encourage safe adoption of associated work practices.

  19. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  20. A Probabilistic Safety Assessment of a Pyro-processed Waste Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2012-01-01

    A GoldSim template program for a safety assessment of a hybrid-typed repository system, called A-KRS, in which two kinds of pyro-processed radioactive wastes, low-level metal wastes and ceramic high-level wastes that arise from the pyro-processing of PWR nuclear spent fuels are disposed of, has been developed. This program is ready both for a deterministic and probabilistic total system performance assessment which is able to evaluate nuclide release from the repository and farther transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various normal, disruptive natural and manmade events, and scenarios. The A-KRS has been probabilistically assessed with 9 selected input parameters, each of which has its own statistical distribution for a normal release and transport scenario associated with nuclide release and transport in and around the repository. Probabilistic dose exposure rates to the farming exposure group have been evaluated. A sensitivity of 9 selected parameters to the result has also been investigated to see which parameter is more sensitive and important to the exposure rates.

  1. Beyond Texas City: the state of process safety in the unionized U.S. oil refining industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Lippin, Tobi Mae; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Anderson, Joseph; Beach, Josie; Beevers, Gary; Frederick, Randy J; Frederick, James; Greene, Tammy; Hoffman, Thomas; Lefton, James; Nibarger, Kim; Renner, Paul; Ricks, Brian; Seymour, Thomas; Taylor, Ren; Wright, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The March 2005 British Petroleum (BP) Texas City Refinery disaster provided a stimulus to examine the state of process safety in the U.S. refining industry. Participatory action researchers conducted a nation-wide mail-back survey of United Steelworkers local unions and collected data from 51 unionized refineries. The study examined the prevalence of highly hazardous conditions key to the Texas City disaster, refinery actions to address those conditions, emergency preparedness and response, process safety systems, and worker training. Findings indicate that the key highly hazardous conditions were pervasive and often resulted in incidents or near-misses. Respondents reported worker training was insufficient and less than a third characterized their refineries as very prepared to respond safely to a hazardous materials emergency. The authors conclude that the potential for future disasters plagues the refining industry. In response, they call for effective proactive OSHA regulation and outline ten urgent and critical actions to improve refinery process safety.

  2. Software Quality Assurance for Nuclear Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparkman, D R; Lagdon, R

    2004-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has undertaken an initiative to improve the quality of software used to design and operate their nuclear facilities across the United States. One aspect of this initiative is to revise or create new directives and guides associated with quality practices for the safety software in its nuclear facilities. Safety software includes the safety structures, systems, and components software and firmware, support software and design and analysis software used to ensure the safety of the facility. DOE nuclear facilities are unique when compared to commercial nuclear or other industrial activities in terms of the types and quantities of hazards that must be controlled to protect workers, public and the environment. Because of these differences, DOE must develop an approach to software quality assurance that ensures appropriate risk mitigation by developing a framework of requirements that accomplishes the following goals: (sm b ullet) Ensures the software processes developed to address nuclear safety in design, operation, construction and maintenance of its facilities are safe (sm b ullet) Considers the larger system that uses the software and its impacts (sm b ullet) Ensures that the software failures do not create unsafe conditions Software designers for nuclear systems and processes must reduce risks in software applications by incorporating processes that recognize, detect, and mitigate software failure in safety related systems. It must also ensure that fail safe modes and component testing are incorporated into software design. For nuclear facilities, the consideration of risk is not necessarily sufficient to ensure safety. Systematic evaluation, independent verification and system safety analysis must be considered for software design, implementation, and operation. The software industry primarily uses risk analysis to determine the appropriate level of rigor applied to software practices. This risk-based approach distinguishes safety

  3. Risk assessment for nuclear processes at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durant, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River Site, one of the US Department of Energy's nuclear materials processing facilities, has for many years conducted risk-based safety analyses for the nuclear processes conducted at the facilities. This approach has allowed comparisons of risks to established criteria for acceptability. When the risk-based program was begun, it was evident that its success would depend upon having a compilation of data that was site specific. The decision was made to create a data bank of undesirable events that had occurred at the site's nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities. From this modest beginning, five data banks have been created for nuclear fuel reprocessing, waste management, nuclear fuel fabrication, tritium operations, and the Savannah River Technology Center. In addition to the primary purpose of providing a sound basis for risk-based safety analyses, these highly versatile data banks are routinely used for equipment breakdown histories, incident investigations, design studies, project justifications, reliability studies, process problem solving, training, and audits

  4. Improved Process Used to Treat Aqueous Mixed Waste Results in Cost Savings and Improved Worker Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, D.S.; Preuss, D.E.; Belcher, K.J.; Rock, C.M.; Bray, W.S.; Herman, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    testing costs by 50-75%. Reduced treatment time also reduces worker radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) levels. Additionally, the treatment system components used previously were adapted to be used with the new AMWTS. This allowed for less dependence on personnel protective equipment (PPE) than the prior system by separating the waste handling/bulking steps of the process from the treatment steps. The AMWTS also improved worker safety by incorporating more automated engineering controls such as system logic controls; personnel safety and equipment protection interlocks, off normal condition indicators/alarms, and system emergency stop controls. In a time of ever-decreasing budgets, it makes sense to rethink the use of existing treatment systems. Utilizing, and possibly retooling, equipment and infrastructure may allow for reduced treatment costs and increase worker safety. (authors)

  5. TU-FG-201-12: Designing a Risk-Based Quality Assurance Program for a Newly Implemented Y-90 Microspheres Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vile, D; Zhang, L; Cuttino, L; Kim, S; Palta, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To create a quality assurance program based upon a risk-based assessment of a newly implemented SirSpheres Y-90 procedure. Methods: A process map was created for a newly implemented SirSpheres procedure at a community hospital. The process map documented each step of this collaborative procedure, as well as the roles and responsibilities of each member. From the process map, different potential failure modes were determined as well as any current controls in place. From this list, a full failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed by grading each failure mode’s likelihood of occurrence, likelihood of detection, and potential severity. These numbers were then multiplied to compute the risk priority number (RPN) for each potential failure mode. Failure modes were then ranked based on their RPN. Additional controls were then added, with failure modes corresponding to the highest RPNs taking priority. Results: A process map was created that succinctly outlined each step in the SirSpheres procedure in its current implementation. From this, 72 potential failure modes were identified and ranked according to their associated RPN. Quality assurance controls and safety barriers were then added for failure modes associated with the highest risk being addressed first. Conclusion: A quality assurance program was created from a risk-based assessment of the SirSpheres process. Process mapping and FMEA were effective in identifying potential high-risk failure modes for this new procedure, which were prioritized for new quality assurance controls. TG 100 recommends the fault tree analysis methodology to design a comprehensive and effective QC/QM program, yet we found that by simply introducing additional safety barriers to address high RPN failure modes makes the whole process simpler and safer.

  6. TU-FG-201-12: Designing a Risk-Based Quality Assurance Program for a Newly Implemented Y-90 Microspheres Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vile, D; Zhang, L; Cuttino, L; Kim, S; Palta, J [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To create a quality assurance program based upon a risk-based assessment of a newly implemented SirSpheres Y-90 procedure. Methods: A process map was created for a newly implemented SirSpheres procedure at a community hospital. The process map documented each step of this collaborative procedure, as well as the roles and responsibilities of each member. From the process map, different potential failure modes were determined as well as any current controls in place. From this list, a full failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was performed by grading each failure mode’s likelihood of occurrence, likelihood of detection, and potential severity. These numbers were then multiplied to compute the risk priority number (RPN) for each potential failure mode. Failure modes were then ranked based on their RPN. Additional controls were then added, with failure modes corresponding to the highest RPNs taking priority. Results: A process map was created that succinctly outlined each step in the SirSpheres procedure in its current implementation. From this, 72 potential failure modes were identified and ranked according to their associated RPN. Quality assurance controls and safety barriers were then added for failure modes associated with the highest risk being addressed first. Conclusion: A quality assurance program was created from a risk-based assessment of the SirSpheres process. Process mapping and FMEA were effective in identifying potential high-risk failure modes for this new procedure, which were prioritized for new quality assurance controls. TG 100 recommends the fault tree analysis methodology to design a comprehensive and effective QC/QM program, yet we found that by simply introducing additional safety barriers to address high RPN failure modes makes the whole process simpler and safer.

  7. CSER 96-014: criticality safety of project W-151, 241-AZ-101 retrieval system process test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vail, T.S., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report (CSER) documents a review of the criticality safety implications of a process test to be performed in tank 241-AZ-101 (101-AZ). The process test will determine the effectiveness of the retrieval system for mobilization of solids and the practicality of the system for future use in the underground storage tanks at Hanford. The scope of the CSER extends only to the testing and operation of the mixer pumps and does not include the transfer of waste from the tank. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality is extremely unlikely, if not impossible, in this tank.

  8. Improving timeliness and efficiency in the referral process for safety net providers: application of the Lean Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckard, Gloria J; Borkowski, Nancy; Diaz, Deisell; Sanchez, Carlos; Boisette, Serge A

    2010-01-01

    Designated primary care clinics largely serve low-income and uninsured patients who present a disproportionate number of chronic illnesses and face great difficulty in obtaining the medical care they need, particularly the access to specialty physicians. With limited capacity for providing specialty care, these primary care clinics generally refer patients to safety net hospitals' specialty ambulatory care clinics. A large public safety net health system successfully improved the effectiveness and efficiency of the specialty clinic referral process through application of Lean Six Sigma, an advanced process-improvement methodology and set of tools driven by statistics and engineering concepts.

  9. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A [Food Science and Technology Department, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-2610 (United States); Law, S Edward, E-mail: edlaw@engr.uga.edu [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Applied Electrostatics Laboratory www.ael.engr.uga.edu, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602-4435 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  10. Challenges in performance of food safety management systems: a case of fish processing companies in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussaga, Jamal B; Luning, Pieternel A; Tiisekwa, Bendantunguka P M; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2014-04-01

    This study provides insight for food safety (FS) performance in light of the current performance of core FS management system (FSMS) activities and context riskiness of these systems to identify the opportunities for improvement of the FSMS. A FSMS diagnostic instrument was applied to assess the performance levels of FSMS activities regarding context riskiness and FS performance in 14 fish processing companies in Tanzania. Two clusters (cluster I and II) with average FSMS (level 2) operating under moderate-risk context (score 2) were identified. Overall, cluster I had better (score 3) FS performance than cluster II (score 2 to 3). However, a majority of the fish companies need further improvement of their FSMS and reduction of context riskiness to assure good FS performance. The FSMS activity levels could be improved through hygienic design of equipment and facilities, strict raw material control, proper follow-up of critical control point analysis, developing specific sanitation procedures and company-specific sampling design and measuring plans, independent validation of preventive measures, and establishing comprehensive documentation and record-keeping systems. The risk level of the context could be reduced through automation of production processes (such as filleting, packaging, and sanitation) to restrict people's interference, recruitment of permanent high-skilled technological staff, and setting requirements on product use (storage and distribution conditions) on customers. However, such intervention measures for improvement could be taken in phases, starting with less expensive ones (such as sanitation procedures) that can be implemented in the short term to more expensive interventions (setting up assurance activities) to be adopted in the long term. These measures are essential for fish processing companies to move toward FSMS that are more effective.

  11. Electrostatic application of antimicrobial sprays to sanitize food handling and processing surfaces for enhanced food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Shawn M; Harrison, Mark A; Law, S Edward

    2011-01-01

    Human illnesses and deaths caused by foodborne pathogens (e.g., Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, etc.) are of increasing concern globally in maintaining safe food supplies. At various stages of the food production, processing and supply chain antimicrobial agents are required to sanitize contact surfaces. Additionally, during outbreaks of contagious pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., H1N1 influenza), public health requires timely decontamination of extensive surfaces within public schools, mass transit systems, etc. Prior publications verify effectiveness of air-assisted, induction-charged (AAIC) electrostatic spraying of various chemical and biological agents to protect on-farm production of food crops...typically doubling droplet deposition efficiency with concomitant increases in biological control efficacy. Within a biosafety facility this present work evaluated the AAIC electrostatic-spraying process for application of antimicrobial liquids onto various pathogen-inoculated food processing and handling surfaces as a food safety intervention strategy. Fluoroanalysis of AAIC electrostatic sprays (-7.2 mC/kg charge-to-mass ratio) showed significantly greater (p<0.05) mass of tracer active ingredient (A.I.) deposited onto target surfaces at various orientations as compared both to a similar uncharged spray nozzle (0 mC/kg) and to a conventional hydraulic-atomizing nozzle. Per unit mass of A.I. dispensed toward targets, for example, A.I. mass deposited by AAIC electrostatic sprays onto difficult to coat backsides was 6.1-times greater than for similar uncharged sprays and 29.0-times greater than for conventional hydraulic-nozzle sprays. Even at the 56% reduction in peracetic acid sanitizer A.I. dispensed by AAIC electrostatic spray applications, they achieved equal or greater CFU population reductions of Salmonella on most target orientations and materials as compared to uncharged sprays and conventional full-rate hydraulic

  12. Patient safety challenges in a case study hospital--of relevance for transfusion processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aase, Karina; Høyland, Sindre; Olsen, Espen; Wiig, Siri; Nilsen, Stein Tore

    2008-10-01

    The paper reports results from a research project with the objective of studying patient safety, and relates the finding to safety issues within transfusion medicine. The background is an increased focus on undesired events related to diagnosis, medication, and patient treatment in general in the healthcare sector. The study is designed as a case study within a regional Norwegian hospital conducting specialised health care services. The study includes multiple methods such as interviews, document analysis, analysis of error reports, and a questionnaire survey. Results show that the challenges for improved patient safety, based on employees' perceptions, are hospital management support, reporting of accidents/incidents, and collaboration across hospital units. Several of these generic safety challenges are also found to be of relevance for a hospital's transfusion service. Positive patient safety factors are identified as teamwork within hospital units, a non-punitive response to errors, and unit manager's actions promoting safety.

  13. Handbook of methods for risk-based analyses of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Mankamo, T.; Vesely, W.E.

    1994-12-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements are based on deterministic analysis and engineering judgments. Experiences with plant operation indicate that some elements of the requirements are unnecessarily restrictive, while a few may not be conducive to safety. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Office of Research has sponsored research to develop systematic risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. This handbook summarizes these risk-based methods. The scope of the handbook includes reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), scheduled or preventive maintenance, action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), and management of plant configurations resulting from outages of systems, or components. For each topic, the handbook summarizes analytic methods with data needs, outlines the insights to be gained, lists additional references, and gives examples of evaluations

  14. Handbook of methods for risk-based analyses of technical specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Mankamo, T. [Avaplan Oy, Espoo (Finland); Vesely, W.E. [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements are based on deterministic analysis and engineering judgments. Experiences with plant operation indicate that some elements of the requirements are unnecessarily restrictive, while a few may not be conducive to safety. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Office of Research has sponsored research to develop systematic risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. This handbook summarizes these risk-based methods. The scope of the handbook includes reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), scheduled or preventive maintenance, action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), and management of plant configurations resulting from outages of systems, or components. For each topic, the handbook summarizes analytic methods with data needs, outlines the insights to be gained, lists additional references, and gives examples of evaluations.

  15. Development of component reliability data for PSA and risk based management in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshihiro Tomioka; Mitsumasa Hirano; Shunsuke Kondo

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the outline of development of the component reliability data for PSA and risk based management in Japan. In the first part following the introduction, the development process is described. The next part describes issues discussed in the course of the development, which are treatment of zero failure data, error factor, estimation of unavailable failure rate and integral test

  16. Process and device for reducing the presence in the safety containment of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefel, M.

    1981-01-01

    If faults occur, the excess pressure in the safety containment has to be reduced. Part of the gas contents of the safety containment is drawn off for this purpose. Hydrogen up to a maximum of 3.5% by volume is added to the drawn-off gas. The gas enriched with hydrogen is taken through a recombiner, where part of the oxygen content of the gas burns with the hydrogen, producing water. The gas with reduced oxygen content is returned to the safety containment via the free end of an annular pipe. The pressure existing in the safety containment is reduced according to the reduction in oxygen content. (orig./HP) [de

  17. A Comparison of the Safety Analysis Process and the Generation IV Proliferation Resistance/Physical Protection Assessment Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. A. Bjornard; M. D. Zentner

    2006-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) is a vehicle for the cooperative international development of future nuclear energy systems. The Generation IV program has established primary objectives in the areas of sustainability, economics, safety and reliability, and Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP). In order to help meet the latter objective a program was launched in December 2002 to develop a rigorous means to assess nuclear energy systems with respect to PR and PP. The study of Physical Protection of a facility is a relatively well established methodology, but an approach to evaluate the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear fuel cycle is not. This paper will examine the Proliferation Resistance (PR) evaluation methodology being developed by the PR group, which is largely a new approach and compare it to generally accepted nuclear facility safety evaluation methodologies. Safety evaluation methods have been the subjects of decades of development and use. Further, safety design and analysis is fairly broadly understood, as well as being the subject of federally mandated procedures and requirements. It is therefore extremely instructive to compare and contrast the proposed new PR evaluation methodology process with that used in safety analysis. By so doing, instructive and useful conclusions can be derived from the comparison that will help to strengthen the PR methodological approach as it is developed further. From the comparison made in this paper it is evident that there are very strong parallels between the two processes. Most importantly, it is clear that the proliferation resistance aspects of nuclear energy systems are best considered beginning at the very outset of the design process. Only in this way can the designer identify and cost effectively incorporate intrinsic features that might be difficult to implement at some later stage. Also, just like safety, the process to implement proliferation resistance should be a dynamic

  18. A cross-sectional study to identify organisational processes associated with nurse-reported quality and patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvedt, Christine; Sjetne, Ingeborg Strømseng; Helgeland, Jon; Bukholm, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify organisational processes and structures that are associated with nurse-reported patient safety and quality of nursing. Design This is an observational cross-sectional study using survey methods. Setting Respondents from 31 Norwegian hospitals with more than 85 beds were included in the survey. Participants All registered nurses working in direct patient care in a position of 20% or more were invited to answer the survey. In this study, 3618 nurses from surgical and medical wards responded (response rate 58.9). Nurses' practice environment was defined as organisational processes and measured by the Nursing Work Index Revised and items from Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Outcome measures Nurses' assessments of patient safety, quality of nursing, confidence in how their patients manage after discharge and frequency of adverse events were used as outcome measures. Results Quality system, nurse–physician relation, patient safety management and staff adequacy were process measures associated with nurse-reported work-related and patient-related outcomes, but we found no associations with nurse participation, education and career and ward leadership. Most organisational structures were non-significant in the multilevel model except for nurses’ affiliations to medical department and hospital type. Conclusions Organisational structures may have minor impact on how nurses perceive work-related and patient-related outcomes, but the findings in this study indicate that there is a considerable potential to address organisational design in improvement of patient safety and quality of care. PMID:23263021

  19. An overview of process instrumentation, protective safety interlocks and alarm system at the JET facilities active gas handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, N.; Brennan, P.; Brown, K.; Gibbons, C.; Jones, G.; Knipe, S.; Manning, C.; Perevezentsev, A.; Stagg, R.; Thomas, R.; Yorkshades, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) Facilities Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) comprises ten interconnected processing sub-systems that supply, process and recover tritium from gases used in the JET Machine. Operations require a diverse range of process instrumentation to carry out a multiplicity of monitoring and control tasks and approximately 500 process variables are measured. The different types and application of process instruments are presented with specially adapted or custom-built versions highlighted. Forming part of the Safety Case for tritium operations, a dedicated hardwired interlock and alarm system provides an essential safety function. In the event of failure modes, each hardwired interlock will back-up software interlocks and shutdown areas of plant to a failsafe condition. Design of the interlock and alarm system is outlined and general methodology described. Practical experience gained during plant operations is summarised and the methods employed for routine functional testing of essential instrument systems explained

  20. CSER 00-003: Criticality Safety Evaluation report for PFP Magnesium Hydroxide Precipitation Process for Plutonium Stabilization Glovebox 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAN, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This Criticality Safety Evaluation Report analyzes the stabilization of plutonium/uranium solutions in Glovebox 3 using the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process at PFP. The process covered are the receipt of diluted plutonium solutions into three precipitation tanks, the precipitation of plutonium from the solution, the filtering of the plutonium precipitate from the solution, the scraping of the precipitate from the filter into boats, and the initial drying of the precipitated slurry on a hot plate. A batch (up to 2.5 kg) is brought into the glovebox as plutonium nitrate, processed, and is then removed in boats for further processing. This CSER establishes limits for the magnesium hydroxide precipitation process in Glovebox 3 to maintain criticality safety while handling fissionable material

  1. PENGARUH PELAKSANAAN RISK BASED INTERNAL AUDITING TERHADAP PENCEGAHAN FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmita Dewi Yuniarti Rozali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on internal audit Inspection Office Bank BRI Bandung Region. The sample used by 18 internal auditors in Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region saturated sampling method. Based on calculation of simple regression analysis obtained result that every increase of implementation of risk based internal auditing (X will lead to increase fraud prevention (Y. It shows that there is a positive influence between the implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on the internal audit of Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region.

  2. Risk-based inspection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1995-01-01

    A multidiscipline research programme was developed in the USA to establish risk-based inspections for NPP structures and equipment components. Based on this US research effort, the risk-based procedure for developing inspection guidelines for NPPs is described. The procedure includes the definition of systems, qualitative risk assessment, qualitative risk analysis and development of the inspection programme. The method, when adopted and modified, is recommended also for risk-based inspections of structures and equipment of WWER-type NPPs. A pilot application of the method to unit 1 of the Surry NPP is summarized. (Z.S.) 1 tab., 1 fig., 5 refs

  3. Current state of the auto-evaluation process of the behaviour code in the safety of research reactors in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani A, Y. R.; Salgado G, J. R.

    2011-11-01

    In Mexico, the regulator organism in nuclear matter is the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, and a nuclear research reactor exists, the TRIGA Mark III, operated by the National Institute of Nuclear Research. In this work the main aspects of the current state and the future challenges are presented with relationship to the installation of the auto-evaluation process of the behaviour code in the safety of research reactors for the TRIGA reactor case. Additionally, the legal mark of the licensing process for the nuclear activities in a research reactor is described in a brief way, and the main characteristics of the reactor, the uses for the isotopes production, the administration and the verification of the safety, the administration program of the radiological protection, the emergency plan and the operation personnel qualification are emphasized. (Author)

  4. The risk-based approach to ATMP development - generally accepted by regulators but infrequently used by companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, M; van Meer, P J K; Gispen-de Wied, C C; Moors, E H M; Hekkert, M P; Schellekens, H

    2013-11-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are the cutting edge of drug innovation. ATMPs have different challenges than other drug classes. To accommodate these challenges and facilitate science-driven development, flexibility in the requirements to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this rapidly evolving drug class is necessary. To create flexibility, the European Union introduced the risk-based approach. This approach provides the possibility of omitting guideline-based studies based on risk analyses. To gain insight into the effect of the risk-based approach on the non-clinical development of ATMPs, two questions are addressed in this paper. Firstly, "Do companies use a risk-based approach for the non-clinical development of ATMPs?" and, secondly, "Does the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) accept non-clinical development programs based on the risk-based approach?" Scientific advice letters formulated by the CHMP were analyzed. The risk-based approach was used to justify deviations from the guidelines in the majority (75%) of the cases. The CHMP accepted 40% of the proposals to omit studies and stated that additional data was necessary to make an informed decision for 35% of the proposals. This indicates that the risk-based approach facilitates the science-driven development of ATMPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Consumers Valuations and choice Processes of Food Safety Enhancement Attributes: An International Study of Beef Consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. Here we examine consumer preferences for various beef food safety assurances. In particular, we evaluate the extent to which such preferences are heterogeneous within and across

  6. Revolutionizing safety and security in the chemical and process industry: applying the CHESS concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.; Khakzad Rostami, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that a new concept, summarized as ‘CHESS’, should be used in the chemical industry to further substantially advance safety (where we use the term in a broad sense, that is, safety and physical security, amongst others). The different domains that need to be focused upon, and where

  7. Technical safety requirements (TSR) for waste receiving and processing (WRAP) facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidert, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    The scope of this TSR document is based on the WRAP Final Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-W026-SAR-002) and supporting documents. The administrative controls set forth in this TSR document are derived from the WRAP Final Safety Analysis Report

  8. Preliminary Safety Analysis of the Gorleben Site: Safety Concept and Application to Scenario Development Based on a Site-Specific Features, Events and Processes (FEP) Database - 13304

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenig, Joerg; Beuth, Thomas; Wolf, Jens [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Theodor-Heuss-Str. 4, D-38122 Braunschweig (Germany); Lommerzheim, Andre [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH, Eschenstr. 55, D-31224 Peine (Germany); Mrugalla, Sabine [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Stilleweg 2, D-30655 Hannover (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Based upon the German safety criteria, released in 2010 by the Federal Ministry of the Environment (BMU), a safety concept and a safety assessment concept for the disposal of heat-generating high-level waste have both been developed in the framework of the preliminary safety case for the Gorleben site (Project VSG). The main objective of the disposal is to contain the radioactive waste inside a defined rock zone, which is called containment-providing rock zone. The radionuclides shall remain essentially at the emplacement site, and at the most, a small defined quantity of material shall be able to leave this rock zone. This shall be accomplished by the geological barrier and a technical barrier system, which is required to seal the inevitable penetration of the geological barrier by the construction of the mine. The safe containment has to be demonstrated for probable and less probable evolutions of the site, while evolutions with very low probability (less than 1 % over the demonstration period of 1 million years) need not to be considered. Owing to the uncertainty in predicting the real evolution of the site, plausible scenarios have been derived in a systematic manner. Therefore, a comprehensive site-specific features, events and processes (FEP) data base for the Gorleben site has been developed. The safety concept was directly taken into account, e.g. by identification of FEP with direct influence on the barriers that provide the containment. No effort was spared to identify the interactions of the FEP, their probabilities of occurrence, and their characteristics (values). The information stored in the data base provided the basis for the development of scenarios. The scenario development methodology is based on FEP related to an impairment of the functionality of a subset of barriers, called initial barriers. By taking these FEP into account in their probable characteristics the reference scenario is derived. Thus, the reference scenario describes a

  9. Food safety through the training of 2-alcilciclobutanonas in processed foods by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Rodrigo Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Food irradiation is a means of preserving food which uses a processing technique that exposes the foods at a controlled high energy ionizing radiation. The treatment with the use of ionizing radiation in foods has many applications technologically and technically feasible, including the ability to improve the microbiological safety and reducing levels of pathogenic bacteria, inhibiting the germination of tubers plant application, preserving stored foods or the stability of storage and is also used to increase the shelf life of certain products due to the reduction of contamination by microorganisms. Due to the increase of international trade in food and the growing regulatory requirements of consumer markets increasingly importing and exporting countries have shown interest in food irradiation and conducted research in the practical application of this technology and detection methods of treatment. Numerous surveys were conducted worldwide, resulting in efficient protocols to identify which foods were irradiated or not. Until then, the 'myth' that irradiated food could not be detected and they were not formed any single radiation products has been replaced by the knowledge that many changes can occur in irradiated foods and these changes could be used as tools to identify this technology. The radiation processing resulting in characteristic patterns formations of saturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes, methyl and ethyl esters and 2-alcilciclobutanonas, depending on the fatty acid composition of the lipid that composes the food. Thus the purpose of this study was to collect data to compare the effects of different doses of gamma radiation and electron in foods that have fat to determine possible changes resulting from the use of irradiation, as the presence of 2-Alcilciclobutanonas and also show main equipment used for food irradiation and its categories, with the aim of informing the general public. (author)

  10. Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kussaga, J.B.; Jacxsens, L.; Tiisekwa, B.P.M.; Luning, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries’ efforts to provide safe food to both local and international

  11. 77 FR 50724 - Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... review of applications for permits and licenses. The DG entitled ``Developing Software Life Cycle... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0195] Developing Software Life Cycle Processes for Digital Computer Software Used in Safety Systems of Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  12. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  13. Rational risk-based decision support for drinking water well managers by optimized monitoring designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenhöfer, R.; Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.

    2011-12-01

    Advection-based well-head protection zones are commonly used to manage the contamination risk of drinking water wells. Considering the insufficient knowledge about hazards and transport properties within the catchment, current Water Safety Plans recommend that catchment managers and stakeholders know, control and monitor all possible hazards within the catchments and perform rational risk-based decisions. Our goal is to supply catchment managers with the required probabilistic risk information, and to generate tools that allow for optimal and rational allocation of resources between improved monitoring versus extended safety margins and risk mitigation measures. To support risk managers with the indispensable information, we address the epistemic uncertainty of advective-dispersive solute transport and well vulnerability (Enzenhoefer et al., 2011) within a stochastic simulation framework. Our framework can separate between uncertainty of contaminant location and actual dilution of peak concentrations by resolving heterogeneity with high-resolution Monte-Carlo simulation. To keep computational costs low, we solve the reverse temporal moment transport equation. Only in post-processing, we recover the time-dependent solute breakthrough curves and the deduced well vulnerability criteria from temporal moments by non-linear optimization. Our first step towards optimal risk management is optimal positioning of sampling locations and optimal choice of data types to reduce best the epistemic prediction uncertainty for well-head delineation, using the cross-bred Likelihood Uncertainty Estimator (CLUE, Leube et al., 2011) for optimal sampling design. Better monitoring leads to more reliable and realistic protection zones and thus helps catchment managers to better justify smaller, yet conservative safety margins. In order to allow an optimal choice in sampling strategies, we compare the trade-off in monitoring versus the delineation costs by accounting for ill

  14. A Framework for an Integrated Risk Informed Decision Making Process. INSAG-25. A Report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    There is general international agreement, as reflected in various IAEA Safety Standards on nuclear reactor design and operation, that both deterministic and probabilistic analyses contribute to reactor safety by providing insights, perspective, comprehension and balance. Accordingly, the integration of deterministic and probabilistic analyses is increasing to support design, safety evaluation and operations. Additionally, application of these approaches to physical security is now being considered by several Member States. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses yield outputs that are complementary to each other. There is thus a need to use a structured framework for consideration of deterministic and probabilistic techniques and findings. In this process, it is appropriate to encourage a balance between deterministic approaches, probabilistic analyses and other factors (see Section 3) in order to achieve an integrated decision making process that serves in an optimal fashion to ensure nuclear reactor safety. This report presents such a framework - a framework that is termed 'integrated risk informed decision making' (IRIDM). While the details of IRIDM methods may change with better understanding of the subject, the framework presented in this report is expected to apply for the foreseeable future. IRIDM depends on the integration of a wide variety of information, insights and perspectives, as well as the commitment of designers, operators and regulatory authorities to use risk information in their decisions. This report thus focuses on key IRIDM aspects, as well considerations that bear on their application which should be taken into account in order to arrive at sound risk informed decisions. This report is intended to be in harmony with the IAEA Safety Standards and various INSAG reports relating to safety assessment and verification, and seeks to convey an appropriate approach to enhance nuclear reactor safety

  15. A Framework for an Integrated Risk Informed Decision Making Process. INSAG-25. A Report by the International Nuclear Safety Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    There is general international agreement, as reflected in various IAEA Safety Standards on nuclear reactor design and operation, that both deterministic and probabilistic analyses contribute to reactor safety by providing insights, perspective, comprehension and balance. Accordingly, the integration of deterministic and probabilistic analyses is increasing to support design, safety evaluation and operations. Additionally, application of these approaches to physical security is now being considered by several Member States. Deterministic and probabilistic analyses yield outputs that are complementary to each other. There is thus a need to use a structured framework for consideration of deterministic and probabilistic techniques and findings. In this process, it is appropriate to encourage a balance between deterministic approaches, probabilistic analyses and other factors (see Section 3) in order to achieve an integrated decision making process that serves in an optimal fashion to ensure nuclear reactor safety. This report presents such a framework - a framework that is termed 'integrated risk informed decision making' (IRIDM). While the details of IRIDM methods may change with better understanding of the subject, the framework presented in this report is expected to apply for the foreseeable future. IRIDM depends on the integration of a wide variety of information, insights and perspectives, as well as the commitment of designers, operators and regulatory authorities ers, operators and regulatory authorities to use risk information in their decisions. This report thus focuses on key IRIDM aspects, as well considerations that bear on their application which should be taken into account in order to arrive at sound risk informed decisions. This report is intended to be in harmony with the IAEA Safety Standards and various INSAG reports relating to safety assessment and verification, and seeks to convey an appropriate approach to enhance nuclear reactor safety

  16. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (Dematel) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) for Safety Management System Evaluation Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolita, Lisa; Surarso, Bayu; Gernowo, Rahmat

    2018-02-01

    In order to improve airport safety management system (SMS) performance, an evaluation system is required to improve on current shortcomings and maximize safety. This study suggests the integration of the DEMATEL and ANP methods in decision making processes by analyzing causal relations between the relevant criteria and taking effective analysis-based decision. The DEMATEL method builds on the ANP method in identifying the interdependencies between criteria. The input data consists of questionnaire data obtained online and then stored in an online database. Furthermore, the questionnaire data is processed using DEMATEL and ANP methods to obtain the results of determining the relationship between criteria and criteria that need to be evaluated. The study cases on this evaluation system were Adi Sutjipto International Airport, Yogyakarta (JOG); Ahmad Yani International Airport, Semarang (SRG); and Adi Sumarmo International Airport, Surakarta (SOC). The integration grades SMS performance criterion weights in a descending order as follow: safety and destination policy, safety risk management, healthcare, and safety awareness. Sturges' formula classified the results into nine grades. JOG and SMG airports were in grade 8, while SOG airport was in grade 7.

  17. A method for risk-informed safety significance categorization using the analytic hierarchy process and bayesian belief networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    A risk-informed safety significance categorization (RISSC) is to categorize structures, systems, or components (SSCs) of a nuclear power plant (NPP) into two or more groups, according to their safety significance using both probabilistic and deterministic insights. In the conventional methods for the RISSC, the SSCs are quantitatively categorized according to their importance measures for the initial categorization. The final decisions (categorizations) of SSCs, however, are qualitatively made by an expert panel through discussions and adjustments of opinions by using the probabilistic insights compiled in the initial categorization process and combining the probabilistic insights with the deterministic insights. Therefore, owing to the qualitative and linear decision-making process, the conventional methods have the demerits as follows: (1) they are very costly in terms of time and labor, (2) it is not easy to reach the final decision, when the opinions of the experts are in conflict and (3) they have an overlapping process due to the linear paradigm (the categorization is performed twice - first, by the engineers who propose the method, and second, by the expert panel). In this work, a method for RISSC using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and bayesian belief networks (BBN) is proposed to overcome the demerits of the conventional methods and to effectively arrive at a final decision (or categorization). By using the AHP and BBN, the expert panel takes part in the early stage of the categorization (that is, the quantification process) and the safety significance based on both probabilistic and deterministic insights is quantified. According to that safety significance, SSCs are quantitatively categorized into three categories such as high safety significant category (Hi), potentially safety significant category (Po), or low safety significant category (Lo). The proposed method was applied to the components such as CC-V073, CV-V530, and SI-V644 in Ulchin Unit

  18. Risk-based decision analysis for groundwater operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document proposes a streamlined approach and methodology for performing risk assessment in support of interim remedial measure (IRM) decisions involving the remediation of contaminated groundwater on the Hanford Site. This methodology, referred to as ''risk-based decision analysis,'' also supports the specification of target cleanup volumes and provides a basis for design and operation of the groundwater remedies. The risk-based decision analysis can be completed within a short time frame and concisely documented. The risk-based decision analysis is more versatile than the qualitative risk assessment (QRA), because it not only supports the need for IRMs, but also provides criteria for defining the success of the IRMs and provides the risk-basis for decisions on final remedies. For these reasons, it is proposed that, for groundwater operable units, the risk-based decision analysis should replace the more elaborate, costly, and time-consuming QRA

  19. A risk-based review of Instrument Air systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMoss, G.; Lofgren, E.; Rothleder, B.; Villeran, M.; Ruger, C.

    1990-01-01

    The broad objective of this analysis was to provide risk-based information to help focus regulatory actions related to Instrument Air (IA) systems at operating nuclear power plants. We first created an extensive data base of summarized and characterized IA-related events that gave a qualitative indication of the nature and severity of these events. Additionally, this data base was used to calculate the frequencies of certain events, which were used in the risk analysis. The risk analysis consisted of reviewing published PRAs and NRC Accident Sequence Precursor reports for IA-initiated accident sequences, IA interactions with frontline systems, and IA-related risk significant events. Sensitivity calculations were performed when possible. Generically, IA was found to contribute less to total risk than many safety systems; however, specific design weaknesses in safety systems, non-safety systems, and the IA system were found to be significant in risk. 22 refs., 13 figs., 24 tabs

  20. Cooperation between the French and German safety authorities: a process of progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, A.C.; Hennenhoefer, G.

    1996-01-01

    Considerable efforts are devoted in several countries worldwide for the designing of a new generation of electro-nuclear reactors with noticeable safety improvements with respect to the existing units. The EPR (European Pressurized water Reactor) project is the first example of a joint survey and collaboration effort between two countries, France and Germany, both characterized by a strong nuclear industry and competence. Franco-German relations have considerably expanded in recent years, enabling the French and German electricians, manufacturers (EDF, Siemens, Framatome..), and safety authorities (DSIN, IPSN, BMU, GRS..) to adopt common positions and decisions on fundamental topics about technical aspects of safety. This kind of collaboration and alignment was obviously only possible because two conditions were fulfilled: the discussion concerned future reactors and not those already built for which safety rules and provisions are not easily modified; and a common industrial project existed and had consequently to comply with jointly defined safety objectives. These two conditions are still fulfilled, so it should be possible for the work between French and German safety authorities to continue successfully, even in the next more delicate stage, involving definition of common positions on more detailed technical provisions. Finally, it is unthinkable that this important work undertaken by France and Germany could be carried out without frequent consultation of the safety authorities of other nuclear countries, notably in Europe. (J.S.). 1 fig