WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk wwf considers

  1. WET WEATHER FLOW (WWF) MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research emphasizes structural and nonstructural approaches that reduce the impacts of WWF-related stressors on receiving waters. Urban WWF pollution emanates from both point sources and diffuse sources including CSOs, SSOs, and stormwater from sewered and unsewered systems. EPA’...

  2. WWF position on wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variale, M.

    2009-01-01

    WWF believes that wind power plants are an inalienable opportunity to cope with climate change, nonetheless they often have a significant impact on landscape and the environment. It is therefore necessary that site selection and plant solutions be based on EIA and SEA and transparent procedures be adopted by way of consultations with all the stake holders. [it

  3. GLOBIL: WWF's Global Observation and Biodiversity Information Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A. C.; Nijsten, L.; Schmitt, S.; Tibaldeschi, P.

    2015-04-01

    Despite ever increasing availability of satellite imagery and spatial data, conservation managers, decision makers and planners are often unable to analyze data without special knowledge or software. WWF is bridging this gap by putting extensive spatial data into an easy to use online mapping environment, to allow visualization, manipulation and analysis of large data sets by any user. Consistent, reliable and repeatable ecosystem monitoring information for priority eco-regions is needed to increase transparency in WWF's global conservation work, to measure conservation impact, and to provide communications with the general public and organization members. Currently, much of this monitoring and evaluation data is isolated, incompatible, or inaccessible and not readily usable or available for those without specialized software or knowledge. Launched in 2013 by WWF Netherlands and WWF Germany, the Global Observation and Biodiversity Information Portal (GLOBIL) is WWF's new platform to unite, centralize, standardize and visualize geo-spatial data and information from more than 150 active GIS users worldwide via cloud-based ArcGIS Online. GLOBIL is increasing transparency, providing baseline data for monitoring and evaluation while communicating impacts and conservation successes to the public. GLOBIL is currently being used in the worldwide marine campaign as an advocacy tool for establishing more marine protected areas, and a monitoring interface to track the progress towards ocean protection goals. In the Kavango-Zambezi (KAZA) Transfrontier Conservation area, local partners are using the platform to monitor land cover changes, barriers to species migrations, potential human-wildlife conflict and local conservation impacts in vast wildlife corridor. In East Africa, an early warning system is providing conservation practitioners with real-time alerts of threats particularly to protected areas and World Heritage Sites by industrial extractive activities. And for

  4. Considering Environmental and Occupational Stressors in Cumulative Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    While definitions vary across the global scientific community, cumulative risk assessments (CRAs) typically are described as exhibiting a population focus and analyzing the combined risks posed by multiple stressors. CRAs also may consider risk management alternatives as an anal...

  5. WindWaveFloat (WWF): Final Scientific Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, Alla; Roddier, Dominique; Banister, Kevin

    2012-03-30

    Principle Power Inc. and National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) have completed a contract to assess the technical and economic feasibility of integrating wave energy converters into the WindFloat, resulting in a new concept called the WindWaveFloat (WWF). The concentration of several devices on one platform could offer a potential for both economic and operational advantages. Wind and wave energy converters can share the electrical cable and power transfer equipment to transport the electricity to shore. Access to multiple generation devices could be simplified, resulting in cost saving at the operational level. Overall capital costs may also be reduced, provided that the design of the foundation can be adapted to multiple devices with minimum modifications. Finally, the WindWaveFloat confers the ability to increase energy production from individual floating support structures, potentially leading to a reduction in levelized energy costs, an increase in the overall capacity factor, and greater stability of the electrical power delivered to the grid. The research conducted under this grant investigated the integration of several wave energy device types into the WindFloat platform. Several of the resulting system designs demonstrated technical feasibility, but the size and design constraints of the wave energy converters (technical and economic) make the WindWaveFloat concept economically unfeasible at this time. Not enough additional generation could be produced to make the additional expense associated with wave energy conversion integration into the WindFloat worthwhile.

  6. Conservation planning for a widespread, threatened species: WWF and the African elephant Loxodonta africana

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, Peter J.; Ntiamoa-Baidu, Yaa

    2017-01-01

    In a case study of conservation planning by a conservation organization working at a continental scale we examine how WWF identified and prioritized its African elephant Loxodonta africana conservation activities. We (1) review lessons learnt from previous work, (2) identify priority landscapes using biological criteria (e.g. population size and viability) and institutional criteria (e.g. feasibility, sustainability and cost-effectiveness of WWF interventions), and (3) conduct a threat analys...

  7. Incidence of infective endocarditis among patients considered at high risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lauge; Valeur, Nana; Ihlemann, Nikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Patients with prior infective endocarditis (IE), a prosthetic heart valve, or a cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) are considered to be at high risk of IE by guidelines. However, knowledge is sparse on the relative risk of IE between these three groups and compared controls. Methods...

  8. Shifting orders among suppliers considering risk, price and transportation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitasari, C.; Pujawan, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    Supplier order allocation is an important supply chain decision for an enterprise. It is related to the supplier’s function as a raw material provider and other supporting materials that will be used in production process. Most of works on order allocation has been based on costs and other supply chain performance, but very limited of them taking risks into consideration. In this paper we address the problem of order allocation of a single commodity sourced from multiple suppliers considering supply risks in addition to the attempt of minimizing transportation costs. The supply chain risk was investigated and a procedure was proposed in the risk mitigation phase as a form of risk profile. The objective including risk profile in order allocation is to maximize the product flow from a risky supplier to a relatively less risky supplier. The proposed procedure is applied to a sugar company. The result suggests that order allocations should be maximized to suppliers that have a relatively low risk and minimized to suppliers that have a relatively larger risks.

  9. Epidemic spread in bipartite network by considering risk awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, She; Sun, Mei; Ampimah, Benjamin Chris; Han, Dun

    2018-02-01

    Human awareness plays an important role in the spread of infectious diseases and the control of propagation patterns. Exploring the interplay between human awareness and epidemic spreading is a topic that has been receiving increasing attention. Considering the fact, some well-known diseases only spread between different species we propose a theoretical analysis of the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible (SIS) epidemic spread from the perspective of bipartite network and risk aversion. Using mean field theory, the epidemic threshold is calculated theoretically. Simulation results are consistent with the proposed analytic model. The results show that, the final infection density is negative linear with the value of individuals' risk awareness. Therefore, the epidemic spread could be effectively suppressed by improving individuals' risk awareness.

  10. Corporate social responsibility as a business strategy: Stora Enso-WWF partnership project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the strategic partnership between transnational corporation Stora-Enso and international nongovernmental organization NGO WWF as a business strategy that helps the company to adopt its business to the turbulent environment of the economy in transition. In this paper I draw from

  11. Corporate social responsibility as a business strategy: Stora Enso-WWF partnership project

    OpenAIRE

    Tysiachniouk, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyzes the strategic partnership between transnational corporation Stora-Enso and international nongovernmental organization NGO WWF as a business strategy that helps the company to adopt its business to the turbulent environment of the economy in transition. In this paper I draw from the theory of institutional sociology to explain complex interaction between transnational actors and actors in localities that jointly form a governance generating network in order to implement the ...

  12. Marine Harvest & WWF-Norge : et strategisk samarbeid for en bærekraftig fremtid

    OpenAIRE

    Pirisi Guerreiro, Joao Nuno

    2014-01-01

    Denne oppgaven omhandler et studie av suksessfaktorer for samarbeid mellom ulike typer organisasjoner. Med den bakgrunn er følgende problemstilling formulert. Hvordan kan samarbeid mellom ulike organisasjoner som Marine Harvest og WWF bidra til tilfredsstillende positive resultater for begge organisasjonene? For å besvare det overordnede forskningsspørsmålet samt delspørsmål opplistet i kapittel 1.2, har oppgaven gått i dybden på samarbeidet mellom det kommersielle oppdrettsselskapet...

  13. Considering Risk and Resilience in Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the concepts of decision-making, risk analysis, uncertainty and resilience analysis. The relation between risk, vulnerability, and resilience is analyzed. The paper describes how complexity, uncertainty, and ambiguity are the most critical factors in the definition of the approach and criteria for decision-making. Uncertainty in its various forms is what limits our ability to offer definitive answers to questions about the outcomes of alternatives in a decision-making process. It is shown that, although resilience-informed decision-making would seem fundamentally different from risk-informed decision-making, this is not the case as resilience-analysis can be easily incorporated within existing analytic-deliberative decision-making frameworks.

  14. Risk Assessment of Power System considering the CPS of Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Peng, Zewu; Liu, Xindong; Li, Canbing; Chen, Can

    2018-02-01

    This paper constructs a risk assessment framework of power system for device-level information security, analyzes the typical protection configuration of power transformers, and takes transformer gas protection and differential protection as examples to put forward a method that analyzes the cyber security in electric power system, which targets transformer protection parameters. We estimate the risk of power system accounting for the cyber security of transformer through utilizing Monte Carlo method and two indexes, which are the loss of load probability and the expected demand not supplied. The proposed approach is tested with IEEE 9 bus system and IEEE 118 bus system.

  15. IMPROVEMENT OF BUSINESS PROCESSES OF THE ORGANIZATION CONSIDERING RISK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Дмитро Іванович БЕДРІЙ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to analyze the methods of optimization of business processes of the organization. The results of which is proposed to apply to the method of reengineering of business processes of the organization. Conclusions about the need to implement business process reengineering of the organization of the risk having an impact on its operations are made.

  16. Risk-based evaluation of Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) considering risk of shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1992-01-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, Technical Specifications (TS) usually limit the repair within Allowed Outage Time (AOT). If the repair cannot be completed within the AOT, or no AOT is allowed, the plant is required to be shut down for the repair. However, if the capability to remove decay heat is degraded, shutting down the plant with the need to operate the affected decay-heat removal systems may impose a substantial risk compared to continued power operation over a usual repair time. Thus, defining a proper AOT in such situations can be considered as a risk-comparison between the repair in frill power state with a temporarily increased level of risk, and the altemative of shutting down the plant for the repair in zero power state with a specific associated risk. The methodology of the risk-comparison approach, with a due consideration of the shutdown risk, has been further developed and applied to the AOT considerations of residual heat removal and standby service water systems of a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant. Based on the completed work, several improvements to the TS requirements for the systems studied can be suggested

  17. Project Portfolio Risk Identification and Analysis, Considering Project Risk Interactions and Using Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Ghasemi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An organization’s strategic objectives are accomplished through portfolios. However, the materialization of portfolio risks may affect a portfolio’s sustainable success and the achievement of those objectives. Moreover, project interdependencies and cause–effect relationships between risks create complexity for portfolio risk analysis. This paper presents a model using Bayesian network (BN methodology for modeling and analyzing portfolio risks. To develop this model, first, portfolio-level risks and risks caused by project interdependencies are identified. Then, based on their cause–effect relationships all portfolio risks are organized in a BN. Conditional probability distributions for this network are specified and the Bayesian networks method is used to estimate the probability of portfolio risk. This model was applied to a portfolio of a construction company located in Iran and proved effective in analyzing portfolio risk probability. Furthermore, the model provided valuable information for selecting a portfolio’s projects and making strategic decisions.

  18. Analysis of human error and organizational deficiency in events considering risk significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Suk; Kim, Yoonik; Kim, Say Hyung; Kim, Chansoo; Chung, Chang Hyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed human and organizational deficiencies in the trip events of Korean nuclear power plants. K-HPES items were used in human error analysis, and the organizational factors by Jacobs and Haber were used for organizational deficiency analysis. We proposed the use of CCDP as a risk measure to consider risk information in prioritizing K-HPES items and organizational factors. Until now, the risk significance of events has not been considered in human error and organizational deficiency analysis. Considering the risk significance of events in the process of analysis is necessary for effective enhancement of nuclear power plant safety by focusing on causes of human error and organizational deficiencies that are associated with significant risk

  19. A mathematical model for crashing projects by considering time, cost, quality and risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mahmoudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employers are looking for reducing execution time and maintaining the quality of the projects that are the main objective of the projects. In this article, we focus on crashing projects by con-sidering different factors such as cost, time, quality and risk. For the proposed integer linear model, cost of conformance and cost of non-conformance are considered as parts of the costs of quality of deliverables in projects. The cost of conformance consists of the costs of training the project team, inspection and test of deliverables. The cost of non-conformance also includes costs of rework and scrap. Project risk management is one of the important aspects of the pro-jects. The present study also considers the impact of risks, which is highly applicable in projects with a high level of uncertainty. Results are presented using integer programming approach with the aim of minimizing the costs of the project.

  20. Portuguese consumers’ Interest in seafood production and consumption : insights considering benefits, risks and their environmental Impact

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Ana Pinto de; Cunha, Luís Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Considering food choice, individuals base their decisions on assessments of risks and benefits. For seafood products, consumers may balance between perceived benefits and risks from consuming fish in order to get the health benefits without exceeding tolerable intakes of chemical contaminants. Moreover, consumers may balance between the potential environmental impacts of farmed fish and the thought of fish farming as a way to help save the wild fish stocks from over exploration. The aim of th...

  1. Optimal hydro scheduling and offering strategies considering price uncertainty and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalão, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Contreras, J.

    2012-01-01

    Hydro energy represents a priority in the energy policy of Portugal, with the aim of decreasing the dependence on fossil fuels. In this context, optimal hydro scheduling acquires added significance in moving towards a sustainable environment. A mixed-integer nonlinear programming approach is considered to enable optimal hydro scheduling for the short-term time horizon, including the effect of head on power production, start-up costs related to the units, multiple regions of operation, and constraints on discharge variation. As new contributions to the field, market uncertainty is introduced in the model via price scenarios and risk management is included using Conditional Value-at-Risk to limit profit volatility. Moreover, plant scheduling and pool offering by the hydro power producer are simultaneously considered to solve a realistic cascaded hydro system. -- Highlights: ► A mixed-integer nonlinear programming approach is considered for optimal hydro scheduling. ► Market uncertainty is introduced in the model via price scenarios. ► Risk management is included using conditional value-at-risk. ► Plant scheduling and pool offering by the hydro power producer are simultaneously considered. ► A realistic cascaded hydro system is solved.

  2. Integration of renewable generation uncertainties into stochastic unit commitment considering reserve and risk: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Hao; Srinivasan, Dipti; Khosravi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The uncertainties of renewable energy have brought great challenges to power system commitment, dispatches and reserve requirement. This paper presents a comparative study on integration of renewable generation uncertainties into SCUC (stochastic security-constrained unit commitment) considering reserve and risk. Renewable forecast uncertainties are captured by a list of PIs (prediction intervals). A new scenario generation method is proposed to generate scenarios from these PIs. Different system uncertainties are considered as scenarios in the stochastic SCUC problem formulation. Two comparative simulations with single (E1: wind only) and multiple sources of uncertainty (E2: load, wind, solar and generation outages) are investigated. Five deterministic and four stochastic case studies are performed. Different generation costs, reserve strategies and associated risks are compared under various scenarios. Demonstrated results indicate the overall costs of E2 is lower than E1 due to penetration of solar power and the associated risk in deterministic cases of E2 is higher than E1. It implies the superimposed effect of uncertainties during uncertainty integration. The results also demonstrate that power systems run a higher level of risk during peak load hours, and that stochastic models are more robust than deterministic ones. - Highlights: • An extensive comparative study for renewable integration is presented. • A novel scenario generation method is proposed. • Wind and solar uncertainties are represented by a list of prediction intervals. • Unit commitment and dispatch costs are discussed considering reserve and risk.

  3. The construction of power grid operation index system considering the risk of maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jihong; Wang, Canlin; Jiang, Xinfan; Ye, Jianhui; Pan, Feilai

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, large-scale blackout occurred at home and abroad caused widespread concern about the operation of the grid in the world, and the maintenance risk is an important indicator of grid safety. The barrier operation of the circuit breaker exists in the process of overhaul of the power grid. The operation of the different barrier is of great significance to the change of the power flow, thus affecting the safe operation of the system. Most of the grid operating status evaluation index system did not consider the risk of maintenance, to this end, this paper from the security, economy, quality and cleanliness of the four angles, build the power grid operation index system considering the risk of maintenance.

  4. Equilibria in the competitive retail electricity market considering uncertainty and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrati, Saeed; Kazemi, Mostafa; Ehsan, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    In a medium term planning horizon, a retailer should determine its forward contracting and pool participating strategies as well as the selling price to be offered to the customers. Considering a competitive retail electricity market, the number of clients being supplied by any retailer is a function of the selling prices and some other characteristics of all the retailers. This paper presents an equilibrium problem formulation to model the retailer's medium term decision making problem considering the strategy of other retailers. Decision making of any single retailer is formulated as a risk constraint stochastic programming problem. Uncertainty of pool prices and clients' demands is modeled with scenario generation method and CVaR (conditional value at risk) is used as the risk measure. The resulting single retailer planning problem is a quadratic constrained programming problem which is solved using the Lagrangian relaxation method and the Nash equilibrium point of the competitive retailers is achieved by successive solving of this problem for all the retailers. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated using a realistic case study of Texas electricity market. - Highlights: • Presenting an equilibrium problem formulation for the retailer's decision-making. • Modeling consumer's retail choice behavior with an econometric model. • Managing the retailer's risk caused by rivals' strategy through CVaR. • Approximating the nonlinear price-quota curve with a piecewise-linear function. • Decomposing the nonlinear optimization problem using Lagrangian relaxation method.

  5. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion.

  6. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion

  7. Future bloom and blossom frost risk for Malus domestica considering climate model and impact model uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Rath, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The future bloom and risk of blossom frosts for Malus domestica were projected using regional climate realizations and phenological ( = impact) models. As climate impact projections are susceptible to uncertainties of climate and impact models and model concatenation, the significant horizon of the climate impact signal was analyzed by applying 7 impact models, including two new developments, on 13 climate realizations of the IPCC emission scenario A1B. Advancement of phenophases and a decrease in blossom frost risk for Lower Saxony (Germany) for early and late ripeners was determined by six out of seven phenological models. Single model/single grid point time series of bloom showed significant trends by 2021-2050 compared to 1971-2000, whereas the joint signal of all climate and impact models did not stabilize until 2043. Regarding blossom frost risk, joint projection variability exceeded the projected signal. Thus, blossom frost risk cannot be stated to be lower by the end of the 21st century despite a negative trend. As a consequence it is however unlikely to increase. Uncertainty of temperature, blooming date and blossom frost risk projection reached a minimum at 2078-2087. The projected phenophases advanced by 5.5 d K(-1), showing partial compensation of delayed fulfillment of the winter chill requirement and faster completion of the following forcing phase in spring. Finally, phenological model performance was improved by considering the length of day.

  8. Study on risk indicator for appropriate plant maintenance considering aging effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mano, Akihiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Takata, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Since, nuclear power plants run for a long term and plant component may deteriorate due to aging, plant safety must be maintained through maintenance activities of components. The maintenance will become more important as the number of aged plant increases. In the planning of maintenance, one must select appropriate components and interval. In general, Fussell-Vesely importance (FV) and Risk Achievement Worth (RAW) are used as a risk indicator for the maintenance. A priority order of each component can be evaluated using those risk indicators at a certain condition. However, the influence of aging (time history) on the order cannot be estimated directly. In the paper, a change of conditional core damage probability (ΔCCDP) and a change of conditional containment failure probability (ΔCCFP) are proposed as additional indicators in which the aging effect is evaluated directly so as to determine the priority order. A simplified level one probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been carried out in order to investigate the change of the risk indicators by considering the change of a component failure probability due to aging. In the analyses, three conditions are assumed; base (original) state, aging state and further aging state without maintenance activities. It is demonstrated that the proposed indicator (ΔCCDP and ΔCCFP) reveals the aging effect of each component, while the change of the FV and RAW represent unrealistic behavior through the states. As a result, it is found that the ΔCCDP and ΔCCFP are superior to the others in terms of the ability to evaluate components appropriately in deteriorated (aging) states and take account of differences of deterioration behavior. It is also found that the priority order of the multiple-components maintenance at the same time can also be evaluated using the ΔCCDP and ΔCCFP. Additionally, a risk informed decision making based on the risk acceptance criteria can be discussed for the maintenance procedure using the

  9. Scheduling of a hydro producer considering head-dependency, price scenarios and risk-aversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pousinho, H.M.I.; Mendes, V.M.F.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A MIQP approach is proposed for the short-term hydro scheduling problem. ► Head-dependency, discontinuous operating regions and discharge ramping constraints are considered. ► As new contribution to earlier studies, market uncertainty is introduced in the model via price scenarios. ► Also, risk aversion is incorporated by limiting the volatility of the expected profit through CVaR. ► A case study based on one of the main Portuguese cascaded hydro systems is provided. - Abstract: In this paper, a mixed-integer quadratic programming approach is proposed for the short-term hydro scheduling problem, considering head-dependency, discontinuous operating regions and discharge ramping constraints. As new contributions to earlier studies, market uncertainty is introduced in the model via price scenarios, and risk aversion is also incorporated by limiting the volatility of the expected profit through the conditional value-at-risk. Our approach has been applied successfully to solve a case study based on one of the main Portuguese cascaded hydro systems, requiring a negligible computational time.

  10. Bed care for patients in palliative settings: considering risks to caregivers and bed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala, Guy

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring patients are comfortable in bed is key to effective palliative care, but when moving and positioning patients in bed, health professionals face an occupational risk of injury. The turning and positioning (TAP) system is a new method of moving patients in bed, that evidence has shown to reduce the risk of injury to caregivers. Providing the correct bed surface is another aspect of bed care essential to the comfort of the palliative patient, and to aid wound prevention and treatment. It is important to take a patient-centred approach when considering the most appropriate bed surface patients. This article provides an overview and discussion of these two aspects of bed care for palliative patients.

  11. Women-specific factors to consider in risk, diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ronée E; Coffman, Kirsten E; Miller, Virginia M

    2015-03-01

    In the era of individualized medicine, gaps in knowledge remain about sex-specific risk factors, diagnostic and treatment options that might reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and improve outcomes for both women and men. In this review, contributions of biological mechanisms involving the sex chromosomes and the sex hormones on the cardiovascular system will be discussed in relationship to the female-specific risk factors for CVD: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, menopause and use of hormonal therapies for contraception and menopausal symptoms. Additionally, sex-specific factors to consider in the differential diagnosis and treatment of four prevalent CVDs (hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease and congestive heart failure) will be reviewed with emphasis on areas where additional research is needed.

  12. Risk-informed optimal routing of ships considering different damage scenarios and operational conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decò, Alberto; Frangopol, Dan M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the development of a risk-informed decision tool for the optimal mission-oriented routing of ships. The strength of the hull is investigated by modeling the midship section with finite elements and by analyzing different damage levels depending on the propagation of plastification throughout the section. Vertical and horizontal flexural interaction is investigated. Uncertainties associated with geometry and material properties are accounted for by means of the implementation of the response surface method. Load effects are evaluated using strip theory. Reliability analysis is performed for several ship operational conditions and considering four different limit states. Then, risk is assessed by including the direct losses associated with five investigated damage states. The effects of corrosion on aged ships are included in the proposed approach. Polar representation of load effects, reliability, and direct risk are presented for a large spectrum of operational conditions. Finally, the optimal routing of ships is obtained by minimizing both the estimated time of arrival and the expected direct risk, which are clearly conflicting objectives. The optimization process provides feasible solutions belonging to the Pareto front. The proposed approach is applied to a Joint High Speed Sealift

  13. Global Production Planning Process considering the Supply Risk of Overseas Manufacturing Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosang Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although global manufacturers can produce most of their final products in local plants, they need to source components or parts from desirable overseas manufacturing partners at low cost in order to fulfill customer orders. In this global manufacturing environment, capacity information for planning is usually imprecise owing to the various risks of overseas plants (e.g., foreign governments’ policies and labor stability. It is therefore not easy for decision-makers to generate a global production plan showing the production amounts at local plants and overseas manufacturing facilities operated by manufacturing partners. In this paper, we present a new global production planning process considering the supply risk of overseas manufacturing sites. First, local experts estimate the supply capacity of an overseas plant using their judgment to determine when the risk could occur and how large the risk impact would be. Next, we run a global production planning model with the estimated supply capacities. The proposed process systematically adopts the qualitative judgments of local experts in the global production planning process and thus can provide companies with a realistic global production plan. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed process with a real world case.

  14. Seismic risk assessment of architectural heritages in Gyeongju considering local site effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H.-J.; Kim, D.-S.; Kim, D.-M.

    2013-02-01

    A seismic risk assessment is conducted for cultural heritage sites in Gyeongju, the capital of Korea's ancient Silla Kingdom. Gyeongju, home to UNESCO World Heritage sites, contains remarkable artifacts of Korean Buddhist art. An extensive geotechnical survey including a series of in situ tests is presented, providing pertinent soil profiles for site response analyses on thirty cultural heritage sites. After the shear wave velocity profiles and dynamic material properties were obtained, site response analyses were carried out at each historical site and the amplification characteristics, site period, and response spectrum of the site were determined for the earthquake levels of 2400 yr and 1000 yr return periods based on the Korean seismic hazard map. Response spectrum and corresponding site coefficients obtained from site response analyses considering geologic conditions differ significantly from the current Korean seismic code. This study confirms the importance of site-specific ground response analyses considering local geological conditions. Results are given in the form of the spatial distribution of bedrock depth, site period, and site amplification coefficients, which are particularly valuable in the context of a seismic vulnerability study. This study presents the potential amplification of hazard maps and provides primary data on the seismic risk assessment of each cultural heritage.

  15. Considering the human factors contribution to the risk in the design choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papin, B.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: With the increasing reliability of the modern technological systems, the human contribution to the global risk in the operation of industrial systems is becoming more and more significant: in the nuclear reactor operation for example, a recent PSA estimation of this contribution is about 25% of the risk of core melting, all situations considered. This urges the designers of future plants to consider the minimization of this Human Factor (HF) contribution, at the very early stage of their design: the experience feedback shows that this is indeed at this stage that the fundamental design options, impacting the most the human reliability in operation, are fixed. The problem is that at these early design stages, it is also quite impossible to apply formal human reliability methods to support this HF optimisation, while the precise operating conditions of the plant are not yet known in enough details. In this paper, another approach of the HF evaluation during the design, based on the functional and operational complexity assessment, is proposed. As an illustration, this approach is used to compare various concepts of nuclear reactors from the point of view of the Human Factor relevance. (authors)

  16. Risk Analysis of Coastal hazard Considering Sea-level Rise and Local Environment in Coastal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangjin, P.; Lee, D. K.; KIM, H.; Ryu, J. E.; Yoo, S.; Ryoo, H.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, natural hazards has been more unpredictable with increasing frequency and strength due to climate change. Especially, coastal areas would be more vulnerable in the future because of sea-level rise (SLR). In case of Korea, it is surrounded by oceans and has many big cities at coastal area, thus a hazard prevention plan in coastal area is absolutely necessary. However, prior to making the plan, finding areas at risk would be the first step. In order to find the vulnerable area, local characteristics of coastal areas should also be considered along with SLR. Therefore, the objective of the research is to find vulnerable areas, which could be damaged by coastal hazards considering local environment and SLR of coastal areas. Spatial scope of the research was set up as 1km from the coastline according to the 'coastal management law' in Korea. The assessment was done up to the year of 2050, and the highest sea level rise scenario was used. For risk analysis, biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics were considered as to represent local characteristics of coastal area. Risk analysis was carried out through the combination of 'possibility of hazard' and the 'level of damages', and both of them reflect the above-mentioned regional characteristics. Since the range of inundation was narrowed down to the inundation from typhoon in this research, the possibility of inundation caused by typhoon was estimated by using numerical model, which calculated the height of storm surge considering wave, tide, sea-level pressure and SLR. Also the level of damage was estimated by categorizing the socioeconomic character into four factors; human, infrastructure, ecology and socioeconomic. Variables that represent each factor were selected and used in damage estimation with their classification and weighting value. The result shows that the urban coastal areas are more vulnerable and hazardous than other areas because of socioeconomic factors. The east and the south coast are

  17. Optimization of a dynamic supply portfolio considering risks and discount’s constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rabbani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays finding reliable suppliers in the global supply chains has become so important for success, because reliable suppliers would lead to a reliable supply and besides that orders of customer are met effectively . Yet, there is little empirical evidence to support this view, hence the purpose of this paper is to fill this need by considering risk in order to find the optimum supply portfolio. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes a multi objective model for the supplier selection portfolio problem that uses conditional value at risk (CVaR criteria to control the risks of delayed, disrupted and defected supplies via scenario analysis. Also we consider discount’s constraints which are common assumptions in supplier selection problems. The proposed approach is capable of determining the optimal supply portfolio by calculating value-at-risk and minimizing conditional value-at-risk. In this study the Reservation Level driven Tchebycheff Procedure (RLTP which is one of the reference point methods, is used to solve small size of our model through coding in GAMS. As our model is NP-hard; a meta-heuristic approach, Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA which is one of the most efficient methods for optimizing multi objective models, is applied to solve large scales of our model. Findings and Originality/value: In order to find a dynamic supply portfolio, we developed a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model which contains two objectives. One objective minimizes the cost and the other minimizes the risks of delayed, disrupted and defected supplies. CVaR is used as the risk controlling method which emphases on low-probability, high-consequence events. Discount option as a common offer from suppliers is also implanted in the proposed model. Our findings show that the proposed model can help in optimization of a dynamic supplier selection portfolio with controlling the corresponding risks for large scales of real word

  18. Pricing Decisions of a Dual-Channel Supply Chain considering Supply Disruption Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancong Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply disruption may cause strong complaints of customers, which is a cost loss for the firms in the supply chain. Obviously, if realizing that there is the disruption risk, the members in a supply chain will adjust their decisions. For analyzing the influence, we consider a popular supply chain mode with dual channels, where one manufacturer has its direct sales channel and one traditional retailer channel. The manufacturer may suffer a supply disruption so that all ordered products by the retailer or the direct retail channel will be lost, and the members in supply chain will bear the corresponding disruption penalty from the customers. By considering four structures with different market power relations, the closed-form optimal price decisions of the four models are given. We found that the disruption factor improves the sales prices for any member structure as compared to the supply chain without the disruption. And the direct retail prices in the different modes are the same as each other, but the price of the traditional channel is influenced by the market share. And the sorts of the sales prices under different structures are given. We also conduct some extensive numerical analysis and compare the results under different structures. We observe that the expected optimal profits of considering the external penalty are smaller than those of no external penalty, and we give a sort of the optimal expected profits. And we also provide the effects of some parameters on the optimal decisions and the optimal expected profits.

  19. Robustness of assembly supply chain networks by considering risk propagation and cascading failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Jing, Ke; He, Jie; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-10-01

    An assembly supply chain network (ASCN) is composed of manufacturers located in different geographical regions. To analyze the robustness of this ASCN when it suffers from catastrophe disruption events, we construct a cascading failure model of risk propagation. In our model, different disruption scenarios s are considered and the probability equation of all disruption scenarios is developed. Using production capability loss as the robustness index (RI) of an ASCN, we conduct a numerical simulation to assess its robustness. Through simulation, we compare the network robustness at different values of linking intensity and node threshold and find that weak linking intensity or high node threshold increases the robustness of the ASCN. We also compare network robustness levels under different disruption scenarios.

  20. Four conceptual issues to consider in integrating social and environmental factors in risk and impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domínguez-Gómez, J. Andrés, E-mail: andres@uhu.es

    2016-01-15

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it parallel progress in addressing the main shortcomings of EIA/SIA, i.e. insufficient integration of environmental and social factors into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their analysis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of projects which impact on the environment, and consequently to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argues that, in a sociological context of complexity and dynamism, four conceptual elements should underpin approaches to socio-environmental risk and impact assessment in development projects: a theoretical base in actor–network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized (though not always fulfilled in practice); a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation. - Highlights: • A theoretical foundation in actor–network theory • An ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized, but rarely carried through into practice • A (new) epistemological-scientific base • A methodological foundation in social participation.

  1. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  2. Four conceptual issues to consider in integrating social and environmental factors in risk and impact assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez-Gómez, J. Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In the last twenty years, both the increase in academic production and the expansion of professional involvement in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Social Impact Assessment (SIA) have evidenced growing scientific and business interest in risk and impact analysis. However, this growth has not brought with it parallel progress in addressing the main shortcomings of EIA/SIA, i.e. insufficient integration of environmental and social factors into development project analyses and, in cases where the social aspects are considered, technical-methodological failings in their analysis and assessment. It is clear that these weaknesses carry with them substantial threats to the sustainability (social, environmental and economic) of projects which impact on the environment, and consequently to the local contexts where they are carried out and to the delicate balance of the global ecosystem. This paper argues that, in a sociological context of complexity and dynamism, four conceptual elements should underpin approaches to socio-environmental risk and impact assessment in development projects: a theoretical base in actor–network theory; an ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized (though not always fulfilled in practice); a (new) epistemological-scientific base; and a methodological foundation in social participation. - Highlights: • A theoretical foundation in actor–network theory • An ethical grounding in values which are internationally recognized, but rarely carried through into practice • A (new) epistemological-scientific base • A methodological foundation in social participation

  3. WWF Climate Scorecards. Comparison of the climate performance of the G8 countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, N.; Wartmann, S.; Graus, W.

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is a serious and urgent threat to global society. It adds stress to unique and already threatened ecosystems, increases the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as storms and droughts, and adds stress to agriculture and food production. In addition, glaciers are melting around the world as is the Arctic, contributing to sea level rise. Climate change also increases the risk of large-scale singular events such as the melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the shutdown of the thermohaline circulation. The level at which climate change becomes 'dangerous' depends on the values attached to the threatened systems. Several countries, most prominently the EU, but also e.g. the Philippines and Micronesia, have agreed that global average temperature increase in comparison to pre-industrial levels should be kept below 2C. As a consequence, global greenhouse gas emissions will have to peak in the next decade or two and then decline to a fraction of current levels. Leaving some room for growth for developing countries, industrialized countries need to decrease their emission by the order of 80% by the year 2050. This is a major challenge, as current trends are going in the opposite direction with high emissions in developed countries and growing emissions in most developing countries. Individual countries have reacted differently to this challenge. Each country is unique in its starting position, including the economic activities that result in greenhouse gas emissions, its level of development, industrial structure, availability of natural resources and public perceptions. Since the problem was recognized internationally (1992 with the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), governments and the public have reacted differently, also depending on national circumstances. These climate scorecards provide a comparable snapshot of the current situation across the G8 countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy

  4. WWF Climate Scorecards. Comparison of the climate performance of the G8 countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Wartmann, S.; Graus, W. [Ecofys GmbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Climate change is a serious and urgent threat to global society. It adds stress to unique and already threatened ecosystems, increases the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, such as storms and droughts, and adds stress to agriculture and food production. In addition, glaciers are melting around the world as is the Arctic, contributing to sea level rise. Climate change also increases the risk of large-scale singular events such as the melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the shutdown of the thermohaline circulation. The level at which climate change becomes 'dangerous' depends on the values attached to the threatened systems. Several countries, most prominently the EU, but also e.g. the Philippines and Micronesia, have agreed that global average temperature increase in comparison to pre-industrial levels should be kept below 2C. As a consequence, global greenhouse gas emissions will have to peak in the next decade or two and then decline to a fraction of current levels. Leaving some room for growth for developing countries, industrialized countries need to decrease their emission by the order of 80% by the year 2050. This is a major challenge, as current trends are going in the opposite direction with high emissions in developed countries and growing emissions in most developing countries. Individual countries have reacted differently to this challenge. Each country is unique in its starting position, including the economic activities that result in greenhouse gas emissions, its level of development, industrial structure, availability of natural resources and public perceptions. Since the problem was recognized internationally (1992 with the adoption of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), governments and the public have reacted differently, also depending on national circumstances. These climate scorecards provide a comparable snapshot of the current situation across the G8 countries (Canada, France, Germany

  5. PENGELOLAAN DAN TINGKAT KESEJAHTERAAN GAJAH SUMATERA (Elephas maximus sumatranus Temminck, 1847 DI FLYING SQUAD WWF TAMAN NASIONAL TESSO NILO RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Kurnia Tohir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict between human and elephants in Tesso Nilo National Park encourages WWF to establish the Flying Squad. Related to the function of the sumatran elephants in Flying Squad as the patrol team, it is necessary to conduct a proper management to ensure animal welfare. This study aims to examine the aspects of welfare management and asses the level of welfare of sumatran elephants in Flying Squad. The research methodology used for this study are literature review, interviews and field observation. Data analyzed by describing the suitability of management and tabulating the assessment. The management of cages, feed, health and reproduction requires some improvements such as the type, number and equipment of the cages, natural feed adequacy, medical infrastructure and reproduction management. The 76,98% percentage rate of sumatran elephant welfare, which is relatively good, is because there are only 14 priority components of 43 components of animal welfare assessment that need improvements and enhanced management. Keywords: animal welfare, flying squad, the patrol elephant

  6. Wildlife in a warming world. The effects of climate change on biodiversity in WWF's Priority Places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Jeff; Warren, Rachel; McDougall, Amy; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Cornelius, Stephen; Sohl, Heather; Rust, Niki; Elliott, Katherine; Jeffries, Barney; Jeffries, Evan; Wood, Matt

    2018-01-01

    Up to half of plant and animal species in the world's most naturally rich areas, such as the Amazon and the Galapagos, could face local extinction by the turn of the century due to climate change if carbon emissions continue to rise unchecked. Even if the Paris Climate Agreement 2 deg. C target is met, these places could lose 25% of their species according to this landmark study by the University of East Anglia, the James Cook University, and WWF. This report examines the impact of climate change on nearly 80,000 species in 35 of the world's most diverse and naturally wildlife-rich areas. It models a number of different climate scenarios - from a no-emissions-cuts business-as-usual rise in global mean temperatures of 4.5 deg. C to a 2 deg. C global rise to keep to the upper limit of the Paris Agreement. Each area was chosen for its uniqueness and the variety of species, including plants, insects and animals, found there

  7. Management Training of Sumatra Elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus and Daily Behavior in Flying Squad WWF Tesso Nilo National Park, Riau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arum Ratnasari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Flying squad is an established strategy in the effort to resolve the conflict elephants in Tesso Nilo National Park. Flying squad utilizes trainedelephants to chase away wild elephants that come out the national park area. The study aims to identify management training and daily behavior ofSumatran elephant. The study was conducted in the Flying Squad WWF's Tesso Nilo National Park, Riau in March-April 2016 using focal animalsampling and interview. The elephant training curriculum consist of basic training, advanced training and exercise development by combined verbalcommands, visual, and physical. The measured success of training will be seen if the elephants could perform mahout’s commands without any error.Percentage of ingestive behavior showed the highest value at noon, while percentage of shelter seeking and other behavior showed the highest valueat night. It caused the elephants do more displacement to get the food at noon.Keywords: daily behavior, flying squad, focal animal sampling, sumatran elephant, training management

  8. Considering Risk Associated with the Realization of Waste Management Investment Plans in Cracow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajduga Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To fulfill obligations to the European Union on waste management, the authorities of the city of Cracow, decided to build a waste incineration plant. Such investment involves considerable risks, not only financial but also social. The paper conducted a risk analysis based on the index net present value, identifies factors which are particularly exposed, and proposes solutions for reducing its level.

  9. Improvement of the cogeneration facilities, considering the aspects of financial risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, A.H.M.; Nogueira, L.A.H.; Costa Bortoni, E. da

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to include the tools of the Portfolio Theory in the design of the cogeneration facilities. So, the effects of the risk on the return can be take in account. A computer program was developed to simulate the impacts of the thermal and mechanical (or electrical) loads on energy surplus and the potential risk. (C.M.)

  10. "There Are No Known Benefits . . .": Considering the Risk/Benefit Ratio of Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opsal, Tara; Wolgemuth, Jennifer; Cross, Jennifer; Kaanta, Tanya; Dickmann, Ellyn; Colomer, Soria; Erdil-Moody, Zeynep

    2016-07-01

    Institutional review boards (IRBs) are responsible for weighing the risks and benefits of research participation. Qualitative researchers note numerous instances where IRB ethical frameworks fail to align with the ethics of their research projects and point out that IRB understandings of the benefits and risks of research often differ from those of the participants they seek to protect. This qualitative cross-case research investigates participants' interview experiences in six qualitative studies that differed in their methods, subject of focus, and populations. Our findings indicate that contemporary IRBs' use of population "vulnerability" and topic "sensitivity" to assess project risk does not adequately determine the benefits, risks, or ethicality of research. We recommend that IRBs treat as real the evidence for benefits in qualitative research, recognize that sensitivity and vulnerability do not predict risk, and encourage researchers to attend to relationships in their projects. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Standard psychological consultations and follow up for women at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer considering prophylactic mastectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. Tan; E.M.A. Bleiker (Eveline); M.B.E. Menke-Pluymers (Marian); A.R. van Gool (Arthur); S. van Dooren (Silvia); B.N. van Geel (Bert); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.C.M. Bartels (Carina); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); C.T. Brekelmans (Cecile); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Women at increased (genetic) risk of breast cancer have to weigh the personal pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy (PM) as an option to reduce their cancer risk. So far, no routine referral to a psychologist has been investigated for women considering PM. Aim of this

  12. Factors to consider in developing individual pharmaceutical product quality risk profiles useful to government procurement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Boehm, Garth; Zheng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Governments that procure pharmaceutical products from an Essential Medicine List (EML) bear special responsibility for the quality of these products. In this article we examine the possibility of developing a pharmaceutical product quality risk assessment scheme for use by government procurement officials. We use the Chinese EML as a basis, and US recall data is examined as it is publically available.This is justified as the article is only concerned with inherent product quality risks. After establishing a link between Chinese essential medicines and those available in the US, we examine US recall data to separate product specific recalls. We conclude that, in addition to existing manufacturing based risks, there are two other product specific risks that stand out from all others, degradation and dissolution failure. Methodology for relative product risk for degradation is needed to be developed and further work is required to better understand dissolution failures which largely occur with modified-release solid oral products. We conclude that a product specific quality risk profile would be enhanced by including a risk assessment for degradation for all products, and in the case of solid oral products, dissolution.

  13. Credit Risk Evaluation of Large Power Consumers Considering Power Market Transaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulin, Li; Erfeng, Xu; ke, Sun; Dunnan, Liu; Shuyi, Shen

    2018-03-01

    Large power users will participate in power market in various forms after power system reform. Meanwhile, great importance has always attached to the construction of the credit system in power industry. Due to the difference between the awareness of performance and the ability to perform, credit risk of power customer will emerge accordingly. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate credit risk of large power customers in the new situation of power market. Firstly, this paper constructs index system of credit risk of large power customers, and establishes evaluation model of interval number and AHP-entropy weight method.

  14. Framework for economic pluvial flood risk assessment considering climate change effects and adaptation benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qianqian; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Halsnæs, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is likely to affect the water cycle by influencing the precipitation patterns. It is important to integrate the anticipated changes into the design of urban drainage in response to the increased risk level in cities. This paper presents a pluvial flood risk assessment framework...... to identify and assess adaptation options in the urban context. An integrated approach is adopted by incorporating climate change impact assessment, flood inundation modeling, economic tool, and risk assessment, hereby developing a step-by-step process for cost-benefit assessment of climate change adaptation...

  15. Using price data to consider risk in the evaluation of forest management investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Baumgartner; Carol A. Hyldahl

    1991-01-01

    Shows how existing information on the historic prices of various timber species and products can be used to provide a measure of the market risk, return, and efficient portfolios of alternative forestry investments using examples from three Midwestern states.

  16. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Water Treatment Plant considering Environmental Health and Safety Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falakh, Fajrul; Setiani, Onny

    2018-02-01

    Water Treatment Plant (WTP) is an important infrastructure to ensure human health and the environment. In its development, aspects of environmental safety and health are of concern. This paper case study was conducted at the Water Treatment Plant Company in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of the occupational safety and health program at the risk management stage. The purpose of this study was to identify potential hazards using hazard identification methods and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using criteria of severity and probability of accident. The results obtained from this risk assessment are 22 potential hazards present in the water purification process. Extreme categories that exist in the risk assessment are leakage of chlorine and industrial fires. Chlorine and fire leakage gets the highest value because its impact threatens many things, such as industrial disasters that could endanger human life and the environment. Control measures undertaken to avoid potential hazards are to apply the use of personal protective equipment, but management will also be better managed in accordance with hazard control hazards, occupational safety and health programs such as issuing work permits, emergency response training is required, Very useful in overcoming potential hazards that have been determined.

  17. Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment in Water Treatment Plant considering Environmental Health and Safety Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falakh Fajrul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water Treatment Plant (WTP is an important infrastructure to ensure human health and the environment. In its development, aspects of environmental safety and health are of concern. This paper case study was conducted at the Water Treatment Plant Company in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Hazard identification and risk assessment is one part of the occupational safety and health program at the risk management stage. The purpose of this study was to identify potential hazards using hazard identification methods and risk assessment methods. Risk assessment is done using criteria of severity and probability of accident. The results obtained from this risk assessment are 22 potential hazards present in the water purification process. Extreme categories that exist in the risk assessment are leakage of chlorine and industrial fires. Chlorine and fire leakage gets the highest value because its impact threatens many things, such as industrial disasters that could endanger human life and the environment. Control measures undertaken to avoid potential hazards are to apply the use of personal protective equipment, but management will also be better managed in accordance with hazard control hazards, occupational safety and health programs such as issuing work permits, emergency response training is required, Very useful in overcoming potential hazards that have been determined.

  18. Opium could be considered an independent risk factor for lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masjedi, Mohammad Reza; Naghan, Parisa Adimi; Taslimi, Shervin; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Ebrahimi, Seyyed Meisam; Khosravi, Adnan; Karimi, Shirin; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mortaz, Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and half of all incident lung cancers are believed to occur in the developing countries, including Iran. We investigated the association of opium with the risk of lung cancer in a case-control study. We enrolled 242 cases and 484 matched controls in this study. A questionnaire was developed, containing questions on basic demographic characteristics, as well as lifelong history of smoking cigarettes, exposure to passive smoking, opium use and alcohol consumption. For smoking cigarettes and opium and also oral opium intake frequency, duration and cumulative use were categorized into three groups: no use, low use and high use. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analysis in men showed that after adjusting for the effect of ethnicity, education and pack years of smoking cigarettes, smoking opium remained as a significant independent risk factor with an OR of 3.1 (95% CI 1.2-8.1). In addition, concomitant heavy smoking of cigarettes and opium dramatically increased the risk of lung cancer to an OR of 35.0 (95% CI 11.4-107.9). This study demonstrated that smoking opium is associated with a high risk of lung cancer as an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Factors Motivating Individuals to Consider Genetic Testing for Type 2 Diabetes Risk Prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wessel

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify attitudes and perceptions of willingness to participate in genetic testing for type 2 diabetes (T2D risk prediction in the general population. Adults (n = 598 were surveyed on attitudes about utilizing genetic testing to predict future risk of T2D. Participants were recruited from public libraries (53%, online registry (37% and a safety net hospital emergency department (10%. Respondents were 37 ± 11 years old, primarily White (54%, female (69%, college educated (46%, with an annual income ≥$25,000 (56%. Half of participants were interested in genetic testing for T2D (52% and 81% agreed/strongly agreed genetic testing should be available to the public. Only 57% of individuals knew T2D is preventable. A multivariate model to predict interest in genetic testing was adjusted for age, gender, recruitment location and BMI; significant predictors were motivation (high perceived personal risk of T2D [OR = 4.38 (1.76, 10.9]; family history [OR = 2.56 (1.46, 4.48]; desire to know risk prior to disease onset [OR = 3.25 (1.94, 5.42]; and knowing T2D is preventable [OR = 2.11 (1.24, 3.60], intention (if the cost is free [OR = 10.2 (4.27, 24.6]; and learning T2D is preventable [OR = 5.18 (1.95, 13.7] and trust of genetic testing results [OR = 0.03 (0.003, 0.30]. Individuals are interested in genetic testing for T2D risk which offers unique information that is personalized. Financial accessibility, validity of the test and availability of diabetes prevention programs were identified as predictors of interest in T2D testing.

  20. Assessing crash risk considering vehicle interactions with trucks using point detector data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Kyung Kate; Jeong, Kyungsoo; Tok, Andre; Ritchie, Stephen G

    2018-03-12

    Trucks have distinct driving characteristics in general traffic streams such as lower speeds and limitations in acceleration and deceleration. As a consequence, vehicles keep longer headways or frequently change lane when they follow a truck, which is expected to increase crash risk. This study introduces several traffic measures at the individual vehicle level to capture vehicle interactions between trucks and non-trucks and analyzed how the measures affect crash risk under different traffic conditions. The traffic measures were developed using headways obtained from Inductive Loop Detectors (ILDs). In addition, a truck detection algorithm using a Gaussian Mixture (GM) model was developed to identify trucks and to estimate truck exposure from ILD data. Using the identified vehicle types from the GM model, vehicle interaction metrics were categorized into three groups based on the combination of leading and following vehicle types. The effects of the proposed traffic measures on crash risk were modeled in two different cases of prior- and non-crash using a case-control approach utilizing a conditional logistic regression. Results showed that the vehicle interactions between the leading and following vehicle types were highly associated with crash risk, and further showed different impacts on crash risk by traffic conditions. Specifically, crashes were more likely to occur when a truck following a non-truck had shorter average headway but greater headway variance in heavy traffic while a non-truck following a truck had greater headway variance in light traffic. This study obtained meaningful conclusions that vehicle interactions involved with trucks were significantly related to the crash likelihood rather than the measures that estimate average traffic condition such as total volume or average headway of the traffic stream. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Children and Pesticides: New Approach to Considering Risk Is Partly in Place. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Janet

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates the use of pesticides at the federal level, reevaluate the amounts of pesticide residues allowed on or in food. The EPA immediately began efforts to consider the additional safety factor for children, using available methods and…

  2. The Optimal Configuration Scheme of the Virtual Power Plant Considering Benefits and Risks of Investors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A virtual power plant (VPP is a special virtual unit that integrates various distributed energy resources (DERs distributed in the generation and consumption sides. The optimal configuration scheme of the VPP needs to break the geographical restrictions to make full use of DERs, considering the uncertainties. First, the components of the DERs and the structure of the VPP are briefly introduced. Next, the cubic exponential smoothing method is adopted to predict the VPP load requirement. Finally, the optimal configuration of the DER capacities inside the VPP is calculated by using portfolio theory and genetic algorithms (GA. The results show that the configuration scheme can optimize the DER capacities considering uncertainties, guaranteeing economic benefits of investors, and fully utilizing the DERs. Therefore, this paper provides a feasible reference for the optimal configuration scheme of the VPP from the perspective of investors.

  3. Integrated framework for the external cost assessment of nuclear power plant accident considering risk aversion: The Korean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the estimation of accident costs within the social costs of nuclear power plants (NPPs) has garnered substantial interest. In particular, the risk aversion behavior of the public toward an NPP accident is considered an important factor when integrating risk aversion into NPP accident cost. In this study, an integrated framework for the external cost assessment of NPP accident that measures the value of statistical life (VSL) and the relative risk aversion (RRA) coefficient for NPP accident based on an individual-level survey is proposed. To derive the willingness to pay and the RRA coefficient for NPP accident risks, a survey was conducted on a sample of 1550 individuals in Korea. The estimation obtained a mean VSL of USD 2.78 million and an RRA coefficient of 1.315. Based on the estimation results in which various cost factors were considered, a multiplication factor of 5.16 and an external cost of NPP accidents of 4.39E−03 USD-cents/kW h were estimated. This study is expected to provide insight to energy policy decision-makers on analyzing the economic validity of NPP compared to other energy sources by reflecting the estimated external cost of NPP accident into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. - Highlights: •External cost assessment framework for NPP is proposed considering risk aversion. •VSL was derived from WTP for mortality risk reduction from hypothetical NPP accident. •RRA was derived to integrate public risk aversion into external cost of NPP accident. •Individual-level survey was conducted to derive WTP and RRA for NPP accident risk. •The external cost was estimated considering the direct cost factors of NPP accident.

  4. Autopistas salvajes: propuesta de WWF España para una Red Estratégica de Corredores Ecológicos entre espacios Red Natura 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Cáceres, Gema; Mateo Sánchez, María Cruz; Fuente Martín, Begoña; Gastón González, Aitor; Saura Martínez, Santiago; Gurrutxaga San Vicente, Mikel

    2018-01-01

    La propuesta de corredores realizada en este documento se basa en los resultados del siguiente estudio encargado por WWF España: Estudio para la identificación de redes de conectividad entre espacios forestales de la Red Natura 2000 en España. ETSI Montes, Forestal y del Medio Natural. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. 2016. Autores: María Cruz Mateo Sánchez, Begoña de la Fuente Martín, Aitor Gastón González y Santiago Saura Martínez de Toda. [ES] Un territorio donde los espacios de valor...

  5. The Evaluation of Mutual Fund Performance in Lithuania Considering Risk and Timing Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Gavrilova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, Lithuania has witnessed a growing interest in investment promoted by the need to successfully manage available funds. Direct investments (e. g. buying and selling stocks require a specific knowledge of investment instruments. Therefore, an ordinary investor finds investment in mutual funds easier and cheaper. Usually the most important questions to the investor include measuring the results of a fund and the quality of the actions performed by the fund managers. The article evaluates the rates of mutual fund performance and identifies their shortages. The methods for evaluating investment return according to the level of risk and timing ability of the fund managers are presented using the Sharpe ratio and Treynor-Mazuy model on the basis of which mutual funds in Lithuania are analyzed.Article in Lithuanian

  6. Spent fuel transport in Romania by road: An approach considering safety, risk and radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    2001-01-01

    The transport of high-level radioactive wastes, involving Type B packages, is a part of the safety of the Romanian waste management programme and the overall aim of this activity is to promote the safe transport of radioactive materials in Romania. The paper presents a safety case analysis of the transport of a single spent fuel CANDU bundle, using a Romanian built Type B package, from the CANDU type nuclear power plant Cernavoda to the INR Pitesti, in order to be examined within INR's hot-cells facilities. The safety assessment includes the following main aspects: (1) evaluation and analysis of available data on road traffic accidents; (2) estimation of the expected frequency for severe road accident scenarios resulting in potential radionuclide release; and (3) evaluation of the expected radiological consequences and accident risks of transport operations. (author)

  7. Considering Vulnerability in Disaster Risk Reduction Plans: From Policy to Practice in Ladakh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Le Masson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Ladakh, India, a mountainous region prone to natural hazards, particularly floods, it is critical to adapt disaster risk reduction (DRR measures to the local environment. The floods that struck Ladakh in 2010 created momentum for local authorities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs to engage in DRR initiatives in order to better prepare people to cope with and recover from emergencies. This paper analyzes the way DRR approaches in Ladakh, from the central government to the district level, take both vulnerability and capacity into account. National and state policies are integrated and reflect the vulnerability concept quite well. However, as the case of Ladakh shows, establishing policies does not guarantee that appropriate practices will follow. Although NGOs' relief efforts in 2010 were praised for building on local communities' context and capacities, most practitioners still view DRR through a hazard-focused lens. Likewise, the policy framework for DRR does not yet address the socioeconomic construction of disasters and is not translated into adequate interventions that build on lessons learned during the 2010 emergency. Development obstacles, such as corruption, may also compromise efforts to translate DRR policies into appropriate and sustainable practices. However, local development projects that enhance the resilience of local mountain communities exist and could be valued as effective DRR. Emphasis should be placed on the practical integration of DRR in sustainable development efforts in order to better tackle disasters.

  8. Standard psychological consultations and follow up for women at increased risk of hereditary breast cancer considering prophylactic mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Murly BM

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women at increased (genetic risk of breast cancer have to weigh the personal pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy (PM as an option to reduce their cancer risk. So far, no routine referral to a psychologist has been investigated for women considering PM. Aim of this study was to asses: 1 the acceptance of the offer of a standard psychological consultation as part of pre-surgical decision-making in high-risk women, 2 reasons for PM and reasons for postponing it, 3 the need for additional psychological interventions, and factors associated, and 4 the frequency of psychiatric/psychological treatment history. Methods During a 30 months period, women at high risk considering PM were offered a psychological consultation. The content of these, and follow-up, consultations were analyzed. Results Most women (70 out of 73 accepted the psychological consultation, and 81% proceeded with PM. Main reasons for undergoing PM were to reduce anxiety about cancer, and to reduce the cancer risk. Uncertainty about surgery and the need for further information were the reasons given most frequently for postponing PM. Additional psychological support was given to 31% before and 14% after PM. The uptake of additional support was significantly higher in women with a BRCA1/2 mutation. A history of psychiatric/psychological treatment was present in 36%, mainly consisting of depression and grief after death of a mother. Conclusion The uptake-rate of the standard psychological consultation indicates a high level of acceptability of this service for women deciding about PM. Since anxiety is one of the main reasons for considering PM, and depression and grief were present in a third, a standard consultation with a psychologist for high-risk women considering PM may be indicated. This may help them arrive at an informed decision, to detect and manage psychological distress, and to plan psychological support services.

  9. Occupational risk factors have to be considered in the definition of high-risk lung cancer populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, P; Gonzalez, M; Bourgkard, E; Courouble, N; Clément-Duchêne, C; Martinet, Y; Févotte, J; Paris, C

    2012-03-27

    The aim of this study was to compute attributable fractions (AF) to occupational factors in an area in North-Eastern France with high lung cancer rates and a past of mining and steel industry. A population-based case-control study among males aged 40-79 was conducted, including confirmed primary lung cancer cases from all hospitals of the study region. Controls were stratified by broad age-classes, district and socioeconomic classes. Detailed occupational and personal risk factors were obtained in face-to-face interviews. Cumulative occupational exposure indices were obtained from the questionnaires. Attributable fractions were computed from multiple unconditional logistic regression models. A total of 246 cases and 531 controls were included. The odds ratios (ORs) adjusted on cumulative smoking and family history of lung cancer increased significantly with the cumulative exposure indices to asbestos, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and crystalline silica, and with exposure to diesel motor exhaust. The AF for occupational factors exceeded 50%, the most important contributor being crystalline silica and asbestos. These AFs are higher than most published figures. This can be because of the highly industrialised area or methods for exposure assessments. Occupational factors are important risk factors and should not be forgotten when defining high-risk lung cancer populations.

  10. ESHOL study reanalysis: All-cause mortality considered by competing risks and time-dependent covariates for renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Maduell

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this analysis of the ESHOL trial confirm that post-dilution OL-HDF reduces all-cause mortality versus hemodialysis in prevalent patients. The original results of the ESHOL study, which censored patients discontinuing the study for any reason, were confirmed in the present ITT population without censures and when all-cause mortality was considered by time-dependent and competing risks for transplantation.

  11. A risk measurement tool for an underground electricity distribution system considering the consequences and uncertainties of manhole events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Thalles Vitelli; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores a risk measure of underground vaults that considers the consequences of arc faults. The increasing use of underground systems, together with the aging of networks, the lack of maintenance and interference from other (third party) underground systems nearby have caused many accidents in urban areas, thus endangering human life. The involvement of a large number (hundreds or thousands) of underground vaults with different characteristics, the lack of historical data on modes of failure, the rarity of the occurrence of some faults, the magnitude of their consequences and the involvement of a complex environment surrounding the hazard zone make risk management even more complex and uncertain. Furthermore, given that the (monetary, time, staff, etc.) resources of an electrical power company are limited and scarce, it is necessary to use decision-making tools that aggregate the consequences and the uncertainties to assess the risks jointly with the preference structure of the company, thus solving the problem more realistically. Therefore, this paper puts forward the use of an additional risk analysis for manhole events in underground electrical distribution networks with a view to its being used as a decision aid tool in risk management. As an illustration of the use of the risk measurement tool proposed, a numerical application is presented. The result rather than showing a ranking of underground vaults, gives a measure of the risk used that can show the decision-maker (DM) how much better one group of alternatives (formed by alternatives with quite similar risk values) is than other groups, based on the DM’s attitude to risk and grounded on the axiomatic structure of utility theory. - Highlights: • The paper proposes a risk measure of underground vaults for manhole events. • It makes risk analysis in underground electrical distribution networks. • It makes more than show a risk ranking of underground vaults. • It can show to the DM how

  12. Operation condition for continuous anti-solvent crystallization of CBZ-SAC cocrystal considering deposition risk of undesired crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimaru, Momoko; Nakasa, Miku; Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Crystallization operation of cocrystal production has deposition risk of undesired crystals. Simultaneously, continuous manufacturing processes are focused on. In this study, conditions for continuous cocrystallization considering risk reduction of undesired crystals deposition were investigated on the view point of thermodynamics and kinetics. The anti-solvent cocrystallization was carried out in four-component system of carbamazepine, saccharin, methanol and water. From the preliminary batch experiment, the relationships among undesired crystal deposition, solution composition decided by mixing ratio of solutions, and residence time for the crystals were considered, and then the conditions of continuous experiment were decided. Under these conditions, the continuous experiment was carried out. The XRD patterns of obtained crystals in the continuous experiment showed that desired cocrystals were obtained without undesired crystals. This experimental result was evaluated by using multi-component phase diagrams from the view point of the operation point's movement. From the evaluation, it was found that there is a certain operation condition which the operation point is fixed with time in the specific domain without the deposition risk of undesired single component crystals. It means the possibility of continuous production of cocrystals without deposition risk of undesired crystals was confirmed by using multi-component phase diagrams.

  13. Ecuadorian Banana Farms Should Consider Organic Banana with Low Price Risks in Their Land-Use Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Luz Maria; Calvas, Baltazar; Knoke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming is a more environmentally friendly form of land use than conventional agriculture. However, recent studies point out production tradeoffs that often prevent the adoption of such practices by farmers. Our study shows with the example of organic banana production in Ecuador that economic tradeoffs depend much on the approach of the analysis. We test, if organic banana should be included in economic land-use portfolios, which indicate how much of the land is provided for which type of land-use. We use time series data for productivity and prices over 30 years to compute the economic return (as annualized net present value) and its volatility (with standard deviation as risk measure) for eight crops to derive land-use portfolios for different levels of risk, which maximize economic return. We find that organic banana is included in land-use portfolios for almost every level of accepted risk with proportions from 1% to maximally 32%, even if the same high uncertainty as for conventional banana is simulated for organic banana. A more realistic, lower simulated price risk increased the proportion of organic banana substantially to up to 57% and increased annual economic returns by up to US$ 187 per ha. Under an assumed integration of both markets, for organic and conventional banana, simulated by an increased coefficient of correlation of economic return from organic and conventional banana (ρ up to +0.7), organic banana holds significant portions in the land-use portfolios tested only, if a low price risk of organic banana is considered. We conclude that uncertainty is a key issue for the adoption of organic banana. As historic data support a low price risk for organic banana compared to conventional banana, Ecuadorian farmers should consider organic banana as an advantageous land-use option in their land-use portfolios. PMID:25799506

  14. X-ray attenuation of the liver and kidney in cats considered at varying risk of hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Richard; Niessen, Stijn J; Lamb, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    X-ray attenuation of the liver has been measured using computed tomography (CT) and reported to decrease in cats with experimentally induced hepatic lipidosis. To assess the clinical utility of this technique, medical records and noncontrast CT scans of a series of cats were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 112 cats met inclusion criteria and were stratified into three hepatic lipidosis risk groups. Group 1 cats were considered low-risk based on no history of inappetence or weight loss, and normal serum chemistry values; Group 2 cats were considered intermediate risk based on weight loss, serum hepatic enzymes above normal limits, or reasonably controlled diabetes mellitus; and Group 3 cats were considered high risk based on poorly controlled diabetes mellitus due to hypersomatotropism. Mean CT attenuation values (Hounsfield units, HU) were measured using regions of interest placed within the liver and cranial pole of the right kidney. Hepatic and renal attenuation were weakly positively correlated with each other (r = 0.2, P = 0.03) and weakly negatively correlated with body weight (r = -0.21, P = 0.05, and r = -0.34, P = 0.001, respectively). Mean (SD) hepatic and renal cortical attenuation values were 70.7 (8.7) HU and 49.6 (9.2) HU for Group 1 cats, 71.4 (7.9) HU and 48.6 (9.1) HU for Group 2, and 68.9 (7.6) HU and 47.6 (7.2) HU for Group 3. There were no significant differences in hepatic or renal attenuation among groups. Findings indicated that CT measures of X-ray attenuation in the liver and kidney may not be accurate predictors of naturally occurring hepatic lipidosis in cats. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Quantification of risk considering external events on the change of allowed outage time and the preventive maintenance during power operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Yang, J. E

    2001-03-01

    In this study, for the major safety systems of Ulchin Units 3/4, we quantify the risk on the change of AOT and the PM during power operation to identify the effects on the results of external events PSA when nuclear power plant changes such as allowed outage time are requested. The systems for which the risks on the change of allowed outage time are quantified are High Pressure Safety Injection System (HPSIS), Containment Spray System (CSS), and Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG). The systems for which the risks on the PM during power operation are Low Pressure Safety Injection System (LPSIS), CSS, EDG, Essential Service Water System (ESWS). Following conclusions can be obtained through this study: 1)The increase of core damage frequency ({delta}CDF) on the change of AOT and the conditional core damage probability (CCDP) on the on-line PM of each system are differently quantified according to the cases of considering only internal events or only external events. . 2)It is expected that the quantification of risk including internal and external events is advantageous for the licensee of NPP if the regulatory acceptance criteria for the technical specification changes are relatively set up. However, it is expected to be disadvantageous for the licensee if the acceptance criteria are absolutely set up. 3)It is expected that the conduction on the quantification of only a fire event is sufficient when the quantification of external events PSA model is required for the plant changes of Korea Standard NPPs. 4)It is expected that the quantification of the increase of core damage frequency and the incremental conditional core damage probability on technical specification changes are not needed if the quantification results of those considering only internal events are below regulatory acceptance criteria and the external events PSA results are not greatly affected by the system availability. However, it is expected that the quantification of risk considering external events

  16. Quantification of risk considering external events on the change of allowed outage time and the preventive maintenance during power operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. J.; Kim, K. Y.; Yang, J. E.

    2001-03-01

    In this study, for the major safety systems of Ulchin Units 3/4, we quantify the risk on the change of AOT and the PM during power operation to identify the effects on the results of external events PSA when nuclear power plant changes such as allowed outage time are requested. The systems for which the risks on the change of allowed outage time are quantified are High Pressure Safety Injection System (HPSIS), Containment Spray System (CSS), and Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG). The systems for which the risks on the PM during power operation are Low Pressure Safety Injection System (LPSIS), CSS, EDG, Essential Service Water System (ESWS). Following conclusions can be obtained through this study: 1)The increase of core damage frequency (ΔCDF) on the change of AOT and the conditional core damage probability (CCDP) on the on-line PM of each system are differently quantified according to the cases of considering only internal events or only external events. . 2)It is expected that the quantification of risk including internal and external events is advantageous for the licensee of NPP if the regulatory acceptance criteria for the technical specification changes are relatively set up. However, it is expected to be disadvantageous for the licensee if the acceptance criteria are absolutely set up. 3)It is expected that the conduction on the quantification of only a fire event is sufficient when the quantification of external events PSA model is required for the plant changes of Korea Standard NPPs. 4)It is expected that the quantification of the increase of core damage frequency and the incremental conditional core damage probability on technical specification changes are not needed if the quantification results of those considering only internal events are below regulatory acceptance criteria and the external events PSA results are not greatly affected by the system availability. However, it is expected that the quantification of risk considering external events on

  17. Security-constrained self-scheduling of generation companies in day-ahead electricity markets considering financial risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Vahidinasab, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A security-constrained self-scheduling is presented. ► The proposed framework takes into account the uncertainty of the predicted market prices. ► We model the risk and profit tradeoff of a GENCO based on an efficient multi-objective model. ► Unit commitment and inter-temporal constraints of generators are considered in an MIP model. ► Simulation results are presented on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems. - Abstract: In this paper, a new security-constrained self-scheduling framework incorporating the transmission flow limits in both steady state conditions and post-contingent states is presented to produce efficient bidding strategy for generation companies (GENCOs) in day-ahead electricity markets. Moreover, the proposed framework takes into account the uncertainty of the predicted market prices and models the risk and profit tradeoff of a GENCO based on an efficient multi-objective model. Furthermore, unit commitment and inter-temporal constraints of generators are considered in the suggested model converting it to a mixed-integer programming (MIP) optimization problem. Sensitivity of the proposed framework with respect to both the level of the market prices and adopted risk level is also evaluated in the paper. Simulation results are presented on the IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 118-bus test systems illustrating the performance of the proposed self-scheduling model.

  18. Considering supply risk for supplier selection using an integrated framework of data envelopment analysis and neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nourbakhsh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, supplier selection as an important multi-criteria decision has attracted both the researchers and practitioners. Recently, high incidences of natural disasters, terrorism attacks, labor strikes, and other kinds of risks, also known as disruptions, indicate the vulnerability of procurement process to these unpredicted events. In this study, a new framework is introduced to select suppliers while considering the supply risks. In the proposed framework, an expert is asked to determine the reliability of each procurement element (i.e., production, transportation, and communication based on some proposed risk factors. Then, a distinct Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP network is trained to play the role of the expert opinion for estimating the reliability scores of each procurement. In addition to reliabilities, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is used to take into account the conventional selection criteria: price, delivery, quality, and capacity. A set of Pareto-optimal suppliers is obtained from the combination of efficiencies and reliability scores. Finally, the decision maker is recommended to choose between the non-dominated suppliers. Obtained experiment results indicate the effectiveness of the proposed framework.

  19. A Convex Model of Risk-Based Unit Commitment for Day-Ahead Market Clearing Considering Wind Power Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ning; Kang, Chongqing; Xia, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The integration of wind power requires the power system to be sufficiently flexible to accommodate its forecast errors. In the market clearing process, the scheduling of flexibility relies on the manner in which the wind power uncertainty is addressed in the unit commitment (UC) model. This paper...... and are considered in both the objective functions and the constraints. The RUC model is shown to be convex and is transformed into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem using relaxation and piecewise linearization. The proposed RUC model is tested using a three-bus system and an IEEE RTS79 system...... that the risk modeling facilitates a strategic market clearing procedure with a reasonable computational expense....

  20. A multi-objective model for locating distribution centers in a supply chain network considering risk and inventory decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gharegozloo Hamedani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-objective location problem in a three level supply chain network under uncertain environment considering inventory decisions. The proposed model of this paper considers uncertainty for different parameters including procurement, transportation costs, supply, demand and the capacity of various facilities. The proposed model presents a robust optimization model, which specifies locations of distribution centers to be opened, inventory control parameters (r, Q, and allocation of supply chain components, concurrently. The resulted mixed-integer nonlinear programming minimizes the expected total cost of such a supply chain network comprising location, procurement, transportation, holding, ordering, and shortage costs. The model also minimizes the variability of the total cost of relief chain and minimizes the financial risk or the probability of not meeting a certain budget. We use the ε-constraint method, which is a multi-objective technique with implicit trade-off information given, to solve the problem and using a couple of numerical instances, we examine the performance of the proposed approach.

  1. Considering risk contexts in explaining the paradoxical HIV increase among female sex workers in Mumbai and Thane, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandewar, Sunita V S; Bharat, Shalini; Kongelf, Anine; Pisal, Hemlata; Collumbien, Martine

    2016-01-28

    complex urban environments that favour abolition. Increased stigmatisation and dispersal of risk can no longer be considered as unexpected. Reaching the increasing proportion of sex workers who intentionally avoid HIV prevention programmes has become the main challenge. Future evaluations need to incorporate building 'dark logic' models to predict potential harms.

  2. Considering a frame of reference for physical activity research related to the cardiometabolic risk profile in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancampfort, Davy; Knapen, Jan; Probst, Michel; van Winkel, Ruud; Deckx, Seppe; Maurissen, Katrien; Peuskens, Joseph; De Hert, Marc

    2010-05-30

    This article reviews evidence that researchers and mental health service providers need to take into account four modifiable factors that affect the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in people with schizophrenia: (a) physical activity as part of a health-related lifestyle, (b) physical fitness, (c) mental health status and (d) antipsychotic medication. The implementation of physical activity in order to prevent and treat cardiometabolic risk factors in people with schizophrenia is discussed. English language articles published until July 2009 were identified by PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The search terms schizophrenia and metabolic syndrome, physical activity, health, fitness, and lifestyle were used. Physical activity interventions result in positive effects on metabolic outcomes, physical fitness, health-related behavior and mental health. Considering present knowledge, physical therapists should take into account the emotional (negative symptoms, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and stress) and physiological (cardiometabolic parameters) components of mental illness when offering physical activity interventions. The physical activity stimulus should be adapted to the individual's physical fitness level and the side effects of the antipsychotic medications. More research is needed to assist in the practical development of effective evidence-based preventive and curative strategies in psychiatric services for metabolic syndrome in persons with schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE): considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Markus; van der Ent, Ruud; Eisner, Stephanie; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Aiming to enhance the analysis of water consumption and resulting consequences along the supply chain of products, the water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) model is introduced. On the accounting level, atmospheric evaporation recycling within drainage basins is considered for the first time, which can reduce water consumption volumes by up to 32%. Rather than predicting impacts, WAVE analyzes the vulnerability of basins to freshwater depletion. Based on local blue water scarcity, the water depletion index (WDI) denotes the risk that water consumption can lead to depletion of freshwater resources. Water scarcity is determined by relating annual water consumption to availability in more than 11,000 basins. Additionally, WDI accounts for the presence of lakes and aquifers which have been neglected in water scarcity assessments so far. By setting WDI to the highest value in (semi)arid basins, absolute freshwater shortage is taken into account in addition to relative scarcity. This avoids mathematical artifacts of previous indicators which turn zero in deserts if consumption is zero. As illustrated in a case study of biofuels, WAVE can help to interpret volumetric water footprint figures and, thus, promotes a sustainable use of global freshwater resources.

  4. Tsunami risk assessment for facility group over a wide area using inundation assessment method considering energy conservation law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukutani, Yo; Imamura, Fumihiko; Tokunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    We propose a quantitative evaluation method of overall tsunami risk that the entire facility group over a wide area holds. We considerably reduced the calculation cost for tsunami inundation depth by adopting the evaluation method using energy conservation law as compared with the evaluation method using non-linear long wave equation. For financial institutions such as banks and insurance companies with contractors over a wide area and business companies with multiple their assets and facilities in various places, the proposed evaluation method in this study could be a useful approach to implement their risk-based management decisions for tsunami risk. (author)

  5. Focussed capacity markets. A new market design for the transition to a new energy system. Study for the environmental foundation WWF Deutschland; Fokussierte Kapazitaetsmaerkte. Ein neues Marktdesign fuer den Uebergang zu einem neuen Energiesystem. Studie fuer die Umweltstiftung WWF Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Hermann, Hauke [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Berlin (Germany); Schlemmermeier, Ben; Diermann, Carsten [LBD-Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Berlin (Germany); Hammerstein, Christian von [RAUE LLP, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-10-08

    The German and European power supply systems face extensive changes. With the energy policy decisions made in 2010 and 2011 Germany has set itself the goal of comprehensively reducing the greenhouse gas emissions of electricity production by the middle of this century, of shifting its basis largely to renewable energies and of phasing out the use of nuclear energy by 2022. Alongside the phase-out of over 20,000 megawatts of electricity capacity from nuclear power plants, more than 10,000 megawatts of capacity from incumbent power plants are at acute risk of decommissioning. In addition the building of approx. 5,000 mega-watts of new power plant capacity up to 2020 and at least an additional 10,000 mega-watts up to 2030 has to be ensured to flank the planned expansion of renewable energies with residual load power plants which guarantee security of supply. Germany's network is part of the interconnected Continental European power system, but a closer analysis shows that power plant capacities from abroad cannot make a significant contribution to guaranteeing security of supply in Germany in the medium term. A capacity market instrument primarily serves to guarantee security of supply; yet objectives such as maintaining competition intensity, minimising costs for electricity con-sumers and meeting at least Germany's climate policy targets also have to be taken into account. In addition a contribution has to be made to transforming the power supply system; the building of new, very flexible and low emission power plants which complement the fluctuating electricity production from wind and solar energy is essential for technical and economic reasons. In view of these criteria and the problems of the capacity market models put forward to date (strategic reserve, a comprehensive capacity market), the concept of the ''focused capacity market'' is being developed. This design option for a capacity market consists of two different segments, for

  6. Risk Assessment for Distribution Systems Using an Improved PEM-Based Method Considering Wind and Photovoltaic Power Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwu Gong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The intermittency and variability of permeated distributed generators (DGs could cause many critical security and economy risks to distribution systems. This paper applied a certain mathematical distribution to imitate the output variability and uncertainty of DGs. Then, four risk indices—EENS (expected energy not supplied, PLC (probability of load curtailment, EFLC (expected frequency of load curtailment, and SI (severity index—were established to reflect the system risk level of the distribution system. For the certain mathematical distribution of the DGs’ output power, an improved PEM (point estimate method-based method was proposed to calculate these four system risk indices. In this improved PEM-based method, an enumeration method was used to list the states of distribution systems, and an improved PEM was developed to deal with the uncertainties of DGs, and the value of load curtailment in distribution systems was calculated by an optimal power flow algorithm. Finally, the effectiveness and advantages of this proposed PEM-based method for distribution system assessment were verified by testing a modified IEEE 30-bus system. Simulation results have shown that this proposed PEM-based method has a high computational accuracy and highly reduced computational costs compared with other risk assessment methods and is very effective for risk assessments.

  7. Minarchy Considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Garner

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Whilst some defenders of the minimal, limited state or government hold that the state is “a necessary evil,” others would consider that this claim that the state is evil concedes too much ground to anarchists. In this article I intend to discuss the views of some who believe that government is a good thing, and their arguments for supporting this position. My main conclusions will be that, in each case, the proponents of a minimal state, or “minarchy,” fail to justify as much as what they call government, and so fail to oppose anarchism, or absences of what they call government.

  8. Power system operation risk analysis considering charging load self-management of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Wang, Dan; Jia, Hongjie; Djilali, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The interactive mechanism between system and PHEVs is presented. • The charging load self-management without sacrificing user requirements is proposed. • The charging load self-management is coupled to system operation risk analysis. • The charging load self-management can reduce the extra risk brought by PHEVs. • The charging load self-management can shift charging power to the time with low risk. - Abstract: Many jurisdictions around the world are supporting the adoption of electric vehicles through incentives and the deployment of a charging infrastructure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), with offer mature technology and stable performance, are expected to gain an increasingly larger share of the consumer market. The aggregated effect on power grid due to large-scale penetration of PHEVs needs to be analyzed. Nighttime-charging which typically characterizes PHEVs is helpful in filling the nocturnal load valley, but random charging of large PHEV fleets at night may result in new load peaks and valleys. Active response strategy is a potentially effective solution to mitigate the additional risks brought by the integration of PHEVs. This paper proposes a power system operation risk analysis framework in which charging load self-management is used to control system operation risk. We describe an interactive mechanism between the system and PHEVs in conjunction with a smart charging model is to simulate the time series power consumption of PHEVs. The charging load is managed with adjusting the state transition boundaries and without violating the users’ desired charging constraints. The load curtailment caused by voltage or power flow violation after outages is determined by controlling charging power. At the same time, the system risk is maintained under an acceptable level through charging load self-management. The proposed method is implemented using the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) and

  9. Support to triage and public risk perception considering long-term response to a Cs-137 radiological dispersive device scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Cristiane Ps; Souza, Cláudio J; Camerini, Eduardo Sn; Alves, Isabela S; Vital, Hélio C; Healy, Matthew Jf; Ramos De Andrade, Edson

    2018-01-01

    A radiological dispersive device (RDD) spreads radioactive material, complicates the treatment of physical injuries, raises cancer risk, and induces disproportionate fear. Simulating such an event enables more effective and efficient utilization of the triage and treatment resources of staff, facilities, and space. Fast simulation can give detail on events in progress or future events. The resources for triage and treatment of contaminated trauma victims can differ for pure exposure individuals, while discouraging the "worried well" from presenting in the crisis phase by media announcement would relieve pressure on hospital facilities. The proposed methodology integrates capabilities from different platforms in a convergent way composed of three phases: (a) scenario simulation, (b) data generation, and (c) risk assessment for triage focused on follow-up epidemiological assessment. Simulations typically indicate that most of the affected population does not require immediate medical assistance. Medical triage for the few severely injured and the radiological triage to diminish the contamination with radioactivity will always be the priority. For this study, however, higher priorities should be given to individuals from radiological "warm" and "hot" zones as required by risk criteria. The proposed methodology could thus help to (a) filter and reduce the number of individuals to be attended, (b) optimize the prioritization of medical care, (c) reduce or prepare for future costs, (d) effectively locate the operational triage site to avoid possible contamination on the main facility, and (e) provide the scientific data needed to develop an adequate approach to risk and its proper communication.

  10. Risk and Resilience Analysis of Complex Network Systems Considering Cascading Failure and Recovery Strategy Based on Coupled Map Lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchun Ren

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk and resilience are important and challenging issues in complex network systems since a single failure may trigger a whole collapse of the systems due to cascading effect. New theories, models, and methods are urgently demanded to deal with this challenge. In this paper, a coupled map lattices (CML based approach is adopted to analyze the risk of cascading process in Watts-Strogatz (WS small-world network and Barabási and Albert (BA scale-free network, respectively. Then, to achieve an effective and robust system and provide guidance in countering the cascading failure, a modified CML model with recovery strategy factor is proposed. Numerical simulations are put forward based on small-world CML and scale-free CML. The simulation results reveal that appropriate recovery strategies would significantly improve the resilience of networks.

  11. Risk assessment and uncertainty of the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of California considering environmental variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis César Almendarez-Hernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp fishery off the Mexican Pacific coast is the country's most important fishery from the economic standpoint. However, it faces serious problems, including the fleet's overcapitalization and age, in addition to the environmental variability that affects the size of catches. Thus, this activity depends on a variety of factors that add uncertainty to the profitability of fishing vessels. This study aims to estimate the probability of success and economic risk of "type vessels" under two different environmental variability scenarios in the Gulf of California. The results from the economic simulation pointed to the vessel type used in Guaymas (Sonora as the most efficient one under a neutral climate change scenario, showing a homogeneous behaviour in physical characteristics and mode of operation. By contrast, under a scenario of a monotonic rise in sea surface temperature, the shrimp fishery faces a greater risk of incurring economic losses. The simulated climate behaviour scenarios revealed that the activity involves a moderate economic profitability under the neutral scenario; however, under the warming scenario, profitability may be low or even nil due to the risks and uncertainty resulting from the influence of environmental phenomena.

  12. Water shortage risk assessment considering large-scale regional transfers: a copula-based uncertainty case study in Lunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xueping; Liu, Yinzhu; Sun, Bowen

    2018-06-05

    The risk of water shortage caused by uncertainties, such as frequent drought, varied precipitation, multiple water resources, and different water demands, brings new challenges to the water transfer projects. Uncertainties exist for transferring water and local surface water; therefore, the relationship between them should be thoroughly studied to prevent water shortage. For more effective water management, an uncertainty-based water shortage risk assessment model (UWSRAM) is developed to study the combined effect of multiple water resources and analyze the shortage degree under uncertainty. The UWSRAM combines copula-based Monte Carlo stochastic simulation and the chance-constrained programming-stochastic multiobjective optimization model, using the Lunan water-receiving area in China as an example. Statistical copula functions are employed to estimate the joint probability of available transferring water and local surface water and sampling from the multivariate probability distribution, which are used as inputs for the optimization model. The approach reveals the distribution of water shortage and is able to emphasize the importance of improving and updating transferring water and local surface water management, and examine their combined influence on water shortage risk assessment. The possible available water and shortages can be calculated applying the UWSRAM, also with the corresponding allocation measures under different water availability levels and violating probabilities. The UWSRAM is valuable for mastering the overall multi-water resource and water shortage degree, adapting to the uncertainty surrounding water resources, establishing effective water resource planning policies for managers and achieving sustainable development.

  13. Aspects of safety science to be considered when comparing risks in the conversion of energy from fossil, nuclear and regenerative primary energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    To achieve a valid comparison it will be necessary to ensure that a roughly uniform level of knowledge and understanding in the application of risk analysis as well as in the specific energy technology is available to all the groups conducting the analyses. Experience of major risk studies has highlighted the improvements introduced as a direct result. That may not be essential to the risk comparison itself, but it seems a positive aspect certain to repay consideration. Quite apart from the actual execution of the risk studies it is important to consider at all stages the limitations of a purely numerical description of the risks. Whilst maintaining full scientific rigour in evaluating the risks, that will not tell the whole story and the study will need supplementary considerations to enable a full perspective to emerge. (orig.)

  14. Development of Optimization method about Capital Structure and Senior-Sub Structure by considering Project-Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Shigeru; Ikeda, Yuichi; Fukui, Chihiro; Tateshita, Fumihiko

    Private finance initiative is a business scheme that materializes social infrastructure and public services by utilizing private-sector resources. In this paper we propose a new method to optimize capital structure, which is the ratio of capital to debt, and senior-sub structure, which is the ratio of senior loan to subordinated loan, for private finance initiative. We make the quantitative analysis of a private finance initiative's project using the proposed method. We analyze trade-off structure between risk and return in the project, and optimize capital structure and senior-sub structure. The method we propose helps to improve financial stability of the project, and to make a fund raising plan that is expected to be reasonable for project sponsor and moneylender.

  15. Can Single Positive Core Prostate Cancer at biopsy be Considered a Low-Risk Disease after Radical Prostatectomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kupka da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Single positive core in a prostate biopsy is usually associated with indolent prostate cancer (PCa and is one of the active surveillance (AS inclusion criteria. We investigated whether single positive core PCa at biopsy could define an archetype of low-risk disease. Materials and Methods A total of 1320 consecutive patients were enrolled. Among them, 249 patients with single positive core PCa were followed up, and the clinical and pathological parameters influencing prognosis were analyzed. Results Out of the 249 patients, 172 (69.0% had pathological findings ≥ pT2c and 87 (34.9% had an undergraded Gleason Score (GS based on the biopsy. Positive surgical margins (PSMs, extraprostatic extension (EPE and seminal vesicle invasion (SVI were found in 20.8%, 10.0% and 6.0% of patients, respectively. In a comparative analysis, we found that the PSA level, prostate weight and number of cores at biopsy are essential to correctly predict an indolent PCa. A total of 125 patients (67.3% with nonpalpable tumors became high-risk tumors (pT2c-T3. Analyzing only nonpalpable tumors with a GS of 6 at biopsy (156 patients, we noted that 106 (67.9% of cT1 progressed from cT1c to pT2c-pT3. Conclusions Single core PCa have clinically significant disease in the Radical Prostatectomy specimens, with considerable rates of overgrading for the GS, pT2c-pT3, PSMs, EPE and SVI. The treatment plan must be evaluated individually for patients with single core PCa and must take into account other prognostic factors when determining whether a patient should be managed with AS.

  16. A Multiobjective Stochastic Production-Distribution Planning Problem in an Uncertain Environment Considering Risk and Workers Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. J. Mirzapour Al-e-Hashem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective two stage stochastic programming model is proposed to deal with a multi-period multi-product multi-site production-distribution planning problem for a midterm planning horizon. The presented model involves majority of supply chain cost parameters such as transportation cost, inventory holding cost, shortage cost, production cost. Moreover some respects as lead time, outsourcing, employment, dismissal, workers productivity and training are considered. Due to the uncertain nature of the supply chain, it is assumed that cost parameters and demand fluctuations are random variables and follow from a pre-defined probability distribution. To develop a robust stochastic model, an additional objective functions is added to the traditional production-distribution-planning problem. So, our multi-objective model includes (i the minimization of the expected total cost of supply chain, (ii the minimization of the variance of the total cost of supply chain and (iii the maximization of the workers productivity through training courses that could be held during the planning horizon. Then, the proposed model is solved applying a hybrid algorithm that is a combination of Monte Carlo sampling method, modified -constraint method and L-shaped method. Finally, a numerical example is solved to demonstrate the validity of the model as well as the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  17. Computing the Risk of Postprandial Hypo- and Hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Considering Intrapatient Variability and Other Sources of Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jaramillo, Maira; Calm, Remei; Bondia, Jorge; Tarín, Cristina; Vehí, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article was to develop a methodology to quantify the risk of suffering different grades of hypo- and hyperglycemia episodes in the postprandial state. Methods Interval predictions of patient postprandial glucose were performed during a 5-hour period after a meal for a set of 3315 scenarios. Uncertainty in the patient's insulin sensitivities and carbohydrate (CHO) contents of the planned meal was considered. A normalized area under the curve of the worst-case predicted glucose excursion for severe and mild hypo- and hyperglycemia glucose ranges was obtained and weighted accordingly to their importance. As a result, a comprehensive risk measure was obtained. A reference model of preprandial glucose values representing the behavior in different ranges was chosen by a ξ2 test. The relationship between the computed risk index and the probability of occurrence of events was analyzed for these reference models through 19,500 Monte Carlo simulations. Results The obtained reference models for each preprandial glucose range were 100, 160, and 220 mg/dl. A relationship between the risk index ranges 120 and the probability of occurrence of mild and severe postprandial hyper- and hypoglycemia can be derived. Conclusions When intrapatient variability and uncertainty in the CHO content of the meal are considered, a safer prediction of possible hyper- and hypoglycemia episodes induced by the tested insulin therapy can be calculated. PMID:20144339

  18. Risk assessment and adaptive runoff utilization in water resource system considering the complex relationship among water supply, electricity generation and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J.; Zeng, X.; Mo, L.; Chen, L.; Jiang, Z.; Feng, Z.; Yuan, L.; He, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Generally, the adaptive utilization and regulation of runoff in the source region of China's southwest rivers is classified as a typical multi-objective collaborative optimization problem. There are grim competitions and incidence relation in the subsystems of water supply, electricity generation and environment, which leads to a series of complex problems represented by hydrological process variation, blocked electricity output and water environment risk. Mathematically, the difficulties of multi-objective collaborative optimization focus on the description of reciprocal relationships and the establishment of evolving model of adaptive systems. Thus, based on the theory of complex systems science, this project tries to carry out the research from the following aspects: the changing trend of coupled water resource, the covariant factor and driving mechanism, the dynamic evolution law of mutual feedback dynamic process in the supply-generation-environment coupled system, the environmental response and influence mechanism of coupled mutual feedback water resource system, the relationship between leading risk factor and multiple risk based on evolutionary stability and dynamic balance, the transfer mechanism of multiple risk response with the variation of the leading risk factor, the multidimensional coupled feedback system of multiple risk assessment index system and optimized decision theory. Based on the above-mentioned research results, the dynamic method balancing the efficiency of multiple objectives in the coupled feedback system and optimized regulation model of water resources is proposed, and the adaptive scheduling mode considering the internal characteristics and external response of coupled mutual feedback system of water resource is established. In this way, the project can make a contribution to the optimal scheduling theory and methodology of water resource management under uncertainty in the source region of Southwest River.

  19. The effect of price and production risks on optimal farm plans in Swiss dairy production considering 2 different milk quota systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, S; Finger, R

    2013-04-01

    The amount of milk produced on Swiss dairy farms is restricted by contracts between the farmers and their marketing agent. In the past, these contracts have been calculated on a yearly base. Due to a switch in agricultural policy, these yearly contracts are currently more and more replaced by contracts calculated on a monthly base. These new contracts are assumed to restrict the flexibility of farmers to react on changes in milk price as well as on changes in fodder availability. Thus, the contract design is expected to influence farmers' ability to cope with risks and, thus, to influence the farm's gross margin variability. Applying a bioeconomic whole-farm model, the effects of price and weather risk as well as different risk-management strategies on the gross margin and the variability of the gross margin in Swiss dairy production are assessed under the 2 contract designs. We consider both risk-neutral and risk-averse behavior of farmers in our study. Results show that gross margin is slightly higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. Variability of gross margin is also higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. If the farmer is assumed to be risk averse, under both contracts he can reduce the coefficient of variation of the gross margin by almost 20% at opportunity costs below 1% of the gross margin. To reduce variability of gross margin under both contracts the size of the feedstock needs to be increased. This increase, however, must be considerably higher under the monthly contract than under the yearly contract. An additional risk-management strategy under a monthly contract is an increase in the area used as intensive pasture to ensure fodder availability in years with unfavorable weather. Under the yearly contract, an increase in the area used as extensive pasture is shown to be more favorable because it increases the amount of direct payments the farmer will receive. Additional restrictions in farm management due to a monthly

  20. The Decision-Making Process of Genetically At-Risk Couples Considering Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: Initial Findings from a Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E.; Gallo, Agatha M.; Kavanaugh, Karen; Olshansky, Ellen; Schwartz, Alan; Tur-Kaspa, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    Exponential growth in genomics has led to public and private initiatives worldwide that have dramatically increased the number of procreative couples who are aware of their ability to transmit genetic disorders to their future children. Understanding how couples process the meaning of being genetically at risk for their procreative life lags far behind the advances in genomic and reproductive sciences. Moreover, society, policy makers, and clinicians are not aware of the experiences and nuances involved when modern couples are faced with using Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD). The purpose of this study was to discover the decision-making process of genetically at-risk couples as they decide whether to use PGD to prevent the transmission of known single-gene or sex-linked genetic disorders to their children. A qualitative, grounded theory design guided the study in which 22 couples (44 individual partners) from the USA, who were actively considering PGD, participated. Couples were recruited from June 2009 to May 2010 from the Internet and from a large PGD center and a patient newsletter. In-depth semi-structured interviews were completed with each individual partner within the couple dyad, separate from their respective partner. We discovered that couples move through four phases (Identify, Contemplate, Resolve, Engage) of a complex, dynamic, and iterative decision-making process where multiple, sequential decisions are made. In the Identify phase, couples acknowledge the meaning of their at-risk status. Parenthood and reproductive options are explored in the Contemplate phase, where 41% of couples remained for up to 36 months before moving into the Resolve phase. In Resolve, one of three decisions about PGD use is reached, including: Accepting, Declining, or Oscillating. Actualizing decisions occur in the Engage phase. Awareness of the decision-making process among genetically at-risk couples provides foundational work for understanding critical processes

  1. Optimization of the fractionated irradiation scheme considering physical doses to tumor and organ at risk based on dose–volume histograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugano, Yasutaka [Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Mizuta, Masahiro [Laboratory of Advanced Data Science, Information Initiative Center, Hokkaido University, Kita-11, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0811 (Japan); Takao, Seishin; Shirato, Hiroki; Sutherland, Kenneth L. [Department of Radiation Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-15, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Date, Hiroyuki, E-mail: date@hs.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Health Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-12, Nishi-5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Radiotherapy of solid tumors has been performed with various fractionation regimens such as multi- and hypofractionations. However, the ability to optimize the fractionation regimen considering the physical dose distribution remains insufficient. This study aims to optimize the fractionation regimen, in which the authors propose a graphical method for selecting the optimal number of fractions (n) and dose per fraction (d) based on dose–volume histograms for tumor and normal tissues of organs around the tumor. Methods: Modified linear-quadratic models were employed to estimate the radiation effects on the tumor and an organ at risk (OAR), where the repopulation of the tumor cells and the linearity of the dose-response curve in the high dose range of the surviving fraction were considered. The minimization problem for the damage effect on the OAR was solved under the constraint that the radiation effect on the tumor is fixed by a graphical method. Here, the damage effect on the OAR was estimated based on the dose–volume histogram. Results: It was found that the optimization of fractionation scheme incorporating the dose–volume histogram is possible by employing appropriate cell surviving models. The graphical method considering the repopulation of tumor cells and a rectilinear response in the high dose range enables them to derive the optimal number of fractions and dose per fraction. For example, in the treatment of prostate cancer, the optimal fractionation was suggested to lie in the range of 8–32 fractions with a daily dose of 2.2–6.3 Gy. Conclusions: It is possible to optimize the number of fractions and dose per fraction based on the physical dose distribution (i.e., dose–volume histogram) by the graphical method considering the effects on tumor and OARs around the tumor. This method may stipulate a new guideline to optimize the fractionation regimen for physics-guided fractionation.

  2. An overview of acceptance and knowledge of Angra dos Reis city about the operation of the nuclear power plants considering the associated risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges; Delcourt, Jules H.

    2015-01-01

    beginning of operation of the nuclear power plants, several modifications of the legislation and improvements on the basic knowledge dissemination related to the operation of the plants, under the regulatory and operational point of view were made, with the objective of improving this process. The present work intends to present the evolution of the process of improvement of the local population information on the safety, risks and benefits of the operation of nuclear plants, and the use of nuclear energy in general, focusing on the main governmental and private organizations and institutions involved. A minimum knowledge about these topics is essential so that the population can have a real vision of the operation of the nuclear power plant and can issue a judgment on the operation safety and acceptance of nuclear power plants. As a final result of this work, we present the results of a field survey carried out with certain segments of the local population, focusing on the academic environment, including teachers and students, and municipal workers, involved in the day-to-day care of the population, considered as opinion multipliers in order to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the actual process of informing the public. (author)

  3. An overview of acceptance and knowledge of Angra dos Reis city about the operation of the nuclear power plants considering the associated risks and benefits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges, E-mail: jeferson@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/CGRC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Reatores e do Ciclo Combustivel; Ribeiro, Katia Maria Bruno; Medice Junior, Fabio, E-mail: Katiapsi.67@gmail.com [Universidade Estacio de Sa (UNESA), Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil); Delcourt, Jules H., E-mail: juleshd@gmail.com [Colegio Naval, Angra dos Reis, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    beginning of operation of the nuclear power plants, several modifications of the legislation and improvements on the basic knowledge dissemination related to the operation of the plants, under the regulatory and operational point of view were made, with the objective of improving this process. The present work intends to present the evolution of the process of improvement of the local population information on the safety, risks and benefits of the operation of nuclear plants, and the use of nuclear energy in general, focusing on the main governmental and private organizations and institutions involved. A minimum knowledge about these topics is essential so that the population can have a real vision of the operation of the nuclear power plant and can issue a judgment on the operation safety and acceptance of nuclear power plants. As a final result of this work, we present the results of a field survey carried out with certain segments of the local population, focusing on the academic environment, including teachers and students, and municipal workers, involved in the day-to-day care of the population, considered as opinion multipliers in order to verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the actual process of informing the public. (author)

  4. Guide to Considering Children's Health When Developing EPA Actions: Implementing Executive Order 13045 and EPA's Policy on Evaluating Health Risks to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations on integrating children's health considerations into EPA's Action Development Process (ADP). Also how to identify economically significant actions, disproportionate risk, and developing the Analytical Blueprint.

  5. Awareness of preventive medication among women at high risk for breast cancer and their willingness to consider transdermal or oral tamoxifen: a focus group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavites, Lindsey C.; Allu, Subhashini; Khan, Seema A.; Kaiser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Despite demonstrated efficacy, acceptance of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen, for breast cancer risk reduction remains low. Delivering SERMs via local transdermal therapy (LTT) could significantly reduce systemic effects and therefore may increase acceptance. We aim to assess women’s knowledge of breast cancer prevention medications and views on LTT of SERMs. Focus groups were conducted with healthy women identified through the comprehensive breast center of a large urban cancer institution. Group discussions covered risk perceptions, knowledge of and concerns about risk reducing medications. Participants reported their perceived risk for breast cancer (average, below/above average), preference for SERMs in a pill or gel form, risk factors, and prior physician recommendations regarding risk-reducing medicines. Participants’ breast cancer risk was estimated using tools based on the Gail Model. Trained personnel examined all qualitative results systematically; risk perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery were tallied quantitatively. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted. Most participants had at least a college degree (78.2 %) and were of European (50 %) or African ancestry (31 %). The majority (72 %) were at elevated risk for breast cancer; approximately half of these women perceived themselves to be at elevated risk. Few participants had prior knowledge of preventive medications. The women noted a number of concerns about LTT, including dosage, impact on day-to-day life, and side effects; nonetheless, over 90 % of the women stated they would prefer LTT to a pill. Awareness of preventive medications was low even in a highly educated sample of high-risk women. If given a choice in the route of administration, most women preferred a gel to a pill, anticipating fewer side effects. Future work should focus on demonstrating equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity of topical over oral medications and on raising

  6. Awareness of preventive medication among women at high risk for breast cancer and their willingness to consider transdermal or oral tamoxifen: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavites, Lindsey C; Allu, Subhashini; Khan, Seema A; Kaiser, Karen

    2015-11-09

    Despite demonstrated efficacy, acceptance of selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen, for breast cancer risk reduction remains low. Delivering SERMs via local transdermal therapy (LTT) could significantly reduce systemic effects and therefore may increase acceptance. We aim to assess women's knowledge of breast cancer prevention medications and views on LTT of SERMs. Focus groups were conducted with healthy women identified through the comprehensive breast center of a large urban cancer institution. Group discussions covered risk perceptions, knowledge of and concerns about risk reducing medications. Participants reported their perceived risk for breast cancer (average, below/above average), preference for SERMs in a pill or gel form, risk factors, and prior physician recommendations regarding risk-reducing medicines. Participants' breast cancer risk was estimated using tools based on the Gail Model. Trained personnel examined all qualitative results systematically; risk perceptions and preferred method of medication delivery were tallied quantitatively. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted. Most participants had at least a college degree (78.2 %) and were of European (50 %) or African ancestry (31 %). The majority (72 %) were at elevated risk for breast cancer; approximately half of these women perceived themselves to be at elevated risk. Few participants had prior knowledge of preventive medications. The women noted a number of concerns about LTT, including dosage, impact on day-to-day life, and side effects; nonetheless, over 90 % of the women stated they would prefer LTT to a pill. Awareness of preventive medications was low even in a highly educated sample of high-risk women. If given a choice in the route of administration, most women preferred a gel to a pill, anticipating fewer side effects. Future work should focus on demonstrating equivalent efficacy and reduced toxicity of topical over oral medications and on raising

  7. Considering the risk of infection by cryptosporidium via consumption of municipally treated drinking water from a surface water source in a Southwestern Ontario community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, K D M; Fazil, A; Pollari, F; Waltner-Toews, D; Charron, D F; McEwen, S A; Walton, T

    2012-07-01

    Through the use of case-control analyses and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), relative risks of transmission of cryptosporidiosis have been evaluated (recreational water exposure vs. drinking water consumption) for a Canadian community with higher than national rates of cryptosporidiosis. A QMRA was developed to assess the risk of Cryptosporidium infection through the consumption of municipally treated drinking water. Simulations were based on site-specific surface water contamination levels and drinking water treatment log₁₀ reduction capacity for Cryptosporidium. Results suggested that the risk of Cryptosporidium infection via drinking water in the study community, assuming routine operation of the water treatment plant, was negligible (6 infections per 10¹³ persons per day--5th percentile: 2 infections per 10¹⁵ persons per day; 95th percentile: 3 infections per 10¹² persons per day). The risk is essentially nonexistent during optimized, routine treatment operations. The study community achieves between 7 and 9 log₁₀ Cryptosporidium oocyst reduction through routine water treatment processes. Although these results do not preclude the need for constant vigilance by both water treatment and public health professionals in this community, they suggest that the cause of higher rates of cryptosporidiosis are more likely due to recreational water contact, or perhaps direct animal contact. QMRA can be successfully applied at the community level to identify data gaps, rank relative public health risks, and forecast future risk scenarios. It is most useful when performed in a collaborative way with local stakeholders, from beginning to end of the risk analysis paradigm. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-04-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national & international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders' interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  9. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  10. NPP financial and regulatory risks-Importance of a balanced and comprehensive nuclear law for a newcomer country considering nuclear power programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manan, J. A. N. Abd, E-mail: jamalan@tnb.com.my; Mostafa, N. A.; Salim, M. F. [Nuclear Energy Department, Planning Division, Tenaga Nasional Berhad Level 32, Dua Sentral, No. 8 Jalan Tun Sambanthan, 50470 Brickfields, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    The nature of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) projects are: long duration (10-15 years for new build), high capital investment, reasonable risks and highly regulated industries to meet national and international requirement on Safety, Security, Safeguards (3S) and Liabilities. It requires long term planning and commitment from siting to final disposal of waste/spent fuel. Potential financial and regulatory risks are common in massive NPP projects and will be magnified in the case of using unproven technology. If the risks are not properly managed, it can lead to high project and operation costs, and, fail to fulfil its objectives to provide compatible electricity prices and. energy security. To ensure successful, the government and investors need to ensure that the NPP project is bankable with low cost of project and funding, have fair treatment and proper risk mitigation, and able to complete on time with no cost overrun. One of the requirements as prerequisite for the development of NPP as stipulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is the establishment of a Legal and Regulatory Framework. The main objective of nuclear law is to ensure that the activities and projects carried-out in the country are legal and compliant to national and international requirements. The law should also be able to provide fair treatment of risks on its activities that is acceptable to investors. The challenge for a newcomer country is to develop a balanced and comprehensive national nuclear law that meet these objectives while taking into consideration various stakeholders’ interest without compromising on safety, security, safeguard, liability requirements and other international obligations. This paper highlights the nature of NPP projects, its potential and associated financial and regulatory risks, and its major concerns and challenges. It proposes possible risks treatment and mitigation through the formulation of a balanced and comprehensive legislation by clear

  11. Missed opportunities-adolescents with a chronic condition (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) describe their cigarette-smoking trajectories and consider health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regber, Susann; Kelly, Kristina Berg

    2007-12-01

    To enhance our knowledge on why adolescents with a chronic condition (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, IDDM) choose to smoke despite possible awareness of health risks. Twelve patients aged 15-20 with IDDM who smoked cigarettes volunteered to participate in qualitative interviews. The results were analyzed with content analysis according to Miles and Huberman 1994. One set confirmed what is earlier known on cigarette smoking among adolescents, such as plain exploring, needs to conform with group norms, identity needs and denial of risks. Other themes gave new insights. One was the emotional attitudes-or lack of emotions-expressed by important others, which exerted strong influences on the smoking trajectories. These emotions affected both initiation and motivation for quitting cigarette smoking and seemed crucial as means of meaningful communications concerning smoking. One theme was a flow path of cigarette smoking, which demonstrated opportunities for secondary prevention. Finally, developmental reasons for smoking and motivation for quitting could be described. There are several windows of opportunities to lower the risk of adolescents with IDDM and other chronic conditions from becoming and remaining smokers, as reported by young people themselves.

  12. Relation between Mammographic Parenchymal Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: Considering BMI, Compressed Breast Thickness and Age of Women in Tabriz, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehnati, Parinaz; Alizadeh, Hamed; Hoda, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic density determined according paranchymal patterns is a risk factor for breast cancer and its relationships with body and other breast characteristics of women is important. The purpose of the present study was to correlate breast parenchymal patterns and mammography abnormality findings with women's BMI, compressed breast thickness (CBT) and age in Tabriz city, Iran. From 1,100 mammograms interpreted by radiologists, breast parenchymal was classified into four categories from Types 1 (mostly fatty) through 4 (mostly fibroglandular tissue). Age, BMI, and CBT were recorded and their relation with risk for the development of breast abnormalities in mammograms was analyzed. In women with a mean age of 45.8±8.63 years 17.7% were in the high density group (Type 3 and 4). A comparison of four types of breast paranchymal with BMI, CBT and age showed inverse relations to breast density. Abnormal mammographic findings were 25.8% of all reported mammograms with a circular mass (12.7%) as the most common abnormality. About 21% abnormal cases were in less than 40 years. Increasing of BMI had significant relation with breast abnormality but in CBT was not observed. Measurement of women's body characteristics is useful for assistance in mammography diagnosis as well as selection of imaging instrument by high sensitivity for following patient in future. The effects of age, CBT and BMI groups on the breast paranchymal were significant.

  13. Exposure risk assessment to ochratoxin A through consumption of juice and wine considering the effect of steam extraction time and vinification stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachery, Bruna; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Dal Magro, Lucas; Manfroi, Vitor; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this study were (i) to verify the effect of steam extraction used in juice production and the stages of vinification on the ochratoxin A (OTA) levels found in grapes naturally contaminated, and (ii) evaluate the risk of exposure to this toxin when the daily consumption of juice and wine is followed to prevent cardiovascular disease. OTA-producing fungi were isolated from Cabernet Sauvignon, Moscato Itálico and Concord grapes harvested from the same vineyard and intended to produce red wine, white wine and juice, respectively. The highest levels of this toxin were found in the Concord grapes used for juice production. Although greater reduction in OTA levels occurred during juice production (73%) compared to winemaking (66 and 44%, for red and white, respectively), the estimated OTA exposure through juice was higher than the tolerable intake established for this toxin by JECFA. The risk associated with juice consumption, rather than wine, can be explained by (i) higher OTA levels found in Concord must than those of Cabernet and Moscato, indicating that Concord grapes appear to be more susceptible to OTA production by toxigenic fungi; and (ii) the daily recommended juice consumption is higher than those proposed to red wine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodagh SM O’Gorman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Clodagh SM O’Gorman1, Michael B O’Neill2, Louise S Conwell31Graduate Entry Medical School, University of Limerick, Ireland, and Mid-Western Regional Hospital, Limerick, Ireland; 2Mayo General Hospital, Castlebar, Ireland; 3Royal Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Discipline of Pediatrics and Child Health, and School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth, and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions

  15. Considering statins for cholesterol-reduction in children if lifestyle and diet changes do not improve their health: a review of the risks and benefits.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  16. Radical parametrectomy after 'cut-through' hysterectomy in low-risk early-stage cervical cancer: Time to consider this procedure obsolete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Rene; Echeverri, Lina; Rendon, Gabriel; Munsell, Mark; Gonzalez-Comadran, Mireia; Sanabria, Daniel; Isla, David; Frumovitz, Michael; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study is to identify predictive factors in patients with a diagnosis of early-stage cervical cancer after simple hysterectomy in order to avoid a radical parametrectomy. A retrospective review was performed of all patients who underwent radical parametrectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy at MD Anderson Cancer Center and at the Instituto de Cancerologia Las Americas in Medellin, Colombia from December 1999 to September 2017. We sought to determine the outcomes in patients diagnosed with low-risk factors (squamous, adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous lesions<2cm in size, and invading<10mm) undergoing radical parametrectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. A total of 30 patients were included in the study. The median age was 40.4years (range; 26-60) and median body mass index (BMI) was 26.4kg/m 2 (range; 17.7-40.0). A total 22 patients had tumors<1cm and 8 had tumors between 1 and 2cm. A total of 6 (33%) of 18 patients had evidence of lymph-vascular invasion (LVSI). No radical parametrectomy specimen had residual tumor, involvement of the parametrium, vaginal margin positivity, or lymph node metastasis. None of the patients received adjuvant therapy. After a median follow-up of 99months (range; 6-160) only one patient recurred. Radical parametrectomy may be avoided in patients with low-risk early-stage cervical cancer detected after a simple hysterectomy. Rates of residual disease (parametrial or vaginal) and the need for adjuvant treatments or recurrences are very low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Challenges on network care considering the perceptions of preceptors of a Pet-Network regarding people with disabilities and at-risk infants: access, comprehensiveness and communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Aoki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Health Care Networks (HCN are seen as a possibility for articulating and coordinating actions, health services and is a priority in the health system. One strategy to assure their improvement is the Tutorial Education Program (PET-Redes in the health area. Within this context, it is important to understand the challenges and strengths for the effectiveness of HCN to the network care. Objective: To identify and analyze the perceptions of professionals who are preceptors of PET-Networks (Stork/at-risk infants Network and Disabled People Network about the configuration of the network care and the challenges of professional actions related to it. Method: Qualitative study conducted through two focus groups with professionals that are preceptors of the PET-Networks. Thematic analysis was used for data analysis. Results: Both networks presented the following categories related to the network care configuration: access, comprehensive health care and communication. For this care network configuration, some challenges mentioned include geographical and architectural barriers, lack of social support, lack of transportation, failure on care flow and discontinuities in the communicative process. To deal with these challenges, the following strategies were mentioned: implementation of electronic medical records and formulation of specific forums for debate and articulation of actions, among others. It is important to notice that these categories are intertwined and that more challenges than strategies to overcome them were pointed out by the participants. Conclusion: There are several challenges for effective HCN from different levels and the construction of strategies needs to be convened among all persons involved in the HCN

  18. Considering Student Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, James P.

    2014-01-01

    What does student coaching involve and what considerations make sense in deciding to engage an outside contractor to provide personal coaching? The author explores coaching in light of his own professional experience and uses this reflection as a platform from which to consider the pros and cons of student coaching when deciding whether to choose…

  19. Considering the space environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudenot, J.C.; Fillon, T.; Barrillot, C.; Calvet, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    The high levels of radiation encountered in space and in the upper atmosphere can affect the onboard electronics in satellites, launch vehicles and aircraft. The main categories of radiation in space have been classified into four distinct types; radiation belts, solar flares, cosmic radiation and the solar wind. Most of the risk to modern electronic systems arises from heavy ions. In geostationary and low polar orbits, these originate mainly as protons from solar flares. In medium earth orbits, the main source is trapped protons and the South Atlantic anomaly. (authors)

  20. Telecommuting. Factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arruda, K A

    2001-10-01

    1. Telecommuting is a work arrangement in which employees work part time or full time from their homes or smaller telework centers. They communicate with employers via computer. 2. Telecommuting can raise legal issues for companies. Can telecommuting be considered a reasonable accommodation under the Americans With Disabilities Act? When at home, is a worker injured within the course and scope of their employment for purposes of workers' compensation? 3. Occupational and environmental health nurses may need to alter existing programs to meet the distinct needs of telecommuters. Often, there are ergonomic issues and home office safety issues which are not of concern to other employees. Additionally, occupational and environmental health nurses may have to offer programs in new formats (e.g., Internet or Intranet programs) to effectively communicate with teleworkers.

  1. Now consider diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungey, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    The authors want to talk about future work, but first he will reply to Stan Cowley's comment on his naivety in believing in the whole story to 99% confidence in '65, when he knew about Fairfield's results. Does it matter whether you make the right judgment about theories? Yes, it does, particularly for experimentalists perhaps, but also for theorists. The work you do later depends on the judgment you've made on previous work. People have wasted a lot of time developing on insecure or even wrong foundations. Now for future work. One mild surprise the authors have had is that they haven't heard more about diffusion, in two contexts. Gordon Rostoker is yet to come and he may talk about particles getting into the magnetosphere by diffusion. Lots of noise is observed and so diffusion must happen. If time had not been short, the authors were planning to discuss in a handwaving way what sort of diffusion mechanisms one might consider. The other aspect of diffusion he was going to talk about is at the other end of things and is velocity diffusion, which is involved in anomalous resistivity

  2. A six-year retrospective analysis of cut-out risk predictors in cephalomedullary nailing for pertrochanteric fractures: Can the tip-apex distance (TAD) still be considered the best parameter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, G; Bonomo, M; Valpiani, G; Salvatori, G; Gildone, A; Lorusso, V; Massari, L

    2017-08-01

    Intramedullary fixation is considered the most stable treatment for pertrochanteric fractures of the proximal femur and cut-out is one of the most frequent mechanical complications. In order to determine the role of clinical variables and radiological parameters in predicting the risk of this complication, we analysed the data pertaining to a group of patients recruited over the course of six years. A total of 571 patients were included in this study, which analysed the incidence of cut-out in relation to several clinical variables: age; gender; the AO Foundation and Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification system (AO/OTA); type of nail; cervical-diaphyseal angle; surgical wait times; anti-osteoporotic medication; complete post-operative weight bearing; and radiological parameters (namely the lag-screw position with respect to the femoral head, the Cleveland system, the tip-apex distance (TAD), and the calcar-referenced tip-apex distance (CalTAD)). The incidence of cut-out across the sample was 5.6%, with a higher incidence in female patients. A significantly higher risk of this complication was correlated with lag-screw tip positioning in the upper part of the femoral head in the anteroposterior radiological view, posterior in the latero-lateral radiological view, and in the Cleveland peripheral zones. The tip-apex distance and the calcar-referenced tip-apex distance were found to be highly significant predictors of the risk of cut-out at cut-offs of 30.7 mm and 37.3 mm, respectively, but the former appeared more reliable than the latter in predicting the occurrence of this complication. The tip-apex distance remains the most accurate predictor of cut-out, which is significantly greater above a cut-off of 30.7 mm. Cite this article: G. Caruso, M. Bonomo, G. Valpiani, G. Salvatori, A. Gildone, V. Lorusso, L. Massari. A six-year retrospective analysis of cut-out risk predictors in cephalomedullary nailing for pertrochanteric fractures: Can the tip-apex distance

  3. Risk Analysis of Reservoir Operations Considering Short-Term Flood Control and Long-Term Water Supply: A Case Study for the Da-Han Creek Basin in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ming Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study applies an integrated methodology to assess short-term over-levee risk and long-term water shortage risk in the Da-Han Creek basin, which is the most important flood control and water storage system in northern Taiwan. An optimization model for reservoir flood control and water supply is adopted, to determine reservoir releases based on synthetic inflow hydrographs during typhoons, which are generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The release is then used to calculate the water level at a downstream control point using a novel developed back-propagation neural network-based model, to reduce computational complexity and achieve automatic-efficient risk evaluation. The calculated downstream water levels and final reservoir water levels after a typhoon event are used to evaluate the mapped over-levee risk and water shortage risk, respectively. The results showed that the different upper limit settings for the reservoir have a significant influence on the variation of 1.19 × 10−5% to 75.6% of the water shortage risk. This occurs because of the insufficient inflow and narrow storage capacity of the Shih-Men Reservoir during drought periods. However, the upper limit settings have a minor influence (with a variation of only 0.149% to 0.157% on the over-levee risk in typhoon periods, because of the high protection standards for the downstream embankment.

  4. Teenage Pregnancy: Consider the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... poverty, and are at risk of domestic violence. Children of teen parents also are more likely to have health and learning impairment conditions and are more likely to be neglected or abused. Girls born to teen parents are more likely ...

  5. Internal audit consider the implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Grant D; Hamilton, Angela

    2004-06-01

    Internal audit can not only allay external and internal concerns about appropriateness of business operations, but also help improve efficiency and the bottom line. To get an internal audit function under way, healthcare organizations need to obtain board buy-in, form an audit committee of the board, determine resources needed, perform a risk assessment, and develop an internal audit plan.

  6. Considering subject positions with Biesta

    OpenAIRE

    Välitalo, R. (Riku)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract People who attended the ICPIC conference last summer were given a opportunity to consider some perspectives offered by the acknowledged scholar and educational thinker, Gert Biesta. His presentation in Madrid focused on exploring the educational significance of doing philosophy with children from a particular viewpoint. Biesta addressed the question of whether Philosophy for Children (P4C) movement can offer something more than a clear head, that is, a critical, creative, caring a...

  7. Sistema de classificação fuzzy para o risco de infestação por plantas daninhas considerando a sua variabilidade espacial Fuzzy classification system for risk of weed infestation considering spatial variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Bressan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do problema de classificação do risco de infestação por plantas daninhas usando técnicas geoestatísticas, análise de imagens e modelos de classificação fuzzy. Os principais atributos utilizados para descrever a infestação incluem a densidade de sementes, bem como a sua extensão, a cobertura foliar e a agressividade das plantas daninhas em cada região. A densidade de sementes reflete a produção de sementes por unidade de área, e a sua extensão, a influência das sementes vizinhas; a cobertura foliar indica a extensão dos agrupamentos das plantas daninhas emergentes; e a agressividade descreve a porcentagem de ocupação de espécies com alta capacidade de produção de sementes. Os dados da densidade de sementes, da cobertura foliar e da agressividade para as diferentes regiões são obtidos a partir de simulação com modelos matemáticos de populações. Neste artigo propõe-se um sistema de classificação fuzzy utilizando os atributos descritos para inferir os riscos de infestação de regiões da cultura por plantas daninhas. Resultados de simulação são apresentados para ilustrar o uso desse sistema na aplicação localizada de herbicida.This paper deals with the problem of classifying the risk of infestation by weeds in a field using geoestatistics techniques, image analysis and fuzzy classification models. The main attributes used to describe the infestation include seed density, seed density patch, weed cover and aggressivity to produce seeds in each region. Seed density reflects seed production per area unit; seed density patch reflects the influence of the neighbouring seeds in a clustering; weed cover indicates the extension of the emergent weed plant clusterings; and, finally, aggressivity describes the percentage of occupation of species with high weed seed production capacity. Data for seed density, weed cover and aggressivity for the different regions are obtained from mathematical models. In

  8. Modelling parking behaviour considering heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, G.A.; Ibeas Portilla, A.; Alonso Oreña, B.; Olio, L. del

    2016-07-01

    Most of motorized trips in cities of middle and small size are made in public transport and mainly in private vehicle, this has caused a saturation in parking systems of the cities, causing important problems to society, one of the most important problems is high occupancy of public space by parking systems. Thus, is required the estimation of models that reproduce users’ behaviour when they are choosing for parking in cities, to carry out transport policies to improve transport efficiency and parking systems in the cities. The aim of this paper is the specification and estimation of models that simulate users’ behaviour when they are choosing among alternatives of parking that there are in the city: free on street parking, paid on street parking, paid on underground parking and Park and Ride (now there isn´t). For this purpose, is proposed a multinomial logit model that consider systematic and random variations in tastes. Data of users’ behaviour from the different alternatives of parking have been obtained with a stated preference surveys campaign which have been done in May 2015 in the principal parking zones of the city of Santander. In this paper, we provide a number of improvements to previously developed methodologies because of we consider much more realism to create the scenarios stated preference survey, obtaining better adjustments. (Author)

  9. The US considers consumer choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCaughey, John.

    1996-01-01

    About half the states in the USA are seriously considering giving domestic customers the right to choose their own gas supplier as large consumers have been able to for years. This is referred to as ''unbundling''. Of the 1400 or so natural gas local distribution companies (LDCs), about one third appear to support unbundling, another third are opposed and the remainder are uncertain; small and medium sized LDCs are most likely to be opposed. A number of state regulators are also ambivalent or actively hostile to the idea. The LDCs supply consumers with gas at the price the LDC pays for it. Their profits are made from connections and the transport of as large a volume of gas as possible for which the supplier pays passthrough charges. The complex arguments as to whether unbundling will prove favourable to the LDCs and what benefits and disadvantages there may be for customers are examined. (UK)

  10. Should Euthanasia Be Considered Iatrogenic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Silvana; Unguru, Yoram

    2017-08-01

    As more countries adopt laws and regulations concerning euthanasia, pediatric euthanasia has become an important topic of discussion. Conceptions of what constitutes harm to patients are fluid and highly dependent on a myriad of factors including, but not limited to, health care ethics, family values, and cultural context. Euthanasia could be viewed as iatrogenic insofar as it results in an outcome (death) that some might consider inherently negative. However, this perspective fails to acknowledge that death, the outcome of euthanasia, is not an inadvertent or preventable complication but rather the goal of the medical intervention. Conversely, the refusal to engage in the practice of euthanasia might be conceived as iatrogenic insofar as it might inadvertently prolong patient suffering. This article will explore cultural and social factors informing families', health care professionals', and society's views on pediatric euthanasia in selected countries. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Path Forward to Space Solar Power using the O'Neill - Glaser Model Modified for Climate Change Demand and Considering the Increasing Risk of Human Self-Extinction if Confined to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Nall, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The cost of energy is humanity's economic exchange rate with the universe. Space solar power is the first great step that our technological species has to utilize the energy of its star. The classic Peter Glaser Solar Power Satellite, SPS, and later designs collect a large area of solar energy in space and beam it back to Earth for use in the electric grid, but even with optimistic launch costs and technology innovation a clear economic path is not evident using Earth launch of SPS. O Neill in 1969 solved the transportation costs problem by a model that uses lunar and asteroid materials to build SPS and locates the labor force permanently in space (O Neill free space habitats). This solution closes the economics and predicts large profits after 17-35 years. However the costs of time have up to now prevented this solution. We discuss a strategy to move forward in SPS with the motivations to stop global warming and prevent human selfextinction. There are near term steps that can be taken that place us on this path forward. First, we must reevaluate the technologies for the classic model and update the parameters to current technology. As technological capability continues to increase exponentially, we need to understand when the monetary potential energy hills are small as the technology gets larger. But the chance for self-extinction, if humanity remains in a single vulnerable habitat, also increased exponentially with time. The path forward is to identify investment points while assessing the risks of non-action.

  12. Considering the pedophile subculture online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Thomas J; Blevins, Kristie R; Burkert, Natasha

    2010-03-01

    The development of the Internet and computer-mediated communications has fostered the growth of a wide range of deviant sexual behaviors along with deviant subcultures that support and approve of these behaviors. Some of these practices pose little risk to public safety, though acts such as pedophilia and the creation and distribution of child pornography have significant negative ramifications for victims. A growing literature has examined the function of the Internet for child pornography distribution, social networks of pedophiles, and tactics of child solicitation. Few, however, have explored the utility of the Internet to develop a subculture of pedophiles and its role in fostering attitudes and justifications for relationships with children. This study will explore the subcultural norms and enculturation of the pedophile community using a qualitative analysis of five Web forums run by and for pedophiles. The findings suggest that the values of the pedophile culture support and encourage emotional and, in some cases, sexual relationships with boys and girls in virtual and real settings. Implications for the study of pedophiles and the role of the Internet are explored.

  13. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  14. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  15. "Bring Your Own Device": Considering Potential Risks to Student Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merga, Margaret K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Schools in Australia and internationally are increasingly adopting a Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) approach to teaching and learning. The review: While discussion of a BYOD approach has taken place, there is a dearth of consideration of the potential impact of BYOD policy on student health. Implementation of a BYOD policy…

  16. Methods for determination of motorization index in small hydroelectric power plants, considering the financial economic risk as function of the hydrological risk; Metodologia para determinacao do indice de motorizacao em PCH`S considerando o risco economico financeiro em funcao do risco hidrologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba, Aloysio Portugal Maia; Martinez, Carlos Barreira; Versiani, Bruno Rabelo [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos

    1998-12-31

    The present paper reports economical feasibility analysis of small hydroelectric plants based on hydrological studies and on the new concept of flow rate isolines. Electric energy is an essential component of economical integration of the regions in a country. The operation of an isolated electric system do not admit the adequate rearrangement of the energy flux, mainly in the rush time, which takes to deficit situations in some economical sectors, accentuated by generation options that are not totally compatible with the local reality. The paper presents the evolution of the study devoted to obtain financial risks associated to small capacity of electric power generation systems through determination of hydrological risks connected to their working band and installed capacity. (author) 10 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Acute Neurological Symptoms During Hypobaric Exposure: Consider Cerebral Air Embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, Robert P.; Hollmann, Markus W.; van Hulst, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    WEENINK RP, HOLLMANN MW, VAN HULST RA. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:1084-91. Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and

  18. As Endowment Values Plummet, Some Institutions Consider Suing Brokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This article reports that as many as five colleges or charitable foundations whose endowments have suffered significant investment losses or were unable to access money in their accounts in recent months are considering legal action against their brokers or investment managers, alleging misrepresentation of risk or mismanagement. Jacob H.…

  19. Considering sex and gender in Alzheimer disease and other dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podcasy, Jessica L; Epperson, C Neill

    2016-12-01

    Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs. For example, females are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer disease dementia, whereas males are at greater risk of developing vascular dementia. This review examines sex and gender differences in the development of dementia with the goal of highlighting factors that require further investigation. Considering sex as a biological variable in dementia research promises to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions.

  20. Considering sex and gender in Alzheimer disease and other dementias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podcasy, Jessica L.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2016-01-01

    Suffering related to dementia is multifaceted because cognitive and physical functioning slowly deteriorates. Advanced age and sex, two of the most prominent risk factors for dementia, are not modifiable. Lifestyle factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, and poor diet modulate susceptibility to dementia in both males and females. The degree to which the resulting health conditions (eg, obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) impact dementia risk varies by sex. Depending on the subtype of dementia, the ratio of male to female prevalence differs. For example, females are at greater risk of developing Alzheimer disease dementia, whereas males are at greater risk of developing vascular dementia. This review examines sex and gender differences in the development of dementia with the goal of highlighting factors that require further investigation. Considering sex as a biological variable in dementia research promises to advance our understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of these conditions. PMID:28179815

  1. Alternative Cancer Treatments: 10 Options to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative cancer treatments: 10 options to consider Alternative cancer treatments can't cure your cancer, but they may provide some ... that may help them, including complementary and alternative cancer treatments. If cancer makes you feel as if you ...

  2. Dynamic cellular manufacturing system design considering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kamal Deep

    cellular manufacturing system in a company is division of ... designed to be assembled from a small number of stan- ..... contingency part process route in addition to the alternate .... istic industrial manufacturing vision considering multiple.

  3. Comparing Consider-Covariance Analysis with Sigma-Point Consider Filter and Linear-Theory Consider Filter Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisano, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature in applied estimation theory reflects growing interest in the sigma-point (also called unscented ) formulation for optimal sequential state estimation, often describing performance comparisons with extended Kalman filters as applied to specific dynamical problems [c.f. 1, 2, 3]. Favorable attributes of sigma-point filters are described as including a lower expected error for nonlinear even non-differentiable dynamical systems, and a straightforward formulation not requiring derivation or implementation of any partial derivative Jacobian matrices. These attributes are particularly attractive, e.g. in terms of enabling simplified code architecture and streamlined testing, in the formulation of estimators for nonlinear spaceflight mechanics systems, such as filter software onboard deep-space robotic spacecraft. As presented in [4], the Sigma-Point Consider Filter (SPCF) algorithm extends the sigma-point filter algorithm to the problem of consider covariance analysis. Considering parameters in a dynamical system, while estimating its state, provides an upper bound on the estimated state covariance, which is viewed as a conservative approach to designing estimators for problems of general guidance, navigation and control. This is because, whether a parameter in the system model is observable or not, error in the knowledge of the value of a non-estimated parameter will increase the actual uncertainty of the estimated state of the system beyond the level formally indicated by the covariance of an estimator that neglects errors or uncertainty in that parameter. The equations for SPCF covariance evolution are obtained in a fashion similar to the derivation approach taken with standard (i.e. linearized or extended) consider parameterized Kalman filters (c.f. [5]). While in [4] the SPCF and linear-theory consider filter (LTCF) were applied to an illustrative linear dynamics/linear measurement problem, in the present work examines the SPCF as applied to

  4. 'Directing minds' have much to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The potential pitfalls for health estates, board-level, and other senior healthcare personnel should proper health and safety and risk assessment procedures not be set out, followed, recorded, and regularly reviewed, and the legal ramifications of any failure of duty under legislation such as the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Corporate Manslaughter Act of 2007, were examined at a recent IHEEM risk seminar in London. In the first of two articles (the second will appear in October's issue) covering the event, HEJ reports on a specialist lawyer's overview.

  5. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines). (U.K.)

  6. Factors to Consider When Designing Television Pictorials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trohanis, Pascal; Du Monceau, Michael

    1971-01-01

    The authors have developed a framework for improving the visual communication element of television. After warning that seeing is not enough to insure learning they discuss the five pre-production components which research indicates should be considered when designing television pictorials." (Editor)

  7. Considering play : From method to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vught, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413532682; Glas, M.A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330981447

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with play as an important methodological issue when studying games as texts and is intended as a practical methodological guide. After considering text as both the structuring object as well as its plural processual activations, we argue that different methodological considerations

  8. Considering Bilingual Dictionaries Against a Corpus.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research reported on here was made possible by the Research Fund of the .... has this meaning, CONSIDER is followed by a that-clause (6). The patterns exemplified in (7) and (8) are rarer. (7) is an example of free direct speech and.

  9. 40 CFR 227.21 - Uses considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uses considered. 227.21 Section 227.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE... living marine resources; (k) Actual or anticipated exploitation of non-living resources, including...

  10. 40 CFR 227.18 - Factors considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Factors considered. 227.18 Section 227.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR... in the material of any constituents which might significantly affect living marine resources of...

  11. Lâmina ótima de irrigação do feijoeiro, com restrição de água, em função do nível de aversão ao risco do produtor = Optimal irrigation depth for bean crops considering water constraints and farmer’s risk aversion level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Garcia de Figueiredo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em decorrência da atual pressão econômica sobre os agricultores, da crescente competição pelo uso da água e dos impactos ambientais, deverá ocorrer uma mudança de paradigma no manejo da irrigação, enfocando-se mais a eficiência econômica do que a exigência de água pela cultura. Desta forma, considerando a importância sócio-econômicaque o feijão tem no Brasil, associado ao fato de tratar-se de uma cultura de elevado padrão de risco devido à grande sensibilidade tanto ao déficit hídrico quanto ao excesso de água, a realização de trabalhos utilizando-se técnicas de otimização no manejo da irrigação de feijão torna-se cada vez mais necessário. Neste trabalho objetivou-se propor um método para determinar a quantidade ótima de irrigação, considerando diferentes combinações entre receita líquida esperada para a cultura do feijoeiro e nível de risco, obtendo uma relação entre a receita líquida esperada, associada a um certo grau de risco econômico, e as lâminas de irrigação, quando o único fator limitante à produção é a disponibilidade hídrica.Nowadays, the rising competition for the use of water and environmental resources with consequent restrictions for farmers should change the paradigm in terms of irrigation concepts, or rather, in order to attain economical efficiency other than to supply water requirement for the crop. Therefore, taking into account the social and economical role of bean activity in Brazil, as well as the risk inherent to crop due to its high sensibility to both deficit and excessive water, the optimization methods regarding to irrigation management have become more interesting and essential. This study intends to present a way to determine the optimal water supply, considering different combinations between desired bean yield and level of risk, bringing as a result a graph with the former associated with the latter, depending on different water depths.

  12. System Reliability Analysis Considering Correlation of Performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saekyeol; Lee, Tae Hee [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Woochul [Mando Corporation, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Reliability analysis of a mechanical system has been developed in order to consider the uncertainties in the product design that may occur from the tolerance of design variables, uncertainties of noise, environmental factors, and material properties. In most of the previous studies, the reliability was calculated independently for each performance of the system. However, the conventional methods cannot consider the correlation between the performances of the system that may lead to a difference between the reliability of the entire system and the reliability of the individual performance. In this paper, the joint probability density function (PDF) of the performances is modeled using a copula which takes into account the correlation between performances of the system. The system reliability is proposed as the integral of joint PDF of performances and is compared with the individual reliability of each performance by mathematical examples and two-bar truss example.

  13. System Reliability Analysis Considering Correlation of Performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Saekyeol; Lee, Tae Hee; Lim, Woochul

    2017-01-01

    Reliability analysis of a mechanical system has been developed in order to consider the uncertainties in the product design that may occur from the tolerance of design variables, uncertainties of noise, environmental factors, and material properties. In most of the previous studies, the reliability was calculated independently for each performance of the system. However, the conventional methods cannot consider the correlation between the performances of the system that may lead to a difference between the reliability of the entire system and the reliability of the individual performance. In this paper, the joint probability density function (PDF) of the performances is modeled using a copula which takes into account the correlation between performances of the system. The system reliability is proposed as the integral of joint PDF of performances and is compared with the individual reliability of each performance by mathematical examples and two-bar truss example.

  14. Total Site Heat Integration Considering Pressure Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew Hong Chew

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drop is an important consideration in Total Site Heat Integration (TSHI. This is due to the typically large distances between the different plants and the flow across plant elevations and equipment, including heat exchangers. Failure to consider pressure drop during utility targeting and heat exchanger network (HEN synthesis may, at best, lead to optimistic energy targets, and at worst, an inoperable system if the pumps or compressors cannot overcome the actual pressure drop. Most studies have addressed the pressure drop factor in terms of pumping cost, forbidden matches or allowable pressure drop constraints in the optimisation of HEN. This study looks at the implication of pressure drop in the context of a Total Site. The graphical Pinch-based TSHI methodology is extended to consider the pressure drop factor during the minimum energy requirement (MER targeting stage. The improved methodology provides a more realistic estimation of the MER targets and valuable insights for the implementation of the TSHI design. In the case study, when pressure drop in the steam distribution networks is considered, the heating and cooling duties increase by 14.5% and 4.5%.

  15. Economical evaluation of electricity generation considering externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kordy, M.N.; Badr, M.A.; Abed, K.A.; Ibrahim, Said M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of renewable energy are the largest barrier to renewable penetration. Nevertheless, the strong desire to reduce environmental emissions is considered a great support for renewable energy sources. In this paper, a full analysis for the cost of the kWh of electricity generated from different systems actually used in Egypt is presented. Also renewable energy systems are proposed and their costs are analyzed. The analysis considers the external cost of emissions from different generating systems. A proposed large scale PV plant of 3.3 MW, and a wind farm 11.25 MW grid connected at different sites are investigated. A life cycle cost analysis for each system was performed using the present value criterion. The comparison results showed that wind energy generation has the lowest cost, followed by a combined cycle-natural gas fired system. A photovoltaic system still uses comparatively expensive technology for electricity generation; even when external costs are considered the capital cost of photovoltaic needs to be reduced by about 60% in order to be economically competitive. (Author)

  16. Splenosis: a diagnosis to be considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge C. Ribeiro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The term splenosis applies to the autotransplanted splenic tissue resulting from seeding in the context of past splenic trauma or surgery. We report a 42-year-old man with a history of splenectomy observed for an incidentally found retrovesical mass thought to be an ectopic testicle. The abdominal laparotomy revealed multiple focuses of pelvic splenosis. As splenosis can be diagnosed through specific imaging studies one should always consider it in differential diagnosis of a mass discovered years after splenic surgery or trauma.

  17. What to Consider for Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-27

    FROM: 59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Professional Presentation Approval 14 NOV 2016 1. Your paper, entitled What to Consider for Animal Research presented at...for Animal Research 7 FUNDING RECEIVED FOR THIS STUDY? D YES [8I NO FUNDING SOURCE 8 DO YOU NEED FUNDING SUPPORT FOR PUBLICATION PURPOSES: 0 YES [81...a Pnmary/Corresponding Author Ann<.’kc C. Bush GS-14 59 MDW/ ST/SGVUS b c d e. f I CERTIFY ANY HUMAN OR ANIMAL RESEARCH RELATED STUDIES WERE

  18. Quality factors to consider in condensate selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.

  19. Considering connections between Hollywood and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Matthew J; Crowley, Sarah L; Woodhead, Anna J; Nuno, Ana

    2018-06-01

    Cinema offers a substantial opportunity to share messages with a wide audience. However, there is little research or evidence about the potential benefits and risks of cinema for conservation. Given their global reach, cinematic representations could be important in raising awareness of conservation issues and species of concern, as well as encouraging greater audience engagement due to their heightened emotional impact on viewers. Yet there are also risks associated with increased exposure, including heightened visitor pressure to environmentally sensitive areas or changes to consumer demand for endangered species. Conservationists can better understand and engage with the film industry by studying the impact of movies on audience awareness and behavior, identifying measurable impacts on conservation outcomes, and engaging directly with the movie industry, for example, in an advisory capacity. This improved understanding and engagement can harness the industry's potential to enhance the positive impacts of movies featuring species, sites, and issues of conservation concern and to mitigate any negative effects. A robust evidence base for evaluating and planning these engagements, and for informing related policy and management decisions, needs to be built. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. EURATOM. Considered from an economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balke, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    The European Atomic Energy Community (EAG-EURATOM), which was organisationally established on 1st January 1958, is not to the same degree part of an economic discussion as the European Economic Community. The EAG has a strongly accentuated technical-scientific character and is often economically considered as appendix of major economic integration efforts within Europe. Still it would be wrong not to suspect economical effective components within the European Atomic Energy Community. The opposite is already recognisable as the EAG needs to integrate itself into a system of international organisations and institutions, which are already existent in the field of a friendly exploitation of nuclear power and which embrace a larger geographical field as the six - member-states of the EURATOM, the European Economic Community and the European Coal and Steel Community. One advantage of the treaty on establishing the European community is that it considers the Atomic Energy Community as an important but not independent branch from general economic activity. The organisational bracket for all three European Treaties of Integration will be the common Parliament and - what is to be expected, in its practical impact a -not to be underestimated- joint headquarters for all three institutions.

  1. Counselling women considering or seeking sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T

    1980-12-01

    The view of counseling as assessment and advice-giving places unrealistic and unnecessary stresses on both counselor and client. The counselor-doctor feels responsible for client's subsequent happiness in life and feels guilty if his advice leads to future unhappiness for her. The client feels powerless in the decision-making process and has less incentive to take full responsibility for the direction of her life. A review of studies of emotional adjustment to sterilization revealed a lack of clearly defined goals for preoperative counseling and the failure to test in any way the effect of different models of counseling on client outcome. Issues which might be raised with a woman considering sterilization may be grouped into 4: 1) the woman's life situation; 2) her reasons for considering sterilization; 3) timing; and 4) ambivalence. Counselors should be prepared for and comfortable with the expression of emotion in counseling sessions. Counselors who themselves are unable to cope with expression of intense emotion will send conflicting messages to clients, both giving permission for and disapproving of exploration of certain levels of feeling. The concept of 'regret' as an outcome measure should be refined.

  2. Cordon Pricing Considering Air Pollutants Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar Afandizadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the issue of air pollutants emission for the optimal and sustainable determination of cordon location, toll level, and price of park and ride (P&R. Although air pollutants emission decreases within the cordon by the implementation of cordon pricing scheme, it may increase outside the cordon and the whole network. Hence, air pollutants emission may only transfer from inside of the cordon to its outside. Therefore, in this paper, a multi-objective bi-level optimization model is developed. A solution algorithm is also presented based on the second version of strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2. The results reveal that this multi-objective model can be a useful tool for the sustainable and optimal design of the cordon and P&R scheme. In addition, cordon pricing is a multi-objective problem. Therefore, it is necessary to consider air pollutants emission. By choosing another non-dominated result in the solution space, air pollutants emission outside the cordon and the whole network can be reduced without a significant reduction in social welfare.

  3. Considering Resilience: Steps Towards an Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kallaos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As threats from climate change related hazards increase in cities around the world, communities are faced with an urgent requirement for self-evaluation. It is essential to expose and assess potential hazards facing cities, as well as to consider potential impacts and responses. While the promotion of efficiency and promise of protection have been common approaches to hazards in the past, recent events have exposed weaknesses in existing tactics. It has also become more apparent that existing mitigation efforts will be insufficient to prevent some level of climate change, associated hazards, and impacts. Complete protection against all threats is not only impossible but potentially hazardous, as extreme or unanticipated events can exceed the capacity for defence, potentially resulting in catastrophic failures. From this realization of the fallibility of the existing paradigm, resilience has emerged as a useful concept for framing the response of cities to an expanding collection of potential threats. The aim of this article is to consider resilience as it applies to cities, their architecture and infrastructure systems, subsystems, and components, as well as their inhabitants. Resilience characteristics are identified and considered in order to inform the eventual development of a resilience framework with which to assess architecture and infrastructure resilience. This state of the art is instrumental to determine the conditions under which architecture and infrastructure resilience can be defined and measured, in order to guide the consideration of attributes and determine suitable criteria to select and elaborate indicators to help guide future actions and investments.   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm

  4. Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: When to Consider Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donangelo, Ines; Suh, Se Young

    2017-06-01

    Subclinical hyperthyroidism is defined by a low or undetectable serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level, with normal free thyroxine and total or free triiodothyronine levels. It can be caused by increased endogenous production of thyroid hormone (e.g., in Graves disease, toxic nodular goiter, or transient thyroiditis), by administration of thyroid hormone to treat malignant thyroid disease, or by unintentional excessive replacement therapy. The prevalence of subclinical hyperthyroidism in the general population is about 1% to 2%; however, it may be higher in iodinedeficient areas. The rate of progression to overt hyperthyroidism is higher in persons with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L than in persons with low but detectable thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation and heart failure in older adults, increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, and decreased bone mineral density and increased bone fracture risk in postmenopausal women. However, the effectiveness of treatment in preventing these conditions is unclear. A possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and quality-of-life parameters and cognition is controversial. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force found insufficient evidence to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for thyroid dysfunction in asymptomatic persons. The American Thyroid Association and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists recommend treating patients with thyroid-stimulating hormone levels less than 0.1 mIU per L if they are older than 65 years or have comorbidities such as heart disease or osteoporosis.

  5. RESTAURANT RESERVATION MANAGEMENT CONSIDERING TABLE COMBINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Miao

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper presents a case study of table reservation practice for restaurant business within Walt Disney World. A unique feature here is to consider table combination to capture revenue potentials from different party sizes and at different time periods. For example, a party of large size can be served by combining two or more small tables. A mixed integer programming (MIP model is developed to make the reservation recommendation. We propose a rolling horizon reservation policy such that the value of a particular table is periodically evaluated and updated. This is a typical revenue management method in the airlines and other industries, the essence of which is to compare the future expected revenue with a currently offered price. Using historical data, numerical test shows a significant revenue improvement potential from our proposed model.

  6. Wind Power Prediction Considering Nonlinear Atmospheric Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of nonlinear atmospheric disturbances on wind power prediction. A Lorenz system is introduced as an atmospheric disturbance model. Three new improved wind forecasting models combined with a Lorenz comprehensive disturbance are put forward in this study. Firstly, we define the form of the Lorenz disturbance variable and the wind speed perturbation formula. Then, different artificial neural network models are used to verify the new idea and obtain better wind speed predictions. Finally we separately use the original and improved wind speed series to predict the related wind power. This proves that the corrected wind speed provides higher precision wind power predictions. This research presents a totally new direction in the wind prediction field and has profound theoretical research value and practical guiding significance.

  7. Considering a possible future for Digital Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark DEUZE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments shaping digital journalism seem to speeding up at the start of the 21st century. Social media enable radical new ways to gather and verify sources and information. Hardware and software power innovative storytelling formats, combining platforms and channels, adding interactivity to the news experience. And the global news industry is quickly becoming a networked industry, with startups and other forms of entrepreneurial journalism springing up all over the world. In this essay, I consider a possible future for digital journalism by briefly reviewing first findings from a series of case studies of 21 new small-sized journalism enterprises operating in 11 countries (spread across 5 continents. The overarching research question: seen through their eyes, what does the future of (digital journalism look like? The answers are hopeful.

  8. Fatigue management considering LWR coolant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung Bae; Jin, Tae eun

    2000-01-01

    Design fatigue curve for structural material in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code do not explicitly address the effects of reactor coolant environments on fatigue life. Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of low-alloy steels in light water reactor (LWR) coolant environments has been a concern ever since the early 1970's. And, recent fatigue test data indicate a significant decrease in fatigue lives of carbon steels, low-alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels in LWR coolant environments. For these reasons, fatigue of major components has been identified as a technical issue remaining to be resolved for life management and license renewal of nuclear power plants. In the present paper, results of recent investigations by many organizations are reviewed to provide technical justification to support the development of utility approach regarding the management of fatigue considering LWR coolant environments for the purpose of life management and license renewal of nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONSIDERED IN A 2014 PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAPĂ ADELINA-ROXANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Project Management has come of age, yet multiple surveys and reports confirm the fact that the majority of projects are challenged. Given the more demanding and strict financial constraints associated with the current fiscal climate, project management is regarded as a tool that can deliver more with less. The literature on Project Management shows that, in spite of advancement in Project Management processes, tools and systems, project success has not significantly improved. This problem raises questions about the value and effectiveness of Project Management and Project Management systems. Programs and projects are considered as strategic assets for the majority of businesses, therefore, the trend of these organizations is to embrace a management by projects culture. The main objective of Project Management nowadays is to ensure programs and projects aligned to a certain strategy and also to provide for every member of an organization the ability to take proactive actions creating additional benefits.

  10. VVER-1000: considering its strengths and weaknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laaksonen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The safety of currently operating VVER-1000 reactors is examined. The factors considered are deviations in operation, inherent safety, safety system design, protection against internal and external hazards, equipment quality, the approach to plant operations and the safety culture. On the basis of this evaluation it is concluded that the overall safety of a VVER-1000 cannot be at the level of a modern Western PWR though there is no sound basis to make a quantitative comparison. Many of the concerns raised are being adequately addressed in the Czech Temelin which is currently under construction and in new designs which are still at the drawing board stage. Extensive back fitting programmes are planned or underway in operating plants. The creation of independent responsible operating organizations, powerful regulation and an improved economic situation are advanced as necessary criteria for real improvements in safety. (UK)

  11. Quality assurance for fittings considering nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    Negative experience made during World War II led to the idea of quality assurance being born in the United States. Thoroughly misunderstood, it came to be incorporated in European mechanical engineering. Quality assurance there was initially considered to be a new term for the oganizational combination of all parts of an enterprise dealing with testing. German manufacturers of heavy-duty and safety fittings represented in the international market were compelled at a relatively early date to properly understand and realize a quality assurance programme. But the multi-fariousness of specifications to be applied and great number of the most different parts made eminent demands on the suitability and variability of the products developed. On the basis of 18 quality criteria the article describes the structure of 'quality' and what its consequences are for an effective quality assurance system - suited for all kinds of specifications. (orig.) [de

  12. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  13. Techno-economic analysis of biofuel production considering logistic configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2016-04-01

    In the study, a techno-economic analysis method considering logistic configurations is proposed. The economic feasibility of a low temperature biomass gasification pathway and an integrated pathway with fast pyrolysis and bio-oil gasification are evaluated and compared with the proposed method in Iowa. The results show that both pathways are profitable, biomass gasification pathway could achieve an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 10.00% by building a single biorefinery and integrated bio-oil gasification pathway could achieve an IRR of 3.32% by applying decentralized supply chain structure. A Monte-Carlo simulation considering interactions among parameters is also proposed and conducted, which indicates that both pathways are at high risk currently. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. All things considered, why not the nuclear?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    After a brief recall of the five main objectives for a policy of energy and of the environment, and of some key figures regarding electric power in France (production, installed power, main objectives in terms of energy transition, CO_2 emissions), this publication discusses the main issues related to nuclear energy: safety, role of the ASN, health effects of low doses, security of supply (uranium imports, risks related to fleet homogeneity), wastes, costs. The second part discusses issues related to intermittent renewable energies (solar and wind energy): security of supply, territory autonomy, acceptability by the public, jobs). The last part proposes a discussion of lessons learned from the German experience in energy policy: massive deployment of renewable energies but CO_2 emissions at a constant level for the last ten years, endless increase of Energiewende costs, air pollution and health damages due to coal, electricity prices for households largely greater in Germany than in France. The last part evokes opinion surveys in France, and recommendations are made about the governance at the government level, a new orientation for means awarded to support intermittent renewable energies, the law on energy transition, and the Fessenheim closure

  15. Considering virtue: public health and clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Karen M

    2011-10-01

    As bioethicists increasingly turn their attention to the profession of public health, many candidate frameworks have been proposed, often with an eye toward articulating the values and foundational concepts that distinguish this practice from curative clinical medicine. First, I will argue that while these suggestions for a distinct ethics of public health are promising, they arise from problems within contemporary bioethics that must be taken into account. Without such cognizance of the impetus for public health ethics, we risk developing a set of ethical resources meant exclusively for public health professionals, thereby neglecting implications for curative medical ethics and the practice of bioethics more broadly. Second, I will present reasons for thinking some of the critiques of dominant contemporary bioethics can be met by a virtue ethics approach. I present a virtue ethics response to criticisms that concern (1) increased rigor in bioethics discourse; (2) the ability of normative theory to accommodate context; and (3) explicit attention to the nature of ethical conflict. I conclude that a virtue ethics approach is a viable avenue for further inquiry, one that leads us away from developing ethics of public health in a vacuum and has the potential for overcoming certain pitfalls of contemporary bioethics discourse. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Warranty claim analysis considering human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shaomin

    2011-01-01

    Warranty claims are not always due to product failures. They can also be caused by two types of human factors. On the one hand, consumers might claim warranty due to misuse and/or failures caused by various human factors. Such claims might account for more than 10% of all reported claims. On the other hand, consumers might not be bothered to claim warranty for failed items that are still under warranty, or they may claim warranty after they have experienced several intermittent failures. These two types of human factors can affect warranty claim costs. However, research in this area has received rather little attention. In this paper, we propose three models to estimate the expected warranty cost when the two types of human factors are included. We consider two types of failures: intermittent and fatal failures, which might result in different claim patterns. Consumers might report claims after a fatal failure has occurred, and upon intermittent failures they might report claims after a number of failures have occurred. Numerical examples are given to validate the results derived.

  17. Orbital Epidermoid Cysts: A Diagnosis to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania A. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbital epidermoids form a rare pathological entity that is separate from dermoid cysts. They have variable clinical and radiological presentations and they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of orbital cystic lesions. This work describes the various clinical and radiological presentations of 17 cases of epidermoid cysts and the surgical outcome. Method. A prospective interventional study was conducted on 17 patients diagnosed with epidermoid cysts. Patients’ symptoms and signs were recorded; CT scan was done for all patients. All lesions were removed through anterior orbitotomy and histopathological diagnosis confirmed. Results. Mean age of patients was 16.3 years ±  10.54. Main complaints were lid swelling, masses, ocular dissimilarity, chronic pain, and ocular protrusion. Clinical signs varied from lid swelling and masses in all cases to proptosis, globe displacement, limitation of ocular motility, and scars. Radiological findings ranged from homogenous hypodense masses (58.8% to homogenous radiolucent (17.6% and heterogenous masses (23.5%. No recurrences following surgeries were reported throughout the follow-up (mean 18.8 months ±  0.72. Conclusion. Deep orbital epidemoid cysts are a separate entity that can behave like deep orbital epidermoid; however, they usually present at a relatively older age. They can be associated with increased orbital volume but not necessarily related to bony sutures.

  18. Term Croatian considered in russian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Čelić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Term Croatian is considered in Russian context, i. e. context of Russian scientific material (which is comparable to the unwritten situation in universities. Russian scientific texts connect term Croatian, almost without an exception, with the term Serbian in words such as Serbo-Croatian. This point of view is politically approved in the period untill 1990’s, but it exists in the 21st century’s scientific material. The nature of the problem lays, at the same time, in politics, language and society; thus, the question is: what is the reason of such a context in which Croatian language is placed now? There are no arguments for it, especially if it is for Slovak language politically based and language approved to be an entity – in comparison to the Czech language; for Ukrainian (once Littlerussian – at least in principle, in comparison to the Russian, or, more convincable, Belorussian to Russian (the standard Belorussian language exists from 1905. The term Croatian is independently, even in new books, connected with terms of soil, state, nation, but not language. And though today, because of political reasons, exists an awareness of Croatian language without its Serbian mirror reflexion, the term Serbo-Croatian stays. Thus, this paper looks through the history concerning Croatian language in 19, 20 and 21st century’s Russian philology, including Juraj Križanić and Vatroslav Jagić – innovators of the Croatian word in Russia.

  19. Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Hassim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mental health research appears to be continually transforming. Recent literature reflects a greater appreciation for the ways in which pathoplastic features of culture modulate emotional regulation. This article introduces those aspects of the literature which explore the (reconsideration of culture as a dynamic and essential construct in the clinical formulation of psychopathology. Objectives. The study aims to review literature that focuses on the dynamic influence of culture in psychopathology. Furthermore, the researchers aim to present a view on the ways in which culture appeared to shape the topography of psychopathology nosology. Method. A literature review of 31 sources. Results. The review indicated that 29 literature sources were conceptual in design, suggesting a great need for more empirical research. This section also explored themes identified during the literature review. The literature was tabulated according to features and emerging themes. Three major themes were identified and included: the cultural context; the evolving definitions of culture; and culture and psychopathology. Conclusion/discussion. An analysis of the themes was offered. The authors concluded by highlighting the significance of the literature at present. Areas of particular interest suggested that health and behaviour are dependent, at least in part, on culture; psychopathology may also be appreciated as a social construct; culture influences psychopathology regardless of the aetiology; diagnostic classes do not adequately consider operational definitions; and a greater focus on hermeneutic perceptivity in appreciating cultural dynamics in psychopathology will benefit clinical assessment.

  20. Dose assessment considering evolution of the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Sara; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2002-01-01

    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management AB (SKB) is presently updating the safety assessment for SFR (Final repository for radioactive operational waste) in Sweden. The bio-spheric part of the analysis is performed by Studsvik Eco and Safety AB. According to the regulations the safety of the repository has to be accounted for different possible courses of the development of the biosphere. A number of studies have been carried out during the past years to investigate and document the biosphere in the area surrounding the repository. Modelling of shore-level displacement by land uplift, coastal water exchange and sedimentation have provided data for prediction of the evolution of the area. The prediction is done without considering a future change in climatic conditions. The results from this study show that accumulation of radionuclides in sediments is an important process to simulate when performing dose assessments covering biosphere evolution. The dose calculated for the first years of the period with agricultural use of the contaminated sediments may be severely underestimated in a scenario with large accumulation in coastal and lake stages. (LN)

  1. Calorie restriction in rodents: Caveats to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Considering clay rock heterogeneity in radionuclide retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grambow, B.; Montavon, G.; Tournassat, C.; Giffaut, E.; Altmann, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The Callovo-Oxfordian clay rock formation has a strong retention capacity for radionuclides, a favorable condition for the implementation of a nuclear waste repository. Principal retaining minerals are illite, and inter-stratified illite/smectite (I/S). Radionuclide retention has been studied on illite, illite/smectite and on clay rock obtained from different locations and data for retention on bentonite (80% smectite) are available. Sorption depends on the type of mineral, composition of mineralogical assemblages, individual mineral ion exchange capacities, ion distribution on exchange sites, specific surface areas, surface site types and densities for surface complexation as well as on water/rock ratios, temperature etc. As a consequence of mineralogical and textural variations, radionuclide retention properties are expected to vary with depth in the Callovo-Oxfordian formation. Using a simple additivity approach for the case of sorption of Cs and Ni it is shown that models and databases for illite and bentonite can be used to describe sorption in heterogeneous clay rock systems. A surface complexation/ion-exchange model as proposed by Bradbury and Baeyens without electrostatic contributions, was used directly as far as acid base properties are concerned but was modified with respect to sorption constants, in order to describe Na-, Ca, and Cs montmorillonite and bentonite MX-80 with a single set of surface complexation constants and also to account for carbonate and sulphate concentrations in groundwater. The model is integrated into the geochemical code PHREEQC considering dissolution/ precipitation/solubility constraints of accessory minerals (calcite, illite, celestite, quartz). Site densities for surface complexation and ion exchange are derived from the mass fractions of illite and of smectite in illite/smectite obtained from an overall fit of measured CEC data from all samples of the EST205 drill core

  3. Living Planet Report 2016 - Risk and resilience in a new era. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaufort, Imre; Caritat, Anne-Kirstine de; Sourd, Christine; Gauffier, Arnaud; Valingot, Mathilde; Chaumien, Marielle; Herbert, Pascal; Francois, Laura; Eckert, Carine; Oerlemans, Natasja; Strand, Holly; Winkelhagen, Anne-marie; Barrett, Mike; Young, Lucy; Guerraoui, May; Zwaal, Natascha; Klinge, Danielle; Nel, Deon; Taylor, Rod; Grooten, Monique; Stevens, Arjette; Geenen, Bart; Kohl, Andrea; Baumueller, Andreas; Davies, Glyn; Tickner, David; Ellis, Karen; Heaps, Louise; Charman, Sue; Ashley-Cantello, Will; Li, Lin; Higgins, Mary Lou; Sejal, Worah; McRae, Louise; Freeman, Robin; Marconi, Valentina; Kopecky, Danielle; Marshall, Suzannah; Milligan, Harriet; Muller, Helen; Turay, Mariam; Cornell, Sarah; Rockstroem, Johan; Villarrubia-Gomez, Patricia; Gaffney, Owen; Galli, Alessandro; Lin, David; Eaton, Derek; Halle, Martin; Martindill, Jon; Hanscom, Laurel; West, Chris; Croft, Simon; Gladek, Eva; Fraser, Matthew; Kennedy, Erin; Roemers, Gerard; Sabag Munoz, Oscar; Van Soesbergen, Arnout; Shepherd, Ellen; Burgess, Neil; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Borgstroem-Hansson, Carina; Randriamanantena, Dannick; Liu, John D.; Tittonell, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Global biodiversity is declining at an alarming rate, putting the survival of other species and our own future at risk. The latest edition of WWF's Living Planet Report brings home the enormity of the situation - and how we can start to put it right. The Living Planet Index reveals that global populations of fish, birds, mammals, amphibians and reptiles declined by 58 per cent between 1970 and 2012. We could witness a two-thirds decline in the half-century from 1970 to 2020 - unless we act now to reform our food and energy systems and meet global commitments on addressing climate change, protecting biodiversity and supporting sustainable development Contents: Foreword and executive summary: A resilient Earth for future generations, Living on the edge, Risk and resilience in a new era, Executive summary; Chapter 1: State of the natural planet: Monitoring global biodiversity, The Living Planet Index in perspective, Ecosystem services: linking nature and people; Chapter 2: Human impacts on the planet: An Earth system perspective, Measuring human pressures; Chapter 3: Exploring root causes: Toward systems thinking, Systems thinking applied to the food system; Chapter 4: A resilient planet for nature and people: The dual challenge of sustainable development, Transitioning the global economic system, Transformation of energy and food systems, The path ahead; Glossary and abbreviations, references

  4. Climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, D.; Favier, R.; Bourg, D.; Marchand, J.P.

    2005-04-01

    The climatic risks are analyzed in this book under the cross-vision of specialists of different domains: philosophy, sociology, economic history, law, geography, climatology and hydrology. The prevention of risks and the precautionary principle are presented first. Then, the relations between climatic risk and geography are analyzed using the notion of territoriality. The territory aspect is in the core of the present day debates about the geography of risks, in particular when the links between climate change and public health are considered. Then the main climatic risks are presented. Droughts and floods are the most damaging ones and the difficulties of prevention-indemnification coupling remain important. (J.S.)

  5. CONSIDERING ANTI-PIRACY SHIP SECURITY: CITADEL DESIGN AND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carral

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As piracy continues to pose a threat to the shipping industry, a number of measures for protecting ships, cargo and crew will need to be implemented. Along with other steps, such as deploying military rescue teams, securing the crew within a ship’s citadel has proved to be a highly effective form of self-protection against hostage-taking by pirates. From a design standpoint, aspects that should be considered include the location and dimensions of the citadel, the maximum time crew can stay within it and the specific requirements for various elements of the ship or citadel equipment. Exploiting data on pirate attacks recently occurring in High Risk Areas, this article analyses the design and use of the citadel as a self-protection measure against piracy. As a conclusion, various requirements for these structures are recommended.

  6. Distribution network planning method considering distributed generation for peak cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wu; Cheng Haozhong; Zhang Xiubin; Yao Liangzhong

    2010-01-01

    Conventional distribution planning method based on peak load brings about large investment, high risk and low utilization efficiency. A distribution network planning method considering distributed generation (DG) for peak cutting is proposed in this paper. The new integrated distribution network planning method with DG implementation aims to minimize the sum of feeder investments, DG investments, energy loss cost and the additional cost of DG for peak cutting. Using the solution techniques combining genetic algorithm (GA) with the heuristic approach, the proposed model determines the optimal planning scheme including the feeder network and the siting and sizing of DG. The strategy for the site and size of DG, which is based on the radial structure characteristics of distribution network, reduces the complexity degree of solving the optimization model and eases the computational burden substantially. Furthermore, the operation schedule of DG at the different load level is also provided.

  7. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III.

    1995-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. The preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping. (author)

  8. Radiological control criteria for materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Wallo, A. III

    1994-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, are risk-based and were developed through analysis of generic radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis includes evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analysis considers 42 key radionuclides that DOE operations are known to generate and that may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment. Preliminary results are compared with similar results reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, by radionuclide grouping

  9. CEZ considering building a power station in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2004-01-01

    General Manager of Czech concern CEZ, Martin Roman expecting that his company would probably not succeed in tender for Slovenske elektrarne (SE) shares said for BBC that CEZ was considering the possibility of building a thermal power station in Slovakia that would use Polish coal. He made this statement in a time when an approval by the Slovak cabinet was the only missing step to complete the approval process of contractual documentation related to privatization of SE through Italian Enel. The cabinet only discusses the issue on Wednesday as Slovak Minister of Finance raised objections to its contents. Ivan Miklos asked for guarantees that the state would not be responsible for any future risks resulting from long term contracts concluded by SE

  10. Risk from environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, E [Environmental Health Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Ontario

    1982-01-01

    The elements of risk assessment, namely risk identification, risk estimation, risk evaluation and risk management, are described with respect to the control of environmental chemicals. The methodology of risk estimation is outlined and examples given of its application to regulatory decision-making for a number of chemicals in Canada. Finally, the extent and limitations of the process of risk evaluation are considered together with the need to recognize the importance of the public's perception of the level of risk.

  11. Acute neurological symptoms during hypobaric exposure: consider cerebral air embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weenink, Robert P; Hollmann, Markus W; van Hulst, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    Cerebral arterial gas embolism (CAGE) is well known as a complication of invasive medical procedures and as a risk in diving and submarine escape. In the underwater environment, CAGE is caused by trapped air, which expands and leads to lung vessel rupture when ambient pressure decreases during ascent. Pressure decrease also occurs during hypobaric activities such as flying and, therefore, CAGE may theoretically be a risk in hypobaric exposure. We reviewed the available literature on this subject. Identified were 12 cases of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. Based on these cases, we discuss pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CAGE due to hypobaric exposure. The low and slow pressure decrease during most hypobaric activities (as opposed to diving) account for the low incidence of CAGE during these exposures and suggest that severe air trapping must be present to cause barotrauma. This is also suggested by the large prevalence of air filled cysts in the case reports reviewed. We recommend considering CAGE in all patients presenting with acute central neurological injury during or shortly after pressure decrease such as flying. A CT scan of head and chest should be performed in these patients. Treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy should be initiated as soon as possible in cases of proven or probable CAGE.

  12. Decisional conflict among women considering antidepressant medication use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Georgia D; Ross, Lori E; Stewart, Donna E; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Vigod, Simone

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine decision-making among women considering antidepressant medication use in pregnancy. Decisional conflict was assessed using the Decisional Conflict Scale (DCS) among pregnant women considering antidepressant medication treatment (N = 40). Overall DCS and subscale scores were compared between women who were antidepressant users and non-users. Semi-structured interviews (N = 10) explored barriers and facilitators of decision-making. Twenty-one women (52 %) had moderate or high decisional conflict (DCS ≥ 25). Overall DCS scores did not differ between groups, but antidepressant use was associated with feeling more adequately informed (subscale mean 17.5, SD 17.9 vs. 42.1, SD 23.8, p = 0.001) and clear about values (subscale mean 16.7, SD 15.1 vs. 29.8, SD 24.0, p = 0.043). Barriers to decision-making were (1) difficulty weighing maternal versus infant health, (2) lack of high quality information, (3) negative external influences, and (4) emotional reactions to decision-making. Facilitators were (1) interpersonal supports, (2) accessible subspecialty care, and (3) severe depressive symptoms. Many pregnant women facing decisions regarding antidepressant medication use experience decisional conflict. Interventions that provide accurate information, assistance with weighing risks and benefits of treatment, management of problematic external influences, and emotional support may reduce decisional conflict and facilitate the decision-making process.

  13. Metodologia para priorização de ações em aglomerados subnormais considerando os riscos de deslizamentos e inundações e as condições de moradia Methodology for prioritizing actions in slums considering risks of landslides and flooding, and housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Odete Teixeira do Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Os problemas das áreas de riscos de desastres nas cidades brasileiras, principalmente os hidrometeorológicos, como inundações, e os geológicos, como deslizamentos, estão normalmente relacionados a determinantes socioeconômicos e ambientais. Assim, a busca por metodologias para compreender as vicissitudes da dinâmica do ambiente urbano torna-se fundamental para programar ações que minimizem essa problemática. Este artigo tratou da proposição de uma metodologia integradora multiobjetivo, visando à priorização de ações de melhoria habitacional ou relocação de moradias de aglomerados subnormais em áreas de riscos. Apresentou-se resumidamente a análise realizada em três áreas na cidade de João Pessoa, no estado da Paraíba. Os resultados indicaram como a mais apropriada opção a relocação de moradias para 4,5% do total, sendo que para 14,1% delas indicou-se melhoria habitacional.The problems regarding disaster risk areas in Brazilian cities, mainly hydrometeorological ones, such as flooding, as well as geological, like landslides, are typically related to socioeconomic and environmental determinants. Therefore, the search for methodologies aiming at understanding the vicissitudes of the dynamics in urban environment is essential in order to develop actions that may minimize these issues. This article proposed a novel integrated multiobjective methodology with the purpose of prioritizing actions for housing improvements or relocation of slums settlements in risk-prone areas. In addition, a brief analysis of three areas in the city of João Pessoa, state of Paraíba, Brazil, was presented. The results indicated that the best option is housing relocation for 4.5% of the total dwellings surveyed, and for 14.1% of them, housing improvement was proposed.

  14. Security assessment in harbours: parameters to be considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Faz, D.; Camarero Orive, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ports are the main node in the supply chain and freight transportation. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 marked a turning point in global security. Following this event, and from then on, there is a widespread fear of an attack on commercial ports. The development of the International Ship and Port Facility Security (ISPS) Code of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), and the implementation of the measures derived from it, have significantly improved security at port facilities. However, the experience in recent decades indicates the need for adjustments in the security assessment, in order to improve risk assessment, which is sometimes either underestimated or overestimated. As a first result of the investigation, new parameters for assessing security are proposed considering new aspects on the basis of an analysis of the main methodologies specific to port facilities, the analysis of surveys of the responsible managers for the security of the Spanish port system, and the analysis of the security statistics obtained through security forces. (Author)

  15. A Better Time Now to Consider New Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal K.

    2004-01-01

    Mr. Christopher Crane, President and Chief Nuclear Officer of Exelon Nuclear was interviewed regarding his views on a series of questions related to the future of the nuclear industry in the United States. His view is that in order for new nuclear power plants to be considered, they must be economically competitive when compared to other baseload generation alternatives. With respect to capital cost, the industry has informally conveyed that overnight capital costs need to be below the range of $1,000-$1,200/kWE. Reactor vendors are working to reduce their first of a kind engineering costs to meet this capital cost threshold. Financing is then the next significant factor, which is complicated by whether the plant is being constructed in a regulated environment where the power company has the security of a regulated rate of return or as a merchant plant where the company assumes the risks and benefits of the proposed investment. With respect to operating and maintenance costs, the nuclear power industry has been dedicated to reducing costs while maintaining or improving safety. There are sound plans for spent fuel and high-level waste disposal, but there is a need to improve public confidence in transportation aspects. Regarding making new plants more attractive to investors, the risk factor has been a concern. The new Part 52 process is designed to help by requiring safety design issues to be identified and resolved prior to the issuance of the Combined Operating License (COL) process. While the revised process appears to be more acceptable from an investment risk perspective, there remains uncertainty in the fact that it has never been demonstrated. Skepticism, too, still exists with regard to building plants on schedule and within budget. Mr. Crane concludes that certain incentives will be needed for ''first movers'' in nuclear investment. These could include production tax credits, investment tax credits, government loan guarantees, and power purchase agreements

  16. Decision aids for people considering taking part in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Katie; Cotton, Seonaidh C; Brehaut, Jamie C; Politi, Mary C; Skea, Zoe

    2015-11-27

    potential trial participants, or their guardians, being asked to consider participating in a real or hypothetical clinical trial. At least two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted reported data and assessed risk of bias. Findings were pooled where appropriate. We used GRADE to assess the quality of the evidence for each outcome. We identified one study (290 randomised participants) that investigated the effectiveness of decision aids compared to standard information in the informed consent process for clinical trials. This study reported two separate decision aid randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The decision aid trials were nested within two different parent trials focusing on breast cancer in postmenopausal women. One trial focused on informed consent for treatment in women who had previously had surgery for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), the other on informed consent for prevention in women at high risk for breast cancer. Two different decision aids were used in these RCTs, and were compared with standard information.The pooled findings highlight the uncertainty surrounding most reported outcomes, including knowledge, decisional conflict, anxiety, trial participation and attrition. There was very low quality evidence that decision aids lower levels of decisional regret to a small degree (MD -5.53, 95% CI -10.29 to -0.76). No data were identified on several prespecified primary outcomes, including accurate risk perception, values-based decision, or whether potential participants recognised that a decision needed to be made, were able to identify features of options that matter most to individuals, or were involved in the decision. There was insufficient evidence to determine whether decision aids to support the informed consent process for clinical trials are more effective than standard information. Additional well designed, adequately powered clinical trials in more diverse clinical and social populations are needed to strengthen the

  17. Marine Harvest & WWF-Norge : et strategisk samarbeid for en bærekraftig fremtid

    OpenAIRE

    Pirisi Guerreiro, Joao Nuno

    2014-01-01

    En oppgave om hvordan samarbeid mellom ulike typer organisasjoner kan produsere positive resultater som tilfredsstiller alle inkluderte parter. Hvilke suksessfaktorer som foreligger, og hvordan tilhørende utfordringer håndteres når organisasjonenes ulike natur kan skape komplikasjoner i samarbeidets prosess. Denne oppgaven omhandler et studie av suksessfaktorer for samarbeid mellom ulike typer organisasjoner. Med den bakgrunn er følgende problemstilling formulert. Hvordan kan samarbeid...

  18. Challenges for NGOs partnering with corporations: WWF Netherlands and the Environmental Defense Fund

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijstee, M.M. van; Pollock, L.; Glasbergen, P.; Leroy, P.

    2011-01-01

    As the market and civil society sectors reflect different core logics, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) that partner with companies need strategies to cope with these differences. This paper seeks to provide insight into the coping strategies of environmental NGOs that partner with

  19. Risk management at university

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, H.; Abramovich, S.

    2013-01-01

    This article observes the basic recommendations for the risk management system in higher education as an example Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno. Consider the risk-management standard that based in a process approach

  20. Risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinchin, G.H.

    1983-01-01

    After defining risk and introducing the concept of individual and societal risk, the author considers each of these, restricting considerations to risk of death. Some probabilities of death arising from various causes are quoted, and attention drawn to the care necessary in making comparisons between sets of data and to the distinction between voluntary and involuntary categories and between early and delayed deaths. The presentation of information on societal risk is discussed and examples given. The history of quantified risk assessment is outlined, particularly related to the nuclear industry, the process of assessing risk discussed: identification of hazard causes, the development of accident chains and the use of event trees, the evaluation of probability through the collection of data and their use with fault trees, and the assessment of consequences of hazards in terms of fatalities. Reference is made to the human element and common-made failures, and to studies supporting the development of reliability assessment techniques. Acceptance criteria are discussed for individual and societal risk in the nuclear field, and it is shown that proposed criteria lead to risks conservative by comparison with risks from day-to-day accidents and other potentially hazardous industries. (U.K.)

  1. Alternative approach to automated management of load flow in engineering networks considering functional reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Александровна Гавриленко

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The approach to automated management of load flow in engineering networks considering functional reliability was proposed in the article. The improvement of the concept of operational and strategic management of load flow in engineering networks was considered. The verbal statement of the problem for thesis research is defined, namely, the problem of development of information technology for exact calculation of the functional reliability of the network, or the risk of short delivery of purpose-oriented product for consumers

  2. 20 CFR 416.1856 - Who is considered a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Child § 416.1856 Who is considered a child. We... are a student regularly attending school or college or training that is designed to prepare you for a...

  3. Factors to consider in the transition to digital radiological imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacDonald, David

    2009-02-01

    The dentist considering adopting digital radiological technology should consider more than the type of detector with which to capture the image. He\\/she should also consider the mode of display, image enhancement, radiation dose reduction, how the image can be stored long term, and infection control.

  4. Methodology for prioritizing actions in slums considering risks of landslides and flooding, and housing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Maria Odete Teixeira do; Filgueira, Hamilcar José Almeida; Silva, Tarciso Cabral da

    2013-01-01

    Os problemas das áreas de riscos de desastres nas cidades brasileiras, principalmente os hidrometeorológicos, como inundações, e os geológicos, como deslizamentos, estão normalmente relacionados a determinantes socioeconômicos e ambientais. Assim, a busca por metodologias para compreender as vicissitudes da dinâmica do ambiente urbano torna-se fundamental para programar ações que minimizem essa problemática. Este artigo tratou da proposição de uma metodologia integradora multiobjetivo, visand...

  5. Maximizing carbon storage in the Appalachians: A method for considering the risk of disturbance events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael R. Vanderberg; Kevin Boston; John. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Accounting for the probability of loss due to disturbance events can influence the prediction of carbon flux over a planning horizon, and can affect the determination of optimal silvicultural regimes to maximize terrestrial carbon storage. A preliminary model that includes forest disturbance-related carbon loss was developed to maximize expected values of carbon stocks...

  6. Self-Monitoring Interventions for At-Risk Middle School Students: The Importance of Considering Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Donald E., III; Simonsen, Brandi

    2011-01-01

    Self-monitoring is a popular, efficient, and effective intervention that is associated with improved academic and social behavior for students across age and ability levels. To date, this is the first study to directly compare the outcomes of self-monitoring functionally relevant and non-relevant replacement behaviors. Specifically, we used an…

  7. Risk assessment of methylmercury in five European countries considering the national seafood consumption patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Silke; Sioen, Isabelle; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2017-01-01

    confirms the substantial contribution of tuna to MeHg exposure in each of the countries. Also hake, cod, sea bream, sea bass and octopus are identified as important contributors. From this study, it is concluded that a country-specific seafood consumption advice is needed. Policy makers may adopt...

  8. Considering environmental health risks of energy options. Hydraulic fracturing and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonell, Margaret; Raymond, Michelle; Burganowski, Rachael; Vetrone, Andrea; Alonzo, Sydney [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States). Environmental Science Div.

    2014-07-01

    Growing public concerns about climate change and environmental health impacts related to energy production have led to increased consideration of alternate sources. Nuclear power and unconventional oil and shale gas development are among the options least favored by the public, with pollutant releases resulting from routine operations as well as accidents being among the key concerns. Advances in ICT approaches and the increasingly widespread accessibility of information resources and tools have facilitated community-based initiatives and broader data sharing that can directly contribute to more informed evaluations of energy options, toward more sustainable programs from the local to the global scale.

  9. Business analysis of generation considering environmental opportunities; Analise de negocios de geracao considerando oportunidades ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrillo, Ivo Ordonha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia; Pelegrini, Marcelo A.; Gemignani, Matheus M.F.

    2008-07-01

    The project 'Business's Power Generation Evaluation Considering Environmental Opportunities' is about developing a methodology to analyze feasibility of new power generation factory from the point of view of the investor, examining the technical, economic-financial, risk, regulatory, social and environmental aspects. The opportunities arising from Kyoto Protocol were added in feasibility's analysis. (author)

  10. PROBLEMS OF RISK COMMUNICATION: NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUBLIC OPINION ON ISSUES OF POPULATION’S RADIATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Events connected with the development and improvement of the nuclear industry are usually ambiguously perceived by the public. Mass-media and Internet play a leading role in the development of the public opinion on the most relevant public life issues, ecology and radiation safety in particular. Non-governmental organizations can impact the adequate perception of the issues of the radiation safety in the region by the public. Materials and methods: this study is focused on the primary evaluation of the data on the results of the sociological survey of three regions of the North-West of the Russian Federation: St-Petersburg, Leningrad and Murmansk regions; and the assessment of the websites of the non-governmental organizations, activities of the non-governmental organizations in the Internet and social networks. Results: the study indicated that non-governmental organizations actively use Internet and social networks in their practice. All the relevant non-governmental organizations have websites and social network accounts. Based on the number of the subscribers in social networks, it was possible to mark two non-governmental organizations: Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund (WWF with more than 400000 subscribers each. VKontakte social network was assessed as the most effective mean of communicating with the public; a total number of subscribers on the groups of major non-governmental organizations exceeds 500000 persons. These two organizations are the most popular and trusted by the public. Greenpeace is known to 26% of respondents; WWF – to 11%. The population of the Murmansk region is more informed about the actions of the non-governmental organizations. 48% of the respondents in the Murmansk region named at least one non-governmental organization answering the question “What non-governmental organizations active in the field of radiation protection do you know?” with the corresponding 18% and 29% in St-Petersburg and Leningrad region

  11. Dynamic shortest path problems : hybrid routing policies considering network disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sever, D.; Dellaert, N.P.; Woensel, van T.; Kok, de A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Traffic network disruptions lead to significant increases in transportation costs. We consider networks in which a number of links are vulnerable to these disruptions leading to a significantly higher travel time on these links. For these vulnerable links, we consider known link disruption

  12. 5 CFR 2608.202 - Factors OGE will consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Factors OGE will consider. 2608.202 Section 2608.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES... PROCEEDINGS Requests for Testimony and Production of Documents § 2608.202 Factors OGE will consider. The...

  13. What teacher educators consider as best practices in preparing pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on an investigation into what teacher educators consider to be best practices in how to prepare pre-service teachers to effectively deal with the challenges of teaching Mathematics in multilingual contexts, and how what teacher educators consider as best practices inform their own classroom practice.

  14. Evaluation of Different Methods for Considering Bar-Concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theory, but the perfect bond assumption has been removed. The precision of the proposed method in considering the real nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete frames has been compared to the precision of two other suggested methods for considering bond-slip effect in layer model. Among the capabilities of this ...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4217-1 - Lease considered as sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lease considered as sale. 48.4217-1 Section 48... article by a manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be considered a sale of the article. The term “lease” means a contract or agreement, written or verbal, which gives the lessee an exclusive, continuous...

  16. Risk of energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaber, Herbert.

    1978-03-01

    Every human activity involves risk of accident or disease. Generation of energy is no exception. Although such risk has been considered for conventional systems (coal, oil and nuclear), a similar analysis for the so-called alternative or non-conventional systems (solar, wind, ocean thermal and methanol) has been lacking. This paper presents an evaluation of the risk, both occupational and to the public, of non-conventional energy systems. They are considered both in absolute terms and in relation to conventional systems. The risk of most non-conventional systems, per unit of energy output, is comparable to, and in some cases much higher than, the risk from coal and oil. This conclusion holds whether we consider deaths or injuries. Nuclear power and natural gas had the lowest overall risk of the ten technologies considered. Ocean thermal energy ranked third. The surprising result is that the other seven technologies considered were found to be up to 100 times less safe. The total risk is calculated by considering six components: material acquisition and construction, emissions caused by material production, operation and maintenance, energy back-up, energy storage, and transportation. In this way the risk of widely different systems can be fairly assessed. This methodology of 'risk accounting' will not tell us which energy technology to use. However, it can be employed to inform society of the risk inherent in competing energy systems. (author)

  17. Considering Weight Loss Programs and Public Health Partnerships in American Evangelical Protestant Churches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D Gibbes

    2018-06-01

    The obesity epidemic is a critical public health threat facing the USA. With the advent of American Evangelical Protestant (AEP) weight loss guides and narratives, AEP churches could potentially aid public health agencies in combatting obesity, and some scholars have called for investment in partnerships between public health agencies and religious institutions. This paper examines the theological and social underpinnings of AEP weight loss programs and considers the potential benefits and risks of public health partnerships with AEP churches to combat obesity. While AEP churches may be successful at empowering people to lose weight, AEP weight loss also carries several risks. These risks include reinforcing gendered bodily norms, stigmatizing both overweight bodies and unhealthy behaviors deemed to be sinful (for example, overeating), and failing to acknowledge social factors that promote obesity. These risks must be assessed and minimized to create appropriate public health weight loss partnerships with AEP communities.

  18. Modifying nodal pricing method considering market participants optimality and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Soofiabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a method for nodal pricing and market clearing mechanism considering reliability of the system. The effects of components reliability on electricity price, market participants’ profit and system social welfare is considered. This paper considers reliability both for evaluation of market participant’s optimality as well as for fair pricing and market clearing mechanism. To achieve fair pricing, nodal price has been obtained through a two stage optimization problem and to achieve fair market clearing mechanism, comprehensive criteria has been introduced for optimality evaluation of market participant. Social welfare of the system and system efficiency are increased under proposed modified nodal pricing method.

  19. Air Force Compensation: Considering Some Options for Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hosek, James

    2002-01-01

    ... what form. To learn more about what role these pays might play, we reviewed the Air Force's manpower situation, considered underlying causes of problems, tracked relevant trends in civilian wages, and examined...

  20. Chemical Data Reporting: Factors to Consider When Using the Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) database provides non-confidential information on the manufacture, import, processing, and use of chemicals in commerce at national and regional levels. This fact sheet highlights factors to consider.

  1. 20 CFR 416.1872 - Who is considered a student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income... old and you regularly attend school or college or training that is designed to prepare you for a...

  2. Psychological harm after PANE: NEPA's requirement to consider psychological damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, W.S. III

    1984-01-01

    In Metropolitan Edison Co. v. People Against Nuclear Energy (PANE), the Supreme Court held that the National Environmental Policy Act does not require the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider the probable impact of its actions on psychological health. The Court's opinion, however, supports the conclusion that NEPA generally requires federal agencies to consider such probable impacts. This article examines the scope of federal responsibility following this decision. It delineates the causal relationship test that the Court adopted in PANE, and discusses possible obstacles to the consideration of psychological impacts under NEPA. It divides federal actions into four categories, then considers the benefits and burdens of the ruling using the NRC's responsibility to consider psychological health effects before licensing new nuclear reactors. 221 references

  3. Nurse entrepreneurship: an alternative career choice worth considering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanoshy, J

    1998-07-01

    With consistent downsizing in today's healthcare arena, many nurses are considering alternative careers. Several ONS members have found creative ways to parlay their nursing education and experience into successful careers that are both fulfilling and profitable.

  4. Risk Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Boutang , Jérôme; De Lara , Michel

    2016-01-01

    In a modern world increasingly perceived as uncertain, the mere purchase of a household cleaning product, or a seemingly harmless bottle of milk, conveys interrogations about potential hazards, from environmental to health impacts. The main purpose of this article is to suggest that risk could be considered as one of the major dimensions of choice for a wide range of concerns and markets, alongside aspiration/satisfaction, and tackled efficiently by mobilizing the recent findings of cognitive...

  5. The Challenge of Film Considered as Historical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Berg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the use of film as a medium of historical research. It discusses the film "Shoah," directed by Claude Lanzmann, which is considered as a model for filmic history. It also looks into Robert Rosenstone's claim that people may consider filmmakers as historians and that people should derive theory from practice through analyzing how the past has been portrayed in films.

  6. Distributed energy resources scheduling considering real-time resources forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.; Sousa, T.; Ramos, S.

    2014-01-01

    grids and considering day-ahead, hour-ahead and realtime time horizons. This method considers that energy resources are managed by a VPP which establishes contracts with their owners. The full AC power flow calculation included in the model takes into account network constraints. In this paper......, distribution function errors are used to simulate variations between time horizons, and to measure the performance of the proposed methodology. A 33-bus distribution network with large number of distributed resources is used....

  7. A model for voltage collapse study considering load characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, L B [Companhia de Energia Eletrica da Bahia (COELBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a model for analysis of voltage collapse and instability problem considering the load characteristics. The model considers fundamentally the transmission lines represented by exact from through the generalized constants A, B, C, D and the loads as function of the voltage, emphasizing the cases of constant power, constant current and constant impedance. the study treats of the system behavior on steady state and presents illustrative graphics about the problem. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Considering bioavailability in the remediation of heavy metal contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leita L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many years of research have demonstrated that instead of the total concentration of metals in soil, bioavailability is the key to understand the environmental risk derived by metals, since adverse effects are related only to the biologically available forms of these elements. The knowledge of bioavailability can decrease the uncertainties in evaluating exposure in human and ecological risk assessment. At the same time, the efficiency of remediation treatments could be greatly influenced by availability of the contaminants. Consideration of the bioavailability processes at contaminated sites could be useful in site-specific risk assessment: the fraction of mobile metals, instead of total content should be provided as estimates of metal exposure. Moreover, knowledge of the chemical forms of heavy metals in soils is a critical component in the evaluation of applicability of different remediation technologies such as phytoremdiation or soil washing.

  9. Reliability evaluation of microgrid considering incentive-based demand response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Cheng; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Incentive-based demand response (IBDR) can guide customers to adjust their behaviour of electricity and curtail load actively. Meanwhile, distributed generation (DG) and energy storage system (ESS) can provide time for the implementation of IBDR. The paper focus on the reliability evaluation of microgrid considering IBDR. Firstly, the mechanism of IBDR and its impact on power supply reliability are analysed. Secondly, the IBDR dispatch model considering customer’s comprehensive assessment and the customer response model are developed. Thirdly, the reliability evaluation method considering IBDR based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed. Finally, the validity of the above models and method is studied through numerical tests on modified RBTS Bus6 test system. Simulation results demonstrated that IBDR can improve the reliability of microgrid.

  10. CALCULATION OF INITIALS OPTIMAL PRODUCTION CAPACITIES CONSIDERING UNCERTAINTY ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Oquendo Ferrer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In diversification, an attractive variant constitutes the projection of ethanol plants due to all the advantages that this represents and a crucial element for this to be effective is the existence of cane as a fundamental raw material for the sugar industry and therefore the derived productions. To project the initials optimal capacity of the plant, uncertainty in the raw material was considered. Mathematical models of capacity in time are obtained, choosing those that best fit, being the linear the simplest for future calculations. The initial capacity the plant should have is determined, also the time at which the first extension and the capacity of the plant should be done, which allows, considering other criteria, to make decisions about what should be the capacity of an ethanol plant in response to the current and future availability of sugar cane. It is presented a general method that can be used considering other tax sugar companies in a province or a region.

  11. Considering Intermittent Dormancy in an Advanced Life Support Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    Many advanced human space exploration missions being considered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) include concepts in which in-space systems cycle between inhabited and uninhabited states. Managing the life support system (LSS) may be particularly challenged during these periods of intermittent dormancy. A study to identify LSS management challenges and considerations relating to dormancy is described. The study seeks to define concepts suitable for addressing intermittent dormancy states and to evaluate whether the reference LSS architectures being considered by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support Systems Project (LSSP) are sufficient to support this operational state. The primary focus of the study is the mission concept considered to be the most challenging-a crewed Mars mission with an extensive surface stay. Results from this study are presented and discussed.

  12. Branding and the Risk Management Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Susan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In an increasingly risky socioeconomic environment, management needs to proactively consider brand-related risks. To understand brands as tools for risk management, they need to understand four types of brand risk: brand reputation risk, brand dilution risk, brand cannibalization risk and brand stretch risk.

  13. Branding and the Risk Management Imperative

    OpenAIRE

    Fournier Susan; Srinivasan Shuba

    2018-01-01

    In an increasingly risky socioeconomic environment, management needs to proactively consider brand-related risks. To understand brands as tools for risk management, they need to understand four types of brand risk: brand reputation risk, brand dilution risk, brand cannibalization risk and brand stretch risk.

  14. Considering lost sale in inventory routing problems for perishable goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Samira; Seifi, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    , the average optimality gaps are less than 10.9% and 13.4% using linear and exponential lost sale functions, respectively. Furthermore, we show that the optimality gaps found by CPLEX grow exponentially with the problem size while those obtained by the proposed meta-heuristic algorithm increase linearly....... is considered as lost sale. The proposed model balances the transportation cost, the cost of inventory holding and lost sale. In addition to the usual inventory routing constraints, we consider the cost of lost sale as a linear or an exponential function of the inventory age. The proposed model is solved...

  15. Blood flow analysis with considering nanofluid effects in vertical channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, S.; Rashidi, M. M.; Qasim, M.

    2017-06-01

    Manipulation of heat convection of copper particles in blood has been considered peristaltically. Two-phase flow model is used in a channel with insulating walls. Flow analysis has been approved by assuming small Reynold number and infinite length of wave. Coupled equations are solved. Numerical solution are computed for the pressure gradient, axial velocity function and temperature. Influence of attention-grabbing parameters on flow entities has been analyzed. This study can be considered as mathematical representation to the vibrance of physiological systems/tissues/organs provided with medicine.

  16. Considering Bone Marrow Blasts From Nonerythroid Cellularity Improves the Prognostic Evaluation of Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenillas, Leonor; Calvo, Xavier; Luño, Elisa; Senent, Leonor; Alonso, Esther; Ramos, Fernando; Ardanaz, María Teresa; Pedro, Carme; Tormo, Mar; Marco, Víctor; Montoro, Julia; Díez-Campelo, María; Brunet, Salut; Arrizabalaga, Beatriz; Xicoy, Blanca; Andreu, Rafael; Bonanad, Santiago; Jerez, Andrés; Nomdedeu, Benet; Ferrer, Ana; Sanz, Guillermo F; Florensa, Lourdes

    2016-09-20

    WHO classification of myeloid malignancies is based mainly on the percentage of bone marrow (BM) blasts. This is considered from total nucleated cells (TNCs), unless there is erythroid-hyperplasia (erythroblasts ≥ 50%), calculated from nonerythroid cells (NECs). In these instances, when BM blasts are ≥ 20%, the disorder is classified as erythroleukemia, and when BM blasts are < 20%, as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the latter, the percentage of blasts is considered from TNCs. We assessed the percentage of BM blasts from TNCs and NECs in 3,692 patients with MDS from the Grupo Español de Síndromes Mielodisplásicos, 465 patients with erythroid hyperplasia (MDS-E) and 3,227 patients without erythroid hyperplasia. We evaluated the relevance of both quantifications on classification and prognostication. By enumerating blasts systematically from NECs, 22% of patients with MDS-E and 12% with MDS from the whole series diagnosed within WHO categories with < 5% BM blasts, were reclassified into higher-risk categories and showed a poorer overall survival than did those who remained in initial categories (P = .006 and P = .001, respectively). Following WHO recommendations, refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-2 diagnosis is not possible in MDS-E, as patients with 10% to < 20% BM blasts from TNCs fulfill erythroleukemia criteria; however, by considering blasts from NECs, 72 patients were recoded as RAEB-2 and showed an inferior overall survival than did patients with RAEB-1 without erythroid hyperplasia. Recalculating the International Prognostic Scoring System by enumerating blasts from NECs in MDS-E and in the overall MDS population reclassified approximately 9% of lower-risk patients into higher-risk categories, which indicated the survival expected for higher-risk patients. Regardless of the presence of erythroid hyperplasia, calculating the percentage of BM blasts from NECs improves prognostic assessment of MDS. This fact should be considered in future

  17. Purchasing an Encyclopedia: 12 Points To Consider. Fifth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association, Chicago, IL.

    This book discusses issues to consider when purchasing an encyclopedia and provides reviews of eight print encyclopedias, six CD-ROM encyclopedias, and one online encyclopedia. Each review provides an address and discusses the history, scope and treatment, and quality and currency of the encyclopedia; for CD-ROM encyclopedias, the database…

  18. Renovating Interior Office Space: What a Manager Needs To Consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Evelyn R.

    When planning an office renovation, a manager should design an office layout that is efficient and should consider the psychological aspects of office design, including sound level, color harmony, and lighting. The manager must also have a good understanding of all phases of the project plan and the timing involved. There are basically five phases…

  19. Biological effects of extreme environmental conditions. [considering limits of biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imshenetskiy, A. A.

    1975-01-01

    Actions of extreme physical and chemical space factors on microorganisms and plants are elaborated in order to establish limits for the biosphere. Considered are effects of low and high temperatures; ionizing and ultraviolet radiation; various gases; and effects of vibration, desiccation and acceleration.

  20. The "Make or Buy" Decision: Five Main Points to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Mary Ann E.

    1978-01-01

    Five points which should be considered when making decisions about whether to purchase magnetic tapes for in-hours searching by batch processing, purchase terminals and contract with on-line vendors, or contract with information brokers for retrospective searching or SDI are availability of information in the most useful form, hardware and…

  1. Evaluation and purchase of confocal microscopes: numerous factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Robert M; Chua, Michael

    2010-10-01

    The purchase of a confocal microscope is a difficult decision. Many factors need to be considered, which include hardware, software, company, support, service, and price. These issues are discussed to help guide the purchasing process. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Better Together: Considering Student Interfaith Leadership and Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William; Lane, Megan

    2014-01-01

    On campuses across the country, students and professional staff are considering student interfaith leadership as one way that students act on their core values to make a positive difference in the world. This kind of student leadership can be framed through student leadership models like the social change model of leadership development. Better…

  3. Concerns of the environment as considered in regional planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, W; Witzmann, K; Wilkes, P J; Singer, P; Steimann, F; Timmer, R; Ernst, W; Erbguth, W; Schlarmann, H

    1980-12-01

    Considering all the viewpoints and paying due attention to arguments of energy economy and the protection of nature and landscapes, water economy, town-planning, close-range recreation areas and tourism the project of developing the lower Salzach valley is seen to be unpracticable.

  4. Considering Jumping Ship? A Pirate Looks at Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Bob G.

    2011-01-01

    If you're like me, a "senior" faculty member at a public state university facing significant budget cuts, recently you've probably thought about leaving your current position for another faculty position in a different state. A possible reason for considering jumping ship is envisioning a clearer picture of your retirement as it nears on…

  5. 26 CFR 48.4161(a)-4 - Use considered sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(a)-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(a)-4 Use considered sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or...

  6. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-3 - Use considered sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....4161(b)-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-3 Use considered sale. For provisions relating to the tax on use of taxable articles by the manufacturer, producer, or...

  7. 29 CFR 1990.132 - Factors to be considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION, AND REGULATION OF POTENTIAL OCCUPATIONAL CARCINOGENS Priority Setting § 1990.132 Factors to be considered. (a) The setting of priorities is a complex matter which... respect to the setting of priorities. (b) Some factors which may be taken into account in setting...

  8. Breathing Clean : Considering the Switch to Natural Gas Buses

    OpenAIRE

    Kojima, Masami

    2001-01-01

    In response to emerging epidemiological evidence of the toxicity of diesel vehicular emissions, there is growing interest in substituting conventional diesel with much cleaner natural gas in cities where ambient concentrations of particulate matter are markedly higher than what is internationally considered acceptable. This paper compares the performance of natural gas and conventional die...

  9. CFD analysis of linear compressors considering load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sanghyun; Oh, Wonsik

    2017-08-01

    This paper is a study on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of linear compressor considering load conditions. In the conventional CFD analysis of the linear compressor, the load condition was not considered in the behaviour of the piston. In some papers, behaviour of piston is assumed as sinusoidal motion provided by user defined function (UDF). In the reciprocating type compressor, the stroke of the piston is restrained by the rod, while the stroke of the linear compressor is not restrained, and the stroke changes depending on the load condition. The greater the pressure difference between the discharge refrigerant and the suction refrigerant, the more the centre point of the stroke is pushed backward. And the behaviour of the piston is not a complete sine wave. For this reason, when the load condition changes in the CFD analysis of the linear compressor, it may happen that the ANSYS code is changed or unfortunately the modelling is changed. In addition, a separate analysis or calculation is required to find a stroke that meets the load condition, which may contain errors. In this study, the coupled mechanical equations and electrical equations are solved using the UDF, and the behaviour of the piston is solved considering the pressure difference across the piston. Using the above method, the stroke of the piston with respect to the motor specification of the analytical model can be calculated according to the input voltage, and the piston behaviour can be realized considering the thrust amount due to the pressure difference.

  10. "Unnecessary suffering": the cornerstone of animal protection legislation considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, M

    1999-09-01

    Causing "unnecessary suffering" has been widely adopted in legislation to define criminal liability in respect of the treatment of animals. This article examines the way in which the term has been interpreted and applied by the courts, and considers its effectiveness in affording animals protection from abuse.

  11. Governing Bodies That Consider Joining or Creating Federations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research study exploring what motivates governing bodies to consider joining or creating a federation, their experiences of the process and the barriers faced. The research methodology involved semi-structured telephone interviews, face-to-face interviews and analysis of relevant documentation. The varied…

  12. Considering Critical Turns in Research on Educational Leadership and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Sarah; Young, Michelle D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of critical policy analysis (CPA) in the fields of educational leadership and policy. In addition to exploring how CPA compares to traditional research approaches in educational leadership and policy, the authors consider the influence of long-established ways of knowing, why scholars choose…

  13. Considering bilingual dictionaries against a corpus. Do English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the extent to which four representatives of the latest generation of English-French / French-English dictionaries present "real English", i.e. actually used meanings of actually used English word patterns. The findings of a corpus study of the verb CONSIDER are confronted with the entries for this verb ...

  14. Risk management in nuclear power social aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappa, N.N.

    1996-01-01

    Problems connected with safety evaluation and risk management during operation of nuclear power installations are considered. Social aspects of risk assessment of enterprises with increased danger are discussed

  15. Thermal stress analysis of reactor containment building considering severe weather condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yun; Kim, Yun-Yong; Hyun, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Do-Gyeum

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine that through-wall crack risk in cold weather is high. • It is predicted that cracking in concrete wall will not happen in hot region. • Cracking due to hydration heat can be controlled by appropriate curing condition. • Temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small in hot weather. - Abstract: Prediction of concrete cracking due to hydration heat in mass concrete such as reactor containment building (RCB) in nuclear power plant is a crucial issue in construction site. In this study, the numerical analysis for heat transfer and stress development is performed for the containment wall in RCB by considering the severe weather conditions. Finally, concrete cracking risk in hot and cold weather is discussed based on analysis results. In analyses considering severe weather conditions, it is found that the through-wall cracking risk in cold weather is high due to the abrupt temperature difference between inside concrete and the ambient air in cold region. In hot weather, temperature differences between inner and outer face is relatively small, and accordingly the relevant cracking risk is relatively low in contrast with cold weather

  16. Life cycle cost analysis of wind power considering stochastic uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chiao-Ting; Peng, Huei; Sun, Jing

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a long-term cost analysis of wind power and compares its competitiveness to non-renewable generating technologies. The analysis considers several important attributes related to wind intermittency that are sometimes ignored in traditional generation planning or LCOE (levelized cost of energy) studies, including the need for more nameplate capacity due to intermittency, hourly fluctuations in wind outputs and cost for reserves. The competitiveness of wind power is assessed by evaluating four scenarios: 1) adding natural gas generating capacity to the power grid; 2) adding coal generating capacity to the power grid; 3) adding wind capacity to the power grid; and, 4) adding wind capacity and energy storage to the power grid where an energy storage device is used to cover wind intermittency. A case study in the state of Michigan is presented to demonstrate the use of the proposed methodology, in which a time horizon from 2010 to 2040 is considered. The results show that wind energy will still be more expensive than natural gas power plants in the next three decades, but will be cheaper than coal capacities if wind intermittency is mitigated. Furthermore, if the costs of carbon emissions and environmental externalities are considered, wind generation will be a competitive option for grid capacity expansion. - Highlights: • The competitiveness of wind power is analyzed via life cycle cost analysis. • Wind intermittency and reserve costs are explicitly considered in the analysis. • Results show that wind is still more expensive than natural gas power plants. • Wind can be cheaper than coal capacities if wind intermittency is mitigated. • Wind will be competitive if costs of carbon emissions are considered

  17. Modelling of capital asset pricing by considering the lagged effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukono; Hidayat, Y.; Bon, A. Talib bin; Supian, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the problem of modelling the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) with the effect of the lagged is discussed. It is assumed that asset returns are analysed influenced by the market return and the return of risk-free assets. To analyse the relationship between asset returns, the market return, and the return of risk-free assets, it is conducted by using a regression equation of CAPM, and regression equation of lagged distributed CAPM. Associated with the regression equation lagged CAPM distributed, this paper also developed a regression equation of Koyck transformation CAPM. Results of development show that the regression equation of Koyck transformation CAPM has advantages, namely simple as it only requires three parameters, compared with regression equation of lagged distributed CAPM.

  18. Risk-informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.R.

    2003-01-01

    In assessing safety for nuclear facilities, regulators have traditionally used a deterministic approach. New techniques for assessing nuclear or radiological risks make it possible for regulators to incorporate risk insights into their regulations. By 'risk-informing' the regulatory processes, independent bodies tasked with protecting the health and safety of the public can focus on those design and operational issues most important to safety. Such an approach is a move away from prescriptive regulations that were based on conservative engineering judgments toward regulations focused on issues that contribute significantly to safety. Despite the availability of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) tools, organisations often struggle with how to best use this capability. Most international regulations are still based largely on deterministic analyses that were developed without the benefit of quantitative or measurable estimates of risk. PRA considers issues of risk in a more comprehensive manner by examining a wider spectrum of initiating events and their frequency, and considers the likelihood of events in a rigorous and comprehensive manner. In some countries, nuclear regulators are actively moving toward increasing the use of risk insights in a variety of strategic arenas, including risk-informed technical specifications (operating limits and conditions), in-service inspection and testing, programs, and assessment and enforcement actions. A risk-informed approach enhances the traditional deterministic approach by explicitly considering a broader range of safety challenges, focusing resources on the basis of risk significance, considering a broader range of counter measures to mitigate challenges, and explicitly identifying and quantifying uncertainties in analyses. (author)

  19. Considering Affective Responses towards Environments for Enhancing Location Based Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Gartner, G.; Klettner, S.; Schmidt, M.

    2014-04-01

    A number of studies in the field of environmental psychology show that humans perceive and evaluate their surroundings affectively. Some places are experienced as unsafe, while some others as attractive and interesting. Experiences from daily life show that many of our daily behaviours and decision-making are often influenced by this kind of affective responses towards environments. Location based services (LBS) are often designed to assist and support people's behaviours and decision-making in space. In order to provide services with high usefulness (usability and utility), LBS should consider these kinds of affective responses towards environments. This paper reports on the results of a research project, which studies how people's affective responses towards environments can be modelled and acquired, as well as how LBS can benefit by considering these affective responses. As one of the most popular LBS applications, mobile pedestrian navigation systems are used as an example for illustration.

  20. Transmission expansion in an oligopoly considering generation investment equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, S. Saeid; Kazempour, Jalal; Seyedshenava, Seyedjalal

    2017-01-01

    the future generation investment actions. However, in such an oligopolistic market, each producer makes its own strategic generation investment decisions. This motivates the transmission system planner to consider the generation investment decision-making problem of all producers within its TEP model......Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is a sophisticated decision-making problem, especially in an oligopolistic electricity market in which a number of strategic (price-maker) producers compete together. A transmission system planner, who is in charge of making TEP decisions, requires considering....... This paper proposes a tri-level TEP decision-making model to be solved by the transmission system planner, whose objective is to maximize the social welfare of the market minus the expansion costs, and whose constraints are the transmission expansion limits as well as the generation investment equilibrium...

  1. Choosing the nuclear power option: Factors to be considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A need was expressed by Member States for guidance on policy issues to be addressed by decision makers considering the introduction of nuclear power programmes. This publication has been prepared by the IAEA, on the basis of past experience with nuclear power programmes in Member States and the current realities of the world nuclear regime, to provide information on political, governmental, economic, financial, technical and safety issues associated with planning and implementing a nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed as well as the roles and responsibilities of the government, the plant owner and the national industry. For those interested in examining some of the issues in more depth, a list of related IAEA publications is provided in the bibliography. It is hoped that this guide will serve a useful purpose in assisting decision makers and governments in Member States considering the introduction of nuclear power programmes

  2. Extended discrete-ordinate method considering full polarization state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, Michael A.; Qin Yi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an extension to the standard discrete-ordinate method (DOM) to consider generalized sources including: beam sources which can be placed at any (vertical) position and illuminate in any direction, thermal emission from the atmosphere and angularly distributed sources which illuminate from a surface as continuous functions of zenith and azimuth angles. As special cases, the thermal emission from the surface and deep space can be implemented as angularly distributed sources. Analytical-particular solutions for all source types are derived using the infinite medium Green's function. Radiation field zenith angle interpolation using source function integration is developed for all source types. The development considers the full state of polarization, including the sources (as applicable) and the (BRDF) surface, but the development can be reduced easily to scalar problems and is ready to be implemented in a single set of code for both scalar and vector radiative transfer computation

  3. Extended discrete-ordinate method considering full polarization state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Box, Michael A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales (Australia)]. E-mail: m.box@unsw.edu.au; Qin Yi [School of Physics, University of New South Wales (Australia)]. E-mail: yi.qin@csiro.au

    2006-01-15

    This paper presents an extension to the standard discrete-ordinate method (DOM) to consider generalized sources including: beam sources which can be placed at any (vertical) position and illuminate in any direction, thermal emission from the atmosphere and angularly distributed sources which illuminate from a surface as continuous functions of zenith and azimuth angles. As special cases, the thermal emission from the surface and deep space can be implemented as angularly distributed sources. Analytical-particular solutions for all source types are derived using the infinite medium Green's function. Radiation field zenith angle interpolation using source function integration is developed for all source types. The development considers the full state of polarization, including the sources (as applicable) and the (BRDF) surface, but the development can be reduced easily to scalar problems and is ready to be implemented in a single set of code for both scalar and vector radiative transfer computation.

  4. DYNAMIC OPTIMAL BUDGET ALLOCATION FOR INTEGRATED MARKETING CONSIDERING PERSISTENCE

    OpenAIRE

    SHIZHONG AI; RONG DU; QIYING HU

    2010-01-01

    Aiming at forming dynamic optimal integrated marketing policies, we build a budget allocation model considering both current effects and sustained ones. The model includes multiple time periods and multiple marketing tools which interact through a common resource pool as well as through delayed cross influences on each other's sales, reflecting the nature of "integrated marketing" and its dynamics. In our study, marginal analysis is used to illuminate the structure of optimal policy. We deriv...

  5. Estimation of the uncertainties considered in NPP PSA level 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalchev, B.; Hristova, R.

    2005-01-01

    The main approaches of the uncertainties analysis are presented. The sources of uncertainties which should be considered in PSA level 2 for WWER reactor such as: uncertainties propagated from level 1 PSA; uncertainties in input parameters; uncertainties related to the modelling of physical phenomena during the accident progression and uncertainties related to the estimation of source terms are defined. The methods for estimation of the uncertainties are also discussed in this paper

  6. Assessing Power System Stability Following Load Changes and Considering Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ngo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An increase in load capacity during the operation of a power system usually causes voltage drop and leads to system instability, so it is necessary to monitor the effect of load changes. This article presents a method of assessing the power system stability according to the load node capacity considering uncertainty factors in the system. The proposed approach can be applied to large-scale power systems for voltage stability assessment in real-time.

  7. Malaysia: Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-13

    general election. Key observers have also pointed to decisions by Parti-Islam sa- Malaysia (PAS), Parti Keadilan Rakyat , and the Democratic Action Party...Sultan fulfills this function. Each state has a state legislature. The lower house of Malaysia’s Parliament, the Dewan Rakyat , has 193 members elected...Order Code RL33878 Malaysia : Political, Security, Economic, and Trade Issues Considered February 13, 2007 Bruce Vaughn, Coordinator Specialist in

  8. Choosing the nuclear power option: Factors to be considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueorguiev, B.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    To plan and develop a nuclear power program, policies must be formulated and decided at different stages and at different levels by the government and its organizations, by the utility and by other organizations in industry and research and education, each within its sphere of interest and influence. The purpose of this paper is to highlight areas where policy decisions are needed, the options available, what they mean and the contexts in which they should be considered. (author)

  9. CONSIDERING CHANGES IN WOOD UTILIZATION -A EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Resch, Helmuth

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, continuous change is evident. What impact does it have on the utilization of wood? What should be considered when educating professionals in Wood Science and Technology (WS&T)? Where did we come from and where do we need to go? .Throughout history, forests provided important social, ecological, and economic values. Wood utilization advanced along with an unprecedented and exciting industrial evolution and WS&T became an interdisciplinary field. Recently, stronger environmental conc...

  10. Considering Sustainable Degrowth from a Feminist, Transrational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bock, Marisol C.

    2015-01-01

    Treball final de Màster Universitari en Estudis internacionals de Pau, Conflictes i Desenvolupament. Codi: SBG119. Curs acadèmic 2014-2015 Today's global interlocking crises in the economic, ecological and social realms point to the need for profound change. Sustainable degrowth supporters propose multiple alternatives to move away from the dominant economic growth model, which they consider as the underlying problem. In this thesis, I investigate the intersection of degrowth and ...

  11. Factors to consider in the selection of a calcium supplement.

    OpenAIRE

    Shangraw, R F

    1989-01-01

    Calcium supplements are widely used, yet many questions remain as to the absorption of various calcium salts. Because the solubility of many calcium salts is dependent upon pH, the type of salt used, the condition of the patient, and the time of administration should be considered. Studies show that many calcium supplements on the market today do not meet standards of quality established in the "U.S. Pharmacopeia" (USP). Consumers must be discerning about the products they purchase. Calcium s...

  12. [Lake eutrophication modeling in considering climatic factors change: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie-Qiong; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Climatic factors are considered as the key factors affecting the trophic status and its process in most lakes. Under the background of global climate change, to incorporate the variations of climatic factors into lake eutrophication models could provide solid technical support for the analysis of the trophic evolution trend of lake and the decision-making of lake environment management. This paper analyzed the effects of climatic factors such as air temperature, precipitation, sunlight, and atmosphere on lake eutrophication, and summarized the research results about the lake eutrophication modeling in considering in considering climatic factors change, including the modeling based on statistical analysis, ecological dynamic analysis, system analysis, and intelligent algorithm. The prospective approaches to improve the accuracy of lake eutrophication modeling with the consideration of climatic factors change were put forward, including 1) to strengthen the analysis of the mechanisms related to the effects of climatic factors change on lake trophic status, 2) to identify the appropriate simulation models to generate several scenarios under proper temporal and spatial scales and resolutions, and 3) to integrate the climatic factors change simulation, hydrodynamic model, ecological simulation, and intelligent algorithm into a general modeling system to achieve an accurate prediction of lake eutrophication under climatic change.

  13. Cost assessment of demo fusion reactor with considering maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Kitagoh, Kazutoshi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform cost assessment of nuclear fusion reactors in order to draw up commercial plants. A fusion reactor may have a complex configuration to achieve high beta value, which leads to low and instable availability when maintenance is taken into account. Therefore, reactor's availability must be evaluated with considering the influence of the configuration complexity. Furthermore the availability has the strong impact on COE (Cost of Electricity), that is, a fusion reactor with low availability will not be accepted as a commercial plant. Therefore, we developed a new method to calculate availabilities with random numbers, in which the complexity of reactor's configuration could become considered. In addition, we considered the reduction of superconducting coil's maintenance time by introducing remountable magnet system because the coil maintenance requires quite long time in the present technology. The results show that the availability becomes relatively large if the short maintenance time of coils could be achieved, for example, by remountable magnetic systems. (author)

  14. Locational Prices in Capacity Subscription Market Considering Transmission Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Babaeinejad Sarookolaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on one of the most effective type of capacity markets named Capacity Subscription (CS market which is predicted to be widely used in the upcoming smart grids. Despite variant researches done about the mechanism and structure of capacity markets, their performances have been rarely tested in the presence of network constraints. Considering this deficiency, we tried to propose a new method to determine capacity prices in the network considering the transmission line flow limitations named Local capacity Prices (LP. This method is quite new and has not been tried before in any other similar researches. The philosophy of the proposed method is to determine capacity prices considering each consumer share of total peak demand. The first advantage of LP is that the consumers who benefit from the transmission facilities and are the responsible for transmission congestions, pay higher capacity prices than those whom their needed electricity is prepared locally. The second advantage of LP is that consumers connected to the same bus do not have to pay same capacity price due to their different shares of total peak demand. For more clarification, two other different methods named Branches Flow limit as a Global Limit (BFGL and Locational Capacity Prices (LCP are proposed and compared to the LP method in order to show LP method efficiency. The numerical results obtained from case studies show that the LP method follows more justice market procedure which results in more efficient capacity prices in comparison to BFGL and LCP methods.

  15. Genomic cloud computing: legal and ethical points to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Joly, Yann; Tassé, Anne-Marie; Knoppers, Bartha M

    2015-10-01

    The biggest challenge in twenty-first century data-intensive genomic science, is developing vast computer infrastructure and advanced software tools to perform comprehensive analyses of genomic data sets for biomedical research and clinical practice. Researchers are increasingly turning to cloud computing both as a solution to integrate data from genomics, systems biology and biomedical data mining and as an approach to analyze data to solve biomedical problems. Although cloud computing provides several benefits such as lower costs and greater efficiency, it also raises legal and ethical issues. In this article, we discuss three key 'points to consider' (data control; data security, confidentiality and transfer; and accountability) based on a preliminary review of several publicly available cloud service providers' Terms of Service. These 'points to consider' should be borne in mind by genomic research organizations when negotiating legal arrangements to store genomic data on a large commercial cloud service provider's servers. Diligent genomic cloud computing means leveraging security standards and evaluation processes as a means to protect data and entails many of the same good practices that researchers should always consider in securing their local infrastructure.

  16. Uncertainty Analysis with Considering Resonance Self-shielding Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Young

    2016-01-01

    If infinitely diluted multi-group cross sections were used for the sensitivity, the covariance data from the evaluated nuclear data library (ENDL) was directly applied. However, in case of using a self-shielded multi-group cross section, the covariance data should be corrected considering self-shielding effect. Usually, implicit uncertainty can be defined as the uncertainty change by the resonance self-shielding effect as described above. MUSAD ( Modules of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for DeCART ) has been developed for a multiplication factor and cross section uncertainty based on the generalized perturbation theory and it, however, can only quantify the explicit uncertainty by the self-shielded multi-group cross sections without considering the implicit effect. Thus, this paper addresses the implementation of the implicit uncertainty analysis module into the code and the numerical results for the verification are provided. The implicit uncertainty analysis module has been implemented into MUSAD based on infinitely-diluted cross section-based consistent method. The verification calculation was performed on MHTGR 350 Ex.I-1a and the differences with McCARD result decrease from 40% to 1% in CZP case and 3% in HFP case. From this study, it is expected that MUSAD code can reasonably produce the complete uncertainty on VHTR or LWR where the resonance self-shielding effect should be significantly considered

  17. Uncertainty Analysis with Considering Resonance Self-shielding Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Tae Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    If infinitely diluted multi-group cross sections were used for the sensitivity, the covariance data from the evaluated nuclear data library (ENDL) was directly applied. However, in case of using a self-shielded multi-group cross section, the covariance data should be corrected considering self-shielding effect. Usually, implicit uncertainty can be defined as the uncertainty change by the resonance self-shielding effect as described above. MUSAD ( Modules of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for DeCART ) has been developed for a multiplication factor and cross section uncertainty based on the generalized perturbation theory and it, however, can only quantify the explicit uncertainty by the self-shielded multi-group cross sections without considering the implicit effect. Thus, this paper addresses the implementation of the implicit uncertainty analysis module into the code and the numerical results for the verification are provided. The implicit uncertainty analysis module has been implemented into MUSAD based on infinitely-diluted cross section-based consistent method. The verification calculation was performed on MHTGR 350 Ex.I-1a and the differences with McCARD result decrease from 40% to 1% in CZP case and 3% in HFP case. From this study, it is expected that MUSAD code can reasonably produce the complete uncertainty on VHTR or LWR where the resonance self-shielding effect should be significantly considered.

  18. Rethinking the intensive care environment: considering nature in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Claire; Batten, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    With consideration of an environmental concept, this paper explores evidence related to the negative impacts of the intensive care unit environment on patient outcomes and explores the potential counteracting benefits of 'nature-based' nursing interventions as a way to improve care outcomes. The impact of the environment in which a patient is nursed has long been recognised as one determinant in patient outcomes. Whilst the contemporary intensive care unit environment contains many features that support the provision of the intensive therapies the patient requires, it can also be detrimental, especially for long-stay patients. This narrative review considers theoretical and evidence-based literature that supports the adoption of nature-based nursing interventions in intensive care units. Research and theoretical literature from a diverse range of disciplines including nursing, medicine, psychology, architecture and environmental science were considered in relation to patient outcomes and intensive care nursing practice. There are many nature-based interventions that intensive care unit nurses can implement into their nursing practice to counteract environmental stressors. These interventions can also improve the environment for patients' families and nurses. Intensive care unit nurses must actively consider and manage the environment in which nursing occurs to facilitate the best patient outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Land in China: Re-considering comparability in financial reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper re-considers the notion of ‘comparability’ as it has been applied to the accounting standardharmonisation project and its implications for accounting practices that are emerging in China.Comparability is a concept that has been widely referred to within the accounting literature, but has remainedlargely unexplored. In order to encourage what Zeff (2007 described as “genuine comparability” we arguethat the underlying economic substance of an event should be the focus of our accounting choices in order toenable appropriate comparisons. If we focus too heavily on regulatory standardisation that prescribescomparable techniques without considering the broader economic context in which these are applied, theaccounting representations could mislead users. The techniques may distort representations of theunderlying economic substance of business activities, which would hinder the level of a genuinecomparability in global financial reporting. In order to explore this, given the unique legal status of land inChina, we consider how it is classified and represented in Chinese financial reports. This example shows thatthere are still significant challenges that need to be overcome in order to implement IFRS in China and thereare still substantial comparability problems for cross-border users.

  20. Time to Consider Moving Beyond Exclusive Breastfeeding in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. Wojcicki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While there have been considerable advances in the reduction of mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT in sub-Saharan Africa with the advance of anti-retroviral therapies (ART, there remain challenges in the late postpartum period.  Structural issues including food insecurity and stigma make better maternal ART adherence and exclusive breastfeeding unreachable for some women. There are no other scientifically researched feeding options as there have been few studies on different types of mixed feeding practices and risk of HIV infection. Additional studies are warranted to assess detailed feeding practices in HIV exposed infants in relation to clinical outcomes.

  1. Nuclear Safety Authority independence, progresses to be considered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delzangles, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    The Nuclear Safety Authority is an independent administrative body. Nevertheless, functional and organic independence from operators and government can have different degrees. Having a look on the actual context, where government holds a large part of the main nuclear French operators, independence has to be maximal in order to avoid any conflict of interest that could attempt to nuclear safety. In a global point of view, it is possible to think about the risks or the benefits of the institutionalized cooperation between national regulators on the necessary independence of the Nuclear Safety Authority

  2. Calculating Risk: Radiation and Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Robert Peter

    1987-01-01

    Considers who is at risk in a disaster such as Chernobyl. Assesses the difficulty in translating information regarding radiation to the public and in determining the acceptability of technological risks. (NKA)

  3. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  4. Risk Management in Logystics Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Butrin, Andrey; Vikulov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Article is devoted to risk management of supply chain. The authors considered indicators of supply chain risks, including risks caused by supplier. Authors formed a method of optimizing the level of supply chain risk in the integration with suppliers and customers.

  5. Evaluation of Floor Response Spectrum considering Ductility of Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Junhee; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The FRS (floor response spectrum) is directly influenced by the behavior of structure under the seismic load. If the structure is nonlinear range, the energy dissipation will be occurred by the damage of structure and the maximum force will be reduced. In Zion method, the inelastic energy abortion factor has been used to consider the nonlinearity of structure. This factor was used for the seismic fragility of structure. For the seismic fragility of equipment, the uncertainty of this factor was used differently according to the story level. But this method is not warranted under the strong earthquake leads to the structural damage. Therefore it is needed to evaluate the FRS considering the nonlinear behavior of structure and to assessment the conservatism related to nonlinear behavior of structure in FRS. In this study, the nonlinear analysis was performed for the conservatism of FRS under the damage of structure. The conservatism of FRS by the nonlinear analysis was compared by that proposed by the Zion method. The conservatism of floor acceleration response for the equipment was evaluated by performing the nonlinear analysis. From the nonlinear analysis results, it was showed that the median and β c of FRSR was increased with the ductility of structure and the response of equipment had the resonance effect between the frequency of equipment and structure. The seismic capacity of equipment by the Zion method can be different from the real seismic capacity of equipment because the inelastic structure response factor has nothing to do with the ductility of structure. Therefore the median and COV for FRSR should be defined considering the ductility of structure and the frequency of equipment for more exactly evaluating the seismic capacity of equipment

  6. Evaluation of Floor Response Spectrum considering Ductility of Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junhee; Choi, In-Kil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The FRS (floor response spectrum) is directly influenced by the behavior of structure under the seismic load. If the structure is nonlinear range, the energy dissipation will be occurred by the damage of structure and the maximum force will be reduced. In Zion method, the inelastic energy abortion factor has been used to consider the nonlinearity of structure. This factor was used for the seismic fragility of structure. For the seismic fragility of equipment, the uncertainty of this factor was used differently according to the story level. But this method is not warranted under the strong earthquake leads to the structural damage. Therefore it is needed to evaluate the FRS considering the nonlinear behavior of structure and to assessment the conservatism related to nonlinear behavior of structure in FRS. In this study, the nonlinear analysis was performed for the conservatism of FRS under the damage of structure. The conservatism of FRS by the nonlinear analysis was compared by that proposed by the Zion method. The conservatism of floor acceleration response for the equipment was evaluated by performing the nonlinear analysis. From the nonlinear analysis results, it was showed that the median and β{sub c} of FRSR was increased with the ductility of structure and the response of equipment had the resonance effect between the frequency of equipment and structure. The seismic capacity of equipment by the Zion method can be different from the real seismic capacity of equipment because the inelastic structure response factor has nothing to do with the ductility of structure. Therefore the median and COV for FRSR should be defined considering the ductility of structure and the frequency of equipment for more exactly evaluating the seismic capacity of equipment.

  7. Generation of equipment response spectrum considering equipment-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Yoo, Kwang Hoon

    2005-01-01

    Floor response spectra for dynamic response of subsystem such as equipment, or piping in nuclear power plant are usually generated without considering dynamic interaction between main structure and subsystem. Since the dynamic structural response generally has the narrow-banded shapes, the resulting floor response spectra developed for various locations in the structure usually have high spectral peak amplitudes in the narrow frequency bands corresponding to the natural frequencies of the structural system. The application of such spectra for design of subsystems often leads to excessive design conservatisms, especially when the equipment frequency and structure are at resonance condition. Thus, in order to provide a rational and realistic design input for dynamic analysis and design of equipment, dynamic equipment-structure interaction (ESI) should be considered in developing equipment response spectrum which is particularly important for equipment at the resonance condition. Many analytical methods have been proposed in the past for developing equipment response spectra considering ESI. However, most of these methods have not been adapted to the practical applications because of either the complexities or the lack of rigorousness of the methods. At one hand, mass ratio among the equipment and structure was used as an important parameter to obtain equipment response spectra. Similarly, Tseng has also proposed the analytical method for developing equipment response spectra using mass ratio in the frequency domain. This method is analytically rigorous and can be easily validated. It is based on the dynamic substructuring method as applied to the dynamic soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis, and can relatively easily be implemented for practical applications without to change the current dynamic analysis and design practice for subsystems. The equipment response spectra derived in this study are also based on Tseng's proposed method

  8. Thinking through cancer risk: characterizing smokers' process of risk determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer; Shuk, Elyse; Cruz, Gustavo; Ostroff, Jamie

    2005-10-01

    The perception of cancer risk motivates cancer risk reduction behaviors. However, common measurement strategies for cancer risk perceptions, which involve numerical likelihood estimates, do not adequately capture individuals' thoughts and feelings about cancer risk. To guide the development of novel measurement strategies, the authors used semistructured interviews to examine the thought processes used by smokers (N = 15) as they considered their cancer risk. They used grounded theory to guide systematic data coding and develop a heuristic model describing smokers' risk perception process that includes a cognitive, primarily rational process whereby salient personal risk factors for cancer are considered and combined, and an affective/attitudinal process, which shifts risk perceptions either up or down. The model provides a tentative explanation concerning how people hold cancer risk perceptions that diverge from rational assessment of their risks and will be useful in guiding the development of non-numerical measurements strategies for cancer risk perceptions.

  9. Risk control and the minimum significant risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented

  10. Generation Expansion Planning Considering Integrating Large-scale Wind Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. A bi-level generation expansion planning approach considering large-scale wind generation was proposed in this paper. The first phase is investment decision, while the second phase is production...... optimization decision. A multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) algorithm was introduced to solve this optimization problem, which can accelerate the convergence and guarantee the diversity of Pareto-optimal front set as well. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level planning approach and the MOPSO...

  11. Design of a solar concentrator considering arbitrary surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rodríguez, Martín.; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Verduzco-Grajeda, Lidia Elizabeth; Martínez-Enríquez, Arturo I.; García-Díaz, Reyes; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2017-10-01

    We study the propagation of light in order to efficiently redirect the reflected light on photocatalytic samples placed inside a commercial solar simulator, and we have designed a small-scale prototype of Cycloidal Collectors (CCs), resembling a compound parabolic collector. The prototype consists of either cycloidal trough or cycloidal collector having symmetry of rotation, which has been designed considering an exact ray tracing assuming a bundle of rays propagating parallel to the optical axis and impinging on a curate cycloidal surface, obtaining its caustic surface produced by reflection.

  12. Game interrupted: The rationality of considering the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Almy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The ``problem of points'', introduced by Paccioli in 1494 and solved by Pascal and Fermat 160 years later, inspired the modern concept of probability. Incidentally, the problem also shows that rational decision-making requires the consideration of future events. We show that naive responses to the problem of points are more future oriented and thus more rational in this sense when the problem itself is presented in a future frame instead of the canonical past frame. A simple nudge is sufficient to make decisions more rational. We consider the implications of this finding for hypothesis testing and predictions of replicability.

  13. Fanconi Anemia: A Rarely Considered Cause of Macrocytosis During Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Deniz

    2017-10-01

    We describe a Turkish boy newly diagnosed with Fanconi anemia with mutation in the FANCA gene. The patient, with normal clinical phenotype and negative chromosomal breakage test result, presented with macrocytosis. No clinical or laboratory changes were observed in a follow-up period of 4 years. The diagnosis was confirmed molecularly after a prolonged and exhaustive investigation. He was found to be a compound heterozygote for 2 mutations in the FANCA gene (1 of which is novel, c.4261-2A>C). We present this experience to alert physicians that Fanconi anemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis of otherwise unexplained macrocytosis during childhood.

  14. Dynamic Analysis of Rotor Systems Considering Ball Bearing Contact Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youngjin; Lee, Jongmahn; Oh, Dongho

    2013-01-01

    We propose a finite element modeling method considering the ball bearing contact mechanism, and the developed method was verified through experimental and analytical results of inner and outer race-type rotor systems. A comparison of the proposed method with conventional method reveals that there is little difference in the results of the inner race-type rotor system, but there are considerable differences in the results of the outer race-type rotor system such that predictions of greater accuracy can be made. Therefore, the proposed method can be used for accurately predicting the dynamic characteristics of an outer race-type rotary machine

  15. Design wave estimation considering directional distribution of waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Deo, M.C

    .elsevier.com/locate/oceaneng Technical Note Design wave estimation considering directional distribution of waves V. Sanil Kumar a,C3 , M.C. Deo b a OceanEngineeringDivision,NationalInstituteofOceanography,Donapaula,Goa-403004,India b Civil... of Physical Oceanography Norway, Report method for the routine 18, 1020–1034. ocean waves. Division of No. UR-80-09, 187 p. analysis of pitch and roll Conference on Coastal Engineering, 1. ASCE, Taiwan, pp. 136–149. Deo, M.C., Burrows, R., 1986. Extreme wave...

  16. Fuzzy Networked Control Systems Design Considering Scheduling Restrictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Benítez-Pérez

    2012-01-01

    known a priory but from a dynamic real-time behavior. To do so, the use of priority dynamic Priority exchange scheduling is performed. The objective of this paper is to show a way to tackle multiple time delays that are bounded and the dynamic response from real-time scheduling approximation. The related control law is designed considering fuzzy logic approximation for nonlinear time delays coupling, where the main advantage is the integration of this behavior through extended state space representation keeping certain linear and bounded behavior and leading to a stable situation during events presentation by guaranteeing stability through Lyapunov.

  17. Regional Landslide Hazard Assessment Considering Potential Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, S.; Holcombe, E.; Pianosi, F.; Wagener, T.

    2016-12-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. These risks are likely to be exacerbated in the future by a combination of climatic and socio-economic factors. Climate change, for example, is expected to increase the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides, because a warmer atmosphere tends to produce more high intensity rainfall events. Prediction of future changes in rainfall, however, is subject to high levels of uncertainty, making it challenging for decision-makers to identify the areas and populations that are most vulnerable to landslide hazards. In this study, we demonstrate how a physically-based model - the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM) - can be used together with Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) to explore the underlying factors controlling the spatial distribution of landslide risks across a regional landscape, while also accounting for deep uncertainty around potential future rainfall triggers. We demonstrate how GSA can be used to analyse CHASM which in turn represents the spatial variability of hillslope characteristics in the study region, while accounting for other uncertainties. Results are presented in the form of landslide hazard maps, utilising high-resolution digital elevation datasets for a case study in St Lucia in the Caribbean. Our findings about spatial landslide hazard drivers have important implications for data collection approaches and for long-term decision-making about land management practices.

  18. Turner syndrome--issues to consider for transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaccioni, Laura; Wong, Sze Choong; Smyth, Arlene; Lyall, Helen; Dominiczak, Anna; Ahmed, S Faisal; Mason, Avril

    2015-03-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with a spectrum of health problems across the age span, which requires particular attention during the transition period in these adolescents. The majority of girls with TS require oestrogen replacement from puberty onwards, which is important for adequate feminization, uterine development and maintenance of bone health. There is a lifetime increased risk from autoimmune conditions like hypothyroidism, coeliac disease, hearing loss and aortic dilatation with the potential to lead to aortic dissection. A systematic and holistic approach to provision of health care in TS is needed. Several unanswered questions remain, including the choice of hormone replacement therapy in the young person with TS and in adulthood; the optimal mode of cardiovascular assessment; the best management and assessment prior to and during pregnancy. The optimal model of care and transition to adult services in TS requires attention. Further research is needed in relation to cardiovascular risk assessment, pregnancy management and hormone replacement therapy in TS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Considering the use of polyethylene vapour barriers in temperate climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, M.D. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Brown, W.C. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Most building envelope assemblies in Canada must include a vapour barrier in order to comply with Canadian building codes. The installation of sheet polyethylene between the studs and the interior sheathing has been the most common method because it provides more diffusion resistance than necessary to control condensation within a building envelope assembly. It has been suggested that the presence of a polyethylene vapour barrier on the warm-in-winter side of the insulation may actually cause moisture problems because a very low permeance material increases average moisture levels. This paper examined the theory that a vapour barrier at this location restricts drying of moisture that enters the building from outside. Pacific coastal regions of Canada and the United States were presented as examples. Other ways that a polyethylene vapour barrier affects wall performance were also presented. The advanced hygrothermal model HygIRC, developed by Canada's National Research Council, was used to simulate the performance of a wall assembly. Results indicate that eliminating the low permeance polyethylene vapour barrier does not necessarily reduce the risk of moisture problems. Removal of the vapour barrier may have some negative effects, such as increased risk of periodic moisture accumulation and mold growth on paper-faced gypsum board. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Transient radiative transfer in a scattering slab considering polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hongliang; Ben, Xun; Tan, Heping

    2013-11-04

    The characteristics of the transient and polarization must be considered for a complete and correct description of short-pulse laser transfer in a scattering medium. A Monte Carlo (MC) method combined with a time shift and superposition principle is developed to simulate transient vector (polarized) radiative transfer in a scattering medium. The transient vector radiative transfer matrix (TVRTM) is defined to describe the transient polarization behavior of short-pulse laser propagating in the scattering medium. According to the definition of reflectivity, a new criterion of reflection at Fresnel surface is presented. In order to improve the computational efficiency and accuracy, a time shift and superposition principle is applied to the MC model for transient vector radiative transfer. The results for transient scalar radiative transfer and steady-state vector radiative transfer are compared with those in published literatures, respectively, and an excellent agreement between them is observed, which validates the correctness of the present model. Finally, transient radiative transfer is simulated considering the polarization effect of short-pulse laser in a scattering medium, and the distributions of Stokes vector in angular and temporal space are presented.

  1. Considering Interactions among Multiple Criteria for the Server Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Čančer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making about server selection is one of the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM processes where interactions among criteria should be considered. The paper introduces and develops some solutions for considering interactions among criteria in the MCDM problems. In the frame procedure for MCDM by using the group of methods, based on assigning weights, special attention is given to the synthesis of the local alternatives’ values into the aggregate values where the mutual preferential independence between two criteria is not assumed. Firstly, we delineate how to complete the additive model into the multiplicative one with synergic and redundancy elements in the case that criteria are structured in one level and in two levels. Furthermore, we adapted the concept of the fuzzy Choquet integral to the multi-attribute value theory. Studying and comparing the results of the example case of the server selection obtained by both aggregation approaches, the paper highlights the advantages of the first one since it does not require from decision makers to determine the weights of all possible combinations of the criteria and it enables the further use of the most preferred MCDM methods.

  2. Discrete event simulation of Maglev transport considering traffic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Hyun Cha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A magnetically levitated vehicle (Maglev system is under commercialization as a new transportation system in Korea. The Maglev is operated by an unmanned automatic control system. Therefore, the plan of train operation should be carefully established and validated in advance. In general, when making a train operation plan, statistically predicted traffic data is used. However, a traffic wave often occurs in real train service, and demand-driven simulation technology is required to review a train operation plan and service quality considering traffic waves. We propose a method and model to simulate Maglev operation considering continuous demand changes. For this purpose, we employed a discrete event model that is suitable for modeling the behavior of railway passenger transportation. We modeled the system hierarchically using discrete event system specification (DEVS formalism. In addition, through implementation and an experiment using the DEVSim++ simulation environment, we tested the feasibility of the proposed model. Our experimental results also verified that our demand-driven simulation technology can be used for a priori review of train operation plans and strategies.

  3. Redesign of a supply network by considering stochastic demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Paz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of redesigning a supply network of large scale by considering variability of the demand. The central problematic takes root in determining strategic decisions of closing and adjusting of capacity of some network echelons and the tactical decisions concerning to the distribution channels used for transporting products. We have formulated a deterministic Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model (MILP and a stochastic MILP model (SMILP whose objective functions are the maximization of the EBITDA (Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization. The decisions of Network Design on stochastic model as capacities, number of warehouses in operation, material and product flows between echelons, are determined in a single stage by defining an objective function that penalizes unsatisfied demand and surplus of demand due to demand changes. The solution strategy adopted for the stochastic model is a scheme denominated as Sample Average Approximation (SAA. The model is based on the case of a Colombian company dedicated to production and marketing of foodstuffs and supplies for the bakery industry. The results show that the proposed methodology was a solid reference for decision support regarding to the supply networks redesign by considering the expected economic contribution of products and variability of the demand.

  4. Strategic wind power trading considering rival wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exizidis, Lazaros; Kazempour, Jalal; Pinson, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers, uncert...... depending on the rival’s wind generation, given that its own expected generation is not high. Finally, as anticipated, expected system cost is higher when both wind power producers are expected to have low wind power generation......In an electricity market with high share of wind power, it is expected that wind power producers may exercise market power. However, wind producers have to cope with wind’s uncertain nature in order to optimally offer their generation, whereas in a market with more than one wind producers......, uncertainty of rival wind power generation should also be considered. Under this context, this paper addresses the impact of rival wind producers on the offering strategy and profits of a pricemaker wind producer. A stochastic day-ahead market setup is considered, which optimizes the day-ahead schedules...

  5. Assessment of senior pupils’ physical fitness considering physical condition indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Bodnar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of physical condition indicators in assessment pupils’ physical fitness permits to differentiate training and health restoration processes at physical culture lessons. Purpose: to substantiate criteria for pupils’ physical fitness assessment, considering their physical condition indicators. Material: in the research 10-11 form pupils (n=406; 211boys and 195 girls participated. After physical fitness testing by requirement of acting programs we carried out diagnostic of pupils’ psycho-emotional state. Results: by results of physical; fitness we observed substantial deviation from universal law of normal distribution. It was found that physical condition indicators of most pupils are beyond normal. It was also determined that the most informative indicators are body length, chest circumference and body relative mass. We substantiated that it is necessary to consider physical condition indicators, when determining physical fitness level. We also substantiated and worked out differentiated normative for assessment pupils’ physical fitness. Conclusions: testing without consideration physical condition indicators does not facilitate pupils’ motivation for further physical self-perfection. Such testing results in high situational anxiety and unfavorable psycho-emotional state of pupils.

  6. An information propagation model considering incomplete reading behavior in microblog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiang; Huang, Jiajia; Zhao, Xiande

    2015-02-01

    Microblog is one of the most popular communication channels on the Internet, and has already become the third largest source of news and public opinions in China. Although researchers have studied the information propagation in microblog using the epidemic models, previous studies have not considered the incomplete reading behavior among microblog users. Therefore, the model cannot fit the real situations well. In this paper, we proposed an improved model entitled Microblog-Susceptible-Infected-Removed (Mb-SIR) for information propagation by explicitly considering the user's incomplete reading behavior. We also tested the effectiveness of the model using real data from Sina Microblog. We demonstrate that the new proposed model is more accurate in describing the information propagation in microblog. In addition, we also investigate the effects of the critical model parameters, e.g., reading rate, spreading rate, and removed rate through numerical simulations. The simulation results show that, compared with other parameters, reading rate plays the most influential role in the information propagation performance in microblog.

  7. Development of advanced JGIS considering qualify management and project management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, Susumu; Ohi, Takao; Kawamura, Makoto; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Ebina, Takanori

    2008-03-01

    A system for managing and integrating the technical information of R and D was developed (JGIS: JAEA Geological Disposal Information Integration System). The subjects are to improve the usability as the system and the usability to record the information and the data in order to display the function of the system sufficiently and in order to enable the practical use of the system. In this study the aims are to display the function of JGIS and to enable the researchers as the users to recognize the significance of using JGIS. We built the conceptual design in order to implement the function of quality management and project management to JGIS. We considered that researchers could access the portal site of the research projects which were set as the WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) items and could confirm which WBS item the research project belonged to in the whole plan. We also considered that the research projects could be managed by using the conformity assessment sheets which were adopted for the quality management. The appendix contains the example of application of real projects to JGIS and the user's manual of JGIS (Example of a study of potential impact of natural phenomena). We demonstrated that researchers could confirm which WBS item the research project related to in JGIS and could manage the quality of the research projects by using the conformity assessment sheets in JGIS. (author)

  8. Concrete Hydration Heat Analysis for RCB Basemat Considering Solar Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seong-Cheol; Son, Yong-Ki; Choi, Seong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The NPP especially puts an emphasis on concrete durability for structural integrity. It has led to higher cementitious material contents, lower water-cementitious-material ratios, and deeper cover depth over reinforcing steel. These requirements have resulted in more concrete placements that are subject to high internal temperatures. The problem with high internal temperatures is the increase in the potential for thermal cracking that can decrease concrete's long-term durability and ultimate strength. Thermal cracking negates the benefits of less permeable concrete and deeper cover by providing a direct path for corrosion-causing agents to reach the reinforcing steel. The purpose of this study is to develop how to analyze and estimate accurately concrete hydration heat of the real-scale massive concrete with wide large plane. An analysis method considering concrete placement sequence was studied and solar radiation effects on the real-scale massive concrete with wide large plane were reviewed through the analytical method. In this study, the measured temperatures at the real scale structure and the analysis results of concrete hydration heat were compared. And thermal stress analysis was conducted. Through the analysis, it was found that concrete placement duration, sequence and solar radiation effects should be considered to get the accurate concrete peak temperature, maximum temperature differences and crack index

  9. Considering Variable Road Geometry in Adaptive Vehicle Speed Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive vehicle speed control is critical for developing Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS. Vehicle speed control considering variable road geometry has become a hotspot in ADAS research. In this paper, first, an exploration of intrinsic relationship between vehicle operation and road geometry is made. Secondly, a collaborative vehicle coupling model, a road geometry model, and an AVSC, which can respond to variable road geometry in advance, are developed. Then, based on H∞ control method and the minimum energy principle, a performance index is specified by a cost function for the proposed AVSC, which can explicitly consider variable road geometry in its optimization process. The proposed AVSC is designed by the Hamilton-Jacobi Inequality (HJI. Finally, simulations are carried out by combining the vehicle model with the road geometry model, in an aim of minimizing the performance index of the AVSC. Analyses of the simulation results indicate that the proposed AVSC can automatically and effectively regulate speed according to variable road geometry. It is believed that the proposed AVSC can be used to improve the economy, comfort, and safety effects of current ADAS.

  10. Modeling of flexible reciprocating compressor considering the crosshead subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiaogang; Liu, Shulin; Sun, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Crank-slider mechanisms are important parts of heavy duty machines, including reciprocating compressors, combustion motors. This paper targets on the dynamic response of the crosshead in a reciprocating compressor, taking into consideration the crosshead deviation from the original level. The traditional model of the compressor is usually a slider-mechanism system without considering the deflection of the crosshead, thus neglecting the influence of the piston rod, which has some flexible features. In this paper, a rigid-flexible model of slider-crank is described theoretically, using the commercial software MATLAB, where the crank, connecting rod and crosshead are treated as rigid bodies, while the piston rod connected to the crosshead is considered as a flexible body. The dynamic response of the mechanism with the crosshead subsidence is discussed detailedly in this paper. After calculated theoretically, the MATLAB simulation showed that the dynamic response of the crosshead will be greatly influenced if the crosshead subsided from the original level. Also, the influence of the crosshead subsidence was also investigated, and some extra vibration of the crosshead arises.

  11. Which Social Values Are Considered in Iranian Health System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Arash; Arab, Mohammad; Vaez Mahdavi, Mohammadreza; Ashtarian, Koimars; Mostafavi, Hakimeh

    2018-05-01

    Health systems have a set of limited resources for meeting the needs of communities. Health priority setting based on criteria and values is inevitable in such situation. This paper aims to identify the social values that are considered in Iranian health system. This qualitative study was conducted in 3 steps including collecting national documents and literature review, interviewing key informants, and a 2 round Delphi. Interviews and documents were analyzed through thematic framework analysis. Statistical guidance was applied for determining consensus cut-off in Delphi technique. Five social values including freedom of choice, equity, solidarity, severity of disease(s), and burden of disease(s) were considered more important than other values in the health priority setting decisions. Moreover, 2 non-value based factors including conflict of interest and lobbying had a high effect on decision making. Most health policy makers decide based on Egalitarian school, but restriction of resources in the country decreases the outcome. Moreover, personal judgments and preferences sometimes affect their decisions. It seems that developing a value-based framework and making it as a national guidance could have affirmative effect on health administers decisions. © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  12. A decision support system for mission-based ship routing considering multiple performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, You; Frangopol, Dan M.; Sabatino, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the risk associated with marine vessels subjected to inclement weather and sea conditions when developing a decision support system for ship routing. The generalized decision making framework developed in this paper performs a variety of tasks, including, but not limited to quantifying the flexural and fatigue performance of ship structures and employing multi-attribute utility theory to evaluate ship mission performance. A structural reliability approach is utilized to compute the probability of failure considering the uncertainties in structural capacity and load effects; specifically, effects of flexural and fatigue damage are investigated. The expected repair cost, cumulative fatigue damage, total travel time, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with ship routing are considered as consequences within the risk assessment procedure adopted in this paper. Additionally, the decision maker’s risk attitude is integrated into the presented approach by employing utility theory. The presented methodology can assist decision makers in making informed decisions concerning ship routing. In order to illustrate its capabilities the approach is applied to the Joint High-speed Sealift Ship. - Highlights: • Multi-attribute utility theory is proposed for the ship routing decision making. • Spectral-based fatigue damage and repair loss are computed. • Travel time and CO_2 emissions are incorporated within the decision making process. • The attitude of the decision maker has significant effects on the utility value.

  13. Orthodontic informed consent considering information load and serial position effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Caroline E; Fields, Henry W; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R

    2015-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that current methods of informed consent are relatively ineffective as shown by poor recall and comprehension by adolescent patients and their parents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adding a short videotape presentation reiterating the issues related to informed consent to a modified informed consent document that emphasizes a limited number of core and patient-specific custom "chunks" at the beginning of an informed consent presentation improved the recall and comprehension of the risks, benefits, and alternatives of orthodontic treatment. A second objective was to evaluate the current related data for recommendable practices. Seventy patient-parent pairs were randomly divided into 2 groups. The intervention group (group A) patients and parents together reviewed a customized slide show and a short videotape presentation describing the key risks of orthodontic treatment. Group B followed the same protocol without viewing the videotape. All patients and parents were interviewed independently by research assistants using an established measurement tool with open-ended questions. Interviews were transcribed and scored for the appropriateness of responses using a previously established codebook. Lastly, the patients and parents were given 2 reading literacy tests, 1 related to health and 1 with general content followed by the self-administered demographic and psychological state questionnaires. There were no significant differences between the groups for sociodemographic variables. There were no significant differences between the groups for overall recall and comprehension; recall and comprehension for the domains of treatment, risk, and responsibility; and recall and comprehension for core, general, and custom items. The positional effects were limited in impact. When compared with previous studies, these data further demonstrate the benefit of improved readability and audiovisual supplementation with the

  14. [Black urine or black sclera of the eyes? Consider alkaptonuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Nanda P; Sijbrand, Merijn H; Onstenk, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Alkaptonuria is a rare metabolic disorder due to a defect in the gene for homogentisic acid oxidase. This results in an accumulation of homogentisic acid, which leads to the deposit of pigment in the connective tissue in the body. This causes problems and symptoms in various organ systems, such as early artropathy, dark-coloured urine, black sclerae, dark-coloured aortic valves and an increased risk of kidney stones and gall stones. Various specialists may see patients with this disease. The diagnosis is often missed. We describe a 69-year-old woman who underwent surgery due to joint problems, which showed up black cartilage. It turned out that for many years she had also had eye and heart problems. Not until later in life was she diagnosed with alkaptonuria. There is no curative treatment for alkaptonuria at the moment. Early recognition of the disease can increase the quality of life. Preventative check-ups and guidance are also therefore necessary.

  15. What makes staff consider leaving the health service in Malawi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Ngwira, Andrew; Kamwendo, Francis; Taulo, Frank; Bradley, Susan; McAuliffe, Eilish

    2014-03-19

    Malawi faces a severe shortage of health workers, a factor that has contributed greatly to high maternal mortality in the country. Most clinical care is performed by mid-level providers (MLPs). While utilization of these cadres in providing health care is a solution to the current shortages, demotivating factors within the Malawian health system are pushing them into private, non-governmental, and other non-health related positions. This study aims to highlight these demotivating factors by exploring the critical aspects that influence MLPs' intention to leave their jobs. This descriptive qualitative study formed part of the larger Health Systems Strengthening for Equity (HSSE) study. Data presented in this paper were collected in Malawi using the Critical Incident Analysis tool. Participants were asked to narrate an incident that had happened during the past three months which had made them seriously consider leaving their job. Data were subjected to thematic analysis using NVivo 8 software. Of the 84 respondents who participated in a Critical Incident Analysis interview, 58 respondents (69%) indicated they had experienced a demotivating incident in the previous three months that had made them seriously consider leaving their job. The most commonly cited critical factors were being treated unfairly or with disrespect, lack of recognition of their efforts, delays and inconsistencies in salary payments, lack of transparent processes and criteria for upgrading or promotion, and death of patients. Staff motivation and an enabling environment are crucial factors for retaining MLPs in the Malawian health system. This study revealed key 'tipping points' that drive staff to seriously consider leaving their jobs. Many of the factors underlying these critical incidents can be addressed by improved management practices and the introduction of fair and transparent policies. Managers need to be trained and equipped with effective managerial skills and staff should have access

  16. Supplementary material for the report 'Economic/climate recovery scorecards. How climate friendly are the economic recovery packages?'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, N.; Eisbrenner, K.; Phylipsen, D.; Burck, J.; Van der Straeten, L.

    2009-03-01

    As global leaders head to the G20 summit to consider solutions to the current global economic crisis, a new report prepared by Ecofys and Germanwatch for WWF and E3G reveals that many of the economic recovery packages being discussed are a missed opportunity in terms of stimulating a green recovery, and actually run the risk of locking the world into a high-carbon future. The report provides the most detailed and comprehensive analysis to date of the proposed 'stimulus' packages of five key countries - France, Germany, Italy, the UK and the US - as well as the package agreed by the European Union as a whole.

  17. Economic/climate recovery scorecards. How climate friendly are the economic recovery packages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehne, N.; Eisbrenner, K.; Phylipsen, D.; Burck, J.; Van der Straeten, L.

    2009-04-01

    As global leaders head to the G20 summit to consider solutions to the current global economic crisis, a new report prepared by Ecofys and Germanwatch for WWF and E3G reveals that many of the economic recovery packages being discussed are a missed opportunity in terms of stimulating a green recovery, and actually run the risk of locking the world into a high-carbon future. The report provides the most detailed and comprehensive analysis to date of the proposed 'stimulus' packages of five key countries - France, Germany, Italy, the UK and the US - as well as the package agreed by the European Union as a whole.

  18. Radiation risks and other risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweyer, C.J.M.

    1981-01-01

    The differences in acceptance of risks of different nature (industrial, in the home, on the road, use of drugs, alcohol, tobacco, coffee or other food stuffs) by the public are compared on the basis of life expectancy values of different categories of people. The safety of radiologic work for both personnel and patients is considered in connection with the basic principles underlying the ICRP recommendations. A computation of the effective body dose equivalent for a mean medical X-ray examination and a nuclear in vivo examination is given. (Auth.)

  19. Separation and utilization of fission products considering economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.; Gorski, B.; Hennrich, M.; Pfrepper, G.; Richter, M.

    1982-01-01

    The quantity of usable fission products which will be obtained by nuclear fission till the year 2000 is estimated on the basis of prognostics for the development of nuclear energy in the world considering especially the development in the U.S.S.R. and the CMEA. The possibilities of utilization of cesium as gamma-ray source are discussed, and the present fields of application of palladium and the development of its price on the world market are shown. The fields of application of technetium, which wasn't available as artificial element in a greater quantity till now, have to be developed. The economic estimations base on data of a project for the separation of fission products in connection with a reprocessing plant, which was developed in the U.S.A. in 1978. The data show, that it is possible to produce the platinum metals and cesium with profit, the same can be expected for technetium. (author)

  20. MHD simulations of coronal dark downflows considering thermal conduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbriggen, E.; Costa, A.; Esquivel, A.; Schneiter, M.; Cécere, M.

    2017-10-01

    While several scenarios have been proposed to explain supra-arcade downflows (SADs) observed descending through turbulent hot regions, none of them have systematically addressed the consideration of thermal conduction. The SADs are known to be voided cavities. Our model assumes that SADs are triggered by bursty localized reconnection events that produce non-linear waves generating the voided cavity. These subdense cavities are sustained in time because they are hotter than their surrounding medium. Due to the low density and large temperature values of the plasma we expect the thermal conduction to be an important process. Our main aim here is to study if it is possible to generate SADs in the framework of our model considering thermal conduction. We carry on 2D MHD simulations including anisotropic thermal conduction, and find that if the magnetic lines envelope the cavities, they can be isolated from the hot environment and be identified as SADs.

  1. Considering value of information when using CFD in design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, John Satprim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents an approach to find lower resolution CFD models that can accurately lead a designer to a correct decision at a lower computational cost. High-fidelity CFD models often contain too much information and come at a higher computational cost, limiting the designs a designer can test and how much optimization can be performed on the design. Lower model resolution is commonly used to reduce computational time. However there are no clear guidelines on how much model accuracy is required. Instead experience and intuition are used to select an appropriate lower resolution model. This thesis presents an alternative to this ad hoc method by considering the added value of the addition information provided by increasing accurate and more computationally expensive models.

  2. Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil [Sogang Univ., Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve.

  3. Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Lee, Jin Haeng

    2013-01-01

    Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve

  4. Re-considering the Economics of Photovoltaic Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazilian, M. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Onyeji, I. [United Nations Industrial Development Organization UNIDO, Vienna (Austria); Liebreich, M.; Chase, J. [Bloomberg New Energy Finance BNEF, London (United Kingdom); MacGill, I. [University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Shah, J. [KMR Infrastructure, Washington DC (United States); Gielen, D. [International Renewable Energy Agency IRENA, IITC, Bonn (Germany); Arent, D. [Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, Colorado (United States); Landfear, D. [AGL Energy Limited, Sydney (Australia); Zhengrong, S. [Suntech Power Holdings, Wuxi (China)

    2012-05-15

    We briefly consider the recent dramatic reductions in the underlying costs and market prices of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, and their implications for decision-makers. In many cases, current PV costs and the associated market and technological shifts witnessed in the industry have not been fully noted by decision-makers. The perception persists that PV is prohibitively expensive, and still has not reached competitiveness? We find that the commonly used analytical comparators for PV vis a vis other power generation options may add further confusion. In order to help dispel existing misconceptions, we provide some level of transparency on the assumptions, inputs and parameters in calculations relating to the economics of PV. The paper is aimed at informing policy makers, utility decision-makers, investors and advisory services, in particular in high-growth developing countries, as they weigh the suite of power generation options available to them.

  5. Nonlinear Dynamic Model of PMBLDC Motor Considering Core Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fasil, Muhammed; Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2017-01-01

    The phase variable model is used commonly when simulating a motor drive system with a three-phase permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor. The phase variable model neglects core losses and this affects its accuracy when modelling fractional-slot machines. The inaccuracy of phase variable mod...... on the detailed analysis of the flux path and the variation of flux in different components of the machine. A prototype of fractional slot axial flux PMBLDC in-wheel motor is used to assess the proposed nonlinear dynamic model....... of fractional-slot machines can be attributed to considerable armature flux harmonics, which causes an increased core loss. This study proposes a nonlinear phase variable model of PMBLDC motor that considers the core losses induced in the stator and the rotor. The core loss model is developed based...

  6. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Fang, Tian; Bin, Jia; Xin-Gang, Li; Zi-You, Gao

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink–antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model. (general)

  7. Turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Hiromu; Wada, Sanae; Kobayashi, Toshinobu.

    1990-01-01

    This second paper describes an application of the generalized turbulent lubrication theory considering the surface roughness effects, which is developed in the previous paper, to the finite-width journal bearings. In the numerical analysis, the nonlinear equations for the modified turbulence coefficients are simplified to save a computation time within a satisfactory accuracy under the assumption that the shear flow is superior to the pressure flow in the turbulent lubrication films. The numerical results of pressure distribution, Sommerfeld number, attitude angle, friction coefficient and flow rate for the Reynolds number of Re=2000, 5000 and 10000 are indicated in graphic form for various values of relative roughness, and the effects of surface roughness on these static performance characteristics are discussed. Moreover, the eccentricity ratio and attitude angle of the journal bearings with homogeneous rough surface are obtained experimentally for a wide range of Sommerfeld number, and the experimental results are compared with theoretical results. (author)

  8. Performance Optimization of Irreversible Air Heat Pumps Considering Size Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuehong; Chen, Lingen; Ding, Zemin; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-06-01

    Considering the size of an irreversible air heat pump (AHP), heating load density (HLD) is taken as thermodynamic optimization objective by using finite-time thermodynamics. Based on an irreversible AHP with infinite reservoir thermal-capacitance rate model, the expression of HLD of AHP is put forward. The HLD optimization processes are studied analytically and numerically, which consist of two aspects: (1) to choose pressure ratio; (2) to distribute heat-exchanger inventory. Heat reservoir temperatures, heat transfer performance of heat exchangers as well as irreversibility during compression and expansion processes are important factors influencing on the performance of an irreversible AHP, which are characterized with temperature ratio, heat exchanger inventory as well as isentropic efficiencies, respectively. Those impacts of parameters on the maximum HLD are thoroughly studied. The research results show that HLD optimization can make the size of the AHP system smaller and improve the compactness of system.

  9. Calculation of the Connected Dominating Set Considering Vertex Importance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Vazquez-Araujo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of a set constituted by few vertices to define a virtual backbone supporting information interchange is a problem that arises in many areas when analysing networks of different natures, like wireless, brain, or social networks. Recent papers propose obtaining such a set of vertices by computing the connected dominating set (CDS of a graph. In recent works, the CDS has been obtained by considering that all vertices exhibit similar characteristics. However, that assumption is not valid for complex networks in which their vertices can play different roles. Therefore, we propose finding the CDS by taking into account several metrics which measure the importance of each network vertex e.g., error probability, entropy, or entropy variation (EV.

  10. Microbiological Aspects Considering the Production of Nutraceutical Curd Containing Onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dumuţa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The curd is a traditional Romanian dairy product highly appreciated by the consumers. The purpose of this study was to produce and analyze from the microbiological point of view a nutraceutical curd containing onion, as a prebiotic source. The synbiotics generate among the organoleptic benefits also health improvement due to the different actions taken by probiotics and prebiotics, working together. The curd was produced by the traditional method using buffalo milk with reduced cholesterol content due to the treatment with crosslinked β-ciclodextrin with adipic acid.The curd prepared by rennet adding and coagulation at 30°C during 30-45 minutes was subjected to the maturation at a temperature of 12-16°C. Considering the microbiological tests, the curd recorded a pozitive evolution, being characterized by a lower microbial load compared with a control curd, prepared without onion.

  11. Personalized e-Learning Environments: Considering Students' Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyharabide, Victoria; Gasparini, Isabela; Schiaffino, Silvia; Pimenta, Marcelo; Amandi, Analía

    Personalization in e-learning systems is vital since they are used by a wide variety of students with different characteristics. There are several approaches that aim at personalizing e-learning environments. However, they focus mainly on technological and/or networking aspects without caring of contextual aspects. They consider only a limited version of context while providing personalization. In our work, the objective is to improve e-learning environment personalization making use of a better understanding and modeling of the user’s educational and technological context using ontologies. We show an example of the use of our proposal in the AdaptWeb system, in which content and navigation recommendations are provided depending on the student’s context.

  12. Should compulsive sexual behavior be considered an addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Voon, Valerie; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-12-01

    To review the evidence base for classifying compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) as a non-substance or 'behavioral' addiction. Data from multiple domains (e.g. epidemiological, phenomenological, clinical, biological) are reviewed and considered with respect to data from substance and gambling addictions. Overlapping features exist between CSB and substance use disorders. Common neurotransmitter systems may contribute to CSB and substance use disorders, and recent neuroimaging studies highlight similarities relating to craving and attentional biases. Similar pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments may be applicable to CSB and substance addictions, although considerable gaps in knowledge currently exist. Despite the growing body of research linking compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) to substance addictions, significant gaps in understanding continue to complicate classification of CSB as an addiction. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Stuy on Fatigue Life of Aluminum Alloy Considering Fretting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maosheng; Zhao, Hongqiang; Wang, Yunxiang; Chen, Xiaofei; Fan, Jiali

    2018-01-01

    To study the influence of fretting on Aluminum Alloy, a global finite element model considering fretting was performed using the commercial code ABAQUS. With which a new model for predicting fretting fatigue life has been presented based on friction work. The rationality and effectiveness of the model were validated according to the contrast of experiment life and predicting life. At last influence factor on fretting fatigue life of aerial aluminum alloy was investigated with the model. The results revealed that fretting fatigue life decreased monotonously with the increasing of normal load and then became constant at higher pressures. At low normal load, fretting fatigue life was found to increase with increase in the pad radius. At high normal load, however, the fretting fatigue life remained almost unchanged with changes in the fretting pad radius. The bulk stress amplitude had the dominant effect on fretting fatigue life. The fretting fatigue life diminished as the bulk stress amplitude increased.

  14. Probabilistic Power Flow Method Considering Continuous and Discrete Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuexia Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a probabilistic power flow (PPF method considering continuous and discrete variables (continuous and discrete power flow, CDPF for power systems. The proposed method—based on the cumulant method (CM and multiple deterministic power flow (MDPF calculations—can deal with continuous variables such as wind power generation (WPG and loads, and discrete variables such as fuel cell generation (FCG. In this paper, continuous variables follow a normal distribution (loads or a non-normal distribution (WPG, and discrete variables follow a binomial distribution (FCG. Through testing on IEEE 14-bus and IEEE 118-bus power systems, the proposed method (CDPF has better accuracy compared with the CM, and higher efficiency compared with the Monte Carlo simulation method (MCSM.

  15. A framework for considering externalities in urban water asset management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, David; Pearson, Leonie; Macdonald, Darla Hatton; Whitten, Stuart; Burn, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    Urban communities rely on a complex network of infrastructure assets to connect them to water resources. There is considerable capital investment required to maintain, upgrade and extend this infrastructure. As the remit of a water utility is broader than just financial considerations, infrastructure investment decisions must be made in light of environmental and societal issues. One way of facilitating this is to integrate consideration of externalities into decision making processes. This paper considers the concept of externalities from an asset management perspective. A case study is provided to show the practical implications to a water utility and asset managers. A framework for the inclusion of externalities in asset management decision making is also presented. The potential for application of the framework is highlighted through a brief consideration of its key elements.

  16. Force Modelling in Orthogonal Cutting Considering Flank Wear Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Kanti Bhikhubhai; Lalwani, Devdas I.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to provide a predictive cutting force model during orthogonal cutting by combining two different force models, that is, a force model for a perfectly sharp tool plus considering the effect of edge radius and a force model for a worn tool. The first force model is for a perfectly sharp tool that is based on Oxley's predictive machining theory for orthogonal cutting as the Oxley's model is for perfectly sharp tool, the effect of cutting edge radius (hone radius) is added and improve model is presented. The second force model is based on worn tool (flank wear) that was proposed by Waldorf. Further, the developed combined force model is also used to predict flank wear width using inverse approach. The performance of the developed combined total force model is compared with the previously published results for AISI 1045 and AISI 4142 materials and found reasonably good agreement.

  17. Redo of Coil Spring Considering Transversal Direction Mode Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Min; Jang, Junyong; Lee, Tae Hee

    2013-01-01

    When the values of design variables change, mode switching can often occur. If the mode of interest is not tracked, the frequencies and modes for design optimization may be miscalculated owing to modes that differ from the intended ones. Thus, mode tracking must be employed to identify the frequencies and modes of interest whenever the values of design variables change during optimization. Furthermore, reliability-based design optimization (Redo) must be performed for design problems with design variables containing uncertainty. In this research, we perform Redo considering the mode tracking of a compressive coil spring, i.e., a component of the joint spring that supports a compressor, with design variables containing uncertainty by using only kriging meta models based on multiple responses approach (MR A) without existing mode tracking methods. The reliability analyses for Redo are employed using kriging meta model-based Monte Carlo simulation

  18. Considering system non-linearity in transmission pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oloomi-Buygi, M.; Salehizadeh, M. Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a new approach for transmission pricing is presented. The contribution of a contract on power flow of a transmission line is used as extent-of-use criterion for transmission pricing. In order to determine the contribution of each contract on power flow of each transmission line, first the contribution of each contract on each voltage angle is determined, which is called voltage angle decomposition. To this end, DC power flow is used to compute a primary solution for voltage angle decomposition. To consider the impacts of system non-linearity on voltage angle decomposition, a method is presented to determine the share of different terms of sine argument in sine value. Then the primary solution is corrected in different iterations of decoupled Newton-Raphson power flow using the presented sharing method. The presented approach is applied to a 4-bus test system and IEEE 30-bus test system and the results are analyzed. (author)

  19. Economics of the Nuclear Energy Considered CO2 Emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Yong Min

    2011-01-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has greatly increased along with its rapid economic growth and industrialization since the 1970s. Total energy consumption increased at an average annual growth rate. Due to the lack of domestic energy resources, however, the overseas dependence rate of energy consumption has continuously increased. Also Climate change, resulting from increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), is considered one of the biggest environmental dangers facing the world today. The objective and approach of this study are to compare the different types of scenarios in terms of the power plant type and CO 2 emission from each power plant. We estimated cost of electricity generation using fuel cost, O and M cost(Operation and Maintenance Cost) and CO 2 emission

  20. Points to consider for prioritizing clinical genetic testing services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Franziska; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    Given the cost constraints of the European health-care systems, criteria are needed to decide which genetic services to fund from the public budgets, if not all can be covered. To ensure that high-priority services are available equitably within and across the European countries, a shared set...... testing services available in the next decade. Ethically and economically reflected prioritization criteria are needed. Prioritization should be based on considerations of medical benefit, health need and costs. Medical benefit includes evidence of benefit in terms of clinical benefit, benefit......, following the principles of accountability for reasonableness. We provide points to consider to stimulate this debate across the EU and to serve as a reference for improving patient management.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 24 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.190....

  1. Your organization should consider a cash-balance pension plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, N H; Key, K G

    2000-08-01

    In recent years, a growing number of healthcare organizations have dropped the traditional defined-benefit pension plan and adopted cash-balance pension plans. A cash-balance pension plan generally allows employers to pay less in overall pension benefits and administration costs. A cash-balance pension plan pays benefits according to a predetermined formula based on an average of the employee's annual salary over his or her length of service. This provides recognizable benefits to younger employees but lower overall benefits to employees who have a long length of service. To assuage employees who may feel cheated out of the pension benefits they expected, employers that change to a cash-balance pension plan should consider offering higher guaranteed growth rates, advanced notification of the change to the new plan, and generous early-retirement options for employees with longer lengths of service.

  2. Load forecasting method considering temperature effect for distribution network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Xiao Fang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the accuracy of load forecasting, the temperature factor was introduced into the load forecasting in this paper. This paper analyzed the characteristics of power load variation, and researched the rule of the load with the temperature change. Based on the linear regression analysis, the mathematical model of load forecasting was presented with considering the temperature effect, and the steps of load forecasting were given. Used MATLAB, the temperature regression coefficient was calculated. Using the load forecasting model, the full-day load forecasting and time-sharing load forecasting were carried out. By comparing and analyzing the forecast error, the results showed that the error of time-sharing load forecasting method was small in this paper. The forecasting method is an effective method to improve the accuracy of load forecasting.

  3. Selection of radioactive waste disposal site considering natural processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, H.

    1991-01-01

    To dispose the radioactive waste, it is necessary to consider the transfer of material in natural environment. The points of consideration are 1) Long residence time of water 2) Independence of biosphere from the compartment containing the disposal site in the natural hydrologic cycle 3) Dilution with the natural inactive isotope or the same group of elements. Isotope dilution for 129 I and 14 C can be expected by proper selection of the site. 241 Am and 239 Pu will be homogenized into soil or sediment with insoluble elements such as iron and aluminium. For 237 Np and 99 Tc anionic condition is important for the selection. From the point of view of hydrologic cycle, anoxic dead water zone avoiding beneath mountain area is preferable for the disposal site. (author)

  4. Simulation of Stamping Process of Automotive Panel Considering Die Deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Y.T.; Ahn, I.H.; Lee, I.K.; Song, M.H.; Kwon, S.O.; Park, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to see the effect of die deformation on the forming of sheet metals, the draw-ins, strains, and spring-backs of an automotive fender panels are numerically simulated considering the die deformation, which is found by the simultaneous structural analysis of press and dies. By coupling the forming analysis and the structural analysis, the die deformation is simultaneously taken into account in the forming process. Furthermore, for the consideration of load difference transferred among the upper die, punch, and blank holder due to the changes in sheet thickness, the gap elements are employed instead of the blank sheet in the structural analysis. The numerical simulation results of an automotive fender draw panel are compared with the measurements. The comparison of the forming and spring-back analysis results between the rigid die and the deformed die shows that the deformed tool provides more accurate forming and spring-back prediction

  5. Rankine earth pressure theory considering microstructure of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junhu; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Wenchao; Xu, Riqing

    2017-11-01

    Soil as an engineering material has very complex properties, such as non-continuous, non-uniformity and nonlinear mechanical. In a certain extent, macroscopic properties of soil are affected by the changes of the microstructure. And microscopic porosity of soft clay and its influencing factors, the relationship between macro and micro porosity, the average contact area rate and its influencing factors are studied. Some mechanics problems were analyzed by using the relationship between macro-porosity and the average contact area rate. Combining soil lateral stress transfer principle, a calculation theory of earth pressure considering soil contact area was got. The possible reason of the differences between earth pressure and the actual monitoring earth pressure was analyzed by the case.

  6. Simulations of overall flow in gas centrifuge considering feed jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Liang; Jiang Dongjun; Ying Chuntong

    2010-01-01

    A coupled method for the numerical solution of the flow in rapidly rotating gas centrifuge was presented. An iteration process of DSMC and CFD was performed to analyze the overall flow in radial direction, in which DSMC was adopted to simulate the rarefied region, and CFD was adopted to the counter-current of gas centrifuge to discrete the model equations. It was applied to simulate the 2D symmetrical flow model considering the rarefied region with the feed jet flow. A series of illustrative numerical examples were given. The flow structures of the feed jet in the rarefied gas flow region were shown. The results suggest that DSMC CFD coupled method is competent to the simulations of overall flow in a gas centrifuge. (authors)

  7. Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Phase-Shifter Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso T. Miasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mathematical model for the transmission network expansion planning problem. Main idea is to consider phase-shifter (PS transformers as a new element of the transmission system expansion together with other traditional components such as transmission lines and conventional transformers. In this way, PS are added in order to redistribute active power flows in the system and, consequently, to diminish the total investment costs due to new transmission lines. Proposed mathematical model presents the structure of a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem and is based on the standard DC model. In this paper, there is also applied a specialized genetic algorithm aimed at optimizing the allocation of candidate components in the network. Results obtained from computational simulations carried out with IEEE-24 bus system show an outstanding performance of the proposed methodology and model, indicating the technical viability of using these nonconventional devices during the planning process.

  8. Spacecraft Dynamics Should be Considered in Kalman Filter Attitude Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yaguang; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Kalman filter based spacecraft attitude estimation has been used in some high-profile missions and has been widely discussed in literature. While some models in spacecraft attitude estimation include spacecraft dynamics, most do not. To our best knowledge, there is no comparison on which model is a better choice. In this paper, we discuss the reasons why spacecraft dynamics should be considered in the Kalman filter based spacecraft attitude estimation problem. We also propose a reduced quaternion spacecraft dynamics model which admits additive noise. Geometry of the reduced quaternion model and the additive noise are discussed. This treatment is more elegant in mathematics and easier in computation. We use some simulation example to verify our claims.

  9. [Re]considering queer theories and science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifield, Steve; Letts, Will

    2014-06-01

    We take Mattias Lundin's Inviting queer ideas into the science classroom: studying sexual education from a queer perspective as a point of departure to explore some enduring issues related to the use of queer theories to interrogate science education and its practices. We consider the uneasy, polygamous relationship between gay and lesbian studies and queer theories; the border surveillance that characterizes so much of science [education]; the alluring call of binaries and binary thinking; the `all' within the catchcry `science for all'; and the need to better engage the fullness of science and the curriculum, in addition to noting silences around diverse sexes, sexualities, and desires. We catalogue some of the challenges that persist in this work, and offer thoughts about how to work with and against them to enact a more just and compelling science education.

  10. Decision aid for women considering breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternack, Iris; Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the process and challenges of developing a decision aid for the national public breast cancer screening program in Finland. METHODS: An expert team with stakeholder representation used European guidelines and other literature as basis for selecting...... relevant content and format for the decision aid for breast cancer screening. Feedback from women was sought for the draft documents. RESULTS: A decision aid attached to the invitation letter for screening was considered the best way to ensure access to information. In addition, tailored letter templates...... information for women invited to breast cancer screening is demanding and requires careful planning. Professionals and service providers need to be engaged in the HTA process to ensure proper dissemination and implementation of the information. End user participation is essential in the formulation...

  11. Performance Evaluation of LoRa Considering Scenario Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Iborra, Ramon; Sanchez-Gomez, Jesus; Ballesta-Viñas, Juan; Cano, Maria-Dolores; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2018-03-03

    New verticals within the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm such as smart cities, smart farming, or goods monitoring, among many others, are demanding strong requirements to the Radio Access Network (RAN) in terms of coverage, end-node's power consumption, and scalability. The technologies employed so far to provide IoT scenarios with connectivity, e.g., wireless sensor network and cellular technologies, are not able to simultaneously cope with these three requirements. Thus, a novel solution known as Low Power - Wide Area Network (LP-WAN) has emerged as a promising alternative to provide with low-cost and low-power-consumption connectivity to end-nodes spread in a wide area. Concretely, the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) technology is one of the LP-WAN platforms that is receiving greater attention from both the industry and the academia. For that reason, in this work, a comprehensive performance evaluation of LoRaWAN under different environmental conditions is presented. The results are obtained from three real scenarios, namely, urban, suburban, and rural, considering both dynamic and static conditions, hence a discussion about the most proper LoRaWAN physical-layer configuration for each scenario is provided. Besides, a theoretical coverage study is also conducted by the use of a radio planning tool considering topographic maps and a precise propagation model. From the attained results, it can be concluded that it is necessary to evaluate the propagation conditions of the deployment scenario prior to the system implantation in order to reach a compromise between the robustness of the network and the transmission data-rate.

  12. Performance Evaluation of LoRa Considering Scenario Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Sanchez-Iborra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available New verticals within the Internet of Things (IoT paradigm such as smart cities, smart farming, or goods monitoring, among many others, are demanding strong requirements to the Radio Access Network (RAN in terms of coverage, end-node’s power consumption, and scalability. The technologies employed so far to provide IoT scenarios with connectivity, e.g., wireless sensor network and cellular technologies, are not able to simultaneously cope with these three requirements. Thus, a novel solution known as Low Power - Wide Area Network (LP-WAN has emerged as a promising alternative to provide with low-cost and low-power-consumption connectivity to end-nodes spread in a wide area. Concretely, the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN technology is one of the LP-WAN platforms that is receiving greater attention from both the industry and the academia. For that reason, in this work, a comprehensive performance evaluation of LoRaWAN under different environmental conditions is presented. The results are obtained from three real scenarios, namely, urban, suburban, and rural, considering both dynamic and static conditions, hence a discussion about the most proper LoRaWAN physical-layer configuration for each scenario is provided. Besides, a theoretical coverage study is also conducted by the use of a radio planning tool considering topographic maps and a precise propagation model. From the attained results, it can be concluded that it is necessary to evaluate the propagation conditions of the deployment scenario prior to the system implantation in order to reach a compromise between the robustness of the network and the transmission data-rate.

  13. AC power flow importance measures considering multi-element failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Chen, Changkun; Shi, Congling

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the criticality of individual components of power systems is essential for overall reliability and management. This paper proposes an AC-based power flow element importance measure, while considering multi-element failures. The measure relies on a proposed AC-based cascading failure model, which captures branch overflow, bus load shedding, and branch failures, via AC power flow and optimal power flow analyses. Taking the IEEE 30, 57 and 118-bus power systems as case studies, we find that N-3 analyses are sufficient to measure the importance of a bus or branch. It is observed that for a substation bus, its importance is statistically proportional to its power demand, but this trend is not observed for power plant buses. While comparing with other reliability, functionality, and topology-based importance measures popular today, we find that a DC power flow model, although better correlated with the benchmark AC model as a whole, still fails to locate some critical elements. This is due to the focus of DC-based models on real power that ignores reactive power. The proposed importance measure is aimed to inform decision makers about key components in complex systems, while improving cascading failure prevention, system backup setting, and overall resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a novel importance measure based on joint failures and AC power flow. • A cascading failure model considers both AC power flow and optimal power flow. • We find that N-3 analyses are sufficient to measure the importance of an element. • Power demand impacts the importance of substations but less so that of generators. • DC models fail to identify some key elements, despite correlating with AC models.

  14. Risk and Derivative Price

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Osaki

    2007-01-01

    We consider an asset market traded three types of assets: the risk–free asset, the market portfolio and derivatives written on the market portfolio return. We determine a sufficient condition to guarantee that noise risk monotonically changes their derivatives. The condition is that Arrow–Pratt absolute risk aversion is decreasing and convex.

  15. Risk Aversion and Emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Y.; Noussair, C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We consider the relationship between emotions and decision-making under risk. Specifically, we examine the emotional correlates of risk-averse decisions. In our experiment, individuals' facial expressions are monitored with facereading software, as they are presented with risky lotteries.

  16. Risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Mcmanus, John

    2009-01-01

    Few projects are completed on time, on budget, and to their original requirement or specifications. Focusing on what project managers need to know about risk in the pursuit of delivering projects, Risk Management covers key components of the risk management process and the software development process, as well as best practices for risk identification, risk planning, and risk analysis. The book examines risk planning, risk analysis responses to risk, the tracking and modelling of risks, intel...

  17. Risk a multidisciplinary introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Straub, Daniel; Welpe, Isabell

    2014-01-01

    This is a unique book addressing the integration of risk methodology from various fields. It stimulates intellectual debate and communication across disciplines, promotes better risk management practices and contributes to the development of risk management methodologies. Book chapters explain fundamental risk models and measurement, and address risk and security issues from diverse areas such as finance and insurance, health sciences, life sciences, engineering and information science. Integrated Risk Sciences is an emerging field, that considers risks in different fields aiming at a common language, and at sharing and improving methods developed in different fields. Readers should have a Bachelor degree and at least one basic university course in statistics and probability. The main goal of the book is to provide basic knowledge on risk and security in a common language; the authors have taken particular care to ensure that each chapter can be understood by doctoral students and researchers across disciplin...

  18. Analysis of an Automated Vehicle Routing Problem in Logistics considering Path Interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of automated vehicles in logistics can efficiently reduce the cost of logistics and reduce the potential risks in the last mile. Considering the path restriction in the initial stage of the application of automated vehicles in logistics, the conventional model for a vehicle routing problem (VRP is modified. Thus, the automated vehicle routing problem with time windows (AVRPTW model considering path interruption is established. Additionally, an improved particle swarm optimisation (PSO algorithm is designed to solve this problem. Finally, a case study is undertaken to test the validity of the model and the algorithm. Four automated vehicles are designated to execute all delivery tasks required by 25 stores. Capacities of all of the automated vehicles are almost fully utilised. It is of considerable significance for the promotion of automated vehicles in last-mile situations to develop such research into real problems arising in the initial period.

  19. Mathematical model of the loan portfolio dynamics in the form of Markov chain considering the process of new customers attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhalkina, Yana

    2017-12-01

    Mathematical model of the loan portfolio structure change in the form of Markov chain is explored. This model considers in one scheme both the process of customers attraction, their selection based on the credit score, and loans repayment. The model describes the structure and volume of the loan portfolio dynamics, which allows to make medium-term forecasts of profitability and risk. Within the model corrective actions of bank management in order to increase lending volumes or to reduce the risk are formalized.

  20. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Hideharu; Sakagami, Masaharu; Ebisawa, Katsumi; Korenaga, Mariko

    2011-01-01

    In the area in front of Nankai trough, tsunami wave height may increase if tsunamis attacking from some wave sources overlap because of time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough. To evaluation tsunami risk of the important facilities located in front of Nankai trough, we proposed the probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment considering uncertainty on time-lag of seismic event on Nankai trough and we evaluated the influence that the time-lag gave to tsunami hazard at the some representative points. (author)

  1. Considering Future Potential Regarding Structural Diversity in Selection of Forest Reserves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Lundström

    Full Text Available A rich structural diversity in forests promotes biodiversity. Forests are dynamic and therefore it is crucial to consider future structural potential when selecting reserves, to make robust conservation decisions. We analyzed forests in boreal Sweden based on 17,599 National Forest Inventory (NFI plots with the main aim to understand how effectiveness of reserves depends on the time dimension in the selection process, specifically by considering future structural diversity. In the study both the economic value and future values of 15 structural variables were simulated during a 100 year period. To get a net present structural value (NPSV, a single value covering both current and future values, we used four discounting alternatives: (1 only considering present values, (2 giving equal importance to values in each of the 100 years within the planning horizon, (3 applying an annual discount rate considering the risk that values could be lost, and (4 only considering the values in year 100. The four alternatives were evaluated in a reserve selection model under budget-constrained and area-constrained selections. When selecting young forests higher structural richness could be reached at a quarter of the cost over almost twice the area in a budget-constrained selection compared to an area-constrained selection. Our results point to the importance of considering future structural diversity in the selection of forest reserves and not as is done currently to base the selection on existing values. Targeting future values increases structural diversity and implies a relatively lower cost. Further, our results show that a re-orientation from old to young forests would imply savings while offering a more extensive reserve network with high structural qualities in the future. However, caution must be raised against a drastic reorientation of the current old-forest strategy since remnants of ancient forests will need to be prioritized due to their role for

  2. Snow reliability in ski resorts considering artificial snowmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstätter, M.; Formayer, H.; Haas, P.

    2009-04-01

    Snow reliability is the key factor to make skiing on slopes possible and to ensure added value in winter tourism. In this context snow reliability is defined by the duration of a snowpack on the ski runs of at least 50 mm snow water equivalent (SWE), within the main season (Dec-Mar). Furthermore the snowpack should form every winter and be existent early enough in season. In our work we investigate the snow reliability of six Austrian ski resorts. Because nearly all Austrian resorts rely on artificial snowmaking it is of big importance to consider man made snow in the snowpack accumulation and ablation in addition to natural snow. For each study region observed weather data including temperature, precipitation and snow height are used. In addition we differentiate up to three elevations on each site (valley, intermediate, mountain top), being aware of the typical local winter inversion height. Time periods suitable for artificial snow production, for several temperature threshold (-6,-4 or -1 degree Celsius) are calculated on an hourly base. Depending on the actual snowpack height, man made snow can be added in the model with different defined capacities, considering different technologies or the usage of additives. To simulate natural snowpack accumulation and ablation we a simple snow model, based on daily precipitation and temperature. This snow model is optimized at each site separately through certain parameterization factors. Based on the local observations and the monthly climate change signals from the climate model REMO-UBA, we generate long term time series of temperature and precipitation, using the weather generator LARS. Thereby we are not only able to simulate the snow reliability under current, but also under future climate conditions. Our results show significant changes in snow reliability, like an increase of days with insufficient snow heights, especially at mid and low altitudes under natural snow conditions. Artificial snowmaking can partly

  3. On the bilateral asymmetry during running and cycling - a review considering leg preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpes, Felipe P; Mota, Carlos B; Faria, Irvin E

    2010-11-01

    This review summarizes the effects of bilateral asymmetry on running and cycling performance and risk of injury in healthy subjects and the influence of leg preference. We define the term leg preference derived from lateral preference as representative of the choice for one side of the body to perform a motor action. Useful information is provided for biomechanical and physiological research and coaching with relevance to an understanding regarding the occurrence of lower limb asymmetry. To provide a synopsis of what is known about bilateral asymmetry in human running and cycling and its relationship to limb preference, especially in the context of competitive sport performance and risk of injury. Structured narrative review. The relationship between asymmetry and lower limb preference was reviewed using Medline(®), Sciencedirect(®), and Scopus(®) search engines considering studies published in English until June 2009. The environment characteristics may influence running asymmetries, which are more frequent in angular parameters. Environment characteristics are related to ground irregularities requiring compensatory movements changing the mechanical workload on joints and bones, which may influence asymmetries in biomechanical parameters between lower limbs. The relationship between asymmetry and injury risk should be assessed with caution since running speed may influence asymmetry in injured and non-injured subjects who often show similar asymmetry levels. Symmetry can be improved with increasing running speed. In addition to running speed, coaches and athletes interested in minimizing lateral difference should consider a training regime aimed at correcting asymmetry which may negatively affect running technique by influencing the compensatory movements that an athlete usually performs. During cycling, bilateral differences are frequently found and vary with the competitive situation, pedaling cadence, exercise intensity and exercise duration. Regardless of

  4. Assessing Depression in Cardiac Patients: What Measures Should Be Considered?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ceccarini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is highly recommended to promptly assess depression in heart disease patients as it represents a crucial risk factor which may result in premature deaths following acute cardiac events and a more severe psychopathology, even in cases of subsequent nonfatal cardiac events. Patients and professionals often underestimate or misjudge depressive symptomatology as cardiac symptoms; hence, quick, reliable, and early mood changes assessments are warranted. Failing to detect depressive signals may have detrimental effects on these patients’ wellbeing and full recovery. Choosing gold-standard depression investigations in cardiac patients that fit a hospitalised cardiac setting well is fundamental. This paper will examine eight well established tools following Italian and international guidelines on mood disorders diagnosis in cardiac patients: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, the Cognitive Behavioural Assessment Hospital Form (CBA-H, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the two and nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2, PHQ-9, the Depression Interview and Structured Hamilton (DISH, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D/HRSD, and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. Though their strengths and weaknesses may appear to be homogeneous, the BDI-II and the PHQ are more efficient towards an early depression assessment within cardiac hospitalised patients.

  5. Considering the role of radiation therapy for gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbin KS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly S Corbin,1 Hedy L Kindler,2 Stanley L Liauw31Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Medical Center, Springfield, IL, USA; 2Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs are rare mesenchymal tumors arising in the gastrointestinal tract. Over the last decade, the management and prognosis of GISTs has changed dramatically with molecular characterization of the c-kit mutation and the adoption of targeted systemic therapy. Currently, the standard of care for resectable tumors is surgery, followed by adjuvant imatinib for tumors at high risk for recurrence. Inoperable or metastatic tumors are treated primarily with imatinib. Despite excellent initial response rates, resistance to targeted therapy has emerged as a common clinical problem, with relatively few therapeutic solutions. While the treatment of GISTs does not commonly include radiotherapy, radiation therapy could be a valuable contributing modality. Several case reports indicate that radiation can control locally progressive, drug-resistant disease. Further study is necessary to define whether radiation could potentially prevent or delay the onset of drug resistance, or improve outcomes when given in combination with imatinib.Keywords: GIST, imatinib, radiotherapy

  6. Ageing model considering effects of maintenance and working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, S.; Sanchez, A.; Serradell, V.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there is some doubt about building new Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Instead, there is a growing interest in analyzing the possibility to extend current NPP operation where life management programs play an important role. The evolution of the NPP safety depends on the evolution of the reliability of its safety components as a function of their age along the NPP operational life. In this paper, a new age-dependent reliability model is presented, which includes parameters related to surveillance and maintenance effectiveness and working conditions, both environmental and operational, of the equipment. This model may be used to support NPP life management and life extension programs by improving or optimizing surveillance and maintenance tasks using risk and cost models based on such an age-dependent reliability model. The results of the sensitivity study in the application show that the selection of the most appropriate maintenance strategy would directly depend on the previous parameters and very important differences are expected to appear under certain circumstance. (Author) 7 refs

  7. Salivary DNA Methylation Profiling: Aspects to Consider for Biomarker Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langie, Sabine A S; Moisse, Matthieu; Declerck, Ken; Koppen, Gudrun; Godderis, Lode; Vanden Berghe, Wim; Drury, Stacy; De Boever, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    Is it not more comfortable to spit saliva in a tube than to be pricked with a needle to draw blood to analyse your health and disease risk? Many patients, study participants and (parents of) young children undoubtedly prefer non-invasive and convenient procedures. Such procedures increase compliance rates especially for longitudinal prospective studies. Saliva is an attractive biofluid providing good quality DNA to study epigenetic mechanisms underlying disease across development. In this MiniReview, we will describe the different applications of saliva in the field of epigenetics, focusing on genomewide methylation analysis. Advantages of the use of saliva and its comparability with blood will be discussed, as will the challenges in data processing and interpretation. Knowledge gaps will be identified and suggestions given on how to improve the analysis, making saliva 'the' biofluid of choice for future biomarker initiatives in many different epidemiological and public health studies. © 2016 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  8. Earthquake response analysis considering structure-soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, T.; Takahashi, K.; Oguro, E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper proposes a numerical method of earthquake response analysis considering the structure-soil-structure interaction between two adjacent buildings. In this paper an analytical study is presented in order to show some typical features of coupling effects of two reactor buildings of the BWR-type nuclear power plant. The technical approach is a kind of substructure method, which at first evaluates the compliance properties with the foundation-soil-foundation interaction and then uses the compliance in determining seismic responses of two super-structures during earthquake motions. For this purpose, it is assumed that the soil medium is an elastic half space for modeling and that the rigidity of any type of structures such as piping facilities connecting the adjacent buildings is negligible. The technical approach is mainly based on the following procedures. Supersturcture stiffness is calculated by using the method which has been developed in our laboratory based on the Thin-Wall Beam Theory. Soil stiffness is expressed by a matrix with 12 x 12 elements as a function of frequency, which is calculated using the soil compliance functions proposed in Dr. Tajimi's Theory. These stiffness values may be expressed by complex numbers for modeling the damping mechanism of superstructures. We can solve eigenvalue problems with frequency dependent stiffness and the large-scale matrix using our method which is based on condensing the matrix to the suitable size by Rayleigh-Ritz method. Earthquake responses can be solved in the frequency domain by Fourier Transform. (orig./RW)

  9. A Constitutive Relationship for Gravelly Soil Considering Fine Particle Suffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuning; Chen, Yulong

    2017-10-23

    Suffusion erosion may occur in sandy gravel dam foundations that use suspended cutoff walls. This erosion causes a loss of fine particles, degrades the soil strength and deformation moduli, and adversely impacts the cutoff walls of the dam foundation, as well as the overlying dam body. A comprehensive evaluation of these effects requires models that quantitatively describe the effects of fine particle losses on the stress-strain relationships of sandy gravels. In this work, we propose an experimental scheme for studying these types of models, and then perform triaxial and confined compression tests to determine the effects of particle losses on the stress-strain relationships. Considering the Duncan-Chang E-B model, quantitative expressions describing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the particle losses were derived. The results show that particle losses did not alter the qualitative stress-strain characteristics of the soils; however, the soil strength and deformation moduli were degraded. By establishing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the losses, the same model can then be used to describe the relationship between sandy gravels and erosion levels that vary in both time and space.

  10. A Constitutive Relationship for Gravelly Soil Considering Fine Particle Suffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuning Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Suffusion erosion may occur in sandy gravel dam foundations that use suspended cutoff walls. This erosion causes a loss of fine particles, degrades the soil strength and deformation moduli, and adversely impacts the cutoff walls of the dam foundation, as well as the overlying dam body. A comprehensive evaluation of these effects requires models that quantitatively describe the effects of fine particle losses on the stress-strain relationships of sandy gravels. In this work, we propose an experimental scheme for studying these types of models, and then perform triaxial and confined compression tests to determine the effects of particle losses on the stress-strain relationships. Considering the Duncan-Chang E-B model, quantitative expressions describing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the particle losses were derived. The results show that particle losses did not alter the qualitative stress-strain characteristics of the soils; however, the soil strength and deformation moduli were degraded. By establishing the relationship between the parameters of the model and the losses, the same model can then be used to describe the relationship between sandy gravels and erosion levels that vary in both time and space.

  11. Improving large-scale groundwater models by considering fossil gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stephan; Walther, Marc; Michelsen, Nils; Rausch, Randolf; Dirks, Heiko; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Merz, Ralf; Kolditz, Olaf; Schüth, Christoph

    2017-05-01

    Due to limited availability of surface water, many arid to semi-arid countries rely on their groundwater resources. Despite the quasi-absence of present day replenishment, some of these groundwater bodies contain large amounts of water, which was recharged during pluvial periods of the Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene. These mostly fossil, non-renewable resources require different management schemes compared to those which are usually applied in renewable systems. Fossil groundwater is a finite resource and its withdrawal implies mining of aquifer storage reserves. Although they receive almost no recharge, some of them show notable hydraulic gradients and a flow towards their discharge areas, even without pumping. As a result, these systems have more discharge than recharge and hence are not in steady state, which makes their modelling, in particular the calibration, very challenging. In this study, we introduce a new calibration approach, composed of four steps: (i) estimating the fossil discharge component, (ii) determining the origin of fossil discharge, (iii) fitting the hydraulic conductivity with a pseudo steady-state model, and (iv) fitting the storage capacity with a transient model by reconstructing head drawdown induced by pumping activities. Finally, we test the relevance of our approach and evaluated the effect of considering or ignoring fossil gradients on aquifer parameterization for the Upper Mega Aquifer (UMA) on the Arabian Peninsula.

  12. Chest Pain: The Need to Consider Less Frequent Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Magalhães

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chest pain is one of the most frequent patient’s complaints. The commonest underlying causes are well known, but, sometimes, in some clinical scenarios, it is necessary to consider other diagnoses. We report a case of a 68-year-old Caucasian male, chronically hypertensive, who complained of recurrent episodes of chest pain and fever with elevated acute phase reactants. The first investigation was negative for some of the most likely diagnosis and he quickly improved with anti-inflammatory drugs. Over a few months, his symptoms continued to recur periodically, his hypertension was aggravated, and he developed headaches and lower limbs claudication. After a temporal artery biopsy that was negative for vasculitis, he underwent a positron emission tomography suggestive of Takayasu Arteritis. Takayasu Arteritis is a rare chronic granulomatous vasculitis of the aorta and its first-order branches affecting mostly females up to 50 years old. Chest pain is experienced by >40% of the patients and results from the inflammation of the aorta, pulmonary artery, or coronaries.

  13. Two-stage image denoising considering interscale and intrascale dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdoosti, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-01

    A solution to the problem of reducing the noise of grayscale images is presented. To consider the intrascale and interscale dependencies, this study makes use of a model. It is shown that the dependency between a wavelet coefficient and its predecessors can be modeled by the first-order Markov chain, which means that the parent conveys all of the information necessary for efficient estimation. Using this fact, the proposed method employs the Kalman filter in the wavelet domain for image denoising. The proposed method has two stages. The first stage employs a simple denoising algorithm to provide the noise-free image, by which the parameters of the model such as state transition matrix, variance of the process noise, the observation model, and the covariance of the observation noise are estimated. In the second stage, the Kalman filter is applied to the wavelet coefficients of the noisy image to estimate the noise-free coefficients. In fact, the Kalman filter is used to estimate the coefficients of high-frequency subbands from the coefficients of coarser scales and noisy observations of neighboring coefficients. In this way, both the interscale and intrascale dependencies are taken into account. Results are presented and discussed on a set of standard 8-bit grayscale images. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves performances competitive with the state-of-the-art denoising methods in terms of both peak-signal-to-noise ratio and subjective visual quality.

  14. Wellbore stability in shales considering chemo-poroelastic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B.; Rabe, Claudio [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    Under compaction and low geothermal gradients are deep water characteristics. Both under compaction and low geothermal gradients generate considerable thickness of smectite-rich shales. These rocks are the major source of wellbore stability problems, because they are susceptible to adverse physico-chemical reactions when in contact with inadequate drilling fluids. Due shales are low permeability rocks diffusion processes dominate the changes of pore pressure around wellbore. Diffusion of fluids, ions and temperature occurs in shales during drilling and demand a fully coupled modelling taking account these factors. Despite temperature importance, in this paper wellbore stability in shales is analyzed through a model that considers only the coupling between poroelastic and physico-chemical effects. The coupled equations are solved analytically and have been implemented in a computational simulator with user-friendly interface. Time-dependent simulations of wellbore stability in shales are presented for a typical deep water scenario. The results show that physico-chemical effects change pore pressure around wellbore and have high impact on the wellbore stability. (author)

  15. Stress Analysis of Single Spacer Grid Support considering Fuel Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. G.; Jung, D. H.; Kim, J. H. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. K.; Jeon, K. L. [Korea Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel assembly is mainly composed of a top-end piece, a bottom-end piece, lots of fuel rods, and several spacer grids. Among them, the main function of spacer grid is protecting fuel rods from Fluid Induced Vibration (FIV). The cross section of spacer grid assembled by laser welding in upper and lower point. When the fuel rod inserted in spacer gird, spring and dimple and around of welded area got a stresses. The main hypothesis of this analysis is the boundary area of HAZ and base metal can get a lot of damage than other area by FIV. So, design factors of spacer grid mainly considered to preventing the fatigue failure in HAZ and spring and dimple of spacer grid. From previous researching, the environment in reactor verified. Pressure and temperature of light water observed 15MPa and 320 .deg. C, and vibration of the fuel rod observed within 0 {approx} 50Hz. In this study, mechanical properties of zirconium alloy that extracted from the test and the spacer grid model which used in the PWR were applied in stress analyzing. General-purpose finite element analysis program was used ANSYS Workbench 12.0.1 version. 3-D CAD program CATIA was used to create spacer grid model

  16. Nonlinear Dynamics of Silicon Nanowire Resonator Considering Nonlocal Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Leisheng; Li, Lijie

    2017-12-01

    In this work, nonlinear dynamics of silicon nanowire resonator considering nonlocal effect has been investigated. For the first time, dynamical parameters (e.g., resonant frequency, Duffing coefficient, and the damping ratio) that directly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the nanostructure have been derived. Subsequently, by calculating their response with the varied nonlocal coefficient, it is unveiled that the nonlocal effect makes more obvious impacts at the starting range (from zero to a small value), while the impact of nonlocal effect becomes weaker when the nonlocal term reaches to a certain threshold value. Furthermore, to characterize the role played by nonlocal effect in exerting influence on nonlinear behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos (typical phenomena in nonlinear dynamics of nanoscale devices), we have calculated the Lyapunov exponents and bifurcation diagram with and without nonlocal effect, and results shows the nonlocal effect causes the most significant effect as the device is at resonance. This work advances the development of nanowire resonators that are working beyond linear regime.

  17. Points to consider-Raynaud's phenomenon in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Smith, Vanessa; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh; Herrick, Ariane L

    2017-09-01

    RP is an exaggerated vasospastic response to cold or emotion. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with either parallel group or cross-over trials should be mainly considered. Cross-over design, which is good for early phase trials of immediate or very short-term outcomes, is important in a condition as heterogeneous as RP: a wash-out period between treatment arms should always be included to minimize the possibility of a period (carry-over) effect. Duration of RP trials is usually constrained by the need to complete these over a single season, usually winter when the weather is colder. For cross-over trials, each treatment arm tends to be 4 weeks or less. Frequency and duration of attacks, and the Raynaud's Condition Score are widely used outcome measures. There is increasing interest in physiological laboratory endpoints, for example laser Doppler imaging at least for early phase trials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Reactive power dispatch considering voltage stability with seeker optimization algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Chaohua; Chen, Weirong; Zhang, Xuexia [The School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhu, Yunfang [Department of Computer and Communication Engineering, E' mei Campus, Southwest Jiaotong University, E' mei 614202 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD) has a growing impact on secure and economical operation of power systems. This issue is well known as a non-linear, multi-modal and multi-objective optimization problem where global optimization techniques are required in order to avoid local minima. In the last decades, computation intelligence-based techniques such as genetic algorithms (GAs), differential evolution (DE) algorithms and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithms, etc., have often been used for this aim. In this work, a seeker optimization algorithm (SOA) based method is proposed for ORPD considering static voltage stability and voltage deviation. The SOA is based on the concept of simulating the act of human searching where search direction is based on the empirical gradient by evaluating the response to the position changes and step length is based on uncertainty reasoning by using a simple Fuzzy rule. The algorithm's performance is studied with comparisons of two versions of GAs, three versions of DE algorithms and four versions of PSO algorithms on the IEEE 57 and 118-bus power systems. The simulation results show that the proposed approach performed better than the other listed algorithms and can be efficiently used for the ORPD problem. (author)

  19. Optimum profit model considering production, quality and sale problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Lu, Chih-Lun

    2011-12-01

    Chen and Liu ['Procurement Strategies in the Presence of the Spot Market-an Analytical Framework', Production Planning and Control, 18, 297-309] presented the optimum profit model between the producers and the purchasers for the supply chain system with a pure procurement policy. However, their model with a simple manufacturing cost did not consider the used cost of the customer. In this study, the modified Chen and Liu's model will be addressed for determining the optimum product and process parameters. The authors propose a modified Chen and Liu's model under the two-stage screening procedure. The surrogate variable having a high correlation with the measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the first stage. The measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the second stage when the product decision cannot be determined in the first stage. The used cost of the customer will be measured by adopting Taguchi's quadratic quality loss function. The optimum purchaser's order quantity, the producer's product price and the process quality level will be jointly determined by maximising the expected profit between them.

  20. Ethical questions must be considered for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spriggs, Merle; Arnold, Michael V; Pearce, Christopher M; Fry, Craig

    2012-09-01

    National electronic health record initiatives are in progress in many countries around the world but the debate about the ethical issues and how they are to be addressed remains overshadowed by other issues. The discourse to which all others are answerable is a technical discourse, even where matters of privacy and consent are concerned. Yet a focus on technical issues and a failure to think about ethics are cited as factors in the failure of the UK health record system. In this paper, while the prime concern is the Australian Personally Controlled Electronic Health Record (PCEHR), the discussion is relevant to and informed by the international context. The authors draw attention to ethical and conceptual issues that have implications for the success or failure of electronic health records systems. Important ethical issues to consider as Australia moves towards a PCEHR system include: issues of equity that arise in the context of personal control, who benefits and who should pay, what are the legitimate uses of PCEHRs, and how we should implement privacy. The authors identify specific questions that need addressing.

  1. Thinking the "unthinkable": why Philip Morris considered quitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E A; Malone, R E

    2003-06-01

    To investigate the genesis and development of tobacco company Philip Morris's recent image enhancement strategies and analyse their significance. Internal Philip Morris documents, made available by the terms of the Master Settlement Agreement between the tobacco companies and the attorneys general of 46 states, and secondary newspaper sources. Searches of the Philip Morris documents website (www.pmdocs.com) beginning with terms such as "image management" and "identity" and expanding as relevant new terms (consultant names, project names, and dates), were identified, using a "snowball" sampling strategy. In the early 1990s, Philip Morris, faced with increasing pressures generated both externally, from the non-smokers' rights and public health communities, and internally, from the conflicts among its varied operating companies, seriously considered leaving the tobacco business. Discussions of this option, which occurred at the highest levels of management, focused on the changing social climate regarding tobacco and smoking that the tobacco control movement had effected. However, this option was rejected in favour of the image enhancement strategy that culminated with the recent "Altria" name change. This analysis suggests that advocacy efforts have the potential to significantly denormalise tobacco as a corporate enterprise.

  2. A thermo-elastic model for soft rocks considering structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Z.; Zhang, S.; Teng, J.; Xiong, Y.

    2017-01-01

    In the fields of nuclear waste geological deposit, geothermal energy and deep mining, the effects of temperature on the mechanical behaviors of soft rocks cannot be neglected. Experimental data in the literature also showed that the structure of soft rocks cannot be ignored. Based on the super-loading yield surface and the concept of temperature-deduced equivalent stress, a thermo-elastoplastic model for soft rocks is proposed considering the structure. Compared to the super-loading yield surface, only one parameter is added, i.e. the linear thermal expansion coefficient. The predicted results and the comparisons with experimental data in the literature show that the proposed model is capable of simultaneously describing heat increase and heat decrease of soft rocks. A stronger initial structure leads to a greater strength of the soft rocks. Heat increase and heat decrease can be converted between each other due to the change of the initial structure of soft rocks. Furthermore, regardless of the heat increase or heat decrease, a larger linear thermal expansion coefficient or a greater temperature always leads to a much rapider degradation of the structure. The degradation trend will be more obvious for the coupled greater values of linear thermal expansion coefficient and temperature. Lastly, compared to heat decrease, the structure will degrade more easily in the case of heat increase. (authors)

  3. A thermo-elastoplastic model for soft rocks considering structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zuoyue; Zhang, Sheng; Teng, Jidong; Xiong, Yonglin

    2017-11-01

    In the fields of nuclear waste geological deposit, geothermy and deep mining, the effects of temperature on the mechanical behaviors of soft rocks cannot be neglected. Experimental data in the literature also showed that the structure of soft rocks cannot be ignored. Based on the superloading yield surface and the concept of temperature-deduced equivalent stress, a thermo-elastoplastic model for soft rocks is proposed considering the structure. Compared to the superloading yield surface, only one parameter is added, i.e. the linear thermal expansion coefficient. The predicted results and the comparisons with experimental data in the literature show that the proposed model is capable of simultaneously describing heat increase and heat decrease of soft rocks. A stronger initial structure leads to a greater strength of the soft rocks. Heat increase and heat decrease can be converted between each other due to the change of the initial structure of soft rocks. Furthermore, regardless of the heat increase or heat decrease, a larger linear thermal expansion coefficient or a greater temperature always leads to a much rapider degradation of the structure. The degradation trend will be more obvious for the coupled greater values of linear thermal expansion coefficient and temperature. Lastly, compared to heat decrease, the structure will degrade more easily in the case of heat increase.

  4. New preemptive scheduling for OBS networks considering cascaded wavelength conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingbo; Bassiouni, Mostafa A.; Li, Guifang

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a new preemptive scheduling technique for next generation optical burst-switched networks considering the impact of cascaded wavelength conversions. It has been shown that when optical bursts are transmitted all optically from source to destination, each wavelength conversion performed along the lightpath may cause certain signal-to-noise deterioration. If the distortion of the signal quality becomes significant enough, the receiver would not be able to recover the original data. Accordingly, subject to this practical impediment, we improve a recently proposed fair channel scheduling algorithm to deal with the fairness problem and aim at burst loss reduction simultaneously in optical burst switching. In our scheme, the dynamic priority associated with each burst is based on a constraint threshold and the number of already conducted wavelength conversions among other factors for this burst. When contention occurs, a new arriving superior burst may preempt another scheduled one according to their priorities. Extensive simulation results have shown that the proposed scheme further improves fairness and achieves burst loss reduction as well.

  5. A deterministic aggregate production planning model considering quality of products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madadi, Najmeh; Wong, Kuan Yew

    2013-01-01

    Aggregate Production Planning (APP) is a medium-term planning which is concerned with the lowest-cost method of production planning to meet customers' requirements and to satisfy fluctuating demand over a planning time horizon. APP problem has been studied widely since it was introduced and formulated in 1950s. However, in several conducted studies in the APP area, most of the researchers have concentrated on some common objectives such as minimization of cost, fluctuation in the number of workers, and inventory level. Specifically, maintaining quality at the desirable level as an objective while minimizing cost has not been considered in previous studies. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model that serves those companies aiming to incur the minimum level of operational cost while maintaining quality at an acceptable level. In order to obtain the solution to the multi-objective model, the Fuzzy Goal Programming approach and max-min operator of Bellman-Zadeh were applied to the model. At the final step, IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio software was used to obtain the experimental results based on the data collected from an automotive parts manufacturing company. The results show that incorporating quality in the model imposes some costs, however a trade-off should be done between the cost resulting from producing products with higher quality and the cost that the firm may incur due to customer dissatisfaction and sale losses.

  6. States consider suit if DOE refuses spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeyher, A.

    1994-01-01

    Michigan, Florida, and Minnesota were joined by Wisconsin on April 21 in the Nuclear Waste Strategy Coalition (NWSC), a group of utilities, state regulators, and state attorneys general that have banded together to decide what to do about the Department of Energy's apparent intention to renege on its obligation to begin taking title to spent nuclear fuel by January 31, 1998. According to Ronald Russell, a commissioner on the Michigan Public Service Commission and cofounder of the NWSC, another six states have expressed interest in joining the coalition. open-quotes We're looking at encouraging the DOE to step up to its legal responsibility to take nuclear spent fuel by 1998,close quotes Russell said. The objectives of the coalition include asking the DOE to support privatization of nuclear storage, to review the management of the final repository program in order to make it more efficient, and to identify legislative changes that the DOE might feel are necessary for it to accomplish its charge. The NWSC is also considering filing a lawsuit in response to the DOE's open-quotes anticipatory breach of an executory contract.close quotes The NWSC and others feel that the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the related standard contracts between the DOE and the utilities form a legal contract for the DOE to take the spent fuel on the agreed upon date

  7. Terminal altitude maximization for Mars entry considering uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Pingyuan; Zhao, Zeduan; Yu, Zhengshi; Dai, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Uncertainties present in the Mars atmospheric entry process may cause state deviations from the nominal designed values, which will lead to unexpected performance degradation if the trajectory is designed merely based on the deterministic dynamic model. In this paper, a linear covariance based entry trajectory optimization method is proposed considering the uncertainties presenting in the initial states and parameters. By extending the elements of the state covariance matrix as augmented states, the statistical behavior of the trajectory is captured to reformulate the performance metrics and path constraints. The optimization problem is solved by the GPOPS-II toolbox in MATLAB environment. Monte Carlo simulations are also conducted to demonstrate the capability of the proposed method. Primary trading performances between the nominal deployment altitude and its dispersion can be observed by modulating the weights on the dispersion penalty, and a compromised result referring to maximizing the 3σ lower bound of the terminal altitude is achieved. The resulting path constraints also show better satisfaction in a disturbed environment compared with the nominal situation.

  8. APF-Based Car Following Behavior Considering Lateral Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Sheng Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of lateral distance on consecutive vehicles, this paper proposes a new car following model based on the artificial potential field theory (APF. Traditional car following behaviors all assume that the vehicles are driving along the middle of a lane. Different from the traditional car following principles, this incorporation of APF offers a potential breakthrough in the fields of car following theory. The individual vehicle can be represented as a unit point charge in electric field, and the interaction of the attractive potential energy and the repellent potential energy between vehicles simplifies the various influence factors on the target vehicle in actual following behavior. Consequently, it can make a better analysis of the following behavior under the lateral separation. Then, the proposed model has been demonstrated in simulation environment, through which the space-time trajectories and the potential energy change regulation are obtained. Simulations verify that the following vehicle's behavior is vulnerable to be affected by lateral distance, where the attractive potential energy tends to become repellent potential energy as the longitudinal distance decreases. The search results prove that the proposed model quantifies the relations between headway and potential energy and better reflects the following process in real-world situation.

  9. Enhanced regional forecasting considering single wind farm distribution for upscaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremen, Lueder von; Saleck, Nadja; Heinemann, Detlev

    2007-01-01

    With increasing wind power penetration the need for more accurate wind power forecasts increases to raise the market value of wind power. State-of-the-art wind power forecasting tools are considered either statistical or physical. Fundamentally new techniques are rare, thus it is tried to establish a new approach. The spatial decomposition of wind power generation in Germany can be done with principle component analysis to extract the main pattern of variability. They have a physical meaning when linked with typical weather situation. The first four eigenvectors explain about 94 % of the observed variance. The time-evolving principle components are linked with the total wind power feed-in in Germany and are used for its estimation. A new wind power forecasting model has been implemented with this approach and shows very good results that are comparable with state-of-the-art commercial wind power forecast models. The day-ahead forecast error for a common intercomparison period Jan-Jul 2006 is 4.4 %. The suggested approach offers wide ranges for future developments (e.g. several NWP models), because it is computationally very cheap to run

  10. Considering opinions of the citizens in waste matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litmanen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Besides the technical questions, the disposal of spent nuclear fuel involves various social, ethical and political aspects. Especially people who live in the vicinity of the locations projected as disposal sites need to consider these issues. Laymen and technical specialists often have different views about the disposal of waste. A confidence gap is said to exist between laymen and experts. To cross the confidence gap, experts must take as active interest in the views expressed by local people. People are particularly apprehensive about the effects of a nuclear waste facility on everyday life in the municipality concerned. Some residents suspect that the disposal project will label the locality as a waste dump. Others think that development of the municipality will stagnate because of fear. Supporters of the disposal facility may argue, for instance, that the project would lead to new jobs and increase tax revenue. When making a decision about the disposal project, the community is at a crossroads where a direction must be chosen. The choice is made difficult by the complexity of the issues under discussion. (orig.) (2 figs.)

  11. Power Consumption Evaluation of Distributed Computing Network Considering Traffic Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukio; Hasegawa, Go; Murata, Masayuki

    When computing resources are consolidated in a few huge data centers, a massive amount of data is transferred to each data center over a wide area network (WAN). This results in increased power consumption in the WAN. A distributed computing network (DCN), such as a content delivery network, can reduce the traffic from/to the data center, thereby decreasing the power consumed in the WAN. In this paper, we focus on the energy-saving aspect of the DCN and evaluate its effectiveness, especially considering traffic locality, i.e., the amount of traffic related to the geographical vicinity. We first formulate the problem of optimizing the DCN power consumption and describe the DCN in detail. Then, numerical evaluations show that, when there is strong traffic locality and the router has ideal energy proportionality, the system's power consumption is reduced to about 50% of the power consumed in the case where a DCN is not used; moreover, this advantage becomes even larger (up to about 30%) when the data center is located farthest from the center of the network topology.

  12. Observability-Enhanced PMU Placement Considering Conventional Measurements and Contingencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Esmaili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs are in growing attention in recent power systems because of their paramount abilities in state estimation. PMUs are placed in existing power systems where there are already installed conventional measurements, which can be helpful if they are considered in PMU optimal placement. In this paper, a method is proposed for optimal placement of PMUs incorporating conventional measurements of zero injection buses and branch flow measurements using a permutation matrix. Furthermore, the effect of single branch outage and single PMU failure is included in the proposed method. When a branch with a flow measurement goes out, the network loses one observability path (the branch and one conventional measurement (the flow measurement. The permutation matrix proposed here is able to model the outage of a branch equipped with a flow measurement or connected to a zero injection bus. Also, measurement redundancy, and consequently measurement reliability, is enhanced without increasing the number of PMUs this implies a more efficient usage of PMUs than previous methods. The PMU placement problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming that results in the global optimal solution. Results obtained from testing the proposed method on four well-known test systems in diverse situations confirm its efficiency.

  13. Proactive AP Selection Method Considering the Radio Interference Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenaka, Yuzo; Kashihara, Shigeru; Tsukamoto, Kazuya; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Oie, Yuji

    In the near future, wireless local area networks (WLANs) will overlap to provide continuous coverage over a wide area. In such ubiquitous WLANs, a mobile node (MN) moving freely between multiple access points (APs) requires not only permanent access to the Internet but also continuous communication quality during handover. In order to satisfy these requirements, an MN needs to (1) select an AP with better performance and (2) execute a handover seamlessly. To satisfy requirement (2), we proposed a seamless handover method in a previous study. Moreover, in order to achieve (1), the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) is usually employed to measure wireless link quality in a WLAN system. However, in a real environment, especially if APs are densely situated, it is difficult to always select an AP with better performance based on only the RSSI. This is because the RSSI alone cannot detect the degradation of communication quality due to radio interference. Moreover, it is important that AP selection is completed only on an MN, because we can assume that, in ubiquitous WLANs, various organizations or operators will manage APs. Hence, we cannot modify the APs for AP selection. To overcome these difficulties, in the present paper, we propose and implement a proactive AP selection method considering wireless link condition based on the number of frame retransmissions in addition to the RSSI. In the evaluation, we show that the proposed AP selection method can appropriately select an AP with good wireless link quality, i.e., high RSSI and low radio interference.

  14. Congestion management considering voltage security of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2009-01-01

    Congestion in a power network is turned up due to system operating limits. To relieve congestion in a deregulated power market, the system operator pays to market participants, GENCOs and DISCOs, to alter their active powers considering their bids. After performing congestion management, the network may be operated with a low security level because of hitting some flows their upper limit and some voltages their lower limit. In this paper, a novel congestion management method based on the voltage stability margin sensitivities is introduced. Using the proposed method, the system operator so alleviates the congestion that the network can more retain its security. The proposed method not only makes the system more secure after congestion management than other methods already presented for this purpose but also its cost of providing security is lower than the earlier methods. Test results of the proposed method along with the earlier ones on the New-England test system elaborate the efficiency of the proposed method from the viewpoint of providing a better voltage stability margin and voltage profile as well as a lower security cost. (author)

  15. Public perspectives on biospecimen procurement: what biorepositories should consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Heureux, Jamie; Murray, Jeffrey C; Newbury, Elizabeth; Shinkunas, Laura; Simon, Christian M

    2013-06-01

    Human biospecimens are central to biobanking efforts, yet how members of the public think about biobank procurement strategies is not well understood. This study aimed to explore public perspectives toward the procurement of residual clinical material versus "direct" procurement strategies such as the drawing of blood. Members of the public residing in and beyond the biobank catchment area of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics were randomly selected to participate in focus groups and a telephone survey. The majority of survey participants (75%, n=559) found both residual and direct procurement strategies equally workable. Small proportions preferred either residual (15%; n=117) or direct (5%; n=40) procurement. Focus group participants (n=48) could identify benefits to both procurement strategies, but raised concerns about possible donor inconvenience/discomfort and reduced biospecimen accrual in the case of direct procurement. Residual procurement raised concerns about lower-quality samples being procured without full donor awareness. Biobanks should consider that members of the public in their research programs may be willing to make specimen donations regardless of whether a residual or direct procurement strategy is employed. Limiting patient discomfort and inconvenience may make direct procurement strategies more acceptable to some members of the public. Ensuring donor awareness through effective informed consent may allay public concerns about the indirectness of donating clinical biospecimens.

  16. Global health care leadership development: trends to consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPhee M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maura MacPhee,1 Lilu Chang,2 Diana Lee,3 Wilza Spiri4 1University of British Columbia School of Nursing, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; 2Center for Advancement of Nursing Education, Koo Foundation, Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Nethersole School of Nursing, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 4São Paulo State University, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: This paper provides an overview of trends associated with global health care leadership development. Accompanying these trends are propositions based on current available evidence. These testable propositions should be considered when designing, implementing, and evaluating global health care leadership development models and programs. One particular leadership development model, a multilevel identity model, is presented as a potential model to use for leadership development. Other, complementary approaches, such as positive psychology and empowerment strategies, are discussed in relation to leadership identity formation. Specific issues related to global leadership are reviewed, including cultural intelligence and global mindset. An example is given of a nurse leadership development model that has been empirically tested in Canada. Through formal practice–academic–community collaborations, this model has been locally adapted and is being used for nurse leader training in Hong Kong, Taiwan, and Brazil. Collaborative work is under way to adapt the model for interprofessional health care leadership development. Keywords: health care leadership, development models, global trends, collective

  17. Channel Coordination in Logistics Service Supply Chain considering Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistics service supply chain (LSSC is a new type of service supply chain. This paper investigates the channel coordination issue in a two-echelon LSSC composed of one logistics service integrator (LSI and one functional logistics service provider (FLSP under fairness concerns. The models for a reservation price-only contract under disadvantageous inequality and advantageous inequality are established, respectively, in which the procurement cost, the potential shortage cost, and the operation cost are considered under stochastic market demand. Based on this model, the LSI’s optimal reservation quantity can be determined. Furthermore, we analyze the impact of fairness concerns and the related costs on channel performance and channel coordination. The results are presented in four aspects: (1 channel coordination of the LSSC can be achieved under certain conditions when the LSI experiences advantageous inequality; (2 the spiteful behavior of the LSI leads to the reduction of the channel profit, and channel coordination cannot be achieved when the LSI suffers from disadvantageous inequality; (3 the LSI’s reservation quantity and the channel profit are affected by the LSI’s fairness concerns; (4 motivated by the concerns of fairness, the LSI’s reservation quantity is related not only to his procurement cost and shortage cost but also to the FLSP’s operation cost.

  18. Water Flow in Karst Aquifer Considering Dynamically Variable Saturation Conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoqun; Hu, Bill X.

    2017-04-01

    The karst system is generally conceptualized as dual-porosity system, which is characterized by low conductivity and high storage continuum matrix and high conductivity and quick flow conduit networks. And so far, a common numerical model for simulating flow in karst aquifer is MODFLOW2005-CFP, which is released by USGS in 2008. However, the steady-state approach for conduit flow in CFP is physically impractical when simulating very dynamic hydraulics with variable saturation conduit. So, we adopt the method proposed by Reimann et al. (2011) to improve current model, in which Saint-Venant equations are used to model the flow in conduit. Considering the actual background that the conduit is very big and varies along flow path and the Dirichlet boundary varies with rainfall in our study area in Southwest China, we further investigate the influence of conduit diameter and outflow boundary on numerical model. And we also analyze the hydraulic process in multi-precipitation events. We find that the numerical model here corresponds well with CFP for saturated conduit, and it could depict the interaction between matrix and conduit during very dynamic hydraulics pretty well compare with CFP.

  19. Development of radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Nobuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    A radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement is developed to integrate the established codes and the code system for decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor (FBR). The former are the codes for estimation of radioactivity movement in sodium coolant of fast reactor which are named SAFFIRE, PSYCHE and TTT. The latter code system is to estimate neutron irradiation activity (COSMARD-RRADO). It is paid special attention to keep the consistency of input data used among these codes and also the simplification of their interface. A new function is added to the estimation system, to estimate minor FP inventory caused by the fission of impurities contained in the coolant and slight fuel material attached on the fuel cladding. To check the evaluation system, the system is applied with radioactivity data of the preceding FBR such as BN-350, JOYO and Monju. Agreement between the analysis results and the measurement is well satisfactory. The uncertainty of the code system is within several tens per cent for the activation of primary coolant (Na-22) and factor of 2-4 for the estimation of radioactivity inventory in sodium coolant. (author)

  20. FACTORS TO CONSIDER ABOUT MILK PRODUCTION ON PASTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Wilson da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we addressed issues that permeate discussions related to some factors to consider about milk production on pasture, since the viability of milk production on pasture until the nutritional value of pasture for dairy cows. Analyze the theme of milk production on pasture and how it is inserted within the perspective of the viability of exploiting the cattle dairy pastures in Brazil is the objective of this work. In general, it was observed that the responses of production with grazing animals are conditioned on the rational use of pasture, so this factor of production represents an economical feed source for livestock destined for milk production. For that, it is evident the need to use land intensively, in order to obtain forage quantity and quality necessary to fully meet the nutritional needs of cows, lactating or not. It was observed in this study the great demand for information on pasture as a resource for the production of milk, which justifies this work. It was concluded that grazing managed properly represent a viable, low cost, animal nutrition in the production of bovine milk.

  1. Design of Brand Names of Medicines Considering Subjects' Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Carla Maria Batista Ferreira; Cavaco, Afonso

    2018-03-01

    Only recently, regulations on the names of medicines were developed. Regulations are mainly focused on avoiding the approval of medicine names that may be confusing to others. Furthermore, legal requirements do not include testing for human factors, such as potential users' preferences. To develop a set of new brand names of medicines, to determine subjects' preferred names, and to evaluate if the linguistic features of these names were related to subjects' preferences. Forty-six new names linguistically equivalent to the Portuguese brand names of medicines were developed. A panel of 13 postgraduates on linguistic studies were purposively enrolled. Participants were required to select and categorize the 6 most preferred names. From the 29 selected names: 62.1% ended in consonants, 65.5% contained at least one syllable of the CVC type, and 62.1% presented final stress. Considering these 3 linguistic features, there were statistically significant differences between the preferred and underpreferred names: χ 2 = 4.572, P = .032; χ 2 = 5.599, P = .018; and χ 2 = 4.572; P = .032, respectively. Some linguistic features of the evaluated names were related to subjects' preferences. Tests on subjects' preferences about the names of medicines may provide additional safety features addressed by the present regulations.

  2. Considering ethical dilemmas related to brain death in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Chatziioannidis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD, as the irreversible and permanent loss of cerebral and brainstem function, is relatively uncommon among newborns who need life support. It is considered the result of an acute and irreversible central nervous system insult. Asphyxia, severe intracranial hemorrhage and infection are the most common causes of  BD in children. BD diagnosis is usually based on clinical criteria. Dilemmas about life prolonging treatment for severely compromised infants – as brain dead infants are – has become challenging since neonatal intensive care unit (NICU care has developed, quality of life and resource issues are nowadays continuously underlined. Caring for premature babies is expensive and costs have risen especially since an increased number of infants with handicaps survives. Intensivists’ main duty is first to save lives and then to interrupt treatment in certain conditions like detrimental brain damage. The objective of this article is to present ethical decisions regarding brain dead newborns in order to balance between organ donation necessities and withholding/withdrawing treatment, with respect to the important role of infants’ parents in the process.

  3. A weighted U statistic for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changshuai; Elston, Robert C; Lu, Qing

    2016-07-20

    Converging evidence suggests that common complex diseases with the same or similar clinical manifestations could have different underlying genetic etiologies. While current research interests have shifted toward uncovering rare variants and structural variations predisposing to human diseases, the impact of heterogeneity in genetic studies of complex diseases has been largely overlooked. Most of the existing statistical methods assume the disease under investigation has a homogeneous genetic effect and could, therefore, have low power if the disease undergoes heterogeneous pathophysiological and etiological processes. In this paper, we propose a heterogeneity-weighted U (HWU) method for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity. HWU can be applied to various types of phenotypes (e.g., binary and continuous) and is computationally efficient for high-dimensional genetic data. Through simulations, we showed the advantage of HWU when the underlying genetic etiology of a disease was heterogeneous, as well as the robustness of HWU against different model assumptions (e.g., phenotype distributions). Using HWU, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of nicotine dependence from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environments dataset. The genome-wide analysis of nearly one million genetic markers took 7h, identifying heterogeneous effects of two new genes (i.e., CYP3A5 and IKBKB) on nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Quelques considérations sur la grippe aviaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Maffesoli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans le totalitarisme doux étendant son voile sirupeux sur des masses inquiètes, l’on sait que les divers technocrates assoient leur pouvoir en entretenant la crainte. Ce qui n’est pas très compliqué, tant la peur de l’ombre, la peur de son ombre travaille tout un chacun. Si l’on doit caractériser l’époque, c’est bien le terme de lâcheté généralisée qui vient, immédiatement, à l’esprit. L’on sait que le virus de la grippe aviaire ne peut infecter l’homme que par contact direct et prolongé. Par exemple, boire l’eau d’un marais infecté de fiente d’oiseaux contaminés ou forniquer avec une poule atteinte de ce mal. De même, le danger de pandémie ne pourrait advenir que s’il y avait conjonction avec la grippe humaine. Ainsi, les virologues considèrent qu’il faudrait plusieurs centaines de personnes infectées par la grippe aviaire, dans un milieu lui-même en pleine épidémie de grippe humaine pour qu’il y ait un danger réel d’infection généralisée. Comme on le voit le risque est grand! Mais là n’est pas le problème. Il suffit, pour nos technocrates, que l’imaginaire de l’insécurité soit là. Ils y trouvent une raison d’être. Ils peuvent, savamment, jouer les utilités. On sait que de tous temps, c’est en misant sur une angoisse diffuse que les divers pouvoirs ont assis leur légitimité. En fait ce qui est à prendre au sérieux, ce sont les hystéries collectives. La chute spectaculaire de la consommation de volailles de toutes sortes en témoigne. Souvenons-nous aussi que n’est pas loin le temps où la même suspicion planait sur la viande bovine! Trêve de plaisanterie! Actualisons l’apologue. Ainsi l’émotion provoquée par le «double scandale» qui frapperait le C.N.R.S ne manque pas de susciter inquiétudes et interrogations. En terme d’épidémiologie bien entendu. Inquiétudes quant à la santé mentale du «milieu» sociologique capable de pétionner en m

  5. [Can we consider the journalist an actor in suicide prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notredame, C-E; Pauwels, N; Vaiva, G; Danel, T; Walter, M

    2016-10-01

    After more than 50 years of dedicated research, media coverage of suicide is now well known to have a significant influence on the suicide epidemiology. This influence is supposed to result from two opposite effects. The Werther effect (WE) refers to the robust increase of suicide rates following the publication of a suicide story. This specific kind of mass cluster implies a suggestion process, i.e. imitation of the depicted death by vulnerable persons. In contract, the preventive potential of medias has been labeled the "Papageno effect" (PE). Although more recently discovered and far less known, PE predicts that journalists can help prevent suicidal behaviors beyond a simple WE reduction. Because PE and WE directly bridge journalistic productions to suicidal events, several national and international health organisms (including the World Health Organization) started to see the media as new prevention opportunities. In this paper, we intend to assess the extent to which journalists can be considered as public health actors in the specific field of suicide prevention. Based on a critical review of the so-called Media effect studies, we explore the opportunities, limits and constraints of collaborating with media professionals for public health actions. For that purpose, we focus on the main strategy employed so far, namely providing recommendations for more cautious coverage of suicide. An overview of the efficacy of these recommendations serves not only as a starting point for understanding how public health and journalistic perspectives can confront, but also how they can be combined in a fertile way. Numerous suicide prevention organisms developed strategies in order to assist journalists in reporting suicide stories in a safer way. As a formal support to these strategies, around 30 national or international guides have been produced around the word, with the shared aim of reducing WE and, eventually, promoting PE. The recommendations about articles' style

  6. Is Montenegro Considered as a Sports-Recreational Destination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Pekovic

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to examine if, according to the tourists coming to the country, Montenegro is considered as a sport-recreational destination. The data used in the study is extracted from the Montenegrin survey called Guest Survey 2014, comprising of 35 questions related to the tourist travel behavior and satisfaction during their stay in Montenegro. The paper uses the results of the study to provide descriptive statistics concerning the motives of tourist to visit Montenegro (one of the question is related to sport-recreational activities. Furthermore, it verifi es link between tourists’ motivation related to sport -recreational activities to come to Montenegro and their overall satisfaction with sport -recreational activities. The results indicated that only around 1% of tourists in our sample who visited Montenegro indicated sport- recreational activities as the main motive for the visit, around 3% of tourists indicated sport- recreational activities as a second motive while around 5% of tourists indicated sport and recreational activities as the third motive. However, around 60% of tourists reported that they were satisfi ed with overall sport -recreational activities during their stay in Montenegro. This study shows that even that Montenegrin sport-recreational off er is on the satisfactory level, managers and policy-makers should provide additional eff ort to present Montenegro as a sport-recreational destination since very low percentage of tourists are motivated to visit Montenegro related to these activities. The paper thus concludes by setting recommendations related to diversifi cation of Montenegrin tourism off er by pursuing sports-recreational tourism forms.

  7. A wind turbine hybrid simulation framework considering aeroelastic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Su, Weihua

    2015-04-01

    In performing an effective structural analysis for wind turbine, the simulation of turbine aerodynamic loads is of great importance. The interaction between the wake flow and the blades may impact turbine blades loading condition, energy yield and operational behavior. Direct experimental measurement of wind flow field and wind profiles around wind turbines is very helpful to support the wind turbine design. However, with the growth of the size of wind turbines for higher energy output, it is not convenient to obtain all the desired data in wind-tunnel and field tests. In this paper, firstly the modeling of dynamic responses of large-span wind turbine blades will consider nonlinear aeroelastic effects. A strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation will be used for the basic structural dynamic modeling, which will be coupled with unsteady aerodynamic equations and rigid-body rotations of the rotor. Full wind turbines can be modeled by using the multi-connected beams. Then, a hybrid simulation experimental framework is proposed to potentially address this issue. The aerodynamic-dominant components, such as the turbine blades and rotor, are simulated as numerical components using the nonlinear aeroelastic model; while the turbine tower, where the collapse of failure may occur under high level of wind load, is simulated separately as the physical component. With the proposed framework, dynamic behavior of NREL's 5MW wind turbine blades will be studied and correlated with available numerical data. The current work will be the basis of the authors' further studies on flow control and hazard mitigation on wind turbine blades and towers.

  8. Considering the Influence of Nonadaptive Evolution on Primate Color Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Jacobs

    need to consider adaptive and nonadaptive mechanisms of color vision evolution in primates.

  9. Power management of remote microgrids considering battery lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalise, Santosh

    Currently, 20% (1.3 billion) of the world's population still lacks access to electricity and many live in remote areas where connection to the grid is not economical or practical. Remote microgrids could be the solution to the problem because they are designed to provide power for small communities within clearly defined electrical boundaries. Reducing the cost of electricity for remote microgrids can help to increase access to electricity for populations in remote areas and developing countries. The integration of renewable energy and batteries in diesel based microgrids has shown to be effective in reducing fuel consumption. However, the operational cost remains high due to the low lifetime of batteries, which are heavily used to improve the system's efficiency. In microgrid operation, a battery can act as a source to augment the generator or a load to ensure full load operation. In addition, a battery increases the utilization of PV by storing extra energy. However, the battery has a limited energy throughput. Therefore, it is required to provide balance between fuel consumption and battery lifetime throughput in order to lower the cost of operation. This work presents a two-layer power management system for remote microgrids. First layer is day ahead scheduling, where power set points of dispatchable resources were calculated. Second layer is real time dispatch, where schedule set points from the first layer are accepted and resources are dispatched accordingly. A novel scheduling algorithm is proposed for a dispatch layer, which considers the battery lifetime in optimization and is expected to reduce the operational cost of the microgrid. This method is based on a goal programming approach which has the fuel and the battery wear cost as two objectives to achieve. The effectiveness of this method was evaluated through a simulation study of a PV-diesel hybrid microgrid using deterministic and stochastic approach of optimization.

  10. Hysteretic Models Considering Axial-Shear-Flexure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresa, Paola; Negrisoli, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Most of the existing numerical models implemented in finite element (FE) software, at the current state of the art, are not capable to describe, with enough reliability, the interaction between axial, shear and flexural actions under cyclic loading (e.g. seismic actions), neglecting crucial effects for predicting the nature of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) structural elements. Just a few existing 3D volume models or fibre beam models can lead to a quite accurate response, but they are still computationally inefficient for typical applications in earthquake engineering and also characterized by very complex formulation. Thus, discrete models with lumped plasticity hinges may be the preferred choice for modelling the hysteretic behaviour due to cyclic loading conditions, in particular with reference to its implementation in a commercial software package. These considerations lead to this research work focused on the development of a model for RC beam-column elements able to consider degradation effects and interaction between the actions under cyclic loading conditions. In order to develop a model for a general 3D discrete hinge element able to take into account the axial-shear-flexural interaction, it is necessary to provide an implementation which involves a corrector-predictor iterative scheme. Furthermore, a reliable constitutive model based on damage plasticity theory is formulated and implemented for its numerical validation. Aim of this research work is to provide the formulation of a numerical model, which will allow implementation within a FE software package for nonlinear cyclic analysis of RC structural members. The developed model accounts for stiffness degradation effect and stiffness recovery for loading reversal.

  11. Integrated building energy systems design considering storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)). e-mail: MStadler@lbl.gov; Siddiqui, Afzal (Dept. of Statistical Science at Univ. College London (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g. PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO{sub 2} emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO{sub 2} emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g. nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Dept. of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO{sub 2} minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  12. Land use allocation model considering climate change impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. K.; Yoon, E. J.; Song, Y. I.

    2017-12-01

    In Korea, climate change adaptation plans are being developed for each administrative district based on impact assessments constructed in various fields. This climate change impact assessments are superimposed on the actual space, which causes problems in land use allocation because the spatial distribution of individual impacts may be different each other. This implies that trade-offs between climate change impacts can occur depending on the composition of land use. Moreover, the actual space is complexly intertwined with various factors such as required area, legal regulations, and socioeconomic values, so land use allocation in consideration of climate change can be very difficult problem to solve (Liu et al. 2012; Porta et al. 2013).Optimization techniques can generate a sufficiently good alternatives for land use allocation at the strategic level if only the fitness function of relationship between impact and land use composition are derived. It has also been noted that land use optimization model is more effective than the scenario-based prediction model in achieving the objectives for problem solving (Zhang et al. 2014). Therefore in this study, we developed a quantitative tool, MOGA (Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm), which can generate a comprehensive land use allocations considering various climate change impacts, and apply it to the Gangwon-do in Korea. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are the most popular optimization technique to address multi-objective in land use allocation. Also, it allows for immediate feedback to stake holders because it can run a number of experiments with different parameter values. And it is expected that land use decision makers and planners can formulate a detailed spatial plan or perform additional analysis based on the result of optimization model. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program (Project number: 2014001310006)"

  13. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-01-01

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research project performed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site

  14. Criticality safety of spent fuel casks considering water inleakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, N.L.; Withee, C.J.; Easton, E.P.

    2004-01-01

    A fundamental safety design parameter for all fissile material packages is that a single package must be critically safe even if water leaks into the containment system. In addition, criticality safety must be assured for arrays of packages under normal conditions of transport (undamaged packages) and under hypothetical accident conditions (damaged packages). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff has revised the review protocol for demonstrating criticality safety for spent fuel casks. Previous review guidance specified that water inleakage be considered under accident conditions. This practice was based on the fact that the leak tightness of spent fuel casks is typically demonstrated by use of structural analysis and not by physical testing. In addition, since a single package was shown to be safe with water inleakage, it was concluded that this analysis was also applicable to an array of damaged packages, since the heavy shield walls in spent fuel casks neutronically isolate each cask in the array. Inherent in this conclusion is that the fuel assembly geometry does not change significantly, even under drop test conditions. Requests for shipping fuel with burnup exceeding 40 GWd/MTU, including very high burnups exceeding 60 GWD/MTU, caused a reassessment of this assumption. Fuel cladding structural strength and ductility were not clearly predictable for these higher burnups. Therefore the single package analysis for an undamaged package may not be applicable for the damaged package. NRC staff developed a new practice for review of spent fuel casks under accident conditions. The practice presents two methods for approval that would allow an assessment of potential reconfiguration of the fuel assembly under accident conditions, or, alternatively, a demonstration of the water-exclusion boundary through physical testing

  15. Concentration risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matić Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentration risk has been gaining a special dimension in the contemporary financial and economic environment. Financial institutions are exposed to this risk mainly in the field of lending, mostly through their credit activities and concentration of credit portfolios. This refers to the concentration of different exposures within a single risk category (credit risk, market risk, operational risk, liquidity risk.

  16. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    respond to these new challenges, the Modified Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm for the design optimization of a biomass to bio-refinery logistic system that considers the simultaneous maximization of the total profit and the minimization of three environmental impacts is presented. Sustainability balances economic, social and environmental goals and objectives. There exist several works in the literature that have considered economic and environmental objectives for the presented supply chain problem. However, there is a lack of research performed in the social aspect of a sustainable logistics system. This work proposes a methodology to integrate social aspect assessment, based on employment creation. Finally, most of the assessment methodologies considered in the literature only contemplate deterministic values, when in realistic situations uncertainties in the supply chain are present. In this work, Value-at-Risk, an advanced risk measure commonly used in portfolio optimization is included to consider the uncertainties in biofuel prices, among the others.

  17. Considering plant life management influences on new plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.F.; Choy, E.; Soulard, M.; Nickerson, J.H.; Hopwood, J.

    2003-01-01

    After operating successfully for more than half their design life, owners of CANDU reactors are now engaging in Plant Life Management (PLiM) activities to ensure not only life attainment, but also life extension. For several years, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) has been working with domestic and offshore CANDU utilities on a comprehensive and integrated CANDU PLiM program that will see existing CANDU plants successfully and reliably operate through their design life and beyond. To support the PLiM program development, a significant level of infrastructure has been, and continues to be, developed at AECL. This includes the development of databases that document relevant knowledge and background to allow for a more accessible and complete understanding of degradation issues and the strategies needed to deal with these issues. As the level of integration with various project, services and R and D activities in AECL increases, this infrastructure is growing to encompass a wider range of design, operations and maintenance details to support comprehensive and quantitative assessment of CANDU stations. With the maturation of the PLiM program, these processes were adapted for application to newer plants. In particular, a fully integrated program was developed that interrelates the design basis, operations, safety, and reliability and maintenance strategies, as applied to meet plant design goals. This has led to the development of the maintenance-based design concept. The various PLiM technologies, developed and applied in the above programs with operating stations, are being modified and tailored to assist with the new plant design processes to assure that ACR- Advanced CANDU Reactor meets its targets for operation, maintenance, and lifetime performance. Currently, the ACR, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), is being designed with features to increase capacity factors, to reduce the risk of major equipment failures, to improve access to key components

  18. Urban Heat Wave Vulnerability Analysis Considering Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    JE, M.; KIM, H.; Jung, S.

    2017-12-01

    Much attention has been paid to thermal environments in Seoul City in South Korea since 2016 when the worst heatwave in 22 years. It is necessary to provide a selective measure by singling out vulnerable regions in advance to cope with the heat wave-related damage. This study aims to analyze and categorize vulnerable regions of thermal environments in the Seoul and analyzes and discusses the factors and risk factors for each type. To do this, this study conducted the following processes: first, based on the analyzed various literature reviews, indices that can evaluate vulnerable regions of thermal environment are collated. The indices were divided into climate exposure index related to temperature, sensitivity index including demographic, social, and economic indices, and adaptation index related to urban environment and climate adaptation policy status. Second, significant variables were derived to evaluate a vulnerable region of thermal environment based on the summarized indices in the above. this study analyzed a relationship between the number of heat-related patients in Seoul and variables that affected the number using multi-variate statistical analysis to derive significant variables. Third, the importance of each variable was calculated quantitatively by integrating the statistical analysis results and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method. Fourth, a distribution of data for each index was identified based on the selected variables and indices were normalized and overlapped. Fifth, For the climate exposure index, evaluations were conducted as same as the current vulnerability evaluation method by selecting future temperature of Seoul predicted through the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) climate change scenarios as an evaluation variable. The results of this study can be utilized as foundational data to establish a countermeasure against heatwave in Seoul. Although it is limited to control heatwave occurrences itself completely, improvements

  19. Considering ethics, aesthetics and the dignity of the individual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebler, Aline; Valentin, Claude

    2014-03-01

    There are variations on vulnerability that are often based on opposing authorities. In his book Parcours de la reconnaissance, Paul Ricœur offers a reflection grounded in a survey from Aristotle to Levinas, with way stations in phenomenology, from Hegel to Husserl. He sketches the silhouette of capable man. In a reversal of thinking and positioning, weakness, which could be considered the hallmark of disability in all its forms, becomes a source of mutual wealth and an argument in favour of reciprocity and dialogue. Relying on clinical examples, we propose art as a mediator of the doctor-patient relationship, which in its present unique form forces us to question the dynamics of empathy. A. Strebler A FEW GRAMS OF GOLD IN AN INSECURE WORLD: Vulnerability has long gone hand in hand with precarity. It is disturbing in a world where all is 'comfort and beauty, calm and bliss.' Additionally, vulnerability is a type of wound and wounds are what knit the relationship between patient and care provider. Similarly disturbing is poverty: the pauper is "without": without work, without a home, without a legal residency permit, without money… Poverty is also a wound, and yet it may serve as a path to "truth," according to the philosopher Simone Weil. These two concepts, equally vulnerable, question man's finite nature, and may serve as an introduction to the art of living together. In the midst of this ambiguity, the word "art" stands out. It is a counter-power, a challenge to established authority and politico-economic forms of government; it is inessential, unclassifiable, ungraspable, unthinkable and cannot be evaluated. Art avenges the abyss of ambiguity. C. Valentin COMMON SUMMARY: This article, composed of two core pieces, was written for a common project leading to the creation of a university degree at Paris 5 University (chaired by Pr. Hervé): Ethics, Aesthetics and the Dignity of the Individual. Together, they serve as a forum for reflection and dialogue in which

  20. Considering genetic characteristics in German Holstein breeding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, D; Täubert, H; Reinhardt, F; Thaller, G

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several research groups have demonstrated that several haplotypes may cause embryonic loss in the homozygous state. Up to now, carriers of genetic disorders were often excluded from mating, resulting in a decrease of genetic gain and a reduced number of sires available for the breeding program. Ongoing research is very likely to identify additional genetic defects causing embryonic loss and calf mortality by genotyping a large proportion of the female cattle population and sequencing key ancestors. Hence, a clear demand is present to develop a method combining selection against recessive defects (e.g., Holstein haplotypes HH1-HH5) with selection for economically beneficial traits (e.g., polled) for mating decisions. Our proposed method is a genetic index that accounts for the allele frequencies in the population and the economic value of the genetic characteristic without excluding carriers from breeding schemes. Fertility phenotypes from routine genetic evaluations were used to determine the economic value per embryo lost. Previous research has shown that embryo loss caused by HH1 and HH2 occurs later than the loss for HH3, HH4, and HH5. Therefore, an economic value of € 97 was used against HH1 and HH2 and € 70 against HH3, HH4, and HH5. For polled, € 7 per polled calf was considered. Minor allele frequencies of the defects ranged between 0.8 and 3.3%. The polled allele has a frequency of 4.1% in the German Holstein population. A genomic breeding program was simulated to study the effect of changing the selection criteria from assortative mating based on breeding values to selecting the females using the genetic index. Selection for a genetic index on the female path is a useful method to control the allele frequencies by reducing undesirable alleles and simultaneously increasing economical beneficial characteristics maintaining most of the genetic gain in production and functional traits. Additionally, we applied the genetic index to real data and

  1. Considering resistance in systematic reviews of antibiotic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibovici, Leonard; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Paul, Mical; Goldberg, Elad; Herxheimer, Andrew; Garner, Paul

    2003-10-01

    Microorganisms resistant to antibiotic drugs are a threat to the health and chances of survival of patients. Systematic reviews on antibiotic drugs that ignore the topic of resistance present readers with a skewed view, emphasizing short-term efficacy or effectiveness while ignoring long-term consequences. To examine whether systematic reviews of antibiotic treatment consider resistance; if not, to find out whether data on resistance were reported in the original trials; and based on that, to offer a framework for taking resistance into account in systematic reviews. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (the Cochrane Library, 2001, issue 2); and MEDLINE, 1996-2000. (i) Systematic reviews or meta-analyses of antimicrobial therapy, published during 1996-2000. (ii) Randomized, controlled trials abstracted in systematic reviews that addressed a topic highly relevant to antibiotic resistance. We examined each systematic review, and each article, to see whether the implications of resistance were discussed; and whether data on resistance were collected. Out of 111 systematic reviews, only 44 (40%) discussed resistance. Ten reviews (9%) planned or performed collection of data on the response of patients with susceptible or resistant isolates. In 22 systematic reviews (20%), collection of data on induction of resistance was planned or performed. The topic of 41 reviews was judged highly relevant to resistance, and these reviews extracted data from 337 articles, out of which we retrieved 279 articles (83%). In 201 (72%) articles, resistance was discussed or data pertaining to it were collected. Ninety-seven articles (35%) gave actual data on resistance of pathogens to the study drugs, 71 articles (25%) data on efficacy of antibiotic drugs in patients with susceptible and resistant pathogens, and 55 articles (20%) provided data on infection or colonization with resistant strains during treatment. Most systematic reviews on antibiotic treatment ignored the issue of

  2. [Does the recent psychosocial research consider the perspective of developmental psychopathology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesmer, Heide; Petermann, Franz; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2009-10-01

    Developmental psychopathology is studying the development of psychological disorders with a life course perspective and an interdisciplinary approach considering the interplay of biological, psychological and social factors in complex models. The bibliometric analysis examines the implementation of this concept in the recent psychosocial research in the German-speaking area. Volumes 2007 and 2008 of three German psychological journals "Zeitschrift für Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik und Medizinische Psychologie", "Zeitschrift für Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie", and "Zeitschrift für Psychiatrie, Psychologie und Psychotherapie" were screened for articles dealing with issues of developmental psychopathology. 46 articles were identified and evaluated. Several aspects of developmental psychopathology are considered in a vast number of studies, but there is a main focus on risk factors, but not on protective factors and most of the studies are based on cross-sectional designs. Most of the recent practice in psychosocial research is not beneficial for the identification of causal effects or the complex interplay of risk and protective factors in the development of psychological disorders. Thus, longitudinal studies, taking biological, psychological and social factors and their interplay into account are essential to meet the requirement of developmental psychopathology. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  3. Driving-forces model on individual behavior in scenarios considering moving threat agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Zhuang, Jun; Shen, Shifei; Wang, Jia

    2017-09-01

    The individual behavior model is a contributory factor to improve the accuracy of agent-based simulation in different scenarios. However, few studies have considered moving threat agents, which often occur in terrorist attacks caused by attackers with close-range weapons (e.g., sword, stick). At the same time, many existing behavior models lack validation from cases or experiments. This paper builds a new individual behavior model based on seven behavioral hypotheses. The driving-forces model is an extension of the classical social force model considering scenarios including moving threat agents. An experiment was conducted to validate the key components of the model. Then the model is compared with an advanced Elliptical Specification II social force model, by calculating the fitting errors between the simulated and experimental trajectories, and being applied to simulate a specific circumstance. Our results show that the driving-forces model reduced the fitting error by an average of 33.9% and the standard deviation by an average of 44.5%, which indicates the accuracy and stability of the model in the studied situation. The new driving-forces model could be used to simulate individual behavior when analyzing the risk of specific scenarios using agent-based simulation methods, such as risk analysis of close-range terrorist attacks in public places.

  4. Safety in GPR prospecting: a rarely-considered issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Pajewski, Lara; Trela, Christiane; Carrick Utsi, Erica

    2016-04-01

    Safety issues (of people first of all, but also of the equipment and environment) are rarely considered in Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) prospecting and, more in general, in near-surface geophysical prospecting. As is right and fully understandable, the scientific community devotes greatest attention first of all to the theoretical and practical aspects of GPR technique, affecting the quality of attainable results, secondly to the efforts and costs needed to achieve them [1-2]. However, the (luckily) growing GPR market and range of applications make it worth giving serious consideration to safety issues, too. The existing manuals dealing with safety in geophysics are mainly concerned with applications requiring "deep" geophysical prospecting, for example the search for oilfields and other hydrocarbon resources [3]. Near-surface geophysics involves less dangers than deep geophysics, of course. Nevertheless, several accidents have already happened during GPR experimental campaigns. We have personally had critical experiences and collected reliable testimonies concerning occurred problems as mountain sicks, fractures of legs, stomach problems, allergic reactions, encounters with potentially-dangerous animals, and more. We have also noticed that much more attention is usually paid to safety issues during indoor experimental activities (in laboratory), rather than during outdoor fieldworks. For example, the Italian National research Council is conventioned with safety experts who hold periodical seminaries about safety aspects. Having taken part to some of them, to our experience we have never heard a "lecture" devoted to outdoor prospecting. Nowadays, any aspects associated to the use of the technologies should be considered. The increasing sensibility and sense of responsibility towards environmental matters impose GPR end-users to be careful not to damage the environment and also the cultural heritage. Near-surface prospecting should not compromise the flora and

  5. Managing risk at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesser, W.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Rutherford, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Clearly, there is sufficient motivation from Washington for the Hanford community to pay particular attention to the risks associated with the substantial volumes of radiological, hazardous, and mixed waste at Hanford. But there is also another reason for emphasizing risk: Hanford leaders have come to realize that their decisions must consider risk and risk reduction if those decisions are to be technically sound, financially affordable, and publicly acceptable. The 560-square miles of desert land is worth only a few thousand dollars an acre (if that) -- hardly enough to justify the almost two billion dollars that will be spent at Hanford this year. The benefit of cleaning up the Hanford Site is not the land but the reduction of potential risk to the public and the environment for future generations. If risk reduction is our ultimate goal, decisions about priority of effort and resource allocation must consider those risks, now and in the future. The purpose of this paper is to describe how Hanford is addressing the issues of risk assessment, risk management, and risk-based decision making and to share some of our experiences in these areas

  6. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-12-15

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  7. Considering extraction constraints in long-term oil price modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehrl, Tobias; Friedrich, Rainer; Voss, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    Apart from divergence about the remaining global oil resources, the peak oil discussion can be reduced to a dispute about the time rate at which these resources can be supplied. On the one hand it is problematic to project oil supply trends without taking both - prices as well as supply costs - explicitly into account. On the other hand are supply cost estimates however itself heavily dependent on the underlying extraction rates and are actually only valid within a certain business-as-usual extraction rate scenario (which itself is the task to determine). In fact, even after having applied enhanced recovery technologies, the rate at which an oil field can be exploited is quite restricted. Above a certain level an additional extraction rate increase can only be costly achieved at risks of losses in the overall recoverable amounts of the oil reservoir and causes much higher marginal cost. This inflexibility in extraction can be overcome in principle by the access to new oil fields. This indicates why the discovery trend may roughly form the long-term oil production curve, at least for price-taking suppliers. The long term oil discovery trend itself can be described as a logistic process with the two opposed effects of learning and depletion. This leads to the well-known Hubbert curve. Several attempts have been made to incorporate economic variables econometrically into the Hubbert model. With this work we follow a somewhat inverse approach and integrate Hubbert curves in our Long-term Oil Price and EXtraction model LOPEX. In LOPEX we assume that non-OPEC oil production - as long as the oil can be profitably discovered and extracted - is restricted to follow self-regulative discovery trends described by Hubbert curves. Non-OPEC production in LOPEX therefore consists of those Hubbert cycles that are profitable, depending on supply cost and price. Endogenous and exogenous technical progress is extra integrated in different ways. LOPEX determines extraction and price

  8. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. Objectives: What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? Methods: A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. Results: In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two, six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the

  9. [Malpractice in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results of cases recently considered by the Expert Commission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienzle, H F

    1999-01-01

    The Expert Commission for medical malpractice which is part of the Medical Chamber of Nordrhein received about 60 applications in connection with laparoscopic cholecystectomy; as of August 1998 5 complaints were let off and 11 of them are still being considered. So far 44 complaints have been considered and in 25 of them medical malpractice has been established. The medical malpractice detected laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases were mainly bile duct injuries of which 13 required a biliodigestive anastomosis for reconstruction, four cases required and end-to-end anastomosis and in one case a T-tube drainage was needed. The youngest one of these patients was 21 years old, the oldest one was 61 years old. Four times the bile duct injury was not considered as malpractice, because it could be intraoperatively made out and immediately treated. Trocar injuries were twice a cause for malpractice and once it was not. Each of the following cases was also recognized as a malpractice. One lost gallstone one dislocated Roedersnare, one electric injury, one delayed reintervention and one insufficient information. The following cases were decided as non-malpractice: in two cases a slipped clip, in five cases subhepatical hematoma/abscess, in three cases a secondary bleeding, once a lesion of the splenic capsule and finally a running sore with subsequent incisional hernia. Three courses of treatment with consequence of death also contained mistakes: one electric injury of the bowel, one bile duct lesion and one information rebuke. The bile duct injury is the most considerable risk for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and implies also a high risk for the future health. The experienced surgeon distinguishes himself by the fact that he is right about the situation and converts sooner that later to conventional cholecystectomy if there's any doubt. In open surgery the principle is applied that structures may be only divided when they are clearly identified. The same goes even on a wider

  10. Nanofiltration and nanostructured membranes--should they be considered nanotechnology or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nicole C; van der Bruggen, Bart; Keuter, Volkmar; Luis, Patricia; Melin, Thomas; Pronk, Wouter; Reisewitz, Robert; Rickerby, David; Rios, Gilbert M; Wennekes, Wilco; Nowack, Bernd

    2012-04-15

    Nanofiltration is frequently associated with nanotechnology - obviously because of its name. However, the term "nano" in nanofiltration refers - according to the definition of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) - to the size of the particles rejected and not to a nanostructure as defined by the International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO) in the membrane. Evidently, the approach to standardisation of materials differs significantly between membrane technology and nanotechnology which leads to considerable confusion and inconsistent use of the terminology. There are membranes that can be unambiguously attributed to both membrane technology and nanotechnology such as those that are functionalized with nanoparticles, while the classification of hitherto considered to be conventional membranes as nanostructured material is questionable. A driving force behind the efforts to define nanomaterials is not least the urgent need for the regulation of the use of nanomaterials. Since risk estimation is the basis for nanotechnology legislation, the risk associated with nanomaterials should also be reflected in the underlying standards and definitions. This paper discusses the impacts of the recent attempts to define nanomaterials on membrane terminology in the light of risk estimations and the need for regulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success.

  12. Why consider patients' preferences? A discourse analysis of clinical practice guideline developers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Antoine; Green, Judith; van der Meulen, Jan; Légaré, France; Nolte, Ellen

    2009-08-01

    Several organizations are advocating for patients' preferences to be considered in clinical practice guideline development and implementation. However, lack of agreement on the goal and meaning of this policy curtails evaluation and development of patient involvement programs. To describe guideline developers' discourses on the goal of considering patients' preferences. Qualitative study using discourse analysis. 18 participants (patients, health professionals, and public health experts) from 2 groups of British guideline developers. Template analysis of semi-structured individual interviews was strengthened by active search for deviant cases, team debriefing, and member checking. All respondents supported the idea of taking account of patients' preferences in guidelines. Divergences with the goal and meaning of considering preferences were structured in 4 discourses: (1) The Governance discourse constructs guideline development as a rational process of synthesizing population data-including evidence on patients' preferences-to maximize public health within the constraints of available resources; (2) the Informed Decision discourse aims at fostering patients' choice by providing tailored information on the risks and benefits of interventions; (3) the Professional Care discourse insists on basing professionals' recommendations on the individual characteristics of patients; (4) The Consumer Advocacy discourse argues for greater political power and influence over guideline development and clinical decision making. The identified discourses provide a set of hypothesis on how patient involvement programs are expected to work, which could help clarify the goals pursued by guideline organizations and anchor further evaluation efforts.

  13. Structural applications of metal foams considering material and geometrical uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mohammadreza

    Metal foam is a relatively new and potentially revolutionary material that allows for components to be replaced with elements capable of large energy dissipation, or components to be stiffened with elements which will generate significant supplementary energy dissipation when buckling occurs. Metal foams provide a means to explore reconfiguring steel structures to mitigate cross-section buckling in many cases and dramatically increase energy dissipation in all cases. The microstructure of metal foams consists of solid and void phases. These voids have random shape and size. Therefore, randomness ,which is introduced into metal foams during the manufacturing processes, creating more uncertainty in the behavior of metal foams compared to solid steel. Therefore, studying uncertainty in the performance metrics of structures which have metal foams is more crucial than for conventional structures. Therefore, in this study, structural application of metal foams considering material and geometrical uncertainty is presented. This study applies the Sobol' decomposition of a function of many random variables to different problem in structural mechanics. First, the Sobol' decomposition itself is reviewed and extended to cover the case in which the input random variables have Gaussian distribution. Then two examples are given for a polynomial function of 3 random variables and the collapse load of a two story frame. In the structural example, the Sobol' decomposition is used to decompose the variance of the response, the collapse load, into contributions from the individual input variables. This decomposition reveals the relative importance of the individual member yield stresses in determining the collapse load of the frame. In applying the Sobol' decomposition to this structural problem the following issues are addressed: calculation of the components of the Sobol' decomposition by Monte Carlo simulation; the effect of input distribution on the Sobol' decomposition

  14. Certification and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Fernandez, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays more organizations are increasingly aware of the importance of properly managing the uncertainty of its activities and build competitive advantages through the identification, assessment and management of risks that they face. Risk management is also an aspect of great importance within the new version of ISO fact it is one of the most innovative and also the most laborious, because an appropriate risk management achieves expected results and customer satisfaction. In conclusion, risk management is a new field of business and can be considered a cross-cutting component for other relevant factors of organizational change management. (Author)

  15. Risk Analysis in Road Tunnels – Most Important Risk Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, Florian; Knaust, Christian; Thöns, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Methodologies on fire risk analysis in road tunnels consider numerous factors affecting risks (risk indicators) and express the results by risk measures. But only few comprehensive studies on effects of risk indicators on risk measures are available. For this reason, this study quantifies...... the effects and highlights the most important risk indicators with the aim to support further developments in risk analysis. Therefore, a system model of a road tunnel was developed to determine the risk measures. The system model can be divided into three parts: the fire part connected to the fire model Fire...... Dynamics Simulator (FDS); the evacuation part connected to the evacuation model FDS+Evac; and the frequency part connected to a model to calculate the frequency of fires. This study shows that the parts of the system model (and their most important risk indicators) affect the risk measures in the following...

  16. From experience : applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, J.A.; Halman, J.I.M.; Song, X.M.

    2002-01-01

    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and

  17. From experience: applying the risk diagnosing methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, Jimme A.; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Song, Michael

    2002-01-01

    No risk, no reward. Companies must take risks to launch new products speedily and successfully. The ability to diagnose and manage risks is increasingly considered of vital importance in high-risk innovation. This article presents the Risk Diagnosing Methodology (RDM), which aims to identify and

  18. Underground Economics for Vulnerability Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allodi, L.

    The estimation of vulnerability risk is at the core of any IT security management strategy. Among technical and infrastructural metrics of risk, attacker economics represent an emerging new aspect that several risk assessment methodologies propose to consider (e.g., based on game theory). Yet the

  19. RELEVANCE OF PROCESS RISK ASSESSMENT IN AIRLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana G. Feoktistova; Igor K. Turkin; Sergey V. Barinov

    2017-01-01

    The notion of “the concept on assumed risk” that took over from the outdated concept of absolute security is analyzed, the increasing significance of operating risk assessment at the present stage is noted. Some basic risk assessment techniques are considered. Matrix technique of risk assessment is considered more thoroughly, and it may be used in risk assessment of airlines in the context of labour protection management system.The ability to correctly assess risks and develop appropriate pre...

  20. Modeling vehicle interior noise exposure dose on freeways: Considering weaving segment designs and engine operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Qiao, Fengxiang; Yu, Lei; Shi, Junqing

    2017-07-05

    Vehicle interior noise functions at the dominant frequencies of 500 Hz below and around 800 Hz, which fall into the bands that may impair hearing. Recent studies demonstrated that freeway commuters are chronically exposed to vehicle interior noise, bearing the risk of hearing impairment. The interior noise evaluation process is mostly conducted in a laboratory environment. The test results and the developed noise models may underestimate or ignore the noise effects from dynamic traffic and road conditions and configuration. However, the interior noise is highly associated with vehicle maneuvering. The vehicle maneuvering on a freeway weaving segment is more complex because of its nature of conflicting areas. This research is intended to explore the risk of the interior noise exposure on freeway weaving segments for freeway commuters and to improve the interior noise estimation by constructing a decision tree learning-based noise exposure dose (NED) model, considering weaving segment designs and engine operation. On-road driving tests were conducted on 12 subjects on State Highway 288 in Houston, Texas. On-board Diagnosis (OBD) II, a smartphone-based roughness app, and a digital sound meter were used to collect vehicle maneuvering and engine information, International Roughness Index, and interior noise levels, respectively. Eleven variables were obtainable from the driving tests, including the length and type of a weaving segment, serving as predictors. The importance of the predictors was estimated by their out-of-bag-permuted predictor delta errors. The hazardous exposure level of the interior noise on weaving segments was quantified to hazard quotient, NED, and daily noise exposure level, respectively. Results showed that the risk of hearing impairment on freeway is acceptable; the interior noise level is the most sensitive to the pavement roughness and is subject to freeway configuration and traffic conditions. The constructed NED model shows high predictive

  1. Risk perception versus seismic risk: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubeddu, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    A seismic event generally has consequences on the social relationships, economy and culture of the impacted territory. As Mary Douglas quotes, a change into the social perception of risk as consequence of an earthquake may have effects on the lifestyle of the local community. The above mentioned statement is the starting point of this article. illustrating the difference between peril and risk is the second point. According to the Aristotelian theory of categories, risk can be considered as a human characteristic depending on social and cultural factors. Risk is here intended as a social category and cannot be de facto reported as a statistical or stochastic function based on a mathematical formula, as long assumed in the past. This approach, then, requires a deep revision. In this sense, and following the concept of risk perception, seismic risk is analysed in this article in terms of impacts, precautionary measures, risk assessment and management. Knowledge of this topic cannot be intended as a simple philosophical exercise, since right on awareness depend risk reduction, humans and goods too [it

  2. Control criteria for residual contamination in materials considered for recycle and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1993-11-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is collecting data and conducting technical analyses to support the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Guidance, Air, Water, and Radiation Division (DOE/EH-232) in determining the feasibility of developing radiological control criteria for recycling or reuse of metals or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The criteria, framed as acceptable concentrations for release of materials for recycling or reuse, will be risk-based and will be developed through analysis of radiation exposure scenarios and pathways. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and non-health-related impacts of residual radioactivity on electronics and film. The analyses will consider 42 key radionuclides that are generated during DOE operations and may be contained in recycled or reused metals or equipment

  3. Genetic predisposition syndromes: when should they be considered in the work-up of MDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babushok, Daria V; Bessler, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal hematopoietic disorders characterized by cytopenias, ineffective hematopoiesis, myelodysplasia, and an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). While sporadic MDS is primarily a disease of the elderly, MDS in children and young and middle-aged adults is frequently associated with underlying genetic predisposition syndromes. In addition to the classic hereditary bone marrow failure syndromes (BMFS) such as Fanconi Anemia and Dyskeratosis Congenita, in recent years there has been an increased awareness of non-syndromic familial MDS/AML predisposition syndromes such as those caused by mutations in GATA2, RUNX1, CEBPA, and SRP72 genes. Here, we will discuss the importance of recognizing an underlying genetic predisposition syndrome a patient with MDS, will review clinical scenarios when genetic predisposition should be considered, and will provide a practical overview of the common BMFS and familial MDS/AML syndromes which may be encountered in adult patients with MDS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Considering a new domain for antimicrobial stewardship: Topical antibiotics in the open surgical wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Leaper, David; Spencer, Maureen; Truitt, Karen; Litz Fauerbach, Loretta; Graham, Denise; Johnson, Helen Boehm

    2017-11-01

    The global push to combat the problem of antimicrobial resistance has led to the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), which were recently mandated by The Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. However, the use of topical antibiotics in the open surgical wound is often not monitored by these programs nor is it subject to any evidence-based standardization of care. Survey results indicate that the practice of using topical antibiotics intraoperatively, in both irrigation fluids and powders, is widespread. Given the risks inherent in their use and the lack of evidence supporting it, the practice should be monitored as a core part of ASPs, and alternative agents, such as antiseptics, should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impedance characteristics of DFIGs considering the impacts of DFIG numbers and its application on SSR analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, J. J.; Ning, W. Y.; Jiang, H.; Dong, Y. X.; Liu, H.; Li, Y.

    2017-05-01

    Sub-synchronous resonance (SSR) occurred in the power system with both Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs) and series-compensated lines. There have been several papers focusing on the analysis of such SSR phenomenon. To the authors’ knowledge, the impacts of DFIG numbers are seldom considered in existing papers. In this paper, the impedance characteristics of DFIGs under different numbers are analyzed. Then the relationship between DFIG numbers and SSR characteristics is discussed. The contributions to be included in the paper are as following: 1) the impedance of N DFIGs is roughly equal to 1/N of the impedance of one DFIG. 2) The SSR risk of system is related with both the numbers of DFIGs and the parameters of the series-compensated lines.

  6. Discussion of some issues in risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jingyuan; Liu Yuanzhong

    1998-01-01

    The concept of risk, the methods for assessing risk and the acceptability of risk are discussed. The emphasis was laid on the three components for complete description of a risk: scenario, probability and consequence of an event. The disadvantages of the concept and presentation of risk used in some risk analysis were pointed out. The paper emphasized that it is necessary to explicitly consider the multi-dimensionality of risk in the assessment and management of risk. Several important factors influencing the acceptability of risk and the methodology for evaluating the acceptability of risk were also described

  7. When Should Abdominal Computed Tomography Be Considered in Patients with Lower Rib Fractures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeroukhimov, Igor; Hershkovitz, Yehuda; Wiser, Itay; Kessel, Boris; Ayyad, Mohammed; Gatot, Inbar; Shapira, Zahar; Jeoravlev, Svetlana; Halevy, Ariel; Lavy, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Lower rib fractures are considered as a marker of intra-abdominal organ injury. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) is the "gold standard" examination for patients with lower rib fractures. However, the reported incidence of concomitant intra-abdominal injuries (IAI) is 20%-40%. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of intra-abdominal organ injuries in blunt trauma patients with lower rib fractures. Medical charts and radiology reports of patients with lower rib (from the 8th to 12th rib) fractures admitted to our center during a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I included patients with intra-abdominal injury (IAI) diagnosed either by CT or on urgent laparotomy, and Group II included those with normal abdominal CT scans. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, laboratory tests, radiology results including number and location of fractured ribs, and incidence of IAI. Overall 318 patients were included in the study. Fifty-seven patients (17.9%) had 71 IAIs compared with 265 (82.1%) patients with no IAI. Logistic regression identified age younger than 55 years (relative risk [RR] = 7.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.1-16.8; p = 0.001), bilateral rib fractures (RR = 3.9; 95% CI 1.1-13.5; p = 0.03) and decreased levels of hematocrit (RR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.2-4.8; p = 0.016) as independent risk factors for the presence of IAI. Abdominal CT should be considered in blunt trauma patients with lower rib fractures who are younger than 55 years of age and have bilateral rib fractures and decreased levels of hematocrit on admission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. RISKS MANAGEMENT: NEW LITERATURE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ennouri Wissem

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the industrial activities and the important mass of flows crossing the supply chain promotes the emergence of risks that must be considered in the decision process. For this reason, we have developed this paper to clarify the basics of risk management through a short new suggestion of literature review for risk management. Our justification of this attempt is that this area is the most discussed in our days and it is impossible to present all definition of the risk concept, ...

  9. Advancing the framework for considering the effects of climate change on worker safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, P A; Bhattacharya, A; Butler, C R; Chun, H K; Jacklitsch, B; Jacobs, T; Kiefer, M; Lincoln, J; Pendergrass, S; Shire, J; Watson, J; Wagner, G R

    2016-11-01

    In 2009, a preliminary framework for how climate change could affect worker safety and health was described. That framework was based on a literature search from 1988-2008 that supported seven categories of climate-related occupational hazards: (1) increased ambient temperature; (2) air pollution; (3) ultraviolet radiation exposure; (4) extreme weather; (5) vector-borne diseases and expanded habitats; (6) industrial transitions and emerging industries; and (7) changes in the built environment. This article reviews the published literature from 2008-2014 in each of the seven categories. Additionally, three new topics related to occupational safety and health are considered: mental health effects, economic burden, and potential worker safety and health impacts associated with the nascent field of climate intervention (geoengineering). Beyond updating the literature, this article also identifies key priorities for action to better characterize and understand how occupational safety and health may be associated with climate change events and ensure that worker health and safety issues are anticipated, recognized, evaluated, and mitigated. These key priorities include research, surveillance, risk assessment, risk management, and policy development. Strong evidence indicates that climate change will continue to present occupational safety and health hazards, and this framework may be a useful tool for preventing adverse effects to workers.

  10. Preferred listening levels of mobile phone programs when considering subway interior noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jyaehyoung; Lee, Donguk; Han, Woojae

    2016-01-01

    Today, people listen to music loud using personal listening devices. Although a majority of studies have reported that the high volume played on these listening devices produces a latent risk of hearing problems, there is a lack of studies on "double noise exposures" such as environmental noise plus recreational noise. The present study measures the preferred listening levels of a mobile phone program with subway interior noise for 74 normal-hearing participants in five age groups (ranging from 20s to 60s). The speakers presented the subway interior noise at 73.45 dB, while each subject listened to three application programs [Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), music, game] for 30 min using a tablet personal computer with an earphone. The participants' earphone volume levels were analyzed using a sound level meter and a 2cc coupler. Overall, the results showed that those in their 20s listened to the three programs significantly louder with DMB set at significantly higher volume levels than for the other programs. Higher volume levels were needed for middle frequency compared to the lower and higher frequencies. We concluded that any potential risk of noise-induced hearing loss for mobile phone users should be communicated when users listen regularly, although the volume level was not high enough that the users felt uncomfortable. When considering individual listening habits on mobile phones, further study to predict total accumulated environmental noise is still needed.

  11. Framework for the quality assurance of 'omics technologies considering GLP requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffmann, Hans-Martin; Kamp, Hennicke; Fuchs, Regine; Chorley, Brian N; Deferme, Lize; Ebbels, Timothy; Hackermüller, Jörg; Perdichizzi, Stefania; Poole, Alan; Sauer, Ursula G; Tollefsen, Knut E; Tralau, Tewes; Yauk, Carole; van Ravenzwaay, Ben

    2017-12-01

    'Omics technologies are gaining importance to support regulatory toxicity studies. Prerequisites for performing 'omics studies considering GLP principles were discussed at the European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) Workshop Applying 'omics technologies in Chemical Risk Assessment. A GLP environment comprises a standard operating procedure system, proper pre-planning and documentation, and inspections of independent quality assurance staff. To prevent uncontrolled data changes, the raw data obtained in the respective 'omics data recording systems have to be specifically defined. Further requirements include transparent and reproducible data processing steps, and safe data storage and archiving procedures. The software for data recording and processing should be validated, and data changes should be traceable or disabled. GLP-compliant quality assurance of 'omics technologies appears feasible for many GLP requirements. However, challenges include (i) defining, storing, and archiving the raw data; (ii) transparent descriptions of data processing steps; (iii) software validation; and (iv) ensuring complete reproducibility of final results with respect to raw data. Nevertheless, 'omics studies can be supported by quality measures (e.g., GLP principles) to ensure quality control, reproducibility and traceability of experiments. This enables regulators to use 'omics data in a fit-for-purpose context, which enhances their applicability for risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. What Must be Considered when to Perform Consumption Analytics with Facebook Posts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Siqueira Rangel Netto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss and present empirical evidences about whether online recommendations posted on Facebook can be related with consumption intention of its users. Moreover, the perceived reputation of the source of the information, the perceived value of the recommended product, and the perceived risk associated with the product were also considered as possible mediators of this relationship. In this sense, the structural relationship among the variables was assessed through SEM - Structural Equation Modeling. To conduct the study, the Facebook contacts of the author himself were screened using the Snow Ball sampling technique. A total of 402 valid cases were obtained. Among the mediating variables, the one that exerted the least total effect in the relationship was the perceived risk associated with the recommended product. The variable for the consumption intention had a value for R² of 47%, which indicates that the model significantly contributes to the explanation of the influence of the tested factors in the consumption intention of Facebook users. This finding indicates that organizations should invest in monitoring these behaviors and in proactive measures to stimulate consumption.

  13. Preferred listening levels of mobile phone programs when considering subway interior noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyaehyoung Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, people listen to music loud using personal listening devices. Although a majority of studies have reported that the high volume played on these listening devices produces a latent risk of hearing problems, there is a lack of studies on "double noise exposures" such as environmental noise plus recreational noise. The present study measures the preferred listening levels of a mobile phone program with subway interior noise for 74 normal-hearing participants in five age groups (ranging from 20s to 60s. The speakers presented the subway interior noise at 73.45 dB, while each subject listened to three application programs [Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB, music, game] for 30 min using a tablet personal computer with an earphone. The participants′ earphone volume levels were analyzed using a sound level meter and a 2cc coupler. Overall, the results showed that those in their 20s listened to the three programs significantly louder with DMB set at significantly higher volume levels than for the other programs. Higher volume levels were needed for middle frequency compared to the lower and higher frequencies. We concluded that any potential risk of noise-induced hearing loss for mobile phone users should be communicated when users listen regularly, although the volume level was not high enough that the users felt uncomfortable. When considering individual listening habits on mobile phones, further study to predict total accumulated environmental noise is still needed.

  14. Analyzing Capacity Withholding in Oligopoly Electricity Markets Considering Forward Contracts and Demand Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Salarkheili

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper capacity withholding in an oligopolistic electricity market that all Generation Companies (GenCos bid in a Cournot model is analyzed and the capacity withheld index, the capacity distortion index and the price distortion index are obtained and formulated. Then a new index, Distortion-Withheld Index (DWI, is proposed in order to measure the potential ability of market for capacity withholding. In these indices the impact of demand elasticity on capacity withholding is considered and it is shown that demand elasticity plays an important role for capacity withholding and market power mitigation. Due to the significant role of forward contracts for market power mitigation and risk hedging in power markets, the impacts of these contracts on capacity withholding are considered. The effects of GenCos’ strategic forward contracts on capacity withholding are also discussed. Moreover, the relationship between capacity withholding of GenCos and market price distortion is acquired. A two-settlement market including a forward market and a spot market is used to describe GenCos’ strategic forward contracting and spot market competition.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis on LOCCW of Westinghouse typed Reactors Considering WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Jang-Hwan; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Seok-Won

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on risk insights of Westinghouse typed reactors. We identified that Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) seal integrity is the most important contributor to Core Damage Frequency (CDF). As we reflected the latest technical report; WCAP-15603(Rev. 1-A), 'WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model for Westinghouse PWRs' instead of the old version, RCP seal integrity became more important to Westinghouse typed reactors. After Fukushima accidents, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) decided to develop Low Power and Shutdown (LPSD) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models and upgrade full power PSA models of all operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As for upgrading full power PSA models, we have tried to standardize the methodology of CCF (Common Cause Failure) and HRA (Human Reliability Analysis), which are the most influential factors to risk measures of NPPs. Also, we have reviewed and reflected the latest operating experiences, reliability data sources and technical methods to improve the quality of PSA models. KHNP has operating various types of reactors; Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR) 1000, CANDU, Framatome and Westinghouse. So, one of the most challengeable missions is to keep the balance of risk contributors of all types of reactors. This paper presents the method of new RCP seal leakage model and the sensitivity analysis results from applying the detailed method to PSA models of Westinghouse typed reference reactors. To perform the sensitivity analysis on LOCCW of the reference Westinghouse typed reactors, we reviewed WOG2000 RCP seal leakage model and developed the detailed event tree of LOCCW considering all scenarios of RCP seal failures. Also, we performed HRA based on the T/H analysis by using the leakage rates for each scenario. We could recognize that HRA was the sensitive contributor to CDF, and the RCP seal failure scenario of 182gpm leakage rate was estimated as the most important scenario

  16. Sensitivity Analysis on LOCCW of Westinghouse typed Reactors Considering WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Jang-Hwan; Jeon, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Seok-Won [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we focus on risk insights of Westinghouse typed reactors. We identified that Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) seal integrity is the most important contributor to Core Damage Frequency (CDF). As we reflected the latest technical report; WCAP-15603(Rev. 1-A), 'WOG2000 RCP Seal Leakage Model for Westinghouse PWRs' instead of the old version, RCP seal integrity became more important to Westinghouse typed reactors. After Fukushima accidents, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) decided to develop Low Power and Shutdown (LPSD) Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) models and upgrade full power PSA models of all operating Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As for upgrading full power PSA models, we have tried to standardize the methodology of CCF (Common Cause Failure) and HRA (Human Reliability Analysis), which are the most influential factors to risk measures of NPPs. Also, we have reviewed and reflected the latest operating experiences, reliability data sources and technical methods to improve the quality of PSA models. KHNP has operating various types of reactors; Optimized Pressurized Reactor (OPR) 1000, CANDU, Framatome and Westinghouse. So, one of the most challengeable missions is to keep the balance of risk contributors of all types of reactors. This paper presents the method of new RCP seal leakage model and the sensitivity analysis results from applying the detailed method to PSA models of Westinghouse typed reference reactors. To perform the sensitivity analysis on LOCCW of the reference Westinghouse typed reactors, we reviewed WOG2000 RCP seal leakage model and developed the detailed event tree of LOCCW considering all scenarios of RCP seal failures. Also, we performed HRA based on the T/H analysis by using the leakage rates for each scenario. We could recognize that HRA was the sensitive contributor to CDF, and the RCP seal failure scenario of 182gpm leakage rate was estimated as the most important scenario.

  17. Methods of Financial Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korzh Natalia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The essence and nature of financial risks are investigated. Their classification is conducted. The features of financial risk management and the main methods of management are considered. The ways of risk compensation are identified. It is proved that the objective external risk basis is such market imperfections as externalities of enterprises and incomplete information about the operation of the business environment and internal objective basis risk – the objective function to maximise profits in a competitive environment. It is revealed that to compensate market imperfections business entities should develop a strategy that combines fill in missing information and neutralise or minimise externalities that tactically implemented in financial risk management programs.

  18. Information Risk Management and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Scott

    Are the levels of information risk management efforts within and between firms correlated with the resilience of the firms to information disruptions? This paper examines the question by considering the results of field studies of information risk management practices at organizations and in supply chains. The organizations investigated differ greatly in the degree of coupling from a general and information risk management standpoint, as well as in the levels of internal awareness and activity regarding information risk management. The comparison of the levels of information risk management in the firms and their actual or inferred resilience indicates that a formal information risk management approach is not necessary for resilience in certain sectors.

  19. Perceived reasons for, opinions about, and suggestions for elders considering suicide: elderly outpatients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Jen; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Ku, Yan-Chiou; Lee, Shwu-Hua; Lee, Hsiu-Lan

    2014-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore elderly outpatients' perceived reasons for, opinions of, and suggestions for elderly people considering suicide in Taiwan. Elderly outpatients (N = 83) were recruited in 2011-2012 by convenience sampling from three randomly selected medical centers in Taiwan. Data were collected in individual interviews using a semi-structured guide and analyzed by content analysis. Findings revealed that most participants had heard of elderly suicide, with television news as the main source for their information. Their opinions about elderly suicide reflected judgmental attitudes, negative emotional reactions, expectations of social welfare, and could happen after losing one's meaning in life. Their suggestions for elderly people considering suicide fell into four major themes: give up suicidal ideas, seek help, enhance social welfare, and attend religious activities. Since television news was the main source for participants' information about elderly suicide, this mass medium should be used in suicide prevention to disseminate suicide knowledge, increase access to help, and strengthen suicide-protective factors among the elderly. Furthermore, no participants mentioned depression as a reason for attempted or completed suicide among older people despite depression being a well-known suicide-risk factor. Future suicide-prevention programs should emphasize the role of depression in suicide among older people. Participants also did not suggest that older people considering suicide seek help from the health system. Thus, older people should be educated about the role of the health system in suicide prevention and trained as gatekeepers to recognize signs of suicide ideation and respond appropriately.

  20. Considering Time-Dependency of Social Vulnerability in Crisis Modeling and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, C.; Steinnocher, K.; Freire, S.; Loibl, W.; Peters-Anders, J.; Ungar, J.

    2012-04-01

    Crisis and disaster management is much more than the immediate first-response actions following an incident. In many projects the main focus has been on the phase starting at the point when an unwanted event happens and lasting until the activities return to normal routines (i.e., ad hoc reaction rather than proactive mitigation). There has been less emphasis on the other phases of the disaster management cycle such as prevention, preparedness, recovery and reconstruction, even though those phases have a strong influence on the general status of a society and its citizens. Especially the potential of a crisis to escalate into a large-scale disaster is heavily dependent on the overall level of preparedness as well as on the planning of mitigation and response actions and their timely execution. There is a need for improved decision-making support that enables modeling of different crisis scenarios and their impacts according to chosen prevention and response actions. Vulnerability describing the status of a society with respect to an imposed hazard or potential impact is considered a strongly multidisciplinary concept. A central objective of vulnerability assessment is to provide indications where and how people - and more specifically, what kind of people - might be affected by a certain impact. Results should provide decision- and policy-makers with supporting information to target response and mitigation actions adequately. For assessment of the social dimension of vulnerability, population exposure mapping is usually considered the starting point. Integration of social structure and varying aspects of resilience further differentiate situation-specific vulnerability patterns on a local scale. In a disaster risk management context, assessment of human vulnerability has generally been lagging behind hazard analysis efforts. Accurately estimating population exposure is a key component of catastrophe loss modeling, one element of effective integrated risk analysis

  1. Application of a General Risk Management Model to Portfolio Optimization Problems with Elliptical Distributed Returns for Risk Neutral and Risk Averse Decision Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kaynar; S.I. Birbil (Ilker); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper portfolio problems with linear loss functions and multivariate elliptical distributed returns are studied. We consider two risk measures, Value-at-Risk and Conditional-Value-at-Risk, and two types of decision makers, risk neutral and risk averse. For Value-at-Risk, we show

  2. Economic analysis of energy system considering the uncertainties of crude oil, natural gas and nuclear utilization employing stochastic dynamic programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Keita; Komiyama, Ryoichi; Fujii, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents an economic rationality analysis of power generation mix by stochastic dynamic programming considering fuel price uncertainties and supply disruption risks such as import disruption and nuclear power plant shutdown risk. The situation revolving around Japan's energy security adopted the past statistics, it cannot be applied to a quantitative analysis of future uncertainties. Further objective and quantitative evaluation methods are required in order to analyze Japan's energy system and make it more resilient in sight of long time scale. In this paper, the authors firstly develop the cost minimization model considering oil and natural gas price respectively by stochastic dynamic programming. Then, the authors show several premises of model and an example of result with related to crude oil stockpile, liquefied natural gas stockpile and nuclear power plant capacity. (author)

  3. Managing Risk and Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Garvey, Maxine; Roggi, Oliviero

    outcomes. This topic is timely and of interest both to the academic community as well as to practicing managers, executives, and directors. The volume focuses on contemporary risk leadership issues based on recent research insights but avoids excessive technical language and mathematical formulas. The book...... is framed around the challenges imposed on executives and directors in dealing with an increasingly complex and unpredictable world. This requires a new risk leadership focus that not only avoids the downside risks but also considers ways to exploit the upside potential offered by a dynamic environment...

  4. Credit Risk Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, David

    Credit risk is today one of the most intensely studied topics in quantitative finance. This book provides an introduction and overview for readers who seek an up-to-date reference to the central problems of the field and to the tools currently used to analyze them. The book is aimed at researchers...... and students in finance, at quantitative analysts in banks and other financial institutions, and at regulators interested in the modeling aspects of credit risk. David Lando considers the two broad approaches to credit risk analysis: that based on classical option pricing models on the one hand...

  5. Should variation of serum lipid levels be considered a risk factor for the development of basal cell carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Zamanian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study shows that the serum lipid levels in patients with BCC has no significant difference in comparison with the control group and, therefore, relevance between BCC and serum lipid level is not proven. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary for evaluating this subject.

  6. Consider the Risk of Vesicouterine Fistula in the Event of Intermittent Fluid Vaginal Discharge after a Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Talla

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Though the number of Vesicouterine Fistulas is steadily increasing in association with the increasing number of cesarean sections, clinical presentation can be subtle and not easily identified. In this case study, we will review the presenting symptoms of this complication and suggest an updated management protocol.

  7. The role of risk perceptions in the risk mitigation process: The case of wildfire in high risk communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade E. Martin; Ingrid M. Martin; Brian Kent

    2009-01-01

    An important policy question receiving considerable attention concerns the risk perception-risk mitigation process that guides how individuals choose to address natural hazard risks. This question is considered in the context of wildfire. We analyze the factors that influence risk reduction behaviors by homeowners living in the wildland-urban interface. The factors...

  8. A Framework for Evaluation of Safety and Generation Effect of Investment Considering Life Cycle Management in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hui Chang; Kim, Joon Hyun; Ahn, Nam Sung

    2006-01-01

    Along with the increasing pressure to enhance generation availability with low cost or investment, regulatory organization has been focused on the enhancement of safety in performance-based and risk informed regulation framework. Considering this, the most cost-beneficial solution should be found among the short-term and long-term investment plans. The objective of this research is to propose a generalized framework to evaluate safety and generation effect of investment plan for equipment in nuclear power plants

  9. Insurance against nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Virtually any type of nuclear risk is insurable in principle, providing, of course, that the necessary standards of safety and control are met. Some of the risks are of a relatively minor character and no more hazardous than a simple conventional risk. But insurers would not consider as a minor risk anything which involves the use of nuclear fuel or other nuclear materials which are in a critical state or capable of releasing dangerous levels of radioactivity. These would include nuclear reactors or, indeed, any type of assembly which can not be regarded as subcritical. Most insurers would also regard installations involved in the manufacturing, processing and enriching of nuclear fuel, and certainly those concerned with the reprocessing of irradiated fuel and plutonium extraction, as major risks. (HP) [de

  10. Risks in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindackers, K.H.

    1982-01-01

    The German nuclear power plant risk assessment study has not contributed to a higher degree of acceptance of light-water reactors among the general public. One reason is the fact that its predictions are much too inaccurate, and the consequences from severe accidents, regardless of their possibly extremely small likelihood, speak for themselves. The work still to be done in Phase B of the risk analysis will only be useful, if the safety factors in risk assessments can be drastically increased. The results of the risk analysis cannot be used in legislation or the administration of justice, because they are too incomplete and inaccurate. Scientific findings in risk analysis show that new designs and new components complicate objective judgement of changes in reactor safety engineering considerably. Every change in the required precautionary safety measures must be carefully considered, and if need be tested under the appropriate conditions. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  12. Managing Risk and Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Juul; Garvey, Maxine; Roggi, Oliviero

    outcomes. This topic is timely and of interest both to the academic community as well as to practicing managers, executives, and directors. The volume focuses on contemporary risk leadership issues based on recent research insights but avoids excessive technical language and mathematical formulas. The book...... is framed around the challenges imposed on executives and directors in dealing with an increasingly complex and unpredictable world. This requires a new risk leadership focus that not only avoids the downside risks but also considers ways to exploit the upside potential offered by a dynamic environment....... The underlying logic is built on the principles of financial economics where benefits derive from reducing bankruptcy costs and increasing future cash inflows. This provides a stringent framework for analyzing the effect of different risk management actions and behaviors in effective risk-taking organizations...

  13. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  14. A Study on the Optimal Generation Mix Based on Portfolio Theory with Considering the Basic Condition for Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper presents a novel method to analyze the optimal generation mix based on portfolio theory with considering the basic condition for power supply, which means that electricity generation corresponds with load curve. The optimization of portfolio is integrated with the calculation of a capacity factor of each generation in order to satisfy the basic condition for power supply. Besides, each generation is considered to be an asset, and risks of the generation asset both in its operation period and construction period are considered. Environmental measures are evaluated through restriction of CO2 emissions, which are indicated by CO2 price. Numerical examples show the optimal generation mix according to risks such as the deviation of capacity factor of nuclear power or restriction of CO2 emissions, the possibility of introduction of clean coal technology (IGCC, CCS) or renewable energy, and so on. The results of this work will be possibly applied as setting the target of the generation mix for the future according to prospects of risks of each generation and restrictions of CO2 emissions.

  15. RISK MANAGEMENT MECHANISM OF GRAIN PROCESSING ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Bogomolova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the main characteristics of a control system by risks (the purpose, properties, the principles, requirements are defined, and also the possible mechanism of risk management of the flour-grinding enterprises is considered.

  16. On the Actual Risk of Bystander Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Ejbye-Ernst, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Bystander studies have rarely considered the victimization risk associated with intervention into violent, dangerous emergencies. To address this gap, we aim to identify factors that influence bystanders’ risk of being physically victimized. Methods: We observed bystander behavior fro...

  17. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... injury. Risk factors may be considered as characteristic indicators ... by examining the cardiovascular risk factors that are related to various forms .... Cross country race, Handball, Jogging, Rope jumping, Running Soccer,.

  18. Risks of energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, J.; Pop-Jordanova, N.

    1989-09-01

    The paper is devoted to comparative health and environmental risks of different energy sources and their influence to public perception, social acceptability and decision-making. The technical heights of the risks, expressed in the number of fatalities of labor and public per unit energy output, from fossil, nuclear and renewable sources are analysed and compared. The complete energy cycle from mining to waste disposal, as well as the future trends, are taken into account. A comparison of the risks of different energy systems with the anticipated global and national energy shares by source is also presented. Furthermore, detailed studies of the non-technical dimensions of the energy risks are performed. Using a modified attitude-behaviour model, the cognitive structure underlying the positions towards different energy options is investigated. Estimating the diverse acting of the risk components, the consequent changes in the rank ordering of the energy sources are deduced. Finally, adding the psychological components nuclear reaches the highest place. In this respect, a unified multidimensional space for the representation of various technological risks is introduced. It affords a comparison of the risks not only by their technical height, but also by other characteristics (involuntary, fearfulness etc.). Finally, it was pointed out that in considering the risk characteristics and constraints, as well as the external fields, a system approach has to be used, taking into account the risks simultaneously with the benefits. 12 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Is risk analysis scientific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part). © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Managing risk in a challenging financial environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Kenneth

    2008-08-01

    Five strategies can help hospital financial leaders balance their organizations' financial and risk positions: Understand the hospital's financial condition; Determine the desired level of risk; Consider total risk; Use a portfolio approach; Explore best-case/worst-case scenarios to measure risk.

  1. Obesity and fracture risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnelli, Stefano; Caffarelli, Carla; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are two common diseases with an increasing prevalence and a high impact on morbidity and mortality. Obese women have always been considered protected against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. However, several recent studies have challenged the widespread belief that obesity is protective against fracture and have suggested that obesity is a risk factor for certain fractures.

  2. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathryn Clarke Murray

    Full Text Available The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their "at-risk status" designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but-by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here-they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within.

  3. Endogeneous Risk in Monopolistic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Damjanovic

    2012-01-01

    We consider a model of financial intermediation with a monopolistic competition market structure. A non-monotonic relationship between the risk measured as a probability of default and the degree of competition is established.

  4. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  5. Transport of Escherichia coli phage through saturated porous media considering managed aquifer recharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Li, Shuo; Wang, Shuang; Lei, Liancheng; Yu, Xipeng; Ma, Tianyi

    2018-03-01

    Virus is one of the most potentially harmful microorganisms in groundwater. In this paper, the effects of hydrodynamic and hydrogeochemical conditions on the transportation of the colloidal virus considering managed aquifer recharge were systematically investigated. Escherichia coli phage, vB_EcoM-ep3, has a broad host range and was able to lyse pathogenic Escherichia coli. Bacteriophage with low risk to infect human has been found extensively in the groundwater environment, so it is considered as a representative model of groundwater viruses. Laboratory studies were carried out to analyze the transport of the Escherichia coli phage under varying conditions of pH, ionic strength, cation valence, flow rate, porous media, and phosphate buffer concentration. The results indicated that decreasing the pH will increase the adsorption of Escherichia coli phage. Increasing the ionic strength, either Na + or Ca 2+ , will form negative condition for the migration of Escherichia coli phage. A comparison of different cation valence tests indicated that changes in transport and deposition were more pronounced with divalent Ca 2+ than monovalent Na + . As the flow rate increases, the release of Escherichia coli phage increases and the retention of Escherichia coli phage in the aquifer medium reduces. Changes in porous media had a significant effect on Escherichia coli phage migration. With increase of phosphate buffer concentration, the suspension stability and migration ability of Escherichia coli phage are both increased. Based on laboratory-scale column experiments, a one-dimensional transport model was established to quantitatively describe the virus transport in saturated porous medium.

  6. The visual communication of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkus, I M; Hollands, J G

    1999-01-01

    This paper 1) provides reasons why graphics should be effective aids to communicate risk; 2) reviews the use of visuals, especially graphical displays, to communicate risk; 3) discusses issues to consider when designing graphs to communicate risk; and 4) provides suggestions for future research. Key articles and materials were obtained from MEDLINE(R) and PsychInfo(R) databases, from reference article citations, and from discussion with experts in risk communication. Research has been devoted primarily to communicating risk magnitudes. Among the various graphical displays, the risk ladder appears to be a promising tool for communicating absolute and relative risks. Preliminary evidence suggests that people understand risk information presented in histograms and pie charts. Areas that need further attention include 1) applying theoretical models to the visual communication of risk, 2) testing which graphical displays can be applied best to different risk communication tasks (e.g., which graphs best convey absolute or relative risks), 3) communicating risk uncertainty, and 4) testing whether the lay public's perceptions and understanding of risk varies by graphical format and whether the addition of graphical displays improves comprehension substantially beyond numerical or narrative translations of risk and, if so, by how much. There is a need to ascertain the extent to which graphics and other visuals enhance the public's understanding of disease risk to facilitate decision-making and behavioral change processes. Nine suggestions are provided to help achieve these ends.

  7. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  8. Assessment and perception of risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daglish, J

    1981-01-01

    A recent two-day meeting was called by the Royal Society to discuss all types of risks, but symptomatic of the concerns of most of those present, the discussion centred mainly on the risks inherent in energy production and use. Among the subjects considered were public perception of differing risks, and how these are ranked, and risks versus benefits. Quotations from and summaries of many of the papers presented show that it was generally felt that scientists must be very careful in the way that they use numerical assessments of risk and that they should pay more attention than they have to social and political factors.

  9. Power production at minimum risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremlin, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    A summary, including extensive quotations, is given of the main themes of a lecture by Prof. Fremlin in which he assessed the risks inherent in the use of various power systems. Considering only hazards which affect members of the public, the methods used to quantify such risks are examined. Both so-called inconspicuous hazards from radiation effects and conspicuous risks from accidents which could arise from nuclear power stations are compared to those from other types of power generation. The small risk arising from nuclear wastes is stressed. The lecturer concluded that he would not let 'tiny differences of risk' affect his decisions on energy planning. (U.K.)

  10. GMOs in animal agriculture: time to consider both costs and benefits in regulatory evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L

    2013-09-25

    In 2012, genetically engineered (GE) crops were grown by 17.3 million farmers on over 170 million hectares. Over 70% of harvested GE biomass is fed to food producing animals, making them the major consumers of GE crops for the past 15 plus years. Prior to commercialization, GE crops go through an extensive regulatory evaluation. Over one hundred regulatory submissions have shown compositional equivalence, and comparable levels of safety, between GE crops and their conventional counterparts. One component of regulatory compliance is whole GE food/feed animal feeding studies. Both regulatory studies and independent peer-reviewed studies have shown that GE crops can be safely used in animal feed, and rDNA fragments have never been detected in products (e.g. milk, meat, eggs) derived from animals that consumed GE feed. Despite the fact that the scientific weight of evidence from these hundreds of studies have not revealed unique risks associated with GE feed, some groups are calling for more animal feeding studies, including long-term rodent studies and studies in target livestock species for the approval of GE crops. It is an opportune time to review the results of such studies as have been done to date to evaluate the value of the additional information obtained. Requiring long-term and target animal feeding studies would sharply increase regulatory compliance costs and prolong the regulatory process associated with the commercialization of GE crops. Such costs may impede the development of feed crops with enhanced nutritional characteristics and durability, particularly in the local varieties in small and poor developing countries. More generally it is time for regulatory evaluations to more explicitly consider both the reasonable and unique risks and benefits associated with the use of both GE plants and animals in agricultural systems, and weigh them against those associated with existing systems, and those of regulatory inaction. This would represent a shift away

  11. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  12. Supporting Risk Assessment: Accounting for Indirect Risk to Ecosystem Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mach, Megan E.; Martone, Rebecca G.; Singh, Gerald G.; O, Miriam; Chan, Kai M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such “indirect risks” can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components. We ask whether (i) the addition of indirect risk changes the at-risk ranking of the seventeen ecosystem components and if (ii) risk scores correlate with trophic prey and habitat linkages in the food web. Even with conservative assumptions about the transfer of impacts or risks from prey species and habitats, the addition of indirect risks in the cumulative risk score changes the ranking of priorities for management. In particular, resident orca, Steller sea lion, and Pacific herring all increase in relative risk, more closely aligning these species with their “at-risk status” designations. Risk assessments are not a replacement for impact assessments, but—by considering the potential for indirect risks as we demonstrate here—they offer a crucial complementary perspective for the management of ecosystems and the organisms within. PMID:27632287

  13. Risk Jyouhou Navi (risk information navigator). Web tool for fostering of risk literacy. Set of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Seiichiro

    2003-06-01

    In addition to the conventional public understanding activities, Risk communication study team of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institutes (JNC) Tokai Works has started practical studies to promote risk communication with its local communities. Since its establishment in 2001, Risk communication study team has conducted analyses of already available results of public attitude surveys, case studies of domestic and overseas risk communication activities, and development of risk communication tools. A web tool for fostering of risk literacy 'Risk Jyouhou Navi (risk information navigator in English)', was developed as a web content for the official home page of Techno Kouryuu Kan Ricotti (Techno Community Square Ricotti in English)'. The objectives of this content are to provide risk information for public and to provide an electronic platform for promoting risk communication with the local community. To develop 'Risk Jyouhou Navi', the following concepts were considered. 1) To create public interest in risks in daily lives and in global risks. 2) To provide risk knowledge and information. 3) To support risk communication activities in Techno community square ricotti. (author)

  14. Chemical Mixtures and Epidemiologic Fundamentals for Risk Assessment Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk management options are increasingly being considered early in the risk assessment process to help scope the considerations and bound the inherent complexities related to potential exposures, risk and future clean-up decisions (including acceptable pollutant levels) related t...

  15. Optimal bidding strategies in oligopoly markets considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.Badri; Jadid, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology (Iran); Rashidinejad, M. [Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman (Iran); Moghaddam, M.P. [Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-06-15

    In electricity industry with transmission constraints and limited number of producers, Generation Companies (GenCos) are facing an oligopoly market rather than a perfect competition one. Under oligopoly market environment, each GenCo may increase its own profit through a favorable bidding strategy. This paper investigates the problem of developing optimal bidding strategies of GenCos, considering bilateral contracts and transmission constraints. The problem is modeled with a bi-level optimization algorithm, where in the first level each GenCo maximizes its payoff and in the second level a system dispatch will be accomplished through an OPF problem in which transmission constraints are taken into account. It is assumed that each GenCo has information about initial bidding strategies of other competitors. Impacts of exercising market power due to transmission constraints as well as irrational biddings of the some generators are studied and the interactions of different bidding strategies on participants' corresponding payoffs are presented. Furthermore, a risk management-based method to obtain GenCos' optimal bilateral contracts is proposed and the impacts of these contracts on GenCos' optimal biddings and obtained payoffs are investigated. At the end, IEEE 30-bus test system is used for the case study in order to demonstrate the simulation results and support the effectiveness of the proposed model. (author)

  16. Potentially stressful situations for nurses considering the condition of accreditation of hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Higashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional study that aimed to evaluate and compare the frequency of perceived/self-reported stress by nurses in hospitals with and without accreditation. One conducted in an accredited and two non-accredited hospitals in São Paulo in 2010 and 2011. Data collection included a questionnaire and the Stress Inventory for Nurses, with 262 participants, who evaluated stressful situations in the categories: Intrinsic Factors of Work, Interpersonal Relationships at Work and Stressful Roles in Career. The differences among hospitals concerning nurses’ perception/self-declaration about potentially stressful factors were evaluated by the chi-square test, considering p <0.05 the critical level. Working in an accredited hospital protected against perception/self-declaration of stress caused by stressful factors in the categories: Intrinsic Factors of Work and Stressful Roles in their Career, being a risk factor related to the category Relationships at Work. One concludes that nurses from the accredited hospital perceived/self-reported more stressful factors in situations related to interpersonal relationships.

  17. Ten factors to consider when developing usability scenarios and tasks for health information technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Alissa L; Saleem, Jason J

    2018-02-01

    The quality of usability testing is highly dependent upon the associated usability scenarios. To promote usability testing as part of electronic health record (EHR) certification, the Office of the National Coordinator (ONC) for Health Information Technology requires that vendors test specific capabilities of EHRs with clinical end-users and report their usability testing process - including the test scenarios used - along with the results. The ONC outlines basic expectations for usability testing, but there is little guidance in usability texts or scientific literature on how to develop usability scenarios for healthcare applications. The objective of this article is to outline key factors to consider when developing usability scenarios and tasks to evaluate computer-interface based health information technologies. To achieve this goal, we draw upon a decade of our experience conducting usability tests with a variety of healthcare applications and a wide range of end-users, to include healthcare professionals as well as patients. We discuss 10 key factors that influence scenario development: objectives of usability testing; roles of end-user(s); target performance goals; evaluation time constraints; clinical focus; fidelity; scenario-related bias and confounders; embedded probes; minimize risks to end-users; and healthcare related outcome measures. For each factor, we present an illustrative example. This article is intended to aid usability researchers and practitioners in their efforts to advance health information technologies. The article provides broad guidance on usability scenario development and can be applied to a wide range of clinical information systems and applications. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Concluding comments: maximizing good patient care and minimizing potential liability when considering complementary and alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Joan; Harrison, Christine; Vohra, Sunita

    2011-11-01

    Our goal for this supplemental issue of Pediatrics was to consider what practitioners, parents, patients, institutions, and policy-makers need to take into account to make good decisions about using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to treat children and to develop guidelines for appropriate use. We began by explaining underlying concepts and principles in ethical, legal, and clinical reasoning and then used case scenarios to explore how they apply and identify gaps that remain in practice and policy. In this concluding article, we review our major findings, summarize our recommendations, and suggest further research. We focus on several key areas: practitioner and patient/parent relationships; decision-making; dispute resolution; standards of practice; hospital/health facility policies; patient safety; education; and research. Ethical principles, standards, and rules applicable when making decisions about conventional care for children apply to decision-making about CAM as well. The same is true of legal reasoning. Although CAM use has seldom led to litigation, general legal principles relied on in cases involving conventional medical care provide the starting point for analysis. Similarly, with respect to clinical decision-making, clinicians are guided by clinical judgment and the best interests of their patient. Whether a therapy is CAM or conventional, clinicians must weigh the relative risks and benefits of therapeutic options and take into account their patient's values, beliefs, and preferences. Consequently, many of our observations apply to conventional and CAM care and to both adult and pediatric patients.

  19. Age-dependent reliability model considering effects of maintenance and working conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, Sebastian; Sanchez, Ana; Serradell, Vicente

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays, there is some doubt about building new nuclear power plants (NPPs). Instead, there is a growing interest in analyzing the possibility to extend current NPP operation, where life management programs play an important role. The evolution of the NPP safety depends on the evolution of the reliability of its safety components, which, in turn, is a function of their age along the NPP operational life. In this paper, a new age-dependent reliability model is presented, which includes parameters related to surveillance and maintenance effectiveness and working conditions of the equipment, both environmental and operational. This model may be used to support NPP life management and life extension programs, by improving or optimizing surveillance and maintenance tasks using risk and cost models based on such an age-dependent reliability model. The results of the sensitivity study in the example application show that the selection of the most appropriate maintenance strategy would directly depend on the previous parameters. Then, very important differences are expected to appear under certain circumstances, particularly, in comparison with other models that do not consider maintenance effectiveness and working conditions simultaneously

  20. Designing airport checked-baggage-screening strategies considering system capability and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Qianmei; Sahin, Hande; Kapur, Kailash C.

    2009-01-01

    Emerging image-based technologies are critical components of airport security for screening checked baggage. Since these new technologies differ widely in cost and accuracy, a comprehensive mathematical framework should be developed for selecting technology or combination of technologies for efficient 100% baggage screening. This paper addresses the problem of setting threshold values of these screening technologies and determining the optimal combination of technologies in a two-level screening system by considering system capability and human reliability. Probability and optimization techniques are used to quantify and evaluate the cost- and risk-effectiveness of various deployment configurations, which is captured by using a system life-cycle cost model that incorporates the deployment cost, operating cost, and costs associated with system decisions. Two system decision rules are studied for a two-level screening system. For each decision rule, two different optimization approaches are formulated and investigated from practitioner's perspective. Numerical examples for different decision rules, optimization approaches and system arrangements are demonstrated