WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk-based microbiological criteria

  1. Risk-based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat: A comparison of two approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Tuominen, Pirkko

    2015-01-01

    Risk-based microbiological criteria can offer a tool to control Campylobacter in the broiler meat production chain. Recently two approaches have been applied to derive such criteria and to analyse their potential impact in terms of human health risk reduction: the risk-based version...

  2. The challenge of setting risk-based microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Kirk; Nørrung, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    After more than 20 years of work with discussing the setting of microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes in foods, Codex Alimentarius on Food Hygiene has finalised a proposal that was recently adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The effort of developing procedures for making...... the microbiological criteria risk-based to the greatest extent possible has challenged scientists and managers during this long time period. Yet, the establishment of microbiological criteria for L. monocytogenes is still being discussed and several approaches are possible. Setting of microbiological criteria...

  3. Risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten; Sanaa, Moez; Havelaar, Arie H.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) allows evaluating the public health impact of food safety targets to support the control of foodborne pathogens. We estimate the risk reduction of setting microbiological criteria (MCs) for Campylobacter on broiler meat in 25 European countries......, applying quantitative data from the 2008 EU baseline survey. We demonstrate that risk based MCs can be derived without explicit consideration of Food Safety Objectives or Performance Objectives. Published QMRA models for the consumer phase and dose response provide a relation between Campylobacter...

  4. Application of TRiMiCri for the evaluation of risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter on broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-01-01

    A potential solution for the reduction of consumer exposure to Campylobacter is establishing a microbiological criterion (MC) for Campylobacter on broiler meat. In the present study the freely available software tool TRiMiCri was applied to evaluate risk-based microbiological criteria by two appr...... of microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in the EU is discussed. TRiMiCri provides user friendly software to evaluate the available data and can help risk managers in establishing risk based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat.......A potential solution for the reduction of consumer exposure to Campylobacter is establishing a microbiological criterion (MC) for Campylobacter on broiler meat. In the present study the freely available software tool TRiMiCri was applied to evaluate risk-based microbiological criteria by two...

  5. Establishment of Risk based microbiological criteria in the Nordic countries: A case study on Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauta, Maarten

    Microbiological criteria (MCs) offer a practical tool for food safety control and they are currently under discussion internationally. To meet the present scientific standards, there is an increasing demand for so- called “risk based” microbiological criteria that are based on risk assessment....... In this project we studied the potentials for setting risk based microbiological criteria on Campylobacter in chicken meat by studying the potential impact that specific microbiological criteria would have in different Nordic countries. This is done on the basis of different data sets that have been collected...... based microbiological criteria, the “case-by-case” risk assessment methodology is used (Christensen et al 2013) and its impact is analysed on the basis of the same data sets. In both approaches the same risk assessment model for Campylobacter in broiler meat is used. The difference between...

  6. A Bayesian approach to the evaluation of risk-based microbiological criteria for Campylobacter in broiler meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranta, Jukka; Lindqvist, Roland; Hansson, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Shifting from traditional hazard-based food safety management toward risk-based management requires statistical methods for evaluating intermediate targets in food production, such as microbiological criteria (MC), in terms of their effects on human risk of illness. A fully risk-based evaluation...... of MC involves several uncertainties that are related to both the underlying Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model and the production-specific sample data on the prevalence and concentrations of microbes in production batches. We used Bayesian modeling for statistical inference...

  7. Risk based seismic design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2) What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the safe-shutdown-earthquake (SSE) ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented. (orig.)

  8. Maintenance evaluation using risk based criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres Valle, A.

    1996-01-01

    The maintenance evaluation is currently performed by using economic and, in some case, technical equipment failure criteria, however this is done to a specific equipment level. In general, when statistics are used the analysis for maintenance optimization are made isolated and whit a post mortem character; The integration provided by mean of Probabilistic Safety assessment (PSA) together with the possibilities of its applications, allow for evaluation of maintenance on the basis of broader scope criteria in regard to those traditionally used. The evaluate maintenance using risk based criteria, is necessary to follow a dynamic and systematic approach, in studying the maintenance strategy, to allow for updating the initial probabilistic models, for including operational changes that often take place during operation of complex facilities. This paper proposes a dynamic evaluation system of maintenance task. The system is illustrated by means of a practical example

  9. A risk-based microbiological criterion that uses the relative risk as the critical limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Kirk; Nørrung, Birgit; da Costa Alves Machado, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A risk-based microbiological criterion is described, that is based on the relative risk associated to the analytical result of a number of samples taken from a food lot. The acceptable limit is a specific level of risk and not a specific number of microorganisms, as in other microbiological...... criteria. The approach requires the availability of a quantitative microbiological risk assessment model to get risk estimates for food products from sampled food lots. By relating these food lot risk estimates to the mean risk estimate associated to a representative baseline data set, a relative risk...... estimate can be obtained. This relative risk estimate then can be compared with a critical value, defined by the criterion. This microbiological criterion based on a relative risk limit is particularly useful when quantitative enumeration data are available and when the prevalence of the microorganism...

  10. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary); Zukal, E [Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  11. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary)); Zukal, E. (Inst. of Preservation and Livestock Products Technology, Univ. of Horticulture and Food Industry, Budapest (Hungary))

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.)

  12. Microbiological criteria for good manufacturing practice (GMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Zukal, E.

    1992-01-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP) consist of an effective manufacturing operation and an effective application of food control. GMP is best supported by the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system (HACCP) of the preventive quality assurance, which requires that food irradiation as any food processing technology should be used only with foods of an acceptable quality and adequate handling and storage procedures should precede and follow the processing. The paper concentrates on the first element of the HACCP system for an irradiation plant: the incoming product control, i.e. whether GMP of foods to be irradiated can be assessed by establishing microbiological criteria for their previous good manufacturing practice. In this regard, it summarizes considerations and findings of a ''Consultation on Microbiological Criteria for Foods to be Further Processed Including by Irradiation'' held in 1989 by the International Consultative Group on Food irradiation at the Headquarters of the World Health Organization, Geneva. Difficulties in establishing reference values and defining good manufacturing practices will be pointed out. (orig.) [de

  13. Management of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Risk Based Inspection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Hillier, Elizabeth; Andersen, Erlend S.

    . Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a degradation mechanism that has received increased attention from corrosion engineers and asset operators in the past decades. In this paper, the most recent models that have been developed in order to assess the impact of MIC on asset integrity will be presented...... and an extensive up-to date literature study. The parameters are discussed and subsequently combined in a novel procedure that allows assessment of MIC in a RBI analysis. The procedure is sub-divided into one screening step and a detailed assessment, which fits the recommended approach to assess risk in a RBI...

  14. Strategies and criteria for risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    A configuration, as used here, is a set of component operability or statuses that define the state of a nuclear power plant. Risk-based configuration control is the management of component configurations using a risk perspective to control risk and assure safety. If the component configurations that have high risk implications do not occur then the risk from the operation of nuclear power plants would be minimal. The control of component configurations, i.e., the management of component statuses, so that the risk from components being unavailable is minimized, becomes difficult because the status of a standby safety system component is often not apparent unless it is tested. In this paper, we discuss the strategies and criteria for risk-based configuration control in nuclear power plants. In developing these strategies and criteria, the primary objective is to obtain more direct risk control but the added benefit is the effective use of plant resources. Implementation of such approaches can result in replacement/modification of parts of Technical Specifications. Specifically, the risk impact or safety impact of a configuration depends upon four factors: (1) The configuration components which are simultaneously down (i.e., inoperable); (2) the backup components which are known to be up (i.e., operable); (3) the duration of time the configuration exists (the outage time); and (4) the frequency at which the configuration occurs. Risk-based configuration control involves managing these factors using risk analyses and risk insights. In this paper, we discuss each of the factors and illustrate how they can be controlled. The information and the tools needed in implementing configuration control are also discussed. The risk-based calculation requirements in achieving the control are also delineated. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Food safety assurance systems: Microbiological testing, sampling plans, and microbiological criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwietering, M.H.; Ross, T.; Gorris, L.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological criteria give information about the quality or safety of foods. A key component of a microbiological criterion is the sampling plan. Considering: (1) the generally low level of pathogens that are deemed tolerable in foods, (2) large batch sizes, and (3) potentially substantial

  16. Waste-acceptance criteria and risk-based thinking for radioactive-waste classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenthal, M.D.

    1998-01-01

    The US system of radioactive-waste classification and its development provide a reference point for the discussion of risk-based thinking in waste classification. The official US system is described and waste-acceptance criteria for disposal sites are introduced because they constitute a form of de facto waste classification. Risk-based classification is explored and it is found that a truly risk-based system is context-dependent: risk depends not only on the waste-management activity but, for some activities such as disposal, it depends on the specific physical context. Some of the elements of the official US system incorporate risk-based thinking, but like many proposed alternative schemes, the physical context of disposal is ignored. The waste-acceptance criteria for disposal sites do account for this context dependence and could be used as a risk-based classification scheme for disposal. While different classes would be necessary for different management activities, the waste-acceptance criteria would obviate the need for the current system and could better match wastes to disposal environments saving money or improving safety or both

  17. Waste management project’s alternatives: A risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmperis, Athanasios C.; Sotirchos, Anastasios; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examine the evaluation of a waste management project’s alternatives. ► We present a novel risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) approach. ► In the RBMCA the evaluation criteria are based on the quantitative risk analysis of the project’s alternatives. ► Correlation between the criteria weight values and the decision makers’ risk preferences is examined. ► Preference to the multi-criteria against the one-criterion evaluation process is discussed. - Abstract: This paper examines the evaluation of a waste management project’s alternatives through a quantitative risk analysis. Cost benefit analysis is a widely used method, in which the investments are mainly assessed through the calculation of their evaluation indicators, namely benefit/cost (B/C) ratios, as well as the quantification of their financial, technical, environmental and social risks. Herein, a novel approach in the form of risk-based multi-criteria assessment (RBMCA) is introduced, which can be used by decision makers, in order to select the optimum alternative of a waste management project. Specifically, decision makers use multiple criteria, which are based on the cumulative probability distribution functions of the alternatives’ B/C ratios. The RBMCA system is used for the evaluation of a waste incineration project’s alternatives, where the correlation between the criteria weight values and the decision makers’ risk preferences is analyzed and useful conclusions are discussed.

  18. Management of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion in Risk-Based Inspection Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Andersen, Erlend S.; Hillier, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    Operating offshore oil and gas production facilities is often associated with high risk. To manage the risk, operators commonly use aids to support decision making in the establishment of a maintenance and inspection strategy. Risk-based inspection (RBI) analysis is widely used in the offshore...... industry as a means to justify the inspection strategy adopted. The RBI analysis is a decision-making technique that enables asset managers to identify the risk related to failure of their most critical systems and components, with an effect on safety, environmental, and business-related issues. Risk...... influenced corrosion (MIC) is a degradation mechanism that has received increased attention from corrosion engineers and asset operators in the past decades. In this paper, the most recent models that have been developed to assess the impact of MIC on asset integrity will be presented and discussed. From...

  19. A risk-based approach to health criteria for radon indoors -report on a WHO initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.

    1994-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), Regional Office for Europe, organised a meeting of a working group on indoor air quality in Eilat, Israel, from 28 March to 4 April 1993. The aim was to develop a risk-based approach to health criteria for radon indoors. The Group reviewed the latest epidemiological data from occupational and non-occupational radon exposure, animal experiments and dosimetry. The Group issued 14 conclusions and 23 recommendations on radon related risk to health, on risk management and risk communication. In summary, radon was confirmed as a human carcinogen. Indoor radon exposures resulting in individual risks exceeding 10 -3 per year are to be considered as severe and risk reduction programmes implemented. Guidance on risk management and communication is offered to national authorities. (author)

  20. Options for improving hazardous waste cleanups using risk-based criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcock, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores how risk- and technology-based criteria are currently used in the RCRA and CERCLA cleanup programs. It identifies ways in which risk could be further incorporated into RCRA and CERCLA cleanup requirements and the implications of risk-based approaches. The more universal use of risk assessment as embodied in the risk communication and risk improvement bills before Congress is not addressed. Incorporating risk into the laws and regulations governing hazardous waste cleanup, will allow the use of the best scientific information available to further the goal of environmental protection in the United States while containing costs. and may help set an example for other countries that may be developing cleanup programs, thereby contributing to enhanced global environmental management

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William E. Kastenberg; Edward Blandford; Lance Kim

    2009-03-31

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF RISK-BASED AND TECHNOLOGY-INDEPENDENT SAFETY CRITERIA FOR GENERATION IV SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastenberg, William E.; Blandford, Edward; Kim, Lance

    2009-01-01

    This project has developed quantitative safety goals for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems. These safety goals are risk based and technology independent. The foundations for a new approach to risk analysis has been developed, along with a new operational definition of risk. This project has furthered the current state-of-the-art by developing quantitative safety goals for both Gen IV reactors and for the overall Gen IV nuclear fuel cycle. The risk analysis approach developed will quantify performance measures, characterize uncertainty, and address a more comprehensive view of safety as it relates to the overall system. Appropriate safety criteria are necessary to manage risk in a prudent and cost-effective manner. This study is also important for government agencies responsible for managing, reviewing, and for approving advanced reactor systems because they are charged with assuring the health and safety of the public

  3. Use of results of microbiological analyses for risk-based control of Listeria monocytogenes in marinated broiler legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarnisalo, Kaarina; Vihavainen, Elina; Rantala, Leila; Maijala, Riitta; Suihko, Maija-Liisa; Hielm, Sebastian; Tuominen, Pirkko; Ranta, Jukka; Raaska, Laura

    2008-02-10

    Microbial risk assessment provides a means of estimating consumer risks associated with food products. The methods can also be applied at the plant level. In this study results of microbiological analyses were used to develop a robust single plant level risk assessment. Furthermore, the prevalence and numbers of Listeria monocytogenes in marinated broiler legs in Finland were estimated. These estimates were based on information on the prevalence, numbers and genotypes of L. monocytogenes in 186 marinated broiler legs from 41 retail stores. The products were from three main Finnish producers, which produce 90% of all marinated broiler legs sold in Finland. The prevalence and numbers of L. monocytogenes were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation using WinBUGS, but the model is applicable to any software featuring standard probability distributions. The estimated mean annual number of L. monocytogenes-positive broiler legs sold in Finland was 7.2x10(6) with a 95% credible interval (CI) 6.7x10(6)-7.7x10(6). That would be 34%+/-1% of the marinated broiler legs sold in Finland. The mean number of L. monocytogenes in marinated broiler legs estimated at the sell-by-date was 2 CFU/g, with a 95% CI of 0-14 CFU/g. Producer-specific L. monocytogenes strains were recovered from the products throughout the year, which emphasizes the importance of characterizing the isolates and identifying strains that may cause problems as part of risk assessment studies. As the levels of L. monocytogenes were low, the risk of acquiring listeriosis from these products proved to be insignificant. Consequently there was no need for a thorough national level risk assessment. However, an approach using worst-case and average point estimates was applied to produce an example of single producer level risk assessment based on limited data. This assessment also indicated that the risk from these products was low. The risk-based approach presented in this work can provide estimation of public health risk

  4. Alternative risk-based criteria for transportation of radioactive materials on the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado, J.E.; Field, J.G.; Smith, R.J.; Wang, O.S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an alternative method to evaluate packaging safety for radioactive material transported solely within the boundaries of a restricted site; the method uses risk-based criteria to assess and document packaging safety. These criteria offer a standard against which the results of a risk assessment are compared to evaluate the safety of a transportation operation. Numerous payloads are transported entirely within the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site boundaries. The U.S. Department of Energy requires that the safety of onsite transportation be equivalent to the safety provided for transporting radioactive materials in commerce as regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Some onsite packaging configurations do not meet the performance criteria that form the basis of these regulations, necessitating the establishment of alternative criteria to evaluate safety. Quantitatively defined criteria have been derived from the U.S. Department of Transportation limits for package radiation levels, curie content, activity release, and external contamination levels. Recommendations of the International Committee on Radiation Protection may further restrict the criteria. The proposed method documents packaging safety in a transportation risk assessment. The assessment estimates accident frequencies, conservatively evaluates the dose consequences of these accidents, and compares the results to the established risk acceptance criteria. Specific Hanford Site onsite packaging and transportation issues illustrate the alternative method. The paper compares the solutions resulting from the application of risk-based criteria to those resulting from strict compliance with commercial transportation regulations. (author)

  5. Application of risk-based multiple criteria decision analysis for selection of the best agricultural scenario for effective watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi Sabbaghian, Reza; Zarghami, Mahdi; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Sharifi, Mohammad Bagher; Herman, Matthew R; Daneshvar, Fariborz

    2016-03-01

    Effective watershed management requires the evaluation of agricultural best management practice (BMP) scenarios which carefully consider the relevant environmental, economic, and social criteria involved. In the Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process, scenarios are first evaluated and then ranked to determine the most desirable outcome for the particular watershed. The main challenge of this process is the accurate identification of the best solution for the watershed in question, despite the various risk attitudes presented by the associated decision-makers (DMs). This paper introduces a novel approach for implementation of the MCDM process based on a comparative neutral risk/risk-based decision analysis, which results in the selection of the most desirable scenario for use in the entire watershed. At the sub-basin level, each scenario includes multiple BMPs with scores that have been calculated using the criteria derived from two cases of neutral risk and risk-based decision-making. The simple additive weighting (SAW) operator is applied for use in neutral risk decision-making, while the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and induced OWA (IOWA) operators are effective for risk-based decision-making. At the watershed level, the BMP scores of the sub-basins are aggregated to calculate each scenarios' combined goodness measurements; the most desirable scenario for the entire watershed is then selected based on the combined goodness measurements. Our final results illustrate the type of operator and risk attitudes needed to satisfy the relevant criteria within the number of sub-basins, and how they ultimately affect the final ranking of the given scenarios. The methodology proposed here has been successfully applied to the Honeyoey Creek-Pine Creek watershed in Michigan, USA to evaluate various BMP scenarios and determine the best solution for both the stakeholders and the overall stream health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological criteria in public catering: sampling and auditing experiences in canteens and cafeterias in Piedmont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaranta Traversa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2006-2011 six public catering establishments (3 canteens and 3 cafeterias were monitored, trough audit and sampling, in order to verify the application of good manufacturing and hygiene practices during food production, handling and serving. The compliance to microbiological food safety criteria (Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. and process hygiene criteria were investigated using ISO standards for microbiological analyses. A total of 612 samples were collected: 192 food samples and 288 environmental swab samples from canteens; 33 food samples and 99 swab samples from cafeterias. Regarding food safety, two samples were in disagreement with criteria fixed in EU Regulation as Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from a turkey breast in a canteen and from a sandwich in a cafeteria. Regarding process hygiene criteria, as no microbiological limits are legally defined for catering services, for this study limits were fixed according to the quality standards of tender, scientific literature and laboratory experience. 23.4% foodstuffs and 8.7% swabs resulted non-compliant in canteens; 48.5% foodstuffs and 6.1% swabs resulted non-compliant in cafeterias. The count of coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS was higher of the fixed limits in raw turkey meat and in cooked spinach: the presence among CPS of S. aureus was confirmed, strains were not able to produce enterotoxins. The most common non-compliance in hygiene criteria was represented by aerobic colony count (60.7% of total non-compliance in canteens and 75.0% in cafeterias and coliform bacteria (20.3% in canteens and 25.0% in cafeterias. Nine raw foods or raw readyto- eat food samples were non-compliant for both coliform bacteria and aerobic count; one sample (raw turkey meat was non-compliant for CPS and aerobic count but resulted to be compliant after cooking. Auditing and sampling are the most effective tools to improve food quality standard and to enhance food business

  7. Microbiological criteria for evaluating the sterility of objects of medical use and drugs: past and present state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorakova, V.

    1976-01-01

    The past and present status of microbiological criteria for radiosterilization is surveyed, outlining microbiological procedures proposed or used for selecting sterilizing doses, controlling sterilization, and checking sterility. Differences of opinion on questions of international standardization are noted and a possible method of dealing with checklists is proposed. (author)

  8. Evaluatiopn of Strategies for Modifying Urban Storm Water Drainage System Using Risk-based Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahsa soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate modification of existing urban storm water drainage networks may help reduce network inundation and flood-borne pollution risks. It will, therefore, be necessary to analyze the risks associated with water quantity and quality during urban flooding before any reconstruction strategies can be identified that are adaptable to, or compatible with, urban sustainable development strategies. In this paper, three network modification strategies are evaluated against the three criteria of network inundation at different sections, flood pollution risks, and modification plan costs. The modification strategies evaluated include the conventional approach of increasing conduit dimensions as well as the two novels swale and bio-retention systems. The strategies are then prioritised using a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA method. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case study of urban storm water drainage systems in the Golestan City in Tehran Province for which a hydrological and hydraulic simulation model has been developed using the SWMM software. The results show that the swale system is the best strategy with an approximate cost of 20 billion Rials (almost US$ 6 million. Compared to the existing system in operation, the proposed system will be capable of reducing 59% of the quantitative risk of flooding (inundation and 26% of the water quality risk (pollution loads.

  9. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shih-Yew

    1995-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities. (author)

  10. Development of risk-based computer models for deriving criteria on residual radioactivity and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing multimedia environmental pathway and health risk computer models to assess radiological risks to human health and to derive cleanup guidelines for environmental restoration, decommissioning, and recycling activities. These models are based on the existing RESRAD code, although each has a separate design and serves different objectives. Two such codes are RESRAD-BUILD and RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC. The RESRAD code was originally developed to implement the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) residual radioactive materials guidelines for contaminated soils. RESRAD has been successfully used by DOE and its contractors to assess health risks and develop cleanup criteria for several sites selected for cleanup or restoration programs. RESRAD-BUILD analyzes human health risks from radioactive releases during decommissioning or rehabilitation of contaminated buildings. Risks to workers are assessed for dismantling activities; risks to the public are assessed for occupancy. RESRAD-BUILD is based on a room compartmental model analyzing the effects on room air quality of contaminant emission and resuspension (as well as radon emanation), the external radiation pathway, and other exposure pathways. RESRAD-PROBABILISTIC, currently under development, is intended to perform uncertainty analysis for RESRAD by using the Monte Carlo approach based on the Latin-Hypercube sampling scheme. The codes being developed at ANL are tailored to meet a specific objective of human health risk assessment and require specific parameter definition and data gathering. The combined capabilities of these codes satisfy various risk assessment requirements in environmental restoration and remediation activities

  11. Risk-Based Approach for Microbiological Food Safety Management in the Dairy Industry: The Case of Listeria monocytogenes in Soft Cheese Made from Pasteurized Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Maffre, Alexandre; Sanaa, Moez

    2014-01-01

    According to Codex Alimentarius Commission recommendations, management options applied at the process production level should be based on good hygiene practices, HACCP system, and new risk management metrics such as the food safety objective. To follow this last recommendation, the use of quantitative microbiological risk assessment is an appealing approach to link new risk-based metrics to management options that may be applied by food operators. Through a specific case study, Listeria monocytogenes in soft cheese made from pasteurized milk, the objective of the present article is to practically show how quantitative risk assessment could be used to direct potential intervention strategies at different food processing steps. Based on many assumptions, the model developed estimates the risk of listeriosis at the moment of consumption taking into account the entire manufacturing process and potential sources of contamination. From pasteurization to consumption, the amplification of a primo-contamination event of the milk, the fresh cheese or the process environment is simulated, over time, space, and between products, accounting for the impact of management options, such as hygienic operations and sampling plans. A sensitivity analysis of the model will help orientating data to be collected prioritarily for the improvement and the validation of the model. What-if scenarios were simulated and allowed for the identification of major parameters contributing to the risk of listeriosis and the optimization of preventive and corrective measures. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Bayesian risk-based acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martz, H.F.; Abramson, L.R.; Johnson, J.W.

    1996-04-01

    Mechanistic (or deterministic) analysis is traditionally performed in the process of designing a new nuclear reactor or reactor core and also as part of the safety analysis of existing reactors or reload cores. Mechanistic accident analysis is characterized by the specification of an initial operating condition, an initiating event, and subsequent system faults. These subsequent faults are often chosen, through such mechanisms as the worst single failure criterion, so as to maximize the consequences of the accident. Thus, the behavior of all reactor system hardware is prescribed before this analysis begins. Mechanistic analysis then attempts to predict the dynamic response of the system and usually involves detailed reactor physics and thermal-hydraulic predictions of the system behavior, including such parameters as power distributions in the reactor core, coolant temperatures and flow rates, and fuel clad temperature distributions. The objective of this analysis has typically been to establish and verify reactor operating limits and technical specifications, so that severe core damage (SCD) is prevented for a wide variety of reactor accidents

  13. Risk based modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, O.J.V.; Baker, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Risk based analysis is a tool becoming available to both engineers and managers to aid decision making concerning plant matters such as In-Service Inspection (ISI). In order to develop a risk based method, some form of Structural Reliability Risk Assessment (SRRA) needs to be performed to provide a probability of failure ranking for all sites around the plant. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) can then be carried out to combine these possible events with the capability of plant safety systems and procedures, to establish the consequences of failure for the sites. In this way the probability of failures are converted into a risk based ranking which can be used to assist the process of deciding which sites should be included in an ISI programme. This paper reviews the technique and typical results of a risk based ranking assessment carried out for nuclear power plant pipework. (author)

  14. Salty Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneegurt, Mark A.; Wedel, Adrianne N.; Pokorski, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    Using microbiology activities in the classroom is an effective way for teachers to address National Standards in the life sciences. However, common microbiology activities that involve swabbing doorknobs and hands are too risky due to the likelihood of culturing human pathogens. In addition, making sterile media and maintaining sterile conditions…

  15. [Evaluation of the status of patients with severe infection, criteria for intensive care unit admittance. Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Spanish Society of Intensive and Critical Medicine and Coronary Units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaechea, Pedro M; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Sánchez, Miguel; Torres, Antonio; Palomar, Mercedes; Fernández, Pedro; Miró, José M; Cisneros, José Miguel; Torres, Manuel

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that early attention in patients with serious infections is associated with a better outcome. Assistance in intensive care units (ICU) can effectively provide this attention; hence patients should be admitted to the ICU as soon as possible, before clinical deterioration becomes irreversible. The objective of this article is to compile the recommendations for evaluating disease severity in patients with infections and describe the criteria for ICU admission, updating the criteria published 10 years ago. A literature review was carried out, compiling the opinions of experts from the Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica (SEIMC, Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) and the Sociedad Española de Medicina Intensiva, Crítica y Unidades Coronarias (SEMICYUC, Spanish Society for Intensive Medicine, Critical Care and Coronary Units) as well as the working groups for infections in critically ill patients (GEIPC-SEIMC and GTEI-SEMICYUC). We describe the specific recommendations for ICU admission related to the most common infections affecting patients, who will potentially benefit from critical care. Assessment of the severity of the patient's condition to enable early intensive care is stressed.

  16. Food microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain); Moss, M. O; Adams, M. R

    2008-01-01

    ... is directed primarily at students of Microbiology, Food Science and related subjects up to Master's level and assumes some knowledge of basic microbiology. We have chosen not to burden the text with references to the primary literature in order to preserve what we hope is a reasonable narrative flow. Some suggestions for further reading for each chapter are included in Chapter 12. These are largely review articles and monographs which develop the overview provided and can also give access to...

  17. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The objectives of the risk-based indicator programme. The characteristics of the risk-based indicators. The objectives of risk-based safety indicators - in monitoring safety; in PSA applications. What indicators? How to produce the risk based indicators? PSA requirements

  18. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  19. The challenge of defining risk-based metrics to improve food safety: inputs from the BASELINE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, Gerardo; De Cesare, Alessandra

    2014-08-01

    In 2002, the Regulation (EC) 178 of the European Parliament and of the Council states that, in order to achieve the general objective of a high level of protection of human health and life, food law shall be based on risk analysis. However, the Commission Regulation No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs requires that food business operators ensure that foodstuffs comply with the relevant microbiological criteria. Such criteria define the acceptability of a product, a batch of foodstuffs or a process, based on the absence, presence or number of micro-organisms, and/or on the quantity of their toxins/metabolites, per unit(s) of mass, volume, area or batch. The same Regulation describes a food safety criterion as a mean to define the acceptability of a product or a batch of foodstuff applicable to products placed on the market; moreover, it states a process hygiene criterion as a mean indicating the acceptable functioning of the production process. Both food safety criteria and process hygiene criteria are not based on risk analysis. On the contrary, the metrics formulated by the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 2004, named Food Safety Objective (FSO) and Performance Objective (PO), are risk-based and fit the indications of Regulation 178/2002. The main aims of this review are to illustrate the key differences between microbiological criteria and the risk-based metrics defined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and to explore the opportunity and also the possibility to implement future European Regulations including PO and FSO as supporting parameters to microbiological criteria. This review clarifies also the implications of defining an appropriate level of human protection, how to establish FSO and PO and how to implement them in practice linked to each other through quantitative risk assessment models. The contents of this review should clarify the context for application of the results collected during the EU funded project named BASELINE (www

  20. Risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following issues: The Configuration Control; The Risk-based Configuration Control (during power operation mode, and during shutdown mode). PSA requirements. Use of Risk-based Configuration Control System. Configuration Management (basic elements, benefits, information requirements)

  1. Soil microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, D.C.; Legg, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The major areas of soil microbiological and biochemical research which have involved both stable and radioactive isotopes are summarized. These include microbial decomposition of naturally occurring materials, microbial biomass, interactions of plants and microbes, denitrification, mineralization and immobilization of nitrogen and biological nitrogen fixation. (U.K.)

  2. Predictive Food Microbiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre

    Listeria monocytogenes is a well-known food borne pathogen that potentially causes listeriosis. No outbreaks or cases of listeriosis have been associated with cottage cheese, but several confirmed cases and outbreaks in the EU and the US have been related to dairy products made from raw...... or pasteurised milk. This, in combination with the fact that cottage cheese support growth of Listeria monocytogenes, induces a documentation requirement on the food producer. In the EU regulatory framework, mathematical models are recognised as a suitable supplement to traditional microbiological methods....... The models can be used for documentation of compliance with microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes under reasonably foreseeable conditions. Cottage cheese is a fresh, fermented dairy product. It consists of a fermented cheese curd mixed with a fresh or cultured cream dressing. The product...

  3. Risk-based and deterministic regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, L.E.; Brown, N.W.

    1995-07-01

    Both risk-based and deterministic methods are used for regulating the nuclear industry to protect the public safety and health from undue risk. The deterministic method is one where performance standards are specified for each kind of nuclear system or facility. The deterministic performance standards address normal operations and design basis events which include transient and accident conditions. The risk-based method uses probabilistic risk assessment methods to supplement the deterministic one by (1) addressing all possible events (including those beyond the design basis events), (2) using a systematic, logical process for identifying and evaluating accidents, and (3) considering alternative means to reduce accident frequency and/or consequences. Although both deterministic and risk-based methods have been successfully applied, there is need for a better understanding of their applications and supportive roles. This paper describes the relationship between the two methods and how they are used to develop and assess regulations in the nuclear industry. Preliminary guidance is suggested for determining the need for using risk based methods to supplement deterministic ones. However, it is recommended that more detailed guidance and criteria be developed for this purpose

  4. Preprinting Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D

    2017-05-23

    The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Schloss.

  5. Risk-based safety indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlak, J.

    2001-12-01

    The report is structured as follows: 1. Risk-based safety indicators: Typology of risk-based indicators (RBIs); Tools for defining RBIs; Requirements for the PSA model; Data sources for RBIs; Types of risks monitored; RBIs and operational safety indicators; Feedback from operating experience; PSO model modification for RBIs; RBI categorization; RBI assessment; RBI applications; Suitable RBI applications. 2. Proposal for risk-based indicators: Acquiring information from operational experience; Method of acquiring safety relevance coefficients for the systems from a PSA model; Indicator definitions; On-line indicators. 3. Annex: Application of RBIs worldwide. (P.A.)

  6. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Advances Afoot in Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnost...

  8. Risk-based decision analysis for groundwater operable units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This document proposes a streamlined approach and methodology for performing risk assessment in support of interim remedial measure (IRM) decisions involving the remediation of contaminated groundwater on the Hanford Site. This methodology, referred to as ''risk-based decision analysis,'' also supports the specification of target cleanup volumes and provides a basis for design and operation of the groundwater remedies. The risk-based decision analysis can be completed within a short time frame and concisely documented. The risk-based decision analysis is more versatile than the qualitative risk assessment (QRA), because it not only supports the need for IRMs, but also provides criteria for defining the success of the IRMs and provides the risk-basis for decisions on final remedies. For these reasons, it is proposed that, for groundwater operable units, the risk-based decision analysis should replace the more elaborate, costly, and time-consuming QRA

  9. Risk-based decisionmaking (Panel)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.H.

    1995-12-31

    By means of a panel discussion and extensive audience interaction, explore the current challenges and progress to date in applying risk considerations to decisionmaking related to low-level waste. This topic is especially timely because of the proposed legislation pertaining to risk-based decisionmaking and because of the increased emphasis placed on radiological performance assessments of low-level waste disposal.

  10. Advances Afoot in Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Robin; Karon, Brad S

    2017-07-01

    In 2016, the American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium to examine point-of-care (POC) microbiology testing and to evaluate its effects on clinical microbiology. Colloquium participants included representatives from clinical microbiology laboratories, industry, and the government, who together made recommendations regarding the implementation, oversight, and evaluation of POC microbiology testing. The colloquium report is timely and well written (V. Dolen et al., Changing Diagnostic Paradigms for Microbiology , 2017, https://www.asm.org/index.php/colloquium-reports/item/6421-changing-diagnostic-paradigms-for-microbiology?utm_source=Commentary&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=diagnostics). Emerging POC microbiology tests, especially nucleic acid amplification tests, have the potential to advance medical care. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. A risk-based sensor placement methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ronald W.; Kulesz, James J.

    2008-01-01

    A risk-based sensor placement methodology is proposed to solve the problem of optimal location of sensors to protect population against the exposure to, and effects of, known and/or postulated chemical, biological, and/or radiological threats. Risk is calculated as a quantitative value representing population at risk from exposure at standard exposure levels. Historical meteorological data are used to characterize weather conditions as the frequency of wind speed and direction pairs. The meteorological data drive atmospheric transport and dispersion modeling of the threats, the results of which are used to calculate risk values. Sensor locations are determined via an iterative dynamic programming algorithm whereby threats detected by sensors placed in prior iterations are removed from consideration in subsequent iterations. In addition to the risk-based placement algorithm, the proposed methodology provides a quantification of the marginal utility of each additional sensor. This is the fraction of the total risk accounted for by placement of the sensor. Thus, the criteria for halting the iterative process can be the number of sensors available, a threshold marginal utility value, and/or a minimum cumulative utility achieved with all sensors

  12. High-pressure microbiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michiels, Chris; Bartlett, Douglas Hoyt; Aertsen, Abram

    2008-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. High Hydrostatic Pressure Effects in the Biosphere: from Molecules to Microbiology * Filip Meersman and Karel Heremans . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Effects...

  13. Aquatic Microbiology Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert C.; And Others

    This laboratory manual presents information and techniques dealing with aquatic microbiology as it relates to environmental health science, sanitary engineering, and environmental microbiology. The contents are divided into three categories: (1) ecological and physiological considerations; (2) public health aspects; and (3)microbiology of water…

  14. Microbiological corrosion of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladislavlev, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Problems is considered of development of the microbiological corrosion of the NPP equipment. The main attention is paid to the selective character of microbiological corrosion in zones of welded joints of austenitic steels. It is noted that the presence of technological defects promotes growth of corrosional damages. Methods for microbiological corrosion protection are discussed

  15. Risk-based performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarm, M.A.; Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.; Lofgren, E.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of risk-based indicators is to monitor plant safety. Safety is measured by monitoring the potential for core melt (core-melt frequency) and the public risk. Targets for these measures can be set consistent with NRC safety goals. In this process, the performance of safety systems, support systems, major components, and initiating events can be monitored using measures such as unavailability, failure or occurrence frequency. The changes in performance measures and their trends are determined from the time behavior of monitored measures by differentiation between stochastical and actual variations. Therefore, degradation, as well as improvement in the plant safety performance, can be determined. The development of risk-based performance indicators will also provide the means to trace a change in the safety measures to specific problem areas which are amenable to root cause analysis and inspection audits. In addition, systematic methods will be developed to identify specific improvement policies using the plant information system for the identified problem areas. The final product of the performance indicator project will be a methodology, and an integrated and validated set of software packages which, if properly interfaced with the logic model software of a plant, can monitor the plant performance as plant information is provided as input

  16. A risk-based model for maintenance decision support of civil structures using RAMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viana Da Rocha, T. C.; Stipanovic, I.; Hartmann, A.; Bakker, J.

    2017-01-01

    As a cornerstone of transportation asset management, risk-based approaches have been used to support maintenance decisions of civil structures. However, ambiguous and subjective risk criteria and inconsistency on the use of risk-based approaches can lead to a fuzzy understanding of the risks

  17. Risk-based maintenance-Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Plant and equipment, however well designed, will not remain safe or reliable if it is not maintained. The general objective of the maintenance process is to make use of the knowledge of failures and accidents to achieve the possible safety with the lowest possible cost. The concept of risk-based maintenance was developed to inspect the high-risk components usually with greater frequency and thoroughness and to maintain in a greater manner, to achieve tolerable risk criteria. Risk-based maintenance methodology provides a tool for maintenance planning and decision making to reduce the probability of failure of equipment and the consequences of failure. In this paper, the risk analysis and risk-based maintenance methodologies were identified and classified into suitable classes. The factors affecting the quality of risk analysis were identified and analyzed. The applications, input data and output data were studied to understand their functioning and efficiency. The review showed that there is no unique way to perform risk analysis and risk-based maintenance. The use of suitable techniques and methodologies, careful investigation during the risk analysis phase, and its detailed and structured results are necessary to make proper risk-based maintenance decisions

  18. Automation in Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, the trend toward automation in clinical pathology laboratories has largely bypassed the clinical microbiology laboratory. In this article, we review the historical impediments to automation in the microbiology laboratory and offer insight into the reasons why we believe that we are on the cusp of a dramatic change that will sweep a wave of automation into clinical microbiology laboratories. We review the currently available specimen-processing instruments as well as the total laboratory automation solutions. Lastly, we outline the types of studies that will need to be performed to fully assess the benefits of automation in microbiology laboratories. PMID:23515547

  19. ANALYTICAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains equipment that performs a broad array of microbiological analyses for pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It performs challenge studies...

  20. Environmental Microbiology Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Microbiology Laboratory, located in Bldg. 644 provides a dual-gas respirometer for measurement of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide evolution...

  1. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  2. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  3. Risk based inspection for atmospheric storage tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agus; Haryadi, Gunawan Dwi; Ismail, Rifky; Kim, Seon Jin

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion is an attack that occurs on a metallic material as a result of environment's reaction.Thus, it causes atmospheric storage tank's leakage, material loss, environmental pollution, equipment failure and affects the age of process equipment then finally financial damage. Corrosion risk measurement becomesa vital part of Asset Management at the plant for operating any aging asset.This paper provides six case studies dealing with high speed diesel atmospheric storage tank parts at a power plant. A summary of the basic principles and procedures of corrosion risk analysis and RBI applicable to the Process Industries were discussed prior to the study. Semi quantitative method based onAPI 58I Base-Resource Document was employed. The risk associated with corrosion on the equipment in terms of its likelihood and its consequences were discussed. The corrosion risk analysis outcome used to formulate Risk Based Inspection (RBI) method that should be a part of the atmospheric storage tank operation at the plant. RBI gives more concern to inspection resources which are mostly on `High Risk' and `Medium Risk' criteria and less on `Low Risk' shell. Risk categories of the evaluated equipment were illustrated through case study analysis outcome.

  4. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... microbiology/MCM device, their clinical application and public health/clinical needs and quality criteria for... topics: 1. Clinical Application of Highly Multiplexed Microbiology Devices: Their clinical application... to evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of highly multiplexed microbiology devices...

  6. Risk-based regulation: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, man has witnessed a gradual but steady movement toward increased usage of risk-based methods and results in the regulatory process. The ''risk perspective'' as a supportive view to existing (non-risk-based or deterministic) information used in decision making has a firm foothold now in most countries that regulate nuclear power. Furthermore, in the areas outside the nuclear power field, such as health risk assessment, risk-based information is used increasingly to make decisions on potential impacts of chemical, biological, and radiological exposures. Some of the principal concepts and issues that are pertinent to risk-based regulation are reviewed. There is a growing interest in most countries in the use of risk-based methods and results to facilitate decision-making associated with regulatory processes. A summary is presented of the challenges and opportunities related to expanded use of risk-based regulation

  7. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...... in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  8. Clinical microbiology informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, Daniel D; Sintchenko, Vitali; Rauch, Carol A; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-10-01

    The clinical microbiology laboratory has responsibilities ranging from characterizing the causative agent in a patient's infection to helping detect global disease outbreaks. All of these processes are increasingly becoming partnered more intimately with informatics. Effective application of informatics tools can increase the accuracy, timeliness, and completeness of microbiology testing while decreasing the laboratory workload, which can lead to optimized laboratory workflow and decreased costs. Informatics is poised to be increasingly relevant in clinical microbiology, with the advent of total laboratory automation, complex instrument interfaces, electronic health records, clinical decision support tools, and the clinical implementation of microbial genome sequencing. This review discusses the diverse informatics aspects that are relevant to the clinical microbiology laboratory, including the following: the microbiology laboratory information system, decision support tools, expert systems, instrument interfaces, total laboratory automation, telemicrobiology, automated image analysis, nucleic acid sequence databases, electronic reporting of infectious agents to public health agencies, and disease outbreak surveillance. The breadth and utility of informatics tools used in clinical microbiology have made them indispensable to contemporary clinical and laboratory practice. Continued advances in technology and development of these informatics tools will further improve patient and public health care in the future. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    species grow as multicel- lular filaments called hyphae forming a mycelium, some fungal species also grow as single cells. Sexual and asexual...reinforced fluorinated 18 MICROBIOLOGICALLY INFLUENCED CORROSION polyimide composites due to hyphae penetration into resin interiors. The

  10. Microbiology, philosophy and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2016-09-01

    There are not only many links between microbiological and philosophical topics, but good educational reasons for microbiologists to explore the philosophical issues in their fields. I examine three broad issues of classification, causality and model systems, showing how these philosophical dimensions have practical implications. I conclude with a discussion of the educational benefits for recognising the philosophy in microbiology. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Consolidated clinical microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautter, Robert L; Thomson, Richard B

    2015-05-01

    The manner in which medical care is reimbursed in the United States has resulted in significant consolidation in the U.S. health care system. One of the consequences of this has been the development of centralized clinical microbiology laboratories that provide services to patients receiving care in multiple off-site, often remote, locations. Microbiology specimens are unique among clinical specimens in that optimal analysis may require the maintenance of viable organisms. Centralized laboratories may be located hours from patient care settings, and transport conditions need to be such that organism viability can be maintained under a variety of transport conditions. Further, since the provision of rapid results has been shown to enhance patient care, effective and timely means for generating and then reporting the results of clinical microbiology analyses must be in place. In addition, today, increasing numbers of patients are found to have infection caused by pathogens that were either very uncommon in the past or even completely unrecognized. As a result, infectious disease specialists, in particular, are more dependent than ever on access to high-quality diagnostic information from clinical microbiology laboratories. In this point-counterpoint discussion, Robert Sautter, who directs a Charlotte, NC, clinical microbiology laboratory that provides services for a 40-hospital system spread over 3 states in the southeastern United States explains how an integrated clinical microbiology laboratory service has been established in a multihospital system. Richard (Tom) Thomson of the NorthShore University HealthSystem in Evanston, IL, discusses some of the problems and pitfalls associated with large-scale laboratory consolidation. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Risk-based methodology for USNRC inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.M.; Holahan, G.M.; Chung, J.W.; Johnson, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the development and trial applications of a risk-based methodology to enhance the inspection processes for US nuclear power plants. Objectives of risk-based methods to complement prescriptive engineering approaches in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) inspection programs are presented. Insights from time-dependent risk profiles of plant configurational from Individual Plant Evaluation (IPE) studies were integrated to develop a framework for optimizing inspection efforts in NRC regulatory initiatives. Lessons learned from NRC pilot applications of the risk-based methodology for evaluation of the effectiveness of operational risk management programs at US nuclear power plant sites are also discussed

  13. Microbiological risk assessment for personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, S E; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; Pitt, T L

    2016-12-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding microbiological safety of cosmetics and personal care products are primarily hazard-based, where the presence of a potential pathogen determines decision-making. This contrasts with the Food industry where it is a commonplace to use a risk-based approach for ensuring microbiological safety. A risk-based approach allows consideration of the degree of exposure to assess unacceptable health risks. As there can be a number of advantages in using a risk-based approach to safety, this study explores the Codex Alimentarius (Codex) four-step Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) framework frequently used in the Food industry and examines how it can be applied to the safety assessment of personal care products. The hazard identification and hazard characterization steps (one and two) of the Codex MRA framework consider the main microorganisms of concern. These are addressed by reviewing the current industry guidelines for objectionable organisms and analysing reports of contaminated products notified by government agencies over a recent 5-year period, together with examples of reported outbreaks. Data related to estimation of exposure (step three) are discussed, and examples of possible calculations and references are included. The fourth step, performed by the risk assessor (risk characterization), is specific to each assessment and brings together the information from the first three steps to assess the risk. Although there are very few documented uses of the MRA approach for personal care products, this study illustrates that it is a practicable and sound approach for producing products that are safe by design. It can be helpful in the context of designing products and processes going to market and with setting of microbiological specifications. Additionally, it can be applied reactively to facilitate decision-making when contaminated products are released on to the marketplace. Currently, the knowledge available may only allow a

  14. WTS - Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Risk Based Resource Targeting (RBRT) application supports a new SMS-structured process designed to focus on safety oversight of systems and processes rather than...

  15. Microbiological soil regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, D.; Wiesner, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interdiciplinary Task Force ''Environmental Biotechnology - Soil'' of DECHEMA aims to pool the knowledge potential of the Dechema study committees on environmental biotechnology and soil protection with a view to the advancement of microbiological soil decontamination techniques. This conference volume on the 9th expert meeting of Dechema on environmental protection subjects entitled ''Microbiological Soil Regeneration'', held on February 27th and 28th, 1991, and the subsequent compilation of results give an intermediate account of the ongoing work of the Dechema Task Force. (orig.) [de

  16. Risk based maintenance to increase safety and decrease costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Risk-Based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants for the last eight years by a team working through the ASME Center for Research and Technology Development (CRTD). System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the Probabilistic Risk Analysis or Probabilistic Safety Analysis developed to meet the Individual Plant Evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for the Maintenance Rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low risk-significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. Pilot studies on risk-based testing indicate that about 60% of pumps and 25 to 30% of valves in plants are high safety-significant The reduction in inspection and testing reduces the person-rem exposure and resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publications by the ASME CRTD which are referenced. (author)

  17. Microbiological problems in radiosterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerniawski, E.

    1997-01-01

    Microbiological problems connected with radiosterilization of medical materials, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics have been discussed in detail. Dose-response relationship for different bacteria has been shown. Recommended sterilization and postirradiation control procedures have been described. 24 refs, 6 figs, 5 tabs

  18. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  19. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Vesely, W.E.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations. By calculating the core-melt frequency for given configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Furthermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period

  20. Toward risk-based control of nuclear power plant configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Veseley, W.E.; Kim, I.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the configuration risks associated with the operation of a nuclear power plant and the approaches to control these risks using risk-based configuration control considerations. In that context, the actual and maximum potential configuration risks at a plant are analyzed and the alternative types criteria for a risk-based configuration control systems are described. The risk-based configuration calculations which are studied here focus on the core-melt frequency impacts from given plant configurations, the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases can be identified and controlled. The duration time in which the configuration can exist can then be limited or the core-melt frequency level associated with the configuration can be reduced by various actions. Futhermore, maintenances and tests can be scheduled to avoid the configurations which cause large core-melt frequency increases. Present technical specifications do not control many of these configurations which can cause large core-melt frequency increases but instead focus on many risk-unimportant allowed outage times. Hence, risk-based configuration management can be effectively used to reduce core-melt frequency associated risks at a plant and at the same time can provide flexibility in plant operation. The alternative strategies for controlling the core-melt frequency and other risk contributions include: (1) controlling the increased risk level which is associated with the configuration; (2) controlling the individual configuration risk which is associated with a given duration of a configuration; (3) controlling the time period configuration risk from configurations which occur in a time period. (orig.)

  1. 21 CFR 866.2540 - Microbiological incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2540 Microbiological... intended for medical purposes to cultivate microorganisms and aid in the diagnosis of disease. (b...

  2. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.; Vesely, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective test and maintenance practices that control risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety

  3. Risk-based configuration control system: Analysis and approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.; Kim, I.S.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of risks associated with component outage configurations during power operation of a nuclear power plant and discusses approaches and strategies for developing a risk-based configuration control system. A configuration, as used here, is a set of component states. The objective of risk-based configuration control is to detect and control plant configurations using a risk-perspective. The configuration contributions to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability are studied for two plants. Large core-melt frequency can be caused by configurations and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the actual core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. Effective strategies and criteria for controlling configuration risks are presented. Such control strategies take into consideration the risks associated with configurations, the nature and characteristics of the configuration risks, and also the practical considerations such as adequate repair times and/or options to transfer to low risk configurations. Alternative types of criteria are discussed that are not overly restrictive to result in unnecessary plant shutdown, but rather motivates effective tests and maintenance practices that control; risk-significant configurations to allow continued operation with an adequate margin to meet challenges to safety. 3 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  5. Risk-based Regulatory Evaluation Program methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Sanders, G.A.; Carlson, D.D.; Asselin, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The objectives of this DOE-supported Regulatory Evaluation Progrwam are to analyze and evaluate the safety importance and economic significance of existing regulatory guidance in order to assist in the improvement of the regulatory process for current generation and future design reactors. A risk-based cost-benefit methodology was developed to evaluate the safety benefit and cost of specific regulations or Standard Review Plan sections. Risk-based methods can be used in lieu of or in combination with deterministic methods in developing regulatory requirements and reaching regulatory decisions

  6. Infection: microbiology and management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Jane; Gillespie, S. H; Bannister, Barbara A

    2006-01-01

    ..., management and control. The presentation, diagnosis and management of individual diseases are described in the systematic chapters. Each chapter introduces the range of diseases that can affect the relevant system, and lists the pathogens responsible for each presentation in approximate order of importance. For each individual pathogen, the epidemiology and microbiology, clinical presentations and diagnosis, and strategies for prevention and control are described. This textbook is designed to be used either as a...

  7. Proteomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, P

    2000-04-01

    The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.

  8. Risk-based SMA for Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This presentation conveys an approach for risk-based safety and mission assurance applied to cubesats. This presentation accompanies a NASA Goddard standard in development that provides guidance for building a mission success plan for cubesats based on the risk tolerance and resources available.

  9. Radioisotopic indicators in microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isamov, N.N.

    1976-01-01

    The book comprises data obtained by the laboratory of radiobiology (Uzbek Research Veterinary Institute) for 15 years and sums up data of domestic and foreign scientists; it discusses problems of the utilization of radioactive isotopes of sulphur, cadmium, phosphorus and other chemical elements by microorganisms; indicates the specificity of the utilization of radioisotopes in microbiology. The influence is considered of external factors on the inclusion of radioisotopes into microorganisms, methods are discussed of obtaining labelled microorganisms and their antigens, radioactivity of bacteria is considered as affected by the consistency and composition of the nutritive medium and other problems

  10. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  11. A risk-based approach to prioritize underground storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs) for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) were pumped out at the time the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include, the radionuclides, 9O Sr, 137 Cs and 233 U and the chemicals, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank; (2) location of the tanks; and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents

  12. 13 CFR 120.1000 - Risk-Based Lender Oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Lender Oversight. 120.1000 Section 120.1000 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Risk-Based Lender Oversight Supervision § 120.1000 Risk-Based Lender Oversight. (a) Risk-Based Lender...

  13. Development of new risk based regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, L.

    1999-01-01

    A short presentation of the oil and gas industry in Norway, and a brief overview of the regulatory regime in the petroleum sector in Norway is given. Risk analysis has been performed in Norway since 1981 and the various applications will be described. These risk analyses are quite different from a nuclear PSA and some of these differences will be commented. Risk based optimisation techniques such as RCM (Reliability Centred Maintenance) and Risk Based Inspection is used in the industry, with very limited support from the risk analysis. Some of the limitation that exist when such techniques are imported from other industries will be commented on. NPD (Norwegian Petroleum Directorate) is revising our regulations and some of the future plants when it comes to risk informed regulatory requirements will be presented. (au)

  14. Microbiology Education in Nursing Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Durrant, Robert J.; Doig, Alexa K.; Buxton, Rebecca L.; Fenn, JoAnn P.

    2017-01-01

    Nurses must have sufficient education and training in microbiology to perform many roles within clinical nursing practice (e.g., administering antibiotics, collecting specimens, preparing specimens for transport and delivery, educating patients and families, communicating results to the healthcare team, and developing care plans based on results of microbiology studies and patient immunological status). It is unclear whether the current microbiology courses required of nursing students in the...

  15. [Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Moreno, Antonio; Salas, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    Skin and soft tissue infections are often seen in clinical practice, yet their microbiological diagnosis is among the most complex of laboratory tasks. The diagnosis of a skin and a soft tissue infection is generally based on clinical criteria and not microbiological results. A microbiological diagnosis is reserved for cases in which the etiology of infection is required, e.g., when the infection is particularly severe, when less common microorganisms are suspected as the causative agent (e.g. in immunocompromised patients), when response to antimicrobial treatment is poor, or when a longstanding wound does not heal within a reasonable period of time. We report the indications, sampling and processing techniques, and interpretation criteria for various culture types, including quantitative cultures from biopsy or tissue specimens and semiquantitative and qualitative cultures performed on all types of samples. For non-invasive samples taken from open wounds, application of the Q index to Gram stains is a cost-effective way to standardize sample quality assessment and interpretation of the pathogenic involvement of the different microorganisms isolated from cultures. All these issues are covered in the SEIMC microbiological procedure number 22: Diagnóstico microbiológico de las infecciones de piel y tejidos blandos (Microbiological diagnosis of infections of the skin and soft tissues) (2nd ed., 2006, www.seimc.org/protocolos/microbiologia).

  16. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  17. Criteria CSR

    OpenAIRE

    Vovk, V.; Zateyshikova, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the article the theoretical aspects regarding criteria for assessing CSR proposed by A. Carroll, including: economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic. Based on this, it is proposed to characterize these criteria with respect to the interested parties (stakeholders), including: investors, shareholders suppliers, customers, employees, society and the state. This will make a qualitative assessment of the presence and depth using social responsibility in the company, as well as determine the ext...

  18. Risk based limits for Operational Safety Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappucci, A.J. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    OSR limits are designed to protect the assumptions made in the facility safety analysis in order to preserve the safety envelope during facility operation. Normally, limits are set based on ''worst case conditions'' without regard to the likelihood (frequency) of a credible event occurring. In special cases where the accident analyses are based on ''time at risk'' arguments, it may be desirable to control the time at which the facility is at risk. A methodology has been developed to use OSR limits to control the source terms and the times these source terms would be available, thus controlling the acceptable risk to a nuclear process facility. The methodology defines a new term ''gram-days''. This term represents the area under a source term (inventory) vs time curve which represents the risk to the facility. Using the concept of gram-days (normalized to one year) allows the use of an accounting scheme to control the risk under the inventory vs time curve. The methodology results in at least three OSR limits: (1) control of the maximum inventory or source term, (2) control of the maximum gram-days for the period based on a source term weighted average, and (3) control of the maximum gram-days at the individual source term levels. Basing OSR limits on risk based safety analysis is feasible, and a basis for development of risk based limits is defensible. However, monitoring inventories and the frequencies required to maintain facility operation within the safety envelope may be complex and time consuming

  19. Risk-based remediation: Approach and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Benson, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The principle objective of remedial actions is to protect human health and the environment. Risk assessments are the only defensible tools available to demonstrate to the regulatory community and public that this objective can be achieved. Understanding the actual risks posed by site-related contamination is crucial to designing cost-effective remedial strategies. All to often remedial actions are overdesigned, resulting in little to no increase in risk reduction while increasing project cost. Risk-based remedial actions have recently been embraced by federal and state regulators, industry, government, the scientific community, and the public as a mechanism to implement rapid and cost-effective remedial actions. Emphasizing risk reduction, rather than adherence to ambiguous and generic standards, ensures that only remedial actions required to protect human health and the environment at a particular site are implemented. Two sites are presented as case studies on how risk-based approaches are being used to remediate two petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The sites are located at two US Air Force Bases, Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) in Oscoda, Michigan and Malmstrom AFB in Great Falls, Montana

  20. Spectrometric microbiological analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.; Meissner, Ken E.

    1996-04-01

    Currently, there are four general approaches to microbiological analysis, i.e., the detection, identification and quantification of micro-organisms: (1) Traditional culturing and staining procedures, metabolic fermentations and visual morphological characteristics; (2) Immunological approaches employing microbe-specific antibodies; (3) Biotechnical techniques employing DNA probes and related genetic engineering methods; and (4) Physical measurement techniques based on the biophysical properties of micro-organisms. This paper describes an instrumentation development in the fourth of the above categories, physical measurement, that uses a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra to detect and identify micro-organisms at the species level. A major advantage of this approach is the rapid turnaround possible in medical diagnostic or water testing applications. Fluorometric spectra serve to define the biochemical characteristics of the microbe, and light scatter spectra the size and shape morphology. Together, the two spectra define a 'fingerprint' for each species of microbe for detection, identification and quantification purposes. A prototype instrument has been developed and tested under NASA sponsorship based on fluorometric spectra alone. This instrument demonstrated identification and quantification capabilities at the species level. The paper reports on test results using this instrument, and the benefits of employing a combination of fluorometric and light scatter spectra.

  1. Microbiological metal extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torma, A.E.

    1991-01-01

    Application of biotechnological principles in the mineral processing, especially in hydrometallurgy, has created new opportunities and challenges for these industries. During the 1950's and 60's, the mining wastes and unused complex mineral resources have been successfully treated in bacterial assisted heap and dump leaching processes for copper and uranium. The interest in bio-leaching processes is the consequence of economic advantages associated with these techniques. For example, copper can be produced from mining wastes for about 1/3 to 1/2 of the costs of copper production by the conventional smelting process from high-grade sulfide concentrates. The economic viability of bio leaching technology lead to its world wide acceptance by the extractive industries. During 1970's this technology grew into a more structured discipline called 'bio hydrometallurgy'. Currently, bio leaching techniques are ready to be used, in addition to copper and uranium, for the extraction of cobalt, nickel, zinc, precious metals and for the desulfurization of high-sulfur content pyritic coals. As a developing technology, the microbiological leaching of the less common and rare metals has yet to reach commercial maturity. However, the research in this area is very active. In addition, in a foreseeable future the biotechnological methods may be applied also for the treatment of high-grade ores and mineral concentrates using adapted native and/or genetically engineered microorganisms. (author)

  2. Microbiologically induced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Biological attack is a problem that can affect all metallic materials in a variety of environments and systems. In the power industry, corrosion studies have focused on condensers and service water systems where slime, barnacles, clams, and other macro-organisms are easily detected. Efforts have been made to eliminate the effect of these organisms through the use of chlorination, backflushing, organic coating, or thermal shock. The objective is to maintain component performance by eliminating biofouling and reducing metallic corrosion. Recently, corrosion of power plant components by micro-organisms (bacteria) has been identified even in very clean systems. A system's first exposure to microbiologically induced corrosion (MIC) occurs during its first exposure to an aqueous environment, such as during hydrotest or wet layup. Corrosion of buried pipelines by sulfate-reducing bacteria has been studied by the petrochemical industry for years. This paper discusses various methods of diagnosing, monitoring, and controlling MIC in a variety of systems, as well as indicates areas where further study is needed

  3. Meta-analysis in microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Pabalan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of meta-analysis in microbiology may facilitate decision-making that impacts public health policy. Directed at clinicians and researchers in microbiology, this review outlines the steps in performing this statistical technique, addresses its biases and describes its value in this discipline. The survey to estimate extent of the use of meta-analyses in microbiology shows the remarkable growth in the use of this research methodology, from a minimal Asian output to a level comparable with those of Europe and North America in the last 7 years.

  4. Risk-based optimization of land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van; Peters, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale land reclamations are generally constructed by means of a landfill well above mean sea level. This can be costly in areas where good quality fill material is scarce. An alternative to save materials and costs is a ‘polder terminal’. The quay wall acts as a flood defense and the terminal level is well below the level of the quay wall. Compared with a conventional terminal, the costs are lower, but an additional flood risk is introduced. In this paper, a risk-based optimization is developed for a conventional and a polder terminal. It considers the investment and residual flood risk. The method takes into account both the quay wall and terminal level, which determine the probability and damage of flooding. The optimal quay wall level is found by solving a Lambert function numerically. The terminal level is bounded by engineering boundary conditions, i.e. piping and uplift of the cover layer of the terminal yard. It is found that, for a representative case study, the saving of reclamation costs for a polder terminal is larger than the increase of flood risk. The model is applicable to other cases of land reclamation and to similar optimization problems in flood risk management. - Highlights: • A polder terminal can be an attractive alternative for a conventional terminal. • A polder terminal is feasible at locations with high reclamation cost. • A risk-based approach is required to determine the optimal protection levels. • The depth of the polder terminal yard is bounded by uplifting of the cover layer. • This paper can support decisions regarding alternatives for port expansions.

  5. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  6. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  7. Medical Microbiology: Deficits and Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabridge, Michael G.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiology is a typical medical science in which basic information can have direct application. Yet, surveys and questionnaires of recent medical school graduates indicate a serious lack of retentiion in regard to basic biological science. (Author)

  8. Updated Cases for Medical Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda Govindan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Cases in Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 4th ed.; Peter H. Gilligan, Daniel S. Shapiro, and Melissa B. Miller; (2014. ASM Press, Washington, DC. 589 pages.

  9. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal welcomes papers focusing on microbiological and/or immunological studies from medical or pharmaceutical perspectives. Research pieces on bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa, algae, spores, immunity, immune systems, health and pharmaceutical applications are highly relevant ...

  10. Microbiological Methodology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abyzov, S. S.; Gerasimenko, L. M.; Hoover, R. B.; Mitskevich, I. N.; Mulyukin, A. L.; Poglazova, M. N.; Rozanov, A. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Searching for life in astromaterials to be delivered from the future missions to extraterrestrial bodies is undoubtedly related to studies of the properties and signatures of living microbial cells and microfossils on Earth. As model terrestrial analogs of Martian polar subsurface layers are often regarded the Antarctic glacier and Earth permafrost habitats where alive microbial cells preserved viability for millennia years due to entering the anabiotic state. For the future findings of viable microorganisms in samples from extraterrestrial objects, it is important to use a combined methodology that includes classical microbiological methods, plating onto nutrient media, direct epifluorescence and electron microscopy examinations, detection of the elemental composition of cells, radiolabeling techniques, PCR and FISH methods. Of great importance is to ensure authenticity of microorganisms (if any in studied samples) and to standardize the protocols used to minimize a risk of external contamination. Although the convincing evidence of extraterrestrial microbial life will may come from the discovery of living cells in astromaterials, biomorphs and microfossils must also be regarded as a target in search of life evidence bearing in mind a scenario that alive microorganisms had not be preserved and underwent mineralization. Under the laboratory conditions, processes that accompanied fossilization of cyanobacteria were reconstructed, and artificially produced cyanobacterial stromatolites resembles by their morphological properties those found in natural Earth habitats. Regarding the vital importance of distinguishing between biogenic and abiogenic signatures and between living and fossil microorganisms in analyzed samples, it is worthwhile to use some previously developed approaches based on electron microscopy examinations and analysis of elemental composition of biomorphs in situ and comparison with the analogous data obtained for laboratory microbial cultures and

  11. Recent advances in diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Lulette Tricia C; Procop, Gary W

    2009-07-01

    The past decade has seen a surge in the development of a variety of molecular diagnostics designed to rapidly identify or characterize medically important microorganisms. We briefly review important advances in molecular microbiology, and then discuss specific assays that have been implemented in clinical microbiology laboratories throughout the country. We also discuss emerging methods and technologies that will soon be more widely used for the prompt and accurate detection of the agents of infectious diseases.

  12. Risk-based environmental assessment for uranium mines – Some Canadian and Australian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, M.; McKee, M.; Woods, P.

    2014-01-01

    The Risk-Based Approach to Environmental Assessment in Australia: • This has emerged over the last 2 decades; • Currently usually based around the Australian and New Zealand standard (AS4360:1999) for risk assessment: • Potential impact events; • Inherent risk levels (e.g. low, moderate) using a matrix approach; • Design and operational control measures; • Residual risk levels; • Outcomes to be achieved; • Outcomes measurement criteria - • Leading to ‘compliance’ monitoring; • Leading indicator criteria - • Leading to ‘early warning’ monitoring

  13. Risk-Based Explosive Safety Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER P0D9 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. Air...U.S. Government is joint author of the work and has the right to use, modify, reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose the work . PA...weaknesses of this methodology are that its criteria are inflexible to site-specific operations and require obtaining waivers or exemptions for

  14. Lower antibiotic costs attributable to clinical microbiology rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Richard S P; Guervil, David J; Hunter, Robert L; Wanger, Audrey

    2015-09-01

    At our institution, our microbiologist, pharmacist, and infectious disease (ID) team meet to discuss ID patients, and this meeting is referred to as microbiology rounds. We hypothesized that our microbiology rounds reduce antibiotic costs. The study involved a review of 80 patients with an ID consultation order at each of the 3 hospitals: hospital A (HA) (only HA has microbiology rounds), hospital B (HB), and hospital C (HC). Of this population, we included patients with a positive blood culture. Thirty-six patients who met the above criteria were included in the study. The average antibiotic cost/patient/day at HA, HB, and HC were $66.0, $123, and $109, respectively. Also, we found that change in antibiotics was appropriate when compared to the final microbiology results in 90%, 44%, and 40% of the time at HA, HB, and HC, respectively. Herein, we found an association between conducting microbiology rounds and reduction of antibiotic cost. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk-based regulation: A regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarborough, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    In the early development of regulations for nuclear power plants, risk was implicitly considered through qualitative assessments and engineering reliability principles and practices. Examples included worst case analysis, defense in depth, and the single failure criterion. However, the contributions of various systems, structures, components and operator actions to plant safety were not explicitly assessed since a methodology for this purpose had not been developed. As a consequence of the TMI accident, the use of more quantitative risk methodology and information in regulation such as probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) increased. The use of both qualitative and quantitative consideration of risk in regulation has been a set of regulations and regulatory guides and practices that ensure adequate protection of public health and safety. Presently, the development of PRA techniques has developed to the point that safety goals, expressed in terms of risk, have been established to help guide further regulatory decision making. This paper presents the personal opinions of the author as regards the use of risk today in nuclear power plant regulation, areas of further information needs, and necessary plans for moving toward a more systematic use of risk-based information in regulatory initiatives in the future

  16. Risk-based plant performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Azarm, M.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Tasked by the 1979 President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island, the U.S. nuclear power industry has put into place a performance indicator program as one means for showing a demonstrable record of achievement. Largely through the efforts of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), plant performance data has, since 1983, been collected and analyzed to aid utility management in measuring their plants' performance progress. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has also developed a set of performance indicators. This program, conducted by NRC's Office for the Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD), is structured to present information on plant operational performance in a manner that could enhance the staff's ability to recognize changes in the safety performance. Both organizations recognized that performance indicators have limitations and could be subject to misinterpretation and misuse with the potential for an adverse impact on safety. This paper reports on performance indicators presently in use, e.g., unplanned automatic scrams, unplanned safety system actuation, safety system failures, etc., which are logically related to safety. But, a reliability/risk-based method for evaluating either individual indicators or an aggregated set of indicators is not yet available

  17. Project transition to risk based corrective action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judge, J.M.; Cormier, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Many states have adopted or are considering the adoption of the America Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard E 1739, Standard for Risk Based Corrective Action (RBCA) Applied to Petroleum Release Sites. This standard is being adopted to regulate leaking underground storage tank (LUST) sites. The case studies of two LUST sites in Michigan will be presented to demonstrate the decision making process and limiting factors involved in transitioning sites to the RBCA program. Both of these case studies had been previously investigated and one was actively remediated. The first case study involves a private petroleum facility where soil and ground water have been impacted. Remediation involved a ground water pump and treat system. Subsequent monitoring during system operation indicated that analytical data were still above the Tier 1 RBSLs but below the Tier 2 SSTLs. The closure strategy that was developed was based on the compounds of concern that were below the SSTLs. A deed restriction was also developed for the site as an institutional control. The second LUST site exhibited BTEX concentrations in soil and ground water above the Tier 1 RBSLs. Due to the exceedence of the Tier 1 RBSLs, the second site required a Tier 2 assessment to develop SSTLs as remedial objectives and remove hot spots in the soil and treat the ground water to achieve closure. Again, a deed restriction was instituted along with a performance monitoring plan

  18. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  19. [Safety in the Microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo-Molinero, Estrella; Alados, Juan Carlos; de la Pedrosa, Elia Gómez G; Leiva, José; Pérez, José L

    2015-01-01

    The normal activity in the laboratory of microbiology poses different risks - mainly biological - that can affect the health of their workers, visitors and the community. Routine health examinations (surveillance and prevention), individual awareness of self-protection, hazard identification and risk assessment of laboratory procedures, the adoption of appropriate containment measures, and the use of conscientious microbiological techniques allow laboratory to be a safe place, as records of laboratory-acquired infections and accidents show. Training and information are the cornerstones for designing a comprehensive safety plan for the laboratory. In this article, the basic concepts and the theoretical background on laboratory safety are reviewed, including the main legal regulations. Moreover, practical guidelines are presented for each laboratory to design its own safety plan according its own particular characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Cost effectiveness of risk-based closures at UST sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scruton, K.M.; Baker, J.N.

    1995-01-01

    Risk-based closures have been achieved at Underground Storage Tank (UST) sites throughout the country for a major transportation company. The risk-based closures were cost-effective because a streamlined risk-based approach was used instead of the generic baseline risk assessment approach. USEPA has recently provided guidance encouraging the use of risk-based methodology for achieving closure at UST sites. The risk-based approach used in achieving the site closures involved an identification of potential human and ecological receptors and exposure pathways, and a comparison of maximum onsite chemical concentrations to applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). The ARARs used in the evaluation included Federal and/or State Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for groundwater and risk-based screening levels for soils. If the maximum concentrations were above the screening levels, a baseline risk assessment was recommended. In several instances, however, the risk-based approach resulted in a regulatory agency acceptance of a ''no further action'' alternative at UST sites which did not pose a significant threat to human health and the environment. The cost of the streamlined risk-based approach is approximately $3,500, while a baseline risk assessment for the same UST site could cost up to $10,000 or more. The use of the streamlined risk-based approach has proven to be successful for achieving a ''no further action'' outcome for the client at a reasonable cost

  1. Risk-based emergency decision support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerte, Jens

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper we discuss how to assist critical decisions taken under complex, contingent circumstances, with a high degree of uncertainty and short time frames. In such sharp-end decision regimes, standard rule-based decision support systems do not capture the complexity of the situation. At the same time, traditional risk analysis is of little use due to variability in the specific circumstances. How then, can an organisation provide assistance to, e.g. pilots in dealing with such emergencies? A method called 'contingent risk and decision analysis' is presented, to provide decision support for decisions under variable circumstances and short available time scales. The method consists of nine steps of definition, modelling, analysis and criteria definition to be performed 'off-line' by analysts, and procedure generation to transform the analysis result into an operational decision aid. Examples of pilots' decisions in response to sudden vibration in offshore helicopter transport method are used to illustrate the approach

  2. [The modern microbiology in the clinical managing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Román, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The tuberculosis is one of the most important and mortal diseases of the world. The microbiological confirmatory diagnosis and the microbiological therapeutic orientation are fundamental nowadays in the tuberculosis in AIDS and in the Resistant tuberculosis. They are described throughout the time by the classic Microbiology: From 1882 to final 20th century (130 years). With the modern current Microbiology: In the beginning of the 21st century (20-30 years). And as will be done with the future Microbiology: From the years 2020-30. The important advances are outlined in the modern and future clinical microbiology, for the control of the Tuberculosis.

  3. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomíra Juhaniaková

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine microbiological quality of confectionery products. In confectionery products microbiological parameters: total count of bacteria, coliforms bacteria,mesophilic aerobes bacteria and microscopic filamentous fungi were observed. The confectionery products were evaluated: Kremeš and Venčekcake. For microbiological tests 20 samples of confectionery products were used. The numbers of total count of bacteria ranged from 3.29 log CFU.g-1, the number of mesophilic aerobes bacteria ranged from 1.86 to 2.85 log CFU.g-1, coliforms bacteria in confectionery products ranged from 0to 2.06CFU.g-1and the number of microscopic fungi ranged from 1.13 to 1.96CFU.g-1. The samples of cake prom private production showed better microbiological quality as samples from market production. All investigated samples of confectionary products were inaccordance with the Codex Alimentarius of the Slovak Republic.

  4. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4th edition of Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biochemistry Edited by Eldor Paul continues in the vein of the 3rd edition by providing an excellent, broad-reaching introduction to soil biology. The new edition improves on the previous by providing extensive supplementary materials, links to outs...

  5. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  6. Modern industrial microbiology and biotechnology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okafor, Nduka

    2007-01-01

    ... and cells, site-directed mutation and metabolic engineering. Simultaneously, microbiology has addressed itself to some current problems such as the fight against cancer by the production of anti-tumor antibiotics; it has changed the traditional practice in a number of areas: for example the deep sea has now joined the soil as the medium for the search for ...

  7. The microbiology of Lascaux Cave

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bastian, F.; Jurado, V.; Nováková, Alena; Alabouvette, C.; Saiz-Jimenez, C.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 156, č. 3 (2010), s. 644-652 ISSN 1350-0872 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : Lascaux Cave * microbiology * Paleolithic paintings Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.957, year: 2010

  8. Microbiology as if Bird Watching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 10. Microbiology as if Bird Watching. Milind G Watve. Classroom Volume 1 Issue 10 October 1996 pp 78-81. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/10/0078-0081. Author Affiliations.

  9. Risk based rulemaking and design - Proceed with caution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariadis, Panos; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.; Kontovas, Christos A.

    2007-01-01

    The trend towards a risk based regulatory framework at IMO and within classification societies is expanding while some voices claim that a full ship risk based scantlings design approach can be immediately implementable. This paper attempts to clarify some widely used, but confusing to many, noti...

  10. 12 CFR 652.70 - Risk-based capital level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... risk-based capital level is the sum of the following amounts: (a) Credit and interest rate risk. The... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital level. 652.70 Section 652.70 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FEDERAL AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE...

  11. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Linkov, Igor; Figueira, Jose Rui; Steevens, Jeffery; Chappell, Mark; Merad, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  12. Risk-based classification system of nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervonen, Tommi, E-mail: t.p.tervonen@rug.n [University of Groningen, Faculty of Economics and Business (Netherlands); Linkov, Igor, E-mail: igor.linkov@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Figueira, Jose Rui, E-mail: figueira@ist.utl.p [Technical University of Lisbon, CEG-IST, Centre for Management Studies, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal); Steevens, Jeffery, E-mail: jeffery.a.steevens@usace.army.mil; Chappell, Mark, E-mail: mark.a.chappell@usace.army.mi [US Army Research and Development Center (United States); Merad, Myriam, E-mail: myriam.merad@ineris.f [INERIS BP 2, Societal Management of Risks Unit/Accidental Risks Division (France)

    2009-05-15

    Various stakeholders are increasingly interested in the potential toxicity and other risks associated with nanomaterials throughout the different stages of a product's life cycle (e.g., development, production, use, disposal). Risk assessment methods and tools developed and applied to chemical and biological materials may not be readily adaptable for nanomaterials because of the current uncertainty in identifying the relevant physico-chemical and biological properties that adequately describe the materials. Such uncertainty is further driven by the substantial variations in the properties of the original material due to variable manufacturing processes employed in nanomaterial production. To guide scientists and engineers in nanomaterial research and application as well as to promote the safe handling and use of these materials, we propose a decision support system for classifying nanomaterials into different risk categories. The classification system is based on a set of performance metrics that measure both the toxicity and physico-chemical characteristics of the original materials, as well as the expected environmental impacts through the product life cycle. Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA-TRI), a formal decision analysis method, was used as the foundation for this task. This method allowed us to cluster various nanomaterials in different ecological risk categories based on our current knowledge of nanomaterial physico-chemical characteristics, variation in produced material, and best professional judgments. SMAA-TRI uses Monte Carlo simulations to explore all feasible values for weights, criteria measurements, and other model parameters to assess the robustness of nanomaterial grouping for risk management purposes.

  13. Development of the Risk-Based Inspection Techniques and Pilot Plant Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Risk-based techniques have been developed for commercial nuclear power plants. System boundaries and success criteria is defined using the probabilistic risk analysis or probabilistic safety analysis developed to meet the individual plant evaluation. Final ranking of components is by a plant expert panel similar to the one developed for maintenance rule. Components are identified as being high risk-significant or low-risk significant. Maintenance and resources are focused on those components that have the highest risk-significance. The techniques have been developed and applied at a number of pilot plants. Results from the first risk-based inspection pilot plant indicates that safety due to pipe failure can be doubled while the inspection reduced to about 80% when compared with current inspection programs. The reduction in inspection reduces the person-rem exposure resulting in further increases in safety. These techniques have been documented in publication by the ASME CRTD

  14. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Preamble to marine microbiology: Facets and opportunities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.

    The book titled 'Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities' is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...

  16. Building a Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, Maria; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The integration of food data from research, microbiological monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance is crucial to manage foodborne risk. Consequently, INSA launched the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) in a partnership with GS1 Portugal to create national food chain expert networks and sustainable databases on food composition, consumption and chemical and microbiological contamination. Presently, the Food Microbiological Inform...

  17. 42 CFR 493.821 - Condition: Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Microbiology. 493.821 Section 493.821 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... These Tests § 493.821 Condition: Microbiology. The specialty of microbiology includes, for purposes of...

  18. 42 CFR 493.909 - Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microbiology. 493.909 Section 493.909 Public Health... Proficiency Testing Programs by Specialty and Subspecialty § 493.909 Microbiology. The subspecialties under the specialty of microbiology for which a program may offer proficiency testing are bacteriology...

  19. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Aims and scope. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology is the official Journal of African Society for Clinical Microbiology. It publishes original research papers in all aspects of Medical Microbiology, including Bacteriology, Virology Rickettsiology and Chlamydiology, Mycology, ...

  20. Microbiological treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ability of microorganisms which are ubiquitous throughout nature to bring about information of organic and inorganic compounds in radioactive wastes has been recognized. Unlike organic contaminants, metals cannot be destroyed, but must be either removed or converted to a stable form. Radionuclides and toxic metals in wastes may be present initially in soluble form or, after disposal may be converted to a soluble form by chemical or microbiological processes. The key microbiological reactions include (i) oxidation/reduction; (ii) change in pH and Eh which affects the valence state and solubility of the metal; (iii) production of sequestering agents; and (iv) bioaccumulation. All of these processes can mobilize or stabilize metals in the environment

  1. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  2. Microbiological testing of Skylab foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Mcqueen, J. L.; Rowley, D. B.; Powers , E. M.; Bourland, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Review of some of the unique food microbiology problems and problem-generating circumstances the Skylab manned space flight program involves. The situations these problems arise from include: extended storage times, variations in storage temperatures, no opportunity to resupply or change foods after launch of the Skylab Workshop, first use of frozen foods in space, first use of a food-warming device in weightlessness, relatively small size of production lots requiring statistically valid sampling plans, and use of food as an accurately controlled part in a set of sophisticated life science experiments. Consideration of all of these situations produced the need for definite microbiological tests and test limits. These tests are described along with the rationale for their selection. Reported test results show good compliance with the test limits.

  3. Tools for Microbiological risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassett, john; Nauta, Maarten; Lindqvist, Roland

    can increase the understanding of microbiological risks in foods. It is timely to inform food safety professionals about the availability and utility of MRA tools. Therefore, the focus of this report is to aid the food safety manager by providing a concise summary of the tools available for the MRA......Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) has emerged as a comprehensive and systematic approach for addressing the risk of pathogens in specific foods and/or processes. At government level, MRA is increasingly recognised as a structured and objective approach to understand the level of risk in a given...... food/pathogen scenario. Tools developed so far support qualitative and quantitative assessments of the risk that a food pathogen poses to a particular population. Risk can be expressed as absolute numbers or as relative (ranked) risks. The food industry is beginning to appreciate that the tools for MRA...

  4. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  5. PENGARUH PELAKSANAAN RISK BASED INTERNAL AUDITING TERHADAP PENCEGAHAN FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozmita Dewi Yuniarti Rozali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effect of implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on internal audit Inspection Office Bank BRI Bandung Region. The sample used by 18 internal auditors in Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region saturated sampling method. Based on calculation of simple regression analysis obtained result that every increase of implementation of risk based internal auditing (X will lead to increase fraud prevention (Y. It shows that there is a positive influence between the implementation of risk based internal auditing on fraud prevention on the internal audit of Inspection Office of Bank BRI Bandung Region.

  6. Risk-based inspection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1995-01-01

    A multidiscipline research programme was developed in the USA to establish risk-based inspections for NPP structures and equipment components. Based on this US research effort, the risk-based procedure for developing inspection guidelines for NPPs is described. The procedure includes the definition of systems, qualitative risk assessment, qualitative risk analysis and development of the inspection programme. The method, when adopted and modified, is recommended also for risk-based inspections of structures and equipment of WWER-type NPPs. A pilot application of the method to unit 1 of the Surry NPP is summarized. (Z.S.) 1 tab., 1 fig., 5 refs

  7. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck

    2017-01-01

    Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support...... for this purpose includes the dose-response relationship for Salmonella and a reduction factor to account for preparation of the fresh pork. By use of the risk model, it was estimated that the majority of salmonellosis cases, caused by the consumption of pork in Denmark, is caused by the small fraction of pork...... products that has enterococci concentrations above 5. log. CFU/g. This illustrates that our approach can be used to evaluate the potential effect of different microbiological limits and therefore, the perspective of this novel approach is that it can be used for definition of a risk-based microbiological...

  8. Application of the risk based inspection in chemical and nuclear installations: a critical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Anna Leticia Barbosa de

    2004-01-01

    Risk-based Inspection (RBI) has arisen as an opportunity for the industry to give a specific treatment to items as equipment integrity, failures consequences and the level of risk of each piece of equipment in the inspection programs definitions. Risk-based inspection programs are replacing the traditional ones based on prescriptive requirements, for both the oil and nuclear industries. The aim of this thesis is to demonstrate how the nuclear industry has gotten over several difficulties in implementing risk-based programs considering that its safety design and regulations have traditionally been based on deterministic and prescriptive criteria and requirements. During the development of the work, the study has shown how the absence of a rigid regulation favored the dissemination of RBI diffusion in the oil industry, mainly in the USA, where such industries do not face those difficulties found by the European plants, as long as it is well known that in Europe there are complex interrelations among documents from different countries with diversity of regulation procedures. (author)

  9. Guidelines for the Interpretation of Results of Microbiological Testing of Ready-to-Eat Foods Placed on the Market (Revision 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Food Safety Authority of Ireland

    2016-01-01

    This document provides guideline microbiological limits for ready-to-eat foods placed on the market. These guideline limits can be used if legal microbiological criteria (Appendix 1) do not exist for a particular combination of food and microorganism. This Guidance Note is intended to be used by: • Food business operators • Enforcement officers, and • Laboratories performing microbiological testing on ready-to-eat foods Food business operators may also use the limits prese...

  10. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman S. Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries. Keywords: Developing country, Molecular technique, Molecular microbiology laboratory

  11. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) and EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM); Scientific Opinion on the minimum hygiene criteria to be applied to clean seawater and on the public health risks and hygiene criteria for bottled seawater intended for domestic use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    with microbiological criteria and appropriate water treatment, is proposed in order to ensure adequate hygiene conditions and to control hazards. The comprehensiveness of the sanitary survey, the stringency of microbiological criteria, and the need for treatment depend on the relative exposures associated...... to the different uses of seawater. For uses with low exposure to microbiological hazards, a basic sanitary survey and microbiological criteria based on the Directive 2006/7/EC are considered appropriate. For uses with a higher exposure, a more comprehensive sanitary survey, mandatory water treatment......, and microbiological criteria based on Council Directive 98/83/EC with an additional criterion for Vibrio spp. are considered appropriate. For uses with highest exposure, a more comprehensive sanitary survey, mandatory water treatment, and microbiological criteria based on Council Directive 98/83/EC with an additional...

  12. Microbiological quality of Argentinian paprika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo González, María G; Romero, Stella M; Arjona, Mila; Larumbe, Ada G; Vaamonde, Graciela

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of paprika produced in Catamarca, Argentina. Microbiological analyses were carried out for the enumeration of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, yeasts and molds, and the detection of Salmonella in samples obtained from different local producers during three consecutive years. The mycobiota was identified paying special attention to the mycotoxigenic molds. Standard plate counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria ranged from 2.7×10 5 to 3.7×10 7 CFU/g. Coliform counts ranged from <10 to 8.1×10 4 CFU/g. Salmonella was not detected in any of the samples tested. Fungal counts (including yeasts and molds) ranged between 2×10 2 and 1.9×10 5 CFU/g. These results showed a high level of microbial contamination, exceeding in several samples the maximum limits set in international food regulations. The study of the mycobiota demonstrated that Aspergillus was the predominant genus and Aspergillus niger (potential producer of ochratoxin A) the most frequently isolated species, followed by Aspergillus flavus (potential producer of aflatoxins). Other species of potential toxigenic fungi such as Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus westerdijkiae, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium expansum and Alternaria tenuissima species group were encountered as part of the mycobiota of the paprika samples indicating a risk of mycotoxin contamination. A. westerdijkiae was isolated for the first time in Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  14. Advanced continuous cultivation methods for systems microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamberg, Kaarel; Valgepea, Kaspar; Vilu, Raivo

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the throughput of systems biology-based experimental characterization of in silico-designed strains has great potential for accelerating the development of cell factories. For this, analysis of metabolism in the steady state is essential as only this enables the unequivocal definition of the physiological state of cells, which is needed for the complete description and in silico reconstruction of their phenotypes. In this review, we show that for a systems microbiology approach, high-resolution characterization of metabolism in the steady state--growth space analysis (GSA)--can be achieved by using advanced continuous cultivation methods termed changestats. In changestats, an environmental parameter is continuously changed at a constant rate within one experiment whilst maintaining cells in the physiological steady state similar to chemostats. This increases the resolution and throughput of GSA compared with chemostats, and, moreover, enables following of the dynamics of metabolism and detection of metabolic switch-points and optimal growth conditions. We also describe the concept, challenge and necessary criteria of the systematic analysis of steady-state metabolism. Finally, we propose that such systematic characterization of the steady-state growth space of cells using changestats has value not only for fundamental studies of metabolism, but also for systems biology-based metabolic engineering of cell factories.

  15. Risk-based security cost-benefit analysis: method and example applications - 59381

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, Gregory; Hinton, John; Clem, John; Silva, Consuelo; Duran, Felicia A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Decision makers wish to use risk-based cost-benefit analysis to prioritize security investments. However, understanding security risk requires estimating the likelihood of attack, which is extremely uncertain and depends on unquantifiable psychological factors like dissuasion and deterrence. In addition, the most common performance metric for physical security systems, probability of effectiveness at the design basis threat [P(E)], performs poorly in cost-benefit analysis. It is extremely sensitive to small changes in adversary characteristics when the threat is near a systems breaking point, but very insensitive to those changes under other conditions. This makes it difficult to prioritize investment options on the basis of P(E), especially across multiple targets or facilities. To overcome these obstacles, a Sandia National Laboratories Laboratory Directed Research and Development project has developed a risk-based security cost-benefit analysis method. This approach characterizes targets by how difficult it would be for adversaries to exploit each targets vulnerabilities to induce consequences. Adversaries generally have success criteria (e.g., adequate or desired consequences and thresholds for likelihood of success), and choose among alternative strategies that meet these criteria while considering their degree of difficulty in achieving their successful outcome. Investments reduce security risk as they reduce the severity of consequences available and/or increase the difficulty for an adversary to successfully accomplish their most advantageous attack

  16. Risk based inspection experience from the European chemical- and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, Hans; Jeppesen, Leif; Larsen, Bjarne; Kim, Na Yon

    2001-01-01

    As an inspection vendor with 60 years of experience and with more than 25 years of experience as manufacturer of the Automated Ultrasonic NDT systems, the P-scan systems, FORCE Institute is continuously analysing the market for NDT. This is done to assure that both the equipment product line and the service mix provided by FORCE Institute are meeting the requirements from the industry today and in the future. The concept of Risk Based Inspection Programmes were adopted early by the offshore industry and has in the recent years been adopted by many other industries as a reliable and cost efficient way of maintaining a production facility. A Risk/Reliability Based Inspection Programme is a 'living organism' that constantly needs information if it shall be of any value and NDT information is only one type of information that is required. The NDT information required is normally related to corrosion/base material information and weld integrity information. NDT as an integrated part of a plants maintenance system is, in Europe, currently influenced by the following tendencies which all are related to 'Risk Based Inspection': · Increased use of Base-Line Inspections · Reduction in the use of repeated inspections(qualitative- instead of quantitative Inspections). · Inspection results are fed directly into the plant maintenance system. · Fitness-for-Purpose acceptance criteria instead of conventional acceptance criteria. As repeatability and accuracy is a key issue for the data, automated ultrasonic inspection is increasingly used as an alternative to manual ultrasonic inspection, but due to the physical size of most automated ultrasonic inspection systems the gain in productivity has not been as significant as the gain in repeatability and accuracy. In this paper some of FORCE Institute's practical experiences with examinations carried out in connection with Risk Based Inspection is used to illustrate the above described tendencies. Not only examples using automated

  17. Biogas Production: Microbiology and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnürer, Anna

    Biogas, containing energy-rich methane, is produced by microbial decomposition of organic material under anaerobic conditions. Under controlled conditions, this process can be used for the production of energy and a nutrient-rich residue suitable for use as a fertilising agent. The biogas can be used for production of heat, electricity or vehicle fuel. Different substrates can be used in the process and, depending on substrate character, various reactor technologies are available. The microbiological process leading to methane production is complex and involves many different types of microorganisms, often operating in close relationships because of the limited amount of energy available for growth. The microbial community structure is shaped by the incoming material, but also by operating parameters such as process temperature. Factors leading to an imbalance in the microbial community can result in process instability or even complete process failure. To ensure stable operation, different key parameters, such as levels of degradation intermediates and gas quality, are often monitored. Despite the fact that the anaerobic digestion process has long been used for industrial production of biogas, many questions need still to be resolved to achieve optimal management and gas yields and to exploit the great energy and nutrient potential available in waste material. This chapter discusses the different aspects that need to be taken into consideration to achieve optimal degradation and gas production, with particular focus on operation management and microbiology.

  18. Assessment of Two Alternative Sample Transport and Fixation Methods in the Microbiological Diagnosis of Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Eason

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The standard method for specimen collection and transport for microbiological diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is an air-dried smear of vaginal secretions, promptly heat- or alcohol-fixed, Gram-stained and scored by Nugent's criteria.

  19. Risk-based technical specifications program: Site interview results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.R.; Baker, A.J.; Johnson, R.L.

    1991-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute and Pacific Gas and Electric Company are sponsoring a program directed at improving Technical Specifications using risk-based methods. The major objectives of the program are to develop risk-based approaches to improve Technical Specifications and to develop an Interactive Risk Advisor (IRA) prototype. The IRA is envisioned as an interactive system that is available to plant personnel to assist in controlling plant operation. Use of an IRA is viewed as a method to improve plant availability while maintaining or improving plant safety. In support of the program, interviews were conducted at several PWR and BWR plant sites, to elicit opinions and information concerning risk-based approaches to Technical Specifications and IRA requirements. This report presents the results of these interviews, including the functional requirements of an IRA. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær

    to oil and gas structures. In addition, condition monitoring systems are often available, and the information should be taken into account when making decisions. In this thesis, methods for risk-based maintenance planning using Bayesian methods are investigated, with the aim of making optimal decisions......, but presently maintenance is not planned using advanced methods taking all available information into account in a consistent manner. Maintenance decisions can be made based on risk-based methods, where the total expected life cycle costs are minimized. Methods have been developed for assessing the corrective...... considering all available information. First, a theoretical damage model is formulated, the model is then updated using condition monitoring data, and the updated model is used as basis for risk-based decision making. Several approaches for solving the decision problems have been considered: various types...

  1. Selection of the open pit mining cut-off grade strategy under price uncertainty using a risk based multi-criteria ranking system / Wybór strategii określania warunku opłacalności wydobycia w kopalniach odkrywkowych w warunkach niepewności cen w oparciu o wielokryterialny system rankingowy z uwzględnieniem czynników ryzyka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Yousue; Osanloo, Montza; Esfahanipour, Akbar

    2012-12-01

    Cut-off Grade Strategy (COGS) is a concept that directly influences the financial, technical, economic, environmental, and legal issues in relation to exploitation of a mineral resource. A decision making system is proposed to select the best technically feasible COGS under price uncertainty. In the proposed system both the conventional discounted cash flow and modern simulation based real option valuations are used to evaluate the alternative strategies. Then the conventional expected value criterion and a multiple criteria ranking system were used to rank the strategies based on the two valuation methods. In the multiple criteria ranking system besides the expected value other stochastic orders expressing abilities of strategies in producing extra profits, minimizing losses and achieving the predefined goals of the exploitation strategy are considered. Finally, the best strategy is selected based on the overall average rank of strategies through all ranking systems. The proposed system was examined using the data of Sungun Copper Mine. To assess the merits of the alternatives better, ranking process was done at both high (prevailing economic condition) and low price conditions. Ranking results revealed that at different price conditions and valuation methods, different results would be obtained. It is concluded that these differences are due to the different behavior of the embedded option to close the mine early, which is more likely to be exercised under low price condition rather than high price condition. The proposed system would enhance the quality of decision making process by providing a more informative and certain platform for project evaluation.

  2. Microbiological monitoring in geothermal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Vetter, A.; Vieth, A.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Würdemann, H.

    2009-12-01

    In times of increasing relevance of alternative energy resources the utilization of geothermal energy and subsurface energy storage gains importance and arouses increasing interest of scientists. The research project “AquiScreen” investigates the operational reliability of geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. Microbiological analyses based on fluid and solid phases of geothermal systems are conducted to evaluate the impact of microbial populations on these systems. The presentation focuses on first results obtained from microbiological monitoring of geothermal plants located in two different regions of Germany: the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin in the southern part characterized by different salinities and temperatures. Fluid and filter samples taken during regular plant operation were investigated using genetic fingerprinting based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes to characterize the microbial biocenosis of the geothermal aquifer. Sequencing of dominant bands of the fingerprints and the subsequent comparison to 16S rRNA genes from public databases enables a correlation to metabolic classes and provides information about the biochemical processes in the deep biosphere. The genetic profiles revealed significant differences in microbiological community structures of geothermal aquifers investigated. Phylogenetic analyses indicate broad metabolical diversity adapted to the specific conditions in the aquifers. Additionally a high amount of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected indicating very specific indigenous biocenosis. However, in all geothermal plants bacteria were detected despite of fluid temperatures from 45° to 120°C. The identified microorganisms are closely related to thermophilic and hyperthermophilic species detectable in hot wells and hot springs, like Thermus scotoductus and Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, respectively. Halophilic species were detected in

  3. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruud, Stian [Section for Control Systems, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Stian.Ruud@dnv.com; Mikkelsen, Age [Section for Lifting Appliances, DNV Maritime, 1322 Hovik (Norway)], E-mail: Age.Mikkelsen@dnv.com

    2008-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented.

  4. Risk-based rules for crane safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruud, Stian; Mikkelsen, Age

    2008-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) has recommended a method called formal safety assessment (FSA) for future development of rules and regulations. The FSA method has been applied in a pilot research project for development of risk-based rules and functional requirements for systems and components for offshore crane systems. This paper reports some developments in the project. A method for estimating target reliability for the risk-control options (safety functions) by means of the cost/benefit decision criterion has been developed in the project and is presented in this paper. Finally, a structure for risk-based rules is proposed and presented

  5. Practical risk-based decision making: Good decisions made efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Guthrie, V.; Walker, D.; Singer, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Robotics and Process Systems Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company have teamed with JBF Associates, Inc. to address risk-based robotic planning. The objective of the project is to provide systematic, risk-based relative comparisons of competing alternatives for solving clean-up problems at DOE facilities. This paper presents the methodology developed, describes the software developed to efficiently apply the methodology, and discusses the results of initial applications for DOE. The paper also addresses current work in applying the approach to problems in other industries (including an example from the hydrocarbon processing industry)

  6. Promotion of technical harmonisation on risk-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchsteiger, Christian; Cojazzi, Giacomo

    2000-01-01

    The EC-JRC International Workshop on Promotion of Technical Harmonisation on Risk-Based Decision Making, held at Stresa and Ispra, Italy, 22-25 May 2000, was an experts meeting to discuss the possible need of developing an internationally accepted generic 'standard' for risk-based decision making.This paper briefly describes the workshop background, its organisation and summarises its main results and conclusions; it reflects the personal opinions of the authors and in no way commits the European Commission. (author)

  7. Expert systems in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstanley, Trevor; Courvalin, Patrice

    2011-07-01

    This review aims to discuss expert systems in general and how they may be used in medicine as a whole and clinical microbiology in particular (with the aid of interpretive reading). It considers rule-based systems, pattern-based systems, and data mining and introduces neural nets. A variety of noncommercial systems is described, and the central role played by the EUCAST is stressed. The need for expert rules in the environment of reset EUCAST breakpoints is also questioned. Commercial automated systems with on-board expert systems are considered, with emphasis being placed on the "big three": Vitek 2, BD Phoenix, and MicroScan. By necessity and in places, the review becomes a general review of automated system performances for the detection of specific resistance mechanisms rather than focusing solely on expert systems. Published performance evaluations of each system are drawn together and commented on critically.

  8. Dental abscess: A microbiological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental abscess is a frequently occurring infectious process known to the health practice. The fate of the infection depends on the virulence of the bacteria, host resistance factors, and regional anatomy. Serious consequences arising from the spread of a dental abscess lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Acute dental abscess is polymicrobial, comprising of strict anaerobes, such as anaerobic cocci, Prevotella, Fusobacterium species, and facultative anaerobes, such as viridans group streptococci and the Streptococcus anginosus group. Numerous novel, uncultivable and fastidious organisms have been identified as potential pathogens with the use of non-culture techniques. The majority of localized dental abscesses respond to surgical treatment while the use of antimicrobials is limited to severe spreading infections. There is a need for good-quality clinical trials of sufficient size to identify the ideal treatment. The microbiology of the acute dentoalveolar abscess and its treatment in the light of improved culture and diagnostic methods are reviewed.

  9. Mathematical modelling methodologies in predictive food microbiology: a SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Jordi; Prats, Clara; López, Daniel; Vives-Rego, Josep

    2009-08-31

    Predictive microbiology is the area of food microbiology that attempts to forecast the quantitative evolution of microbial populations over time. This is achieved to a great extent through models that include the mechanisms governing population dynamics. Traditionally, the models used in predictive microbiology are whole-system continuous models that describe population dynamics by means of equations applied to extensive or averaged variables of the whole system. Many existing models can be classified by specific criteria. We can distinguish between survival and growth models by seeing whether they tackle mortality or cell duplication. We can distinguish between empirical (phenomenological) models, which mathematically describe specific behaviour, and theoretical (mechanistic) models with a biological basis, which search for the underlying mechanisms driving already observed phenomena. We can also distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary models, by examining their treatment of the effects of external factors and constraints on the microbial community. Recently, the use of spatially explicit Individual-based Models (IbMs) has spread through predictive microbiology, due to the current technological capacity of performing measurements on single individual cells and thanks to the consolidation of computational modelling. Spatially explicit IbMs are bottom-up approaches to microbial communities that build bridges between the description of micro-organisms at the cell level and macroscopic observations at the population level. They provide greater insight into the mesoscale phenomena that link unicellular and population levels. Every model is built in response to a particular question and with different aims. Even so, in this research we conducted a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) analysis of the different approaches (population continuous modelling and Individual-based Modelling), which we hope will be helpful for current and future

  10. Microbiological challenge testing for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat food: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Spanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Food business operators (FBOs are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product’s shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food.

  11. Microbiological Challenge Testing for Listeria Monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Food: A Practical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanu, Carlo; Scarano, Christian; Ibba, Michela; Pala, Carlo; Spanu, Vincenzo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2014-12-09

    Food business operators (FBOs) are the primary responsible for the safety of food they place on the market. The definition and validation of the product's shelf-life is an essential part for ensuring microbiological safety of food and health of consumers. In the frame of the Regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs, FBOs shall conduct shelf-life studies in order to assure that their food does not exceed the food safety criteria throughout the defined shelf-life. In particular this is required for ready-to-eat (RTE) food that supports the growth of Listeria monocytogenes . Among other studies, FBOs can rely on the conclusion drawn by microbiological challenge tests. A microbiological challenge test consists in the artificial contamination of a food with a pathogen microorganism and aims at simulating its behaviour during processing and distribution under the foreseen storage and handling conditions. A number of documents published by international health authorities and research institutions describes how to conduct challenge studies. The authors reviewed the existing literature and described the methodology for implementing such laboratory studies. All the main aspects for the conduction of L. monocytogenes microbiological challenge tests were considered, from the selection of the strains, preparation and choice of the inoculum level and method of contamination, to the experimental design and data interpretation. The objective of the present document is to provide an exhaustive and practical guideline for laboratories that want to implement L. monocytogenes challenge testing on RTE food.

  12. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (JTMB) formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology gives preeminence to the central role of modern biotechnology and microorganisms as tools and targets in current research, which is largely multidisciplinary. JTMB covers a broad range of topics, such as disease ...

  13. THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE. W.H. Holzapfel and A.N. Hail. Receipt of MS s.3.76. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of hetoria and. Animol and Dairv Science Reseorch Institute, Irene. OPSOMMING: DIE MIKROBIOLOGIE VAN SUID.AFRIKAANSE DROiWORS.

  14. Risk-based management of invading plant disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt-Twynam, Samuel R; Parnell, Stephen; Stutt, Richard O J H; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A; Cunniffe, Nik J

    2017-05-01

    Effective control of plant disease remains a key challenge. Eradication attempts often involve removal of host plants within a certain radius of detection, targeting asymptomatic infection. Here we develop and test potentially more effective, epidemiologically motivated, control strategies, using a mathematical model previously fitted to the spread of citrus canker in Florida. We test risk-based control, which preferentially removes hosts expected to cause a high number of infections in the remaining host population. Removals then depend on past patterns of pathogen spread and host removal, which might be nontransparent to affected stakeholders. This motivates a variable radius strategy, which approximates risk-based control via removal radii that vary by location, but which are fixed in advance of any epidemic. Risk-based control outperforms variable radius control, which in turn outperforms constant radius removal. This result is robust to changes in disease spread parameters and initial patterns of susceptible host plants. However, efficiency degrades if epidemiological parameters are incorrectly characterised. Risk-based control including additional epidemiology can be used to improve disease management, but it requires good prior knowledge for optimal performance. This focuses attention on gaining maximal information from past epidemics, on understanding model transferability between locations and on adaptive management strategies that change over time. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end...

  16. 6 CFR 27.230 - Risk-based performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based performance standards. 27.230 Section 27.230 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY... the facility and that discourages abuse through established disciplinary measures; (4) Deter, Detect...

  17. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process

  18. Study of a risk-based piping inspection guideline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shiaw-Wen; Hwang, Wen-Tsung; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    2007-02-01

    A risk-based inspection system and a piping inspection guideline model were developed in this study. The research procedure consists of two parts--the building of a risk-based inspection model for piping and the construction of a risk-based piping inspection guideline model. Field visits at the plant were conducted to develop the risk-based inspection and strategic analysis system. A knowledge-based model had been built in accordance with international standards and local government regulations, and the rational unified process was applied for reducing the discrepancy in the development of the models. The models had been designed to analyze damage factors, damage models, and potential damage positions of piping in the petrochemical plants. The purpose of this study was to provide inspection-related personnel with the optimal planning tools for piping inspections, hence, to enable effective predictions of potential piping risks and to enhance the better degree of safety in plant operations that the petrochemical industries can be expected to achieve. A risk analysis was conducted on the piping system of a petrochemical plant. The outcome indicated that most of the risks resulted from a small number of pipelines.

  19. Develop risk-based procurement management tools for SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Anne; Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Walhof, Gert; Holman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance for developing risk-based management tools to improve the procurement (purchasing) performance of SMEs. Extant academic literature only offers little support on developing such tools and does not consider the wide variety of SMEs. The paper defines a procurement tool for

  20. 12 CFR 932.3 - Risk-based capital requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit risk capital requirement, its market risk capital requirement, and its operations risk capital... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement. 932.3 Section 932.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND...

  1. 76 FR 1889 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... ``three-pillar'' framework that includes (i) risk-based capital requirements for credit risk, market risk... incremental risk capital requirement to capture default and credit quality migration risk for non... (advanced approaches rules) (collectively, the credit risk capital rules) \\8\\ by requiring any bank subject...

  2. 77 FR 53059 - Risk-Based Capital Guidelines: Market Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ...'' framework that includes (1) Risk-based capital requirements for credit risk, market risk, and operational... default and credit quality migration risk for non-securitization credit products. With respect to... securitization positions, the revisions assign a specific risk- weighting factor based on the credit rating of a...

  3. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance Using Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how risk-based decision making can be used for maintenance planning of components exposed to degradation such as fatigue in offshore wind turbines. In fatigue models, large epistemic uncertainties are usually present. These can be reduced if monitoring results are used to upd...

  4. Benefits of Risk Based Inspection Planning for Offshore Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straub, D.M.; Goyet, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2006-01-01

    The economical benefits of applying risk-based inspection planning (RBI) for offshore structures subject to fatigue are evaluated based on experiences from past industrial projects. To this end, the factors influencing the cost of inspection, repair and failure of structures are discussed......, the financial benefit of RBI is assessed....

  5. Risk-Based Educational Accountability in Dutch Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, A. C.; de Wolf, I. F.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.

    2015-01-01

    A recent development in educational accountability is a risk-based approach, in which intensity and frequency of school inspections vary across schools to make educational accountability more efficient and effective by enabling inspectorates to focus on organizations at risk. Characteristics relevant in predicting which schools are "at risk…

  6. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines costs to operation and maintenance are substantial. This paper describes a risk-based lifecycle approach for optimal planning of operation and maintenance. The approach is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision theory. Deterioration mechanisms such as fatigue, corrosion...

  7. Microbiological Food Safety Surveillance in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Pei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological food safety surveillance is a system that collects data regarding food contamination by foodborne pathogens, parasites, viruses, and other harmful microbiological factors. It helps to understand the spectrum of food safety, timely detect food safety hazards, and provide relevant data for food safety supervision, risk assessment, and standards-setting. The study discusses the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China, and introduces the policies and history of the national microbiological surveillance system. In addition, the function and duties of different organizations and institutions are provided in this work, as well as the generation and content of the surveillance plan, quality control, database, and achievement of the microbiological surveillance of food safety in China.

  8. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. 104 evaluation of microbiological purity of some brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Keywords: Microbiological purity, tetracycline, contaminants, bacterial load, fungal load, microbiological ... Just like food substances, pharmaceutical products .... Malaysia. Chlortetracycline a. Mar. 2005. Mar. 2008. Ghana b. Aug. 2005. Aug.

  10. 21 CFR 866.2350 - Microbiological assay culture medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2350... consists primarily of liquid or solid biological materials intended for medical purposes to cultivate...

  11. Automation in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Susan M; Marlowe, Elizabeth M

    2013-09-01

    Imagine a clinical microbiology laboratory where a patient's specimens are placed on a conveyor belt and sent on an automation line for processing and plating. Technologists need only log onto a computer to visualize the images of a culture and send to a mass spectrometer for identification. Once a pathogen is identified, the system knows to send the colony for susceptibility testing. This is the future of the clinical microbiology laboratory. This article outlines the operational and staffing challenges facing clinical microbiology laboratories and the evolution of automation that is shaping the way laboratory medicine will be practiced in the future. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of risk-based methods for inspection of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    In-service inspections (ISIs) can play a significant role in minimizing equipment and structural failures. All aspects of inspections, i.e., objectives, method, timing, and the acceptance criteria for detected flaws can affect the probability of component failure. Where ISI programs exist, they are primarily based on prior experience and engineering judgment. At best, some include an implicit consideration of risk (probability of failure multiplied by consequence). Since late 1988, a multidisciplined American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Research Task Force on Risk-Based Inspection Guidelines has been addressing the general question of how to formally incorporate risk considerations into plans and requirements for the ISI of components and structural systems. The task force and steering committee that guided the project have concluded that appropriate analytical methods exist for evaluating and quantifying risks associated with pressure boundary and structural failures. With the support of about a dozen industry and government organizations, the research group has recommended a general methodology for establishing a risk-based inspection program that could be applied to any nuclear system or structural system

  13. Designing and evaluating risk-based surveillance systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willeberg, Preben; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Salman, Mo

    2012-01-01

    Risk-based surveillance systems reveal occurrence of disease or infection in a sample of population units, which are selected on the basis of risk factors for the condition under study. The purpose of such systems for supporting practical animal disease policy formulations and management decisions...... with prudent use of resources while maintaining acceptable system performance. High-risk category units are selected for testing by identification of the presence of specific high-risk factor(s), while disregarding other factors that might also influence the risk. On this basis we argue that the most...... applicable risk estimate for use in designing and evaluating a risk-based surveillance system would be a crude (unadjusted) relative risk, odds ratio or apparent prevalence. Risk estimates found in the published literature, however, are often the results of multivariable analyses implicitly adjusting...

  14. Risk-based decision making for terrorism applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Robin L; Liebe, Robert M; Bestafka, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    This article describes the anti-terrorism risk-based decision aid (ARDA), a risk-based decision-making approach for prioritizing anti-terrorism measures. The ARDA model was developed as part of a larger effort to assess investments for protecting U.S. Navy assets at risk and determine whether the most effective anti-terrorism alternatives are being used to reduce the risk to the facilities and war-fighting assets. With ARDA and some support from subject matter experts, we examine thousands of scenarios composed of 15 attack modes against 160 facility types on two installations and hundreds of portfolios of 22 mitigation alternatives. ARDA uses multiattribute utility theory to solve some of the commonly identified challenges in security risk analysis. This article describes the process and documents lessons learned from applying the ARDA model for this application.

  15. Risk-based Operation and Maintenance for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Nielsen, Jannie Jessen

    2011-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines, costs to Operation and Maintenance (OM) are substantial, and can be expected to increase when wind farms are placed at deeper water depths and in more harsh environments. Traditional strategies for OM include corrective and preventive (scheduled and condition...... statistics and costs of the different operations. The different OM strategies are described and compared in an illustrative example with focus on which types of information that are needed. Special focus is on comparison between risk-based maintenance strategies and the conventional maintenance planning...... and are often the driving mechanisms for failures / faults that need maintenance. Observations of the degree of damage can increase the reliability of predictions and decrease the costs of OM if integrated in a risk-based framework theoretically based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision theory. The mathematical...

  16. Application of risk-based inspection methods for cryogenic equipment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Risk-based Inspection (RBI) is widely applied across the world as part of Pressure Equipment Integrity Management, especially in the oil and gas industry, to generally reduce costs compared with time-based approaches and assist in assigning resources to the most critical equipment. One of the challenges in RBI is to apply it for low temperature and cryogenic applications, as there are usually no degradation mechanisms by which to determine a suitable probability of failure in the overall risk assessment. However, the assumptions used for other degradation mechanisms can be adopted to determine, qualitatively and semi-quantitatively, a consequence of failure within the risk assessment. This can assist in providing a consistent basis for the assumptions used in ensuring adequate process safety barriers and determining suitable sizing of relief devices. This presentation will discuss risk-based inspection in the context of cryogenic safety, as well as present some of the considerations for the risk assessme...

  17. Update on the EPRI power generation risk-based inservice inspection pilot plant studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, S.R.

    1997-01-01

    The scope for ASME Section XI ISI programs is largely based on deterministic results contained in design stress reports. These reports are normally very conservative and may not be an accurate representation of failure potential. Service experience has shown that failures are due to either corrosion or fatigue and typically occur in areas not included in the plant's ISI program. Consequently, nuclear plants are devoting significant resources to inspection programs that provide minimum benefit. As an alternative, significant industry attention has been devoted to the application of risked-based selection criteria in order to determine the scope of inservice inspection (ISI) programs at nuclear power plants. Preliminary EPRI studies indicate that the application of these techniques will allow operating nuclear plants to reduce the examination scope of current ISI programs by as much as 60 to 80%, significantly reduce costs, and continue to maintain high nuclear plant safety standards

  18. Towards risk-based structural integrity methods for PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, O.J.V.; Lloyd, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of risk-based structural integrity assurance methods and their application to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plant. In-service inspection is introduced as a way of reducing the failure probability of high risk sites and the latter are identified using reliability analysis; the extent and interval of inspection can also be optimized. The methodology is illustrated by reference to the aspect of reliability of weldments in PWR systems. (author)

  19. Quantification of Technology Innovation Usinga Risk-Based Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Gerard E. Sleefe

    2010-01-01

    There is significant interest in achieving technology innovation through new product development activities. It is recognized, however, that traditional project management practices focused only on performance, cost, and schedule attributes, can often lead to risk mitigation strategies that limit new technology innovation. In this paper, a new approach is proposed for formally managing and quantifying technology innovation. This approach uses a risk-based framework that s...

  20. Scientific and technical factors affecting the setting of Salmonella criteria for raw poultry: a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mead, G.; Lammerding, A.M.; Cox, N.; Doyle, M.P.; Humbert, F.; Kulikovskiy, A.; Panin, A.; Pinheiro do Nascimento, V.; Wierup, M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about foodborne salmonellosis have led many countries to introduce microbiological criteria for certain food products. If such criteria are not well-grounded in science, they could be an unjustified obstacle to trade. Raw poultry products are an important part of the global food market.

  1. Enhancing the effectiveness of IST through risk-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, S.D.

    1996-12-01

    Current IST requirements were developed mainly through deterministic-based methods. While this approach has resulted in an adequate level of safety and reliability for pumps and valves, insights from probabilistic safety assessments suggest a better safety focus can be achieved at lower costs. That is, some high safety impact pumps and valves are currently not tested under the IST program and should be added, while low safety impact valves could be tested at significantly greater intervals than allowed by the current IST program. The nuclear utility industry, through the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), has developed a draft guideline for applying risk-based techniques to focus testing on those pumps and valves with a high safety impact while reducing test frequencies on low safety impact pumps and valves. The guideline is being validated through an industry pilot application program that is being reviewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NEI and the ASME maintain a dialogue on the two groups` activities related to risk-based IST. The presenter will provide an overview of the NEI guideline, discuss the methodological approach for applying risk-based technology to IST and provide the status of the industry pilot plant effort.

  2. A risk-based auditing process for pharmaceutical manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Susan; Dana, Bob; Rangavajhula, Vijaya; Rönninger, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share ideas on developing a risk-based model for the scheduling of audits (both internal and external). Audits are a key element of a manufacturer's quality system and provide an independent means of evaluating the manufacturer's or the supplier/vendor's compliance status. Suggestions for risk-based scheduling approaches are discussed in the article. Pharmaceutical manufacturers are required to establish and implement a quality system. The quality system is an organizational structure defining responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources that the manufacturer has established to ensure quality throughout the manufacturing process. Audits are a component of the manufacturer's quality system and provide a systematic and an independent means of evaluating the manufacturer's overall quality system and compliance status. Audits are performed at defined intervals for a specified duration. The intention of the audit process is to focus on key areas within the quality system and may not cover all relevant areas during each audit. In this article, the authors provide suggestions for risk-based scheduling approaches to aid pharmaceutical manufacturers in identifying the key focus areas for an audit.

  3. Game Theory and Risk-Based Levee System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.; Madani, K.

    2014-12-01

    Risk-based analysis has been developed for optimal levee design for economic efficiency. Along many rivers, two levees on opposite riverbanks act as a simple levee system. Being rational and self-interested, land owners on each river bank would tend to independently optimize their levees with risk-based analysis, resulting in a Pareto-inefficient levee system design from the social planner's perspective. Game theory is applied in this study to analyze decision making process in a simple levee system in which the land owners on each river bank develop their design strategies using risk-based economic optimization. For each land owner, the annual expected total cost includes expected annual damage cost and annualized construction cost. The non-cooperative Nash equilibrium is identified and compared to the social planner's optimal distribution of flood risk and damage cost throughout the system which results in the minimum total flood cost for the system. The social planner's optimal solution is not feasible without appropriate level of compensation for the transferred flood risk to guarantee and improve conditions for all parties. Therefore, cooperative game theory is then employed to develop an economically optimal design that can be implemented in practice. By examining the game in the reversible and irreversible decision making modes, the cost of decision making myopia is calculated to underline the significance of considering the externalities and evolution path of dynamic water resource problems for optimal decision making.

  4. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-09-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VDmax25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VDmax25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given.

  5. [Publication rates of Turkish medical specialty and doctorate theses on Medical Microbiology, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases disciplines in international journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Caglayan Serin, Derya; Pullukcu, Hüsnü; Tasbakan, Meltem; Köseli Ulu, Demet; Yamazhan, Tansu; Arda, Bilgin; Sipahi, Hilal; Ulusoy, Sercan

    2014-04-01

    Writing a thesis is mandatory for getting a postgraduate medical degree in Turkey. Publication of the results of the thesis in an indexed journal makes the results available to researchers, however publication rate is usually low. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to investigate the publication rate of Turkish Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Medical Microbiology specialty theses and Microbiology doctorate theses in international peer-review journals. On August 17th 2007, the thesis database of the Council of Higher Education of the Republic of Turkey (YOK) where all specialization and doctorate theses are recorded obligatorily, was searched for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology and Medical Microbiology specialty and Microbiology doctorate theses. Assuming that publication of a thesis would last at least six months, theses dated to February 2007 and after were excluded. The publication rate of those theses was found out by searching Science Citation Index-Expanded database for thesis author and supervisor between August 17-September 12, 2007. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Our search yielded a total of 834 theses dated from 1997 to 2007, however 10 of them were excluded, since they were dated to February 2007 or after. It was found that the overall publication rate was 11.4% (94/824). The publication rates for Microbiology doctorate, Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology specialty theses were 13.7% (34/249), 10.7% (33/309) and 10.2% (27/266), respectively, with no statistical significance (p> 0.05). It was determined that nine (9.6%) of the 94 published theses belonged to 1997-2001 period, whereas 85 (80.4%) were in 2002-2007 period (p< 0.05). The probable reason for this increase was thought to be related with the updated criteria of YOK carried out in 2000 for academic promotions, nevertheless the publication rate of the investigated theses in international peer

  6. Microbiological Assessment of Commercially Available Quinine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Key words: Microbiological quality, quinine syrups, water for injection, pyrogen test. Received: 12 February ... pharmaceutical industry is indispensable, especially in ... Production of WFI or any other pharmaceutical products .... culture media.

  7. Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbins, Joanne J.

    2010-01-01

    Review of: Prescott’s Microbiology, Eighth Edition. Joanne M. Willey, Linda M. Sherwood, and Christopher J. Woolverton. 2011. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, NewYork, NY. 1070 pages. ISBN- 978-0-07-337526-7.

  8. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. ... of edible locally produced dry season leafy vegetables cultivated in south east Enugu, Nigeria ... Cross-seasonal analysis of bacteriological profile of water sources as a disease risk ...

  9. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: An audit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy.

  10. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2008) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Microbiology and radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colasanti, R.; Coutts, D.; Pugh, S.Y.R.; Rosevear, A.

    1990-03-01

    The present Nirex Safety Assessment Research Programme on microbiology is based on experimental as well as theoretical work. It has concentrated on the study of how mixed, natural populations of microbes might survive and grow on the organic component of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLW) and PCM (Plutonium Contaminated Waste) in a cementitious waste repository. The present studies indicate that both carbon dioxide and methane will be produced by microbial action within the repository. Carbon dioxide will dissolve and react with the concrete to a limited extent so methane will be the principal component of the produced gas. The concentration of hydrogen, derived from corrosion, will be depressed by microbial action and that this will further elevate methane levels. Actual rates of production will be lower than that in a domestic landfill due to the more extreme pH. Microbial action will clearly affect the aqueous phase chemistry where organic material is present in the waste. The cellulosic fraction is the main determinant of cell growth and the appearance of soluble organics. The structure of the mathematical model which has been developed, predicts the general features which are intuitively expected in a developing microbial population. It illustrates that intermediate compounds will build up in the waste until growth of the next organism needed for sequential degradation is initiated. The soluble compounds in the pore water and the mixture of microbes present in the waste will vary with time and sustain biological activity over a prolonged period. Present estimates suggest that most microbial action in the repository will be complete after 400 years. There is scope for the model to deal with environmental factors such as temperature and pH and to introduce other energy sources such as hydrogen. (author)

  13. Microbiological Monitoring in Geothermal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawi, M.; Lerm, S.; Linder, R.; Vetter, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Miethling-Graff, R.; Seibt, A.; Wolfgramm, M.; Wuerdemann, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the scope of the research projects “AquiScreen” and “MiProTherm” we investigated geothermally used groundwater systems under microbial, geochemical, mineralogical and petrological aspects. On one side an enhanced process understanding of engineered geothermal systems is mandatory to optimize plant reliability and economy, on the other side this study provides insights into the microbiology of terrestrial thermal systems. Geothermal systems located in the North German Basin and the Molasse Basin were analyzed by sampling of fluids and solid phases. The investigated sites were characterized by different temperatures, salinities and potential microbial substrates. The microbial population was monitored by the use of genetic fingerprinting techniques and PCR-cloning based on PCR-amplified 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes. DNA-sequences of fingerprints and cloned PCR-products were compared to public databases and correlated with metabolic classes to provide information about the biogeochemical processes. In all investigated geothermal plants, covering a temperature range from 5° to 120°C, microorganisms were found. Phylogenetic gene analyses indicate a broad diversity of microorganisms adapted to the specific conditions in the engineered system. Beside characterized bacteria like Thermus scotoductus, Siderooxidans lithoautotrophicus and the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus a high number of so far uncultivated microorganisms was detected. As it is known that - in addition to abiotic factors - microbes like sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the processes of corrosion and scaling in plant components, we identified SRB by specific analyses of DSR genes. The SRB detected are closely related to thermotolerant and thermophilic species of Desulfotomaculum, Thermodesulfovibrio, Desulfohalobium and Thermodesulfobacterium, respectively. Overall, the detection of microbes known to be involved in biocorrosion and the

  14. Applied and Environmental Microbiology Gordon Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2003-11-19

    The main objective of the Gordon Research Conference on Applied and Environmental Microbiology was to present and discuss new, fundamental research findings on microorganisms, their activities in the environment, their ecosystem-level effects, and their environmental or commercial applications. To accomplish this goal, knowledge of microbial diversity, interactions and population dynamics was required. The genomic basis of microbial processes, the cycling of naturally occurring and hazardous substances, and methodologies to assess the functional relationships of microorganisms in their habitats were essential for understanding the ecological consequences of microbial activities and the formulation of generalizing principles. In the last decade, molecular technology has revealed that microbial diversity is far more extensive than the limited view obtained from culturing procedures. Great advances in environmental microbiology have resulted from the development and application of molecular approaches to ecology and molecular evolution. A further surprise resulting from the application of these new tools is the blurring of the distinction between pathogenic traits versus those considered non-pathogenic. This year's conference addressed the issues of biodiversity, its development, and the impact of stress on gene selection and expression. In addition microbial metabolic versatility with toxins such as heavy metals, antibiotics, and organic pollutants were discussed. The nine session topics were (1) biodiversity and the bacterial species, (2) mechanisms of biodiversification, (3) biofilms in health and environment, (4) a genomic view of microbial response to stress, (5) microbial use of toxic metals, (6) microbial mineral formation and dissolution, (7) power and limitations of antimicrobials, (8) biodegradation of organic pollutants, and (9) astrobiology. The Conference had an international profile: the Conference Vice-Chair, Dr. Gerard Muyzer, was from The Nether

  15. Medical microbiology training needs and trainee experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Josephine; Elamin, Wael; Millar, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Training in microbiology is continuing to evolve. Standardisation of this process has, in part, been achieved through the development of a training curriculum by the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath). A substantial proportion of microbiology training occurs through telephone consultations. To ascertain the content of these interactions and the extent to which the necessary skills outlined by the curriculum are attainable via these consultations. Records of telephone consultations made by microbiology registrars (SpR) on the Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) over a 6 month period were analysed with regard to who initiated contact and the type of advice provided. An average of 426 SpR entries per month were made on the LIMS following telephone consultations. These consultations were predominantly initiated by fellow clinicians as opposed to the SpR. The majority (79%) of advice entailed guidance as to the use of antimicrobials which resulted in an alteration of the current regimen in 54% of cases. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the telephone consultations of microbiology trainees. It is concluded that although such interactions provide a means of attaining some of the competencies outlined by the RCPath curriculum, the bias towards antimicrobial advice reflects a discrepancy between the needs of the service users and the broad skill set advocated by the current microbiology training programme. Future modifications will need to take this into account to ensure both the training of SpRs and the microbiology service is fit for purpose.

  16. Diagnostic trends in Clostridium difficile detection in Finnish microbiology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi

    2009-12-01

    Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.

  17. Practical issues in implementing whole-genome-sequencing in routine diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossen, J W A; Friedrich, A W; Moran-Gilad, J

    2018-04-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) is increasingly being used in clinical microbiology. Like every new technology adopted in microbiology, the integration of NGS into clinical and routine workflows must be carefully managed. To review the practical aspects of implementing bacterial whole genome sequencing (WGS) in routine diagnostic laboratories. Review of the literature and expert opinion. In this review, we discuss when and how to integrate whole genome sequencing (WGS) in the routine workflow of the clinical laboratory. In addition, as the microbiology laboratories have to adhere to various national and international regulations and criteria for their accreditation, we deliberate on quality control issues for using WGS in microbiology, including the importance of proficiency testing. Furthermore, the current and future place of this technology in the diagnostic hierarchy of microbiology is described as well as the necessity of maintaining backwards compatibility with already established methods. Finally, we speculate on the question of whether WGS can entirely replace routine microbiology in the future and the tension between the fact that most sequencers are designed to process multiple samples in parallel whereas for optimal diagnosis a one-by-one processing of the samples is preferred. Special reference is made to the cost and turnaround time of WGS in diagnostic laboratories. Further development is required to improve the workflow for WGS, in particular to shorten the turnaround time, reduce costs, and streamline downstream data analyses. Only when these processes reach maturity will reliance on WGS for routine patient management and infection control management become feasible, enabling the transformation of clinical microbiology into a genome-based and personalized diagnostic field. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M

    2012-04-01

    The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place.

  19. The influence of Rickettsiologists on post-modern microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi eGeorgiades

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Many of the definitions in microbiology are factually false. We have revised the great denominations of microbiology and attempted to free microorganisms from the theories of the 20th century. The presence of compartmentation and a nucleoid in Planctomycetes clearly calls into question the accuracy of the definitions of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Archaea are viewed as prokaryotes resembling bacteria. However, the name archaea, suggesting an archaic origin of lifestyle, is inconsistent with the actual history of this family. Viruses are defined as small, filterable infectious agents, but giant viruses challenge the size criteria used for the definition of a virus. Pathogenicity does not require the acquisition of virulence factors (except for toxins, and in many cases, gene loss seems to be implicated in the emergence of virulence. Species classification based on 16S rRNA is useless for taxonomic purposes of human pathogens, as a 2% divergence would classify all Rickettsiae within the same species and would not identify bacteria specialized for the infection of mammals. The use of metagenomics helps us to understand evolution and physiology by elucidating the structure, function and interactions of microbial communities, but it neglects the minority populations. Finally, the tree of life (TOL theory, as established by Darwin, no longer matches our current genomic knowledge because genomics has revealed the occurrence of de novo-created genes and the mosaic structure of genomes.

  20. Risk-based audit selection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Velthuis, A G J

    2014-02-01

    Dairy farms are audited in the Netherlands on numerous process standards. Each farm is audited once every 2 years. Increasing demands for cost-effectiveness in farm audits can be met by introducing risk-based principles. This implies targeting subpopulations with a higher risk of poor process standards. To select farms for an audit that present higher risks, a statistical analysis was conducted to test the relationship between the outcome of farm audits and bulk milk laboratory results before the audit. The analysis comprised 28,358 farm audits and all conducted laboratory tests of bulk milk samples 12 mo before the audit. The overall outcome of each farm audit was classified as approved or rejected. Laboratory results included somatic cell count (SCC), total bacterial count (TBC), antimicrobial drug residues (ADR), level of butyric acid spores (BAB), freezing point depression (FPD), level of free fatty acids (FFA), and cleanliness of the milk (CLN). The bulk milk laboratory results were significantly related to audit outcomes. Rejected audits are likely to occur on dairy farms with higher mean levels of SCC, TBC, ADR, and BAB. Moreover, in a multivariable model, maxima for TBC, SCC, and FPD as well as standard deviations for TBC and FPD are risk factors for negative audit outcomes. The efficiency curve of a risk-based selection approach, on the basis of the derived regression results, dominated the current random selection approach. To capture 25, 50, or 75% of the population with poor process standards (i.e., audit outcome of rejected), respectively, only 8, 20, or 47% of the population had to be sampled based on a risk-based selection approach. Milk quality information can thus be used to preselect high-risk farms to be audited more frequently. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. German data for risk based fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of data are necessary to perform risk based fire safety assessments and, in particular, to quantify the fire event tree considering the plant specific conditions. Data on fire barriers, fire detection and extinguishing, including also data on secondary effects of a fire, have to be used for quantifying the potential hazard and damage states. The existing German database on fires in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very small. Therefore, in general generic data, mainly from US databases, are used for risk based safety assessments. Due to several differences in the plant design and conditions generic data can only be used as conservative assumptions. World-wide existing generic data on personnel failures in case of fire fighting have only to be adapted to the plant specific conditions inside the NPP to be investigated. In contrary, unavailabilities of fire barrier elements may differ strongly depending on different standards, testing requirements, etc. In addition, the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment may vary depending on type and manufacturer. The necessity for more detailed and for additional plant specific data was the main reason for generating updated German data on the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment/features in NPPs to support risk based fire safety analyses being recommended to be carried out as an additional tool to deterministic fire hazard analyses in the frame of safety reviews. The results of these investigations revealed a broader and more realistic database for technical reliability of active fire protection means, but improvements as well as collection of further data are still necessary. (author)

  2. Risk-based remediation of polluted sites: A critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Mayilswami, Srinithi; Lee, Yong Bok

    2017-11-01

    Sites contaminated with chemical pollutants represent a growing challenge, and remediation of such lands is of international concern. Risk-based land management (RBLM) is an emerging approach that integrates risk assessment practices with more traditional site-specific investigations and remediation activities. Developing countries are yet to adopt RBLM strategies for remediation. RBLM is considered to be practical, scientifically defensible and cost-efficient. However, it is inherently limited by: firstly, the accuracy of risk assessment models used; secondly, ramifications of the fact that they are more likely to leave contamination in place; and thirdly, uncertainties involved and having to consider the total concentrations of all contaminants in soils that overestimate the potential risks from exposure to the contaminants. Consideration of contaminant bioavailability as the underlying basis for risk assessment and setting remediation goals of those contaminated lands that pose a risk to environmental and human health may lead to the development of a more sophisticated risk-based approach. However, employing the bioavailability concept in RBLM has not been extensively studied and/or legalized. This review highlights the extent of global land contamination, and the concept of risk-based assessment and management of contaminated sites including its advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, the concept of bioavailability-based RBLM strategy has been proposed, and the challenges of RBLM and the priority areas for future research are summarized. Thus, the present review may help achieve a better understanding and successful implementation of a sustainable bioavailability-based RBLM strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk Based Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines Using Bayesian Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Jessen; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents how Bayesian networks can be used to make optimal decisions for repairs of offshore wind turbines. The Bayesian network is an efficient tool for updating a deterioration model whenever new information becomes available from inspections/monitoring. The optimal decision is found...... such that the preventive maintenance effort is balanced against the costs to corrective maintenance including indirect costs to reduced production. The basis for the optimization is the risk based Bayesian decision theory. The method is demonstrated through an application example....

  4. Evaluation of oral microbiology lab curriculum reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Min; Gao, Zhen Y; Wu, Xin Y; Jiang, Chen X; Du, Jia H

    2015-12-07

    According to the updated concept of oral microbiology, the School of Stomatology, Wuhan University, has carried out oral microbiology teaching reforms during the last 5 years. There was no lab curriculum before 2009 except for a theory course of oral microbiology. The school has implemented an innovative curriculum with oral medicine characteristics to strengthen understanding of knowledge, cultivate students' scientific interest and develop their potential, to cultivate the comprehensive ability of students. This study was designed to evaluate the oral microbiology lab curriculum by analyzing student performance and perceptions regarding the curriculum from 2009 to 2013. The lab curriculum adopted modalities for cooperative learning. Students collected dental plaque from each other and isolated the cariogenic bacteria with selective medium plates. Then they purified the enrichment culture medium and identified the cariogenic strains by Gram stain and biochemical tests. Both quantitative and qualitative data for 5 years were analysed in this study. Part One of the current study assessed student performance in the lab from 2009 to 2013. Part Two used qualitative means to assess students' perceptions by an open questionnaire. The 271 study students' grades on oral microbiology improved during the lab curriculum: "A" grades rose from 60.5 to 81.2 %, and "C" grades fell from 28.4 to 6.3 %. All students considered the lab curriculum to be interesting and helpful. Quantitative and qualitative data converge to suggest that the lab curriculum has strengthened students' grasp of important microbiology-related theory, cultivated their scientific interest, and developed their potential and comprehensive abilities. Our student performance and perception data support the continued use of the innovative teaching system. As an extension and complement of the theory course, the oral microbiology lab curriculum appears to improve the quality of oral medicine education and help to

  5. Teaching microbiological food safety through case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Dubois-Brissonnet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Higher education students usually ask for more training based on case studies. This was addressed by designing a specific food safety module (24 hours in which students were shown how to predict microbiological risks in food products i.e. they were asked to determine product shelf-life according to product formulation, preservation methods and consumption habits using predictive microbiology tools. Working groups of four students first identified the main microbiological hazards associated with a specific product. To perform this task, they were given several documents including guides for good hygiene practices, reviews on microbiological hazards in the food sector, flow sheets, etc…  After three-hours of work, the working groups prepared and gave an oral presentation in front of their classmates and professors. This raised comments and discussion that allowed students to adjust their conclusions before beginning the next step of their work. This second step consisted in the evaluation of the safety risk associated with the two major microbiological hazards of the product studied, using predictive microbiology. Students then attended a general lecture on the different tools of predictive microbiology and tutorials (6 hours that made them familiar with the modelling of bacterial growth or inactivation. They applied these tools (9 hours to predict the shelf-life of the studied product according to various scenarios of preservation (refrigeration, water activity, concentration of salt or acid, modified atmosphere, etc… and/or consumption procedures (cooking. The module was concluded by oral presentations of each working group and included student evaluation (3 hours.

  6. Incorporating linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic information in a risk-based approach for ranking contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kejiang; Achari, Gopal; Pei, Yuansheng

    2010-10-01

    Different types of uncertain information-linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic-exist in site characterization. Their representation and propagation significantly influence the management of contaminated sites. In the absence of a framework with which to properly represent and integrate these quantitative and qualitative inputs together, decision makers cannot fully take advantage of the available and necessary information to identify all the plausible alternatives. A systematic methodology was developed in the present work to incorporate linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic information into the Preference Ranking Organization METHod for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE), a subgroup of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) methods for ranking contaminated sites. The identification of criteria based on the paradigm of comparative risk assessment provides a rationale for risk-based prioritization. Uncertain linguistic, probabilistic, and possibilistic information identified in characterizing contaminated sites can be properly represented as numerical values, intervals, probability distributions, and fuzzy sets or possibility distributions, and linguistic variables according to their nature. These different kinds of representation are first transformed into a 2-tuple linguistic representation domain. The propagation of hybrid uncertainties is then carried out in the same domain. This methodology can use the original site information directly as much as possible. The case study shows that this systematic methodology provides more reasonable results. © 2010 SETAC.

  7. Risk-based decision-making framework for the selection of sediment dredging option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manap, Norpadzlihatun; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2014-10-15

    The aim of this study was to develop a risk-based decision-making framework for the selection of sediment dredging option. Descriptions using case studies of the newly integrated, holistic and staged framework were followed. The first stage utilized the historical dredging monitoring data and the contamination level in media data into Ecological Risk Assessment phases, which have been altered for benefits in cost, time and simplicity. How Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) can be used to analyze and prioritize dredging areas based on environmental, socio-economic and managerial criteria was described for the next stage. The results from MCDA will be integrated into Ecological Risk Assessment to characterize the degree of contamination in the prioritized areas. The last stage was later described using these findings and analyzed using MCDA, in order to identify the best sediment dredging option, accounting for the economic, environmental and technical aspects of dredging, which is beneficial for dredging and sediment management industries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A risk-based classification scheme for genetically modified foods. I: Conceptual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Eunice; Krewski, Daniel

    2008-12-01

    The predominant paradigm for the premarket assessment of genetically modified (GM) foods reflects heightened public concern by focusing on foods modified by recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) techniques, while foods modified by other methods of genetic modification are generally not assessed for safety. To determine whether a GM product requires less or more regulatory oversight and testing, we developed and evaluated a risk-based classification scheme (RBCS) for crop-derived GM foods. The results of this research are presented in three papers. This paper describes the conceptual development of the proposed RBCS that focuses on two categories of adverse health effects: (1) toxic and antinutritional effects, and (2) allergenic effects. The factors that may affect the level of potential health risks of GM foods are identified. For each factor identified, criteria for differentiating health risk potential are developed. The extent to which a GM food satisfies applicable criteria for each factor is rated separately. A concern level for each category of health effects is then determined by aggregating the ratings for the factors using predetermined aggregation rules. An overview of the proposed scheme is presented, as well as the application of the scheme to a hypothetical GM food.

  9. Risk-based decisionmaking in the DOE: Challenges and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J.; Moses, M.

    1995-01-01

    The primary mission of the Environmental Management Program is to protect human health and the environment, the first goal of which must be, to address urgent risks and threats. Another is to provide for a safe workplace. Without credible risk assessments and good risk management practices, the central environmental goals cannot be met. Principles for risk analysis which include principles for risk assessment, management, communication, and priority setting were adopted. As recommended, Environmental Management is using risk-based decision making in its budget process and in the implementation of its program. The challenges presented in using a risk-based Decision making process are to integrate risk assessment methods and cultural and social values so as to produce meaningful priorities. The different laws and regulations governing the Department define risk differently in implementing activities to protect human health and the environment, therefore, assumptions and judgements in risk analysis vary. Currently, the Environmental Management Program is developing and improving a framework to incorporate risk into the budget process and to link the budget, compliance requirements and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities

  10. Application of risk-based methodologies to prioritize safety resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Hosler, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) started a program entitled risk-based prioritization in 1992. The purpose of this program is to provide generic technical support to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of operations and maintenance (O ampersand M) cost control using state-of-the-art risk methods. The approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. Specifically, those items or events that have high risk significance would receive the most attention, while those with little risk content would command fewer resources. As quantified in a companion paper,close-quote the potential O ampersand M cost reduction inherent in this approach is very large. Furthermore, risk-based methods should also lead to safety improvements. This paper outlines the way that the EPRI technical work complements the technical, policy, and regulatory initiatives taken by others in the industry and provides an example of the approach as used to prioritize motor-operated valve (MOV) testing in response to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letter 89-10

  11. Study of operational risk-based configuration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W E [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States); Samanta, P K; Kim, I S [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report studies aspects of a risk-based configuration control system to detect and control plant configurations from a risk perspective. Configuration control, as the term is used here, is the management of component configurations to achieve specific objectives. One important objective is to control risk and safety. Another is to operate efficiently and make effective use of available resources. PSA-based evaluations are performed to study configuration to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability for two plants. Some equipment configurations can cause large core-melt frequency and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. The insights from this evaluation are used to develop the framework for an effective risk-based configuration control system. The focal points of such a system and the requirements for tools development for implementing the system are defined. The requirements of risk models needed for the system, and the uses of plant-specific data are also discussed. 18 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Risk-based decisionmaking in the DOE: Challenges and status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, C.J.; Alchowiak, J.; Moses, M. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The primary mission of the Environmental Management Program is to protect human health and the environment, the first goal of which must be, to address urgent risks and threats. Another is to provide for a safe workplace. Without credible risk assessments and good risk management practices, the central environmental goals cannot be met. Principles for risk analysis which include principles for risk assessment, management, communication, and priority setting were adopted. As recommended, Environmental Management is using risk-based decision making in its budget process and in the implementation of its program. The challenges presented in using a risk-based Decision making process are to integrate risk assessment methods and cultural and social values so as to produce meaningful priorities. The different laws and regulations governing the Department define risk differently in implementing activities to protect human health and the environment, therefore, assumptions and judgements in risk analysis vary. Currently, the Environmental Management Program is developing and improving a framework to incorporate risk into the budget process and to link the budget, compliance requirements and risk reduction/pollution prevention activities.

  13. Toward a Safety Risk-Based Classification of Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2016-01-01

    There is a trend of growing interest and demand for greater access of unmanned aircraft (UA) to the National Airspace System (NAS) as the ongoing development of UA technology has created the potential for significant economic benefits. However, the lack of a comprehensive and efficient UA regulatory framework has constrained the number and kinds of UA operations that can be performed. This report presents initial results of a study aimed at defining a safety-risk-based UA classification as a plausible basis for a regulatory framework for UA operating in the NAS. Much of the study up to this point has been at a conceptual high level. The report includes a survey of contextual topics, analysis of safety risk considerations, and initial recommendations for a risk-based approach to safe UA operations in the NAS. The next phase of the study will develop and leverage deeper clarity and insight into practical engineering and regulatory considerations for ensuring that UA operations have an acceptable level of safety.

  14. [Bacterial identification methods in the microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Germán; Fernández-Olmos, Ana; García, Celia; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio; Valdezate, Sylvia

    2011-10-01

    In order to identify the agent responsible of the infectious process and understanding the pathogenic/pathological implications, clinical course, and to implement an effective antimicrobial therapy, a mainstay in the practice of clinical microbiology is the allocation of species to a microbial isolation. In daily routine practice microbiology laboratory phenotypic techniques are applied to achieve this goal. However, they have some limitations that are seen more clearly for some kinds of microorganism. Molecular methods can circumvent some of these limitations, although its implementation is not universal. This is due to higher costs and the level of expertise required for thei implementation, so molecular methods are often centralized in reference laboratories and centers. Recently, proteomics-based methods made an important breakthrough in the field of diagnostic microbiology and will undoubtedly have a major impact on the future organization of the microbiology services. This paper is a short review of the most noteworthy aspects of the three bacterial identification methods described above used in microbiology laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion

  16. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, S J

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distribution of viral isolates are similar to those reported from microbiology laboratories with separate virology laboratories directed by a full-time doctoral-level virologist. Our seven years' experience demonstrates that a microbiology laboratory without a full-time doctoral-level virologist can provide clinically useful virologic information.

  17. Emerging Technologies for the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Blake W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In this review we examine the literature related to emerging technologies that will help to reshape the clinical microbiology laboratory. These topics include nucleic acid amplification tests such as isothermal and point-of-care molecular diagnostics, multiplexed panels for syndromic diagnosis, digital PCR, next-generation sequencing, and automation of molecular tests. We also review matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry methods and their role in identification of microorganisms. Lastly, we review the shift to liquid-based microbiology and the integration of partial and full laboratory automation that are beginning to impact the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:25278575

  18. Microbiological and therapeutic challenges in infectious spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed-Petersen, Casper; Dragsted, Casper

    2013-01-01

    The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic u...... utility of blood cultures and invasive biopsies in the microbiological diagnosis, (2) clinical features differentiating Staphylococcus aureus infections from those with other aetiologies, and (3) evaluation of the outcome of the antimicrobial therapy.......The microbiological diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis is often difficult to establish and the disease requires prolonged antibiotic treatment. We analyzed the medical records of 100 patients admitted for infectious spondylodiscitis from 2006 to 2011 with an emphasis on (1) the diagnostic...

  19. Transforming clinical microbiology with bacterial genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Xavier; Bowden, Rory; Wilson, Daniel J; Peto, Tim E A; Crook, Derrick W

    2012-09-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of bacteria has recently emerged as a cost-effective and convenient approach for addressing many microbiological questions. Here, we review the current status of clinical microbiology and how it has already begun to be transformed by using next-generation sequencing. We focus on three essential tasks: identifying the species of an isolate, testing its properties, such as resistance to antibiotics and virulence, and monitoring the emergence and spread of bacterial pathogens. We predict that the application of next-generation sequencing will soon be sufficiently fast, accurate and cheap to be used in routine clinical microbiology practice, where it could replace many complex current techniques with a single, more efficient workflow.

  20. Microbiological aspects of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranđelović, Gordana; Mladenović, Vesna; Ristić, Ljiljana; Otašević, Suzana; Branković, Sofija; Mladenović-Antić, Snežana; Bogdanović, Milena; Bogdanović, Dragan

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the vaginal introitus microbial flora in girls with and without symptoms of vulvovaginitis, and to present the distribution of isolated microorganisms by age groups in girls with vulvovaginitis. We enrolled 500 girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms, aged 2-12 years, referred by their pediatricians for microbiological examination of the vaginal introitus swabs, and 30 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Similar microbial flora was isolated in both groups, but the symptomatic girls had significantly more common positive microbiological findings compared to controls (p vulvovaginitis symptoms. The microbial ecosystem in girls with clinical signs of vulvovaginitis is complex and variable, and the presence of a microorganism does not necessarily imply that it is the cause of infection. The diagnosis of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls requires a complex and comprehensive approach, and microbiological findings should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings.

  1. Microbiological findings of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbulienė, Žana; Venclavičiūtė, Karolina; Ramašauskaite, Diana; Arlauskiene, Audrone; Bumbul, Elžbieta; Drąsutiene, Gražina

    2014-01-01

    To compare vaginal culture results between prepubertal girls with and without vulvovaginitis, and obtain an overview of the most commonly encountered microbes. Prospective descriptive study. Outpatient clinic of Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Klinikos during September 2011-December 2012. 115 prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis symptoms and additionally 20 age-matched asymptomatic girls. Each girl had a vaginal smear carried out using a sterile swab from the introitus or lower third of the vagina. All samples were referred to the microbiology laboratory where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Positive microbiological findings were seen in all 115 (100%) symptomatic girls and in 12 (60%) control group girls (pvulvovaginitis and from 5 (25%) girls without vaginal inflammation (pvulvovaginitis. The main causative premenarchal vulvovaginitis agents are faecal in origin.

  2. Summary of research on microbiological processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, A.L.

    1992-09-01

    Storage of thermal energy in aquifers has obvious benefits of saving energy and decreasing the consumption of fossil fuels. However, aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES), which involves groundwater aquifers as the storage medium for heat or chill, impinges on the environment. A literature review of pertinent microbiology publications (Hicks and Stewart, 1988) identified the potential for the interaction of ATES systems and microbiological processes to create a source of infectious diseases and the potential for damage to the environment. In addition, the review identified a potential for microbiological processes to develop conditions that would interfere with the operation of an ATES system. As a result of this research effort, investigators from Finland, Germany, Switzerland, and the United States have examined several ATES systems in operation and have observed that the ATES systems studied do not contribute to infectious disease transmission, do not adversely affect the environment, and do not contribute significantly to biofouling or biocorrosion.

  3. Application of Bayesian network and multi-criteria decision analysis to risk-based design of chemical plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khakzad Rostami, N.; Reniers, G.L.L.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Fires and explosions in chemical plants are still among the major accidents threatening human lives and causing huge asset losses. Although might not completely be eliminated, the risks of such accidents can be reduced by allocating safety measures, applying inherently safer design (ISD) methods,

  4. Biological Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  5. Applications of flow cytometry in food microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano Valerin, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    A compilation of data about cytometry and its applications is performed to analyze the impact on food microbiology. The technique of flow cytometry is described and the use in various fields of microbiology is analyzed. Flow cytometry future could be implemented in many clinical laboratories and food, considering the cost / benefit test to be done, because at the moment it has a high cost. The existence of new fluorochromes and monoclonal antibodies enable that many intracellular and extracellular cell parameters are detected in the future. The technique can be developed in the country in few years considering that the technique has improved the sensitivity and specificity of many tests [es

  6. Manual de microbiología

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya Campuzano, Olga Inés

    1999-01-01

    Resumen: el manual de microbiología general fue elaborado con el objetivo de proporcionarle al estudiante de Zootecnia de la Universidad Nacional, las técnicas básicas en microbiología, de interés para aquellos cursos que 10 requieren. El estudiante trabajara con los microorganismos (patógenos y no patógenos de importancia, en las áreas de asistencia técnica que le corresponde prestar como: calidad de agua, de alimentos, de Semen entre otras

  7. A performance-oriented and risk-based regulation for containment testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.

    1994-01-01

    In August 1992, the NRC initiated a major initiative to develop requirements for containment testing that are less prescriptive, and more performance-oriented and risk-based. This action was a result of public comments and several studies that concluded that the economic burden of certain, present containment testing requirements are not commensurate with their safety benefits. The rulemaking will include consideration of relaxing the allowable containment leakage rate, increasing the interval for the integrated containment test, and establishing intervals for the local containment leak rate tests based on their performance. A study has been conducted to provide technical information for establishing the performance criteria for containment tests, the allowable leakage rate, commensurate with its significance to total public risk. The study used results of a recent comprehensive study conducted by the NRC, NUREG-1150, 'Severe Accident Risks: An Assessment for Five U.S. Nuclear Power Plants,' to examine the sensitivity of containment leakage to public risk. Risk was found to be insensitive to containment leakage rate up to levels of about 100 percent-volume per day for certain types of containments. PRA methods have also been developed to establish risk-based intervals for containment tests based on their past experience. Preliminary evaluations show that increasing the interval for the integrated containment leakage test from three times to once every ten years would have an insignificant impact on public risk. Preliminary analyses of operational experience data for local leak rate tests show that performance-based testing, valves and penetrations that perform well are tested less frequently, is feasible with marginal impact on safety. The above technical studies are being used to develop efficient (cost-effective) requirements for containment tests. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  8. Stochastic Watershed Models for Risk Based Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Over half a century ago, the Harvard Water Program introduced the field of operational or synthetic hydrology providing stochastic streamflow models (SSMs), which could generate ensembles of synthetic streamflow traces useful for hydrologic risk management. The application of SSMs, based on streamflow observations alone, revolutionized water resources planning activities, yet has fallen out of favor due, in part, to their inability to account for the now nearly ubiquitous anthropogenic influences on streamflow. This commentary advances the modern equivalent of SSMs, termed `stochastic watershed models' (SWMs) useful as input to nearly all modern risk based water resource decision making approaches. SWMs are deterministic watershed models implemented using stochastic meteorological series, model parameters and model errors, to generate ensembles of streamflow traces that represent the variability in possible future streamflows. SWMs combine deterministic watershed models, which are ideally suited to accounting for anthropogenic influences, with recent developments in uncertainty analysis and principles of stochastic simulation

  9. Risk-Based Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær

    For offshore wind turbines, maintenance costs are substantial due to a large number of component failures. In addition to the repair costs, equipment costs and lost production costs are large due to limited accessibility to the turbines. In order to reduce the costs, preventive methods can be used......, but presently maintenance is not planned using advanced methods taking all available information into account in a consistent manner. Maintenance decisions can be made based on risk-based methods, where the total expected life cycle costs are minimized. Methods have been developed for assessing the corrective...... maintenance costs, and many studies have also been published for preventive maintenance. However, an important part is the modeling of the relationship between maintenance and reliability, which is typically not modeled in a consistent way. Therefore, the methods cannot be used directly for optimal...

  10. Nuclear insurance risk assessment using risk-based methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, W.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents American Nuclear Insurers' (ANI's) and Mutual Atomic Energy Liability Underwriters' (MAELU's) process and experience for conducting nuclear insurance risk assessments using a risk-based methodology. The process is primarily qualitative and uses traditional insurance risk assessment methods and an approach developed under the auspices of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) in which ANI/MAELU is an active sponsor. This process assists ANI's technical resources in identifying where to look for insurance risk in an industry in which insurance exposure tends to be dynamic and nonactuarial. The process is an evolving one that also seeks to minimize the impact on insureds while maintaining a mutually agreeable risk tolerance

  11. Optimal Risk-Based Inspection Planning for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangel-Ramirez, Jose G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    , inspection and maintenance activities are developed. This paper considers aspects of inspection and maintenance planning of fatigue prone details in jacket and tripod types of wind turbine support structures. Based oil risk-based inspection planning methods used for oil & gas installations, a framework......Wind turbines for electricity production have increased significantly the last years both in production capability and size. This development is expected to continue also in the coining years. The Support structure for offshore wind turbines is typically a steel structure consisting of a tower...... for optimal inspection and maintenance planning of offshore wind turbines is presented. Special aspects for offshore wind turbines are considered: usually the wind loading are dominating the wave loading, wake effects in wind farms are important and the reliability level is typically significantly lower than...

  12. Risk-based prioritization at Hanford Nuclear Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Mosely, M.T.

    1995-11-01

    This paper describes the method used to incorporate risk-based decision making into the Hanford resource allocation process. This method, the Revised Priority Planning Grid, is used as a tool to calculate benefits and benefit-to-cost ratios for comparison of environmental cleanup activities. The tool is based on Hanford Site objectives. Benefits are determined by estimating the impact on those objectives resulting from funding specific environmental management activities. Impacts are also a function of the weights associated with the objectives. These weights in the Revised Priority Planning Grid reflect US Development of Energy management values, which were obtained through a formal value-elicitation process. With modification to the objectives and weights, the Revised Priority Planning Grid could be used in different situations. By factoring in environmental, safety, and health risk and assigning higher scores to those activities that provide the most benefit, the Revised Priority Planning Grid is a reproducible, scientific way of scoring competing activities or interests

  13. Risk-based inspection--Development of guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    Effective inservice inspection programs can play a significant role in minimizing equipment and structural failures. Most of the current inservice inspection programs for light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plant components are based on experience and engineers' qualitative judgment. These programs include only an implicit consideration of risk, which combines the probability of failure of a component under its operation and loading conditions and the consequences of such failure, if it occurs. This document recommends appropriate methods for establishing a risk-based inspection program for LWR nuclear power plant components. The process has been built from a general methodology (Volume 1) and has been expanded to involve five major steps: defining the system; evaluating qualitative risk assessment results; using this and information from plant probabilistic risk assessments to perform a quantitative risk analysis; selecting target failure probabilities; and developing an inspection program for components using economic decision analysis and structural reliability assessment methods

  14. Methodology for risk-based analysis of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Gaertner, J.P.; Wagner, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    Part of the effort by EPRI to apply probabilistic risk assessment methods and results to the solution of utility problems involves the investigation of methods for risk-based analysis of technical specifications. The culmination of this investigation is the SOCRATES computer code developed by Battelle's Columbus Laboratories to assist in the evaluation of technical specifications of nuclear power plants. The program is designed to use information found in PRAs to re-evaluate risk for changes in component allowed outage times (AOTs) and surveillance test intervals (STIs). The SOCRATES program is a unique and important tool for technical specification evaluations. The detailed component unavailability model allows a detailed analysis of AOT and STI contributions to risk. Explicit equations allow fast and inexpensive calculations. Because the code is designed to accept ranges of parameters and to save results of calculations that do not change during the analysis, sensitivity studies are efficiently performed and results are clearly displayed

  15. Case studies: Risk-based analysis of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Minton, L.A.; Gaertner, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The SOCRATES computer program uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) or a system level risk analysis to calculate changes in risk due to changes in the surveillance test interval and/or the allowed outage time stated in the technical specification. The computer program can accommodate various testing strategies (such as staggered or simultaneous testing) to allow modeling of component testing as it is carried out at a plant. The methods and computer program are an integral part of a larger decision process aimed at determining benefits from technical specification changes. These benefits can include cost savings to the utilities by reducing forced shutdowns with no adverse impacts on risk. Three summaries of case study applications are included to demonstrate the types of results that can be achieved through risk-based evaluation of technical specifications. (orig.)

  16. Earthquake insurance pricing: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeng-Hsiang

    2018-04-01

    Flat earthquake premiums are 'uniformly' set for a variety of buildings in many countries, neglecting the fact that the risk of damage to buildings by earthquakes is based on a wide range of factors. How these factors influence the insurance premiums is worth being studied further. Proposed herein is a risk-based approach to estimate the earthquake insurance rates of buildings. Examples of application of the approach to buildings located in Taipei city of Taiwan were examined. Then, the earthquake insurance rates for the buildings investigated were calculated and tabulated. To fulfil insurance rating, the buildings were classified into 15 model building types according to their construction materials and building height. Seismic design levels were also considered in insurance rating in response to the effect of seismic zone and construction years of buildings. This paper may be of interest to insurers, actuaries, and private and public sectors of insurance. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.

  17. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... AGRICULTURAL MORTGAGE CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.100 Audit of the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review...

  18. 76 FR 13902 - Fair Credit Reporting Risk-Based Pricing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Parts 640 and 698 RIN R411009 Fair Credit Reporting Risk-Based Pricing... respective risk-based pricing rules to require disclosure of credit scores and information relating to credit scores in risk-based pricing notices if a credit score of the consumer is used in setting the material...

  19. 76 FR 35138 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Risk-Based...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Risk-Based Capital Stress Test, Version 5.0 AGENCY: Farm Credit... credit rating agency) in regulations addressing the Risk-Based Capital Stress Test (RBCST or stress test...) (repealing and replacing Pub. L. 110-234). B. Risk-Based Capital and Credit Ratings Under our rules, Farmer...

  20. Demonstration of risk-based approaches to nuclear plant regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahn, F.J.; Sursock, J.P.; Darling, S.S.; Oddo, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes generic technical support EPRI is providing to the nuclear power industry relative to its recent initiatives in the area of risk-based regulations (RBR). A risk-based regulatory approach uses probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), or similar techniques, to allocate safety resources commensurate with the risk posed by nuclear plant operations. This approach will reduce O ampersand M costs, and also improve nuclear plant safety. In order to enhance industry, Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and public confidence in RBR, three things need to be shown: (1) manpower/resource savings are significant for both NRC and industry; (2) the process is doable in a reasonable amount of time; and (3) the process, if uniformly applied, results in demonstrably cheaper power and safer plants. In 1992, EPRI performed a qualitative study of the key RBR issues contributing to high O ampersand M costs. The results are given on Table 1. This study is being followed up by an in-depth quantitative cost/benefit study to focus technical work on producing guidelines/procedures for licensing submittals to NRC. The guidelines/procedures necessarily will be developed from successful demonstration projects such as the Fitzpatrick pilot plant study proposed by the New York Power Authority and other generic applications. This paper presents three examples: two motor operated valve projects performed by QUADREX Energy Services Corporation working with utilities in responding to NRC Generic Letter 89-10, and a third project working with Yankee Atomic Electric Company on service water systems at a plant in its service system. These demonstration projects aim to show the following: (1) the relative ease of putting together a technical case based on RBR concepts; (2) clarity in differentiating the various risk trade-offs, and in communicating overall reductions in risk with NRC; and (3) improved prioritization of NRC directives

  1. OpenStax: Microbiology Provides a Cost-Effective and Accessible Resource for Undergraduate Microbiology Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lyn Gunn

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of Openstax: Microbiology, a textbook that has been put together by a collaborative effort between Openstax College and the American Society for Microbiology.  The text will be offered in a variety of formats including web-based, PDF, and hardcopy, and is set for publication Spring 2016. Review of: OpenStax: Microbiology. Nina Parker, Mark Schneegurt, and Anh-Hue Tu; (2016. OpenStax and ASM. 1100 pages. (Note: At time of journal printing, this book was not yet published. Certain publication details may change slightly.

  2. Repository operational criteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, J.P.; Chowdhury, A.H.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of the ''Repository Operational Criteria (ROC) Feasibility Studies'' (or ROC task) was to conduct comprehensive and integrated analyses of repository design, construction, and operations criteria in 10 CFR Part 60 regulations, considering the interfaces and impacts of any potential changes to those regulations. The study addresses regulatory criteria related to the preclosure aspects of the geologic repository. The study task developed regulatory concepts or potential repository operational criteria (PROC) based on analysis of a repository's safety functions and other regulations for similar facilities. These regulatory concepts or PROC were used as a basis to assess the sufficiency and adequacy of the current criteria in 10 CFR Part 60. Where the regulatory concepts were same as current operational criteria, these criteria were referenced. The operations criteria referenced or the PROC developed are given in this report. Detailed analyses used to develop the regulatory concepts and any necessary PROC for those regulations that may require a minor change are also presented. The results of the ROC task showed a need for further analysis and possible major rule change related to the design bases of a geologic repository operations area, siting, and radiological emergency planning

  3. CCS site characterisation criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, S.; Hawkes, C.; Lawton, D.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Perkins, E.

    2009-12-15

    IEA GHG recently commissioned the Alberta Research Counil in Canada to conduct a review of storage site selection criteria and site characterisation methods in order to produce a synthesis report. This report reviews the literature on the subject on the site seleciton and characterisation since the publication of the IPCC Special Report on CCS, and provides a synthesis and classification of criteria. 161 refs.

  4. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  5. Plutonium storage criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, D. [Scientech, Inc., Germantown, MD (United States); Ascanio, X. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  6. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  7. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: Causative Organisms and Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    enviromental composition as a potential method for reversing microbiologically influenced corrosion, Corrosion (NAC’E) International. Houston. Texas...International fellow and associate editor for Biofouling, The Journal of Bioadhesion and Biofilm Research. J. Lee is a Materials and Corrosion Engineer

  8. Physicochemical and microbiological characterization of linolenic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    2012-05-15

    May 15, 2012 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... Microbiological analysis revealed that the crude extracted oilseeds were pathogenic bacteria free and the lipolytic bacteria counted belonged to ... excitable membranes such as the brain and nervous ..... plasma cholesterol (Khosala and Sundram, 1996; Hunter.

  9. Molecular, Serological And Microbiological Profiling Evidence Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All items that the boy had contact with including a laboratory coat, bunch of keys and shoes were swabbed. Finally samples of all the boy's food and drinks were taken. Microbiological, Serological and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Profiling Assays. l the samples were cultured on Sorbitol - MacConkey (SMAC) agar, ...

  10. Microbiological Quality Assessment and Physico-chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two commercial poultry diets namely chick mash and grower mash were obtained from five (5) major poultry feed millers in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. A total of seventy – five (75) samples were collected and these diets were examined for their microbiological and physico-chemical qualities. Total bacterial counts in the chick ...

  11. Biotechnology from Microbiology Perspective | Mendie | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advances in DNA recombinant technology and genetic engineering have created novel cell forms with improved characteristics which have impacted positively on human lives. However, the applications of cloning to humans have been resented by many governments due to ethical issues involved. Other microbiological ...

  12. Basics of radiation microbiology for food protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The microbiological basics of food poisoning, food spoilage, and ionizing energy treatments are presented. Factors influencing the microbial resistance of ionizing radiation, including the use of physical agents for combination treatments, are briefly reviewed, and parameters involved in dose selection are considered

  13. Microbiological, physico-chemical and management parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor working conditions , frequent stock depletion of chemicals , lack of maintenance culture , lack of emergency preparedness and poor communication were also cited. The study has revealed that the microbiological quality of raw water was very poor but that water treatment was efficient in the majority of SWTPs studied ...

  14. Microbiological, physicochemical properties and biogenic amine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty three strained yoghurt samples were collected from local open markets in different provinces of Turkey (Afyon [AF], Aydın [AY], Burdur [B], Isparta [I] and Muğla [M]). Physicochemical and microbiological properties, as well as biogenic amine content, were examined in each of the samples. The dry matter (17.90 to ...

  15. Developing virtual patients for medical microbiology education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J

    2013-12-01

    The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predictive microbiology in food packaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology including growth, inactivation, surface transfer (or cross-contamination), and survival, plays important roles in understanding microbial food safety. Growth models may involve the growth potential of a specified pathogen under different stresses, e.g., temperature, pH, wate...

  17. Reasons for Suboptimal Learning in Medical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struwig, Magdalena C.; Beylefeld, Adriana A.; Joubert, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Medical microbiology presents a challenge to undergraduate students, mostly due to its extensive content and complexity of unfamiliar terminology. In addition to a narrative review of the literature, we report findings on students' motivation for and approach to learning in the Infections module of an undergraduate medical curriculum, and their…

  18. microbiological eva fermented african locust bea preservativ

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    They are also important prote supplement (Omafuvbe, 2002). Shelf life is th period of time during which the food produc was remain safe , be certain to retain desire microbiology, physical, chemical and senso characteristics and comply the nutritional dat when stored under conditions (temperature o handling) Kolapo et al., ...

  19. Next generation of microbiological risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den Heidy M.W.; Amézquita, Alejandro; Bover-Cid, Sara; Dagnas, Stéphane; Ellouze, Mariem; Guillou, Sandrine; Nychas, George; O'Mahony, Cian; Pérez-Rodriguez, Fernando; Membré, Jeanne Marie

    2017-01-01

    In food safety and public health risk evaluations, microbiological exposure assessment plays a central role as it provides an estimation of both the likelihood and the level of the microbial hazard in a specified consumer portion of food and takes microbial behaviour into account. While until now

  20. Microbiologically influenced corrosion in ship ballast tanks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyer, A.

    2013-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is known to be a dangerous process in ship tanks due to its rapid and yet unpredictable occurrence, leading to extremely fast local corrosion, possibly jeopardizing the structural integrity, in a relatively short time. This project focuses on a

  1. Validation of qualitative microbiological test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman-Boon, Pieta C.; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a statistical model for the detection mechanism of qualitative microbiological test methods with a parameter for the detection proportion (the probability to detect a single organism) and a parameter for the false positive rate. It is demonstrated that the detection proportion

  2. A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of water distributed from two water treatment plants in Rwanda. ... Thus, as recommendation to WASAC authority, there is a need for improvement in the water management strategy for better water quality especially along the distribution network.

  3. Applications for predictive microbiology to food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive microbiology has been used for several years in the food industry to predict microbial growth, inactivation and survival. Predictive models provide a useful tool in risk assessment, HACCP set-up and GMP for the food industry to enhance microbial food safety. This report introduces the c...

  4. Microbiological methods for assessing soil quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.; Hopkins, D.W.; Benedetti, A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a selection of microbiological methods that are already applied in regional or national soil quality monitoring programs. It is split into two parts: part one gives an overview of approaches to monitoring, evaluating and managing soil quality. Part two provides a selection of

  5. Microbiological implications of the food irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teufel, P.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on the wholesomeness of irradiated food which met in 1976 concluded after a detailed and critical review of the available information, that the microbiological aspects of food irradiation were fully comparable to those of conventional processes used in modern food technology. Processing of food by irradiation may be considered from the microbiological point of view as separate procedures: high dose treatment (> 10 kGy), for sterilisation (radappertization) and low dose treatment (< 10 kGy) for pasteurisation (radicidation, radurization), (for definitions see p. 43), disinfestation, or inhibition of sprouting. No public health hazards related to micro-organisms arise from high dose irradiation because this process results in commercially sterile products. On the other hand, it is important to consider the possible microbiological hazards when food is irradiated with a low dose. The microbiological implications relate to the natural radiation resistance of bacteria, yeasts, fungi and viruses or to the mutagenic effects of ionising radiation in micro-organisms. Both areas of concern were reviewed in detail by Ingram and Ingram and Farkas. (orig.)

  6. Physicochemical and microbiological meat quality, growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beatriz

    2015-05-15

    May 15, 2015 ... and microbiological quality of sheep and goat meat and compares the .... of Rio Verde, GO and supervised by the Municipal Inspection Service (Serviço de ... blood, skin, guts, internal organs, feet (severed at the level of the.

  7. Investigating the sourdough potential for enhance microbiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... survival of indicator microorganisms in finished-products were decreased. But intensity of crust roasty aroma did not have the same profile. Therefore, process requirements for optimum microbiological shelf life and roasty aroma were different, which should be taken into account in designing sourdough baking processes.

  8. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  9. Processing, screening and microbiological characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) obtained from the fresh stem of Laccosperma opacum (Rattan) found in coastal region of Niger Delta forest zones of West Africa was investigated to ascertain its microbiological standard for use as a potential pharmaceutical excipient. The product, coded LO-MCC, was prepared by treating ...

  10. Polar and Alpine Microbiology - Earth's Cryobiosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elster, Josef; Margesin, R.; Wagner, D.; Häggblom, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-4, č. článku fiw221. ISSN 0168-6496 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : diversity * Polar regions * Polar Microbiology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  11. Carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The carotenoid content, sensory properties and microbiological assessment of stored cassava fufu from two cultivars of yellow cassava (TMS 01/1368 and TMS 01/1412) being multiplied for distribution in South-East and South-South Nigeria were investigated using standard techniques. There is scanty information on ...

  12. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-01

    Aug 1, 2005 ... February 2013 Downloaded from www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com. MaIN arTIClES. 10. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary tuberculosis. Robert L. Serafino Wania MBBS, MrCP, MSc (Trop Med). Pathophysiology. Inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to one of.

  13. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the importance of Staphylococcus aureus as a urinary pathogen and the incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). A total of 86 staphylococcal isolates made up of 50 clinical isolates from urine samples submitted to the Medical Microbiology Laboratory ...

  14. The need to go beyond analysis in making risk-based decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahearne, J.F. [The Sigma XI Center, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1999-12-01

    As a physicist, I prefer the R = P x C, with the inclusion of a risk magnifier when appropriate. However, I also accept this is inadequate. For risk-based decisions to be acceptable in a democratic society, there must be widespread agreement on the criteria to be used, the process by which the decision is reached, and the linkage between the criteria and the decision. These demand a transparent process. Armour wrote: 'To date, efforts directed toward facility siting conflicts have focused almost exclusively on the 'public acceptance' factor (and neglected the legitimacy of the process] - the sad reality is that these strategies have not beenall that effective. Moreover, given that the underlying motivation is to 'gain public acceptance' such strategies have often worsened the facility siting problems when used by proponents who were unable, in appearance or in fact, to tread the fine line between manipulating public opinion and liberating it ... the issue of the legitimacy of the decision making process had tended to be taken for granted. Generally speaking, policy makers have failed to seriously question and have not responded well to others who have dared to question the established roles and principles of our conventional processes of decision making.' Finally, acceptance also requires agreement that the issues to be decided are the appropriate issues. Often the decision-makers concentrate on issues that are not the ones the public views as the most important. Sometimes it is because the public wants other alternatives examined. Sometimes it is because the public does not accept the necessity to decide now. And sometimes it is because the public does not trust those who have assumed responsibility for making the decision. The analytic community has grown in size and skill over the last 20 years. The science community has produced a better understanding of health effects and exposure pathways. The engineering community has designed

  15. The need to go beyond analysis in making risk-based decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahearne, J.F.

    1999-01-01

    As a physicist, I prefer the R = P x C, with the inclusion of a risk magnifier when appropriate. However, I also accept this is inadequate. For risk-based decisions to be acceptable in a democratic society, there must be widespread agreement on the criteria to be used, the process by which the decision is reached, and the linkage between the criteria and the decision. These demand a transparent process. Armour wrote: 'To date, efforts directed toward facility siting conflicts have focused almost exclusively on the 'public acceptance' factor (and neglected the legitimacy of the process] - the sad reality is that these strategies have not been all that effective. Moreover, given that the underlying motivation is to 'gain public acceptance' such strategies have often worsened the facility siting problems when used by proponents who were unable, in appearance or in fact, to tread the fine line between manipulating public opinion and liberating it ... the issue of the legitimacy of the decision making process had tended to be taken for granted. Generally speaking, policy makers have failed to seriously question and have not responded well to others who have dared to question the established roles and principles of our conventional processes of decision making.' Finally, acceptance also requires agreement that the issues to be decided are the appropriate issues. Often the decision-makers concentrate on issues that are not the ones the public views as the most important. Sometimes it is because the public wants other alternatives examined. Sometimes it is because the public does not accept the necessity to decide now. And sometimes it is because the public does not trust those who have assumed responsibility for making the decision. The analytic community has grown in size and skill over the last 20 years. The science community has produced a better understanding of health effects and exposure pathways. The engineering community has designed safer systems. However, the

  16. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  17. 21 CFR 866.2900 - Microbiological specimen collection and transport device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices... microbiological specimen collection and transport device is a specimen collecting chamber intended for medical...

  18. Analysis of Microbiological and Physiochemical Properties of Top ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2Medical Laboratory, Lonia Clinic and Maternity Ovwian Delta State ... ABSTRACT: The effect of disposing municipal waste on soil was evaluated by analyzing the microbiological and enzyme ..... Analysis Part 2: Chemical and Microbiological.

  19. The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbiology of Ethiopian foods and beverages: A review. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The topic on milk and dairy products deals with the livestock resource of the country with respect to the microbiological ...

  20. [The opportunities, challenges and trends in the rejuvenation of microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Chen, Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    In history, the development of microbiology had undergone two golden ages and some depression time as well. In the last two decades, the application of many physiochemical technologies including genomics, structural biology, bioinformatics, PCR, and high-resolution microscopy has led to a series of breakthroughs in microbiology. Microbiology has now awakened and entered its third golden age for development. This review discusses our view of the opportunities, challenges, and trends in the current advancement of microbiology. The topics include: (1) The two golden ages for microbiology in history. (2) The opportunities and challenges in the rejuvenation of microbiology. (3) The characteristics and trends of the current development of microbiology. (4) Integral microbiology--the hallmark of the third golden age.

  1. Promoting microbiology education through the iGEM synthetic biology competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelwick, Richard; Bowater, Laura; Yeoman, Kay H; Bowater, Richard P

    2015-08-01

    Synthetic biology has developed rapidly in the 21st century. It covers a range of scientific disciplines that incorporate principles from engineering to take advantage of and improve biological systems, often applied to specific problems. Methods important in this subject area include the systematic design and testing of biological systems and, here, we describe how synthetic biology projects frequently develop microbiology skills and education. Synthetic biology research has huge potential in biotechnology and medicine, which brings important ethical and moral issues to address, offering learning opportunities about the wider impact of microbiological research. Synthetic biology projects have developed into wide-ranging training and educational experiences through iGEM, the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition. Elements of the competition are judged against specific criteria and teams can win medals and prizes across several categories. Collaboration is an important element of iGEM, and all DNA constructs synthesized by iGEM teams are made available to all researchers through the Registry for Standard Biological Parts. An overview of microbiological developments in the iGEM competition is provided. This review is targeted at educators that focus on microbiology and synthetic biology, but will also be of value to undergraduate and postgraduate students with an interest in this exciting subject area. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Risk-based selection of SSCs at Peach Bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, G.A.; Marie, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of identifying risk significant systems, structures, and components (SSCS) that are within the scope of the maintenance rule is to bring a higher level of attention to a subset of those SSCS. These risk-significant SSCs will have specific performance criteria established for them, and failure to meet this performance criteria will result in establishing goals to ensure the necessary improvement in performance. The Peach Bottom individual plant examination (IPE) results were used to provide insights for the verification of proposed probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods set forth in the Industry Maintenance Guidelines for Implementation of the Maintenance Rule. The objective of reviewing the methods for selection of SSCs that are considered risk significant was to ensure the methods used are logical, reproducible, and can be consistently applied

  3. Microbiological aspects of safety in radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Safonov, A.V.; Nazina, T.N.; Gorbunova, O.A.

    2012-01-01

    In long-term storage and/or disposal of radioactive waste, microbiological processes play an important, and in some cases a vital role. The article discusses the issues of microbiological processes in underground liquid LLW repositories and microbiological destruction of cemented radwaste. It is shown that biological additives to cement matrices can be used to effectively prevent the occurrence of microbiological processes, increasing reliability of engineering barriers that block release of radionuclides into the areas adjacent to the repositories [ru

  4. Quality control for diagnostic oral microbiology laboratories in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rautemaa-Richardson, R.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Dahlen, G.; Smith, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB)

  5. Undergraduate Laboratory Exercises Specific to Food Spoilage Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B.; Worobo, Randy W.; Orta-Ramirez, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Food spoilage has an enormous economic impact, and microbial food spoilage plays a significant role in food waste and loss; subsequently, an equally significant portion of undergraduate food microbiology instruction should be dedicated to spoilage microbiology. Here, we describe a set of undergraduate microbiology laboratory exercises that focus…

  6. Practical microbiology in schools: a survey of UK teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, James; Burdass, Dariel; Verran, Joanna

    2013-11-01

    A survey of secondary school teachers investigated practical microbiology in the classroom. The results were heartening (practical microbiology was common), but concerns were expressed regarding equipment, time, cost, and expertise. Microbiologists should engage more with school education to support teachers and maintain the health of microbiology for future generations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance...

  8. 76 FR 67461 - Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ...] Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The... cosmetic microbiological safety and to suggest areas for the possible development of FDA guidance documents...

  9. Risk based test interval and maintenance optimisation - Application and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, E.

    1999-10-01

    The project is part of an IAEA co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Development of Methodologies for Optimisation of Surveillance Testing and Maintenance of Safety Related Equipment at NPPs'. The purpose of the project is to investigate the sensitivity of the results obtained when performing risk based optimisation of the technical specifications. Previous projects have shown that complete LPSA models can be created and that these models allow optimisation of technical specifications. However, these optimisations did not include any in depth check of the result sensitivity with regards to methods, model completeness etc. Four different test intervals have been investigated in this study. Aside from an original, nominal, optimisation a set of sensitivity analyses has been performed and the results from these analyses have been compared to the original optimisation. The analyses indicate that the result of an optimisation is rather stable. However, it is not possible to draw any certain conclusions without performing a number of sensitivity analyses. Significant differences in the optimisation result were discovered when analysing an alternative configuration. Also deterministic uncertainties seem to affect the result of an optimisation largely. The sensitivity of failure data uncertainties is important to investigate in detail since the methodology is based on the assumption that the unavailability of a component is dependent on the length of the test interval

  10. Risk Classification and Risk-based Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Recent activities to revamp and emphasize the need to streamline processes and activities for Class D missions across the agency have led to various interpretations of Class D, including the lumping of a variety of low-cost projects into Class D. Sometimes terms such as Class D minus are used. In this presentation, mission risk classifications will be traced to official requirements and definitions as a measure to ensure that projects and programs align with the guidance and requirements that are commensurate for their defined risk posture. As part of this, the full suite of risk classifications, formal and informal will be defined, followed by an introduction to the new GPR 8705.4 that is currently under review.GPR 8705.4 lays out guidance for the mission success activities performed at the Classes A-D for NPR 7120.5 projects as well as for projects not under NPR 7120.5. Furthermore, the trends in stepping from Class A into higher risk posture classifications will be discussed. The talk will conclude with a discussion about risk-based safety and mission assuranceat GSFC.

  11. Pedestrian safety management using the risk-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanowska Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of a multi-level pedestrian safety management system. Three management levels are distinguished: strategic, tactical and operational. The basis for the proposed approach to pedestrian safety management is a risk-based method. In the approach the elements of behavioural and systemic theories were used, allowing for the development of a formalised and repeatable procedure integrating the phases of risk assessment and response to the hazards of road crashes involving pedestrians. Key to the method are tools supporting pedestrian safety management. According to the risk management approach, the tools can be divided into two groups: tools supporting risk assessment and tools supporting risk response. In the paper attention is paid to selected tools supporting risk assessment, with particular emphasis on the methods for estimating forecasted pedestrian safety measures (at strategic, national and regional level and identification of particularly dangerous locations in terms of pedestrian safety at tactical (regional and local and operational level. The proposed pedestrian safety management methods and tools can support road administration in making rational decisions in terms of road safety, safety of road infrastructure, crash elimination measures or reducing the consequences suffered by road users (particularly pedestrians as a result of road crashes.

  12. Risk-based and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, K.; Nagai, S.; Akikuni, Y.; Fujiwara, T.; Furuya, K.; Matsumoto, S.; Takagi, K.; Kawabata, T.

    2003-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants. (orig.)

  13. Risk-based inspection and maintenance systems for steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiyama, Kazunari; Nagai, Satoshi; Akikuni, Yasunari; Fujiwara, Toshihiro; Furuya, Kenichiro; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Takagi, Kentaro; Kawabata, Taro

    2004-01-01

    The risk-based maintenance (RBM) system has been developed for steam turbine plants coupled with the quick inspection systems. The RBM system utilizes the field failure and inspection database accumulated over 30 years. The failure modes are determined for each component of steam turbines and the failure scenarios are described as event trees. The probability of failure is expressed in the form of unreliability functions of operation hours or start-up cycles through the cumulative hazard function method. The posterior unreliability is derived from the field data analysis according to the inspection information. Quick inspection can be conducted using air-cooled borescope and heat resistant ultrasonic sensors even if the turbine is not cooled down sufficiently. Another inspection information comes from degradation and damage measurement. The probabilistic life assessment using structural analysis and statistical material properties, the latter is estimated from hardness measurement, replica observation and embrittlement measurement. The risk function is calculated as the sum product of unreliability functions and expected monetary loss as the consequence of failure along event trees. The optimum maintenance plan is determined among simulated scenarios described through component breakdown trees, life cycle event trees and risk functions. Those methods are effective for total condition assessment and economical maintenance for operating plants

  14. Forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Jin, Juliang; Guo, Qizhong; Chen, Yaqian; Lu, Mengxiong; Tinoco, Luis

    2014-02-01

    In order to reduce the losses by water pollution, forewarning model for water pollution risk based on Bayes theory was studied. This model is built upon risk indexes in complex systems, proceeding from the whole structure and its components. In this study, the principal components analysis is used to screen out index systems. Hydrological model is employed to simulate index value according to the prediction principle. Bayes theory is adopted to obtain posterior distribution by prior distribution with sample information which can make samples' features preferably reflect and represent the totals to some extent. Forewarning level is judged on the maximum probability rule, and then local conditions for proposing management strategies that will have the effect of transforming heavy warnings to a lesser degree. This study takes Taihu Basin as an example. After forewarning model application and vertification for water pollution risk from 2000 to 2009 between the actual and simulated data, forewarning level in 2010 is given as a severe warning, which is well coincide with logistic curve. It is shown that the model is rigorous in theory with flexible method, reasonable in result with simple structure, and it has strong logic superiority and regional adaptability, providing a new way for warning water pollution risk.

  15. Risk Based Inspection of Gas-Cooling Heat Exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Priyanta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On October 2013, Pertamina Hulu Energi Offshore North West Java (PHE – ONWJ platform personnel found 93 leaking tubes locations in the finfan coolers/ gas-cooling heat exchanger. After analysis had been performed, the crack in the tube strongly indicate that stress corrosion cracking was occurred by chloride. Chloride stress corrosion cracking (CLSCC is the cracking occurred by the combined influence of tensile stress and a corrosive environment. CLSCC is the one of the most common reasons why austenitic stainless steel pipework or tube and vessels deteriorate in the chemical processing, petrochemical industries and maritime industries. In this thesis purpose to determine the appropriate inspection planning for two main items (tubes and header box in the gas-cooling heat exchanger using risk based inspection (RBI method. The result, inspection of the tubes must be performed on July 6, 2024 and for the header box inspection must be performed on July 6, 2025. In the end, RBI method can be applicated to gas-cooling heat exchanger. Because, risk on the tubes can be reduced from 4.537 m2/year to 0.453 m2/year. And inspection planning for header box can be reduced from 4.528 m2/year to 0.563 m2/year.

  16. Alternative approaches to risk-based technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atefi, B.; Gallagher, D.W.; Liner, R.T.; Lofgren, E.V.

    1987-01-01

    Four alternative risk-based approaches to Technical Specifications are identified. These are: a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) oriented approach; a reliability goal-oriented approach; an approach based on configuration control; a data-oriented approach. Based on preliminary results, the PRA-oriented approach, which has been developed further than the other approaches, seems to offer a logical, quantitative basis for setting Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STIs) for some plant components and systems. The most attractive feature of this approach is that it directly links the AOTs and STIs with the risk associated with the operation of the plant. This would focus the plant operator's and the regulatory agency's attention on the most risk-significant components of the plant. A series of practical issues related to the level of detail and content of the plant PRAs, requirements for the review of these PRAs, and monitoring cf the plant's performance by the regulatory agency must be resolved before the approach could be implemented. Future efforts will examine the other three approaches and their practicality before firm conclusions are drawn regarding the viability of any of these approaches

  17. Multimodal freight investment criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Literature was reviewed on multi-modal investment criteria for freight projects, examining measures and techniques for quantifying project benefits and costs, as well as ways to describe the economic importance of freight transportation. : A limited ...

  18. Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  19. Aquatic Life Criteria - Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents related to EPA's final 2013 Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality Criteria for Ammonia (Freshwater). These documents pertain to the safe levels of Ammonia in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  20. Aquatic Life Criteria - Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertain to Aquatic Life Ambient Water Quality criteria for Copper (2007 Freshwater, 2016 Estuarine/marine). These documents contain the safe levels of Copper in water that should protect to the majority of species.

  1. Integrated Criteria Document Chromium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Cleven RFMJ; Janus JA; van der Poel P; van Beelen P; Boumans LJM; Canton JH; Eerens HC; Krajnc EI; de Leeuw FAAM; Matthijsen AJCM; van de Meent D; van der Meulen A; Mohn GR; Wijland GC; de Bruijn PJ; van Keulen A; Verburgh JJ; van der Woerd KF

    1990-01-01

    Betreft de engelse versie van rapport 758701001
    Bij dit rapport behoort een appendix onder hetzelfde nummer getiteld: "Integrated Criteria Document Chromium: Effects" Auteurs: Janus JA; Krajnc EI
    (appendix: see 710401002A)

  2. Consultation on microbiological criteria for foods to be further processed including by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Many foods carry microorganisms that may have serious consequences for the health of the consumer. There is thus often a need for processing to eliminate the resulting health hazards. Concern has been expressed that treatments, especially irradiation, might be applied to clean up food that has not been hygienically processed. Adherence to good manufacturing practice can greatly assist food processors to ensure food quality and safety. Figs

  3. 78 FR 4830 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Reestablishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    .../NACMCF/index.asp . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Thomas, Advisory Committee Specialist, U.S... Meat Inspection Act (FMIA), the Poultry Products Inspection Act (PPIA), and the Egg Products Inspection...

  4. Microbiological criteria for Listeria monocytogenes in foods under special consideration of risk assessment approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørrung, Birgit

    2000-01-01

    This paper shortly summarizes data related to risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes. From available data on risk assessment, it is concluded that the levels of L. monocytogenes consumed is an important factor affecting the incidence of listeriosis. Foods that do not support the growth of L....... monocytogenes are unlikely to be a source of listeriosis, whereas foods that support the growth to high levels, should be the target of risk management efforts. Based on current epidemiological information from several countries, a concentration of L. monocytogenes not exceeding 100/g of food at the time...... of L. monocytogenes in the food during prevailing storage and distribution conditions is needed....

  5. 75 FR 63433 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods; Re-Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion... at 202-720-2600 (voice and TTY). To file a written complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of.... Consequently, in an effort to ensure that the public and in particular minorities, women, and persons with...

  6. 75 FR 39201 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... demonstrated ability to represent minorities, women, and persons with disabilities. Given the complexity of... Nondiscrimination Statement USDA prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, and...

  7. 77 FR 13070 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... format on the FSIS Web page ( www.fsis.usda.gov ), as well as in hard copy format in the FSIS Docket Room... on the FSIS Web site are electronic conversions from a variety of source formats. In some cases...

  8. 78 FR 28183 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... in electronic format on the FSIS Web page ( www.fsis.usda.gov ), as well as in hard copy format in... of source formats. In some cases, document conversion may result in character translation or...

  9. 76 FR 56143 - National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... hard copy format in the FSIS Docket Room. Often, an attempt is made to make the materials available at... formatting errors. The original document is the official, legal copy. In order to meet the electronic and...

  10. 77 FR 16807 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... or electronic mail must include the Agency name and docket number FSIS-2012-0010. Comments received... computer-based conferencing (Webinars). Subcommittees may invite technical experts to present information... Update is communicated via Listserv, a free electronic mail subscription service for industry, trade...

  11. 75 FR 37754 - Nominations for Membership on the National Advisory Committee on Microbiological Criteria for Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... mail or electronic mail must include the Agency name and docket number FSIS-2010-0001. Comments... open public forum. Intermittently, subcommittees may also meet through computer-based conferencing (net... interest to constituents and stakeholders. The Update is communicated via Listserv, a free electronic mail...

  12. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... to the clear role that income thresholds play in such decision making, but does not rule out a role for tradeoffs between risk and utility or probability weighting....

  13. Rating of environmental criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glueck, K; Krasser, G

    1980-01-01

    After a general theoretical discussion on the question of rating within a framework of cost-benefit studies, first trials as to the quantification and standardisation of twelve selected environmental criteria by means of an indicator system are worked out and compiled. The selection includes the criteria exhaust gas, dust, micro climate, water pollution, water regime, land requirement, vibrations, traffic noise, landscape scene, urban scene, effect of separation and safety risks. An insight is given of the rating practice using an evaluation of the available literature, of a household interview and of an interview of experts. The interviewing of 156 experts as to their rating conception of ten criteria in the second round has provided contributions to the general problem of the evaluation estimate based on multi criteria analysis as well as differentiation of the twelve or ten environmental criteria. The following criteria ratings given by the experts and which are averaged and smoothed are: traffic noise 20,0% +- 8,5; air pollution 15,0% +- 7,0; safety risk 13,0% +- 7,0; soil and water pollution 8,5% +- 5,0; landscape scene 8,0% +- 4,5; urban scene 8,0% +- 4,5; water regime 6,5% +- 3,5 and vibrations 4,5% +- 2,5.

  14. Risk-based equipment removal guide for on-line maintenance at PSE ampersand G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, A.; Smith, C.; Pollock, J.

    1995-01-01

    On-line maintenance plays an important role in achieving safe and reliable power generation in a nuclear power plant. However, maintenance, if not properly planned and performed, may also be an important contributor to plant risk. Therefore, plant-specific procedures are needed for equipment removal from service to enhance the benefits of on-line maintenance and minimize the risks involved. The problem is to identify and implement the most effective on-line maintenance policy in the form of a proceduralized guide to assure plant safety under various operation and maintenance constraints. This paper presents a methodology to develop plant-specific on-line maintenance strategies and acceptance criteria using a multivariate safety approach based on risk assessment. Based on plant-specific data as modeled in the individual plant evaluation (IPE) and the updated probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the risk-based methodology is currently being applied to the development of proceduralized equipment removal guides at Hope Creek and Salem units 1 and 2 of Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE ampersand G)

  15. THE APPLICATION OF RISK BASED BANK RATING ON BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION OF BANKS IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Sistiyarini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increase of banking products and services which is more complex will increase the risk to the banks. Therefore, to anticipate the rise of financial difficulties in a bank, the early warning system. This study aimed to find the influence RBBR (Risk Based Bank Rating ratio’s to predict bankruptcy of conventional Banks in Indonesia. Ratio of RBBR consisted of risk profile, Good Corporate Governance, profitability and capital. Independent variables used were NPL, PDN, LDR, GCG, ROA and NIM, and CAR. Dependent variable was bank bankruptcy using dummy variable. The population of this study was all of the conventional banks in Indonesia. The data was a secondary data taken form financial report of conventional bank 2011-2015. Technical sampling used was a purposive sampling method with some criteria. The analysis of this study used logistic regression.The result of the study showed that NPL, PDN, LDR, GCG, ROA and NIM, and CARhad no significant influence to bankruptcy of the bank.

  16. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  17. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  18. Recent applications of hyperspectral imaging in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Aoife A; Feng, Yaoze; Gaston, Edurne; Valdramidis, Vasilis

    2015-05-01

    Hyperspectral chemical imaging (HSI) is a broad term encompassing spatially resolved spectral data obtained through a variety of modalities (e.g. Raman scattering, Fourier transform infrared microscopy, fluorescence and near-infrared chemical imaging). It goes beyond the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy by obtaining spatially resolved spectra from objects at spatial resolutions varying from the level of single cells up to macroscopic objects (e.g. foods). In tandem with recent developments in instrumentation and sampling protocols, applications of HSI in microbiology have increased rapidly. This article gives a brief overview of the fundamentals of HSI and a comprehensive review of applications of HSI in microbiology over the past 10 years. Technical challenges and future perspectives for these techniques are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genomics and metagenomics in medical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Roshan; Mishra, Ajay Kumar; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2013-12-01

    Over the last two decades, sequencing tools have evolved from laborious time-consuming methodologies to real-time detection and deciphering of genomic DNA. Genome sequencing, especially using next generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized the landscape of microbiology and infectious disease. This deluge of sequencing data has not only enabled advances in fundamental biology but also helped improve diagnosis, typing of pathogen, virulence and antibiotic resistance detection, and development of new vaccines and culture media. In addition, NGS also enabled efficient analysis of complex human micro-floras, both commensal, and pathological, through metagenomic methods, thus helping the comprehension and management of human diseases such as obesity. This review summarizes technological advances in genomics and metagenomics relevant to the field of medical microbiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.; Kedzia, B.; Holderna-Kedzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-01-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  1. [Microbiological diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Estévez, Marta; Reina González, Gabriel; Aguilera Guirao, Antonio; Rodríguez Martín, Carmen; García García, Federico

    2015-10-01

    This document attempts to update the main tasks and roles of the Clinical Microbiology laboratory in HIV diagnosis and monitoring. The document is divided into three parts. The first deals with HIV diagnosis and how serological testing has changed in the last few years, aiming to improve diagnosis and to minimize missed opportunities for diagnosis. Technological improvements for HIV Viral Load are shown in the second part of the document, which also includes a detailed description of the clinical significance of low-level and very low-level viremia. Finally, the third part of the document deals with resistance to antiretroviral drugs, incorporating clinical indications for integrase and tropism testing, as well as the latest knowledge on minority variants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  2. Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João P. S. Cabral

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers. Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  3. Water microbiology. Bacterial pathogens and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, João P S

    2010-10-01

    Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water-cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery-is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases' characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters.

  4. Microbiological Quality Control of Probiotic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Astashkina, A.P.; Khudyakova, L.I.; Kolbysheva, Y.V.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological quality control of probiotic products such as Imunele, Dannon, Pomogayka showed that they contain living cultures of the Lactobacillus Bifidobacterium genus in the amount of 107 CFU/ml, which corresponds to the number indicated on the label of products. It is identified that the survival rate of test-strains cultured with pasteurized products does not exceed 10%. The cell concentration of target-microorganisms was reduced by 20-45% after the interaction with living probiotic b...

  5. Radiation microbiology relevant to radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallentire, A.

    1979-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the following headings: typical background studies involving laboratory models (measurement of radiation responses of different organisms, alone or on or in products; isolation of radiation resistant organisms from products and product environments; measurement of levels of preirradiation microbial contamination ('bioburden')); supplementary studies involving naturally occurring microbial contaminants (unit medical products; microbiological quality assurance; products in bulk; animal diet study). (U.K.)

  6. Quality in the molecular microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Paul S; MacKay, William G

    2013-01-01

    In the clinical microbiology laboratory advances in nucleic acid detection, quantification, and sequence analysis have led to considerable improvements in the diagnosis, management, and monitoring of infectious diseases. Molecular diagnostic methods are routinely used to make clinical decisions based on when and how to treat a patient as well as monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic regime and identify any potential drug resistant strains that may impact on the long term patient treatment program. Therefore, confidence in the reliability of the result provided by the laboratory service to the clinician is essential for patient treatment. Hence, suitable quality assurance and quality control measures are important to ensure that the laboratory methods and service meet the necessary regulatory requirements both at the national and international level. In essence, the modern clinical microbiology laboratory ensures the appropriateness of its services through a quality management system that monitors all aspects of the laboratory service pre- and post-analytical-from patient sample receipt to reporting of results, from checking and upholding staff competency within the laboratory to identifying areas for quality improvements within the service offered. For most European based clinical microbiology laboratories this means following the common International Standard Organization (ISO9001) framework and ISO15189 which sets out the quality management requirements for the medical laboratory (BS EN ISO 15189 (2003) Medical laboratories-particular requirements for quality and competence. British Standards Institute, Bristol, UK). In the United States clinical laboratories performing human diagnostic tests are regulated by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) following the requirements within the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments document 1988 (CLIA-88). This chapter focuses on the key quality assurance and quality control requirements within the

  7. Microbiological Efficacy Test Methods of Disinfectants

    OpenAIRE

    Şahiner, Aslı

    2015-01-01

    Disinfection process is required in every area where microbiological contamination and infection risk is present, especially in medical sector, food, veterinary and general common living areas hence many disinfectants and antiseptics are being produced for different purposes. Disinfectants are made up a large group of biocidal products. Depending on the chemical properties of active substances, targeted microorganisms may differ While some disinfectants are effective in a large spectrum, othe...

  8. Diagnostic virology laboratory within a microbiology setting.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, S. J.

    1984-01-01

    The virology section at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center, Connecticut, is not a separate laboratory division but is a part of the microbiology division and is supervised by the same personnel who supervise bacteriology, mycology, mycobacteriology, and serology. Current volume is over 1,000 cultures yearly with 12 to 24 percent positive. Isolates are confirmed and typed by the Connecticut State Health Department Laboratory. Specimen distribution, percentage positive specimens, and distr...

  9. Marine Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, D.

    Microbiology: Challenges and Future Directions D. Chandramohan Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Goa, India Introduction The planet earth is believed to have formed about 4600 million years ago and life forms originated... and all-important tasks that include everything from pathogenesis to fixing atmospheric nitrogen in the soil. An interesting question to be asked, therefore, is: has there been any realistic estimate of these bacteria on Earth? Now, for the first time, a...

  10. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Skinner

    1992-01-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential

  11. Microbiological risk assessment and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Roger

    1992-07-01

    Despite the advances made in risk assessment i the past twenty years, in areas as diverse as toxicology and offshore engineering, the risk assessment approach has made little impact on those addressing the microbiological aspects of public health. In this paper the advances which have been made are discussed and the difficulties preventing the wider application of microbiological risk assessment (MRA) to public health are considered. The term microbiological risk is used here to mean the probability of contracting a disease caused by a microorganism. I intend to demonstrate that the dynamic nature of microorganisms and the unique nature of the relationship between a pathogen (a microorganism which causes disease) and its host create special challenges for those involved in MRA. Although these problems are difficult they are not intractable. Indeed in some cases partial solutions have already been found and applied. It is hoped that this paper will help stimulate further thought and consideration in a variety of disciplines so that these challenges can be met, thereby allowing MRA to fulfil its potential.

  12. [Mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana-Lluch, Elena; Martró Català, Elisa; Ausina Ruiz, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Infectious diseases are still a cause of high mortality and morbidity rates. Current microbiological diagnostic methods are based on culture and phenotypic identification of isolated microorganisms, which can be obtained in about 24-48 h. Given that the microbiological identification is of major importance for patient management, new diagnostic methods are needed in order to detect and identify microorganisms in a timely and accurate manner. Over the last few years, several molecular techniques based on the amplification of microbial nucleic acids have been developed with the aim of reducing the time needed for the identification of the microorganisms involved in different infectious processes. On the other hand, mass spectrometry has emerged as a rapid and consistent alternative to conventional methods for microorganism identification. This review describes the most widely used mass spectrometry technologies -matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight (ESI-TOF)-, both for protein and nucleic acid analysis, as well as the commercial platforms available. Related publications of most interest in clinical microbiology are also reviewed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Electrochemical aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licina, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a topic that has gained considerable interest over the past decade, particularly in the oil production and nuclear power generation industries. Failures of stainless steels and copper-nickel alloys under conditions that would not be expected to be at all demanding such as during lay-up have been observed as a result of MIC. Failures in the time period between system construction and its operation are often associated with biological activity. Finally, MIC is generally associated with normally stagnant systems or systems which experience intermittent flow conditions. The diverse and redundant design philosophy of nuclear plants necessitates that a large number of systems are operated in this manner. Some of these systems are safety related while still others support safety related systems. As a result, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and all nuclear utilities have become increasingly concerned with MIC. The purpose of this workshop is to provide a review of the most current technology related to the fundamental aspects of microbiologically influenced corrosion, its diagnosis, and its control. This paper reviews how microbes can influence the electrochemical processes that influence and often control corrosion; ways that these processes (hence, MIC) may be monitored; and electrochemical methods for their control. Examples of the influence of microbiological activity on anodic and cathodic reactions on steels, stainless steels, and copper based alloys in both aerated and dearated environments are provided since the electrochemical effects can be significantly different for each combination. 45 refs

  14. Risk Based Milk Pricing Model at Dairy Farmers Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Septiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The milk price from a cooperative institution to farmer does not fully cover the production cost. Though, dairy farmers encounter various risks and uncertainties in conducting their business. The highest risk in milk supply lies in the activities at the farm. This study was designed to formulate a model for calculating milk price at farmer’s level based on risk. Risks that occur on farms include the risk of cow breeding, sanitation, health care, cattle feed management, milking and milk sales. This research used the location of the farm in West Java region. There were five main stages in the preparation of this model, (1 identification and analysis of influential factors, (2 development of a conceptual model, (3 structural analysis and the amount of production costs, (4 model calculation of production cost with risk factors, and (5 risk based milk pricing model. This research built a relationship between risks on smallholder dairy farms with the production costs to be incurred by the farmers. It was also obtained the formulation of risk adjustment factor calculation for the variable costs of production in dairy cattle farm. The difference in production costs with risk and the total production cost without risk was about 8% to 10%. It could be concluded that the basic price of milk proposed based on the research was around IDR 4,250-IDR 4,350/L for 3 to 4 cows ownership. Increasing farmer income was expected to be obtained by entering the value of this risk in the calculation of production costs. 

  15. Cernavoda NPP risk - Based test and maintenance planning - Methodology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, G.; Popa, P.; Petrescu, A.; Naum, M.; Gutu, M.

    1997-01-01

    The Cernavoda Power Plant starts the commercial operation in November 1996. During operation of the nuclear power plant, several mandatory tests and maintenance are performed on stand-by safety system components to ensure their availability in case of accident. The basic purpose of such activities is the early detection of any failure and degradation, and timely correction of deteriorations. Because of the large number of such activities, emphasis on plant safety and allocation of resources becomes difficult. The probabilistic model and methodology can be effectively used to obtain the risk significance of these activities so that the resources are directed to the most important areas. The proposed Research Contract activity is strongly connected with other safety related areas under development. Since, the Cernavoda Probabilistic Safety Evaluation Level 1 PSA Study (CPSE) was performed and now the study is revised taking into account the as-built information, it is recommended to implement into the model the necessary modeling features to support further PSA application, especially related to Test and Maintenance optimization. Methods need to be developed in order to apply the PSA model including risk information together with other needed information for Test and Maintenance optimization. Also, in parallel with the CPSE study updating, the software interface for the PSA model is under development (Risk Monitor Software class), methods and models needing to be developed for the purpose of using it for qualified monitoring of Test and Maintenance Strategy efficiency. Similar, the Data Collection System need to be appropriate for the purpose of an ongoing implementation of a risk - based Test and Maintenance Strategy. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig

  16. Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendure, A.O.

    1995-03-01

    Selecting a risk-based tool to aid in decision making is as much of a challenge as properly using the tool once it has been selected. Failure to consider customer and stakeholder requirements and the technical bases and differences in risk-based decision making tools will produce confounding and/or politically unacceptable results when the tool is used. Selecting a risk-based decisionmaking tool must therefore be undertaken with the same, if not greater, rigor than the use of the tool once it is selected. This paper presents a process for selecting a risk-based tool appropriate to a set of prioritization or resource allocation tasks, discusses the results of applying the process to four risk-based decision-making tools, and identifies the ``musts`` for successful selection and implementation of a risk-based tool to aid in decision making.

  17. Microbiology of Olkiluoto Groundwater 2004 - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, K.

    2008-02-01

    The microbiology of shallow and deep groundwater in Olkiluoto, Finland, was analysed for almost three years from 2004 to 2006. The extensive sampling and analysis programme produced a substantial database, including 60 analytical datasets on the microbiology of Olkiluoto groundwater, which is described and interpreted here. One part of this database comprises 39 complete analytical datasets on microbiology, chemistry, and dissolved gas composition assembled on four sampling campaigns from measurements from 16 shallow observation tubes and boreholes ranging in depth from 3.5 to 24.5 m. The second part of the database contains 21 datasets on microbiology and chemistry covering 13 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 35 to 450 m. In addition, the database contains 33 completed analyses of gas covering 14 deep boreholes ranging in depth from 40 to 742 m. Most of these analyses were completed before the onset of ONKALO construction, and the remaining samples were collected before ONKALO construction had extended below a depth of 100 m; therefore, this dataset captures the undisturbed conditions before the building of ONKALO. Shallow groundwater in Olkiluoto contained dissolved oxygen at approximately 10% or less of saturation. The presence of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, including methane-oxidizing bacteria, has been documented. The data confirm earlier suggested processes of oxygen reduction in the shallow part of the bedrock. These microbial processes reduce intruding oxygen in the shallow groundwater using dissolved organic carbon and methane as the main electron donors. Microbiological and geochemical data strongly suggest that the anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane (ANME) is active at a depth down to approximately 300 m in Olkiluoto, as has been suggested previously, based on interpretations of geochemical data. However, proof of the presence and activity of ANME microorganisms is needed before the existence of active ANME processes in Olkiluoto

  18. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.

    1980-08-01

    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  19. A risk-based approach to scheduling audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönninger, Stephan; Holmes, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    The manufacture and supply of pharmaceutical products can be a very complex operation. Companies may purchase a wide variety of materials, from active pharmaceutical ingredients to packaging materials, from "in company" suppliers or from third parties. They may also purchase or contract a number of services such as analysis, data management, audit, among others. It is very important that these materials and services are of the requisite quality in order that patient safety and company reputation are adequately protected. Such quality requirements are ongoing throughout the product life cycle. In recent years, assurance of quality has been derived via audit of the supplier or service provider and by using periodic audits, for example, annually or at least once every 5 years. In the past, companies may have used an audit only for what they considered to be "key" materials or services and used testing on receipt, for example, as their quality assurance measure for "less important" supplies. Such approaches changed as a result of pressure from both internal sources and regulators to the time-driven audit for all suppliers and service providers. Companies recognised that eventually they would be responsible for the quality of the supplied product or service and audit, although providing only a "snapshot in time" seemed a convenient way of demonstrating that they were meeting their obligations. Problems, however, still occur with the supplied product or service and will usually be more frequent from certain suppliers. Additionally, some third-party suppliers will no longer accept routine audits from individual companies, as the overall audit load can exceed one external audit per working day. Consequently a different model is needed for assessing supplier quality. This paper presents a risk-based approach to creating an audit plan and for scheduling the frequency and depth of such audits. The approach is based on the principles and process of the Quality Risk Management

  20. Radiological design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selby, J.M.; Andersen, B.V.; Carter, L.A.; Waite, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Many new nuclear facilities are unsatisfactory from a radiation protection point of view, particularly when striving to maintain occupational exposure as low as practicable 'ALAP'. Radiation protection is achieved through physical protective features supplemented by administrative controls. Adequate physical protective feature should be achieved during construction so that supplemental administrative controls may be kept simple and workable. Many nuclear facilities fall short of adequate physical protective features, thus, remedial and sometimes awkward administrative procedures are required to safely conduct work. In reviewing the various handbooks, reports and regulations which deal with radiation protection, it may be noted that there is minimal radiological design guidance for application to nuclear facilities. A set of criteria or codes covering functional areas rather than specific nuclear facility types is badly needed. The following are suggested as functional areas to be considered: characterization of the Facility; siting and access; design exposure limits; layout (people and materials flow); ventilation and effluent control; radiation protection facilities and systems. The application of such radiological design criteria early in the design process would provide some assurance that nuclear facilities will be safe, flexible, and efficient with a minimum of costly retrofitting or administrative restrictions. Criteria which we have found helpful in these functional areas is discussed together with justification for adoption of such criteria and identification of problems which still require solution

  1. Comments on confinement criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurak, V.; Schroer, B.; Swieca, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    For a QED 2 model with SU(n) flavour, the nature of the physical states space is more subtle than one expects on the basis of the loop criterion for confinement. One may have colour confinement without confinement of the fundamental flavour representation. Attempts to formulate confinement criteria in which the quark fields play a more fundamental role are discussed [pt

  2. Calculation of risk-based detection limits for radionuclides in the liquid effluents from Korean nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak

    2017-01-01

    In order to review if present detection limits of radionuclides in liquid effluent from nuclear power plants are effective enough to warrant compliance with regulatory discharge limits, a risk-based approach is developed to derive a new detection limit for each radionuclide based on radiological criteria. Equations and adjustment factors are also proposed to discriminate the validity of the detection limits for multiple radionuclides in the liquid effluent with or without consideration of the nuclide composition. From case studies to three nuclear power plants in Korea with actual operation data from 2006 to 2015, the present detection limits have turned out to be effective for Hanul Unit 1 but may not be sensitive enough for Kori Unit 1 (8 out of 14 radionuclides) and Wolsong Unit 1 (9 out of 42 radionuclides). However, it is shown that the present detection limits for the latter two nuclear power plants can be justified, if credit is given to the radionuclide composition. Otherwise, consideration should be given to adjustment of the present detection limits. The risk-based approach of this study can be used to determine the validity of established detection limits of a specific nuclear power plant. (author)

  3. Microbiologic endodontic status of young traumatized tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumotte, Karla; Bombana, Antonio C; Cai, Silvana

    2011-12-01

    Traumatic dental injuries could expose the dentin and, even the pulp, to the oral environment, making possible their contamination. The presence of microorganisms causes pulpal disease and further a tecidual clutter in the periradicular region. The therapy of periradicular pathosis is the consequence of a correct diagnoses which depends on the knowledge of the nature and complexity of endodontic infections. As there is no information on the microbiology of primary endodontic infection in young teeth, the aim of the current study was to investigate the microbiologic status of root canals from permanent young teeth with primary endodontic infection. Twelve patients with the need for endodontic treatment participated in the study. The selected teeth were uniradicular and had an incomplete root formation. They had untreated necrotic pulp. After the access preparation, nineteen microbiologic samples were obtained from the root canals with sterile paper points. Afterwards, the paper points were pooled in a sterile tube containing 2 ml of prereduced transport fluid. The samples were diluted and spread onto plates with selective medium for Enterococcus spp. and for yeast species and onto plates with non-selective medium. A quantitative analysis was performed. The mean number of cultivable bacterial cells in the root canals was 5.7 × 10(6). In four samples (21.05%) black pigmented species were recovered and the mean number of cells was 6.5 × 10(5). One specimen (5.25%) showed the growth of Enterococcus species and the mean number of cells in this case was of 1.5 × 10(4) . The results showed a root canal microbiota with similar design as seen in completely formed teeth. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF ICE CREAM CONSUMED IN ISTANBUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Kahraman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice cream is a dairy product that is produced by freezing a mixture enriched with sugar, cream, stabilizers, emulsifiers and aroma materials. The present study was aimed at determining the microbiological quality of 150 ice cream samples (75 plain and 75 strawberry-flavored collected from artisanal producers in Istanbul, Turkey. The samples were investigated for total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB, Enterobacteriaceae, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Results showed that TMAB counts ranged from 2.0 x 101 - 2.5 x 105 cfu/g with a mean of 1.5 x 104 cfu/g, while Enterobacteriaceae count ranged from 1 - 8.8 x 103 cfu/g with a mean of 3.0 x 102 cfu/g. Overall, 23.33% (35/150 of ice cream samples were of unacceptable quality based on recommended criteria by the Turkish Food Codex. Salmonella spp. was not determined in the samples. L. monocytogenes was detected in only one strawberry-flavored ice cream sample. The results indicated that ice cream might have been contaminated with pathogens, presenting a potential hazard for public health. Therefore, it is essential to ensure the safety of final products by improving the quality of production technology and sanitation strategies.

  5. Suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in infancy: microbiology and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Mitchell L; Seif, Joseph M; Whigham, Amy S; Mims, James W; Shetty, Avinash K; Evans, Adele K

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the associations between patient age, sociological factors, and the microbiology of pediatric neck infections. Retrospective chart review of children up to 5 years old who underwent surgical management of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis. A total of 76 individuals met inclusion criteria; 93% of culture-positive infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus in infants, compared with 59% in children between 13 months and 5 years of age (P = .002). Of the S aureus isolates, 51% were methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) and 49% were methicillin-sensitive S aureus. Methicillin resistance was associated with African American race (P = .004); 67% of participants received empirical antibiotics prior to admission. Of these, 73% received antibiotics in the β-lactam class, and 25% received treatment with clindamycin. Incidence of MRSA is high in infants with cervical lymphadenitis who fail empirical antibiotic therapy and require surgical management. Empirical coverage for cervical lymphadenitis with β-lactam antibiotics may provide inadequate coverage for early infection in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Lung abscess: update on microbiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Moussa F; Dahdel, Maher; Kalra, Ankur; Browne, Alexander S; Pratter, Melvin R

    2014-01-01

    A lung abscess is a circumscribed collection of pus in the lung as a result of a microbial infection, which leads to cavity formation and often a radiographic finding of an air fluid level. Patients with lung abscesses commonly present to their primary care physician or to the emergency department with "nonresolving pneumonia." Although, the incidence of lung abscess has declined since the introduction of antibiotic treatment, it still carries a mortality of up to 10%-20%. This article discusses in detail the up-to-date microbiology and the management of lung abscesses.

  7. Arrowsmith (1931 or Research in Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Elías García Sánchez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This film is an adaptation of the novel by Sinclair Lewis, directed by John Ford. Despite the number of years passed since its debut (December 7, 1931, the movie continues to awaken interest. It shows an approximation of what was once the practice of medicine, microbiology and research in the first third of the 20th Century in the United States of America. In addition, it presents many aspects of what is research and who are the researchers; in respect to this, the film has clear educational values.

  8. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    1996-01-01

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  9. CYSTIC FIBROSIS: MICROBIOLOGY AND HOST RESPONSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemanick, Edith T.

    2016-01-01

    THE EARLIEST DESCRIPTIONS OF LUNG DISEASE IN PEOPLE WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS (CF) DEMONSTRATED THE INVOLVEMENT OF THREE INTERACTING PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL ELEMENTS IN CF AIRWAYS: MUCUS OBSTRUCTION, INFLAMMATION, AND INFECTION. OVER THE PAST 7 DECADES, OUR UNDERSTANDING OF CF RESPIRATORY MICROBIOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION HAS EVOLVED WITH THE INTRODUCTION OF NEW TREATMENTS, WITH INCREASED LONGEVITY, AND WITH INCREASINGLY SOPHISTICATED LABORATORY TECHNIQUES. IN THIS CHAPTER, WE WILL REVIEW THE CURRENT STATE OF UNDERSTANDING OF THE ROLES OF INFECTION AND INFLAMMATION AND THEIR ROLES IN DRIVING LUNG DISEASE. WE WILL ALSO DISCUSS HOW THIS CONSTANTLY EVOLVING INFORMATION IS USED TO INFORM CURRENT THERAPEUTIC STRATEGIES, MEASURES AND PREDICTORS OF DISEASE SEVERITY, AND RESEARCH PRIORITIES. PMID:27469179

  10. Microbiology and Epidemiology of Legionnaire's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo, Almudena; Pedro-Botet, María Luisa; Bouza, Emilio

    2017-03-01

    Legionnaire's disease (LD) is the pneumonic form of legionellosis caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli of the genus Legionella. Individuals become infected when they inhale aerosolized water droplets contaminated with Legionella species. Forty years after the identification of Legionella pneumophila as the cause of the 1976 pneumonia outbreak in a hotel in Philadelphia, we have non-culture-based diagnostic tests, effective antibiotics, and preventive measures to handle LD. With a mortality rate still around 10%, underreporting, and sporadic outbreaks, there is still much work to be done. In this article, the authors review the microbiology, laboratory diagnosis, and epidemiology of LD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The microbiological diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, H; Ozturk-Engin, D; Elaldi, N

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to provide data on the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in this largest case series ever reported. The Haydarpasa-1 study involved patients with microbiologically confirmed TBM in Albania, Croatia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Hungary, Iraq, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia......, Syria and Turkey between 2000 and 2012. A positive culture, PCR or Ehrlich-Ziehl-Neelsen staining (EZNs) from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was mandatory for inclusion of meningitis patients. A total of 506 TBM patients were included. The sensitivities of the tests were as follows: interferon-γ release.......05). Combination of L-J and ACS was superior to using these tests alone (p

  12. Diagnostic molecular microbiology: a 2013 snapshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairfax, Marilynn Ransom; Salimnia, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    Molecular testing has a large and increasing role in the diagnosis of infectious diseases. It has evolved significantly since the first probe tests were FDA approved in the early 1990s. This article highlights the uses of molecular techniques in diagnostic microbiology, including "older," as well as innovative, probe techniques, qualitative and quantitative RT-PCR, highly multiplexed PCR panels, some of which use sealed microfluidic test cartridges, MALDI TOF, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Tests are grouped together by technique and target. Tests with similar roles for similar analytes are compared with respect to benefits, drawbacks, and possible problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Microbiology of Bartholin's Gland Abscess in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kaori; Mikamo, Hiroshige; Ninomiya, Mochiyoshi; Tamaya, Teruhiko; Izumi, Koji; Ito, Kunihiko; Yamaoka, Kazukiyo; Watanabe, Kunitomo

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the current epidemiology concerning the causative organisms for Bartholin's gland abscess in Japan. Microbiological examination of 224 cases showed positive results in 219 cases and negative results in 5 cases. Of all of the bacterial isolates, 307 and 118 were aerobes and anaerobes, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacterium was Escherichia coli. Of the anaerobes, the most frequently isolated organism was Bacteroides species, followed by Prevotella species. The organisms related to respiratory infectious diseases, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, including resistant bacteria, were sometimes involved between 2000 and 2004. PMID:16081994

  14. Microbiological analysis of water used in hydrotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Perestrelo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Water used in hydrotherapy units of Nova Iguaçu and Nilópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was microbiologically analyzed. Thirty samples (5ml each were weekly collected from September 2001 to June 2002 before the beginning and after the end of activities in the units. For analysis, routine techniques were used, which showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp, Candida spp, Penicillium spp, Epidermophyton spp, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus spp, Cephalosporium spp, Cladosporium spp, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton spp. Results indicated a need for improving hygienic conditions, suggesting that water might be a contamination source in the evaluated units.

  15. The role of hazard- and risk-based approaches in ensuring food safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlow, Susan M.; Boobis, Alan R.; Bridges, Jim

    2015-01-01

    action. Risk-based approaches allow consideration of exposure in assessing whether there may be unacceptable risks to health. Scope and approach The advantages and disadvantages of hazard- and risk-based approaches for ensuring the safety of food chemicals, allergens, ingredients and microorganisms were...

  16. 12 CFR 955.6 - Risk-based capital requirement for acquired member assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... losses as support for the credit risk of all AMA estimated by the Bank to represent a credit risk that is...) Recalculation of credit enhancement. For risk-based capital purposes, each Bank shall recalculate the estimated... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for acquired...

  17. 12 CFR 567.6 - Risk-based capital credit risk-weight categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital credit risk-weight... CAPITAL Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.6 Risk-based capital credit risk-weight categories. (a) Risk...)(2) of this section), plus risk-weighted recourse obligations, direct credit substitutes, and certain...

  18. PSA requirements for use in the safety management. Risk based indicators and the configurational control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show the role of the risk based indicators- namely the core damage frequency (CDFI), the core damage probability indicators (CDPI) and the importance of the equipment together- in the risk based configuration control. 1 fig

  19. 12 CFR 956.4 - Risk-based capital requirement for investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital requirement for investments... OFF-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK INVESTMENTS § 956.4 Risk-based capital requirement for investments. Each Bank shall hold retained earnings plus general allowance for losses as support for the...

  20. Microbiological characteristics of four ‘chorizo’ types commercialized in Hidalgo State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gonzalez-Tenorio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chorizo is a raw sausage commercialized in almost all Mexico, mainly in the central region. Chorizo is elaborated from small producers’ craftsman who sold their products in local markets, to big meat processors who distribute their products in supermarkets. These differences in elaboration affect chorizo quality. In this work commercial chorizo bought in four different points (local butchers, rural markets, supermarkets and supply centers. Mainly microbiological groups were determined. Techno-sanitary conditions regulation should be improved in order to establish quality criteria.

  1. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  2. EXAMPLE OF A RISK-BASED DISPOSAL APPROVAL: SOLIDIFICATION OF HANFORD SITE TRANSURANIC (TRU) WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRIGNANO AL

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford Site requested, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10 approved, a Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976 (TSCA) risk-based disposal approval (RBDA) for solidifying approximately four cubic meters of waste from a specific area of one of the K East Basin: the North Loadout Pit (NLOP). The NLOP waste is a highly radioactive sludge that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) regulated under TSCA. The prescribed disposal method for liquid PCB waste under TSCA regulations is either thermal treatment or decontamination. Due to the radioactive nature of the waste, however, neither thermal treatment nor decontamination was a viable option. As a result, the proposed treatment consisted of solidifying the material to comply with waste acceptance criteria at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico, or possibly the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility at the Hanford Site, depending on the resulting transuranic (TRU) content of the stabilized waste. The RBDA evaluated environmental risks associated with potential airborne PCBs. In addition, the RBDA made use of waste management controls already in place at the treatment unit. The treatment unit, the T Plant Complex, is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA)-permitted facility used for storing and treating radioactive waste. The EPA found that the proposed activities did not pose an unreasonable risk to human health or the environment. Treatment took place from October 26,2005 to June 9,2006, and 332 208-liter (55-gallon) containers of solidified waste were produced. All treated drums assayed to date are TRU and will be disposed at WIPP

  3. Risk-based design of process plants with regard to domino effects and land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khakzad, Nima, E-mail: nkhakzad@gmail.com [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Reniers, Genserik [Safety and Security Science Group (S3G), Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, TU Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Antwerp Research Group on Safety and Security (ARGoSS), Faculty of Applied Economics, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp (Belgium); Research Group CEDON, Campus Brussels, KULeuven, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A Bayesian network methodology has been developed to estimate the total probability of major accidents in chemical plants. • Total probability of accidents includes the probability of individual accidents and potential domino effects. • The methodology has been extended to calculate on-site and off-site risks. • The results of the risk analysis have been used in a multi-criteria decision analysis technique to risk-based design of chemical plants. - Abstract: Land use planning (LUP) as an effective and crucial safety measure has widely been employed by safety experts and decision makers to mitigate off-site risks posed by major accidents. Accordingly, the concept of LUP in chemical plants has traditionally been considered from two perspectives: (i) land developments around existing chemical plants considering potential off-site risks posed by major accidents and (ii) development of existing chemical plants considering nearby land developments and the level of additional off-site risks the land developments would be exposed to. However, the attempts made to design chemical plants with regard to LUP requirements have been few, most of which have neglected the role of domino effects in risk analysis of major accidents. To overcome the limitations of previous work, first, we developed a Bayesian network methodology to calculate both on-site and off-site risks of major accidents while taking domino effects into account. Second, we combined the results of risk analysis with Analytic Hierarchical Process to design an optimal layout for which the levels of on-site and off-site risks would be minimum.

  4. Intelligent intefrace design criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Y.; Siebert, S.; Thebault, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    Optimum adequation between control means and the capacities of the teams of operators is sought for to achieve computerization of control and monitoring interfaces. Observation of the diagnosis activity of populations of operators in incident situations on a simulator enables design criteria well-suited to the characteristics of the detection, interpretation of symptoms and incident location tasks to be defined. A software tool based on a qualitative approach enables the design process to be systematized

  5. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chee Ling; Zalifah, M.K.; Norrakiah, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 10 3 -10 4 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10 -3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  6. Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Damiana D; Dias, Manoela M S; Grześkowiak, Łukasz M; Reis, Sandra A; Conceição, Lisiane L; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G

    2017-06-01

    Kefir is fermented milk produced from grains that comprise a specific and complex mixture of bacteria and yeasts that live in a symbiotic association. The nutritional composition of kefir varies according to the milk composition, the microbiological composition of the grains used, the time/temperature of fermentation and storage conditions. Kefir originates from the Caucasus and Tibet. Recently, kefir has raised interest in the scientific community due to its numerous beneficial effects on health. Currently, several scientific studies have supported the health benefits of kefir, as reported historically as a probiotic drink with great potential in health promotion, as well as being a safe and inexpensive food, easily produced at home. Regular consumption of kefir has been associated with improved digestion and tolerance to lactose, antibacterial effect, hypocholesterolaemic effect, control of plasma glucose, anti-hypertensive effect, anti-inflammatory effect, antioxidant activity, anti-carcinogenic activity, anti-allergenic activity and healing effects. A large proportion of the studies that support these findings were conducted in vitro or in animal models. However, there is a need for systematic clinical trials to better understand the effects of regular use of kefir as part of a diet, and for their effect on preventing diseases. Thus, the present review focuses on the nutritional and microbiological composition of kefir and presents relevant findings associated with the beneficial effects of kefir on human and animal health.

  7. Municipal Treated Wastewater Irrigation: Microbiological Risk Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lonigro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Municipal wastewater for irrigation, though treated, can contain substances and pathogens toxic for humans and animals. Pathogens, although not harmful from an agronomical aspect, undoubtedly represent a major concern with regards to sanitary and hygienic profile. In fact, vegetable crops irrigated with treated wastewater exalt the risk of infection since these products can also be eaten raw, as well as transformed or cooked. Practically, the evaluation of the microbiological risk is important to verify if the microbial limits imposed by law for treated municipal wastewater for irrigation, are valid, thus justifying the treatments costs, or if they are too low and, therefore, they don’ t justify them. Different probabilistic models have been studied to assess the microbiological risk; among these, the Beta-Poisson model resulted the most reliable. Thus, the Dipartimento di Scienze delle Produzioni Vegetali of the University of Bari, which has been carrying out researches on irrigation with municipal filtered wastewater for several years, considered interesting to verify if the microbial limits imposed by the italian law n.185/03 are too severe, estimating the biological risk by the probabilistic Beta-Poisson model. Results of field trials on vegetable crops irrigated by municipal filtered wastewater, processed by the Beta-Poisson model, show that the probability to get infection and/or illness is extremely low, and that the actual italian microbial limits are excessively restrictive.

  8. Microbiology of middle meatus in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariante, Afonso Ravanello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasosinusal microbiology of healthy individuals is not much documented. Its knowledge allows to determine the nasosinusal colonizing agents and to monitor the patterns of bacterial resistance. Objective: To evaluate the microbiology of the middle meatus in healthy individuals and to compare it with that of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Method: 61 healthy individuals were included. The samples were collected under endoscopic view and Gram stained with leucocytes count and aerobic, anaerobic and fungus cultures. 114 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis formed the control group. Results: In healthy individuals 58 microorganisms were isolated. The most frequent ones were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium. Fungi were cultivated in 10%. There were rare or no white blood cells in all samples. There was penicillin resistance in 75% of the Staphylococcus aureus and 69% of the coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. As for oxacillin, 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and 92% of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus were sensitive. In the control group 158 microorganisms were cultivated. The most common ones were Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Gram-negatives represented 26% of the aerobics. 73% of the samples with positive cultures presented a few or many white blood cells. Conclusion: Rare or no white blood cell, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Corynebacterium were more frequent in healthy individuals and Streptococcus pneumoniae, anaerobics and oxacillin resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and Gram-negative were more frequent in the control group.

  9. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 1 (2004) ... ASYMPTOMATIC SIGNIFICANT BACTERIURIA AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ... TO PARASITISM AND THE IMPLICATION ON TREATMENT APPROACH ...

  10. Enhancing Engineering Students’ Learning in an Environmental Microbiology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Zhou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available While environmental engineering students have gained some knowledge of biogeochemical cycles and sewage treatment, most of them haven’t learned microbiology previously and usually have difficulty in learning environmental microbiology because microbiology deals with invisible living microorganisms instead of visible built environment. Many teaching techniques can be used to enhance students’ learning in microbiology courses, such as lectures, animations, videos, small-group discussions, and active learning techniques. All of these techniques have been applied in the engineering class, but the results indicate that these techniques are often inadequate for students. Learning difficulties have to be identified to enhance students’ learning.

  11. Sterilization validation for medical devices at IRASM microbiological laboratory—Practical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trandafir, Laura; Alexandru, Mioara; Constantin, Mihai; Ioniţă, Anca; Zorilă, Florina; Moise, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    EN ISO 11137 established regulations for setting or substantiating the dose for achieving the desired sterility assurance level. The validation studies can be designed in particular for different types of products. Each product needs distinct protocols for bioburden determination and sterility testing. The Microbiological Laboratory from Irradiation Processing Center (IRASM) deals with different types of products, mainly for the VD max 25 method. When it comes to microbiological evaluation the most challenging was cotton gauze. A special situation for establishing the sterilization validation method appears in cases of cotton packed in large quantities. The VD max 25 method cannot be applied for items with average bioburden more than 1000 CFU/pack, irrespective of the weight of the package. This is a method limitation and implies increased costs for the manufacturer when choosing other methods. For microbiological tests, culture condition should be selected in both cases of the bioburden and sterility testing. Details about choosing criteria are given. - Highlights: ► The paper presents aspects and results within the sterilization validation process. ► Critical aspects that can lead to the failure of the process were emphasized. ► Limitation methods were discussed.

  12. INFLUENCE MATURATION OF VEAL ON THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate microbial and pH changes in veal meat during maturation. Total viable counts, coliform bacteria and pH changes in chilling meat were evaluated after 24 hours, 7 days and 14 days of meat maturation. There were analysed 8 samples of veal meeat. Results of microbiological analysis were compared with Commission regulation (EC No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs. Total viable counts (TVC in samples after 24 hours of chilling ranged from 2.02 log CFU.cm-to 4.21 log CFU.cm-2 (1.64 . 104 CFU.cm-2. The average number of TVC after 24 hours of meat maturation was 3.27 log CFU.cm-2, coliform bacteria (CB after 24 hours were lower than than 1 log cfu.cm-2 in five samples, and the highest number of coliform bacteria was 1.65 log cfu.cm-2, average number of CB was 1.13 log cfu.cm-2. pH values in samples after 24 hours of maturation were in range from 6.6 to 7.0, average pH value was 6.8. TVC in samples after 7 days of chilling ranged from 3.09 log CFU.cm-2 to 4.01 log CFU.cm-2, the average number of TVC after 7 days of storage was 3.39 log CFU.cm-2. CB after 7 days of meat maturation were lower than 1 log CFU cm-2 in three samples, the highest value of CB was 2.07 log CFU cm-2, the average value of CB in samples after 7 days of meat chilling was 1.03 log CFU cm-2. pH values of meat after 7 days of maturation ranged from 5.5 to 6.1. The average pH value of samples after 7 days of storage was 5.73 pH values of meat after 14 days of maturation ranged from 6.0 to 6.4. The average pH value of samples after 14 days of storage was 6.16.

  13. Advances in the application of molecular microbiological methods in the oil and gas industry and links to microbiologically influenced corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert, Rickard; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    2018-01-01

    While the oil and gas industry has witnessed increased applications of molecular microbiological methods (MMMs) for diagnosing and managing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the past decade, the process for establishing clear links between microbiological conditions and corrosion...... mechanisms is still emerging. Different MMMs provide various types of information about microbial diversity, abundance, activity and function, all of which are quite different from the culture-based results that are familiar to oil and gas industry corrosion professionals. In addition, a multidisciplinary...

  14. A risk modelling approach for setting microbiological limits using enterococci as indicator for growth potential of Salmonella in pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollerslev, Anne Mette; Nauta, Maarten; Hansen, Tina Beck; Aabo, Søren

    2017-01-02

    Microbiological limits are widely used in food processing as an aid to reduce the exposure to hazardous microorganisms for the consumers. However, in pork, the prevalence and concentrations of Salmonella are generally low and microbiological limits are not considered an efficient tool to support hygiene interventions. The objective of the present study was to develop an approach which could make it possible to define potential risk-based microbiological limits for an indicator, enterococci, in order to evaluate the risk from potential growth of Salmonella. A positive correlation between the concentration of enterococci and the prevalence and concentration of Salmonella was shown for 6640 pork samples taken at Danish cutting plants and retail butchers. The samples were collected in five different studies in 2001, 2002, 2010, 2011 and 2013. The observations that both Salmonella and enterococci are carried in the intestinal tract, contaminate pork by the same mechanisms and share similar growth characteristics (lag phase and maximum specific growth rate) at temperatures around 5-10°C, suggest a potential of enterococci to be used as an indicator of potential growth of Salmonella in pork. Elevated temperatures during processing will lead to growth of both enterococci and, if present, also Salmonella. By combining the correlation between enterococci and Salmonella with risk modelling, it is possible to predict the risk of salmonellosis based on the level of enterococci. The risk model used for this purpose includes the dose-response relationship for Salmonella and a reduction factor to account for preparation of the fresh pork. By use of the risk model, it was estimated that the majority of salmonellosis cases, caused by the consumption of pork in Denmark, is caused by the small fraction of pork products that has enterococci concentrations above 5logCFU/g. This illustrates that our approach can be used to evaluate the potential effect of different microbiological

  15. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  16. [Onsite microbiology services and outsourcing microbiology and offsite laboratories--advantage and disadvantage, thinking of effective utilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Naoto

    2011-10-01

    In recent years, budget restrictions have prompted hospital managers to consider outsourcing microbiology service. But there are many advantages onsite microbiology services. Onsite microbiology services have some advantages. 1) High recovery rate of microorganism. 2) Shorter turn around time. 3) Easy to communicate between physician and laboratory technician. 4) Effective utilization of blood culture. 5) Getting early information about microorganism. 6) Making antibiogram (microbiological local factor). 7) Getting information for infection control. The disadvantages are operating costs and labor cost. The important point of maximal utilization of onsite microbiology service is close communication between physicians to microbiology laboratory. It will be able to provide prompt and efficient report to physicians through discussion about Gram stain findings, agar plate media findings and epidemiological information. The rapid and accurate identification of pathogen affords directed therapy, thereby decreasing the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics and shortening the length of hospital stay and unnecessary ancillary procedures. When the physician use outsourcing microbiology services, should discuss with offsite laboratories about provided services. Infection control person has to arrange data of susceptibility about every isolate and monitoring multi-drug resistant organism. Not only onsite microbiology services but also outsourcing microbiology services, to communicate bedside and laboratory is most important point of effective utilization.

  17. Criteria for software modularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  18. Buccal microbiology analyzed by infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Geraldo Magno Alves; da Silva, Gislene Rodrigues; Khouri, Sônia; Favero, Priscila Pereira; Raniero, Leandro; Martin, Airton Abrahão

    2012-01-01

    Rapid microbiological identification and characterization are very important in dentistry and medicine. In addition to dental diseases, pathogens are directly linked to cases of endocarditis, premature delivery, low birth weight, and loss of organ transplants. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to analyze oral pathogens Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ATCC 29523, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans-JP2, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans which was clinically isolated from the human blood-CI. Significant spectra differences were found among each organism allowing the identification and characterization of each bacterial species. Vibrational modes in the regions of 3500-2800 cm-1, the 1484-1420 cm-1, and 1000-750 cm-1 were used in this differentiation. The identification and classification of each strain were performed by cluster analysis achieving 100% separation of strains. This study demonstrated that FTIR can be used to decrease the identification time, compared to the traditional methods, of fastidious buccal microorganisms associated with the etiology of the manifestation of periodontitis.

  19. A review of microbiological studies. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofi, N.

    1991-03-01

    This report reviews the work carried out by countries, other than the UK, involved in nuclear waste disposal programmes, since 1978, concerning the role of microbial activity in nuclear waste isolation. In terms of research the UK and Switzerland appear to have been most active in fundamental site specific research and basic modelling. Overall, there is still a need to show unequivocally that microorganisms will be active in a real repository and it is recommended that any future studies work towards this area. Intermediate-level wastes (ILW) and low-level wastes (LLW) contain a high organic content which can, in addition to chemical and radiolytic attack, be degraded to radionuclide complexing agents creating problems of solubility and transport. If microbiological effects are significant, steps need to be taken to minimise these. At present there appears to be no evidence that microorganisms will have a long term effect on the stability of repositories for ILW and LLW. (Author)

  20. [Microbiology--laboratory examinations for bacterias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Renjun; Imafuku, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    As it has been required to identify pathogenic microbes in shorter times, simple and rapid methods have been developed and used. Here, we summarized the present situation of rapid diagnostic testing in clinical microbiology in Japan, and also presented our results on PBP2' detection. The rapid test kits available in Japan for E. coli, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus were described. Rapid examination methods are based mainly on immunologic reactions, which included slide agglutination using latex particle, immunochromatography and ELISA. Times required for the identification are 10 to 15 minutes. Moreover, rapid test kits employing PCR are also marketed. Further, we evaluated MRSA-LA "Seiken" which is a rapid detection kit for PBP2' produced by MRSA. The test was shown to be highly sensitive and specific. For the rapid identification of pathogenic microbes, simple and rapid test kits described here will be used more in clinical diagnosis.

  1. An expert system for microbiologically influenced corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, C.E.; Licina, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) is a damage mechanism that can cause serious degradation of service water system components. MIC can be particularly insidious since damage can occur very quickly, even in environments otherwise resistant to corrosion. Plant operations or maintenance personnel or system engineers typically do not have sufficient expertise to predict when and where MIC may occur or what methods of treatment are effective. An expert system (MICPro) has been devised which provides a tool for utilities to predict where MIC will occur, which systems or components are most susceptible, how operating parameters may affect vulnerability, and how to implement corrective and preventative measures. The system is designed to be simple to use: required inputs are common system parameters and results are presented as numbers from 1 to 10 indicating the likelihood of damage due to the given input. In this paper the structure and operation of the system is described, and future refinements are discussed

  2. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Anguiano, Ana María; Landa-Salgado, Patricia; Eslava-Campos, Carlos Alberto; Vargas-Hernández, Mateo; Patel, Jitendra

    2016-12-10

    The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices ( n = 162) made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli . Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower ( p nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  3. Microbiological survey of birds of prey pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipineto, Ludovico; Bossa, Luigi Maria De Luca; Pace, Antonino; Russo, Tamara Pasqualina; Gargiulo, Antonio; Ciccarelli, Francesca; Raia, Pasquale; Caputo, Vincenzo; Fioretti, Alessandro

    2015-08-01

    A microbiological survey of 73 pellets collected from different birds of prey species housed at the Wildlife Rescue and Rehabilitation Center of Napoli (southern Italy) was performed. Pellets were analyzed by culture and biochemical methods as well as by serotyping and polymerase chain reaction. We isolated a wide range of bacteria some of them also pathogens for humans (i.e. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Campylobacter coli, Escherichia coli O serogroups). This study highlights the potential role of birds of prey as asymptomatic carriers of pathogenic bacteria which could be disseminated in the environment not only through the birds of prey feces but also through their pellets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optical and force nanoscopy in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2016-10-26

    Microbial cells have developed sophisticated multicomponent structures and machineries to govern basic cellular processes, such as chromosome segregation, gene expression, cell division, mechanosensing, cell adhesion and biofilm formation. Because of the small cell sizes, subcellular structures have long been difficult to visualize using diffraction-limited light microscopy. During the last three decades, optical and force nanoscopy techniques have been developed to probe intracellular and extracellular structures with unprecedented resolutions, enabling researchers to study their organization, dynamics and interactions in individual cells, at the single-molecule level, from the inside out, and all the way up to cell-cell interactions in microbial communities. In this Review, we discuss the principles, advantages and limitations of the main optical and force nanoscopy techniques available in microbiology, and we highlight some outstanding questions that these new tools may help to answer.

  5. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  6. Mass spectrometry: a revolution in clinical microbiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Espinal, Paula; Dunyach-Remy, Catherine; Messad, Nourredine; Pantel, Alix; Sotto, Albert

    2013-02-01

    Recently, different bacteriological laboratory interventions that decrease reporting time have been developed. These promising new broad-based techniques have merit, based on their ability to identify rapidly many bacteria, organisms difficult to grow or newly emerging strains, as well as their capacity to track disease transmission. The benefit of rapid reporting of identification and/or resistance of bacteria can greatly impact patient outcomes, with an improvement in the use of antibiotics, in the reduction of the emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria and in mortality rates. Different techniques revolve around mass spectrometry (MS) technology: matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), PCR combined with electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (PCR/ESIMS), iPLEX MassArray system and other new evolutions combining different techniques. This report emphasizes the (r)evolution of these technologies in clinical microbiology.

  7. Microbiological and chemical transformations of argentatin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatooq, Galal T

    2003-01-01

    Argentatin B is a naturally occurring tetracyclic triterpene isolated from Parthenium argentatum x P. tomentosa. It was microbiologically transformed to 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3alpha, 25-diol, (isoargentatin D), by Nocardia corallina var. taoka ATCC 31338, Mycobacterium species NRRL B3683 and Septomyxa affinis ATCC 6737. The later microbe also produced 16, 24-epoxycycloartan-3beta, 25-diol (argentatin D) and 1, 2-didehydroargentatin B, (isoargentatin D). Sodium hydroxide converted argentatin B to argentatin D and isoargentatin D. Hydrochloric acid treatment gave cycloartan-25-ol-3, 24-dione. Cerium sulfate/sulfuric acid/aqueous methanol induced scission of the isopropanol moiety and provided an isomeric mixture of 24-methoxy-25-27-trinorargentatin B. Oxidation of this isomeric mixture with pyridinium chlorochromate, selectively, attacked the isomer with the equatorial proton at position-24 to give the corresponding lactone, 24-oxo-25-27-trinorargentatin B. The produced compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods.

  8. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...... biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanzella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram......- positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish...

  9. Examination of reproducibility in microbiological degredation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Spliid, Henrik; Holst, Helle

    1998-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that certain microbiological degradation experiments have a limited reproducibility. Nine identical batch experiments were carried out on 3 different days to examine reproducibility. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with toluene as the only carbon and energy...... source. Toluene was degraded under aerobic conditions at a constant temperature of 28 degreesC. The experiments were modelled by a Monod model - extended to meet the air/liquid system, and the parameter values were estimated using a statistical nonlinear estimation procedure. Model reduction analysis...... resulted in a simpler model without the biomass decay term. In order to test for model reduction and reproducibility of parameter estimates, a likelihood ratio test was employed. The limited reproducibility for these experiments implied that all 9 batch experiments could not be described by the same set...

  10. Clinical microbiology during the Vietnam War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael; Brown, Matthew; Palys, Thomas; Tyner, Stuart; Bowden, Robert

    2009-11-01

    During the period of 1965-1968, over two dozen Army microbiologists were deployed to various locations in Southeast Asia in support of the Vietnam War. Their role was to serve both a clinical laboratory mission/function at the mobile Army surgical hospital and mobile laboratory level as well as to perform research roles in all of the facilities. They were essential to the formulation of medical intelligence as well as to the practice of operational medicine in the deployed environment. The results of their laboratory investigations provided commanders and military physicians with critical medical information for patient care, outbreak investigation, and forensic analysis. As with many soldiers in support of the infantry and armor combat forces, most of the work occurs behind the scenes and their contributions are often left out of the historical literature. This article presents a brief overview of microbiology performed by Army microbiologists during the Vietnam War.

  11. Microbiological Corrosion in Low Carbon Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Medina–Custodio

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microbiologically Induced Corrosion affects several industries, such as oil industry where it is estimated that 20% to 30% pipes failures are related with microorganism . The chemical reactions generate ions transfer, this validate the use of electrochemical techniques for its analysis. Coupons submerged in a nutritional medium with presence and absence of three different microorganisms during two periods, 48 hours and 28 days we restudied. Polarization resistance (Rp and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS techniques we re applied to determine the corrosivity of the systems. The results show a greater corrosive effect of abiotic system, this indicates a microorganisms protection effect to the metal, opposite to the first hypothesis. This result was ratified observing surfaces coupons by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM technique. A possible mechanism based on Evans – Tafel graph is proposed to explain inhibitor microorganism effect.

  12. Interfacing microbiology and biotechnology. Conference abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupin, Julia A.

    2001-05-19

    The Interfacing Microbiology and Biotechnology Conference was attended by over 100 faculty, post-docs, students, and research scientists from the US, Europe, and Latin America. The conference successfully stimulated communication and the dissemination of knowledge among scientists involved in basic and applied research. The focus of the conference was on microbial physiology and genetics and included sessions on C1 metabolism, archaeal metabolism, proteases and chaperones, gene arrays, and metabolic engineering. The meeting provided the setting for in-depth discussions between scientists who are internationally recognized for their research in these fields. The following objectives were met: (1) The promotion of interaction and future collaborative projects among scientists involved in basic and applied research which incorporates microbial physiology, genetics, and biochemistry; (2) the facilitation of communication of new research findings through seminars, posters, and abstracts; (3 ) the stimulation of enthusiasm and education among participants including graduate and undergraduate students.

  13. Microbiological decomposition of the organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, I.V.; Smelov, V.S.; Borsenkov, I.A.; Belyaev, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work will determine the applicability of a microbiological oxidation as a replacement process of spent extractant reprocessing. In current 10 days exponential growth of microorganisms is observed, thus of the substratum inhibition is not observed at increase of the extractant concentration up to 6%. In an outcome of experiments in a periodic mode without a cultural solution renewal the degree of destruction diluent varied within the limits of 86-100%, TBP - 28-94% depending on a mode. In view of accumulated biomass a drop of quantity of organic substance in a system in 6 - 10 times was reached. The a-activity decontamination coefficient of water solution after removal biosuspension has made 210. (author)

  14. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  15. A risk-based approach to flammable gas detector spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defriend, Stephen; Dejmek, Mark; Porter, Leisa; Deshotels, Bob; Natvig, Bernt

    2008-11-15

    Flammable gas detectors allow an operating company to address leaks before they become serious, by automatically alarming and by initiating isolation and safe venting. Without effective gas detection, there is very limited defense against a flammable gas leak developing into a fire or explosion that could cause loss of life or escalate to cascading failures of nearby vessels, piping, and equipment. While it is commonly recognized that some gas detectors are needed in a process plant containing flammable gas or volatile liquids, there is usually a question of how many are needed. The areas that need protection can be determined by dispersion modeling from potential leak sites. Within the areas that must be protected, the spacing of detectors (or alternatively, number of detectors) should be based on risk. Detector design can be characterized by spacing criteria, which is convenient for design - or alternatively by number of detectors, which is convenient for cost reporting. The factors that influence the risk are site-specific, including process conditions, chemical composition, number of potential leak sites, piping design standards, arrangement of plant equipment and structures, design of isolation and depressurization systems, and frequency of detector testing. Site-specific factors such as those just mentioned affect the size of flammable gas cloud that must be detected (within a specified probability) by the gas detection system. A probability of detection must be specified that gives a design with a tolerable risk of fires and explosions. To determine the optimum spacing of detectors, it is important to consider the probability that a detector will fail at some time and be inoperative until replaced or repaired. A cost-effective approach is based on the combined risk from a representative selection of leakage scenarios, rather than a worst-case evaluation. This means that probability and severity of leak consequences must be evaluated together. In marine and

  16. Microbiological surveillance in patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Gualdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Prevention, diagnosis and therapy in cystic fibrosis, lead to the necessary collaboration between clinical and laboratory to identify effective strategies and appropriate solutions to address the problems inherent isolation micro-organisms, antibiotic strategies, overcoming of bacterial resistance and other problems management of these patients. The task of the microbiology laboratory and research in quickly and accurately, the agents responsible for these infectious processes, in order to isolate them from material, identify and determine their sensitivity antibiotics. A microbiological surveillance on 34 patients (13 males and 21 females with CF and related to the “Support Services Provincial Trento for the treatment of cystic fibrosis “in the period July 2005 - August 2008, was carried out. 180 Gram positive and 278 of Gram negative bacteria as well as 235 fungi wre collected. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently organism found in patients with CF with an incidence of 23% on 156 strains isolated, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was collected 19% of all microorganisms isolated corresponding to 131 strains, Candida albicans is the yeast often isolated with a frequency 22% equal to 149 isolates, Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated at a rate of 8%. From the data we collected and processed has been noted that the local epidemiology of CF patients reflects as reported in the scientific literature and national international consulting, both as a type microorganisms that frequency also isolated compared to age groups. Considering the score of Bartlett as discriminating respiratory fitness of the material, it has been observed that only 32 samples over 327 total (10% would materials insignificant. It follows therefore that the time of sample collection, followed by personnel (physiotherapists dedicated to CF patients, represents a crucial step

  17. Microbiological changes associated with dental prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, J Max; Palys, Michael D; Carpino, Elizabeth; Regan, Elizabeth O; Sweeney, Michael; Socransky, Sigmund S

    2004-11-01

    Despite the common application of dental prophylaxis as part of patient therapy, there is little reported that describes the microbiological impact of this treatment. The authors gave 20 healthy college-aged subjects three dental prophylaxes with a fluoride-containing prophylaxis paste during a two-week period and instructed them in oral hygiene. They evaluated the microbiological composition of dental plaque samples collected before and after treatment using DNA probe analysis. They analyzed 40 representative bacterial species in seven bacterial complexes by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization assay techniques. After three dental prophylaxes, the patients' mean Gingival Index score decreased from 0.82 to 0.77, the mean Plaque Index score decreased from 0.72 to zero, and the total number of bacteria per tooth decreased to approximately one-third of the original number. The authors computed two different measures of bacterial presence. The reduction in bacterial numbers was statistically significant and occurred in many species. Bacterial proportion (DNA percentage or percentage of the bacteria per tooth) did not change significantly. Greater reductions in bacterial count occurred in species that showed high numbers before treatment. The total bacterial count decreased by approximately 72 percent of its original level before prophylaxis was initiated. Professional dental prophylaxis did not target any particular bacteria or bacterial groups but removed bacteria nonspecifically and in proportion to their initial numbers. Repeated dental prophylaxes effect a reduction in bacterial amount that is commensurate with the initial amount, but they do does not alter composition. This suggests that mild gingivitis may be a bacterially nonspecific effect of plaque accumulation and emphasizes the need for regular plaque removal to maintain optimal gingival health.

  18. Mentor-mentee relationship in clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opota, O; Greub, G

    2017-07-01

    Clinical microbiology is a field in constant evolution, with increasing technological opportunities and a growing emphasis on human and social issues. Maintaining knowledge and skills and anticipating future changes is challenging both for laboratory managers and for all the co-workers. Training and succession preparation represents a unique opportunity to adapt/prepare future generations according to the evolutions of the field. The aim of this review is to provide to clinical microbiologists a reflection on ongoing technological and social changes in their field and a deepening of the central role of preparing future generations to these changes through a fruitful mentor-mentee relationship. This narrative review relies on selected publications addressing mentor-mentee interactions in various academic fields, on interview with our colleagues and pairs, as well as on our personal experience. From the qualities and aspects that emerged as necessary for a productive mentor-mentee interaction, we selected and discuss five of them for the mentor: the role and responsibility, the positioning, the vision, the scientific credibility, and the moral credibility, as well as five for the mentee: creativity, flexibility, energy, responsibility, and self evaluation. This review emphasizes the importance of both the scientific and the ethical credibility of the mentor and the mentee as well as the importance of human and social values such as solidarity, equality, equity, respectfulness, and empathy, and might support mentor and mentee in the field of clinical microbiology and also in the field of infectious disease in their intent for a fruitful interaction. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. [Historical perspective of mass spectrometry in microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingorance, Jesús; Regueiro, Benito; Muñoz-Bellido, Juan Luis

    2016-06-01

    La espectrometría de masas (EM) es una técnica de análisis que permite caracterizar muestras midiendo las masas (estrictamente las razones masa-carga) de las moléculas componentes. Cuenta con más de un siglo de historia y evolución tecnológica y a lo largo de los años ha ampliado su alcance desde los isótopos a moléculas pequeñas, moléculas orgánicas más complejas y, en las últimas décadas, macromoléculas (ácidos nucleicos y proteínas). La EM MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight) es una variante que permite el análisis de mezclas complejas de proteínas y que se ha aplicado recientemente a la identificación de microorganismos en cultivo, convirtiéndose en una herramienta rápida y eficaz para el diagnóstico microbiológico que ha conseguido entrar en poco tiempo en la rutina de muchos servicios de microbiología clínica. El gran impacto que ha tenido está impulsando el desarrollo de nuevas aplicaciones en el campo de la microbiología clínica. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  1. American Society for Microbiology resources in support of an evidence-based approach to teaching microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous national reports have addressed the need for changing how science courses in higher education are taught, so that students develop a deeper understanding of critical concepts and the analytical and cognitive skills needed to address future challenges. This review presents some evidence-based approaches to curriculum development and teaching. Results from discipline-based education research indicate that it is critically important for educators to formulate learning goals, provide frequent and authentic assessments and actively engage students in their learning. Professional societies can play a role in helping to put these changes into practice. To this end, the American Society for Microbiology has developed a number of educational programs and resources, which are described here to encourage the implementation of student-centered learning in microbiology education. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Combining the IADPSG criteria with the WHO diagnostic criteria for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrosomia or at least one adverse outcome were more likely in GDM patients who met the diagnostic criteria by both the IADPSG and WHO criteria (P = 0.001). Conclusion: A diagnosis of GDM that meets both the WHO and IADPSG criteria provides stronger prediction for adverse pregnancy outcome than a diagnosis that ...

  3. Microbiological Evaluation and Nutritional Quality of Ogi made from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological evaluation and nutritional quality of ogi made from sorghum substituted with millet was carried out in this research work. A standard method was used for the proximate composition analysis and characterization of isolates was carried out by standard microbiological techniques. Protein content was found to ...

  4. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology : present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    BACKGROUND: The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the

  5. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality (mesophylic and psychrotrophic aerobic plate counts), total. Vibrio species and common fish spoilage bacterial counts were performed. The results constantly showed ...

  6. Towards a Portuguese database of food microbiological occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Silvia; Machado, Claudia; Dantas, M.Ascenção; Oliveira, Luísa

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To expand the Portuguese Food Information Resource Programme (PortFIR) by building the Portuguese Food Microbiological Information Network (RPIMA) including users, stakeholders, food microbiological data producers that will provide data and information from research, monitoring, epidemiological investigation and disease surveillance. The integration of food data in a national database will improve foodborne risk management. Methods and results Potential members were identified and...

  7. Biomedical mass spectrometry in today's and tomorrow's clinical microbiology laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. van Belkum (Alex); M. Welker (Martin); M. Erhard (Marcel); S. Chatellier (Sonia)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractClinical microbiology is a conservative laboratory exercise where base technologies introduced in the 19th century remained essentially unaltered. High-tech mass spectrometry (MS) has changed that. Within a few years following its adaptation to microbiological diagnostics, MS has been

  8. Microbiological and physico-chemical assessment of the quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The domestic raw water sources in Nkonkobe and Gogogo were characterised by using both microbiological and standard physical methods to investigate the quality of the water at the sampling sites. For microbiological analysis, indicator bacteria namely, heterotrophic bacteria, total and faecal coliforms and for physical ...

  9. Factors impacting on the microbiological quality and safety of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems with the safety and shelf life of export hake have been raised by the Namibian fishing industry. This prompted an investigation into the factors that may have an impact on the microbiological quality and safety of processed hake. Samples were collected along the processing line; the general microbiological quality ...

  10. Critical notes on microbiological risk assessment of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reij, M.W.; Schothorst, van M.

    2000-01-01

    Although numerous papers on Microbiological Risk Assessment (MRA) of food products have been published, a number of issues related to it remain unresolved. This paper explains the role of Microbiological Risk Assessment in the context of Risk Analysis as outlined by Codex Alimentarius. It reviews

  11. External quality assessments for microbiologic diagnosis of diphtheria in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Leonard; Neal, Shona; De Zoysa, Aruni; Mann, Ginder; Czumbel, Ida; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2014-12-01

    The European Diphtheria Surveillance Network (EDSN) ensures the reliable epidemiological and microbiologic assessment of disease prevalence in the European Union. Here, we describe a survey of current diagnostic techniques for diphtheria surveillance conducted across the European Union and report the results from three external quality assessment (EQA) schemes performed between 2010 and 2014. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Journal Home > New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  13. Common Problems Encountered in the Microbiological Analysis of Biocidal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Güven

    2015-01-01

    As many parameters that affect the success of a biocidal product, under laboratory conditions there are also factors affecting the reliability and accuracy of tests to determine the microbiological efficacy of these products. The assessment of the microbiological efficacy of the biocidal products and in order to ensure standardization between laboratories it is essential the use of internationally accepted methods.

  14. Testing the performance of microbiological safety cabinets used in microbiology laboratories in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, S H; Yi, T W; Cho, K H; Lee, I M; Yoon, C S

    2011-09-01

    To test a performance of the microbiological safety cabinets (MSCs) according to the type of MSCs in microbial laboratories. Tests were carried out to assess the performance of 31 MSCs in 14 different facilities, including six different biological test laboratories in six hospitals and eight different laboratories in three universities. The following tests were performed on the MSCs: the downflow test, intake velocity test, high-efficiency particulate air filter leak test and the airflow smoke pattern test. These performance tests were carried out in accordance with the standard procedures. Only 23% of Class II A1 (8), A2 (19) and unknown MSCs (4) passed these performance tests. The main reasons for the failure of MSCs were inappropriate intake velocity (65%), leakage in the HEPA filter sealing (50%), unbalanced airflow smoke pattern in the cabinets (39%) and inappropriate downflow (27%). This study showed that routine checks of MSCs are important to detect and strengthen the weak spots that frequently develop, as observed during the evaluation of the MSCs of various institutions. Routine evaluation and maintenance of MSCs are critical for optimizing performance. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne

    2017-01-01

    the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. Conclusions and clinical importance ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues......Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...

  16. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser safety audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe use of Lasers references this requirement in several sections: (1) Section 1.3.2 LSO Specific Responsibilities states under Hazard Evaluation, ''The LSO shall be responsible for hazards evaluation of laser work areas''; (2) Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''; and (3) Appendix D, under Survey and Inspections, it states, ''the LSO will survey by inspection, as considered necessary, all areas where laser equipment is used''. Therefore, for facilities using Class 3B and or Class 4 lasers, audits for laser safety compliance are expected to be conducted. The composition, frequency and rigueur of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms. In many institutions, a sole Laser Safety Officer (LSO) or a number of Deputy LSO's perform these audits. For that matter, there are institutions that request users to perform a self-assessment audit. Many items on the common audit list and the associated findings are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the LSO or auditor in particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage is an example; to one set of eyes a particular arrangement might be completely adequate, while to another the installation may be inadequate. In order to provide more consistency, the National Ignition Facility Directorate at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (NIF-LLNL) has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. These criteria are distributed to laser users, and they serve two broad purposes: first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor, and second, it is an

  17. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  18. Feasibility assessment of a risk-based approach to technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atefi, B.; Gallagher, D.W.

    1991-05-01

    To assess the potential use of risk and reliability techniques for improving the effectiveness of the technical specifications to control plant operational risk, the Technical Specifications Branch of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated an effort to identify and evaluate alternative risk-based approaches that could bring greater risk perspective to these requirements. In the first phase four alternative approaches were identified and their characteristics were analyzed. Among these, the risk-based approach to technical specifications is the most promising approach for controlling plant operational risk using technical specifications. The second phase of the study concentrated on detailed characteristics of the real time risk-based approach. It is concluded that a real time risk-based approach to technical specifications has the potential to improve both plant safety and availability. 33 figs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  19. RIMAP demonstration project. Pat. 1: Risk based life management of piping system in power plant Heilbronn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, J.; Puck, P.; Matschecko, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Balos, D.; Perunicic

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of EU project RIMAP [1] a new European Guideline for optimized risk based maintenance and inspection planning of industrial plants (RBLM - Risk Based Life Management) is being developed. The RIMAP project consists of the three clustered projects: development (RTD), demonstration (DEMO) and thematic network (TN). Current work and future, planned work in RIMAP demonstration project on applications of the RIMAP methodology in power plants are presented briefly in the first part of the paper. Also presented in the paper are the results of a preliminary analysis of piping system in power plant Heilbronn using the concept of risk-based monitoring as part of overall concept of risk-based life management. Shortly the following issues are discussed in the paper: identification of critical components, application of a multilevel risk analysis (..from ''screening'' to ''detailed analysis''), determination of PoF - Probability of Failure, determination of COF - Consequence of Failure and optimation of inspection and maintenance plan. (orig.)

  20. A quantitative risk-based model for reasoning over critical system properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    This position paper suggests the use of a quantitative risk-based model to help support reeasoning and decision making that spans many of the critical properties such as security, safety, survivability, fault tolerance, and real-time.

  1. Laser Safety Inspection Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, K.

    2005-01-01

    A responsibility of the Laser Safety Officer (LSO) is to perform laser audits. The American National Standard Z136.1 Safe Use of Lasers references this requirement through several sections. One such reference is Section 1.3.2.8, Safety Features Audits, ''The LSO shall ensure that the safety features of the laser installation facilities and laser equipment are audited periodically to assure proper operation''. The composition, frequency and rigor of that inspection/audit rests in the hands of the LSO. A common practice for institutions is to develop laser audit checklists or survey forms It is common for audit findings from one inspector or inspection to the next to vary even when reviewing the same material. How often has one heard a comment, ''well this area has been inspected several times over the years and no one ever said this or that was a problem before''. A great number of audit items, and therefore findings, are subjective because they are based on the experience and interest of the auditor to particular items on the checklist. Beam block usage, to one set of eyes might be completely adequate, while to another, inadequate. In order to provide consistency, the Laser Safety Office of the National Ignition Facility Directorate has established criteria for a number of items found on the typical laser safety audit form. The criteria are distributed to laser users. It serves two broad purposes; first, it gives the user an expectation of what will be reviewed by an auditor. Second, it is an opportunity to explain audit items to the laser user and thus the reasons for some of these items, such as labelling of beam blocks

  2. HOW INTERNAL RISK - BASED AUDIT APPRAISES THE EVALUATION OF RISKS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Dorosh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the nature and function of the internal risk-based audit process approach to create patterns of risks and methods of evaluation. Deals with the relationship between the level of maturity of the risk of the company and the method of risk-based internal audit. it was emphasized that internal auditing provides an independent and objective opinion to an organization’s management as to whether its risks are being managed to acceptable levels.

  3. Diagnostic Criteria for Pediatric MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Investigators at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago review the diagnostic criteria for pediatric multiple sclerosis, the differential diagnosis, the 2010 McDonald criteria, and Callen criteria.

  4. 76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Multiplexed Microbiology Devices: Their clinical application and public health/clinical needs; inclusion of...] Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public... Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in the Federal Register of August 8...

  5. “Pick-up Lines”: A Fun Way to Facilitate Learning Microbiological Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Edison E. dela Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning microbiology can be made fun by writing funny lines related to microbiology. Students were tasked to create their own pick-up lines and explain these based on their understanding of the basic concepts in microbiology.

  6. Microbiological assessment of indoor air quality at different hospital sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo Verde, Sandra; Almeida, Susana Marta; Matos, João; Guerreiro, Duarte; Meneses, Marcia; Faria, Tiago; Botelho, Daniel; Santos, Mateus; Viegas, Carla

    2015-09-01

    Poor hospital indoor air quality (IAQ) may lead to hospital-acquired infections, sick hospital syndrome and various occupational hazards. Air-control measures are crucial for reducing dissemination of airborne biological particles in hospitals. The objective of this study was to perform a survey of bioaerosol quality in different sites in a Portuguese Hospital, namely the operating theater (OT), the emergency service (ES) and the surgical ward (SW). Aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts (BCs) and fungal load (FL) were assessed by impaction directly onto tryptic soy agar and malt extract agar supplemented with antibiotic chloramphenicol (0.05%) plates, respectively using a MAS-100 air sampler. The ES revealed the highest airborne microbial concentrations (BC range 240-736 CFU/m(3) CFU/m(3); FL range 27-933 CFU/m(3)), exceeding, at several sampling sites, conformity criteria defined in national legislation [6]. Bacterial concentrations in the SW (BC range 99-495 CFU/m(3)) and the OT (BC range 12-170 CFU/m(3)) were under recommended criteria. While fungal levels were below 1 CFU/m(3) in the OT, in the SW (range 1-32 CFU/m(3)), there existed a site with fungal indoor concentrations higher than those detected outdoors. Airborne Gram-positive cocci were the most frequent phenotype (88%) detected from the measured bacterial population in all indoor environments. Staphylococcus (51%) and Micrococcus (37%) were dominant among the bacterial genera identified in the present study. Concerning indoor fungal characterization, the prevalent genera were Penicillium (41%) and Aspergillus (24%). Regular monitoring is essential for assessing air control efficiency and for detecting irregular introduction of airborne particles via clothing of visitors and medical staff or carriage by personal and medical materials. Furthermore, microbiological survey data should be used to clearly define specific air quality guidelines for controlled environments in hospital settings. Copyright

  7. The Challenging Diagnosis of Non-Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Non-Mechanically Ventilated Subjects: Value of Microbiological Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messika, Jonathan; Stoclin, Annabelle; Bouvard, Eric; Fulgencio, Jean-Pierre; Ridel, Christophe; Muresan, Ioan-Paul; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Bachmeyer, Claude; Denis, Michel; Gounant, Valérie; Esteso, Adoracion; Loi, Valeria; Verdet, Charlotte; Prigent, Hélène; Parrot, Antoine; Fartoukh, Muriel

    2016-02-01

    Early recognition and an attempt at obtaining microbiological documentation are recommended in patients with non-community-acquired pneumonia (NCAP), whether hospital-acquired (HAP) or health care-associated (HCAP). We aimed to characterize the clinical features and microbial etiologies of NCAP to assess the impact of microbiological investigation on their management. This was a prospective 1-y study in a university hospital with 141 non-mechanically ventilated subjects suspected of having HAP (n = 110) or HCAP (n = 31). Clinical criteria alone poorly identified pneumonia (misdiagnosis in 50% of cases). Microbiological confirmation was achievable in 80 subjects (57%). Among 79 microorganisms isolated, 28 were multidrug-resistant aerobic Gram-negative bacilli and group III Enterobacteriaceae and 6 were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Multidrug-resistant aerobic Gram-negative bacilli accounted for one third of the microorganisms in early-onset HAP and for 50% in late-onset HAP. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was most often recovered from subjects with HCAP. Inappropriate empirical antibiotics were administered to 36% of subjects with confirmed pneumonia. Forty subjects were admitted to the ICU, 13 (33%) of whom died. Overall, 39 subjects (28%) died in the hospital. Integrating the microbiological investigation in the complex clinical diagnostic workup of patients suspected of having NCAP is mandatory. Respiratory tract specimens should be obtained whenever possible for appropriate management. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  8. Microbiological characterization of deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, V.; Sergeant, C.; Vesvres, M.H.; Coulon, S.; Joulian, C.; Garrido, F.; Ollivier, B.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Microbial life in deep sediments and Earth's crust is now acknowledged by the scientific world. The deep subsurface biosphere contributes significantly to fundamental biogeochemical processes. However, despite great advances in geo-microbiological studies, deep terrestrial ecosystems are microbiologically poorly understood, mainly due to their inaccessibility. The drilling down to the base of the Triassic (1980 meters deep) in the geological formations of the eastern Paris Basin performed by ANDRA (EST433) in 2008 provides us a good opportunity to explore the deep biosphere. We conditioned the samples on the coring site, in as aseptic conditions as possible. In addition to storage at atmospheric pressure, a portion of the four Triassic samples was placed in a 190 bars pressurized chamber to investigate the influence of the conservation pressure factor on the found microflora. In parallel, in order to evaluate a potential bacterial contamination of the cores by the drilling fluids, samples of mud just before each sample drilling were taken and analyzed. The microbial exploration can be divided in two parts: - A cultural approach in different culture media for metabolic groups as methanogens, fermenters and sulphate reducing bacteria to stimulate their growth and to isolate microbial cells still viable. - A molecular approach by direct extraction of genomic DNA from the geological samples to explore a larger biodiversity. The limits are here the difficulties to extract DNA from these low biomass containing rocks. After comparison and optimization of several DNA extraction methods, the bacterial diversity present in rock cores was analyzed using DGGE (Denaturating Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning. The detailed results of all these investigations will be presented: - Despite all 400 cultural conditions experimented (with various media, salinities, temperatures, conservation pressure, agitation), no viable and

  9. Criteria for Determination of Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Wright

    2008-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a test bed for implementation of the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based approach to Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) requirements. The Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Strategies (COMPASS) model is used to determine the effectiveness of MC and A systems under SFPI. Under this model, MC and A is divided into nine primary elements. Each element is divided into sub-elements. Then each sub-element is assigned two values, effectiveness and contribution, that are used to calculate the rating. Effectiveness is a measure of subelement implementation and how well it meets requirements. Contribution is a relative measure of the importance, and functions as a weighting factor. The COMPASS model provides the methodology for calculation of sub-element and element ratings, but not the actual criteria. Each site must develop its own criteria. For the rating to be meaningful, the effectiveness criteria must be objective and based on explicit, measurable criteria. Contribution (weights) must reflect the importance within the MC and A program. This paper details the NTS approach to system effectiveness and contribution values, and will cover the following: the basis for the ratings, an explanation of the contribution 'weights', and the objective, performance based effectiveness criteria. Finally, the evaluation process will be described

  10. Criteria for Determination of MC and A System Effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Geneva; Long, DeAnn; Albright, Ross; Wright, John

    2008-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a test bed for implementation of the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based approach to Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) requirements. The Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Strategies (COMPASS) model is used to determine the effectiveness of safeguards systems under SFPI. Under this model, MC and A is divided into nine primary elements. Each element is divided into sub-elements. Then, each sub-element is assigned two values, effectiveness and contribution, that are used to calculate the rating. Effectiveness is a measure of sub-element implementation and how well it meets requirements. Contribution is a relative measure of the importance, and functions as a weighting factor. The COMPASS model provides the methodology for calculation of element and subelement, but not the actual criteria. Each site must develop its own criteria. For the rating to be meaningful, the effectiveness criteria must be objective and based on explicit, measurable criteria. Contribution (weights) must reflect the importance within the MC and A program. This paper details the NTS approach to system effectiveness and contribution values, and will cover the following: the basis for the ratings, an explanation of the contribution weights, and the objective, performance-based effectiveness criteria. Finally, the evaluation process will be described

  11. Use of a risk-based hydrogeologic model to set remedial goals in a Puget Sound basin watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoe, G.; Gould, L.; Martin, J.; Riley, M.; Floyd, T.

    1995-01-01

    The Port of Seattle is redeveloping industrial land for a container terminal along the southwest Seattle waterfront. Concrete, asphalt, ballast, and a landfill geomembrane will cover the site and prevent direct contact with surface soils, so remedial goals focused on groundwater contamination from subsurface soils. Groundwater at the site flows along an old stormwater drain, in a filled estuary of a small creek, to Elliott Bay. Remedial goals for a variety of organic chemicals, metals, and TPH in subsurface soils were identified to protect marine receptors in the bay and their consumers. Washington State and federal marine water quality criteria were the starting points in the risk-based model, and corresponding concentrations of chemicals in groundwater were back-calculated through a hydrogeologic model. The hydrogeologic model included a mixing zone component in the bay and dilution/attenuation factors along the groundwater transport pathway that were determined from onsite groundwater and surface water chemical concentrations. A rearranged Summers equation was then applied in a second back-calculation to determine subsurface soil concentrations corresponding to the back calculated groundwater concentrations. The equation was based on calculated aquifer flow rates for the small creek watershed and rates of infiltration through surface materials calculated for each redevelopment soil cover type by the HELP model. Results of the risk-based hydrogeologic back-calculation model indicate that, depending on soil cover type at the site, concentrations in subsurface soils of PCBs from 2 to 1,000 mg/kg and of TPH up to free phase concentration would not result in risks to marine organisms or their consumers in Elliott Bay

  12. Social and hygienic monitoring today: state and prospects in conjunction with the risk-based supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown in the article that since the establishment in 1992 and until now the social and health monitoring (SHM operates as a complex open system of extended collection and processing of heterogeneous data about the parameters of the environment, socio-economic indicators of living of the population of the country’s regions, medical and demographic characteristics of society as a whole and of individual population groups. As part of the SHM system Rospotrebnadzor annually performs hundreds of thousands of instrumental measurements of objects in the environment of the Russian Federation. These federal and regional information assets have tremendous analytical capacity and allow a knowledge-based processing of information in the "health-environment" system for a variety of management tasks of sanitary and epidemiological situation. Changing of the general paradigm of control and supervisory activities of Rospotrebnadzor and giving a fundamentally new status of control measures to researches and measurements of the system of social and hygienic monitoring without interaction with legal entities and individual entrepreneurs were important bases for further improvement of the SHM. The development of SHM in conjunction with the risk-based supervision model can significantly improve analytical capabilities, effectiveness and efficiency of each system. This development requires the adoption of a new edition of The statements of the SHM, the development of a scientific approach to the formation of "risk profiles" of objects of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance; the development of methodological approaches to the selection of points and formation of programs of instrumental studies of air, water and soil as the control activities in the areas of influence of economic entities. Of great current interest are the development and consolidation of regulatory requirements for the registration of the results of sampling and measurement in the

  13. Rational risk-based decision support for drinking water well managers by optimized monitoring designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenhöfer, R.; Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.

    2011-12-01

    Advection-based well-head protection zones are commonly used to manage the contamination risk of drinking water wells. Considering the insufficient knowledge about hazards and transport properties within the catchment, current Water Safety Plans recommend that catchment managers and stakeholders know, control and monitor all possible hazards within the catchments and perform rational risk-based decisions. Our goal is to supply catchment managers with the required probabilistic risk information, and to generate tools that allow for optimal and rational allocation of resources between improved monitoring versus extended safety margins and risk mitigation measures. To support risk managers with the indispensable information, we address the epistemic uncertainty of advective-dispersive solute transport and well vulnerability (Enzenhoefer et al., 2011) within a stochastic simulation framework. Our framework can separate between uncertainty of contaminant location and actual dilution of peak concentrations by resolving heterogeneity with high-resolution Monte-Carlo simulation. To keep computational costs low, we solve the reverse temporal moment transport equation. Only in post-processing, we recover the time-dependent solute breakthrough curves and the deduced well vulnerability criteria from temporal moments by non-linear optimization. Our first step towards optimal risk management is optimal positioning of sampling locations and optimal choice of data types to reduce best the epistemic prediction uncertainty for well-head delineation, using the cross-bred Likelihood Uncertainty Estimator (CLUE, Leube et al., 2011) for optimal sampling design. Better monitoring leads to more reliable and realistic protection zones and thus helps catchment managers to better justify smaller, yet conservative safety margins. In order to allow an optimal choice in sampling strategies, we compare the trade-off in monitoring versus the delineation costs by accounting for ill

  14. Decision criteria in PSA applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Rosqvist, T.; Simola, K.

    2001-11-01

    Along with the adoption of risk informed decision making principles, the need for formal probabilistic decision rule or criteria has been risen. However, there are many practical and theoretical problems in the application of probabilistic criteria. One has to think what is the proper way to apply probabilistic rules together with deterministic ones and how the criteria are weighted with respect to each other. In this report, we approach the above questions from the decision theoretic point of view. We give a short review of the most well known probabilistic criteria, and discuss examples of their use. We present a decision analytic framework for evaluating the criteria, and we analyse how the different criteria behave under incompleteness or uncertainty of the PSA model. As the conclusion of our analysis we give recommendations on the application of the criteria in different decision situations. (au)

  15. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-02-01

    The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time for validated AST methods has remained unchanged for many years. Beyond scientific and technological constraints, AST methods are not harmonized and clinical breakpoints for some antimicrobial drugs are either missing or inadequate. Small laboratories, including in-clinic laboratories, are usually not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues. Setting general standards for veterinary clinical microbiology, promoting antimicrobial stewardship, and the development of new, validated and rapid diagnostic methods, especially for AST, are among the missions of ESGVM. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  16. 75 FR 82317 - Risk-Based Capital Standards: Advanced Capital Adequacy Framework-Basel II; Establishment of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... leverage or risk-based capital requirements in effect for insured depository institutions as of the date of..., sections 171(b)(1) and (2) specify that the minimum leverage and risk- based capital requirements...)(1) and (2) specify that the Federal banking agencies may not establish leverage or risk-based...

  17. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III.

    1995-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. The preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping. (author)

  18. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III

    1994-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. Preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping

  19. [Microbiological studies in poultry meat production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monov, G

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  20. (Microbiological studies in poultry meat production)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monov, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microbiologic studies were carried out in the production of poultry meat in a poultry dressing combine of the Stork system. Examined were a total of 125 washing samples taken at the 9th, 11th and 15th hour from the scalding vat, the cooling vat, the machine of eviscerating and the skin surface after plucking, eviscerating and shower washing and prior to packing the carcasses. It was found that the count of aerobic organisms continuously rose during the technologic processing of the slaughtered birds with regard to the surface of the carcasses, the peak values of the total counts and that of coliforms being reached during evisceration. It was further established that shower washing of the carcasses immediately following evisceration guaranteed a washing effect so far as the microflora on the surface was concerned, amounting to 77.60 per cent. So far as the coliform bacteria was concerned this effect was found to be equal to 89.78 per cent. The total count of aerobic microflora on the surface of carcasses prior to packing was found to vary within the range of 3000 to 72000, while the count of coliforms ranged from 100 to 1800/cm2.

  1. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-01-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms. (author)

  2. Panel 5: Microbiology and Immunology Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Timothy F.; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Barenkamp, Stephen; Kyd, Jennelle; Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Patel, Janak A.; Heikkinen, Terho; Yamanaka, Noboru; Ogra, Pearay; Swords, W. Edward; Sih, Tania; Pettigrew, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective is to perform a comprehensive review of the literature from January 2007 through June 2011 on the virology, bacteriology, and immunology related to otitis media. Data Sources PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine. Review Methods Three subpanels with co-chairs comprising experts in the virology, bacteriology, and immunology of otitis media were formed. Each of the panels reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a second draft was created. The entire panel met at the 10th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2011 and discussed the review and refined the content further. A final draft was created, circulated, and approved by the panel. Conclusion Excellent progress has been made in the past 4 years in advancing an understanding of the microbiology and immunology of otitis media. Advances include laboratory-based basic studies, cell-based assays, work in animal models, and clinical studies. Implications for Practice The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis of a series of short-term and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media. PMID:23536533

  3. Environmental Systems Microbiology of Contaminated Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayler, Gary [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hazen, Terry C. [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Systems Microbiology is well positioned to move forward in dynamic complex system analysis probing new questions and developing new insight into the function, robustness and resilience in response to anthropogenic perturbations. Recent studies have demonstrated that natural bacterial communities can be used as quantitative biosensors in both groundwater and deep ocean water, predicting oil concentration from the Gulf of Mexico Deep Water Horizon spill and from groundwater at nuclear production waste sites (16, 17, 25). Since the first demonstration of catabolic gene expression in soil remediation (34) it has been clear that extension beyond organismal abundance to process and function of microbial communities as a whole using the whole suite of omic tools available to the post genomic era. Metatranscriptomics have been highlighted as a prime vehicle for understanding responses to environmental drivers (35) in complex systems and with rapidly developing metabolomics, full functional understanding of complex community biogeochemical cycling is an achievable goal. Perhaps more exciting is the dynamic nature of these systems and their complex adaptive strategies that may lead to new control paradigms and emergence of new states and function in the course of a changing environment.

  4. Synthetic biology: Novel approaches for microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Vaca, Felipe; Anaya-Velázquez, Fernando; Franco, Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    In the past twenty years, molecular genetics has created powerful tools for genetic manipulation of living organisms. Whole genome sequencing has provided necessary information to assess knowledge on gene function and protein networks. In addition, new tools permit to modify organisms to perform desired tasks. Gene function analysis is speed up by novel approaches that couple both high throughput data generation and mining. Synthetic biology is an emerging field that uses tools for generating novel gene networks, whole genome synthesis and engineering. New applications in biotechnological, pharmaceutical and biomedical research are envisioned for synthetic biology. In recent years these new strategies have opened up the possibilities to study gene and genome editing, creation of novel tools for functional studies in virus, parasites and pathogenic bacteria. There is also the possibility to re-design organisms to generate vaccine subunits or produce new pharmaceuticals to combat multi-drug resistant pathogens. In this review we provide our opinion on the applicability of synthetic biology strategies for functional studies of pathogenic organisms and some applications such as genome editing and gene network studies to further comprehend virulence factors and determinants in pathogenic organisms. We also discuss what we consider important ethical issues for this field of molecular biology, especially for potential misuse of the new technologies. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  5. Microbiological methane production at elevated pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.; Maerkl, H.

    1994-01-01

    Taking the fermentation of waste water from the production of baker's yest as an example, experimental and theoretical examinations of a qualitative and quantitative listing of the effects of pressure on the microbiological methane production are presented. As the waste water used for the experiments was very rich in sulphates, the influence of the hydrogen sulphide constituted from those played a particularly important role. Experiments showed that the essential influence of pressure is constituted by the increased solubility of the produced gases. The increased quantities of dissolved carbon dioxide in particular result in a lowering of the pH-value with increasing pressure. The gas composition changes at the same time. The higher the pressure the higher also the portion of methane contained in the biogas but the lower the portions of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Experimental findings could be represented comparatively well by a mathematical model. This points at the fact that the physical and chemical working mechanisms were grasped correctly by the model. The mathematical description helped much to increase the understanding of the physical and chemical working mechanisms in biogas reactors. This understanding makes it possible for the developer as well as for the operator of biogas installations to control the process by constructive measures and mearuses concerning operation technology. (orig.) [de

  6. Microbiological Quality of Fresh Nopal Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Hernández-Anguiano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fresh nopal cactus juice is widely popular among health-conscious consumers in Mexico. The juice is prepared from fresh cladodes that have only been rinsed with tap water and are not subjected to a pasteurization or terminal bacterial reduction process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbial quality of commercially available fresh juices (n = 162 made with nopal in Texcoco, State of Mexico, during the summer and spring season. Standard microbiological methods, the PCR technique and the serological method were used for isolation and identification of bacteria. All samples contained total coliforms and 91% were positive for Escherichia coli. Although total coliforms and E. coli were detected throughout the study, their populations were significantly lower (p < 0.05 in winter and spring, respectively. Citrobacter youngae was found in 20% of the samples, an unidentified species of Citrobacter in 10%, C. freundii and Proteus mirabilis in 3%, and Salmonella Javiana in 1%. The presence of these microorganisms, especially Salmonella, in the nopal juices is unacceptable due to its health significance. The information generated in this study is relevant for human health risk assessment associated with the consumption of unpasteurized nopal juices and potential interventions to minimize pathogen contamination.

  7. Conclusions on measurement uncertainty in microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Lynne I

    2009-01-01

    Since its first issue in 1999, testing laboratories wishing to comply with all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025 have been collecting data for estimating uncertainty of measurement for quantitative determinations. In the microbiological field of testing, some debate has arisen as to whether uncertainty needs to be estimated for each method performed in the laboratory for each type of sample matrix tested. Queries also arise concerning the estimation of uncertainty when plate/membrane filter colony counts are below recommended method counting range limits. A selection of water samples (with low to high contamination) was tested in replicate with the associated uncertainty of measurement being estimated from the analytical results obtained. The analyses performed on the water samples included total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci by membrane filtration, and heterotrophic plate counts by the pour plate technique. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were > or =20, uncertainty estimates at a 95% confidence level were very similar for the methods, being estimated as 0.13, 0.14, 0.14, and 0.12, respectively. For those samples where plate/membrane filter colony counts were <20, estimated uncertainty values for each sample showed close agreement with published confidence limits established using a Poisson distribution approach.

  8. Microbiology and Treatment of Acute Apical Abscesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rôças, Isabela N.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Acute apical abscess is the most common form of dental abscess and is caused by infection of the root canal of the tooth. It is usually localized intraorally, but in some cases the apical abscess may spread and result in severe complications or even mortality. The reasons why dental root canal infections can become symptomatic and evolve to severe spreading and sometimes life-threatening abscesses remain elusive. Studies using culture and advanced molecular microbiology methods for microbial identification in apical abscesses have demonstrated a multispecies community conspicuously dominated by anaerobic bacteria. Species/phylotypes commonly found in these infections belong to the genera Fusobacterium, Parvimonas, Prevotella, Porphyromonas, Dialister, Streptococcus, and Treponema. Advances in DNA sequencing technologies and computational biology have substantially enhanced the knowledge of the microbiota associated with acute apical abscesses and shed some light on the etiopathogeny of this disease. Species richness and abundance and the resulting network of interactions among community members may affect the collective pathogenicity and contribute to the development of acute infections. Disease modifiers, including transient or permanent host-related factors, may also influence the development and severity of acute abscesses. This review focuses on the current evidence about the etiology and treatment of acute apical abscesses and how the process is influenced by host-related factors and proposes future directions in research, diagnosis, and therapeutic approaches to deal with this disease. PMID:23554416

  9. The microbiology of apples and apple products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doores, S

    1983-01-01

    The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically.

  10. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  11. Microbiological diagnosis of human papilloma virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Lindemann, Maria Luisa; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; Pérez-Gracia, Maria Teresa

    2017-11-01

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the leading cause of sexually transmitted infection worldwide. This virus generally causes benign lesions, such as genital warts, but persistent infection may lead to cervical cancer, anal cancer, vaginal cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer, although less frequently. Cervical cancer is a severe disease with a high mortality in some countries. Screening with cytology has been very successful in the last few years, but nowadays there are numerous studies that confirm that cytology should be replaced with the detection of HPV as a first line test in population based screening. There are several commercially available FDA approved tests for screening of cervical cancer. A new strategy, based on individual detection of the high risk genotypes HPV16 and HPV18, present in 70% of cervical cancer biopsies, has been proposed by some experts, and is going to be implemented in most countries in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbiological decomposition of bagasse after radiation pasteurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao

    1987-11-01

    Microbiological decomposition of bagasse was studied for upgrading to animal feeds after radiation pasteurization. Solid-state culture media of bagasse were prepared with addition of some amount of inorganic salts for nitrogen source, and after irradiation, fungi were infected for cultivation. In this study, many kind of cellulosic fungi such as Pleurotus ostreatus, P. flavellatus, Verticillium sp., Coprinus cinereus, Lentinus edodes, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, T. viride were used for comparison of decomposition of crude fibers. In alkali nontreated bagasse, P. ostreatus, P. flavellatus, C. cinereus and Verticillium sp. could decompose crude fibers from 25 to 34 % after one month of cultivation, whereas other fungi such as A. niger, T. koningi, T. viride, L. edodes decomposed below 10 %. On the contrary, alkali treatment enhanced the decomposition of crude fiber by A. niger, T. koningi and T. viride to be 29 to 47 % as well as Pleurotus species or C. cinereus. Other species of mushrooms such as L. edodes had a little ability of decomposition even after alkali treatment. Radiation treatment with 10 kGy could not enhance the decomposition of bagasse compared with steam treatment, whereas higher doses of radiation treatment enhanced a little of decomposition of crude fibers by microorganisms.

  13. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, L; Huss, H H

    1996-11-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative biochemical indicators of spoilage. Shewanella putrefaciens and Pseudomonas spp. are the specific spoilage bacteria of iced fresh fish regardless of the origin of the fish. Modified atmosphere stored marine fish from temperate waters are spoiled by the CO2 resistant Photobacterium phosphoreum whereas Gram-positive bacteria are likely spoilers of CO2 packed fish from fresh or tropical waters. Fish products with high salt contents may spoil due to growth of halophilic bacteria (salted fish) or growth of anaerobic bacteria and yeasts (barrel salted fish). Whilst the spoilage of fresh and highly salted fish is well understood, much less is known about spoilage of lightly preserved fish products. It is concluded that the spoilage is probably caused by lactic acid bacteria, certain psychotrophic Enterobacteriaceae and/or Photobacterium phosphoreum. However, more work is needed in this area.

  14. Utilization of whey with microbiological processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teuber, M

    1981-08-01

    Besides biogas production, the following processes and technologies are available in practice for microbiological processing: 1) Lactic acid Using thermophilic lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus, the procedure is economically performed at 45-50/sup 0/C. Since the bacteria are sensitive to high lactate concentrations, buffering with CaCO/sub 3/ or lime-milk is necessary. 2) Ethanol Using lactose-fermenting yeasts, such as Kluyvermyces fragilis, alcohol production is easily performed at 25/sup 0/C and at pH-values between 4 and 6, the dry matter contents varying between 5 and 15% (concentrated whey or permeate). Addition of ammonium sulphate is necessary. 3) Single Cell Protein One-stage production of single cell protein (SCP) is possible using lactose-fermenting aerobic yeasts (K. fragilis, Candida utilis etc.). The yeast procuced and utilized in animal feeding (as Milke replacement in calf rearing) is currently offered in the Federal Republic of Germany at a price of approximately DM 1.40/kg. Two-stage fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae following lactic acid fermentation and addition of enzymatically hydrolyzed starch can be performed effluent-free.

  15. Forensic microbiology and bioterrorism risk (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nasso

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The letters containing anthrax, sent in 2001 in USA, showed that pathogens and toxins can be effectively used for terrorist purposes. A new subfield of forensic science, called “microbial forensics”, has been developed. It is a new scientific discipline dedicated to collect and analyze microbiological evidence from a scene of crime. In addition to collecting and analyzing traditional forensic evidences, the microbial forensic investigation will attempt to determine the identity of the causal agent, as so as epidemiologic investigation, but with higher-resolution characterization. The tools for a successful attribution include genetically based-assays to determine the exact strain of isolate, aiming the individualization of the source of the pathogen used in a biological weapon. Following the 2001 anthrax attacks, genotyping of B. anthracis was done on 8 variable number tandem repeats loci (VNTR polymorphisms, with multilocus variable number tandem repeats (MLVA method. In recent years some research groups have increased the VNTR markers number to 25 loci, while other groups have identified single nucleotide repeat (SNR polymorphisms, which display very high mutation rates. SNR marker system allows the distinguishing of isolates with extremely low levels of genetic diversity within the same MLVA genotype.

  16. [Clinical microbiology laboratory and imported parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rabadán, Pablo; Martínez-Ruiz, Rocío; Cuadros, Juan; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Imported parasitosis represents an increasingly frequent diagnostic challenge for microbiology laboratories. A surge in immigration and international travel has led to a rise in the number of imported cases of parasitosis, and this trend is expected to continue in the future. The present article addresses this challenge by reviewing recommended diagnostic approaches and tests. Currently, microscopy is always recommended when analysing blood samples for parasites. If malaria is suspected, rapid antigen testing (including at least HRP2 antigen) should also be performed. The work-up for suspected leishmaniasis should include serology, culture, and in selected cases detection of antigen in urine. In suspected Chagas disease, two different serological tests should be performed. PCR for blood protozoa is highly sensitive, although it cannot be used to rule out Chagas disease, since this condition may be present without parasitemia. Accurate diagnosis of intestinal amebiasis usually requires PCR or antigen detection tests. In helminthiasis, traditional microscopy may need to be complemented with other tests, such as agar plate culture for strongyloidiasis, Og4C3 antigen detection for bancroftian filariasis, and antibody detection test for filariasis and schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2013 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Criteria of site assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P.; Fuchs, H.

    1975-01-01

    The criteria which lead to the choice of a particular site for a nuclear power station are in general very similar to those which would apply to any other type of power station. The principal differences derive from the simpler transport problems for the fuel compared with, say, solid fuel and the special safety considerations which attach to nuclear reactors. The search for a suitable site obviously starts by considering where the power is needed, i.e. where the load centers are and also the existing transmission network which may help to bring the power from a more remote site to the load centers. This economic incentive to put the plant close to loads conflicts directly with the nuclear safety argument which favours more remote siting, and part of the problem of site selection is to reconcile these two matters. In addition, there are many other important matters which will be considered later concerning the adequacy of cooling water supplies, foundation conditions, etc., all of which must be examined in considerable detail. (orig./TK) [de

  19. Criteria for decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricci, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the authors describe three risk acceptability criteria as parts of a strategy to clean up decommissioned facilities, related to both the status quo and to a variety of alternative technical clean-up options. The acceptability of risk is a consideration that must enter into any decision to establish when a site is properly decommissioned. To do so, both the corporate and public aspects of the acceptability issue must be considered. The reasons for discussion the acceptability of risk are to: Legitimize the process for making cleanup decisions; Determine who is at risk, who benefits, and who bears the costs of site cleanup, for each specific cleanup option, including the do nothing option; Establish those factors that, taken as a whole, determine measures of acceptability; Determine chemical-specific aggregate and individual risk levels; and Establish levels for cleanup. The choice of these reasons is pragmatic. The method consistent with these factors is risk-risk-effectiveness: the level of cleanup must be consistent with the foreseeable use of the site and budget constraints. Natural background contamination is the level below which further cleanup is generally inefficient. Case-by-case departures from natural background are to be considered depending on demonstrated risk. For example, a hot spot is obviously a prima facie exception, but should be rebuttable. Rebuttability means that, through consensus, the ''hot spot'' is shown not to be associated with exposure

  20. Criteria for performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Weiss

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a cognitive task (mental calculation and a perceptual-motor task (stylized golf putting, we examined differential proficiency using the CWS index and several other quantitative measures of performance. The CWS index (Weiss and Shanteau, 2003 is a coherence criterion that looks only at internal properties of the data without incorporating an external standard. In Experiment 1, college students (n = 20 carried out 2- and 3-digit addition and multiplication problems under time pressure. In Experiment 2, experienced golfers (n = 12, also college students, putted toward a target from nine different locations. Within each experiment, we analyzed the same responses using different methods. For the arithmetic tasks, accuracy information (mean absolute deviation from the correct answer, MAD using a coherence criterion was available; for golf, accuracy information using a correspondence criterion (mean deviation from the target, also MAD was available. We ranked the performances of the participants according to each measure, then compared the orders using Spearman's rextsubscript{s}. For mental calculation, the CWS order correlated moderately (rextsubscript{s} =.46 with that of MAD. However, a different coherence criterion, degree of model fit, did not correlate with either CWS or accuracy. For putting, the ranking generated by CWS correlated .68 with that generated by MAD. Consensual answers were also available for both experiments, and the rankings they generated correlated highly with those of MAD. The coherence vs. correspondence distinction did not map well onto criteria for performance evaluation.

  1. FHR Generic Design Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, George F [ORNL; Holcomb, David Eugene [ORNL; Cetiner, Sacit M [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an initial, focused reference to the safety characteristics of and a licensing approach for Fluoride-Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactors (FHRs). The document does not contain details of particular reactor designs nor does it attempt to identify or classify either design basis or beyond design basis accidents. Further, this document is an initial attempt by a small set of subject matter experts to document the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs for a larger audience. The document is intended to help in setting the safety and licensing research, development, and demonstration path forward. Input from a wider audience, further technical developments, and additional study will be required to develop a consensus position on the safety and licensing characteristics of FHRs. This document begins with a brief overview of the attributes of FHRs and then a general description of their anticipated safety performance. Following this, an overview of the US nuclear power plant approval process is provided that includes both test and power reactors, as well as the role of safety standards in the approval process. The document next describes a General Design Criteria (GDC) - based approach to licensing an FHR and provides an initial draft set of FHR GDCs. The document concludes with a description of a path forward toward developing an FHR safety standard that can support both a test and power reactor licensing process.

  2. The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voldstedlund, M; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2014-01-09

    The Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa) is a national database that receives copies of reports from all Danish departments of clinical microbiology. The database was launched in order to provide healthcare personnel with nationwide access to microbiology reports and to enable real-time surveillance of communicable diseases and microorganisms. The establishment and management of MiBa has been a collaborative process among stakeholders, and the present paper summarises lessons learned from this nationwide endeavour which may be relevant to similar projects in the rapidly changing landscape of health informatics.

  3. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerden, Brian

    2005-12-01

    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  4. Introduction to Clinical Microbiology for the General Dentist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rams, Thomas E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2017-04-01

    Clinical oral microbiology may help dental professionals identify infecting pathogenic species and evaluate their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Saliva, dental plaque biofilms, mucosal smears, abscess aspirates, and soft tissue biopsies are sources of microorganisms for laboratory testing. Microbial-based treatment end points may help clinicians better identify patients in need of additional or altered dental therapies before the onset of clinical treatment failure, and help improve patient oral health outcomes. Microbiological testing appears particularly helpful in periodontal disease treatment planning. Further research and technological advances are likely to increase the availability and clinical utility of microbiological analysis in modern dental practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-12-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an `expert panel.` The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC`s increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate.

  6. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-01-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an 'expert panel.' The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC's increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the open-quotes expert panelclose quotes and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate

  7. Colloquium and Report on Systems Microbiology: Beyond Microbial Genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merry R. Buckley

    2004-12-13

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium June 4-6, 2004 to confer about the scientific promise of systems microbiology. Participants discussed the power of applying a systems approach to the study of biology and to microbiology in particular, specifics about current research efforts, technical bottlenecks, requirements for data acquisition and maintenance, educational needs, and communication issues surrounding the field. A number of recommendations were made for removing barriers to progress in systems microbiology and for improving opportunities in education and collaboration. Systems biology, as a concept, is not new, but the recent explosion of genomic sequences and related data has revived interest in the field. Systems microbiology, a subset of systems biology, represents a different approach to investigating biological systems. It attempts to examine the emergent properties of microorganisms that arise from the interplay of genes, proteins, other macromolecules, small molecules, organelles, and the environment. It is these interactions, often nonlinear, that lead to the emergent properties of biological systems that are generally not tractable by traditional approaches. As a complement to the long-standing trend toward reductionism, systems microbiology seeks to treat the organism or community as a whole, integrating fundamental biological knowledge with genomics, metabolomics, and other data to create an integrated picture of how a microbial cell or community operates. Systems microbiology promises not only to shed light on the activities of microbes, but will also provide biology the tools and approaches necessary for achieving a better understanding of life and ecosystems. Microorganisms are ideal candidates for systems biology research because they are relatively easy to manipulate and because they play critical roles in health, environment, agriculture, and energy production. Potential applications of systems microbiology research

  8. Risk-based prioritization for the interim remediation of inactive low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambariah, V.; Travis, C.C.; Trabalka, J.R.; Thomas, J.K.

    1992-09-01

    The paper presents a risk-based approach for rapid prioritization of low-level liquid radioactive waste underground storage tanks (LLLW USTs), for possible interim corrective measures and/or ultimate closure. The ranking of LLLW USTs is needed to ensure that tanks with the greatest potential for adverse impact on the environment and human health receive top priority for further evaluation and remediation. Wastes from the LLLW USTs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were pumped out when the tanks were removed from service. The residual liquids and sludge contain a mixture of radionuclides and chemicals. Contaminants of concern that were identified in the liquid phase of the inactive LLLW USTs include the radionuclides 90 Sr, 137 Cs, and 233 U and the chemicals carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethane, tetrachloroethene, methyl ethyl ketone, mercury, lead, and chromium. The risk-based approach for prioritization of the LLLW USTs is based upon three major criteria: (1) leaking characteristics of the tank, (2) location of the tanks, and (3) toxic potential of the tank contents. Leaking characteristics of LLLW USTs will aid in establishing the potential for the release of contaminants to environmental media. In this study, only the liquid phase was assumed to be released to the environment. Scoring criteria for release potential of LLLW USTs was determined after consideration of the magnitude of any known leaks and the tank type for those that are not known to leak

  9. Application of REVEAL-W to risk-based configuration control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezfuli, H.; Meyer, J.; Modarres, M.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past two years, the concept of risk-based configuration control has been introduced to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the nuclear industry. Converting much of the current, deterministically based regulation of nuclear power plants to risk-based regulation can result in lower levels of risk while relieving unnecessary burdens on power plant operators and regulatory staff. To achieve the potential benefits of risk-based configuration control, the risk models developed for nuclear power plants should be (1) flexible enough to effectively support necessary risk calculations, and (2) transparent enough to encourage their use by all parties. To address these needs, SCIENTECH, Inc., has developed the PC-based REVEAL W (formerly known as SMART). This graphic-oriented and user-friendly application software allows the user to develop transparent complex logic models based on the concept of the master plant logic diagram. The logic model is success-oriented and compact. The analytical capability built into REVEAL W is generic, so the software can support different types of risk-based evaluations, such as probabilistic safety assessment, accident sequence precursor analysis, design evaluation and configuration management. In this paper, we focus on the application of REVEAL W to support risk-based configuration control of nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. New approach for risk based inspection of H2S based Process Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, Gopika; Sharma, Pavan K.; Santosh, T.V.; Hari Prasad, M.; Vaze, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Study looks into improving the consequence evaluation in risk based inspection. • Ways to revise the quantity factors used in qualitative approach. • New approach based on computational fluid dynamics along with probit mathematics. • Demonstrated this methodology along with a suitable case study for the said issue. - Abstract: Recent trend in risk informed and risk based approaches in life management issues have certainly put the focus on developing estimation methods for real risk. Idea of employing risk as an optimising measure for in-service inspection, termed as risk based inspection, was accepted in principle from late 80s. While applying risk based inspection, consequence of failure from each component needs to be assessed. Consequence evaluation in a Process Plant is a crucial task. It may be noted that, in general, the number of components to be considered for life management is very large and hence the consequence evaluation resulting from their failures (individually) is a laborious task. Screening of critical components is usually carried out using simplified qualitative approach, which primarily uses influence factors for categorisation. This necessitates logical formulation of influence factors and their ranges with a suitable technical basis for acceptance from regulators. This paper describes application of risk based inspection for H 2 S based Process Plant along with the approach devised for handling the influence factor related to the quantity of H 2 S released

  11. Managing long-term polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contaminated soils: a risk-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Luchun; Naidu, Ravi; Thavamani, Palanisami; Meaklim, Jean; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2015-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a family of contaminants that consist of two or more aromatic rings fused together. Soils contaminated with PAHs pose significant risk to human and ecological health. Over the last 50 years, significant research has been directed towards the cleanup of PAH-contaminated soils to background level. However, this achieved only limited success especially with high molecular weight compounds. Notably, during the last 5-10 years, the approach to remediate PAH-contaminated soils has changed considerably. A risk-based prioritization of remediation interventions has become a valuable step in the management of contaminated sites. The hydrophobicity of PAHs underlines that their phase distribution in soil is strongly influenced by factors such as soil properties and ageing of PAHs within the soil. A risk-based approach recognizes that exposure and environmental effects of PAHs are not directly related to the commonly measured total chemical concentration. Thus, a bioavailability-based assessment using a combination of chemical analysis with toxicological assays and nonexhaustive extraction technique would serve as a valuable tool in risk-based approach for remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In this paper, the fate and availability of PAHs in contaminated soils and their relevance to risk-based management of long-term contaminated soils are reviewed. This review may serve as guidance for the use of site-specific risk-based management methods.

  12. Sensorial, chemical and microbiological quality of anchovy cake

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-29

    Aug 29, 2011 ... Key words: Anchovy cake, shelf-life, chemical, sensorial, microbiological, Engraulis encrasicolus. ... The ingredients shown in Table 1 except the fish were mixed with ... products which can satisfy consumers sensationally and.

  13. Introduction to Clinical Microbiology for the General Dentist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    Clinical oral microbiology may help dental professionals identify infecting pathogenic species and evaluate their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility. Saliva, dental plaque biofilms, mucosal smears, abscess aspirates, and soft tissue biopsies are sources of microorganisms for laboratory testing.

  14. Microbiological assessment of food crops irrigated with domestic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbiological safety of this practice needed to be examined to ensure that it would indeed help to uplift communities by the provision of ... according to standard methods. .... due to insufficient disinfection of the exterior surface before.

  15. A STUDY OF THE MICROBIOLOGY AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2Department of Microbiology, University of Benin, Benin. City. *Corresponding author email: ... United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) due to their toxic effect to ..... Manual of Determinative Bacteriology . 8th ed,. Williams and ...

  16. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology - Vol 5, No 3 (2004) ... In Peripheral Leukocyte And Body Fluids Of Onchocerciasis Patients Treated With ... A Study Of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria In Pregnancy In Ile - Ife, Southwestern ...

  17. Microbiological Quality and Food Safety of Plants Grown on ISS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A challenge for growing fresh foods (vegetables) in space is demonstrating that they are safe for consumption according to NASA microbiological standards set for...

  18. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined...

  19. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.

    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of

  20. Microbiological cleanliness of the Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newlin, L.; Barengoltz, J.; Chung, S.; Kirschner, L.; Koukol, R.; Morales, F.

    2002-01-01

    Planetary protection for Mars missions is described, and the approach being taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Project is discussed. Specific topics include alcohol wiping, dry heat microbial reduction, microbiological assays, and the Kennedy Space center's PHSF clean room.