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Sample records for risk substantial loss

  1. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-08-19

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. Heat stress causes substantial labour productivity loss in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Kerstin K.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Oppermann, Elspeth; Kjellstrom, Tord; Garnett, Stephen T.

    2015-07-01

    Heat stress at the workplace is an occupational health hazard that reduces labour productivity. Assessment of productivity loss resulting from climate change has so far been based on physiological models of heat exposure. These models suggest productivity may decrease by 11-27% by 2080 in hot regions such as Asia and the Caribbean, and globally by up to 20% in hot months by 2050. Using an approach derived from health economics, we describe self-reported estimates of work absenteeism and reductions in work performance caused by heat in Australia during 2013/2014. We found that the annual costs were US$655 per person across a representative sample of 1,726 employed Australians. This represents an annual economic burden of around US$6.2 billion (95% CI: 5.2-7.3 billion) for the Australian workforce. This amounts to 0.33 to 0.47% of Australia’s GDP. Although this was a period when many Australians experienced what is at present considered exceptional heat, our results suggest that adaptation measures to reduce heat effects should be adopted widely if severe economic impacts from labour productivity loss are to be avoided if heat waves become as frequent as predicted.

  3. Substantial Loss of Conserved and Gain of Novel MicroRNA Families in Flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, Bastian; Worren, Merete Molton; Hahn, Christoph; Hovig, Eivind; Bachmann, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies on microRNA (miRNA) evolution focused mainly on the comparison of miRNA complements between animal clades. However, evolution of miRNAs within such groups is poorly explored despite the availability of comparable data that in some cases lack only a few key taxa. For flatworms (Platyhelminthes), miRNA complements are available for some free-living flatworms and all major parasitic lineages, except for the Monogenea. We present the miRNA complement of the monogenean flatworm Gyrodactylus salaris that facilitates a comprehensive analysis of miRNA evolution in Platyhelminthes. Using the newly designed bioinformatics pipeline miRCandRef, the miRNA complement was disentangled from next-generation sequencing of small RNAs and genomic DNA without a priori genome assembly. It consists of 39 miRNA hairpin loci of conserved miRNA families, and 22 novel miRNAs. A comparison with the miRNA complements of Schmidtea mediterranea (Turbellaria), Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda), and Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda) reveals a substantial loss of conserved bilaterian, protostomian, and lophotrochozoan miRNAs. Eight of the 46 expected conserved miRNAs were lost in all flatworms, 16 in Neodermata and 24 conserved miRNAs could not be detected in the cestode and the trematode. Such a gradual loss of miRNAs has not been reported before for other animal phyla. Currently, little is known about miRNAs in Platyhelminthes, and for the majority of the lost miRNAs there is no prediction of function. As suggested earlier they might be related to morphological simplifications. The presence and absence of 153 conserved miRNAs was compared for platyhelminths and 32 other metazoan taxa. Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of Platyhelminthes (Turbellaria + Neodermata [Monogenea {Trematoda + Cestoda}]). PMID:24025793

  4. Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Cleveland, Cory C.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange is dominated by tropical forests, where photosynthetic carbon (C) uptake is thought to be phosphorus (P)-limited. In P-poor tropical forests, P may also limit organic matter decomposition and soil C losses. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment to show that P fertilization stimulates soil respiration in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In the early wet season, when soluble organic matter inputs to soil are hig...

  5. Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Cory C; Townsend, Alan R

    2006-07-05

    Terrestrial biosphere-atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO(2)) exchange is dominated by tropical forests, where photosynthetic carbon (C) uptake is thought to be phosphorus (P)-limited. In P-poor tropical forests, P may also limit organic matter decomposition and soil C losses. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment to show that P fertilization stimulates soil respiration in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In the early wet season, when soluble organic matter inputs to soil are high, P fertilization drove large increases in soil respiration. Although the P-stimulated increase in soil respiration was largely confined to the dry-to-wet season transition, the seasonal increase was sufficient to drive an 18% annual increase in CO(2) efflux from the P-fertilized plots. Nitrogen (N) fertilization caused similar responses, and the net increases in soil respiration in response to the additions of N and P approached annual soil C fluxes in mid-latitude forests. Human activities are altering natural patterns of tropical soil N and P availability by land conversion and enhanced atmospheric deposition. Although our data suggest that the mechanisms driving the observed respiratory responses to increased N and P may be different, the large CO(2) losses stimulated by N and P fertilization suggest that knowledge of such patterns and their effects on soil CO(2) efflux is critical for understanding the role of tropical forests in a rapidly changing global C cycle.

  6. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  7. Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  8. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy achieves substantial weight loss in an adolescent girl with morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, H K-H; Muensterer, O; Keller, A; Körner, A; Blueher, S; Merkle, R; Kiess, W

    2008-02-01

    The European guidelines for bariatric surgery clearly define criteria for operating children with morbid obesity. However the appropriate technique for this age-group has not been identified yet. So far gastric banding and Roux-Y bypass represent the standards, but they demand life-long tolerance of either an artificial device or significant malabsorption. Although laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) demands neither, it has not been advocated for this age-group as a stand-alone technique. We report the outcome and the rationale for this approach in a 16-year-old girl with morbid obesity. The patient had been in an intensive weight loss programme for several years, but within the last 12 months her body weight had increased again dramatically. At referral she presented with a body mass index (BMI) of 43.1 kg/m(2) (height 169 cm, preoperative weight 121 kg) and suffered from co-morbidities as features of a developing metabolic-vascular syndrome such as dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension. Our obesity team and her parents opted for surgery at that time. The patient underwent LSG with a 5-trocar technique. With a gastroscope protecting the lesser curvature, the stomach was resected from the antrum to the fundus using an EndoGIA stapler. The operative time was 95 minutes, there were no perioperative complications and the patient was extubated immediately. An upper GI contrast study on postoperative day 4 showed a tubular gastric remnant with a volume of about 200 ml. The patient's diet was advanced as tolerated to full oral intake, and she was followed-up regularly in our special obesity outpatient clinic. After 12 months she had lost 36 kg (BMI 29 kg/m(2)) and enjoyed sports and activities with friends again. Laboratory studies ruled out malnutrition or vitamin deficiency. LSG is a safe and effective option for bariatric surgery in obese adolescents. It can be offered as a stand-alone restrictive operation and could be extended to a malabsorptive procedure at any

  9. Predicting risk of substantial weight gain in German adults-a multi-center cohort approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Ursula; Boeing, Heiner; Haftenberger, Marjolein; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Vogt, Susanne; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Nöthlings, Ute; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Greiser, Karin-Halina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Steffen, Annika

    2017-08-01

    A risk-targeted prevention strategy may efficiently utilize limited resources available for prevention of overweight and obesity. Likewise, more efficient intervention trials could be designed if selection of subjects was based on risk. The aim of the study was to develop a risk score predicting substantial weight gain among German adults. We developed the risk score using information on 15 socio-demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors from 32 204 participants of five population-based German cohort studies. Substantial weight gain was defined as gaining ≥10% of weight between baseline and follow-up (>6 years apart). The cases were censored according to the theoretical point in time when the threshold of 10% baseline-based weight gain was crossed assuming linearity of weight gain. Beta coefficients derived from proportional hazards regression were used as weights to compute the risk score as a linear combination of the predictors. Cross-validation was used to evaluate the score's discriminatory accuracy. The cross-validated c index (95% CI) was 0.71 (0.67-0.75). A cutoff value of ≥475 score points yielded a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 63%. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 10.4% and 97.6%, respectively. The proposed risk score may support healthcare providers in decision making and referral and facilitate an efficient selection of subjects into intervention trials. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  10. Predicting risk of substantial weight gain in German adults—a multi-center cohort approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachlechner, Ursula; Boeing, Heiner; Haftenberger, Marjolein; Schienkiewitz, Anja; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Vogt, Susanne; Thorand, Barbara; Peters, Annette; Schipf, Sabine; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Nöthlings, Ute; Neamat-Allah, Jasmine; Greiser, Karin-Halina; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background A risk-targeted prevention strategy may efficiently utilize limited resources available for prevention of overweight and obesity. Likewise, more efficient intervention trials could be designed if selection of subjects was based on risk. The aim of the study was to develop a risk score predicting substantial weight gain among German adults. Methods We developed the risk score using information on 15 socio-demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors from 32 204 participants of five population-based German cohort studies. Substantial weight gain was defined as gaining ≥10% of weight between baseline and follow-up (>6 years apart). The cases were censored according to the theoretical point in time when the threshold of 10% baseline-based weight gain was crossed assuming linearity of weight gain. Beta coefficients derived from proportional hazards regression were used as weights to compute the risk score as a linear combination of the predictors. Cross-validation was used to evaluate the score’s discriminatory accuracy. Results The cross-validated c index (95% CI) was 0.71 (0.67–0.75). A cutoff value of ≥475 score points yielded a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 63%. The corresponding positive and negative predictive values were 10.4% and 97.6%, respectively. Conclusions The proposed risk score may support healthcare providers in decision making and referral and facilitate an efficient selection of subjects into intervention trials. PMID:28013243

  11. Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Proportional Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of drought hazard economic loss as proportions of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per...

  12. Measuring Risk When Expected Losses Are Unbounded

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Balbás

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to introduce coherent risk measures for risks with infinite expectation, such as those characterized by some Pareto distributions. Extensions of the conditional value at risk, the weighted conditional value at risk and other examples are given. Actuarial applications are analyzed, such as extensions of the expected value premium principle when expected losses are unbounded.

  13. Risk factors for hearing loss in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Maharani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background An estimated 6 of 1,000 children with live births suffer from permanent hearing loss at birth or the neonatal period. At least 90% of cases occur in developing countries. Hearing loss should be diagnosed as early as possible so that intervention can be done before the age of 6 months. Objective To determine risk factors for hearing loss in neonates. Methods We performed a case-control study involving 100 neonates with and without hearing loss who were born at Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar from November 2012 to February 2013. Subjects were consisted of 2 groups, those with hearing loss (case group of 50 subjects and without hearing loss (control group of 50 subjects. The groups were matched for gender and birth weight. We assessed the following risk factors for hearing loss: severe neonatal asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, history of aminoglycoside therapy, and mechanical ventilation by Chi-square analysis. The results were presented as odds ratio and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results Seventy percent of neonates with hearing loss had history of aminoglycoside therapy. Multivariable analysis revealed that aminoglycoside therapy of 14 days or more was a significant risk factor for hearing loss (OR 2.7; 95%CI 1.1 to 6.8; P=0.040. There were no statistically significant associations between hearing loss and severe asphyxia, hyperbilirubinemia, meningitis, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusion Aminoglycoside therapy for >=14 days was identified as a risk factor for hearing loss in neonates.

  14. THE RISK FACTORS FOR INITIAL REPRODUCTIVE LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Игоревна Лебедева

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion. Mixed somatic and gynecological pathology, abnormalities in hemostasis, combination of inherited and acquired thrombogenic risk factors dominates in women with initial reproductive loss, though only 37,3 % such pregnancies have favorable outcome.

  15. Pediatric chronic pancreatitis is associated with genetic risk factors and substantial disease burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, Sarah Jane; Bellin, Melena; Husain, Sohail Z; Ahuja, Monika; Barth, Bradley; Davis, Heather; Durie, Peter R; Fishman, Douglas S; Freedman, Steven D; Gariepy, Cheryl E; Giefer, Matthew J; Gonska, Tanja; Heyman, Melvin B; Himes, Ryan; Kumar, Soma; Morinville, Veronique D; Lowe, Mark E; Nuehring, Neil E; Ooi, Chee Y; Pohl, John F; Troendle, David; Werlin, Steven L; Wilschanski, Michael; Yen, Elizabeth; Uc, Aliye

    2015-04-01

    To determine the clinical presentation, diagnostic variables, risk factors, and disease burden in children with chronic pancreatitis. We performed a cross-sectional study of data from the International Study Group of Pediatric Pancreatitis: In Search for a Cure, a registry of children with acute recurrent pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Between-group differences were compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Among 170 subjects in the registry, 76 (45%) had chronic pancreatitis; 57% were female, 80% were white; median age at diagnosis was 9.9 years. Pancreatitis-predisposing genetic mutations were identified in 51 (67%) and obstructive risk factors in 25 (33%). Toxic/metabolic and autoimmune factors were uncommon. Imaging demonstrated ductal abnormalities and pancreatic atrophy more commonly than calcifications. Fifty-nine (77%) reported abdominal pain within the past year; pain was reported as constant and receiving narcotics in 28%. Children with chronic pancreatitis reported a median of 3 emergency department visits and 2 hospitalizations in the last year. Forty-seven subjects (70%) missed 1 day of school in the past month as the result of chronic pancreatitis; 26 (34%) missed 3 or more days. Children reporting constant pain were more likely to miss school (P = .002), visit the emergency department (P = .01), and experience hospitalizations (P = .03) compared with children with episodic pain. Thirty-three children (43%) underwent therapeutic endoscopic retrograde pancreatography; one or more pancreatic surgeries were performed in 30 (39%). Chronic pancreatitis occurs at a young age with distinct clinical features. Genetic and obstructive risk factors are common, and disease burden is substantial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk assessment methodologies for predicting phosphorus losses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoumans, O.F.; Chardon, W.J.

    2003-01-01

    Risk assessment parameters are needed to assess the contribution of phosphorus (P) losses from soil to surface water, and the effectiveness of nutrient and land management strategies for the reduction of P loss. These parameters need to take into account the large temporal and spatial variation in P

  17. Risk Of Loss Of Productivity In Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafi Assiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In every organization there exist some unavoidable cost when running any business. However these costs can be minimized by managing the factors that contribute to increased business cost and finding ways to prevent risks before they occur. This paper examines one of these factors which is loss of productivity in the workplace. The paper examines the risks of loss of productivity what causes these risks and in what ways will the business be affected by them. This paper also present the various ways a business can manage the risks by providing ways on how the business can prepare for any incidents with regards to the risks. And because its impossible to manage anything that you cant measure ways in which productivity can be measured have been addressed. Finally the paper addresses ways in which the business can improve its workplace productivity to achieve the business goals and ensure continuity of the business.

  18. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A; Mehta, C Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R; Golub, Elizabeth T; Fischl, Margaret A; Adimora, Adaora A

    2017-02-20

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9-27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0-19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant.

  19. More than 30 per cent energy savings possible with LEDs in gerbera : substantial energy savings and little loss in production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helm, van der F.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    By installing LED-lighting and limiting it to 80 instead of 100 μmol gerbera growers can save 30 per cent on energy without any great loss in production, according to research. Light integration and interlighting don’t yet deliver any savings.

  20. Risk factors for islet loss during culture prior to transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kin, Tatsuya; Senior, Peter; O'Gorman, Doug; Richer, Brad; Salam, Abdul; Shapiro, Andrew Mark James

    2008-11-01

    Culturing islets can add great flexibility to a clinical islet transplant program. However, a reduction in the islet mass has been frequently observed during culture and its degree varies. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with a significant islet loss during culture. One-hundred and four islet preparations cultured in an attempt to use for transplantation constituted this study. After culture for 20 h (median), islet yield significantly decreased from 363 309 +/- 12 647 to 313 035 +/- 10 862 islet equivalent yield (IE) (mean +/- SE), accompanied by a reduction in packed tissue volume from 3.9 +/- 0.1 to 3.0 +/- 0.1 ml and islet index (IE/islet particle count) from 1.20 +/- 0.04 to 1.05 +/- 0.04. Culture did not markedly alter islet purity or percent of trapped islet. Morphology score and viability were significantly improved after culture. Of 104 islet preparations, 37 suffered a substantial islet loss (> 20%) over culture. Factors significantly associated with risk of islet loss identified by univariate analysis were longer cold ischemia time, two-layer method (TLM) preservation, lower islet purity, and higher islet index. Multivariate analysis revealed that independent predictors of islet loss were higher islet index and the use of TLM. This study provides novel information on the link between donor- isolation factors and islet loss during culture.

  1. Risk management of knowledge loss in nuclear industry organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-07-01

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This publication is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this it is based upon the actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to: develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; provide processes and in conducting risk assessments to determine the potential for loss of critical knowledge caused by the loss of experienced workers; and enable nuclear organizations to utilize this knowledge to improve the skill and competence of new and existing workers In 2004, the IAEA published a report entitled The Nuclear Power Industry's Ageing Workforce: Transfer of Knowledge to the Next Generation (IAEA-TECDOC-1399). That report highlighted some of the knowledge management issues in Member States resulting from the large number of retiring nuclear power plant personnel who had been involved with the commissioning and initial operation of nuclear power plants. This publication complements that report by providing a practical methodology on knowledge loss risk management as one element of an overall strategic approach to workforce management which includes work force planning, recruitment, training, leadership development and knowledge retention

  2. Risk factors for hearing loss in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Vasconcelos Chaves Martins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify risk factors related to sensorineural hearing loss in elderly. Methods: The sample consisted of 60 selected elderly, divided into two groups: the Case Group, composed by 30 individuals, 21 females and 9 males, aged at least 60 years, presenting sensorineural hearing loss, and the Control Group, composed by 30 individuals matched on gender and age, with normal hearing. The patients were submitted to audiological anamnesis and tonal audiometry. The hearing impairment was defined according to average threshold greater than 35dBNA, in the frequencies of 1,000; 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, in the best ear. Results: Statistically significant odds ratios were: a to audiological history: noise exposure and family history of deafness; b to situations involving hearing difficulty: television, church, telephone, silent environment, spatial location of sound, difficulty with voices and noisy environment; c to otologic history: tinnitus, otorrhea and nausea; and d to medical history: visual problems, smoke, alcohol, thyroid problems and kidney disease. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlighted, for sensorineural hearing loss, risk factors related to audiologic, otologic and medical history, and to situations involving hearing difficulty.

  3. Statin non-adherence and residual cardiovascular risk: There is need for substantial improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Maciej; Stulc, Tomas; Dent, Ricardo; Toth, Peter P

    2016-12-15

    Although statin therapy has proven to be the cornerstone for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD), there are many patients for whom long-term therapy remains suboptimal. The aims of this article are to review the current complex issues associated with statin use and to explore when novel treatment approaches should be considered. Statin discontinuation as well as adherence to statin therapy remain two of the greatest challenges for lipidologists. Evidence suggests that between 40 and 75% of patients discontinue their statin therapy within one year after initiation. Furthermore, whilst the reasons for persistence with statin therapy are complex, evidence shows that low-adherence to statins negatively impacts clinical outcomes and residual CV risk remains a major concern. Non-adherence or lack of persistence with long-term statin therapy in real-life may be the main cause of inadequate low density lipoprotein cholesterol lowering with statins. There is a large need for the improvement of the use of statins, which have good safety profiles and are inexpensive. On the other hand, in a non-cost-constrained environment, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors should arguably be used more often in those patients in whom treatment with statins remains unsatisfactory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sample size estimation to substantiate freedom from disease for clustered binary data with a specific risk profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostoulas, P.; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Browne, W. J.

    2013-01-01

    and power when applied to these groups. We propose the use of the variance partition coefficient (VPC), which measures the clustering of infection/disease for individuals with a common risk profile. Sample size estimates are obtained separately for those groups that exhibit markedly different heterogeneity......, thus, optimizing resource allocation. A VPC-based predictive simulation method for sample size estimation to substantiate freedom from disease is presented. To illustrate the benefits of the proposed approach we give two examples with the analysis of data from a risk factor study on Mycobacterium avium...

  5. Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk Factors for Bone Loss Bed Rest and Immobilization: Risk Factors for Bone Loss Like muscle, bone ... complications of pregnancy; and those who are experiencing immobilization of some part of the body because of ...

  6. 48 CFR 32.1010 - Risk of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Risk of loss. 32.1010... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Performance-Based Payments 32.1010 Risk of loss. (a) Under the clause at 52.232... loss occurs in connection with property for which the contractor bears the risk, and the property is...

  7. Early evaluation of patient risk for substantial weight gain during olanzapine treatment for schizophrenia, schizophreniform, or schizoaffective disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardy Thomas A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To make well informed treatment decisions for their patients, clinicians need credible information about potential risk for substantial weight gain. We therefore conducted a post-hoc analysis of clinical trial data, examining early weight gain as a predictor of later substantial weight gain. Methods Data from 669 (Study 1 and 102 (Study 2 olanzapine-treated patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizophreniform, or schizoaffective disorder were analyzed to identify and validate weight gain cut-offs at Weeks 1–4 that were predictive of substantial weight gain (defined as an increase of ≥ 5, 7, 10 kg or 7% of baseline weight after approximately 30 weeks of treatment. Baseline characteristics alone, baseline characteristics plus weight change from baseline to Weeks 1, 2, 3 or 4, and weight change from baseline to Weeks 1, 2, 3, or 4 alone were evaluated as predictors of substantial weight gain. Similar analyses were performed to determine BMI increase cut-offs at Weeks 1–4 of treatment that were predictive of substantial increase in BMI (1, 2 or 3 kg/m2 increase from baseline. Results At Weeks 1 and 2, predictions based on early weight gain plus baseline characteristics were more robust than those based on early weight gain alone. However, by Weeks 3 and 4, there was little difference between the operating characteristics associated with these two sets of predictors. The positive predictive values ranged from 30.1% to 73.5%, while the negative predictive values ranged from 58.1% to 89.0%. Predictions based on early BMI increase plus baseline characteristics were not uniformly more robust at any time compared to those based on early BMI increase alone. The positive predictive values ranged from 38.3% to 83.5%, while negative predictive values ranged from 42.1% to 84.7%. For analyses of both early weight gain and early BMI increase, results for the validation dataset were similar to those observed in the primary dataset

  8. Insurance loss coverage under restricted risk classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Mingjie; Radfall Charitable Trust

    2017-01-01

    Insurers hope to make profit through pooling policies from a large number of individuals. Unless the risk in question is similar for all potential customers, an insurer is exposed to the possibility of adverse selection by attracting only high-risk individuals. To counter this, insurers have traditionally employed underwriting principles, identifying suitable risk factors to subdivide their potential customers into homogeneous risk groups, based on which risk-related premiums can be charged. ...

  9. Menopause and postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curhan, Sharon G; Eliassen, A Heather; Eavey, Roland D; Wang, Molin; Lin, Brian M; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-09-01

    Menopause may be a risk factor for hearing loss, and postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) has been proposed to slow hearing decline; however, there are no large prospective studies. We prospectively examined the independent relations between menopause and postmenopausal HT and risk of self-reported hearing loss. Prospective cohort study among 80,972 women in the Nurses' Health Study II, baseline age 27 to 44 years, followed from 1991 to 2013. Baseline and updated information was obtained from detailed validated biennial questionnaires. Cox proportional-hazards regression models were used to examine independent associations between menopausal status and postmenopausal HT and risk of hearing loss. After 1,410,928 person-years of follow-up, 18,558 cases of hearing loss were reported. There was no significant overall association between menopausal status, natural or surgical, and risk of hearing loss. Older age at natural menopause was associated with higher risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of hearing loss among women who underwent natural menopause at age 50+ years compared with those aged less than 50 years was 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03, 1.17). Among postmenopausal women, oral HT (estrogen therapy or estrogen plus progestogen therapy) was associated with higher risk of hearing loss, and longer duration of use was associated with higher risk (P trend menopause and longer duration of postmenopausal HT are associated with higher risk of hearing loss.

  10. Hypertension: New perspective on its definition and clinical management by bedtime therapy substantially reduces cardiovascular disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio; Smolensky, Michael H

    2018-05-01

    Diagnosis of hypertension-elevated blood pressure (BP) associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk-and its management for decades have been based primarily on single time-of-day office BP measurements (OBPM) assumed representative of systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) during the entire 24-hours span. Around-the-clock ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), however, reveals BP undergoes 24-hours patterning characterized in normotensives and uncomplicated hypertensives by striking morning-time rise, 2 daytime peaks-one ~2-3 hours after awakening and the other early evening, small midafternoon nadir and 10-20% decline (BP dipping) in the asleep BP mean relative to the wake-time BP mean. A growing number of outcome trials substantiate correlation between BP and target organ damage, vascular and other risks is greater for the ABPM-derived asleep BP mean, independent and stronger predictor of CVD risk, than daytime OBPM or ABPM-derived awake BP. Additionally, bedtime hypertension chronotherapy, that is, ingestion of ≥1 conventional hypertension medications at bedtime to achieve efficient attenuation of asleep BP, better reduces total CVD events by 61% and major events (CVD death, myocardial infarction, ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke) by 67%-even in more vulnerable chronic kidney disease, diabetes and resistant hypertension patients-than customary on-awaking therapy that targets wake-time BP. Such findings of around-the-clock ABPM and bedtime hypertension outcome trials, consistently indicating greater importance of asleep BP than daytime OBPM or ambulatory awake BP, call for a new definition of true arterial hypertension plus modern approaches for its diagnosis and management. © 2018 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  11. Loss Database Architecture for Disaster Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    RIOS DIAZ FRANCISCO; MARIN FERRER MONTSERRAT

    2018-01-01

    The reformed Union civil protection legislation (Decision on a Union Civil Protection Mechanism), which entered into force on 1 January 2014, is paving the way for more resilient communities by including key actions related to disaster prevention such as developing national risk assessments and the refinement of risk management planning. Under the Decision, Member States agreed to “develop risk assessments at national or appropriate sub- national level and make available to the Commission a s...

  12. Emergent risk factors associated with eyeball loss and ambulatory vision loss after globe injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun Lee, Seung; Ahn, Jae Kyoun

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with eyeball loss and ambulatory vision loss on emergent examination of patients with ocular trauma. We reviewed the medical records of 1,875 patients hospitalized in a single tertiary referral center between January 2003 and December 2007. Emergent examinations included a history of trauma, elapsed time between injury and hospital arrival, visible intraocular tissues, and initial visual acuity (VA) using a penlight. The main outcome measures were ocular survival and ambulatory vision survival (>20/200) at 1 year after trauma using univariate and multivariate regression analysis. The ocular trauma scores were significantly higher in open globe injuries than in closed globe injuries (p eyeball loss. Elapsed time more than 12 hours and visible intraocular tissues were the significant risk factors associated with ambulatory vision loss. The most powerful predictor of eyeball loss and ambulatory vision loss was eyeball rupture. In closed globe injuries, there were no significant risk factors of eyeball loss, whereas initial vision less than LP and the presence of relative afferent pupillary defect were the significant risk factors associated with ambulatory vision loss. An initial VA less than LP using a penlight, a history of golf ball injury, and elapsed time more than 12 hours between ocular trauma and hospital arrival were associated with eyeball loss and ambulatory vision loss. Physicians should bear these factors in mind so that they can more effectively counsel patients with such injuries.

  13. Flood risk and insurance loss potential in the Thames Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, J.; Horn, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Thames Gateway, currently Europe's largest regeneration project, is an area of redevelopment located in the South East of England, with Government plans to create up to 160,000 new homes and 180,000 new jobs by 2016. Although the new development is intended to contribute £12bn annually to the economy, the potential flood risk is high, with much of the area situated on Thames tidal floodplain and vulnerable to both storm surges and peak river flows. This poses significant hazard to those inhabiting the area and has raised concern amongst the UK insurance industry, who would be liable for significant financial claims if a large flood event were to occur, particularly with respect to the number of new homes and businesses being built in flood risk areas. Flood risk and the potential damage to both lives and assets in vulnerable areas have gained substantial recognition, in light of recent flooding events, from both governmental agencies and in the public's awareness of flood hazard. This has resulted in a change in UK policy with planning policy for flood risk (PPS25, Planning Policy Statement 25) adopting a more strategic approach to development, as well as a new Flooding and Water Bill which is due for consultation in 2009. The Government and the Association of British Insurers, who represent the UK insurance industry, have also recently changed their Statement of Principles which guides provision of flood insurance in the future. This PhD research project aims to quantify flood risk in the Thames Gateway area with a view to evaluating the insurance loss potential under different insurance and planning scenarios. Using current sources of inundation extent, and incorporating varying insurance penetration rates and degrees of adoption of planning policy and guidance, it focuses on estimating flood risk under these different scenarios. This presentation introduces the development of the project and the theory and methodology which will be used to address the

  14. 75 FR 58468 - Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Terrorism Risk Insurance Program; Program Loss Reporting AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Office, Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for... 1995, Public Law 104-13 (44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the Terrorism Risk Insurance Program...

  15. Length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect the risk of early menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Katherine S.; Bennett, Claire E.; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Murray, Anna

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is the length of FMR1 repeat alleles within the normal range associated with the risk of early menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER The length of repeat alleles within the normal range does not substantially affect risk of early menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There is a strong, well-established relationship between length of premutation FMR1 alleles and age at menopause, suggesting that this relationship could continue into the normal range. Within the normal range, there is conflicting evidence; differences in ovarian reserve have been identified with FMR1 repeat allele length, but a recent population-based study did not find any association with age at menopause as a quantitative trait. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION We analysed cross-sectional baseline survey data collected at recruitment from 2004 to 2010 from a population-based, prospective epidemiological cohort study of >110 000 women to investigate whether repeat allele length was associated with early menopause. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHOD We included 4333 women from the Breakthrough Generations Study (BGS), of whom 2118 were early menopause cases (menopause under 46 years) and 2215 were controls. We analysed the relationship between length of FMR1 alleles and early menopause using logistic regression with allele length as continuous and categorical variables. We also conducted analyses with the outcome age at menopause as a quantitative trait as well as appropriate sensitivity and exploratory analyses. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE There was no association of the shorter or longer FMR1 allele or their combined genotype with the clinically relevant end point of early menopause in our main analysis. Likewise, there were no associations with age at menopause as a quantitative trait in our secondary analysis. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Women with homozygous alleles in the normal range may have undetected FMR1 premutation alleles, although there was no evidence to suggest this. We

  16. Assessing and Managing Knowledge Loss Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermarkar, Fred

    2013-01-01

    Summary: • Sustaining Design Basis Knowledge is a strategic need for long term safe and reliable operation; • Utilities need to manage knowledge in a systematic manner, based on identifying areas of risk, developing and implementing plans to mitigate the risk, and exercising oversight of those plans; • Approaches will differ depending upon organizational functions and needs; • Individual utility efforts are not sufficient: they need to be complemented by a larger scale infrastructure in the academic and research communities; • The Canadian nuclear industry has been collaborating to actively support and expand the academic infrastructure to sustain design basis knowledge; • KM initiatives require constant nurturing for sustainability; • Internationally recognized guidance on Characteristics, Attributes and Best Practices for governmental, industrial and academic contributions to KM is important to sustainability

  17. Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dominique S; Fu, Zhuxuan; Shi, Jian; Chung, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease, which includes gingivitis and periodontitis, is highly prevalent in adults and disease severity increases with age. The relationship between periodontal disease and oral cancer has been examined for several decades, but there is increasing interest in the link between periodontal disease and overall cancer risk, with systemic inflammation serving as the main focus for biological plausibility. Numerous case-control studies have addressed the role of oral health in head and neck cancer, and several cohort studies have examined associations with other types of cancers over the past decade. For this review, we included studies that were identified from either 11 published reviews on this topic or an updated literature search on PubMed (between 2011 and July 2016). A total of 50 studies from 46 publications were included in this review. Meta-analyses were conducted on cohort and case-control studies separately when at least 4 studies could be included to determine summary estimates of the risk of cancer in relation to 1) periodontal disease or 2) tooth number (a surrogate marker of periodontal disease) with adjustment for smoking. Existing data provide support for a positive association between periodontal disease and risk of oral, lung, and pancreatic cancers; however, additional prospective studies are needed to better inform on the strength of these associations and to determine whether other cancers are associated with periodontal disease. Future studies should include sufficiently large sample sizes, improved measurements for periodontal disease, and thorough adjustment for smoking and other risk factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Risk Aversion, Loss Aversion, and the Demand for Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Eeckhoudt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze insurance demand when the utility function depends both upon final wealth and the level of losses or gains relative to a reference point. Besides some comparative statics results, we discuss the links with first-order risk aversion, with the Omega measure, and with a tendency to over-insure modest risks that has been been extensively documented in real insurance markets.

  19. Loss of partner and suicide risks among oldest old

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Jeune, Bernard; Bille-Brahe, Unni

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: while mortality among the oldest old has improved over recent decades, these improvements are not reflected in the suicide mortality of this age group. We do not know the reasons why the suicide mortality is still very high among the oldest old. OBJECTIVE: the aim is to analyse...... the impact that loss of a partner has on the suicide risks of the oldest old (80+) compared to younger age groups. SUBJECTS: the entire Danish population aged 50 during 1994-1998 (n = 1,978,527). METHODS: we applied survival analysis to calculate the changes in relative risk of suicide after a loss by using...... individual-level data. RESULTS: the majority of older persons who commit suicide are widowed, although only a relatively small proportion of the oldest old who commit suicide have experienced a recent loss of partner (men: 18%, women: 6%). In absolute terms, the oldest old men experience the highest increase...

  20. Could there have been substantial declines in sexual risk behavior across sub-Saharan Africa in the mid-1990s?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Susanne F; Abu-Raddad, Laith J

    2014-09-01

    HIV prevalence is decreasing in much of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but the drivers of the decline are subject to much dispute. Using mathematical modeling as a tool for hypothesis generation, we demonstrate how the hypothesis that the drop in prevalence reflects declines in sexual risk behavior is self-consistent. We characterize these potential declines in terms of their scale, duration, and timing, and theorize on how small changes in sexual behavior at the individual-level could have driven large declines in HIV prevalence. A population-level deterministic compartmental model was constructed to describe the HIV epidemics in 24 countries in SSA with sufficient trend data. The model was parameterized by national HIV prevalence and HIV natural history and transmission data. The temporal evolution of sexual risk behavior was characterized using established tools and uncertainty and sensitivity analyses on the results were conducted. Declines in the scale of sexual risk behavior between 31.8% (Botswana) and 89.3% (Liberia) can explain the declining HIV prevalence across countries. The average decline across countries was 68.9%. The transition in sexual risk behavior lasted between 2.7 (Botswana) and 16.6 (Gabon) years with an average of 8.2 years. The turning point year of the transition occurred between 1993 (Burundi) and 2001 (Namibia), but clustered around 1995 for most countries. The uncertainty and sensitivity analyses affirmed our model predictions. The hypothesis that HIV prevalence declines in SSA have been driven by declines in sexual risk behavior is self-consistent and provides a convincing narrative for an evolving HIV epidemiology in this region. The hypothesized declines must have been remarkable in their intensity, rapidity, and synchronicity to explain the temporal trends in HIV prevalence. These findings provide contextual support for the hypothesis that changes in sexual behavior that materialized in the 1990s are a dominant driver of the recent

  1. Risk of hearing loss in small for gestational age neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melani Rakhmi Mantu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Small for gestational age (SGA neonates often have intrauterine growth restriction due to placental insufficiency and chronic hypoxia. These conditions may cause developmental impairment, psychosocial disabilities, or metabolic dysfunction in later life. Previous studies have shown greater incidence of speech and language disabilities, learning impairment, and neuromotor dysfunction in term SGA infants compared to term appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants. Objective To compare hearing loss in SGA and AGA neonates using otoocoustic emission (OAE tests and to study correlations between maternal risk factors and hearing loss in SGA neonates. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in St. Borromeus Hospital, Limijati Hospital, and Melinda Hospital in Bandung from February to May 2010. Study subjects consisted of full-term neonates born in these three hospitals. A retrospective medical record review was performed for this study. Statistical analysis was done by multivariable logistic-regression. Results There was a total of 4279 subjects in our study, including 100 SGA neonates and 4179 AGA neonates. We observed a greater percentage of OAE 'refer' (indicating abnormal OAE results in the SGA group compared to the AGA group (P<0.001, Z=13.247. For suhjects with OAE 'refer' results, we also analyzed the correlation to the following maternal risk factors: smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and asthma. We also found significant differences between  those with and without each of the four maternal risk factors studied (P< 0.001. By using multivariant analysis to compare SGA and AGA neonates, we found the odds ratio (OR to he 4.34 (95% CI 2.52 to 7.49, P=0.001, meaning the SGA group had a 4.34 times higher risk of hearing loss than the AGA group. Conclusion SGA neonates had a higher risk of hearing loss than AGA neonates. In addition, maternal smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and asthma significantly correlated to

  2. Could there have been substantial declines in sexual risk behavior across sub-Saharan Africa in the mid-1990s?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne F. Awad

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The hypothesis that HIV prevalence declines in SSA have been driven by declines in sexual risk behavior is self-consistent and provides a convincing narrative for an evolving HIV epidemiology in this region. The hypothesized declines must have been remarkable in their intensity, rapidity, and synchronicity to explain the temporal trends in HIV prevalence. These findings provide contextual support for the hypothesis that changes in sexual behavior that materialized in the 1990s are a dominant driver of the recent decreases in HIV prevalence.

  3. Pandemic risk: how large are the expected losses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Victoria Y; Jamison, Dean T; Summers, Lawrence H

    2018-02-01

    There is an unmet need for greater investment in preparedness against major epidemics and pandemics. The arguments in favour of such investment have been largely based on estimates of the losses in national incomes that might occur as the result of a major epidemic or pandemic. Recently, we extended the estimate to include the valuation of the lives lost as a result of pandemic-related increases in mortality. This produced markedly higher estimates of the full value of loss that might occur as the result of a future pandemic. We parametrized an exceedance probability function for a global influenza pandemic and estimated that the expected number of influenza-pandemic-related deaths is about 720 000 per year. We calculated that the expected annual losses from pandemic risk to be about 500 billion United States dollars - or 0.6% of global income - per year. This estimate falls within - but towards the lower end of - the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's estimates of the value of the losses from global warming, which range from 0.2% to 2% of global income. The estimated percentage of annual national income represented by the expected value of losses varied by country income grouping: from a little over 0.3% in high-income countries to 1.6% in lower-middle-income countries. Most of the losses from influenza pandemics come from rare, severe events.

  4. Mutuality and solidarity: assessing risks and sharing losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkie, D

    1997-01-01

    Mutuality is the principle of private, commercial insurance; individuals enter the pool for sharing losses, and pay according to the best estimate of the risk they bring with them. Solidarity is the sharing of losses with payment according to some other scheme; this is the principle of state social insurance; essential features of solidarity are comprehensiveness and compulsion. Private insurance is subject to the uberrima fides principle, or utmost good faith; each side declares all it knows about the risk. The Disability Discrimination Act requires insurers to justify disability discrimination on the basis of relevant information, acturial, statistical or medical, on which it is reasonable to rely. It could be very damaging to private insurance to abandon uberrima fides. However, although some genetic information is clearly useful to underwriters, other information may be so general as to be of little use. The way in which mortality rates are assessed is also explained. PMID:9304668

  5. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F.; Piro, Anthony L.

    2015-01-01

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M ⊙ (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M ⊙ of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M ⊙ , hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R ⊙

  6. LIGHT CURVES OF CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE WITH SUBSTANTIAL MASS LOSS USING THE NEW OPEN-SOURCE SUPERNOVA EXPLOSION CODE (SNEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozova, Viktoriya; Renzo, Mathieu; Ott, Christian D.; Clausen, Drew; Couch, Sean M.; Ellis, Justin; Roberts, Luke F. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, MC 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Piro, Anthony L., E-mail: morozvs@tapir.caltech.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2015-11-20

    We present the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC), an open-source Lagrangian code for the hydrodynamics and equilibrium-diffusion radiation transport in the expanding envelopes of supernovae. Given a model of a progenitor star, an explosion energy, and an amount and distribution of radioactive nickel, SNEC generates the bolometric light curve, as well as the light curves in different broad bands assuming blackbody emission. As a first application of SNEC, we consider the explosions of a grid of 15 M{sub ⊙} (at zero-age main sequence, ZAMS) stars whose hydrogen envelopes are stripped to different extents and at different points in their evolution. The resulting light curves exhibit plateaus with durations of ∼20–100 days if ≳1.5–2 M{sub ⊙} of hydrogen-rich material is left and no plateau if less hydrogen-rich material is left. If these shorter plateau lengths are not seen for SNe IIP in nature, it suggests that, at least for ZAMS masses ≲20 M{sub ⊙}, hydrogen mass loss occurs as an all or nothing process. This perhaps points to the important role binary interactions play in generating the observed mass-stripped supernovae (i.e., Type Ib/c events). These light curves are also unlike what is typically seen for SNe IIL, arguing that simply varying the amount of mass loss cannot explain these events. The most stripped models begin to show double-peaked light curves similar to what is often seen for SNe IIb, confirming previous work that these supernovae can come from progenitors that have a small amount of hydrogen and a radius of ∼500 R{sub ⊙}.

  7. The risk of pedestrian collisions with peripheral visual field loss

    OpenAIRE

    Peli, Eli; Apfelbaum, Henry; Berson, Eliot L.; Goldstein, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed...

  8. Distortion risk measures for sums of dependent losses | Brahimi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of losses and possible correlations between risk components. Resume. Nous discutons deux approches distinctes, de distortion des mesures de risque de la somme de variables al´eatoires d´ependantes, qui conservent la propri´et´e de coh´erence. La premi`ere, bas´ee sur les esp´erances distordues, agit sur la fonction ...

  9. Risk of hearing loss in small for gestational age neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melani Rakhmi Mantu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Small for gestational age (SGA neonates often have intrauterine growth restriction due to placental insufficiency and chronic hypoxia. These conditions may cause developmental impairment, psychosocial disabilities, or metabolic dysfunction in later life. Previous studies have shown greater incidence of speech and language disabilities, learning impairment, and ncuromotor dysfunction in term SGA infants compared to term appropriate for gestational age (AGA infants. Objective To compare hearing loss in SGA and AGA neonates using otoacoustic emission (OAE tests and to study correlations between maternal risk factors and hearing loss in SGA neonates. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in St. Borromeus Hospital, Limijati Hospital, and Melinda Hospital in Bandung from February to May 2010. Study subjects consisted of full-term neonates born in these three hospitals. A retrospective medical record review was performed for this Study. Statistical analysis was done by multivariable logistic-regression. Results There was a total of 4279 subjects in our study, including 100 SGA neonates and 4179 AGA neonates. We observed a greater percentage of OAE 'refer' (indicating abnormal OAE results in the SGA group compared to the AGA group (P<0.001, Z=1.3.247. For subjects with OAE ,refer' results, we also analyzed the correlation to the following maternal risk factors: smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and asthma. We also found significant differences between those with and without each of the four maternal risk factors studied (P<0.001. By using multivariant analysis to compare SGA and AGA neonates, we found the odds ratio (OR to be 4.34 (95% CI 2.52 to'7.49, P = 0.001, meaning the SGA group had a 4.34 times higher risk of hearing loss than the AGA group. Conclusion SGA neonates had a higher risk of hearing loss than A(3A neonates. In addition, maternal smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and asthma significantly correlated to

  10. Analysis of risk reduction methods for interfacing system LOCAs [loss-of-coolant accidents] at PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozoki, G.; Kohut, P.; Fitzpatrick, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) predicted that Interfacing System Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (ISL) events were significant contributors to risk even though they were calculated to be relatively low frequency events. However, there are substantial uncertainties involved in determining the probability and consequences of the ISL sequences. For example, the assumed valve failure modes, common cause contributions and the location of the break/leak are all uncertain and can significantly influence the predicted risk from ISL events. In order to provide more realistic estimates for the core damage frequencies (CDFs) and a reduction in the magnitude of the uncertainties, a reexamination of ISL scenarios at PWRs has been performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The objective of this study was to investigate the vulnerability of pressurized water reactor designs to ISLs and identify any improvements that could significantly reduce the frequency/risk of these events

  11. Seismic Risk Assessment and Loss Estimation for Tbilisi City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsereteli, Nino; Alania, Victor; Varazanashvili, Otar; Gugeshashvili, Tengiz; Arabidze, Vakhtang; Arevadze, Nika; Tsereteli, Emili; Gaphrindashvili, Giorgi; Gventcadze, Alexander; Goguadze, Nino; Vephkhvadze, Sophio

    2013-04-01

    The proper assessment of seismic risk is of crucial importance for society protection and city sustainable economic development, as it is the essential part to seismic hazard reduction. Estimation of seismic risk and losses is complicated tasks. There is always knowledge deficiency on real seismic hazard, local site effects, inventory on elements at risk, infrastructure vulnerability, especially for developing countries. Lately great efforts was done in the frame of EMME (earthquake Model for Middle East Region) project, where in the work packages WP1, WP2 , WP3 and WP4 where improved gaps related to seismic hazard assessment and vulnerability analysis. Finely in the frame of work package wp5 "City Scenario" additional work to this direction and detail investigation of local site conditions, active fault (3D) beneath Tbilisi were done. For estimation economic losses the algorithm was prepared taking into account obtained inventory. The long term usage of building is very complex. It relates to the reliability and durability of buildings. The long term usage and durability of a building is determined by the concept of depreciation. Depreciation of an entire building is calculated by summing the products of individual construction unit' depreciation rates and the corresponding value of these units within the building. This method of calculation is based on an assumption that depreciation is proportional to the building's (constructions) useful life. We used this methodology to create a matrix, which provides a way to evaluate the depreciation rates of buildings with different type and construction period and to determine their corresponding value. Finally loss was estimated resulting from shaking 10%, 5% and 2% exceedance probability in 50 years. Loss resulting from scenario earthquake (earthquake with possible maximum magnitude) also where estimated.

  12. Risk management of knowledge loss in nuclear industry organizations (Russian edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry and nuclear regulatory authorities will be one of the most critical challenges in the near future. As many nuclear experts around the world are retiring, they are taking with them a substantial amount of knowledge and corporate memory. The loss of such employees who hold knowledge critical to either operations or safety poses a clear internal threat to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear facilities. This publication is intended for senior and middle level managers of nuclear industry operating organizations and provides practical information on knowledge loss risk management. The information provided in this it is based upon the actual experiences of Member State operating organizations and is intended to increase awareness of the need to: develop a strategic approach and action plans to address the potential loss of critical knowledge and skills; provide processes and in conducting risk assessments to determine the potential for loss of critical knowledge caused by the loss of experienced workers; and enable nuclear organizations to utilize this knowledge to improve the skill and competence of new and existing workers In 2004, the IAEA published a report entitled The Nuclear Power Industry's Ageing Workforce: Transfer of Knowledge to the Next Generation (IAEA-TECDOC-1399). That report highlighted some of the knowledge management issues in Member States resulting from the large number of retiring nuclear power plant personnel who had been involved with the commissioning and initial operation of nuclear power plants. This publication complements that report by providing a practical methodology on knowledge loss risk management as one element of an overall strategic approach to workforce management which includes work force planning, recruitment, training, leadership development and knowledge retention

  13. The risk of pedestrian collisions with peripheral visual field loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peli, Eli; Apfelbaum, Henry; Berson, Eliot L; Goldstein, Robert B

    2016-12-01

    Patients with peripheral field loss complain of colliding with other pedestrians in open-space environments such as shopping malls. Field expansion devices (e.g., prisms) can create artificial peripheral islands of vision. We investigated the visual angle at which these islands can be most effective for avoiding pedestrian collisions, by modeling the collision risk density as a function of bearing angle of pedestrians relative to the patient. Pedestrians at all possible locations were assumed to be moving in all directions with equal probability within a reasonable range of walking speeds. The risk density was found to be highly anisotropic. It peaked at ≈45° eccentricity. Increasing pedestrian speed range shifted the risk to higher eccentricities. The risk density is independent of time to collision. The model results were compared to the binocular residual peripheral island locations of 42 patients with forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The natural residual island prevalence also peaked nasally at about 45° but temporally at about 75°. This asymmetry resulted in a complementary coverage of the binocular field of view. Natural residual binocular island eccentricities seem well matched to the collision-risk density function, optimizing detection of other walking pedestrians (nasally) and of faster hazards (temporally). Field expansion prism devices will be most effective if they can create artificial peripheral islands at about 45° eccentricities. The collision risk and residual island findings raise interesting questions about normal visual development.

  14. Knowledge Loss Risk Assessment in Education and Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, Sanda; Varas, Gonzalo Jimenez

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge management is based on the idea that the most valuable resource of some organisation is the knowledge of its people. Organisational performances will depend, among many other things, on how effectively its people can create new knowledge, share knowledge in organisation, and use that knowledge to achieve higher efficiency and the best results. The aim of knowledge management is not necessarily to manage all knowledge, just the knowledge that is most important to the organisation. It is about ensuring that people have the knowledge they need, where and when they need it. Knowledge is derived from information but it is richer and more meaningful than information. In organisational terms, knowledge is generally considered as 'knowing how', or 'applied action'. Organisational knowledge is often classified as explicit and tacit knowledge. Explicit knowledge can be captured and written down in documents or databases. Tacit knowledge is the knowledge that people carry in their heads and can be difficult to access. Tacit knowledge is considered more valuable because it provides context for people, ideas and experiences. Knowledge management is discipline consisting of three components: people, processes and technology. These three components are often compared to the legs of stool- if one is missing, the stool will collapse. However, one component is more important than the others- people. What happens when someone leaves an organisation? Does the organisation feel knowledge loss? According intellectual capital theory organisation will lose not only human capital but also social, structural and relational capital. Determining what happens when these valuable experts leave may help organisation to better understand the impact of knowledge loss and formulate appropriate action in future. Management of knowledge loss is process consisting of three steps: risk assessment, determination of approach for critical knowledge capturing, and monitoring

  15. RISK OF PROFIT LOSS SHARING FINANCING: THE CASE OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernawati Ernawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the risk of profit-and-loss sharing finance in Indonesian Islamic banking. Data used is secondary data obtained from the Financial Services Authority’s 2009-2014 publication. Financing risk is measured by risk return and opportunity cost. Results of the study show that risk return in mudharaba financing is more volatile than that in musharaka as it is potentially driven by agency problems. In all groups of banks, higher incomes are more promising in mudharaba than musharaka; but individually musharaka is more attractive to Islamic Rural Bank groups, and vice versa for the Sharia Bank groups. The one side it is more secure for Islamic banking to allocate funds in musharaka contract, which is an alternative to murabaha. However, musharaka contract is less attractive due to lower potential returns. Although high returns are more promising in mudaraba, this financing mode has higher risk of returns.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v8i1.1793

  16. Quantifying Blood Loss and Transfusion Risk After Primary vs Conversion Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jared M; Webb, Matthew R; Klika, Alison K; Murray, Trevor G; Barsoum, Wael K; Higuera, Carlos A

    2017-06-01

    Primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and conversion THA may result in substantial blood loss, sometimes necessitating transfusion. Despite the complexities of the latter, both are grouped in the same category for quality assessment and reimbursement. This study's purpose was to compare both blood loss and transfusion risk in primary and conversion THA and identify their associated predictors. A total of 1616 patients who underwent primary and conversion THA at a single hospital from 2009-2013 were reviewed (primary THA = 1575; conversion THA = 41). Demographics, comorbidities, and perioperative data were collected from electronic records. Blood loss was calculated using a validated method. Transfusion triggers were based on standardized criteria. Separate multivariable regression models for blood loss and transfusion were performed. Conversion THA patients were younger (P = .002), had lower age-adjusted Charlson scores (P = .006), longer surgeries (P quantified in the present study and showed consistent results between the 2 metrics. The differences between these procedures should be addressed during quality assurance because conversion THA is associated with higher resource utilization, which is important in the allocation of resources and tiered reimbursement strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Loss distribution approach for operational risk capital modelling under Basel II: Combining different data sources for risk estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Shevchenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of operational risk in the banking industry has undergone significant changes over the last decade due to substantial changes in operational risk environment. Globalization, deregulation, the use of complex financial products and changes in information technology have resulted in exposure to new risks very different from market and credit risks. In response, Basel Committee for banking Supervision has developed a regulatory framework, referred to as Basel II, that introduced operational risk category and corresponding capital requirements. Over the past five years, major banks in most parts of the world have received accreditation under the Basel II Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA by adopting the loss distribution approach (LDA despite there being a number of unresolved methodological challenges in its implementation. Different approaches and methods are still under hot debate. In this paper, we review methods proposed in the literature for combining different data sources (internal data, external data and scenario analysis which is one of the regulatory requirement for AMA.

  18. Global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David; Porter, Keith

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat’s demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature.

  19. Parenting and environmental risk : an examination of child loss and maternal involvement among Bofi foragers in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Hillary N; Silverman, Lisa S

    2015-03-01

    The majority of adaptationist models and research related to parenting strategies have focused on extrinsic or population-level risk as predictors of parenting. However, some researchers have called for greater consideration of cultural factors as well as on intracultural variation in parenting. This study uses a biocultural approach to examine intracultural variation in environmental risk and parenting among the Bofi foragers in Central Africa. In particular, we examine 30 mothers' experiences of child loss as a predictor of variation in maternal involvement (proximity, holding, and affection) with their young children. Multivariate and univariate analyses indicate that child loss accounted for substantial variation in maternal behaviors and was predictive of maternal holding and the expression of physical affection. In sum, our findings indicate that intracultural variation in child loss is predictive of maternal involvement with young children and that a biocultural approach is useful in explaining this variation.

  20. 26 CFR 5.1502-45 - Limitation on losses to amount at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on losses to amount at risk. 5.1502... Limitation on losses to amount at risk. (a) In general—(1) Scope. This section applies to a loss of any subsidiary if the common parent's stock meets the stock ownership requirement described in section 465(a)(1...

  1. Decision-making under risk of loss in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelandt, Sophie; Broihanne, Marie-Hélène; Romain, Amélie; Thierry, Bernard; Dufour, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    In human adults, judgment errors are known to often lead to irrational decision-making in risky contexts. While these errors can affect the accuracy of profit evaluation, they may have once enhanced survival in dangerous contexts following a "better be safe than sorry" rule of thumb. Such a rule can be critical for children, and it could develop early on. Here, we investigated the rationality of choices and the possible occurrence of judgment errors in children aged 3 to 9 years when exposed to a risky trade. Children were allocated with a piece of cookie that they could either keep or risk in exchange of the content of one cup among 6, visible in front of them. In the cups, cookies could be of larger, equal or smaller sizes than the initial allocation. Chances of losing or winning were manipulated by presenting different combinations of cookie sizes in the cups (for example 3 large, 2 equal and 1 small cookie). We investigated the rationality of children's response using the theoretical models of Expected Utility Theory (EUT) and Cumulative Prospect Theory. Children aged 3 to 4 years old were unable to discriminate the profitability of exchanging in the different combinations. From 5 years, children were better at maximizing their benefit in each combination, their decisions were negatively induced by the probability of losing, and they exhibited a framing effect, a judgment error found in adults. Confronting data to the EUT indicated that children aged over 5 were risk-seekers but also revealed inconsistencies in their choices. According to a complementary model, the Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT), they exhibited loss aversion, a pattern also found in adults. These findings confirm that adult-like judgment errors occur in children, which suggests that they possess a survival value.

  2. Decision-making under risk of loss in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Steelandt

    Full Text Available In human adults, judgment errors are known to often lead to irrational decision-making in risky contexts. While these errors can affect the accuracy of profit evaluation, they may have once enhanced survival in dangerous contexts following a "better be safe than sorry" rule of thumb. Such a rule can be critical for children, and it could develop early on. Here, we investigated the rationality of choices and the possible occurrence of judgment errors in children aged 3 to 9 years when exposed to a risky trade. Children were allocated with a piece of cookie that they could either keep or risk in exchange of the content of one cup among 6, visible in front of them. In the cups, cookies could be of larger, equal or smaller sizes than the initial allocation. Chances of losing or winning were manipulated by presenting different combinations of cookie sizes in the cups (for example 3 large, 2 equal and 1 small cookie. We investigated the rationality of children's response using the theoretical models of Expected Utility Theory (EUT and Cumulative Prospect Theory. Children aged 3 to 4 years old were unable to discriminate the profitability of exchanging in the different combinations. From 5 years, children were better at maximizing their benefit in each combination, their decisions were negatively induced by the probability of losing, and they exhibited a framing effect, a judgment error found in adults. Confronting data to the EUT indicated that children aged over 5 were risk-seekers but also revealed inconsistencies in their choices. According to a complementary model, the Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT, they exhibited loss aversion, a pattern also found in adults. These findings confirm that adult-like judgment errors occur in children, which suggests that they possess a survival value.

  3. Decision-Making under Risk of Loss in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelandt, Sophie; Broihanne, Marie-Hélène; Romain, Amélie; Thierry, Bernard; Dufour, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    In human adults, judgment errors are known to often lead to irrational decision-making in risky contexts. While these errors can affect the accuracy of profit evaluation, they may have once enhanced survival in dangerous contexts following a “better be safe than sorry” rule of thumb. Such a rule can be critical for children, and it could develop early on. Here, we investigated the rationality of choices and the possible occurrence of judgment errors in children aged 3 to 9 years when exposed to a risky trade. Children were allocated with a piece of cookie that they could either keep or risk in exchange of the content of one cup among 6, visible in front of them. In the cups, cookies could be of larger, equal or smaller sizes than the initial allocation. Chances of losing or winning were manipulated by presenting different combinations of cookie sizes in the cups (for example 3 large, 2 equal and 1 small cookie). We investigated the rationality of children's response using the theoretical models of Expected Utility Theory (EUT) and Cumulative Prospect Theory. Children aged 3 to 4 years old were unable to discriminate the profitability of exchanging in the different combinations. From 5 years, children were better at maximizing their benefit in each combination, their decisions were negatively induced by the probability of losing, and they exhibited a framing effect, a judgment error found in adults. Confronting data to the EUT indicated that children aged over 5 were risk-seekers but also revealed inconsistencies in their choices. According to a complementary model, the Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT), they exhibited loss aversion, a pattern also found in adults. These findings confirm that adult-like judgment errors occur in children, which suggests that they possess a survival value. PMID:23349682

  4. Reef fishes in biodiversity hotspots are at greatest risk from loss of coral species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally J Holbrook

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems are under a variety of threats from global change and anthropogenic disturbances that are reducing the number and type of coral species on reefs. Coral reefs support upwards of one third of all marine species of fish, so the loss of coral habitat may have substantial consequences to local fish diversity. We posit that the effects of habitat degradation will be most severe in coral regions with highest biodiversity of fishes due to greater specialization by fishes for particular coral habitats. Our novel approach to this important but untested hypothesis was to conduct the same field experiment at three geographic locations across the Indo-Pacific biodiversity gradient (Papua New Guinea; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; French Polynesia. Specifically, we experimentally explored whether the response of local fish communities to identical changes in diversity of habitat-providing corals was independent of the size of the regional species pool of fishes. We found that the proportional reduction (sensitivity in fish biodiversity to loss of coral diversity was greater for regions with larger background species pools, reflecting variation in the degree of habitat specialization of fishes across the Indo-Pacific diversity gradient. This result implies that habitat-associated fish in diversity hotspots are at greater risk of local extinction to a given loss of habitat diversity compared to regions with lower species richness. This mechanism, related to the positive relationship between habitat specialization and regional biodiversity, and the elevated extinction risk this poses for biodiversity hotspots, may apply to species in other types of ecosystems.

  5. Reef fishes in biodiversity hotspots are at greatest risk from loss of coral species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Messmer, Vanessa; Brooks, Andrew J; Srinivasan, Maya; Munday, Philip L; Jones, Geoffrey P

    2015-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are under a variety of threats from global change and anthropogenic disturbances that are reducing the number and type of coral species on reefs. Coral reefs support upwards of one third of all marine species of fish, so the loss of coral habitat may have substantial consequences to local fish diversity. We posit that the effects of habitat degradation will be most severe in coral regions with highest biodiversity of fishes due to greater specialization by fishes for particular coral habitats. Our novel approach to this important but untested hypothesis was to conduct the same field experiment at three geographic locations across the Indo-Pacific biodiversity gradient (Papua New Guinea; Great Barrier Reef, Australia; French Polynesia). Specifically, we experimentally explored whether the response of local fish communities to identical changes in diversity of habitat-providing corals was independent of the size of the regional species pool of fishes. We found that the proportional reduction (sensitivity) in fish biodiversity to loss of coral diversity was greater for regions with larger background species pools, reflecting variation in the degree of habitat specialization of fishes across the Indo-Pacific diversity gradient. This result implies that habitat-associated fish in diversity hotspots are at greater risk of local extinction to a given loss of habitat diversity compared to regions with lower species richness. This mechanism, related to the positive relationship between habitat specialization and regional biodiversity, and the elevated extinction risk this poses for biodiversity hotspots, may apply to species in other types of ecosystems.

  6. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  7. 14 CFR 1274.916 - Liability and risk of loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... programs or projects that are subject to Section 431 of Public Law 105-276, which addresses insurance for... related entities, whether such injury, death, damage or loss arises through negligence or otherwise...

  8. Reducing security risk using data loss prevention technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeskow, John

    2015-11-01

    Data loss/leakage protection (DLP) technology seeks to improve data security by answering three fundamental questions: > Where are confidential data stored? > Who is accessing the information? > How are data being handled?

  9. Knowledge loss risk assessment in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, Minodora; Constantin, Marin; Balaceanu, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method developed in Institute for Nuclear Research Pitesti for knowledge loss risk assessment in nuclear sector, in order to obtain a risk map at departmental and organizational level, by analyzing each position/people. The method starts from the classical method for knowledge loss risk assessment but takes into account the INR characteristics, the particularities of Romanian nuclear market and the difficulties of the classical method to estimate correctly the risk at the job level. A short description of the classical method of knowledge loss risk assessment, the improved method by introducing five new parameters for risk factor of vacant job are presented, how this last method has been applied in some departments from INR Pitesti and the preliminary risk matrix for knowledge loss at organization level is discussed. (authors)

  10. A bayesian nework based risk model for volume loss in soft soils in mechanized bored tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Volume loss is one of the most important risks when boring a tunnel. This is particularly true when a tunnel is being constructed in soft soils. The risk of excessive volume loss, if materialised can lead to large consequences such as damage in buildings on the surface. This paper describes the

  11. On the descriptive value of loss aversion in decisions under risk: Six clarifications

    OpenAIRE

    Eyal Ert; Ido Erev

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of loss aversion in decisions under risk have led to mixed results. Losses appear to loom larger than gains in some settings, but not in others. The current paper clarifies these results by highlighting six experimental manipulations that tend to increase the likelihood of the behavior predicted by loss aversion. These manipulations include: (1) framing of the safe alternative as the status quo; (2) ensuring that the choice pattern predicted by loss aversion maximizes the pro...

  12. Divorce and women's risk of health insurance loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce.

  13. DIVORCE AND WOMEN'S RISK OF HEALTH INSURANCE LOSS*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Bridget; Smock, Pamela J.

    2012-01-01

    This article bridges the literatures on the economic consequences of divorce for women with that on marital transitions and health by focusing on women's health insurance. Using a monthly calendar of marital status and health insurance coverage from 1,442 women in the Survey of Income and Program Participation, we examine how women's health insurance changes after divorce. Our estimates suggest that roughly 115,000 American women lose private health insurance annually in the months following divorce and that roughly 65,000 of these women become uninsured. The loss of insurance coverage we observe is not just a short-term disruption. Women's rates of insurance coverage remain depressed for more than two years after divorce. Insurance loss may compound the economic losses women experience after divorce, and contribute to as well as compound previously documented health declines following divorce. PMID:23147653

  14. Development and Validation of a Risk Score Predicting Substantial Weight Gain over 5 Years in Middle-Aged European Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, Annika; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Knüppel, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population.......Identifying individuals at high risk of excess weight gain may help targeting prevention efforts at those at risk of various metabolic diseases associated with weight gain. Our aim was to develop a risk score to identify these individuals and validate it in an external population....

  15. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical,

  16. Exercise, weight loss and biomarkers for breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, W.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Western women. There are several known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer of which few are lifestyle-related and, thereby, modifiable. These risk factors provide an opportunity for primary prevention. In this thesis,

  17. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  18. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and the Risk of Hearing Loss: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huanhuan; Sasaki, Naoko; Ogasawara, Takayuki; Nagahama, Satsue; Akter, Shamima; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Kochi, Takeshi; Eguchi, Masafumi; Kashino, Ikuko; Murakami, Taizo; Shimizu, Makiko; Uehara, Akihiko; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Tohru; Honda, Toru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Hori, Ai; Nishiura, Chihiro; Okazaki, Hiroko; Imai, Teppei; Nishihara, Akiko; Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kentaro; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kunugita, Naoki; Dohi, Seitaro

    2018-03-14

    We aimed to determine the prospective association of smoking status, smoking intensity, and smoking cessation with the risk of hearing loss in a large Japanese cohort. The cohort study included 50195 employees, who were aged 20-64 years and free of hearing loss at baseline. Participants were followed up for a maximum of 8 years. Pure-tone audiometric testing was performed annually to identify hearing loss at 1 and 4 kHz. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the association between smoking and hearing loss. During follow-up, 3532 individuals developed high-frequency hearing loss, and 1575 developed low-frequency hearing loss. The hazard ratio (HR) associated with current smokers was 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5 to 1.7) and 1.2 (95% CI = 1.1 to 1.4) for high- and low-frequency hearing loss, respectively, as compared with never smokers. The risk of high- and low-frequency hearing loss increased with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (both p for trend hearing loss, respectively. The analysis by quitting years showed a decline in risk of hearing loss after quitting smoking, even among those who quitted less than 5 years before baseline. Smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss, especially at the high frequency, in a dose-response manner. The excess risk of hearing loss associated with smoking disappears in a relatively short period after quitting. The prospective association between smoking and hearing loss has not been well studied. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the largest to date investigating the association between smoking and incident hearing loss. Our results indicate that smoking is associated with increased risk of hearing loss in a dose-response manner. Quitting smoking virtually eliminates the excess risk of hearing loss, even among quitters with short duration of cessation. These results suggest that smoking may be a causal factor for hearing loss, although further research would

  19. Seed loss and volunteer seedling establishment of rapeseed in the northernmost European conditions: potential for weed infestation and GM risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed soil seed bank development and volunteer plant establishment represent substantial risk for crop infestation and GM contamination. This study was designed to complement such investigations with novel understanding from high latitude conditions. Four experiments were designed to characterise seed loss at harvest, persistence, viability and capacity for volunteer seedling establishment, as well as impact of management measures on soil seed bank dynamics. Oilseed rape was the primary crop investigated due to the availability of GM cultivars and because of the increasing importance. Harvest losses and soil seed bank development were significant. Volunteer seedlings emerged at reasonably high rates, especially in the first autumn after harvest, but about 10% of buried seeds maintained their viability for at least three years. Soil incorporation methods had no major effect on numbers of volunteer seedlings, but herbicide treatments controlled volunteer seedlings efficiently, though not completely, due to irregular timing of seedling emergence.

  20. IT Operational Risk Measurement Model Based on Internal Loss Data of Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiaoling

    Business operation of banks relies increasingly on information technology (IT) and the most important role of IT is to guarantee the operational continuity of business process. Therefore, IT Risk management efforts need to be seen from the perspective of operational continuity. Traditional IT risk studies focused on IT asset-based risk analysis and risk-matrix based qualitative risk evaluation. In practice, IT risk management practices of banking industry are still limited to the IT department and aren't integrated into business risk management, which causes the two departments to work in isolation. This paper presents an improved methodology for dealing with IT operational risk. It adopts quantitative measurement method, based on the internal business loss data about IT events, and uses Monte Carlo simulation to predict the potential losses. We establish the correlation between the IT resources and business processes to make sure risk management of IT and business can work synergistically.

  1. A Neuropsychological Approach to Understanding Risk-Taking for Potential Gains and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Irwin P.; Xue, Gui; Weller, Joshua A.; Reimann, Martin; Lauriola, Marco; Bechara, Antoine

    2012-01-01

    Affective neuroscience has helped guide research and theory development in judgment and decision-making by revealing the role of emotional processes in choice behavior, especially when risk is involved. Evidence is emerging that qualitatively and quantitatively different processes may be involved in risky decision-making for gains and losses. We start by reviewing behavioral work by Kahneman and Tversky (1979) and others, which shows that risk-taking differs for potential gains and potential losses. We then turn to the literature in decision neuroscience to support the gain versus loss distinction. Relying in part on data from a new task that separates risky decision-making for gains and losses, we test a neural model that assigns unique mechanisms for risky decision-making involving potential losses. Included are studies using patients with lesions to brain areas specified as important in the model and studies with healthy individuals whose brains are scanned to reveal activation in these and other areas during risky decision-making. In some cases, there is evidence that gains and losses are processed in different regions of the brain, while in other cases the same region appears to process risk in a different manner for gains and losses. At a more general level, we provide strong support for the notion that decisions involving risk-taking for gains and decisions involving risk-taking for losses represent different psychological processes. At a deeper level, we present mounting evidence that different neural structures play different roles in guiding risky choices in these different domains. Some structures are differentially activated by risky gains and risky losses while others respond uniquely in one domain or the other. Taken together, these studies support a clear functional dissociation between risk-taking for gains and risk-taking for losses, and further dissociation at the neural level. PMID:22347161

  2. Nuclear Knowledge Loss Risk Management (Lessons Learned, Implementation Experiences)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Květoňová, Romana

    2014-01-01

    In the years 2007/2008 the Knowledge Management has emerged as one of the prime concerns in our HRM system. Based on the KM best practice data gathering, surveys and analyses, the detailed concept has been proposed and implemented primarily in our nuclear production units. Main objectives: • To identify, maintain and develop the unique knowledge; • To share the critical knowledge and the best practices; • To save the organization from critical capabilities and minimize the duplication effort; • To set up the succession planning system for the knowledge holders with potential knowledge loss; • To create effective system for the knowledge record sharing and its updating; • Further implementation of KM within production division as well as extension into another divisions

  3. Heightened aversion to risk and loss in depressed patients with a suicide attempt history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kwangyeol; Kwon, JaeHyung; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Chung, Yong An; Kralik, Jerald D; Min, Jung-Ah; Huh, HyuJung; Choi, Kyung Mook; Jang, Kuk-In; Lee, Na-Bin; Kim, Sunyoung; Peterson, Bradley S; Jeong, Jaeseung

    2017-09-11

    Suicide attempters have been found to be impaired in decision-making; however, their specific biases in evaluating uncertain outcomes remain unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that suicidal behavior is associated with heightened aversion to risk and loss, which might produce negative predictions about uncertain future events. Forty-five depressed patients with a suicide attempt history, 47 nonsuicidal depressed patients, and 75 healthy controls participated in monetary decision-making tasks assessing risk and loss aversion. Suicide attempters compared with the other groups exhibited greater aversion to both risk and loss during gambles involving potential loss. Risk and loss aversion correlated with each other in the depressed patients, suggesting that a common pathophysiological mechanism underlies these biases. In addition, emotion regulation via suppression, a detrimental emotional control strategy, was positively correlated with loss aversion in the depressed patients, also implicating impairment in regulatory processes. A preliminary fMRI study also found disrupted neural responses to potential gains and losses in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex, and left amygdala, brain regions involved in valuation, emotion reactivity, and emotion regulation. The findings thus implicate heightened negative valuation in decision-making under risk, and impaired emotion regulation in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts.

  4. Alexithymia predicts loss chasing for people at risk for problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibby, Peter A; Ross, Katherine E

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims The aim of this research was to investigate the relationship between alexithymia and loss-chasing behavior in people at risk and not at risk for problem gambling. Methods An opportunity sample of 58 (50 males and 8 females) participants completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20). They then completed the Cambridge Gambling Task from which a measure of loss-chasing behavior was derived. Results Alexithymia and problem gambling risk were significantly positively correlated. Subgroups of non-alexithymic and at or near caseness for alexithymia by low risk and at risk for problem gambling were identified. The results show a clear difference for loss-chasing behavior for the two alexithymia conditions, but there was no evidence that low and at-risk problem gamblers were more likely to loss chase. The emotion-processing components of the TAS-20 were shown to correlate with loss chasing. Discussion and conclusion These findings suggest that loss-chasing behavior may be particularly prevalent in a subgroup of problem gamblers those who are high in alexithymia.

  5. Does tinnitus, hearing asymmetry, or hearing loss predispose to occupational injury risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Linda F; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Slade, Martin D; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    To determine the relative contributions of tinnitus, asymmetrical hearing loss, low frequency hearing loss (pure tone average of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 kHz; PTA.5123), or high frequency hearing loss (pure tone average of 4, 6 kHz; PTA46), to acute injury risk among a cohort of production and maintenance workers at six aluminum manufacturing plants, adjusting for ambient noise exposure and other recognized predictors of injury risk. Retrospective analysis. The study considered 9920 workers employed during 2003 to 2008. The cohort consisted of 8818 workers (89%) whose complete records were available. Adjusting for noise exposure and other recognized injury predictors, a 25% increased acute injury risk was observed among workers with a history of tinnitus in conjunction with high-frequency hearing loss (PTA46). Low frequency hearing loss may be associated with minor, yet less serious, injury risk. We did not find evidence that asymmetry contributes to injury risk. These results provide evidence that tinnitus, combined with high-frequency hearing loss, may pose an important safety threat to workers, especially those who work in high-noise exposed environments. These at risk workers may require careful examination of their communication and hearing protection needs.

  6. Risk finance for catastrophe losses with Pareto-calibrated Lévy-stable severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Michael R; Powers, Thomas Y; Gao, Siwei

    2012-11-01

    For catastrophe losses, the conventional risk finance paradigm of enterprise risk management identifies transfer, as opposed to pooling or avoidance, as the preferred solution. However, this analysis does not necessarily account for differences between light- and heavy-tailed characteristics of loss portfolios. Of particular concern are the decreasing benefits of diversification (through pooling) as the tails of severity distributions become heavier. In the present article, we study a loss portfolio characterized by nonstochastic frequency and a class of Lévy-stable severity distributions calibrated to match the parameters of the Pareto II distribution. We then propose a conservative risk finance paradigm that can be used to prepare the firm for worst-case scenarios with regard to both (1) the firm's intrinsic sensitivity to risk and (2) the heaviness of the severity's tail. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Amazon river flow regime and flood recessional agriculture: Flood stage reversals and risk of annual crop loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coomes, Oliver T.; Lapointe, Michel; Templeton, Michael; List, Geneva

    2016-08-01

    The annual flood cycle is an important driver of ecosystem structure and function in large tropical rivers such as the Amazon. Riparian peasant communities rely on river fishing and annual floodplain agriculture, closely adapted to the recession phase of the flood pulse. This article reports on a poorly documented but important challenge facing farmers practicing flood recessional agriculture along the Amazon river: frequent, unpredictable stage reversals (repiquetes) which threaten to ruin crops growing on channel bars. We assess the severity of stage reversals for rice production on exposed river mud bars (barreales) near Iquitos, Peru. Crop loss risk is estimated based on a quantitative analysis of 45 years of daily Amazon stage data and field data from floodplain communities nearby in the Muyuy archipelago, upstream of Iquitos. Rice varieties selected, elevations of silt rich bars where rice is sown, as well as planting and harvest dates are analyzed in the light of the timing, frequencies and amplitudes of observed stage reversals that have the potential to destroy growing rice. We find that unpredictable stage reversals can produce substantial crop losses and shorten significantly the length of average growing seasons on lower elevation river bars. The data reveal that local famers extend planting down to lower bar elevations where the mean probabilities of re-submergence before rice maturity (due to reversals) approach 50%, below which they implicitly consider that the risk of crop loss outweighs the potential reward of planting.

  8. Behavioral and neural correlates of loss aversion and risk avoidance in adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley-Levenson, Emily E; Van Leijenhorst, Linda; Galván, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are frequently faced with risky decisions involving the potential for both gain and loss. Exploring the role of both potential gains and potential losses in predicting risk taking is critical to understanding how adolescents and adults make the choice to engage in or avoid a real-life risk. This study aimed to examine the impact of potential losses as well as gains on adolescent decisions during risky choice in a laboratory task. Adolescent (n=18) and adult (n=16) participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a mixed gambles task, and completed questionnaires measuring real-world risk-taking behaviors. While potential loss had a significantly greater effect on choice than potential gain in both adolescents and adults and there were no behavioral group differences on the task, adolescents recruited significantly more frontostriatal circuitry than adults when choosing to reject a gamble. During risk-seeking behavior, adolescent activation in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was negatively correlated with self-reported likelihood of risk taking. During risk-avoidant behavior, mPFC activation of in adults was negatively correlated with self-reported benefits of risk-taking. Taken together, these findings reflect different neural patterns during risk-taking and risk-avoidant behaviors in adolescents and adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Modelling IT risk in banking industry : A study on how to calculate the aggregate loss distribution of IT risk

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Didrik

    2017-01-01

    Background: Lack of internal data makes some operational risks hard to calculate with quantitative models. This is true for the IT risk or the risk that a bank will experience losses caused by IT System and Infrastructure failure. IT systems and infrastructure are getting more predominant and important in the banking industry which makes the IT risk even more important to quantify.  Purpose: The aim of this thesis is to find an appropriate way of modelling IT risk for the banking industry. Th...

  10. Catastrophic loss risks: An economic and legal analysis, and a model state statute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.B.

    1984-01-01

    Catastrophic loss risk producing facilities or activities are defined as those human enterprises which are theoretically capable of producing some credible event which entails extremely large losses of human life, health, or property. Two examples of catastrophic loss risk producing facilities are examined, commercial nuclear power plants and LNG terminals. These two types of facilities appear to produce a type of externality in that they impose uncompensated loss risk costs on neighbors. Further, these two types of facilities may be quite dependent upon the subsidies implicit in these externalities for their continued economic operation. A model state statute is proposed which would use insurance premiums as an unbiased source of probability and outcome estimates in order to eliminate this externality and the resulting subsidy, and as a way of improving the present situation within certain economic limits

  11. Risk Factors for Loss to Follow-Up among People Who Inject Drugs in a Risk Reduction Program at Karachi, Pakistan. A Case-Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rab Nawaz Samo

    Full Text Available Retention of male people who inject drugs (PWIDs is a major challenge for harm reduction programs that include sterile needle/syringe exchange in resource-limited settings like Pakistan. We assessed the risk factors for loss to follow-up among male PWIDs enrolled in a risk reduction program in Karachi, Pakistan.We conducted a prospective cohort study among 636 HIV-uninfected male PWIDs enrolled during March-June 2009 in a harm reduction program for the estimation of incidence rate. At 24 months post-enrollment, clients who had dropped out of the program were defined as lost to follow-up and included as cases for case-cohort study.The median age of the participants was 29 years (interquartile range: 23-36. Active outreach accounted for 76% (483/636 of cohort recruits. Loss to follow-up at 24 months was 25.5% (162/636. In multivariable logistic regression, younger age (AOR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.92-0.99, p = 0.028, clients from other provinces than Sindh (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.01-2.22, p = 0.046, having no formal education (AOR: 3.44, 95% CI: 2.35-4.90, p<0.001, a history of incarceration (AOR: 1.68, 95% CI: 1.14-2.46, p<0.008, and being homeless (AOR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.00-2.19, p<0.049 were associated with loss to follow-up.Our cohort retained 74.5% of male PWIDs in Karachi for 24 months. Its loss to follow up rate suggested substantial ongoing programmatic challenges. Programmatic enhancements are needed for the highest risk male PWIDs, i.e., younger men, men not from Sindh Province, men who are poorly educated, formerly incarcerated, and/or homeless.

  12. Identification of Hip BMD Loss and Fracture Risk Markers Through Population-Based Serum Proteomics: HIP BMD LOSS & FRACTURE RISK MARKERS BY POPULATION-BASED SERUM PROTEOMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, Carrie; Wiedrick, Jack; Shen, Jian; Jacobs, Jon M.; Baker, Erin M.; Baraff, Aaron; Piehowski, Paul D.; Lee, Christine; Baratt, Arie; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mcweeney, Shannon K.; Lim, Jeong Youn; Bauer, Douglas C.; Lane, Nancy E.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Smith, Richard D.; Lapidus, Jodi; Orwoll, Eric S.

    2017-04-06

    Accelerated bone loss significantly increases the risk of osteoporosis and fracture. The mechanisms underlying bone loss remain incompletely understood, and there are few available biomarkers. We utilized a novel proteomics approach to identify serum peptides and proteins associated with bone loss in 1967 older men who were randomly chosen from the Osteoporotic Fracture in Men Study (MrOS study) (age ≥ 65 yrs). Men had 2-3 measures of femoral neck BMD over an average follow-up of 4.6 years. Change in BMD was estimated and then categorized into three groups: maintained BMD (n=453), expected loss (n=1185) and accelerated loss (n=237). A liquid chromatography–ion mobility separation-mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS) proteomics platform was used to identify and quantify peptides from serum proteins. The whole cohort was randomly divided into discovery (N= 960) and validation (N= 915) sub-cohorts. Linear regression models and a random forest approach were used to discover differentially abundant individual peptides and a proteomic signature that distinguished individuals with accelerated bone loss from those who maintained BMD. Network analyses were performed using the MetaCore knowledgebase. We identified 12 peptides that were associated with BMD loss in both discovery (P< 0.1 FDR) and replication sub-cohorts (P<0.05). Those 12 peptides mapped to the following proteins: ALS, LYVE1, RNAS1, C2, ICOSL, C163A, C7, HEMO, CD14, CERU, CRAC1 and CD59. Meta-analysis of peptidesassociated with bone loss identified 6 additional proteins including GRP78, IGF-2, SHBG, ENPP2, IBP2 and IBP6. We also identified a proteomic signature that was predictive of BMD loss with a discriminative value similar to serum bone marker carboxy-terminal collagen crosslink peptide (CTX). Interestingly, combining the proteomic signature with CTX significantly improved the ability to discriminate men with accelerated loss. In summary, we have identified potential new biomarkers for bone loss that provide

  13. The effect of stressed economic conditions on operational risk loss distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja'nel Esterhuysen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The depth and duration of the credit crisis has highlighted a number of problems in modern finance. Banks have been accused of excessive risk taking, rating agencies of severe conflicts of interest, central banks of neglecting the inflation of asset price bubbles and national supervisors of lax regulatory controls. Credit and market losses have been considerable. Operational losses have also surged as surviving corporates merge or acquire less fortunate ones without the requisite controls. Furthermore, as more jobs get made redundant it is believed that people are getting forced to play their hand to get involved in internal fraud as their sources of income has dried up drastically and stealing from the institution seems to be their last resort.. The main objective of this paper is to establish if there has been a changed in the nature of operational risk with regards to the number of operational losses as well as their impact pre and during the crisis. The way in which operational losses have been affected will be presented and a comparison will be made between operational loss characteristics pre and during the crisis. Some of the main findings of this paper were that operational losses shown little change in frequency, but shown a significant increase in severity, meaning that their financial impact has been more severe during the crisis.  Therefore it is quite safe to say that the financial crisis most defiantly had an impact on operational risk as the impact of operational losses became much more severe

  14. Enhanced Risk Aversion, But Not Loss Aversion, in Unmedicated Pathological Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Caroline J; Aylward, Jessica; Roiser, Jonathan P; Robinson, Oliver J

    2017-06-15

    Anxiety disorders are associated with disruptions in both emotional processing and decision making. As a result, anxious individuals often make decisions that favor harm avoidance. However, this bias could be driven by enhanced aversion to uncertainty about the decision outcome (e.g., risk) or aversion to negative outcomes (e.g., loss). Distinguishing between these possibilities may provide a better cognitive understanding of anxiety disorders and hence inform treatment strategies. To address this question, unmedicated individuals with pathological anxiety (n = 25) and matched healthy control subjects (n = 23) completed a gambling task featuring a decision between a gamble and a safe (certain) option on every trial. Choices on one type of gamble-involving weighing a potential win against a potential loss (mixed)-could be driven by both loss and risk aversion, whereas choices on the other type-featuring only wins (gain only)-were exclusively driven by risk aversion. By fitting a computational prospect theory model to participants' choices, we were able to reliably estimate risk and loss aversion and their respective contribution to gambling decisions. Relative to healthy control subjects, pathologically anxious participants exhibited enhanced risk aversion but equivalent levels of loss aversion. Individuals with pathological anxiety demonstrate clear avoidance biases in their decision making. These findings suggest that this may be driven by a reduced propensity to take risks rather than a stronger aversion to losses. This important clarification suggests that psychological interventions for anxiety should focus on reducing risk sensitivity rather than reducing sensitivity to negative outcomes per se. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between weight loss and time and risk preference parameters: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Akemi; Nakamura, Ryota; Furukawa, Masakazu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Nishimura, Shuzo; Kosugi, Shinji

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of intervention (specifically, intervention by telephone and mails, known as 'tele-care') relative to self-help as a weight-loss method. The question of whether there is a correlation between changes in two preference parameters--time discounting (i.e. impatience) and risk aversion--and the level of commitment was examined. The study, spanning a period of 24 weeks in 2006-2007, comprised 118 participants, each of whom was randomly assigned to either the tele-care or the self-help group. A public-health nurse provided support through telephone and mail communications to the tele-care group, aiming to reduce their calorie intake and increase exercise via this intervention. There was a significant decrease in the body weight of the participants of the tele-care group from the baseline; however, there were no significant differences in the weight loss, median time discounting or risk aversion between the two groups. The subsequent analysis for weight loss with changes in time and risk parameters revealed a significant difference in the weight loss in the time-discounting-loss and risk-aversion-gain groups. From the results of the multiple regression analysis, the time discounting was noted to be associated with age, initial BMI and marital status among men, and risk aversion was associated with age and job status among women. There is a possibility that a decrease in time discounting and increase in risk aversion might correlate with the weight loss or effectiveness of commitment in this trial. This study suggests that time discounting and risk aversion may be useful in anti-obesity efforts, since they are accurate criteria of behavioural patterns associated with weight problems. © Cambridge University Press, 2011

  16. Obesity in pediatric kidney transplant recipients and the risks of acute rejection, graft loss and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladhani, Maleeka; Lade, Samantha; Alexander, Stephen I; Baur, Louise A; Clayton, Philip A; McDonald, Stephen; Craig, Jonathan C; Wong, Germaine

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is prevalent in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the health consequences of this combination of comorbidities are uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity on the outcomes of children following kidney transplantation. Using data from the ANZDATA Registry (1994-2013), we assessed the association between age-appropriate body mass index (BMI) at the time of transplantation and the subsequent development of acute rejection (within the first 6 months), graft loss and death using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Included in our analysis were 750 children ranging in age from 2 to 18 (median age 12) years with a total of 6597 person-years of follow-up (median follow-up 8.4 years). Overall, at transplantation 129 (17.2%) children were classified as being overweight and 61 (8.1%) as being obese. Of the 750 children, 102 (16.2%) experienced acute rejection within the first 6 months of transplantation, 235 (31.3%) lost their allograft and 53 (7.1%) died. Compared to children with normal BMI, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for graft loss in children who were underweight, overweight or diagnosed as obese were 1.05 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.60], 1.03 (95% CI 0.71-1.49) and 1.61 (95% CI 1.05-2.47), respectively. There was no statistically significant association between BMI and acute rejection [underweight: HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.54-2.09; overweight: HR 1.42, 95% CI 0.86-2.34; obese: HR 1.83, 95% CI 0.95-3.51) or patient survival (underweight: HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.54-2.58, overweight: HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.38-1.92; obese: HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.25-2.61). Over 10 years of follow-up, pediatric transplant recipients diagnosed with obesity have a substantially increased risk of allograft failure but not acute rejection of the graft or death.

  17. Selected non-somatic risk factors for pregnancy loss in patients with abnormal early pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Paszkowski

    2015-12-01

    The results of this study confirm the complexity of the early pregnancy loss etiopatogenesis. Further research need to be conducted in order to identify the non-somatic causative agents of various clinical forms of miscarriage. It may help do select women in reproductive age at high risk of early pregnancy loss and show the ways in which effective preventive measures can be introduced in such population.

  18. Newborn hearing screening program: association between hearing loss and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Priscila Karla Santana; Martins, Adriana de Souza; Vieira, Márcia Ribeiro; Azevedo, Marisa Frasson de

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: hearing loss in newborns. Aim: to verify the prevalence of auditory alterations in newborns of Hospital São Paulo (hospital), observing if there are any correlations with the following variables: birth weight, gestational age, relation weight/gestational age and risk factors for hearing loss. METHOD: A retrospective analysis of the hospital records of 1696 newborns; 648 records of preterm infants and 1048 records of infants born at term. All of the infants had been submitted to an...

  19. Naturally conceived twins with monochorionic placentation have the highest risk of fetal loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Lene; Kiil, C; Larsen, L U

    2006-01-01

    before 14 + 6 weeks' gestation in order to determine chorionicity. The fetal loss rate, the perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality rates and the frequency of very preterm labor were estimated for the different types of twin. RESULTS: Among the 495 pregnancies (421 DC and 74 MC) 229 (46%) were conceived...... the corresponding figures were 0% (0/10) and 0.4% (1/256). The odds ratio (OR) for very preterm birth-before 28 weeks' gestation-was 4.2 for MC twins compared to DC twins. The relative risk of fetal loss or death among DC twins was 20% of the risk for MC twins. CONCLUSION: The risk of fetal loss, very preterm...... that the maternal age was higher among the mothers of the AR twins....

  20. Potential Impact of Risk and Loss Aversion on the Process of Accepting Kidneys for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilman, Raymond L; Green, Ellen P; Reddy, Kunam S; Moss, Adyr; Kaplan, Bruce

    2017-07-01

    Behavioral economic theory suggests that people make decisions based on maximizing perceived value; however, this may be influenced more by the risk of loss rather than of potential gain. Additionally, individuals may seek certainty over uncertainty. These are termed loss aversion and risk aversion, respectively. Loss aversion is particularly sensitive to how the decision is "framed." Thus, labeling a kidney as high Kidney Donor Profile Index results in higher discard rates because this creates a nonlinearity in perceived risk. There is also evidence that the perceived loss due to regulatory sanction results in increased organ discard rates. This may be due to the overuse of terminology that stresses regulatory sanctions and thus perpetuates fear of loss through a form of nudging. Our goal is to point out how these concepts of behavioral economics may negatively influence the decision process to accept these suboptimal organs. We hope to make the community more aware of these powerful psychological influences and thus potentially increase the utilization of these suboptimal organs. Further, we would urge regulatory bodies to avoid utilizing strategies that frame outcomes in terms of loss due to flagging and build models that are less prone to uncertain expected versus observed outcomes.

  1. Substantiation of optimum fill rate of the groups according to the sanitary and hygienic conditions of preschool educational institutions and risks of violations of children's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.N. Rakitskiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the number of children in groups of preschool educational institutions (PEI of more than 22 people is accompanied by a deterioration of sanitary and hygienic state of the premises of group cells by chemical, biological and physical indicators. In the densely populated groups the content of phenol and formaldehyde in the air of playing and sleeping rooms reaches 2.2–4.6 MAC daily average, for 30 % increases the air contamination by the conditionally pathogenic flora (St. aureus, the level of noise impact during gaming sessions is up to 80 dBA. Direct dependence between the increase of morbidity of children by the allergic diseases of the respiratory organs and the skin, functional gastrointestinal disorders, acute viral and bacterial diseases and urinary tract infections with the index of fill rate of PEI groups (R 2 = 0,32–0,89; r≤0,035–0,0001 has been correlated. The risk of violations of physical development and development delay of biological maturation of children is increased by more than 1.5–2.0 times (OR = 1,51–2,17; DI = 1,1–3,01; p = 0.01–0.03 and reduce of the adaptive reserve of the cardiovascular, respiratory and autonomic nervous system and the development of functional disorders, including cognitive, increases in 1,2–10,0 times (OR = 1,2–10,11; DI = 1,11–18,81; p = 0.01–0.04. Longtime combined effects of chemical, biological and physical factors determine the formation of chronic physiological distress syndrome in children, manifesting by a change in metabolism, haematopoiesis, decreased cellular activity and humoral immune response, a violation of the intracellular mechanisms of antioxidant protection (p = 0,0001–0,017. The results of sanitaryhygienic, clinical laboratory and mathematical methods of research have established that the optimum fill rate of groups of standard PEIs of general developmental orientation should not exceed 14–16 children and the standard of playing or sleeping

  2. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Romée; Gray, Alison; Pisa, Lennard; de Rijk, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects. PMID:26154346

  3. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romée van der Zee

    Full Text Available This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1 Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2 presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen, (3 presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4 a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects.

  4. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Romée; Gray, Alison; Pisa, Lennard; de Rijk, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various measures of colony strength recorded in summer, as well as data from laboratory analysis of sample material taken from two selected colonies in each of the 43 apiaries. The logistic regression model which best explained the risk of winter loss included, in order of statistical importance, the variables (1) Varroa destructor mite infestation rate in October 2011, (2) presence of the cyano-substituted neonicotinoids acetamiprid or thiacloprid in the first 2 weeks of August 2011 in at least one of the honey bee matrices honey, bees or bee bread (pollen), (3) presence of Brassica napus (oilseed rape) or Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) pollen in bee bread in early August 2011, and (4) a measure of the unexplained winter losses for the postal code area where the colonies were located, obtained from a different dataset. We consider in the discussion that reduced opportunities for foraging in July and August because of bad weather may have added substantially to the adverse effects of acetamiprid and thiacloprid. A novel feature of this work is its use of postal code random effects from two other independent datasets collected in the annual national monitoring by questionnaires of winter losses of honey bees in the Netherlands. These were used to plan the sample selection and also in the model fitting of the data in this study. It should however be noted that the results of the present pilot study are based on limited data, which may consequently reveal strong factors but fail to demonstrate possible interaction effects.

  5. Reacting to unexpected losses in an uncertain world : High approach individuals become even more risk-seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Xiaoyue; Van Prooijen, Jan Willem; Proulx, Travis; Wu, Haizheng; Van Beest, Ilja; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that people are risk-seeking in the face of losses. We propose that this risk-seeking orientation is a palliative approach response to deal with a discrepancy between people's desire to avoid losses versus the possibility of loss. An expectancy violation (which induces

  6. Parvovirus B19 Infection in the First Trimester of Pregnancy and Risk of Fetal Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Jonathan; Jensen, Anne K V; Bager, Peter

    2012-01-01

    in 3 regions in Denmark from 1992 to 1994. Cases of women with fetal loss were identified in the National Patient Register (n = 2,918), and control women with live-born children were identified in the Medical Birth Register (n = 8,429) by matching on age and sampling week. First-trimester serum samples......Because parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of fetal loss in small or selected study populations, the authors evaluated the risk in a population-based study. A nested case-control study was conducted by using a population-based screening for syphilis...

  7. Loss of the First Permanent Molar: Risk Factors and Adolescent Oral Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daraí Bárbara Sánchez Montero

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Foundation: the replacement of the primary dentition begins with the eruption of the first permanent molars that will be subjected to various risk factors.Objective: to determine the existing relation between the first permanent molar loss and the risk factors in adolescents from 12 to 14 years old. Method: a cross descriptive study was developed between October 20011 and March 2012. On a universe of 560 students, a simple random sampling was done and a sample of 185 patients was selected. On school visits dental exams were performed to determine the Clune index dental caries index, filled and missing teeth and the simplified index of oral hygiene. The estimated relative risk was used with prevalence odd ratio and prevalence ratio was calculated. The studied variables were: sex, oral hygiene habits, and habits of cariogenic diet bucodental health. Results: the loss of the first permanent molar predominated in the male sex with a 14.1 %. The prevailing risk factor was cariogenic diet which affected 57.3 of the population, where 80.6 of those who had a high consumption showed loss of the first permanent molar. Clune index (53,4 % in the female and 40 % in the male sex, dental caries, filled and lost teeth (1.7 % in female and 2.9 in the male sex were calculated. Conclusion: there is a direct relation between risk factors, poor oral hygiene and cariogenic feeding with the loss of the first permanent molar.

  8. Poor health as a potential risk factor for job loss due to automation: the case of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Philipp; Christiansen, Solveig; Skirbekk, Vegard

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to quantify the extent to which health characteristics of workers are related to the potential risk of experiencing job displacement due to automation. Linking the 2015 Norwegian Statistics on Income and Living Conditions survey (n=6393) with predicted probabilities of automation by occupation, we used Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariate generalised linear models to assess the association between long-standing illnesses and risk of job automation. Individuals with long-standing illnesses face substantially greater risks of losing their job due to automation. Whereas the average risk of job automation is 57% for men and 49% for women with long-standing illnesses, the risk is only 50% for men and 44% for women with limitations (pjob automation among men (risk ratio (RR) 1.13, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.19), as well as women (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.17). While, among men, the association between long-standing illness and risk of job automation remains significant when controlling for education and income, it becomes insignificant among women. Individuals with poor health are likely to carry the highest burden of technological change in terms of worsening employment prospects because of working in occupations disproportionally more likely to be automated. Although the extent of technology-related job displacement will depend on several factors, given the far-reaching negative consequences of job loss on health and well-being, this process represents a significant challenge for public health and social equity. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Loss of the First Permanent Molar: Risk Factors and Adolescent Oral Health

    OpenAIRE

    Daraí Bárbara Sánchez Montero; Yahima Pons López; Ana Ibis Betancourt García; Anilec Santateresa Marchante

    2017-01-01

    Foundation: the replacement of the primary dentition begins with the eruption of the first permanent molars that will be subjected to various risk factors.Objective: to determine the existing relation between the first permanent molar loss and the risk factors in adolescents from 12 to 14 years old. Method: a cross descriptive study was developed between October 20011 and March 2012. On a universe of 560 students, a simple random sampling was done and a sample of 185 patients was selected. On...

  10. Depression and risk of fracture and bone loss: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Liu, B; Tonmoy, S

    2018-03-12

    This meta-analysis pooled results from 23 qualifying individual cohort studies and found that depression was significantly associated with an increased risk of fractures and bone loss. The association between depression and risk of fracture remains controversial. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to examine the effect of depression on the risk of osteoporotic fractures and bone loss. We searched databases and reviewed citations in relevant articles for eligible cohort studies. Two investigators independently conducted study selection, appraisal, and data abstraction through the use of a standardized protocol. Random effect models were used for meta-analysis. Cochrane Q and I 2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. Funnel plots and rank correlation tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Twenty-three studies were included for meta-analysis. In studies that reported hazard ratio (HR) as the outcome (nine studies [n = 309,862]), depression was associated with 26% increase in fracture risk (HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.10-1.43, p meta-analysis having modified inclusion criteria and in different subgroup analyses as well. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the meta-analysis; however, no significant publication bias was detected. Depression is associated with a significant increased risk in fracture and bone loss. Effective prevention may decrease such risk.

  11. The risk ratio for development of hereditary sensorineural hearing loss in consanguineous marriage offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyelbhaa, Hossam; Kabel, Abdelmagied; Abo El-Naga, Heba Abd El-Rehem; Sanyelbhaa, Ahmed; Salem, Hatem

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to define the relative risk of development of hearing loss in offspring of consanguineous marriages. This is a retrospective case-control study conducted in a tertiary referral center in Jeddah, KSA. The study group included 1600 probands (848 males, 752 females), with age range 0.5-12 years (6.6 ± 3.6). The study group comprised of two equal, age and sex matched subgroups; Hearing Loss (HL) group and Normal Hearing (NH) group. The children included in the HL group should have idiopathic or non syndromic genetic sensorineural hearing loss. The HL Group comprised 800 children with variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. Profound and severe degrees of hearing loss were the most prevalent degrees (P marriage offspring in the NH group was 42.5%, while in the HL group it was 68.9% (P  0.05). The relative risk and 95% confidence interval (RR, 95% CI) for development of hearing loss in offspring of consanguineous marriage was 1.76 (95% CI 1.57-1.97, P marriage progeny to develop SNHL when compared to non consanguineous progeny. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hearing Loss Using the Korean Working Conditions Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh Jun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives The hearing loss of workers can occur when they are affected by age, otologic disease, and work-related risks such as noise and chemicals. Based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) in 2010, this research aimed to estimate the prevalence rate of hearing loss and to identify the risk factors affecting its occurrence. Subjects and Methods The subjects were 10019 employees who completed an interview conducted as part of KWCS in 2010. The prevalence rate of hearing loss according to sex, age, education, income, smoking, drinking, hypertension, industrial type, occupations, employment status, working period, and hazards at the workplace were assessed. The factors that could affect the occurrence of hearing loss were investigated based on a logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence rate of hearing loss was 2.7%. In a logistic multivariate analysis, sex, age, occupations, working period, noise, and exposure to chemicals showed statistically significant correlations to the occurrence of hearing loss. The adjusted odd ratios were as follows: 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-2.96] for males, 2.11 (95% CI, 1.14-3.89) for those in their 40s, 2.24 (95% CI, 1.19-4.20) for those in their 50s, 2.21 (95% CI, 1.18-4.15) for manage/professional works, 2.73 (95% CI, 1.69-4.41) for manufacturing, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.36-3.15) for those who have worked for more than 20 years, 1.72 (95% CI, 1.14-2.58) for noise exposure, 1.53 (95% CI, 1.02-2.30) for vibration exposure and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.11-2.24) for chemical exposure. Conclusions The overall occupational and non-occupational risk factors related to employees' hearing loss were reviewed. In addition to the exposure to noise, occupational risks of hearing loss, such as isolated exposure to vibration and chemicals, and combined exposure to noise and these hazards, were identified. Multiple exposure to hazards, along with prolonged noise exposure increased the risk of hearing loss. PMID

  13. Assessment of the risk factors for hearing loss in adult Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It was concluded that the RFs for SNHL in adult Nigerians were multifactorial while some of the RFs may be amenable to primary prevention. Legislation and public health education could facilitate reduction of SNHL in our community. Keywords: Adults, elderly, hearing loss, Nigerians, risk factors. Nigerian ...

  14. Job Loss at Mid-Life: Managers and Executives Face the "New Risk Economy"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Ruby; Kalil, Ariel; Spindel, Laurel J.; Hart, Cassandra M. D.

    2008-01-01

    We use a life course framework to examine how the "new risk economy" has left middle-age professionals, managers and executives more vulnerable to job loss and unemployment despite high levels of human capital. Using in-depth qualitative data from 77 recently-unemployed white-collar workers, we examine perceptions of macro-economic…

  15. Discotheques and the risk of hearing loss among youth: Risky listening behavior and its psychosocial correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs 'consideration of

  16. Discotheques and the Risk of Hearing Loss among Youth: Risky Listening Behavior and Its Psychosocial Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; Van Der Ploeg, Catharina P. B.; Raat, Hein

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing population at risk of hearing loss and tinnitus due to increasing high-volume music listening. To inform prevention strategies and interventions, this study aimed to identify important protection motivation theory-based constructs as well as the constructs "consideration of future consequences" and "habit…

  17. Debris flows risk analysis and direct loss estimation: the case study of Valtellina di Tirano, Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahůt, Jan; Glade, T.; Sterlacchini, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 2 (2014), s. 288-307 ISSN 1672-6316 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Debris flows * Risk analysis * Economic losses * Central Alps * Italy Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2014

  18. Prevalence and independent risk factors for hearing loss in NICU infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.; Straaten, H.L.M. van; Verkerk, P.H.; Straaten, I. van; Verkerk, P.; Hille, E.; Baerts, W.; Bunkers, C.; Smink, E.; Elburg, R. van; Kleine, M. de; Kok, J.H.; Ilsen, A.; Visser, D.; Steiner, K.; Vries, L.S. de; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.; Sprij, A.; Lopriori, E.; Brokx, J.; Gavilanes, D.; Geven, W.; Bos, A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence and independent relationship between hearing loss and risk factors in a representative neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) population. Methods: Automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) hearing screening has been introduced since 1998 in the Dutch NICUs. After a

  19. Estimating adolescent risk for hearing loss based on data from a large school-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, L.; Verschuure, H.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Brug, J.; Raat, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated whether and to what extent a group of adolescents were at risk of developing permanent hearing loss as a result of voluntary exposure to high-volume music, and we assessed whether such exposure was associated with hearing-related symptoms. Methods. In 2007, 1512 adolescents

  20. Estimating adolescent risk for hearing loss based on data from a large school-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Vogel (Ineke); H. Verschuure (Hans); C.P.B. van der Ploeg (Catharina); J. Brug (Hans); H. Raat (Hein)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjectives. We estimated whether and to what extent a group of adolescents were at risk of developing permanent hearing loss as a result of voluntary exposure to high-volume music, and we assessed whether such exposure was associated with hearing-related symptoms. Methods. In 2007, 1512

  1. Risk of hearing loss among workers with vibration-induced white fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Hans; Burström, Lage; Hagberg, Mats; Lundström, Ronnie; Nilsson, Tohr

    2014-12-01

    We examined the risk of hearing loss for workers who use hand-held vibrating tools with vibration-induced white fingers (VWF) compared to workers without VWF. Data on 184 participants from a 21-year cohort were gathered with questionnaires and measurements. The effects on hearing status of VWF, hand-arm vibration exposure, smoking habits, age and two-way interactions of these independent variables were examined with binary logistic regression. Analyses were made for the right hand and ear as well as for the hand with VWF and the ear with worse categorized hearing status. Workers with VWF in their right hand had an increased risk of hearing loss (odds ratio 2.2-2.3) in the right ear. Workers with VWF in any hand did not have any increased risk of hearing loss in the ear with worse hearing status. This study supports the hypothesis that VWF increases the risk of hearing loss among workers who use hand-held vibrating tools in a noisy environment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. 12 CFR 370.8 - Systemic risk emergency special assessment to recover loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recover loss. 370.8 Section 370.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY TEMPORARY LIQUIDITY GUARANTEE PROGRAM § 370.8 Systemic risk emergency special... temporary liquidity guarantee program, the Corporation shall impose an emergency special assessment on...

  3. Filaggrin loss-of-function mutations, atopic dermatitis and risk of actinic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Y M F; Egeberg, A; Balslev, E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common loss-of-function mutations in filaggrin gene (FLG) represent a strong genetic risk factor for atopic dermatitis (AD). Homozygous mutation carriers typically display ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) and many have concomitant AD. Previously, homozygous, but not heterozygous, filaggrin ge...

  4. Accounting for the risks of phosphorus losses through tile drains in a phosphorus index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D Keith; Ball, Bonnie; Zhang, T Q

    2012-01-01

    Tile drainage systems have been identified as a significant conduit for phosphorus (P) losses to surface water, but P indices do not currently account for this transport pathway in a meaningful way. Several P indices mention tile drains, but most account for either the reduction in surface runoff or the enhanced transport through tiles rather than both simultaneously. A summary of the current state of how tile drains are accounted for within P indices is provided, and the challenges in predicting the risk of P losses through tile drains that are relative to actual losses are discussed. A framework for a component P Index is described, along with a proposal to incorporate predictions of losses through tile drains as a component within this framework. Options for calibrating and testing this component are discussed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and fish and risk of age-related hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Rochtchina, Elena; McMahon, Catherine M; Mitchell, Paul

    2010-08-01

    Identification of modifiable risk factors that could prevent or slow the development of age-related hearing loss (presbycusis) would be valuable. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may be related to age-related hearing loss. We aimed to determine the association between dietary intakes of omega-3 (n-3) PUFAs and fish and the risk of presbycusis. The Blue Mountains Hearing Study is a population-based survey of age-related hearing loss (1997-1999 to 2002-2004). We collected dietary data by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire and calculated PUFA and fish intakes. In 2956 participants (aged > or =50 y), we measured presbycusis, which we defined as the pure-tone average of frequencies 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 kHz >25 decibels of hearing loss. There was an inverse association between total n-3 PUFA intake and prevalent hearing loss [odds ratio (OR) per SD increase in energy-adjusted n-3 PUFAs: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.99]. There was an inverse association between long-chain n-3 PUFAs and incident hearing loss (OR per SD increase in long-chain n-3 PUFAs: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.97). Participants who had > or =2 servings of fish/wk compared with participants who had consumption of > or =1 to consumption of fish and hearing loss. Dietary intervention with n-3 PUFAs could prevent or delay the development of age-related hearing loss.

  6. Assessment of winter wheat loss risk impacted by climate change from 1982 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xin

    2017-04-01

    The world's farmers will face increasing pressure to grow more food on less land in succeeding few decades, because it seems that the continuous population growth and agricultural products turning to biofuels would extend several decades into the future. Therefore, the increased demand for food supply worldwide calls for improved accuracy of crop productivity estimation and assessment of grain production loss risk. Extensive studies have been launched to evaluate the impacts of climate change on crop production based on various crop models drove with global or regional climate model (GCM/RCM) output. However, assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture productivity is plagued with uncertainties of the future climate change scenarios and complexity of crop model. Therefore, given uncertain climate conditions and a lack of model parameters, these methods are strictly limited in application. In this study, an empirical assessment approach for crop loss risk impacted by water stress has been established and used to evaluate the risk of winter wheat loss in China, United States, Germany, France and United Kingdom. The average value of winter wheat loss risk impacted by water stress for the three countries of Europe is about -931kg/ha, which is obviously higher in contrast with that in China (-570kg/ha) and in United States (-367kg/ha). Our study has important implications for further application of operational assessment of crop loss risk at a country or region scale. Future studies should focus on using higher spatial resolution remote sensing data, combining actual evapo-transpiration to estimate water stress, improving the method for downscaling of statistic crop yield data, and establishing much more rational and elaborate zoning method.

  7. Evaluation of the risk of noise-induced hearing loss among unscreened male industrial workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Mary M.; Gilbert, Stephen J.; Smith, Randall J.; Stayner, Leslie T.

    2003-02-01

    Variability in background risk and distribution of various risk factors for hearing loss may explain some of the diversity in excess risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). This paper examines the impact of various risk factors on excess risk estimates of NIHL using data from the 1968-1972 NIOSH Occupational Noise and Hearing Survey (ONHS). Previous analyses of a subset of these data focused on 1172 highly ``screened'' workers. In the current analysis, an additional 894 white males (609 noise-exposed and 285 controls), who were excluded for various reasons (i.e., nonoccupational noise exposure, otologic or medical conditions affecting hearing, prior occupational noise exposure) have been added (n=2066) to assess excess risk of noise-induced material impairment in an unscreened population. Data are analyzed by age, duration of exposure, and sound level (8-h TWA) for four different definitions of noise-induced hearing impairment, defined as the binaural pure-tone average (PTA) hearing threshold level greater than 25 dB for the following frequencies: (a) 1-4 kHz (PTA1234), (b) 1-3 kHz (PTA123), (c) 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz (PTA512), and (d) 3, 4, and 6 kHz (PTA346). Results indicate that populations with higher background risks of hearing loss may show lower excess risks attributable to noise relative to highly screened populations. Estimates of lifetime excess risk of hearing impairment were found to be significantly different between screened and unscreened population for noise levels greater than 90 dBA. Predicted age-related risk of material hearing impairment in the ONHS unscreened population was similar to that predicted from Annex B and C of ANSI S3.44 for ages less than 60 years. Results underscore the importance of understanding differential risk patterns for hearing loss and the use of appropriate reference (control) populations when evaluating risk of noise-induced hearing impairment among contemporary industrial populations.

  8. Implantation of Right Kidneys: Is the Risk of Technical Graft Loss Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Taqi T; Ahmad, Nadeem; Siddique, Kashif; Fourtounas, Konstantinos

    2018-05-01

    The left kidney (LK) is preferred by transplant surgeons, because its vein is always of good length and has a thick wall that enables safe suturing. On the other hand, the right renal vein is generally shorter and thinner walled, and well known for its technical difficulty during venous anastomosis, and can result in graft loss. We examined our living (LD) and deceased donor (DD) recipient data and compared the incidence of technical graft loss and early graft function in right and left kidneys. A cohort of 58 adult and pediatric recipients received an LD or DD kidney between January 2015 and December 2016. The donor and recipient data were retrieved and retrospectively analyzed. Technical graft loss was defined as graft thrombosis within the 7 days after transplant. Right kidneys (RKs) were not a risk factor for technical graft loss, and no graft was lost for technical reasons in either LD or DD transplants. Early graft function in LK and RKs was also comparable in the LD cohort, and there were no LKs in the DD cohort. Based on our data, the use of RKs was not a risk factor for technical graft loss and early graft function was comparable to LKs.

  9. Catastrophe loss modelling of storm-surge flood risk in eastern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir Wood, Robert; Drayton, Michael; Berger, Agnete; Burgess, Paul; Wright, Tom

    2005-06-15

    Probabilistic catastrophe loss modelling techniques, comprising a large stochastic set of potential storm-surge flood events, each assigned an annual rate of occurrence, have been employed for quantifying risk in the coastal flood plain of eastern England. Based on the tracks of the causative extratropical cyclones, historical storm-surge events are categorized into three classes, with distinct windfields and surge geographies. Extreme combinations of "tide with surge" are then generated for an extreme value distribution developed for each class. Fragility curves are used to determine the probability and magnitude of breaching relative to water levels and wave action for each section of sea defence. Based on the time-history of water levels in the surge, and the simulated configuration of breaching, flow is time-stepped through the defences and propagated into the flood plain using a 50 m horizontal-resolution digital elevation model. Based on the values and locations of the building stock in the flood plain, losses are calculated using vulnerability functions linking flood depth and flood velocity to measures of property loss. The outputs from this model for a UK insurance industry portfolio include "loss exceedence probabilities" as well as "average annualized losses", which can be employed for calculating coastal flood risk premiums in each postcode.

  10. Probabilistic Seismic Risk Assessment in Manizales, Colombia:Quantifying Losses for Insurance Purposes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario A.Salgado-Gálvez; Gabriel A.Bernal; Daniela Zuloaga; Mabel C.Marulanda; Omar-Darío Cardona; Sebastián Henao

    2017-01-01

    A fully probabilistic seismic risk assessment was developed in Manizales,Colombia,considering assets of different types.The first type includes elements that are part of the water and sewage network,and the second type includes public and private buildings.This assessment required the development of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis that accounts for the dynamic soil response,assembling high resolution exposure databases,and the development of damage models for different types of elements.The economic appraisal of the exposed assets was developed together with specialists of the water utilities company of Manizales and the city administration.The risk assessment was performed using several Comprehensive Approach to Probabilistic Risk Assessment modules as well as the R-System,obtaining results in terms of traditional metrics such as loss exceedance curve,average annual loss,and probable maximum loss.For the case of pipelines,repair rates were also estimated.The results for the water and sewage network were used in activities related to the expansion and maintenance strategies,as well as for the exploration of financial retention and transfer alternatives using insurance schemes based on technical,probabilistic,and prospective damage and loss estimations.In the case of the buildings,the results were used in the update of the technical premium values of the existing collective insurance scheme.

  11. A Bayesian approach for predicting risk of autonomous underwater vehicle loss during their missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Mario; Griffiths, Gwyn

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are effective platforms for science research and monitoring, and for military and commercial data-gathering purposes. However, there is an inevitable risk of loss during any mission. Quantifying the risk of loss is complex, due to the combination of vehicle reliability and environmental factors, and cannot be determined through analytical means alone. An alternative approach – formal expert judgment – is a time-consuming process; consequently a method is needed to broaden the applicability of judgments beyond the narrow confines of an elicitation for a defined environment. We propose and explore a solution founded on a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN), where the results of the expert judgment elicitation are taken as the initial prior probability of loss due to failure. The network topology captures the causal effects of the environment separately on the vehicle and on the support platform, and combines these to produce an updated probability of loss due to failure. An extended version of the Kaplan–Meier estimator is then used to update the mission risk profile with travelled distance. Sensitivity analysis of the BBN is presented and a case study of Autosub3 AUV deployment in the Amundsen Sea is discussed in detail. - Highlights: • Novel method to estimate risk of autonomous vehicle loss in uncertain environments. • A framework to integrate frequentist and subjective probability modelling. • A Bayesian belief updating method for capturing variation in operating environment. • Graphical approach for sensitivity analysis, applicable to any BBN model validation. • Pragmatic case studies showing the application of the proposed framework.

  12. Community Weight Loss to Combat Obesity and Disability in At-Risk Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W Jack; Ambrosius, Walter T; Burdette, Jonathan H; Walkup, Michael P; Marsh, Anthony P

    2017-10-12

    Among older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or the metabolic syndrome, reduced mobility and loss of leg strength are important risk factors for morbidity, disability, and mortality. It is unclear whether community-based approaches to weight loss may be an effective solution to this public health challenge. An 18-month three-site, randomized controlled trial conducted by YMCA staff, with blinded assessors, enrolled 249 older, overweight, and obese adults with either cardiovascular disease or metabolic syndrome with randomization to three interventions: weight loss alone (WL), weight loss + aerobic training (WL + AT), and weight loss + resistance training (WT + RT). The dual primary outcomes were 400-m walk time in seconds and knee extensor strength in Newton meters. All groups lost weight from baseline: average baseline adjusted change of -6.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.5 to -4.7) for WL only, -8.6% (95% CI: -10.0 to -7.2) for WL + AT, and -9.7% (95% CI: -11.1 to -8.4) for WL + RT. Combined, the two physical activity + WL training groups had greater improvement in walk time than WL alone (mean difference 16.9 seconds [95% CI: 9.7 to 24.0], p < .0001). Baseline adjusted change in knee extensor strength was no greater with WL + RT than WL + AT (mean difference -3.6 Nm [95% CI: -7.5 to 0.3], p = .07). At risk, older, overweight and obese adults can achieve clinically significant reductions in body weight with community-based weight loss programs. The change in percent weight loss and improvements in mobility are significantly enhanced when either RT or AT is combined with dietary WL. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Mathematical Modeling for Risk Averse Firm Facing Loss Averse Customer’s Stochastic Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungbeom Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To optimize the firm’s profit during a finite planning horizon, a dynamic programming model is used to make joint pricing and inventory replenishment decision assuming that customers are loss averse and the firm is risk averse. We model the loss averse customer’s demand using the multinomial choice model. In this choice model, we consider the acquisition and transition utilities widely used by a mental accounting theory which also incorporate the reference price and actual price. Then, we show that there is an optimal inventory policy which is base-stock policy depending on the accumulated wealth in each period.

  14. Knowledge Management (KM) Risk Assessment of Critical Knowledge Loss in an Organization with Expanding Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Risk and KM risk assessment of critical knowledge loss: • Risk is defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK,2004) as an event or unclear situation that will influence the timing, cost and quality of a project. • This study considers attrition due to retirements of its workforce -- A risk for the organization as it has implications of loss of knowledge for the organization and thereby on its quality and output. • This study assesses the magnitude of the anticipated Risk of Knowledge Loss in three Operational NPPs namely CNPGS (C-1 and C-2) and K-1 based on the factor of Time until Retirement

  15. Prior rates of visual field loss and lifetime risk of blindness in glaucomatous patients undergoing trabeculectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulsham, W S; Fu, L; Tatham, A J

    2015-10-01

    Trend-based analyses examining rates of visual field (VF) loss in glaucoma are useful for predicting risk of vision-related morbidity. Although patients with faster losses are likely to require treatment escalation, little is known about rates that might trigger a decision to intervene surgically. The aims of this study were to investigate prior rates of VF loss in patients attending for trabeculectomy and to estimate, in the absence of surgical intervention, lifetime risk of visual impairment, and blindness. A retrospective analysis of 117 eyes of 86 consecutive patients with glaucoma attending for trabeculectomy, including 53 patients referred from general ophthalmology clinics and 33 patients from specialist glaucoma clinics. Rates of change in standard automated perimetry mean deviation were examined using linear regression and random coefficient models. Risk of lifetime visual impairment and blindness was calculated using life expectancy data. Mean age at surgery was 71.0±9.7 years. Patients were followed for 10.7±7.5 years prior to surgery with an average of seven useable fields per eye. On average patients referred from general clinics lost 1.04 dB/year compared with 0.77 dB/year in those referred from glaucoma clinics (P=0.070). Patients referred from general clinics had more medication changes prior to surgery (3.4 and 2.6 changes, respectively; P=0.004). Given Scottish life expectancy data, untreated, 61 eyes (52%) would have passed the threshold for visual impairment, whereas 40 (34%) would have passed the threshold demarcating blindness. Patients attending for trabeculectomy had faster average rates of field loss prior to surgery than published values for the general glaucoma population with over one-third of eyes studied predicted to have become blind without intervention. Those managed by glaucoma specialists had fewer changes in medication and tended to slower rates of VF loss, although the latter did not reach statistical significance.

  16. Noise and hand-arm vibration exposure in relation to the risk of hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Pettersson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the possible association of combined exposure of noise and hand-arm vibration (HAV and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Workers in a heavy engineering industry were part of a dynamic cohort. Of these workers, 189 had HAV exposure, and their age and hearing status were recorded in the same year and were, therefore, included in the analysis. Data on HAV duration and acceleration was gathered through questionnaires, observations, and measurements. All available audiograms were categorized into normal and hearing loss. The first exposure variable included the lifetime HAV exposure. The lifetime HAV exposure was multiplied by the acceleration of HAV for the second and third exposure variable. Logistic regression using the Generalized Estimation Equations method was chosen to analyze the data to account for the repeated measurements. The analysis was performed with both continuous exposure variables and with exposure variables grouped into exposure quartiles with hearing loss as an outcome and age as a covariate. With continuous exposure variables, the odds ratio (OR with a 95% confidence interval (CI for hearing loss was equal to or greater than one for all exposure variables. When the exposure variables were grouped into quartiles, the OR with a 95% CI was greater than one at the third and fourth quartile. The results show that working with vibrating machines in an environment with noise exposure increases the risk of hearing loss, supporting an association between exposure to noise and HAV, and the noise-induced hearing loss.

  17. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2018-01-01

    to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). METHOD: We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi......-center 10 week diet intervention study with weekly weight measurements. We created 3 GRSs, one including all reported WHRadjBMI SNPs (GRStotal), one including only SNPs with genome wide significance in women or with significantly greater effect in women (GRSwomen), and one excluding SNPs in the GRSwomen...... (GRSmen). The data was analyzed in a mixed linear model framework. RESULTS: The GRStotal and GRSwomen attenuated weight loss in women. The effect was strongest for the GRSwomen with an effect of 2.21 g/risk allele/day [95% CI (0.90;3.52), P=0.0009]. Adjustment for WHR, basal metabolic rate or diet...

  18. Evaluation of knowledge loss risk in nuclear industry and research organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Marin; Apostol, Minodora; Balaceanu, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Institutional knowledge is defined as a collective knowledge of all employees in an organization or institution. The necessity to maintain organizational competency for nuclear power has been widely recognized given the nature of the business and the life cycle of 100 years or more. Our paper is intended to perform the first step in the knowledge loss risk assessment in nuclear organizations in Romania. Generally a three step procedure is needed for the evaluation process: - conducting the knowledge loss risk assessment; - determination of the approach needed to capture critical knowledge; - monitoring and evaluation. Taking into account the specificity of problems at organizational/institutional level, the difficulty of finding of a common approach, and the necessity to harmonize different interests at national level, a National Nuclear Knowledge Strategy is compulsory needed. (authors)

  19. Risk factors associated with honey bee colony loss in apiaries in Galicia, NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Meana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out in Galicia, NW Spain, in order to estimate the magnitude of honey bee colony losses and to identify potential risk factors involved. A total of 99 samples from 99 apiaries were collected in spring using simple random sampling. According to international guidelines, the apiaries were classified as affected by colony loss or asymptomatic. Each sample consisted of worker bees, brood and comb-stored pollen. All worker bees and brood samples were analysed individually in order to detect the main honey bee pathogens. Moreover, the presence of residues of the most prevalent agrotoxic insecticides and acaricides was assessed in comb-stored pollen. The general characteristics of the apiaries and sanitary information regarding previous years was evaluated through questionnaires, while the vegetation surrounding the apiaries sampled was assessed by palynological analysis of comb-stored pollen. The colony loss prevalence was 53.5% (CI95%=43.2-63.9 and Nosema ceranae was found to be the only risk factor strongly associated with colony loss. The decision tree also pointed out the impact of the Varroa mite presence while variables such as apiary size, the incorrect application of Varroa mite treatments, and the presence of Acarapis woodi and Kashmir bee virus (KBV were identified as possible co-factors.

  20. Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Weight Loss and CVD Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulwiler, Carl; Brewer, Judson A.; Sinnott, Sinead; Loucks, Eric B.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity affects more than one-third of U.S. adults and is a major cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, primarily from cardiovascular disease. Traditional behavioral interventions for weight loss typically focus on diet and exercise habits and often give little attention to the role of stress and emotions in the initiation and maintenance of unhealthy behaviors, which may account for their modest results and considerable variability in outcomes. Stress eating and emotional eating are increasingly recognized as important targets of weight loss interventions. Mindfulness-based interventions were specifically developed to promote greater self-efficacy in coping with stress and negative emotions, and appear to be effective for a variety of conditions. In recent years researchers have begun to study mindfulness interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management. This review describes the rationale for the use of mindfulness in interventions for weight loss and CVD risk management, summarizes the research to date, and suggests priorities for future research. PMID:28405260

  1. Assessing the Risk of K-loss within the Belgian TSO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, B.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Organisations lose knowledge. Considering knowledge as a valuable asset, attention must be paid to the risk of losing it. The contribution of this paper is to propose a model—the knowledge critical grid (KCG)—that aims at assessing the risk of knowledge loss. Applied within the Belgian TSO, this model focuses on community-of-practices and network issues. Grounded on five knowledge issues, the KCG intends to assess the knowledge volatility and vulnerability levels of an organisation and define the best relevant knowledge management actions. (author).

  2. On the descriptive value of loss aversion in decisions under risk: Six clarifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Ert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of loss aversion in decisions under risk have led to mixed results. Losses appear to loom larger than gains in some settings, but not in others. The current paper clarifies these results by highlighting six experimental manipulations that tend to increase the likelihood of the behavior predicted by loss aversion. These manipulations include: (1 framing of the safe alternative as the status quo; (2 ensuring that the choice pattern predicted by loss aversion maximizes the probability of positive (rather than zero or negative outcomes; (3 the use of high nominal (numerical payoffs; (4 the use of high stakes; (5 the inclusion of highly attractive risky prospects that creates a contrast effect; and (6 the use of long experiments in which no feedback is provided and in which the computation of the expected values is difficult. In addition, the results suggest the possibility of learning in the absence of feedback: The tendency to select simple strategies, like ``maximize the worst outcome'' which implies ``loss aversion'', increases when this behavior is not costly. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  3. Area of hock hair loss in dairy cows: risk factors and correlation with a categorical scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P Y; Huxley, J N; Green, M J; Othman, A R; Potterton, S L; Brignell, C J; Kaler, J

    2015-02-01

    Data from 3691 dairy cows from 76 farms were used to investigate the risk factors associated with the area of hair loss over the lateral aspect of the hock and the correlation between the area of hair loss (as calculated using a hock map) and hock lesion scores determined using a pre-existing categorical scale. Six factors were associated with a greater area of hair loss, including cows with locomotion score 3, a cleanliness score (10/28 to 18/28), high daily milk yield (25.1-58.1 kg), poor body condition score (1-1.5), duration of winter housing (≥41 days) and some combinations of cubicle base and bedding materials. Compared with cows housed in cubicles with a concrete base and whole straw or rape straw bedding, cows housed in cubicles with concrete bases with sand or chopped straw bedding had smaller areas of hair loss and cows housed on a mattress base with whole straw or rape straw bedding had larger areas of hair loss. Area of hair loss, as measured on hock maps, was not significantly different between cows with score 1 (median 23.6 cm(2)) and score 2 (median 20.3 cm(2)) on the categorical scale for hock lesions. This suggests that the categorical scale was not reflecting the extent of hair loss and that hock maps are a good alternative for studying the dynamics of hock lesions over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Male Astronauts Have Greater Bone Loss and Risk of Hip Fracture Following Long Duration Spaceflights than Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellman, Rachel; Sibonga, Jean; Bouxsein, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews bone loss in males and compares it to female bone loss during long duration spaceflight. The study indicates that males suffer greater bone loss than females and have a greater risk of hip fracture. Two possible reason for the greater male bone loss are that the pre-menopausal females have the estrogen protection and the greater strength of men max out the exercise equipment that provide a limited resistance to 135 kg.

  5. Prevalence of vision loss among hospital in-patients; a risk factor for falls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leat, Susan J; Zecevic, Aleksandra A; Keeling, Alexis; Hileeto, Denise; Labreche, Tammy; Brymer, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Despite poor vision being a risk factor for falls, current hospital policies and practices often do not include a vision assessment at patient admission or in the hospital's incident reporting system when a fall occurs. Our purpose was to document the prevalence of vision loss in hospital general medicine units to increase awareness of poor vision as a potential risk factor for falls that occur within the hospital, and inform future preventative practice. This cross-sectional study took place in medicine units of an acute care hospital. Participants were adult in-patients. Visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity and stereoacuity were measured, and patients were screened for field loss, extinction and neglect. 115 participants took part (average age 67 ± 17, 48% female). Overall, 89% had a visual impairment defined as being outside the age-norms for one or more vision measure, 62% had low vision, and 36% had vision loss equivalent to legal blindness [VA equal to or poorer than 1.0 logMAR (6/60, 20/200) or ≥10x below age-norms]. There was a considerable discrepancy between the prevalence of low vision and the percentage of patients who reported an ocular diagnosis that would result in visual loss (30%). Ten patients fell during the study period, and of these 100% had visual impairment, 90% had low vision and 60% had vision loss equivalent to legal blindness, which compares to 58%, 22% and 9% for non-fallers. Similar high prevalences were found in those whose reason for admission to the hospital was a fall (92%, 63% and 33% respectively). Vision loss has a high prevalence among patients in hospital medicine units, and is higher still among those who fall. Since vision loss may be a contributing factor to falls that occur in hospitals, implementing an assessment of vision at hospital admission would be useful to alert staff to those patients who are at risk for falls due to poor vision, so that preventative measures can be applied. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic

  6. P2P Network Lending, Loss Given Default and Credit Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyou Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P network lending is a new mode of internet finance that still holds credit risk as its main risk. According to the internal rating method of the New Basel Accord, in addition to the probability of default, loss given default is also one of the important indicators of evaluation credit risks. Proceeding from the perspective of loss given default (LGD, this paper conducts an empirical study on the probability distribution of LGDs of P2P as well as its influencing factors with the transaction data of Lending Club. The results show that: (1 the LGDs of P2P loans presents an obvious unimodal distribution, the peak value is relatively high and tends to concentrate with the decrease of the borrower’s credit rating, indicating that the distribution of LGDs of P2P lending is similar to that of unsecured bonds; (2 The total asset of the borrower has no significant impact on LGD, the credit rating and the debt-to-income ratio exert a significant negative impact, while the term and amount of the loan produce a relatively strong positive impact. Therefore, when evaluating the borrower’s repayment ability, it is required to pay more attention to its assets structure rather than the size of its total assets. When carrying out risk control for the P2P platform, it is necessary to give priority to the control of default rate.

  7. Effect of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured...... the microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n = 30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8...... weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL...

  8. Mapping Erosion Risk in California's Rangelands Using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salls, W. B.; O'Geen, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil loss constitutes a multi-faceted problem for agriculture: in addition to reducing soil fertility and crop yield, it compromises downstream water quality. Sediment itself is a major issue for aquatic ecosystems, but also serves as a vector for transporting nutrients, pesticides, and pathogens. Rangelands are thought to be a contributor to water quality degradation in California, particularly in the northern Coast Range. Though total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) have been imposed in some watersheds, and countless rangeland water quality outreach activities have been conducted, the connection between grazing intensity recommendations and changes in water quality is poorly understood at the state level. This disconnect gives rise to poorly informed regulations and discourages adoption of best management practices by ranchers. By applying the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) at a statewide scale, we highlighted areas most prone to erosion. We also investigated how two different grazing intensity scenarios affect modeled soil loss. Geospatial data layers representing the USLE parameters—rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, and cover—were overlaid to model annual soil loss. Monitored suspended sediment data from a small North Coast watershed with grazing as the predominant land use was used to validate the model. Modeled soil loss values were nearly one order of magnitude higher than monitored values; average soil loss feeding the downstream-most site was modeled at 0.329 t ha-1 yr-1, whereas storm-derived sediment passing the site over two years was calculated to be 0.037 t ha-1 yr-1. This discrepancy may stem from the fact that the USLE models detached sediment, whereas stream monitoring reflects sediment detached and subsequently transported to the waterway. Preliminary findings from the statewide map support the concern that the North Coast is particularly at risk given its combination of intense rain, erodible soils, and

  9. Evaluation of very low birth weight (≤ 1,500 g) as a risk indicator for sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkoski-Barreiro, Silvia A; Falcón-González, Juan C; Limiñana-Cañal, José M; Ramos-Macías, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Hearing plays an essential role in the acquisition, development and maintenance of the properties of the speech and language. Birth weight is an indicator of biological maturation of the newborn. Premature newborns with very low birth weight (VLBW<1,500 g) constitute a group with the highest risk of sensorineural hearing loss. Our objective was to ascertain the degree of hearing loss, sensorineural hearing loss and presence of the association to other risk factors for hearing loss in VLBW infants included in the Universal Hearing Loss Screening Programme at the University Mother-Child Hospital of Gran Canaria (Spain) in the 2007-2010 period. This was a retrospective study of 364 infants with VLBW, measured by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem response. There were 112 newborn (30.8%) referred for auditory brainstem response. A diagnosis of hearing loss was given to 22 newborns (2.2%), 14 had conductive hearing loss and 8, sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL), of which 2 had bilateral profound hearing loss. The VLBW newborn presented the association to another risk factor in more than a quarter of the sample studied. All those diagnosed with SNHL were premature. The percentage of VLBW newborns diagnosed with hearing loss is higher than expected in the general population. All those diagnosed with SNHL were premature and presented one or 2 hearing risk factors associated with VLBW. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Increase in Fracture Risk Following Unintentional Weight Loss in Postmenopausal Women: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Juliet E.; Wyman, A; FitzGerald, Gordon; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Gehlbach, Stephen H; Greenspan, Susan L.; Hooven, Frederick H.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; March, Lyn; Coen Netelenbos, J.; Nieves, Jeri W.; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Saag, Kenneth G.; Siris, Ethel S.; Silverman, Stuart; Watts, Nelson B.; Anderson, Frederick A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased fracture risk has been associated with weight loss in postmenopausal women but the time course over which this occurs has not been established. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb (4.5 kg) in postmenopausal women on fracture risk at multiple sites up to 5 years following weight loss. Using data from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) we analyzed the relationships between self-reported unintentional weight loss of ≥10 lb at baseline, year 2, or year 3 and incident clinical fracture in the years following weight loss. Complete data were available in 40,179 women (mean age ± SD 68 ± 8.3 years). Five-year cumulative fracture rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and adjusted hazard ratios for weight loss as a time-varying covariate were calculated from Cox multiple regression models. Unintentional weight loss at baseline was associated with a significantly increased risk of fracture of the clavicle, wrist, spine, rib, hip, and pelvis for up to 5 years following weight loss. Adjusted hazard ratios showed a significant association between unintentional weight loss and fracture of the hip, spine, and clavicle within 1 year of weight loss, and these associations were still present at 5 years. These findings demonstrate increased fracture risk at several sites after unintentional weight loss in postmenopausal women. This increase is seen as early as 1 year following weight loss, emphasizing the need for prompt fracture risk assessment and appropriate management to reduce fracture risk in this population. PMID:26861139

  11. Monitoring the risk of loss of heat sink during plant shutdowns at Bruce Generating Station 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.S.; Mancuso, F.; Vecchiarelli, D.

    1996-01-01

    A relatively simple loss of shutdown heat sink fault tree model has been developed and used during unit outages at Bruce Nuclear Generation Station 'A' to assess, from a risk and reliability perspective, alternative heat sink strategies and to aid in decisions on allowable outage configurations. The model is adjusted to reflect the various unit configurations planned during a specific outage, and identifies events and event combinations leading to loss of fuel cooling. The calculated failure frequencies are compared to the limits consistent with corporate and international public safety goals. The importance measures generated by the interrogation of the fault tree model for each outage configuration are also used to reschedule configurations with high fuel damage frequency later into the outage and to control the configurations with relatively high probability of fuel damage to short intervals at the most appropriate time into the outage. (author)

  12. Periodontal disease, tooth loss and colorectal cancer risk: Results from the Nurses' Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Babic, Ana; Tworoger, Shelley S; Zhang, Libin; Wu, Kana; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Ogino, Shuji; Chan, Andrew T; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey; Giovannucci, Edward; Fuchs, Charles; Cho, Eunyoung; Michaud, Dominique S; Stampfer, Meir J; Yu, Yau-Hua; Kim, David; Zhang, Xuehong

    2017-02-01

    Periodontal diseases including tooth loss might increase systemic inflammation, lead to immune dysregulation and alter gut microbiota, thereby possibly influencing colorectal carcinogenesis. Few epidemiological studies have examined the association between periodontal diseases and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We collected information on the periodontal disease (defined as history of periodontal bone loss) and number of natural teeth in the Nurses' Health Study. A total of 77,443 women were followed since 1992. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) after adjustment for smoking and other known risk factors for CRC. We documented 1,165 incident CRC through 2010. Compared to women with 25-32 teeth, the multivariable HR (95% CI) for CRC for women with periodontal disease, HRs for CRC were 0.91 (95% CI 0.74-1.12) for periodontal disease, and 1.22 (95% CI 0.91-1.63) when limited to moderate to severe periodontal disease. The results were not modified by smoking status, body mass index or alcohol consumption. Women with fewer teeth, possibly moderate or severe periodontal disease, might be at a modest increased risk of developing CRC, suggesting a potential role of oral health in colorectal carcinogenesis. © 2016 UICC.

  13. Loss-of-function mutation in ABCA1 and risk of Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Liv Tybjærg; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    .2%) versus AA (99.8%) was associated with a 13% lower plasma level of apoE (P = 1 × 10(-11)). Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios for N1800H AC versus AA were 4.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.32-12.9) for AD, 2.46 (1.10-5.50) for cerebrovascular disease, and 8.28 (2.03-33.7) for the hemorrhagic stroke......-brain barrier via apoE-mediated pathways. METHODS: We tested whether a loss-of-function mutation in ABCA1, N1800H, is associated with plasma levels of apoE and with risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 92,726 individuals and with risk of cerebrovascular disease in 64,181 individuals. RESULTS: N1800H AC (0...... subtype. DISCUSSION: A loss-of-function mutation in ABCA1, present in 1:500 individuals, was associated with low plasma levels of apoE and with high risk of AD and cerebrovascular disease in the general population....

  14. Relationship Between Changes in Fat and Lean Depots Following Weight Loss and Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Peter M

    2018-04-04

    Gluteofemoral fat mass has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. It is not clear if loss of this protective fat during weight loss partially negates the effect of loss of visceral fat. The aim of this study was to examine regional fat loss in a large weight-loss cohort from one center and to determine if fat loss in the leg and total lean tissue loss is harmful. We combined the data from 7 of our previously published 3-month weight-loss studies and examined the relationship between regional fat and lean tissue loss and changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in 399 participants. At baseline, leg fat was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women and inversely with fasting triglyceride level in both sexes. Abdominal lean tissue was also related to systolic blood pressure in men. Changes in regional fat and lean tissue were positively associated with changes in glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ( r =0.11-0.22, P lean tissue dominating in multivariate regression. After adjustment for total weight or total fat change, these relationships disappeared except for a positive relationship between arm and lean leg mass loss and changes in triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Loss of leg fat and leg lean tissue was directly associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Loss of lean tissue may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, and measures to retain lean tissue during weight loss may not be necessary. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  15. Perdas extremas em mercados de risco Extreme losses in risk markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo A Arraes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, infere-se sobre a distribuição de valores extremos de uma variável aleatória representada pelas severas perdas diárias em investimentos financeiros. A Teoria dos Valores Extremos (TVE fundamenta a modelagem de eventos gravosos raros, com expressivas conseqüências econômicas associadas a probabilidades muito pequenas de ocorrerem. Uma das grandes preocupações, na análise de riscos, é desenvolver técnicas para prever essas ocorrências excepcionais. Assim, as caudas das distribuições desses eventos raros são importantes para o estudo do risco, tornando a TVE uma ferramenta de grande valia para a estimação mais acurada do risco dessas perdas elevadas. Investigou-se, neste trabalho, a estimação de perdas máximas esperadas para séries financeiras, empregando-se: i métodos tradicionais, que utilizaram todos os dados amostrais para analisar a variável aleatória em questão e ii a metodologia dos Valores Extremos, particularmente a da Distribuição Generalizada dos Valores Extremos (DGVE, que utilizou apenas um conjunto de máximos amostrais para a estimação das perdas máximas esperadas. Concluiu-se que os métodos tradicionais subestimaram as perdas esperadas, sobretudo nas proximidades dos limites das caudas das distribuições, e que a DGVE mostrou-se bem mais eficiente na previsão dessas perdas extremas nas séries analisadas: Ibovespa, Merval, Dow Jones.This paper aims to infer about the distribution of extremes values of a continuous random variable, represented as the severe daily losses in financial markets investments. The Extreme Value Theory (EVT plays a fundamental role in modeling rare events associated with great losses and very small probabilities of occurrence. One of the great concerns in risk management is to develop analytic techniques to foresee those exceptions. In that way, the tails of the rare losses' probability density function (pdf are of great importance in evaluating that kind of

  16. Improved Safety Margin Characterization of Risk from Loss of Offsite Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Paul [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2017-11-07

    Original intent: The original intent of this task was “support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characteristic (RISMC) methodology in order” “to address … efficiency of computation so that more accurate and cost-effective techniques can be used to address safety margin characterizations” (S. M. Hess et al., “Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization,” Procs. ICONE17, Brussels, July 2009, CD format). It was intended that “in Task 1 itself this improvement will be directed toward upon the very important issue of Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) events,” more specifically toward the challenge of efficient computation of the multidimensional nonrecovery integral that has been discussed by many previous contributors to the theory of nuclear safety. It was further envisioned that “three different computational approaches will be explored,” corresponding to the three subtasks listed below; deliverables were tied to the individual subtasks.

  17. Donation frequency, iron loss, and risk of cancer among blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Reilly, Marie; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term deleterious effects of repeated blood donations may be masked by the donors' healthy lifestyle. To investigate possible effects of blood donation and iron loss through blood donation on cancer incidence while minimizing "healthy donor effects," we made dose......-response comparisons within a cohort of Swedish and Danish blood donors. METHODS: We used a nested case-control study design, in which case patients were defined as all donors who were diagnosed with a malignancy between their first recorded blood donation and study termination (n = 10866). Control subjects (n...... plasma donors (> 25 vs 0 donations, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.22 to 3.74). CONCLUSIONS: Repeated blood donation was not associated with increased or decreased risk of cancer overall. The lack of consistency across latency periods casts doubt on an apparent association between reduced cancer risk and iron...

  18. Weight loss, Mortality and associated potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors among nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this follow-up study is to assess the association between different potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors; weight loss after six and 12 months and mortality. Design and setting A one year follow-up project among Danish nursing home residents. Participants...... A total of 441 nursing home resident living in 11 nursing homes. Measurements Odds ratio was calculated and used to assess the strength of association between different potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors and nutritional status of the participants. The difference in mortality between those who...... at most meals, chewing and swallowing problems. The prevalence of eating dependency; leaves 25% or more of food uneaten at most meals; swallowing problems and enteral nutrition were higher among those who died than among survivors. Conclusion A high percentage of old nursing home residents suffer from...

  19. Evaluation of family history of permanent hearing loss in childhood as a risk indicator in universal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valido Quintana, Mercedes; Oviedo Santos, Ángeles; Borkoski Barreiro, Silvia; Santana Rodríguez, Alfredo; Ramos Macías, Ángel

    Sixty percent of prelingual hearing loss is of genetic origin. A family history of permanent childhood hearing loss is a risk factor. The objective of the study is to determine the relationship between this risk factor and hearing loss. We have evaluated clinical and epidemiological characteristics and related nonsyndromic genetic variation. This was a retrospective, descriptive and observational study of newborns between January 2007 and December 2010 with family history as risk factor for hearing loss using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and auditory brainstem response. A total of 26,717 children were born. Eight hundred and fifty-seven (3.2%) had family history. Fifty-seven(0.21%) failed to pass the second test. A percentage of 29.1 (n=16) had another risk factor, and 17.8% (n=9) had no classical risk factor. No risk factor was related to the hearing loss except heart disease. Seventy-six point four percent had normal hearing and 23.6% hearing loss. The mean of family members with hearing loss was 1.25. On genetic testing, 82.86% of homozygotes was normal, 11.43% heterozygosity in Connexin 26 gene (35delG), 2.86% R143W heterozygosity in the same gene and 2.86% mutant homozygotes (35delG). We found no relationship between hearing loss and mutated allele. The percentage of children with a family history and hearing loss is higher than expected in the general population. The genetic profile requires updating to clarify the relationship between hearing loss and heart disease, family history and the low prevalence in the mutations analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction between diabetes mellitus and hypertension on risk of hearing loss in highly endogamous population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Al-Hamaq, Abdulla O A A; Abdulhadi, Khalid; Salahaldin, Ahmed H; Gansan, Loida

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hearing loss and its association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a highly endogamous population. This is a cross-sectional study. The present study is carried out in Ear Nose Throat (ENT) and Endocrinology outpatient clinics of the Hamad General and Rumeilah Hospitals, Hamad Medical Corporation. All subjects aged between 20 and 59 years who visited the Endocrinology and ENT outpatient clinics of the Hamad Medical Corporation with hearing difficulty were included in this study during the period from January 2013 to July 2014. During the study period, prevalence, hearing, audiological test, family history and medical problems associated with hearing impairment in middle aged patients were recorded. Two audiometers Grason Stadler GSI 61 and Madsen Orbiter 922 were used to evaluate the hearing loss. Majority of the hearing loss observed at the age above 45 years old, (44.8% vs 51.7%, p=0.05). The prevalence of hearing impairment was higher in Qataris than in non-Qataris (59.7% vs 46.6%, pdiabetes onset duration (7.8±4.12years), sleeping disorder (5.81±1.29h), obese subjects (38% vs 27.4%); family history of diabetes (30.6 vs 23.1%) were higher among hearing impairment. The associated risk factors were significantly higher in T2DM with hearing loss, hypoglycemia (32.8% vs 27.4%), retinopathy (313% vs 18.5%), Nephropathy (17.9% vs 9.8%), Neuropathy (17.9% vs 10.2%), macro-vascular disease (11.9% vs 6.2%), diabetic foot ulcer (20.9% vs 12.6%), Tinnitus (68.7% vs 51.3%), and Vertigo (25.4% vs 16.9%) than in normal hearing diabetes. There was a statistically significant differences between hearing impairment and normal hearing among T2DM regarding hearing assessment frequency (p=0.041). There were statistically significant differences between hearing impairment versus normal hearing for vitamin D [18.91±7.65ng/mL vs 22.85±9.00ng/mL; pdiabetic patients. The current study results confirm previous reports

  1. Falls risk and hospitalization among retired workers with occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Serge André; Leroux, Tony; Verreault, René; Courteau, Marilène; Picard, Michel; Turcotte, Fernand; Baril, Julie

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to ascertain whether occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) increased the risk of falls requiring hospitalization among retired workers. The study population consisted of males (age ≥ 65) with an average occupational noise exposure of 30.6 years and whose mean bilateral hearing loss was 42.2 dB HL at 3, 4, and 6 kHz. Seventy-two retired workers admitted to hospitals after a fall were matched with 216 controls from the same industrial sectors. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk (odds ratio; [OR]) of falls leading to hospitalization by NIHL categories. Results showed a relationship between severe NIHL (≥ 52.5 dB HL) and the occurrence of a fall (OR: 1.97, CI95%: 1.001-3.876). Reducing falls among seniors fosters the maintenance of their autonomy. There is a definite need to acquire knowledge about harmful effects of occupational noise to support the prevention of NIHL and ensure healthier workplaces.

  2. Workers' compensation loss prevention representative contact and risk of lost-time injury in construction policyholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine E; Alexander, Bruce H; Gerberich, Susan G; MacLehose, Richard F

    2017-09-01

    Insurance loss prevention (LP) representatives have access and contact with businesses and employees to provide targeted safety and health resources. Construction firms, especially those smaller in size, are a high-risk population. This research evaluated the association between LP rep contact and risk for lost-time injuries in construction policyholders. Workers' compensation data were utilized to track LP rep contact with policyholders and incidence of lost-time injury over time. Survival analysis with repeated events modeling calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared no LP contact, one contact was associated with a 27% reduction of risk (HR=0.73, CI=0.65-0.82), two with a 41% (HR=0.59, CI=0.51-0.68), and three or more contacts with a 28% reduction of risk (HR=0.72, CI=0.65-0.81). LP reps appear to be a valuable partner in efforts to reduce injury burden. Their presence or contact with policyholders is consistent with reduction in overall incidence of lost-time injuries. Reduction in lost-time injuries, resulting in reduced workers' compensation costs for policyholders and insurance companies, builds a business-case for safety and injury prevention. LP reps are often a low or no-cost benefit for insurance policyholders and may be an important injury prevention resource for small firms and/or those with lack of safety resources and staff. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome Increases the Risk of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Taiwan: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chen-Yu; Tai, Shu-Yu; Wang, Ling-Feng; Hsi, Edward; Chang, Ning-Chia; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Ho, Kuen-Yao

    2015-07-01

    Sudden sensorineural hearing loss has been reported to be associated with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in previous studies. The aim of this study was to examine whether metabolic syndrome increases the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in Taiwan. A case-control study. Tertiary university hospital. We retrospectively investigated 181 cases of sudden sensorineural hearing loss and 181 controls from the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, in southern Taiwan from 2010 to 2012, comparing their clinical variables. We analyzed the relationship between metabolic syndrome and sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III with Asian modifications. The demographic and clinical characteristics, audiometry results, and outcome were reviewed. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had a 3.54-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.00-6.43, P diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. With increases in the number of metabolic syndrome components, the risk of sudden sensorineural hearing loss increased (P for trend Vertigo was associated with a poor outcome (P = .02; 95% CI = 1.13~5.13, adjusted odds ratio = 2.39). The hearing loss pattern may influence the outcome of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (P Vertigo and total hearing loss were indicators of a poor outcome in sudden sensorineural hearing loss. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  4. Benefits and risks of weight-loss treatment for older, obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen LM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lauren M Rossen,1,2 Vanessa A Milsom,1,3 Kathryn R Middleton,1,4 Michael J Daniels,5,6 Michael G Perri1,71Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 4Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Statistics and Scientific Computation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 7College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: A key issue in the treatment of obesity in older adults is whether the health benefits of weight loss outweigh the potential risks with respect to musculoskeletal injury.Objective: To compare change in weight, improvements in metabolic risk factors, and reported musculoskeletal adverse events in middle-aged (50–59 years and older (65–74 years, obese women.Materials and methods: Participants completed an initial 6-month lifestyle intervention for weight loss, comprised of weekly group sessions, followed by 12 months of extended care with biweekly contacts. Weight and fasting blood samples were assessed at baseline, month 6, and month 18; data regarding adverse events were collected throughout the duration of the study.Results: Both middle-aged (n = 162 and older (n = 56 women achieved significant weight reductions from baseline to month 6 (10.1 ± 0.68 kg and 9.3 ± 0.76 kg, respectively and maintained a large proportion of their losses at month 18 (7.6 ± 0.87 kg and 7.6 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to weight change. Older women further

  5. Analysis of risk factors associated with unilateral hearing loss in children who initially passed newborn hearing screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Eric N; Howell, Jessica B; Chapman, Derek; Pandya, Arti; Dodson, Kelley M

    2018-03-01

    To analyze 2007 Joint Committee on Infant Hearing (JCIH) risk factors in children with confirmed unilateral hearing loss (UHL) who initially passed newborn hearing screening. Retrospective record review of 16,108 infants who passed newborn hearing screening but had one or more JCIH risk factors prompting subsequent follow-up through the universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) program in Virginia from 2010 to 2012. The study was reviewed and qualified as exempt by the Virginia Commonwealth University Institutional Review Board (IRB) and the Virginia Department of Health. Over the 2-year study period, 14896 (4.9% of total births) children passed UNHS but had the presence of one or more JCIH risk factor. Ultimately, we identified 121 babies from this group with confirmed hearing loss (0.7%), with 48 babies (0.2%) showing UHL. The most common risk factors associated with the development of confirmed UHL after passing the initial screen were neonatal indicators, craniofacial anomalies, family history, and stigmata of syndrome associated with hearing loss. Neonatal indicators and craniofacial anomalies were the categories most often found in children with confirmed unilateral hearing loss who initially passed their newborn hearing screen. While neonatal indicators were also the most common associated risk factor in all hearing loss, craniofacial abnormalities are relatively more common in children with UHL who initially passed newborn hearing screening. Further studies assessing the etiology underlying the hearing loss and risk factor associations are warranted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decisions for Others Are Less Risk-Averse in the Gain Frame and Less Risk-Seeking in the Loss Frame Than Decisions for the Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyi; Liu, Yi; Chen, Xiyou; Shang, Xuesong; Liu, Yongfang

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that people make decisions for others as often as they make decisions for themselves, little is known about how decisions for others are different from those made for the self. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of social distance (i.e., making decisions for oneself, a friend, or a stranger) on risk preferences in both gain and loss situations. We found that people were more risk averse in gain situations when they made decisions for themselves than for a stranger (Studies 1 and 2), but were equally risk averse for themselves and their friends (Study 2). However, people were more risk seeking in loss situations when they made decisions for themselves than for their friends as well as for a stranger, and were more risk seeking for their friends than for a stranger (Study 2). Furthermore, the effect of social distance on risk preferences was stronger in loss than in gain situations. Mediation analysis indicated that outcome-induced loss aversion was responsible for effects of social distance on risk preferences. These findings demonstrate that social distance influences risk preferences via perceived loss aversion, which sheds new light on self-other differences in decision making. PMID:28966604

  7. Decisions for Others Are Less Risk-Averse in the Gain Frame and Less Risk-Seeking in the Loss Frame Than Decisions for the Self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyi; Liu, Yi; Chen, Xiyou; Shang, Xuesong; Liu, Yongfang

    2017-01-01

    Despite the fact that people make decisions for others as often as they make decisions for themselves, little is known about how decisions for others are different from those made for the self. In two experiments, we investigated the effect of social distance (i.e., making decisions for oneself, a friend, or a stranger) on risk preferences in both gain and loss situations. We found that people were more risk averse in gain situations when they made decisions for themselves than for a stranger (Studies 1 and 2), but were equally risk averse for themselves and their friends (Study 2). However, people were more risk seeking in loss situations when they made decisions for themselves than for their friends as well as for a stranger, and were more risk seeking for their friends than for a stranger (Study 2). Furthermore, the effect of social distance on risk preferences was stronger in loss than in gain situations. Mediation analysis indicated that outcome-induced loss aversion was responsible for effects of social distance on risk preferences. These findings demonstrate that social distance influences risk preferences via perceived loss aversion, which sheds new light on self-other differences in decision making.

  8. Reinforcement learning models of risky choice and the promotion of risk-taking by losses disguised as wins in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew T; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2017-07-01

    Risky decisions are inherently characterized by the potential to receive gains or incur losses, and these outcomes have distinct effects on subsequent decision-making. One important factor is that individuals engage in loss-chasing, in which the reception of a loss is followed by relatively increased risk-taking. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of loss-chasing are poorly understood, despite the potential importance for understanding pathological choice behavior. The goal of the present experiment was to illuminate the mechanisms governing individual differences in loss-chasing and risky-choice behaviors. Rats chose between a low-uncertainty outcome that always delivered a variable amount of reward and a high-uncertainty outcome that probabilistically delivered reward. Loss-processing and loss-chasing were assessed in the context of losses disguised as wins (LDWs), which are loss outcomes that are presented along with gain-related stimuli. LDWs have been suggested to interfere with adaptive decision-making in humans and thus potentially increase loss-making. Here, the rats presented with LDWs were riskier, in that they made more choices for the high-uncertainty outcome. A series of nonlinear models were fit to individual rats' data to elucidate the possible psychological mechanisms that best account for individual differences in high-uncertainty choices and loss-chasing behaviors. The models suggested that the rats presented with LDWs were more prone to showing a stay bias following high-uncertainty outcomes compared to rats not presented with LDWs. These results collectively suggest that LDWs acquire conditioned reinforcement properties that encourage continued risk-taking and increase loss-chasing following previous high-risk decisions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Loss-of-function of neuroplasticity-related genes confers risk for human neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Milo R; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Li, Li; Chen, Rong; Morishita, Hirofumi; Dudley, Joel T

    2018-01-01

    High and increasing prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders place enormous personal and economic burdens on society. Given the growing realization that the roots of neurodevelopmental disorders often lie in early childhood, there is an urgent need to identify childhood risk factors. Neurodevelopment is marked by periods of heightened experience-dependent neuroplasticity wherein neural circuitry is optimized by the environment. If these critical periods are disrupted, development of normal brain function can be permanently altered, leading to neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we aim to systematically identify human variants in neuroplasticity-related genes that confer risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Historically, this knowledge has been limited by a lack of techniques to identify genes related to neurodevelopmental plasticity in a high-throughput manner and a lack of methods to systematically identify mutations in these genes that confer risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Using an integrative genomics approach, we determined loss-of-function (LOF) variants in putative plasticity genes, identified from transcriptional profiles of brain from mice with elevated plasticity, that were associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. From five shared differentially expressed genes found in two mouse models of juvenile-like elevated plasticity (juvenile wild-type or adult Lynx1-/- relative to adult wild-type) that were also genotyped in the Mount Sinai BioMe Biobank we identified multiple associations between LOF genes and increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders across 10,510 patients linked to the Mount Sinai Electronic Medical Records (EMR), including epilepsy and schizophrenia. This work demonstrates a novel approach to identify neurodevelopmental risk genes and points toward a promising avenue to discover new drug targets to address the unmet therapeutic needs of neurodevelopmental disease.

  10. Reducing Risk of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Collegiate Music Ensembles Using Ambient Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jason; Chesky, Kris

    2017-09-01

    Student musicians are at risk for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) as they develop skills and perform during instructional activities. Studies using longitudinal dosimeter data show that pedagogical procedures and instructor behaviors are highly predictive of NIHL risk, thus implying the need for innovative approaches to increase instructor competency in managing instructional activities without interfering with artistic and academic freedom. Ambient information systems, an emerging trend in human-computer interaction that infuses psychological behavioral theories into technologies, can help construct informative risk-regulating systems. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of introducing an ambient information system into the ensemble setting. The system used two ambient displays and a counterbalanced within-subjects treatment study design with six jazz ensemble instructors to determine if the system could induce a behavior change that alters trends in measures resulting from dosimeter data. This study assessed efficacy using time series analysis to determine changes in eight statistical measures of behavior over a 9-wk period. Analysis showed that the system was effective, as all instructors showed changes in a combination of measures. This study is in an important step in developing non-interfering technology to reduce NIHL among academic musicians.

  11. Prenatal malnutrition and subsequent foetal loss risk: Evidence from the 1959-1961 Chinese famine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shige Song

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientists disagree on whether prenatal malnutrition has long-term influences on women's reproductive function, and empirical evidence of such long-term effects remains limited and inconsistent. Methods: Using the retrospective pregnancy history of 12,567 Chinese women collected in a nationally representative sample survey in 2001, this study conducted difference-in-differences analyses to investigate the relationship between prenatal exposure to the 1959-1961 Great Leap Forward Famine in China and the subsequent risk of involuntary foetal loss, including miscarriage and stillbirth, and how this relationship changes between the rural and urban populations. Results: Prenatal exposure to the Great Leap Forward Famine had no long-term effect on women's risk of miscarriage. Such an exposure increased the risk of stillbirth among urban women but not among rural women. Conclusions: The results support the foetal origins hypothesis. The significant urban-rural difference in the effect of prenatal famine exposure on stillbirth suggests the presence of a long-term negative foetal origins effect and a strong selection effect caused by famine-induced population attrition.

  12. Estimating surface soil erosion losses and mapping erosion risk for Yusufeli micro-catchment (Artvin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tüfekçioğlu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Sheet erosion, one of the most important types of water erosion, takes place on the top soil as tiny soil layer movement that affects lake and stream ecosystem. This type of erosion is very important because the productive soil layer on the top soil can be lost in a very short period of time. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of surface (sheet and rill soil erosion, and to identify areas under high erosion risk within the study area at Yusufeli province in Artvin by using RUSLE erosion methodology. As a result of the study it was found that the average annual potential soil loss by surface erosion was 3.6 ton ha-1yr-1. Additionally, the maps produced and conclusions reached by the study revealed that the areas of high erosion risk were identified spatially and measures to control erosion on some of these high risk areas can be possible with appropriate erosion control techniques.

  13. Impact of graft loss among kidney diseases with a high risk of post-transplant recurrence in the paediatric population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Stralen, Karlijn J; Verrina, Enrico; Belingheri, Mirco

    2013-01-01

    Some kidney diseases tend to recur in the renal allograft after transplantation. We studied the risk of graft loss among primary renal diseases known for their high risk of recurrence and compared it with that of patients with hypoplasia and/or dysplasia....

  14. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  15. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  16. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  17. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wacawski-Wende, Jean

    1997-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  18. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1998-01-01

    ... and oral bone loss, periodontal disease and tooth loss. We hypothesize that reduction in bone density leading to osteoporosis, plays a significant role in increasing susceptibility to destructive periodontitis and tooth loss...

  19. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth A Polidoro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16% are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.

  20. The loss of species: mangrove extinction risk and geographic areas of global concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Carpenter, Kent E; Collins, Lorna; Duke, Norman C; Ellison, Aaron M; Ellison, Joanna C; Farnsworth, Elizabeth J; Fernando, Edwino S; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Koedam, Nico E; Livingstone, Suzanne R; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Moore, Gregg E; Ngoc Nam, Vien; Ong, Jin Eong; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Salmo, Severino G; Sanciangco, Jonnell C; Sukardjo, Sukristijono; Wang, Yamin; Yong, Jean Wan Hong

    2010-04-08

    Mangrove species are uniquely adapted to tropical and subtropical coasts, and although relatively low in number of species, mangrove forests provide at least US $1.6 billion each year in ecosystem services and support coastal livelihoods worldwide. Globally, mangrove areas are declining rapidly as they are cleared for coastal development and aquaculture and logged for timber and fuel production. Little is known about the effects of mangrove area loss on individual mangrove species and local or regional populations. To address this gap, species-specific information on global distribution, population status, life history traits, and major threats were compiled for each of the 70 known species of mangroves. Each species' probability of extinction was assessed under the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Eleven of the 70 mangrove species (16%) are at elevated threat of extinction. Particular areas of geographical concern include the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of Central America, where as many as 40% of mangroves species present are threatened with extinction. Across the globe, mangrove species found primarily in the high intertidal and upstream estuarine zones, which often have specific freshwater requirements and patchy distributions, are the most threatened because they are often the first cleared for development of aquaculture and agriculture. The loss of mangrove species will have devastating economic and environmental consequences for coastal communities, especially in those areas with low mangrove diversity and high mangrove area or species loss. Several species at high risk of extinction may disappear well before the next decade if existing protective measures are not enforced.

  1. A global building inventory for earthquake loss estimation and risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, K.; Wald, D.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a global database of building inventories using taxonomy of global building types for use in near-real-time post-earthquake loss estimation and pre-earthquake risk analysis, for the U.S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) program. The database is available for public use, subject to peer review, scrutiny, and open enhancement. On a country-by-country level, it contains estimates of the distribution of building types categorized by material, lateral force resisting system, and occupancy type (residential or nonresidential, urban or rural). The database draws on and harmonizes numerous sources: (1) UN statistics, (2) UN Habitat's demographic and health survey (DHS) database, (3) national housing censuses, (4) the World Housing Encyclopedia and (5) other literature. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  2. Epidemiologic Analyses of Risk Factors for Bone Loss and Recovery Related to Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean; Amin, Shreyasee

    2010-01-01

    AIM 1: To investigate the risk of microgravity exposure on long-term changes in bone health and fracture risk. compare data from crew members ("observed") with what would be "expected" from Rochester Bone Health Study. AIM 2: To provide a summary of current evidence available on potential risk factors for bone loss, recovery & fracture following long-duration space flight. integrative review of all data pre, in-, and post-flight across disciplines (cardiovascular, nutrition, muscle, etc.) and their relation to bone loss and recovery

  3. Auditory brainstem response screening for hearing loss in high risk neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, D R; McClelland, R J; Adams, D A

    1996-07-01

    The present paper reports the findings of a 7 year study evaluating the use of the auditory brainstem response (ABR) as the basis of a hearing screening procedure in a group of newborns at increased risk of hearing impairment. A Special Care Baby Unit (SCBU) population of 417 infants with diverse clinical backgrounds and treatment histories was tested for hearing impairment at birth using ABR audiometry. Some 332 passed the original screen at 30 dBnHL test level in both ears. Of the failure group, 18 did not survive and 32 had some degree of hearing impairment confirmed, nine of which were sensorineural in origin. An increased incidence of persistent middle ear disease was also noted in the failure group. A detailed operational analysis demonstrates that provided appropriate pass/fail criteria are adopted, the ABR technique offers excellent sensitivity and specificity for the detection of significant hearing loss in the test population. Furthermore, the study establishes that implementation of an ABR-based screening programme could reduce the average age at detection of permanent hearing loss by 7 months. A cost assessment shows that the introduction of such a targetted screening procedure could be done at a reasonable outlay.

  4. Risk assessment of influence factors on occupational hearing loss in noise – exposed workers in typical metal industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhadian Maryam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : Worker exposure conditions such as noise level, exposure duration, use of hearing protection devices and health behaviors are commonly related to noise induced hearing loss. The objective of this study was risk assessment of influence factors on occupational hearing loss in noise exposed workers in typical noisy process . Methods : Information about occupational exposure of seventy workers employed in a noisy press workshop was gathered using the standard questionnaire. Audiometery test was performed using the screening audiometer (Model-Mevox. Afterward, the collected data was analyzed by using the Cox model in SPSS software. Results : Based on results of the developed model, the job type and using status of HPD were most important features to induce hearing loss among workers. The risk of hearing loss among workers with the intermittent use of hearing protection was 3.1 times more than workers used their devices continuously. Relative risk of hearing loss among smoker workers compared with non-smoker was 1.1. Conclusion : The developed model could determine the effects of workers’ exposure conditions on risk of occupational hearing loss. This systematic approach can be considered as a helpful tool for determination the effectiveness of hearing conservation program and provide useful information for the managers and professionals in order to revise the existing health programs.

  5. ECT and memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, L R

    1977-09-01

    The author reviews several studies that clarify the nature of the memory loss associated with ECT. Bilateral ECT produced greater anterograde memory loss than right unilateral ECT and more extensive retrograde amnesia than unilateral ECT. Reactivating memories just before ECT did not produce amnesia. Capacity for new learning recovered substantially by several months after ECT, but memory complaints were common in individuals who had received bilateral ECT. Other things being equal, right unilateral ECT seems preferable to bilateral ECT because the risks to memory associated with unilateral ECT are smaller.

  6. Improved Safety Margin Characterization of Risk from Loss of Offsite Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Original intent: The original intent of this task was ''support of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characteristic (RISMC) methodology in order'' ''to address ... efficiency of computation so that more accurate and cost-effective techniques can be used to address safety margin characterizations'' (S. M. Hess et al., ''Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization,'' Procs. ICONE17, Brussels, July 2009, CD format). It was intended that ''in Task 1 itself this improvement will be directed toward upon the very important issue of Loss of Offsite Power (LOOP) events,'' more specifically toward the challenge of efficient computation of the multidimensional nonrecovery integral that has been discussed by many previous contributors to the theory of nuclear safety. It was further envisioned that ''three different computational approaches will be explored,'' corresponding to the three subtasks listed below; deliverables were tied to the individual subtasks.

  7. Loss of migratory behaviour increases infection risk for a butterfly host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Dara A.; Maerz, John C.; Altizer, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Long-distance animal migrations have important consequences for infectious disease dynamics. In some cases, migration lowers pathogen transmission by removing infected individuals during strenuous journeys and allowing animals to periodically escape contaminated habitats. Human activities are now causing some migratory animals to travel shorter distances or form sedentary (non-migratory) populations. We focused on North American monarch butterflies and a specialist protozoan parasite to investigate how the loss of migratory behaviours affects pathogen spread and evolution. Each autumn, monarchs migrate from breeding grounds in the eastern US and Canada to wintering sites in central Mexico. However, some monarchs have become non-migratory and breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern US. We used field sampling, citizen science data and experimental inoculations to quantify infection prevalence and parasite virulence among migratory and sedentary populations. Infection prevalence was markedly higher among sedentary monarchs compared with migratory monarchs, indicating that diminished migration increases infection risk. Virulence differed among parasite strains but was similar between migratory and sedentary populations, potentially owing to high gene flow or insufficient time for evolutionary divergence. More broadly, our findings suggest that human activities that alter animal migrations can influence pathogen dynamics, with implications for wildlife conservation and future disease risks. PMID:25589600

  8. Recovery of Abnormal ABR in Neonates and Infants at Risk of Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Psarommatis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study is to present the clinical experience of a single institution on the recovery of ABR thresholds in a large population of neonates and infants at risk of hearing loss. Potential prognostic factors associated with this phenomenon were also investigated. Out of 2248 high risk infants, 384 had abnormal ABR at initial hearing evaluation and 168 of them had absent ABR or a threshold ≥80 dBnHL. From this subgroup, a significant percentage showed complete or partial recovery on reexamination (32.7% and 9.3%, resp., performed 4–6 months later. The presence of normal otoacoustic emissions was associated with the ABR restoration on reexamination. Moreover, the very young age at the initial hearing screening seems to be related to higher probabilities of false positive ABR. The potential recovery of hearing in HR infants raises concerns about the very early cochlear implantation in HR infants less than one year. Such a treatment modality should be decided cautiously and only after obtaining valid and stable objective and subjective hearing thresholds. This holds especially true for infants showing an auditory neuropathy profile, as they presented a much greater probability of ABR recovery.

  9. Recovery of Abnormal ABR in Neonates and Infants at Risk of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarommatis, Ioannis; Voudouris, Charalampos; Kapetanakis, Ioannis; Athanasiadi, Faselida; Douros, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to present the clinical experience of a single institution on the recovery of ABR thresholds in a large population of neonates and infants at risk of hearing loss. Potential prognostic factors associated with this phenomenon were also investigated. Out of 2248 high risk infants, 384 had abnormal ABR at initial hearing evaluation and 168 of them had absent ABR or a threshold ≥80 dBnHL. From this subgroup, a significant percentage showed complete or partial recovery on reexamination (32.7% and 9.3%, resp.), performed 4-6 months later. The presence of normal otoacoustic emissions was associated with the ABR restoration on reexamination. Moreover, the very young age at the initial hearing screening seems to be related to higher probabilities of false positive ABR. The potential recovery of hearing in HR infants raises concerns about the very early cochlear implantation in HR infants less than one year. Such a treatment modality should be decided cautiously and only after obtaining valid and stable objective and subjective hearing thresholds. This holds especially true for infants showing an auditory neuropathy profile, as they presented a much greater probability of ABR recovery.

  10. Sensitivity of soil phosphorus tests in predicting the potential risk of phosphorus loss from pasture soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. SOINNE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effects of urine and dung additions on the phosphorus (P chemistry of pasture land and to compare the sensitivity of two soil extraction methods in assessing the P-loading risk. In a field experiment, urine and dung were added to soil in amounts corresponding to single excrement portions and the soil samples, taken at certain intervals, were analysed for pHH2O, acid ammonium acetate extractable P (PAc and water extractable total P (TPw, and molybdate reactive P (MRPw. Urine additions immediately increased soil pH and MRPw, but no such response was observed in PAc extraction due to the low pH (4.65 of the extractant enhancing the resorption of P. The PAc responded to the dunginduced increase in soil total P similarly as did Pw, which suggests that both tests can serve to detect areas of high P concentration. However, water extraction was a more sensitive method for estimating short-term changes in P solubility. In pasture soils, the risk of P loss increases as a result of the interaction of urination and high P concentration in the topsoil resulting from continuous dung excretion.;

  11. Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs of Mothers Regarding the Risk Factors of Infant Hearing Loss and Awareness of Audiology Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Samantha M; Khan, Nasim Banu

    2017-06-23

    The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients.

  12. Knowledge and Cultural Beliefs of Mothers Regarding the Risk Factors of Infant Hearing Loss and Awareness of Audiology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Samantha M.; Khan, Nasim Banu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to describe the knowledge of mothers in Durban, South Africa, regarding risk factors of hearing loss in infants and their awareness of audiology services, and to describe their cultural beliefs about the risk factors for hearing loss in infants. A descriptive survey design with quantitative methods of analysis were used. Conveniently sampled mothers (n=102) receiving postnatal care for their infants from eight provincial clinics within Durban consented to participate, yielding a response rate of 48%. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and the Cronbach α was calculated yielding a score of 0.835, indicating good internal consistency and reliability of the questionnaire. Sixty percent of the mothers were aware of risk factors, such as middle ear infections, ototoxic medication and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. Seventy percent were unaware that NICU/mechanical ventilation for more than 5 days, prematurity, rubella and jaundice are considered risk factors for hearing loss, implying a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding such risk factors. Sixty percent (n=62) believed that bewitchment and ancestral curses can cause hearing loss. Cultural beliefs were associated with hearing loss, therefore, health professionals need to demonstrate cultural competence when providing audiology services, especially in a culturally and linguistically diverse countries such as South Africa. Although the mothers had an average knowledge about risk factors, two thirds did not know which professional to seek help from. There is a need to create awareness amongst mothers regarding the risk factors of infant hearing loss as well as audiology services in order to facilitate early detection and intervention. There is a need for health professionals to demonstrate cultural competence when working with their patients. PMID:28890772

  13. Periodontal Disease and Tooth Loss as Risks for Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadighi Shamami, M; Sadighi Shamami, M; Amini, S

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic destructive disease which occurs in adults, young people, and children. Periodontal disease and periodontal pathogens have been associated with several systemic diseases and more recently, several studies have suggested the relationship between periodontal disease and cancer. Studies with adjustment for the effect of smoking exposure, have found significant positive associations with different cancer sites. This review has outlined recent epidemiologic researches pointing to a possible role for tooth loss and periodontal disease in carcinogenesis. In this review, articles were selected from PubMed between1995 and June 2010 including human. Amongst 5,984 articles identified from the electronic search, 17 articles were selected for a full-text reading based on the inclusion and the exclusion criteria. Nine out of 10 case-control studies reported a significant increase in the risk of oral cancer in patients with periodontitis and one with no significant association. Among 6 studies examining esophageal cancer and periodontal disease, 5 studies found a significant association between them and one study failed to find a significant increased risk of cancer. Also amongst 5 studies which focused on upper gastrointestinal, gastric cancer, and periodontal disease, 4 studies found an increased risk of cancer while one study did not report any relationship. In lung cancer evaluations, 3 out of 4 studies showed some levels of association between lung cancer and periodontal disease but after adjustment for smoking, no relationship were found. Three cohort studies have evaluated overall cancer rates in periodontal patients; two of them found small but significant association between cancers and periodontal disease. The results indicate that there is a possible link between cancer and severe periodontal disease after adjustment for smoking and drinking habits.

  14. Earthquake Loss Assessment for the Evaluation of the Sovereign Risk and Financial Sustainability of Countries and Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, O. D.

    2013-05-01

    Recently earthquakes have struck cities both from developing as well as developed countries, revealing significant knowledge gaps and the need to improve the quality of input data and of the assumptions of the risk models. The quake and tsunami in Japan (2011) and the disasters due to earthquakes in Haiti (2010), Chile (2010), New Zealand (2011) and Spain (2011), only to mention some unexpected impacts in different regions, have left several concerns regarding hazard assessment as well as regarding the associated uncertainties to the estimation of the future losses. Understanding probable losses and reconstruction costs due to earthquakes creates powerful incentives for countries to develop planning options and tools to cope with sovereign risk, including allocating the sustained budgetary resources necessary to reduce those potential damages and safeguard development. Therefore the use of robust risk models is a need to assess the future economic impacts, the country's fiscal responsibilities and the contingent liabilities for governments and to formulate, justify and implement risk reduction measures and optimal financial strategies of risk retention and transfer. Special attention should be paid to the understanding of risk metrics such as the Loss Exceedance Curve (empiric and analytical) and the Expected Annual Loss in the context of conjoint and cascading hazards.

  15. Risk assessment of influence factors on occupational hearing loss in noise – exposed workers in typical metal industry

    OpenAIRE

    Farhadian Maryam; Aliabadi Mohsen; Shahidi Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives : Worker exposure conditions such as noise level, exposure duration, use of hearing protection devices and health behaviors are commonly related to noise induced hearing loss. The objective of this study was risk assessment of influence factors on occupational hearing loss in noise exposed workers in typical noisy process . Methods : Information about occupational exposure of seventy workers employed in a noisy press workshop was gathered using the standard quest...

  16. TREES OF DAMAGES AS A MODEL OF RISKS ASSESSMENT FOR AVAILABILITY LOSSES AFTER CHANGES IN FINANCIAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Arustamov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methodology for risks assessment of availability losses in financial information systems after changes made in them by using trees of damages. A description of damages tree generation for each identified possible event is presented that potentially can lead to the system availability loss. An example is given, illustrating the methodology application that gives the possibility to choose the optimal software testing strategy.

  17. Azathioprine reduces the risk of audiometric relapse in immune-mediated hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Castro, Nieves; Gavilanes-Plasencia, Javier; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael; García-Fernández, Alfredo; García-Berrocal, José Ramón

    2018-03-01

    Current schemes for treatment of immune-mediated hearing loss with sporadic short-course, low-dose corticosteroids, are insufficient. To determine the role of azathioprine in the control of auditory impairment, a longitudinal, observational, descriptive study was performed with 20 patients treated with azathioprine (1.5-2.5mg/kg/day into two doses) for 1year. The loss of 10dB on two consecutive frequencies or 15dB on an isolated frequency was considered as relapse. The mean age of the patients was 52.50years (95%CI: 46.91-58.17), half were women. Bilateral affectation was 65%. 75% had organ specific disease and 25% had systemic autoimmune disease. The difference between baseline PTA (46.49dB; DS18.90) and PTA at 12months (45.47dB; DS18.88) did not reach statistical significance (P=.799). There was a moderate positive correlation between female sex and the presence of systemic disease (R=.577). By applying Student's t for paired data, a significant difference (P=.042) was obtained between the PTA in frequencies up to 1000 Hz (PTA125-1000Hz). The relative incidence rate of relapse per year was .52 relapses/year (95%CI: .19-1.14]). The median time to audiometric relapse-free was 9.70months (DS1.03). Azathioprine maintains the hearing threshold, decreases the risk of relapse, and slows down the rate at which patients relapse, altering the course of immune-mediated inner ear disease. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Job losses and accumulated number of broken partnerships increase risk of premature mortality in Danish men born in 1953

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS: The adj......OBJECTIVE: To investigate how accumulation of job losses and broken partnerships affect the risk of premature mortality, and to study joint exposure to both events. METHODS: Birth cohort study of 9789 Danish men born in 1953 with follow-up of events between the ages of 40 and 51. RESULTS......: The adjusted hazard rates for premature mortality was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.15 to 1.80) for individuals with one job loss, 1.55 (1.13 to 2.13) for individuals with one broken partnership, and 2.15 (95% CI = 1.49 to 3.10) for individuals with two or more broken partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: Experience of at least one...... job loss increased the risk of premature mortality. The risk of premature mortality increased with the number of broken partnerships. There was no statistical interaction between job losses and broken partnerships....

  19. Factors contributing to postpartum blood-loss in low-risk mothers through expectant management in Japanese birth centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Hiromi; Hasegawa, Ayako; Kataoka, Yaeko; Porter, Sarah E

    2017-08-01

    To describe aspects of expectant midwifery care for low-risk women conducted in midwifery-managed birth centres during the first two critical hours after delivery and to compare differences between midwifery care, client factors and postpartum blood loss volume. As a secondary analysis from a larger study, this descriptive retrospective study examined data from birth records of 4051 women who birthed from 2001 to 2006 at nine (21%) of the 43 midwifery centres in Tokyo. Nonparametric and parametric analyses identified factors related to increased blood loss. Interviews to establish sequence of midwifery care were conducted. The midwifery centres provided care based on expectant management principles from birth to after expulsion of the placenta. Approximately 63.3% of women were within the normal limits of blood loss volume under 500g. A minority of women (12.9%) experienced blood loss between 500 and 800g and 4% had blood loss exceeding 1000g. Blood loss volume tended to increase with infant birth weight and duration of delivery. The total blood loss volume was significantly higher for primiparas than for multiparas during the critical two hours after delivery and for immediately after delivery, yet blood loss volume was significantly higher for multiparas than for primiparas during the first hour after delivery. Preventive uterine massage and umbilical cord clamping after placenta expulsion resulted in statistically significant less blood loss. Identified were two patterns of midwifery care based on expectant management principles from birth to after expulsion of the placenta. The practice of expectant management was not a significant factor for increased postpartum blood loss. These results detail specific midwifery practices and highlight the clinical significance of expectant management with low risk pregnant women experiencing a normal delivery. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hearing loss is associated with increased CHD risk and unfavorable CHD-related biomarkers in the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qin; Wang, Zhichao; Zhan, Yue; Li, Dan; Zhang, Kun; Zhou, Tao; Yang, Handong; Zhang, Ce; Li, Xiulou; Min, Xinwen; Chen, Weihong; Guo, Huan; He, Mei-An; Kong, Weijia; Wu, Tangchun; Zhang, Xiaomin

    2018-04-01

    The association between hearing loss and coronary heart disease (CHD) is inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the association of hearing loss with prevalent CHD and CHD-related biomarkers among a middle aged and elderly Chinese population. We included 14,755 Chinese aged 64.6 years from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort in 2013. Hearing loss was classified into normal, mild, moderate or greater levels by the pure tone average (PTA) at low frequency and high frequency, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) of CHD risk in relation to hearing loss. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the effect of hearing loss on CHD-related biomarkers. The adjusted ORs for prevalent CHD increased gradually with the increasing hearing loss levels. Compared with normal hearing, individuals having mild- and moderate or greater-hearing loss had a higher CHD risk of 19% and 20% at low frequency, and 33% and 41% at high frequency, respectively (all p for trend occupational noise and with hyperglycemia, hypertension or dyslipidemia at low frequency, and those with hyperglycemia at high frequency. Meanwhile, moderate or greater hearing loss combined with overweight, hyperglycemia, hypertension or dyslipidemia had joint effects on CHD. In addition, the majority of CHD-related biomarkers worsened with increasing hearing loss levels. There may be a dose-response relationship between hearing loss and CHD prevalence, and the association could partially be explained by intermediate CHD-related biomarkers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Scientific relevance of Swiss property insurance data on flood risks and losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Veronika; Bernet, Daniel; Keiler, Margreth

    2015-04-01

    The databases of Swiss flood insurance companies build a valuable but to date rarely used source of information for flood risk research. Detailed insights into the Swiss flood insurance system are crucial to evaluate the potential of the different databases for scientific analysis. Even though the flood insurance system modalities are mainly regulated on cantonal level there are some common principles that apply throughout Switzerland. First of all coverage against floods (and other particular natural hazards) is an integral part of every fire insurance policy for buildings or contents in Switzerland. This coupling of insurance as well as the statutory obligation to insure buildings in most of the cantons and movables in some of the cantons lead to a very high penetration. Second, in case of damage, the reinstatement costs (value as new) are compensated and third there are no (or little) deductible and co-pay. Thus the different datasets of the flood insurance companies would allow a very comprehensive data analysis. Moreover, insurance companies not only store electronically data about losses (typically date, amount of claims payment, cause of damage, identity of the insured object or policyholder) but also about insured objects. For insured objects the (insured) value and the details on the policy and its holder are the main feature to record. On buildings the insurance companies usually computerize additional information such as location, volume, year of construction or purpose of use. For the 19 (of total 26) cantons with a cantonal monopoly insurer the data of these insurance establishments have the additional value to represent (almost) the entire building stock of the respective canton. However, scientists face a wide range of the opportunities and challenges when using insurance data for flood research. The origin of flood insurance data implies that they are not generated for research but for business management. The presentation will highlighted pro and

  2. Hearing Loss is Associated With Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease: A Case-Control Study in Older People

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Chang Hung; Kuan-Fu Liao; Chih-Hsin Muo; Shih-Wei Lai; Chia-Wei Chang; Hung-Chang Hung

    2015-01-01

    Background: It remains unknown whether hearing loss increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. This study aimed to examine the association between hearing loss and risk of Alzheimer’s disease in older people in Taiwan. Methods: Analyzing the database from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Program, this case-control study enrolled 488 subjects ≥65 years old with newly diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease as a case group and 1952 subjects without Alzheimer’s disease as a control group from 1998–20...

  3. Using participatory risk mapping (PRM to identify and understand people's perceptions of crop loss to animals in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Webber

    Full Text Available Considering how people perceive risks to their livelihoods from local wildlife is central to (i understanding the impact of crop damage by animals on local people and (ii recognising how this influences their interactions with, and attitudes towards, wildlife. Participatory risk mapping (PRM is a simple, analytical tool that can be used to identify and classify risk within communities. Here we use it to explore local people's perceptions of crop damage by wildlife and the animal species involved. Interviews (n = 93, n = 76 and seven focus groups were conducted in four villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda during 2004 and 2005. Farms (N = 129 were simultaneously monitored for crop loss. Farmers identified damage by wildlife as the most significant risk to their crops; risk maps highlighted its anomalous status compared to other anticipated challenges to agricultural production. PRM was further used to explore farmers' perceptions of animal species causing crop damage and the results of this analysis compared with measured crop losses. Baboons (Papio anubis were considered the most problematic species locally but measurements of loss indicate this perceived severity was disproportionately high. In contrast goats (Capra hircus were considered only a moderate risk, yet risk of damage by this species was significant. Surprisingly, for wild pigs (Potamochoerus sp, perceptions of severity were not as high as damage incurred might have predicted, although perceived incidence was greater than recorded frequency of damage events. PRM can assist researchers and practitioners to identify and explore perceptions of the risk of crop damage by wildlife. As this study highlights, simply quantifying crop loss does not determine issues that are important to local people nor the complex relationships between perceived risk factors. Furthermore, as PRM is easily transferable it may contribute to the identification and development of

  4. Risk seeking for losses modulates the functional connectivity of the default mode and left frontoparietal networks in young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deza Araujo, Yacila I; Nebe, Stephan; Neukam, Philipp T; Pooseh, Shakoor; Sebold, Miriam; Garbusow, Maria; Heinz, Andreas; Smolka, Michael N

    2018-06-01

    Value-based decision making (VBDM) is a principle that states that humans and other species adapt their behavior according to the dynamic subjective values of the chosen or unchosen options. The neural bases of this process have been extensively investigated using task-based fMRI and lesion studies. However, the growing field of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) may shed light on the organization and function of brain connections across different decision-making domains. With this aim, we used independent component analysis to study the brain network dynamics in a large cohort of young males (N = 145) and the relationship of these dynamics with VBDM. Participants completed a battery of behavioral tests that evaluated delay aversion, risk seeking for losses, risk aversion for gains, and loss aversion, followed by an RSFC scan session. We identified a set of large-scale brain networks and conducted our analysis only on the default mode network (DMN) and networks comprising cognitive control, appetitive-driven, and reward-processing regions. Higher risk seeking for losses was associated with increased connectivity between medial temporal regions, frontal regions, and the DMN. Higher risk seeking for losses was also associated with increased coupling between the left frontoparietal network and occipital cortices. These associations illustrate the participation of brain regions involved in prospective thinking, affective decision making, and visual processing in participants who are greater risk-seekers, and they demonstrate the sensitivity of RSFC to detect brain connectivity differences associated with distinct VBDM parameters.

  5. Estimating adolescent risk for hearing loss based on data from a large school-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Verschuure, Hans; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Brug, Johannes; Raat, Hein

    2010-06-01

    We estimated whether and to what extent a group of adolescents were at risk of developing permanent hearing loss as a result of voluntary exposure to high-volume music, and we assessed whether such exposure was associated with hearing-related symptoms. In 2007, 1512 adolescents (aged 12-19 years) in Dutch secondary schools completed questionnaires about their music-listening behavior and whether they experienced hearing-related symptoms after listening to high-volume music. We used their self-reported data in conjunction with published average sound levels of music players, discotheques, and pop concerts to estimate their noise exposure, and we compared that exposure to our own "loosened" (i.e., less strict) version of current European safety standards for occupational noise exposure. About half of the adolescents exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure. About one third of the respondents exceeded safety standards solely as a result of listening to MP3 players. Hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque were associated with exposure to high-volume music. Adolescents often exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, highlighting the need for specific safety standards for leisure-time noise exposure.

  6. Psychosocial Development of 5-year-old Children with Hearing Loss: Risks and protective factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Cara L.; Ching, Teresa YC; Leigh, Greg; Cupples, Linda; Button, Laura; Marnane, Vivienne; Whitfield, Jessica; Gunnourie, Miriam; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this paper were to report on the global psychosocial functioning of 5-year-old DHH children and examine the risk and protective factors that predict outcomes. Design A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a prospective, population-based longitudinal study. Study Sample Parents/caregivers of 356 children completed questionnaires on psychosocial development (CDI, SDQ), functional communication (PEACH) and demographic information. Children completed standardised assessments of non-verbal cognitive ability (WNV) and language (PLS-4). Results On average, global psychosocial functioning was within the range of typically developing children; however, variability was high and 12% of children had scores that were more than 2 SDs below the norm. Non-verbal cognitive ability, presence of additional disabilities, language and functional communication significantly predicted outcomes. In contrast, type of hearing device, severity of hearing loss and age at intervention did not. Conclusion The global psychosocial functioning of this cohort of 5-year-old DHH children fell within the range of typically developing children. . The findings suggest that spoken language ability and functional communication skills are vital for healthy psychosocial development. PMID:27541363

  7. Risk-seeking for losses is associated with 5-HTTLPR, but not with transient changes in 5-HT levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukam, Philipp T; Kroemer, Nils B; Deza Araujo, Yacila I; Hellrung, Lydia; Pooseh, Shakoor; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Schwarzenbolz, Uwe; Henle, Thomas; Smolka, Michael N

    2018-05-05

    Serotonin (5-HT) plays a key role in different aspects of value-based decision-making. A recent framework proposed that tonic 5-HT (together with dopamine, DA) codes future average reward expectations, providing a baseline against which possible choice outcomes are compared to guide decision-making. To test whether high 5-HT levels decrease loss aversion, risk-seeking for gains, and risk-seeking for losses. In a first session, 611 participants were genotyped for 5-HTTLPR and performed a mixed gambles (MGA) task and two probability discounting tasks for gains and losses, respectively (PDG/PDL). Afterwards, a subsample of 105 participants (44 with S/S, 6 with S/L, 55 with L/L genotype) completed the pharmacological study using a crossover design with tryptophan depletion (ATD), loading (ATL), and balanced (BAL) conditions. The same decision constructs were assessed. We found increased risk-seeking for losses in S/S compared to L/L individuals at the first visit (p = 0.002). Neither tryptophan depletion nor loading affected decision-making, nor did we observe an interaction between intervention and 5-HTTLPR genotype. Our data do not support the idea that transient changes of tonic 5-HT affect value-based decision-making. We provide evidence for an association of 5-HTTLPR with risk-seeking for losses, independent of acute 5-HT levels. This indicates that the association of 5-HTTLPR and risk-seeking for losses is mediated via other mechanisms, possibly by differences in the structural development of neural circuits of the 5-HT system during early life phases.

  8. The neural basis of loss aversion in decision-making under risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom, Sabrina M; Fox, Craig R; Trepel, Christopher; Poldrack, Russell A

    2007-01-26

    People typically exhibit greater sensitivity to losses than to equivalent gains when making decisions. We investigated neural correlates of loss aversion while individuals decided whether to accept or reject gambles that offered a 50/50 chance of gaining or losing money. A broad set of areas (including midbrain dopaminergic regions and their targets) showed increasing activity as potential gains increased. Potential losses were represented by decreasing activity in several of these same gain-sensitive areas. Finally, individual differences in behavioral loss aversion were predicted by a measure of neural loss aversion in several regions, including the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex.

  9. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  10. Risk factors for bone loss with prostate cancer in Korean men not receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172 according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42 and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130. The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI, serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20, but without statistic significance (p = 0.235. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010 and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001, a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001, low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001, and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040 were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001 and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first step in the clinical

  11. Integrated risk assessment for the natomas basin (California) analysis of loss of life and emergency management for floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Hiel, L.A.; Bea, R.G.; Foster, H.; Tsioulou, A.; Arroyo, P.; Stallard, T.; Harris, L.

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses the risk to life for the Natomas Basin, a low-lying, rapidly urbanizing region in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California. Using an empirical method, the loss of life is determined for a flood (high water), seismic, and sunny-day levee breach scenario. The analysis

  12. The effects of subjective loss of control on risk-taking behavior: the mediating role of anger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisswingert, Birgit M.; Zhang, Keshun; Goetz, Thomas; Fang, Ping; Fischbacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger. An experimental paradigm for inducing externally caused and consequently externally attributed loss of control which should lead to experiences of anger was developed and pretested in a Pilot Study. The relationship between loss of control experiences, anger, and risk-taking behavior was investigated using two separate student samples from Germany (N = 84, 54% female) and China (N = 125; 64% female). In line with our hypotheses, results showed that anger mediated the link between subjective loss of control experiences and increasing risk-taking behavior. Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results’ cross-cultural generalizability. These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making. PMID:26217244

  13. Incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of unexplained visual loss after intraocular silicone oil for macula-on retinal detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerlinck, Laura M.; Schellekens, Peter A.; Liem, Albert T.; Steijns, Daan; van Leeuwen, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of unexplained visual loss after macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: Retrospective cohort of patients with primary macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated by vitrectomy with gas or

  14. The Effects of Subjective Loss of Control on Risk-taking Behavior: The Mediating Role of Anger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit M. Beisswingert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Appraisal Tendency Framework on the antecedents and consequences of emotions two experimental studies examined the relationship between externally caused loss of control experiences and risk-taking behavior, as well as the assumed mediation of this relationship by the emotion anger. An experimental paradigm for inducing externally caused and consequently externally attributed loss of control which should lead to experiences of anger was developed and pretested in a Pilot Study. The relationship between loss of control experiences, anger and risk-taking behavior was investigated using two separate student samples from Germany (N = 84, 54% female and China (N = 125; 64% female. In line with our hypotheses, results showed that anger mediated the link between subjective loss of control experiences and increasing risk-taking behavior. Multiple group comparisons revealing similar patterns in both samples affirmed the results’ cross-cultural generalizability. These results implicate that anger makes people less risk averse in the process of economic decision making.

  15. Risk of Fetal Loss Associated With Invasive Testing Following Combined First-Trimester Screening for Down Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, C. B.; Gerds, T. A.; Rode, L.

    2016-01-01

    from being based on maternal age to combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) for trisomy 21. The aim of the study was to assess prospectively the risk of fetal loss associated with CVS and AC after cFTS for Down syndrome. A nationwide population-based study (Danish Fetal Medicine Database, 2008...

  16. Risk factors associated with loss to follow-up from tuberculosis treatment in Tajikistan: A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Wohlleben (Jessica); M. Makhmudova (Mavluda); F. Saidova (Firuza); S. Azamova (Shahnoza); C. Mergenthaler (Christina); S. Verver (Suzanne)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract_Background:_ There are very few studies on reasons for loss to follow-up from TB treatment in Central Asia. This study assessed risk factors for LTFU and compared their occurrence with successfully treated (ST) patients in Tajikistan. _Methods:_ This study took place in all TB

  17. Chasing losses in online poker and casino games: characteristics and game play of Internet gamblers at risk of disordered gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Suhonen, Niko; Saastamoinen, Jani

    2014-07-30

    Disordered Internet gambling is a psychological disorder that represents an important public health issue due to the increase in highly available and conveniently accessible Internet gambling sites. Chasing losses is one of the few observable markers of at-risk and problem gambling that may be used to detect early signs of disordered Internet gambling. This study examined loss chasing behaviour in a sample of Internet casino and poker players and the socio-demographic variables, irrational beliefs, and gambling behaviours associated with chasing losses. An online survey was completed by 10,838 Internet gamblers (58% male) from 96 countries. The results showed that Internet casino players had a greater tendency to report chasing losses than poker players and gamblers who reported chasing losses were more likely to hold irrational beliefs about gambling and spend more time and money gambling than those who reported that they were unaffected by previous losses. Gamblers who played for excitement and to win money were more likely to report chasing losses. This study is one of the largest ever studies of Internet gamblers and the results are highly significant as they provide insight into the characteristics and behaviours of gamblers using this mode of access. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Climate Change and Risk Management: Challenges for Insurance, Adaptation, and Loss Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Kousky, Carolyn; Cooke, Roger

    2009-01-01

    Adapting to climate change will not only require responding to the physical effects of global warming, but will also require adapting the way we conceptualize, measure, and manage risks. Climate change is creating new risks, altering the risks we already face, and also, importantly, impacting the interdependencies between these risks. In this paper we focus on three particular phenomena of climate related risks that will require a change in our thinking about risk management: global micro-cor...

  19. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2000-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  20. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  1. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis and Oral Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2001-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between skeletal and oral bone density, identify factors influencing bone loss, and determine the relationship between osteoporosis...

  2. Risk factors for loss of epithelial flap integrity in laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Joanna; Fadlallah, Ali; Robinson, Steve; Chelala, Elias; Melki, Samir A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate risk factors leading to loss of epithelial flap integrity in laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK). Boston Eye Group, Brookline, Massachusetts, USA. Retrospective case study. This retrospective chart review was performed for LASEK surgeries that occurred between January 2009 and October 2013. Logistic regression was performed to determine whether epithelium preservation was correlated with age, sex, sphere, cylinder, spherical equivalent (SE), keratometry, and central corneal thickness (CCT). The study reviewed 1009 eyes of 509 patients with a mean age of 29.1 years ± 12.2 (SD). The mean preoperative spherical refraction was -4.7 ± 2.5 diopters (D), and the mean preoperative cylinder was -1.1 ± 0.8 D. The mean preoperative decimal corrected distance visual acuity was 1.01 ± 0.07. Single-sheet mobilization of the loosened epithelium flap was found in 72.3% of cases. Fragmented preservation events occurred in 17.6% of cases; the flap was discarded in 10.0% of cases. Epithelium preservation was significantly correlated with age (P = .048) but not with other parameters (P > .05 for sex, sphere, cylinder, SE, keratometry, CCT, and surgeon experience). Epithelial flap dissection was less likely to lead to a single epithelial sheet in patients older than 50 years than in younger patients (56.3% versus 74.9%). The mean postoperative decimal uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) at 3 months was 0.98 ± 0.08. There was no statistical difference in postoperative UDVA between the undiscarded flap group and discarded flap group (P = .128). Successful dissection of single-sheet epithelial flap diminished with age. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The risk of fetal loss associated with invasive testing following combined first trimester risk screening for Down syndrome - a national cohort of 147 987 singleton pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Camilla Bernt; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Rode, Line

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess prospectively the risk of fetal loss associated with chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis (AC) following combined first-trimester screening (cFTS) for Down syndrome. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based study (Danish Fetal Medicine Database, 2008...

  4. The Impact of Social and Cultural Difference in Relation to Job Loss and Financial Planning: Reflections on the Risk Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abbott

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on data collected as part of a research study which looks at how different social and cultural groups frame, and respond to, the risk of income and/or job loss. Writers like LASH, DOUGLAS and LUPTON have placed an emphasis on the importance of group membership and social categories in structuring response to different types of risk preferring to talk about "risk cultures" rather than "risk society". However, the writers acknowledge that there is little empirical research which explores this. As the first stage of our research, focus groups in two parts of the UK explored the relationship between risk and social difference with an emphasis on the risk of job or income loss. The groups were comprised of lesbian, gay and bisexual people; people from Black and Minority Ethnic backgrounds; Disabled people; and, people who actively practice a religion. Participants did not see strong links between their sexuality, race, or religion and their perceptions of, or responses to, risk. Income, and attitudinal factors were cited as being more important. Disabled people however were much more likely to make connections between being disabled and a range of barriers to responding to risky situations. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601160

  5. Estimating Loss to Follow-Up in HIV-Infected Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy: The Effect of the Competing Risk of Death in Zambia and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwango, Albert; Stringer, Jeffrey; Ledergerber, Bruno; Mulenga, Lloyd; Bucher, Heiner C.; Westfall, Andrew O.; Calmy, Alexandra; Boulle, Andrew; Chintu, Namwinga; Egger, Matthias; Chi, Benjamin H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is common in antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes. Mortality is a competing risk (CR) for LTFU; however, it is often overlooked in cohort analyses. We examined how the CR of death affected LTFU estimates in Zambia and Switzerland. Methods and Findings HIV-infected patients aged ≥18 years who started ART 2004–2008 in observational cohorts in Zambia and Switzerland were included. We compared standard Kaplan-Meier curves with CR cumulative incidence. We calculated hazard ratios for LTFU across CD4 cell count strata using cause-specific Cox models, or Fine and Gray subdistribution models, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index and clinical stage. 89,339 patients from Zambia and 1,860 patients from Switzerland were included. 12,237 patients (13.7%) in Zambia and 129 patients (6.9%) in Switzerland were LTFU and 8,498 (9.5%) and 29 patients (1.6%), respectively, died. In Zambia, the probability of LTFU was overestimated in Kaplan-Meier curves: estimates at 3.5 years were 29.3% for patients starting ART with CD4 cells Switzerland since only few patients died. The results from Cox and Fine and Gray models were similar: in Zambia the risk of loss to follow-up and death increased with decreasing CD4 counts at the start of ART, whereas in Switzerland there was a trend in the opposite direction, with patients with higher CD4 cell counts more likely to be lost to follow-up. Conclusions In ART programmes in low-income settings the competing risk of death can substantially bias standard analyses of LTFU. The CD4 cell count and other prognostic factors may be differentially associated with LTFU in low-income and high-income settings. PMID:22205933

  6. 24 CFR 902.79 - Substantial default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial default. 902.79 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM PHAS Incentives and Remedies § 902.79 Substantial default. (a) Events or conditions that constitute substantial default. The following events or conditions shall constitute...

  7. Carbohydrate- vs fat-controlled diet effect on weight loss and coronary artery disease risk: a pilot feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Masri, Basem; Hogg, Jeannette; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Chiu, Ya-Lin

    2010-10-01

    This pilot study compared weight loss and serum indicators of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk between 2 weight loss (energy-deficit) diets, one controlled for carbohydrate as a percentage of total calories and the other controlled for fat as percentage of total calories. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 diets and fed on an outpatient basis for 70 days, after which they followed their diets using their own resources for an additional 70 days. Energy deficit for the diets was determined by indirect calorimetry with a 500- to 750-calorie per day adjustment. Weight and CAD risk indicators and serum lipid and C-reactive protein levels were measured at baseline, day 70, and day 140. The study was completed by 16 of 20 participants who were able to comply with the feeding portion of the study as well as with follow-up appointments during the second (self-management) period of the study. Participants lost weight in both diet groups (24.4 lbs, carbohydrate controlled; 18.5 lbs, fat controlled), and serum CAD risk factors decreased in both groups. There were no significant differences in CAD risk factors between diet groups, although there was a trend toward lighter low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size in the carbohydrate-controlled group. During the self-management portion of the study, weight loss stalled or regained from loss during the previous feeding period. The results, although underpowered, are consistent with recent studies in which macronutrient ratio of total calories in diet did not affect degree of weight loss and in which carbohydrate-controlled diets produced a predominance of lighter LDLs.

  8. Risk Balancing of Cold Ischemic Time against Night Shift Surgery Possibly Reduces Rates of Reoperation and Perioperative Graft Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Emmanouilidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This retrospective cohort study evaluates the advantages of risk balancing between prolonged cold ischemic time (CIT and late night surgery. Methods. 1262 deceased donor kidney transplantations were analyzed. Multivariable regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs for reoperation, graft loss, delayed graft function (DGF, and discharge on dialysis. CIT was categorized according to a forward stepwise pattern ≤1h/>1h, ≤2h/>2h, ≤3h/>3h,…, ≤nh/>nh. ORs for DGF were plotted against CIT and a nonlinear regression function with best R2 was identified. First and second derivative were then implemented into the curvature formula k(x=f′′(x/(1+f′x23/2 to determine the point of highest CIT-mediated risk acceleration. Results. Surgery between 3 AM and 6 AM is an independent risk factor for reoperation and graft loss, whereas prolonged CIT is only relevant for DGF. CIT-mediated risk for DGF follows an exponential pattern fx=A·(1+k·eI·x with a cut-off for the highest risk increment at 23.5 hours. Conclusions. The risk of surgery at 3 AM–6 AM outweighs prolonged CIT when confined within 23.5 hours as determined by a new mathematical approach to calculate turning points of nonlinear time related risks. CIT is only relevant for the endpoint of DGF but had no impact on discharge on dialysis, reoperation, or graft loss.

  9. Reduced Risk-Taking After Prior Losses in Pathological Gamblers Under Treatment and Healthy Control Group but not in Problem Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Nicolao; Grecucci, Alessandro; Nicolè, Manuel; Savadori, Lucia

    2018-06-01

    A group of pathological gamblers and a group of problem gamblers (i.e., gamblers at risk of becoming pathological) were compared to healthy controls on their risk-taking propensity after prior losses. Each participant played both the Balloon Analogue Risk Taking task (BART) and a modified version of the same task, where individuals face five repeated predetermined early losses at the onset of the game. No significant difference in risk-taking was found between groups on the standard BART task, while significant differences emerged when comparing behaviors in the two tasks: both pathological gamblers and controls reduced their risk-taking tendency after prior losses in the modified BART compared to the standard BART, whereas problem gamblers showed no reduction in risk-taking after prior losses. We interpret these results as a sign of a reduced sensitivity to negative feedback in problem gamblers which might contribute to explain their loss-chasing tendency.

  10. Novel method of evaluating miners at risk for noise-induced hearing loss

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, AL

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) negatively affects the quality of life of mine employees and costs mining companies large amounts in compensation claims. The prevention of NIHL requires early identification and recent evidence about the ability...

  11. Usage, Risk, and Benefit of Weight-Loss Drugs in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Forslund

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. These results suggest that weight-loss drug treatment was often initiated upon patient request but was of limited clinical benefit as it was managed in a large portion of Swedish primary carecenters.

  12. Not all streaks are the same: Individual differences in risk preferences during runs of gains and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Ball

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Runs of gains and losses are particularly salient to decision makers because of their perceived departure from randomness, as well as their immediate impact on the financial status of the decision makers. Past research has focused on decision making biases that relate to faulty conceptions of chance and luck, such as the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand effect. Participants in the current study bet on the outcomes of a long sequence of simulated coin tosses. Risk preferences were found to change as a function of run valence (i.e., losses vs. gains, run length, and financial status. Individuals were found to differ in the effect of all of these factors, in their responses to runs of gains and losses in sequential risky choice.

  13. Risk-based damage potential and loss estimation of extreme flooding scenarios in the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Huttenlau

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the last decades serious flooding events occurred in many parts of Europe and especially in 2005 the Austrian Federal Province of Tyrol was serious affected. These events in general and particularly the 2005 event have sensitised decision makers and the public. Beside discussions pertaining to protection goals and lessons learnt, the issue concerning potential consequences of extreme and severe flooding events has been raised. Additionally to the general interest of the public, decision makers of the insurance industry, public authorities, and responsible politicians are especially confronted with the question of possible consequences of extreme events. Answers thereof are necessary for the implementation of preventive appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, property and liability losses reflect a large proportion of the direct tangible losses. These are of great interest for the insurance sector and can be understood as main indicators to interpret the severity of potential events. The natural scientific-technical risk analysis concept provides a predefined and structured framework to analyse the quantities of affected elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials, and the potential losses. Generally, this risk concept framework follows the process steps hazard analysis, exposition analysis, and consequence analysis. Additionally to the conventional hazard analysis, the potential amount of endangered elements and their corresponding damage potentials were analysed and, thereupon, concrete losses were estimated. These took the specific vulnerability of the various individual elements at risk into consideration. The present flood risk analysis estimates firstly the general exposures of the risk indicators in the study area and secondly analyses the specific exposures and consequences of five extreme event scenarios. In order to precisely identify, localize, and characterize the relevant risk indicators of buildings

  14. Men and Women in Space: Bone Loss and Kidney Stone Risk after Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.; Heer, Martina; Hudson, Edgar, K.; Shackelford, Linda; Morgan, Jennifer L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Bone loss on Earth is more prevalent in women than men, leading to the assumption that women may be at greater risk from bone loss during flight. Until recently, the number of women having flown long-duration missions was too small to allow any type of statistical analysis. We report here data from 42 astronauts on long-duration missions to the International Space Station, 33 men and 9 women. Bone mineral density (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), bone biochemistry (from blood and urine samples), and renal stone risk factors were evaluated before and after flight. Data were analyzed in two groups, based on available resistance exercise equipment. The response of bone mineral density to flight was the same for men and women, and the typical decrease in bone mineral density (whole body and/or regional) after flight was not observed for either sex for those using an Advanced Resistive Exercise Device. Bone biochemistry, specifically markers of formation and resorption, generally responded similarly in male and female astronauts. The response of urinary supersaturation risk to space flight was not significantly different between men and women, although risks were typically increased after flight in both groups and risks were generally greater in men than in women before and after flight. Overall, the bone and renal stone responses of men and women to space flight were not different.

  15. Hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders, pregnancy losses and risk of autoimmune diseases in a Danish population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    The risk of some female predominant autoimmune diseases (ADs) has previously been shown to be higher in women who experience hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and idiopathic pregnancy losses. This study assessed the association between such pregnancy-related experiences and the subs......The risk of some female predominant autoimmune diseases (ADs) has previously been shown to be higher in women who experience hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and idiopathic pregnancy losses. This study assessed the association between such pregnancy-related experiences...... and the subsequent risk of female predominant and other ADs. Our study cohort comprised 1.6 million Danish women born since 1955 for whom we had information about hyperemesis, gestational hypertensive disorders and pregnancy losses and subsequent hospital contacts for 31 ADs between 1982 and 2008. Ratios of first...... hospitalization rates (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Poisson regression, adjusting for age, birth cohort, calendar period, marital status and childbirths. During 27.0 million person-years of follow-up 51,732 women were hospitalized with one or more ADs. Overall, compared...

  16. Excessive application of pig manure increases the risk of P loss in calcic cinnamon soil in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanju; Zhang, Haipeng; Qian, Xiaoqing; Duan, Jiannan; Wang, Gailan

    2017-12-31

    Soil phosphorus (P) is a critical factor affecting crop yields and water environmental quality. To investigate the degree of loss risk and forms of soil P in calcic cinnamon soil, the P fraction activities in soils were analysed using chemical methods, combined with an in situ field experiment. Seven treatments were set in this study, including control (unfertilized), no P fertilizer (No-P), mineral P fertilizer (Min-P), low (L-Man) and high (H-Man) quantities of pig manure, Min-P+L-Man, and Min-P+H-Man. The results showed that manure fertilizer could not only significantly increase maize yield but could also enhance the accumulation of soil P in organic and inorganic forms. After 23years of repeated fertilization, the soil Olsen-P contents respectively showed 64.7-, 43.7- and 31.9-fold increases in the Min-P+H-Man, Min-P+L-Man and H-Man treatments, while the soil Olsen-P in Min-P treatment only increased 23.7-fold. The soil Olsen-P thresholds ranged from 22.59 to 32.48mgkg -1 in calcic cinnamon soil to maintain a higher maize yield as well as a lower risk of P loss. Therefore, long-term excessive manure application could obviously raise the content of soil Olsen-P and increase the risk of P loss in calcic cinnamon soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased risk of all-cause mortality and renal graft loss in stable renal transplant recipients with hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlstrøm, Hege; Dahle, Dag Olav; Mjøen, Geir; Pilz, Stefan; März, Winfried; Abedini, Sadollah; Holme, Ingar; Fellström, Bengt; Jardine, Alan G; Holdaas, Hallvard

    2015-02-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is reported in 10% to 66% of renal transplant recipients (RTR). The influence of persisting hyperparathyroidism on long-term clinical outcomes in RTR has not been examined in a large prospective study. We investigated the association between baseline parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and major cardiovascular events, renal graft loss, and all-cause mortality by Cox Proportional Hazard survival analyses in 1840 stable RTR derived from the Assessment of LEscol in Renal Transplantation trial. Patients were recruited in a mean of 5.1 years after transplantation, and follow-up time was 6 to 7 years. Significant associations between PTH and all 3 outcomes were found in univariate analyses. When adjusting for a range of plausible confounders, including measures of renal function and serum mineral levels, PTH remained significantly associated with all-cause mortality (4% increased risk per 10 units; P=0.004), and with graft loss (6% increased risk per 10 units; PHyperparathyroidism is an independent, potentially remediable, risk factor for renal graft loss and all-cause mortality in RTR.

  18. Association between pregnancy losses in women and risk of atherosclerotic disease in their relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Diaz, Lars Jorge; Behrens, Ida

    2016-01-01

    ) and the atherosclerotic endpoint (brothers). Parents whose daughters had stillbirths had 1.14 (95% CI 1.05-1.24) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.96-1.18) times the rates of MI and CVI, respectively, as parents whose daughters had no stillbirths. CONCLUSION: Certain pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic diseases in both heart and brain......AIMS: A common underlying mechanism with a genetic component could link pregnancy losses with vascular disease. We examined whether pregnancy losses (miscarriages and stillbirths) and atherosclerotic outcomes co-aggregated in families. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using Danish registers, we identified...... women with pregnancies in 1977-2008, and their parents (>1 million) and brothers (>435 000). We followed parents for incident ischaemic heart disease (IHD), myocardial infarction (MI), and cerebrovascular infarction (CVI), and brothers for a broader combined atherosclerotic endpoint. Using Cox...

  19. Developing EHR-driven heart failure risk prediction models using CPXR(Log) with the probabilistic loss function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimitehrani, Vahid; Dong, Guozhu; Pereira, Naveen L; Panahiazar, Maryam; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2016-04-01

    Computerized survival prediction in healthcare identifying the risk of disease mortality, helps healthcare providers to effectively manage their patients by providing appropriate treatment options. In this study, we propose to apply a classification algorithm, Contrast Pattern Aided Logistic Regression (CPXR(Log)) with the probabilistic loss function, to develop and validate prognostic risk models to predict 1, 2, and 5year survival in heart failure (HF) using data from electronic health records (EHRs) at Mayo Clinic. The CPXR(Log) constructs a pattern aided logistic regression model defined by several patterns and corresponding local logistic regression models. One of the models generated by CPXR(Log) achieved an AUC and accuracy of 0.94 and 0.91, respectively, and significantly outperformed prognostic models reported in prior studies. Data extracted from EHRs allowed incorporation of patient co-morbidities into our models which helped improve the performance of the CPXR(Log) models (15.9% AUC improvement), although did not improve the accuracy of the models built by other classifiers. We also propose a probabilistic loss function to determine the large error and small error instances. The new loss function used in the algorithm outperforms other functions used in the previous studies by 1% improvement in the AUC. This study revealed that using EHR data to build prediction models can be very challenging using existing classification methods due to the high dimensionality and complexity of EHR data. The risk models developed by CPXR(Log) also reveal that HF is a highly heterogeneous disease, i.e., different subgroups of HF patients require different types of considerations with their diagnosis and treatment. Our risk models provided two valuable insights for application of predictive modeling techniques in biomedicine: Logistic risk models often make systematic prediction errors, and it is prudent to use subgroup based prediction models such as those given by CPXR

  20. FINANCIAL RISK MANAGEMENT, BASED ON THE BALANCE SHEET AND PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing market economy in Romania currently is characterized by a series of reforms carried out in order to create a competitive economy within the EU but also globally. These reforms and dynamic environment where there is a range of factors that can create specific conditions of different types of event risk. Most important is the risk of insolvency. Analysis of these risks can be done through various methods such as: analysis of scores method, using the Connan – Holder model.

  1. Hurricane risk assessment to rollback or ride out a cost versus loss decision making approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlman, Richard A.

    1992-01-01

    The potential exists that a hurricane striking the Kennedy Space Center while a Space Shuttle is on the pad. Winds in excess of 74.5 knots could cause the failure of the holddown bolts bringing about the catastrophic loss of the entire vehicle. Current plans call for the rollback of the shuttle when winds of that magnitude are forecast to strike the center. As this is costly, a new objective method for making rollback/rideout decisions based upon Bayesian Analysis and economic cost versus loss is presented.

  2. Physical Activity, Body Size, Intentional Weight Loss and Breast Cancer Risk: Fellowship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    early life physical activity and weight interactions in postmenopausal women; 2) age specific intentional weight loss; 3) method of weight loss. In...Effects of aerobic exercise and dietary carbohydrate on energy expenditure and body composition during weight reduction in obese women. Am J Clin...3600 1 soccer , and swimming as well as labor, but not high school 1-2 561 696 0.95 (0.83-1.08) s r 3-4 694 957 0.91 (0.81-1.02) physical education. Up

  3. Maternal Use of Weight Loss Products and the Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thanh T; Agopian, A J; Mitchell, Laura E

    2018-01-15

    Several studies have assessed potential associations between use of weight loss products in the periconceptional period and neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the individual studies are inconclusive and there has not been a systematic review of this literature. We conducted a systematic search, using Ovid MEDLINE and PubMed, to identify studies that evaluated the association between products used for weight loss and the risk of NTDs. Because many studies of birth defects only evaluate a composite birth defect outcome, we evaluated studies that defined the outcome as "any major birth defect" or as NTDs. We abstracted data on study design, exposure definition, outcome definition, covariates and effect size estimates from each article that met our inclusion criteria. For studies that evaluated a composite birth defect outcome, we also abstracted the number of NTD cases included in the composite outcome. We used a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of each article. We screened 865 citations and identified nine articles that met our inclusion criteria. The majority of studies reported positive associations between maternal use of weight loss products and birth defects (overall and NTDs). However, there were few significant associations and there was considerable heterogeneity in the specific exposures assessed across the nine studies. Our systematic review of weight loss products and NTDs indicates that the literature on this topic is sparse. Because several studies reported modest, positive associations between risk and use of weight loss products, additional studies are warranted. Birth Defects Research 110:48-55, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Is the fertility treatment itself a risk factor for early pregnancy loss?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandes, M.; Verzijden, J.C.; Hamilton, C.J.C.M.; Weys, N.P. de; Bruin, J.P. de; Bots, R.S.; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal multicentre cohort study aimed to identify the role of the conception mode in infertile couples with an early pregnancy loss (EPL). All couples referred to the fertility clinic for the first time in the period 2002-2006 because of infertility were followed up to their first

  5. A tradeoff between the losses caused by computer viruses and the risk of the manpower shortage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bi, Jichao; Yang, L.; Yang, Xiaofan; Wu, Yingbo; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the tradeoff between the losses caused by a new virus and the size of the team for developing an antivirus against the virus. First, an individual-level virus spreading model is proposed to capture the spreading process of the virus before the appearance of its natural

  6. Gender Differences and the Risk of Falls in Individuals with Profound Vision Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christopher T.; Wolf, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments experience a loss of balance and mobility, which presents a barrier to independence and is associated with the fear of falling. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which visual status, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and the strength of quadriceps and hamstrings contribute to compromised…

  7. Smoking and drinking as risk indicators for tooth loss in middle-aged Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morse, Douglas E; Avlund, Kirsten; Christensen, Lisa Bøge

    2014-01-01

    , drinking, and various covariates was obtained using self-administered, structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression (dependent variable: 6+ vs. ...: Our findings suggest that smoking is positively associated, while alcoholic beverage consumption is inversely related to tooth loss in middle-aged Danes....

  8. Business interruption and loss of assets risk assessment in support of the design of an innovative concentrating solar power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, Andrea; Gallisto, Maurizio; Maccari, Augusto; Paganelli, Mauro; Compare, Michele; Zio, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plants are a promising technology of renewable energy production, as witnessed by the increasing public and private investments during the last decade. The assessment of the associated risks of business interruption (loss of production) and loss of assets due to the occurrence of undesired internal or external events, such as failures of components, unfavorable environmental conditions, etc., brings added values by informing design modifications and contributing to production assurance, for rational Company investments in these environmentally sustainable power plants. This work presents and applies a methodology for assessing the risks associated to a CSP of innovative design. The methodology is derived from traditional system risk analysis, specifically focused only on the economic consequences of the internal events of failure behavior of components. The innovation in the design considered is particularly aimed at augmenting the CSP intrinsic capability of being equipped with thermal storage systems by the introduction of a molten salt mixture as heat transfer fluid. This technology presents evident advantages in terms of system simplification and reduction of production costs but on the other hand introduces a risk factor with regards to the solidification of the salt mixture that occurs at about 240 C. (author)

  9. Loss Distribution Approach (LDA: metodología actuarial aplicada al riesgo operacional Loss Distribution Approach (LDA: actuarial methodology apply to operational risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ceferino Franco Arbeláez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es resultado de un proyecto de investigación sobre la gestión integral del riesgo operacional promovido por la Vicerrectoria de Investigaciones de la Universidad de Medellín, y cofinanciado por una firma comisionista. Se presenta una aplicación del modelo LDA, el cual se basa en la recopilación de los datos de pérdidas históricas (frecuencia y severidad, que se registran internamente en las organizaciones. Dichos datos pueden ser complementados con datos externos. Estas pérdidas son clasificadas en una matriz que relaciona las líneas de negocio de la organización y los eventos operacionales de pérdida, a partir de la cual se calcula la carga de capital. La aplicación se desarrolló para una entidad financiera. El artículo está organizado de la siguiente forma: la primera sección es introductoria al tema. En la segunda parte se presenta formalmente el modelo LDA; luego se realiza una aplicación, y en la cuarta sección se presentan algunas conclusiones.This paper is the result of a research project on integrated management of operational risk, promoted by Universidad de Medellin Research Vice-Principal's Office and co-financed by a financial company. It presents an application of the LDA model, which is based on data collection of historical losses (frequency and severity, which are recorded internally in organizations. Such data can be supplemented with external data. These losses are classified in a matrix that relates business lines of the organization and operational loss events, from which capital charge is estimated. The application was developed for a financial institution. The paper is organized as follows: The first section is introductory to the subject. The second part formally presents a LDA model; then an application is made, and in the fourth part some conclusions are presented.

  10. Risk Assessment of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Loss in a Hilly-Plain Watershed Based on the Different Hydrological Period: A Case Study in Tiaoxi Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmeng Ye

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-point source pollution is widely considered a serious threat to drinking water. Eutrophication in Chinese watershed is mainly due to nitrogen and phosphorus output from agricultural source. Taihu Lake is a typical eutrophic lake in China, a basin representative for the study of the temporal-spatial characteristics of pollution loading of nitrogen and phosphorus to provide scientific basis for reasonable estimation and targeted control measures of nitrogen and phosphorus loss. Based on data from nitrogen and phosphorus loss in agricultural land, livestock breeding, domestic discharge and aquaculture, this study calculated the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk for each pollution source. Using the superposition of ArcGIS raster data, we also described the spatial distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus comprehensive loss risk by the formula of comprehensive loss risk. The results showed that critical risk areas of nitrogen and phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding and agricultural land during flood period in Tiaoxi watershed. Agricultural land and livestock breeding sources formed major parts of nitrogen loss, accounting for 30.85% and 36.18%, respectively, while phosphorus loss mainly originated from livestock breeding (56.28%. During non-flood period, integrated management of livestock breeding and domestic discharge requires much attention to control nitrogen and phosphorus loss in the critical risk area. Finally, it is of great practical significance to propose spatial-temporal targeted measurements to control nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in watershed for various periods and different areas.

  11. Measuring Property Management Risk and Loss: Step One Toward Managing Property on a Foundation of Risk, Cost, and Benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Curtis

    1999-01-01

    This is a period of ever-tightening defense budgets and continuing pressure on the public sector to be more commercial-like, Property policies, practices, and regulations are increasingly being challenged and changed. In these times, we must be leaders in understanding and defining the value of our profession from a commercial standpoint so that we can provide the right services to our customers and explain and defend the value of those services. To do so, we must step outside current property management practices, regulations, and oversight. We must learn to think and speak in the language of those who fund us--a financial language of risk, cost, and benefit. Regardless of regulation and oversight, our bosses are demanding that we demonstrate (financially) the benefits of current practice, or else. This article is intended to be the beginning of an effort to understand and define our profession in terms of risk, cost, and benefit so that we can meet these new challenges. The first step in this effort must be defining and measuring risk, cost, and benefit. Our costs, although sometimes difficult to capture, are easy to understand: they are almost exclusively the effort, both within and without the property management organization, involved in managing property. Unfortunately, property risks and benefits are not so simple or so well understood. Generally, risks and benefits are identified and measured through physical inventory results: potential and actual shortages. This paper will explore the weaknesses in the current understanding and use of shortage information as the yardstick for property management risks and performance. It will define a new framework for understanding the purpose and value of property management. And finally, it will set a course for a new method of measuring and valuing physical inventoty shortages. This new method will yield accurate and useful measures of property management risk and benefit. Once risk and benefit are accurately

  12. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  13. An Evaluation of Sensory Neural Hearing Loss in Thalassaemic Patients Treated with Desferrioxamine and Its Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sonbolestan

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: In major thalassaemia patients who need blood transfusion, iron overload is a major therapeutic disadvantage that leads to heart failure which is the major cause of death in such patients. Desferrioxamine (DFO is the most efficient factor for iron chelation, but it carries adverse effects such sensory-neural hearing loss. Methods: The study began in March 2002 and continued untill March 2003, on 160 cases of thalassaemia to determine the incidence of sensory – neural hearing loss and its risk factors in patients who received Desferrioxamine (DFO. All cases underwent audiometric tests. Retrospectively, other needed information were either obtained through interview or extracted from the medical files. Results were analyzed with ANOVA, t-test and Chi-square tests. Results: Seventy-six patients of the total 156 patients showed impairment in PTA (48.7% with 24 of them suffering significant involvement (15.4%. These abnormalities generally affected high frequencies including, 4000 and 8000 Hz. Male gender, increased serum billirubin level and fasting blood sugar were statistically correlated with hearing loss (p.v = 0.038, p.v = 0.38, p.v = 0.002 respectively. There was no significant correlation between hearing loss and other factors. Mean DFO administration in patients, was 29.69 mg/kg/day and mean therapeutic index of DFO was 0.01 mg/kg/day/mg/lit. Both of them were below the critical level (<40mg/kg/day and <0.025mg/kg/day/mg/lit respectively, however hearing loss had developed. Conclusion: Controlling DFO dosage per se does not seem to be enough for decreasing ototoxicity rate. Periodic audiometric tests are highly recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. There are some other factors such as male gender, increased billirubin and FBS, which contribute to DFO ototoxicity. Looking for these risk factors and controlling them, would help identifying susceptible patients and preventing this complication. Key words

  14. Radiological risk assessment for the public under the loss of medium and large sources using bayesian methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Jang, Han Ki; Lee, Jai Ki

    2005-01-01

    Bayesian methodology is appropriated for use in PRA because subjective knowledges as well as objective data are applied to assessment. In this study, radiological risk based on Bayesian methodology is assessed for the loss of source in field radiography. The exposure scenario for the lost source presented in U.S. NRC is reconstructed by considering the domestic situation and Bayes theorem is applied to updating of failure probabilities of safety functions. In case of updating of failure probabilities, it shows that 5% Bayes credible intervals using Jeffreys prior distribution are lower than ones using vague prior distribution. It is noted that Jeffreys prior distribution is appropriated in risk assessment for systems having very low failure probabilities. And, it shows that the mean of the expected annual dose for the public based on Bayesian methodology is higher than the dose based on classical methodology because the means of the updated probabilities are higher than classical probabilities. The database for radiological risk assessment are sparse in domestic. It summarizes that Bayesian methodology can be applied as an useful alternative for risk assessment and the study on risk assessment will be contributed to risk-informed regulation in the field of radiation safety

  15. Effects of Geographic Diversification on Risk Pooling to Mitigate Drought-Related Financial Losses for Water Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rachel; Characklis, Gregory W.; Serre, Marc L.

    2018-04-01

    As the costs and regulatory barriers to new water supply development continue to rise, drought management strategies have begun to rely more heavily on temporary conservation measures. While these measures are effective, they often lead to intermittent and unpredictable reductions in revenues that are financially disruptive to water utilities, raising concerns over lower credit ratings and higher rates of borrowing for this capital intensive sector. Consequently, there is growing interest in financial risk management strategies that reduce utility vulnerabilities. This research explores the development of financial index insurance designed to compensate a utility for drought-related losses. The focus is on analyzing candidate hydrologic indices that have the potential to be used by utilities across the US, increasing the potential for risk pooling, which would offer the possibility of both lower risk management costs and more widespread implementation. This work first analyzes drought-related financial risks for 315 publicly operated water utilities across the country and examines the effectiveness of financial contracts based on several indices both in terms of their correlation with utility revenues and their spatial autocorrelation across locations. Hydrologic-based index insurance contracts are then developed and tested over a 120 year period. Results indicate that risk pooling, even under conditions in which droughts are subject to some level of spatial autocorrelation, has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of managing financial risk.

  16. Intellectual Capital at Risk: Data Management Practices and Data Loss by Faculty Members at Five American Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Schumacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of 56 professors at five American universities found that a majority had little understanding of principles, well-known in the field of data curation, informing the ongoing administration of digital materials and chose to manage and store work-related data by relying on the use of their own storage devices and cloud accounts. It also found that a majority of them had experienced the loss of at least one work-related digital object that they considered to be important in the course of their professional career. Despite such a rate of loss, a majority of respondents expressed at least a moderate level of confidence that they would be able to make use of their digital objects in 25 years. The data suggest that many faculty members are unaware that their data is at risk. They also indicate a strong correlation between faculty members’ digital object loss and their data management practices. University professors producing digital objects can help themselves by becoming aware that these materials are subject to loss. They can also benefit from awareness and use of better personal data management practices, as well as participation in university-level programmatic digital curation efforts and the availability of more readily accessible, robust infrastructure for the storage of digital materials.

  17. Low calcium intake is related to increased risk of tooth loss in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda R A; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Twetman, Svante

    2010-01-01

    (30-60 y) with information on dietary Ca intake and number of teeth and a subset of 511 participants with information on tooth loss from 1987-88 to 1993-94. Ca intake less than the recommendations, estimated by a 7-d food record or a diet history interview in 1982-83, was more frequent among females...... (55%) than males (45%; P smoking, alcohol and sucrose consumption, subjective...

  18. Prevalence of hearing loss among high risk newborns hospitalized in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zamani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: American pediatric Association proposes to screen all neonates with Oto-Acoustic Emission (OAE. In developing countries, because of several limitations, health policy makers recommend to screen only in high risk patients. This study is performed with the aim to screen hearing loss in 950 high risk newborns hospitalized in hospitals affiliated to Tehran University using the OAE test."n"nMethods: A total of 950 neonates hospitalized in the Neonatal and NICU wards of Vali-e-Asr, Shariati, Medical Center and Bahrami Hospitals during the years 2004-2006 who showed at least one risk factor using TEOAE hearing test were enrolled into this cross-sectional descriptive analytical study and were diagnosed with mild deafness and total deafness. Blood exchange due to hyperbillirubinemia, septicemia, congenital heart disease, the fifth minute apgar scores below six, PROM more than six hours, epilepsia, need to NICU more than five hours, pneumonia and Oto-Toxic drugs were considered as risk factors. Data was past medical history, current disease, admission cause, sign & symptoms and complications of disease."n"nResults: Multivariate logistic regression and paired t-test showed that blood exchange, low birth weight and low

  19. Insights into location dependent loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment for GSI-191 risk-informed applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, K.N., E-mail: KarlFleming@comcast.net [KNF Consulting LLC, Spokane, WA (United States); Lydell, B.O.Y. [SIGMA-PHASE INC., Vail, AZ (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Role of operating experience in loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment. • Plant-to-plant variability in calculated LOCA frequency. • Frequency of double-ended-guillotine-break (DEGB). • Uncertainties in LOCA frequencies. • Risk management insights. - Abstract: As a tribute to the published work by S.H. Bush, S. Beliczey and H. Schulz, this paper assesses the progress with methods and techniques for quantifying the reliability of piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants on the basis of failure rate estimates derived from field experience data in combination with insights and results from probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses and expert elicitation exercises. This status assessment is made from a technical perspective obtained through development of location-specific loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequencies for input to risk-informed resolution of the generic safety issue (GSI) 191. The methods and techniques on which these GSI-191 applications are based build on a body of work developed by the authors during a period spanning more than two decades. The insights that are presented and discussed in this paper cover today’s knowledge base concerning how to utilize a risk-informed approach to the assessment of piping reliability in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in general and the resolution of GSI-191 in particular. Specifically the paper addresses the extent to which LOCA frequencies vary from location to location within a reactor coolant system pressure boundary (RCPB) for a given plant as well as vary from plant to plant, and the reasons for these variabilities. Furthermore, the paper provides the authors’ perspectives on interpretations and applications of information extracted from an expert elicitation process to obtain LOCA frequencies as documented in NUREG-1829 and how to apply this information to GSI-191. Finally, this paper documents technical insights relative to mitigation of

  20. Insights into location dependent loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment for GSI-191 risk-informed applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Lydell, B.O.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Role of operating experience in loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequency assessment. • Plant-to-plant variability in calculated LOCA frequency. • Frequency of double-ended-guillotine-break (DEGB). • Uncertainties in LOCA frequencies. • Risk management insights. - Abstract: As a tribute to the published work by S.H. Bush, S. Beliczey and H. Schulz, this paper assesses the progress with methods and techniques for quantifying the reliability of piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants on the basis of failure rate estimates derived from field experience data in combination with insights and results from probabilistic fracture mechanics analyses and expert elicitation exercises. This status assessment is made from a technical perspective obtained through development of location-specific loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) frequencies for input to risk-informed resolution of the generic safety issue (GSI) 191. The methods and techniques on which these GSI-191 applications are based build on a body of work developed by the authors during a period spanning more than two decades. The insights that are presented and discussed in this paper cover today’s knowledge base concerning how to utilize a risk-informed approach to the assessment of piping reliability in the context of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in general and the resolution of GSI-191 in particular. Specifically the paper addresses the extent to which LOCA frequencies vary from location to location within a reactor coolant system pressure boundary (RCPB) for a given plant as well as vary from plant to plant, and the reasons for these variabilities. Furthermore, the paper provides the authors’ perspectives on interpretations and applications of information extracted from an expert elicitation process to obtain LOCA frequencies as documented in NUREG-1829 and how to apply this information to GSI-191. Finally, this paper documents technical insights relative to mitigation of

  1. Challenging the FDA's authority to regulate autologous adult stem cells for therapeutic use: Celltex therapeutics' partnership with RNL Bio, substantial medical risks, and the implications of United States v. Regenerative Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabiak-Syed, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This Article examines the convergence of three corporations that have attempted to capitalize on translating emerging research into clinical procedures by manufacturing and facilitating the process for patients to obtain mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injections. Although the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has asserted its authority to regulate somatic cell therapy products like MSCs under the Public Health Service Act and the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, some manufacturers have attempted to circumvent FDA regulation through various mechanisms and argue that their products do not fall within the definition of a biological product or drug. However, scientific knowledge of using MSCs for clinical therapy remains in its infancy, and MSCs pose a number of serious risks to patients. This Article focuses on the development of Celltex, a company based in Sugar Land, Texas that manufactures and facilitates the injection of autologous MSCs; RNL Bio, a company that licenses its operations technology to Celltex; and Regenerative Sciences, a company based in Broomfield, Colorado that was recently involved in litigation with the FDA. Corporate circumvention of intended regulatory oversight exposes patients to potentially inefficacious products that could contribute to serious medical injuries such as viruses, myocardial infarction, cancer, or death.

  2. Risk of loss power for ATWT in Daya Bay and Ling'ao nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Cheng

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze the differences between the Anticipated Transient Without Reactor Trip (ATWT) and other reactor protection methods, this paper analyzes in detail the realizing means of ATWT and the effect of lost of power supply on the units based on Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Stations by system wiring diagram. Based on the comprehensive analysis,this paper proposes the sequence for powering when recovering the power source after ATWT power supply (LCC/LNE) loss for Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Stations. (authors)

  3. Identification of risk factors for vascular thrombosis may reduce early renal graft loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Anna Krarup; Jorgensen, Troels Munch; Jespersen, Bente

    2012-01-01

    of avoiding thrombotic events and saving thrombosed grafts. The incidence of arterial thrombosis was reported to 0.2-7.5% and venous thrombosis 0.1-8.2%, with the highest incidence among children and infants, and the lowest in living donor reports. The most significant risk factors for developing thrombosis...... were donor-age below 6 or above 60 years, or recipient-age below 5-6 years, per- or postoperative hemodynamic instability, peritoneal dialysis, diabetic nephropathy, a history of thrombosis, deceased donor, or >24 hours cold ischemia. Multiple arteries were not a risk factor, and a right kidney graft...

  4. A Qualitative Study on Knowledge and Attitude towards Risk Factors, Early Identification and Intervention of Infant Hearing Loss among Puerperal Mothers- A Short Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudda, Ravi; Muniyappa, Hanumanth Prasad; Puttaraju, Sahana; Lakshmi, M S

    2017-07-01

    Maternal active participation and their support are critical for the success of early hearing loss detection program. Erroneous maternal decisions may have large life long consequences on the infant's life. The mothers' knowledge and their attitudes towards infant hearing loss is the basis for their decisions. The present study was done to determine the mothers' knowledge and their attitude towards risk factors of infant hearing loss, its early identification and intervention and also awareness of effect of consanguinity on hearing loss. In this cross-sectional questionnaire survey study, a total of 100 mothers were interviewed using the questionnaire which consisted of three sections namely risk factors, early identification and early intervention of hearing loss. Chi-square test was used to establish relationship between consanguineous and non-consanguineous mother's responses to its effect on hearing loss. A p-value consanguinity and benefits of early identification. However, mothers were least aware of neonatal jaundice, NICU admission (>5 days), signs of late-onset and neural hearing loss, management of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting and therapy necessity, which might interfere in early detection and intervention of hearing loss. It is crucial to educate mothers on few risk factors and management of hearing loss to reduce its consequences.

  5. Risk of food losses and potential of food recovery for social purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilska, Beata; Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta; Krajewski, Karol

    2016-06-01

    All entities of the food supply chain should be responsible for counteracting food waste, therefore a need arises for joint initiatives in this area. To reduce food waste, businesses should be supported with a number of procedures for the efficient use of food for social purposes that shall be consistent with the law in force. Although they can bring about some losses, the following factors neither pose a threat to human health nor affect the donation of food for social purposes: wrong labelling of packages, food product wrong weight, close-to-end expiration date as well as mechanical damage to bulk packages. The purpose of this study is to identify such points at each of the four stages of the food supply chain (primary production, processing, distribution, sale) where food losses can be prevented by donating food to those who need it. A total of 15 Recovery Points were identified at the above mentioned four stages of the food supply chain. Food recovered there is safe to human health, so it can be donated for social purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimates of Workers with Noise-Induced Hearing Loss and Population at Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakita, T.; Ueda, A.

    1997-08-01

    Towards the goal of protecting workers from damage due to noise exposure, a vast store of knowledge has been generated about its nature, etiology and time course. There still exists, however, a strong need to reclarify the locations, nature and magnitude of the problem of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Based on the rate of positive results in a hearing screening test in the workplace, this paper presents an attempt to estimate the total number of workers with more than 40 dB hearing loss at 4 kHz caused by occupational noise exposure. The estimated values in major industry groups were as follows: about 780 000 in manufacturing; 410 000 in construction; 360 000 in agriculture; forestry and fishing; and around 2 million in total. Although it is rather difficult to estimate the number of workers exposed to noise above 85 dB(A), it may be reasonable to believe that at least several million workers exposed to noise should be covered by the 1992 guidelines for the prevention of noise hazards.

  7. Erythropoietin may reduce the risk of germ cell loss in boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Visfeldt, J; Thorup, J M

    2001-01-01

    In boys with cryptorchidism older than 2 years a testicular biopsy at time of orchiopexy shows lack of germ cells in 10-40% of the cases. The number of spermatogonia per tubule is prognostic for subsequent fertility potential. A biopsy without germ cells is associated with 33-100% risk of inferti...

  8. It's lonely at the top: Biodiversity at risk to loss from climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Koprowski; Sandra L. Doumas; Melissa J. Merrick; Brittany Oleson; Erin E. Posthumus; Timothy G. Jessen; R. Nathan Gwinn

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is a serious immediate and long-term threat to wildlife species. State and federal agencies are working with universities and non-government organizations to predict, plan for, and mitigate such uncertainties in the future. Endemic species may be particularly at-risk as climate-induced changes impact their limited geographic ranges. The Madrean...

  9. Nuclear indecision: loss in the past and a risk for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de; Dias, Marcio Soares; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Jordao, Elizabete

    2006-01-01

    Presently the Brazil have a new opportunity exploring the nuclear option for providing a more diversification and reliability to the brazilian electric system and the first step is the conclusion of Angra 3, followed by another nuclear installations, giving priority to the northeast of the country which is the region with lack of primary sources and therefore with risk of deficit

  10. Loss-of-function variants in ADCY3 increase risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Andersen, Mette K

    2018-01-01

    We have identified a variant in ADCY3 (encoding adenylate cyclase 3) associated with markedly increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in the Greenlandic population. The variant disrupts a splice acceptor site, and carriers have decreased ADCY3 RNA expression. Additionally, we observe...

  11. Creating a Global Building Inventory for Earthquake Loss Assessment and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Earthquakes have claimed approximately 8 million lives over the last 2,000 years (Dunbar, Lockridge and others, 1992) and fatality rates are likely to continue to rise with increased population and urbanizations of global settlements especially in developing countries. More than 75% of earthquake-related human casualties are caused by the collapse of buildings or structures (Coburn and Spence, 2002). It is disheartening to note that large fractions of the world's population still reside in informal, poorly-constructed & non-engineered dwellings which have high susceptibility to collapse during earthquakes. Moreover, with increasing urbanization half of world's population now lives in urban areas (United Nations, 2001), and half of these urban centers are located in earthquake-prone regions (Bilham, 2004). The poor performance of most building stocks during earthquakes remains a primary societal concern. However, despite this dark history and bleaker future trends, there are no comprehensive global building inventories of sufficient quality and coverage to adequately address and characterize future earthquake losses. Such an inventory is vital both for earthquake loss mitigation and for earthquake disaster response purposes. While the latter purpose is the motivation of this work, we hope that the global building inventory database described herein will find widespread use for other mitigation efforts as well. For a real-time earthquake impact alert system, such as U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER), (Wald, Earle and others, 2006), we seek to rapidly evaluate potential casualties associated with earthquake ground shaking for any region of the world. The casualty estimation is based primarily on (1) rapid estimation of the ground shaking hazard, (2) aggregating the population exposure within different building types, and (3) estimating the casualties from the collapse of vulnerable buildings. Thus, the

  12. Cyber security risk management: public policy implications of correlated risk, imperfect ability to prove loss, and observability of self-protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğüt, Hulisi; Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Menon, Nirup

    2011-03-01

    The correlated nature of security breach risks, the imperfect ability to prove loss from a breach to an insurer, and the inability of insurers and external agents to observe firms' self-protection efforts have posed significant challenges to cyber security risk management. Our analysis finds that a firm invests less than the social optimal levels in self-protection and in insurance when risks are correlated and the ability to prove loss is imperfect. We find that the appropriate social intervention policy to induce a firm to invest at socially optimal levels depends on whether insurers can verify a firm's self-protection levels. If self-protection of a firm is observable to an insurer so that it can design a contract that is contingent on the self-protection level, then self-protection and insurance behave as complements. In this case, a social planner can induce a firm to choose the socially optimal self-protection and insurance levels by offering a subsidy on self-protection. We also find that providing a subsidy on insurance does not provide a similar inducement to a firm. If self-protection of a firm is not observable to an insurer, then self-protection and insurance behave as substitutes. In this case, a social planner should tax the insurance premium to achieve socially optimal results. The results of our analysis hold regardless of whether the insurance market is perfectly competitive or not, implying that solely reforming the currently imperfect insurance market is insufficient to achieve the efficient outcome in cyber security risk management. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning.We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61 to 80 years old were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic

  14. Health risks, past usage, and intention to use weight loss products in normal weight women with high and low body dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisenhunt, B L; Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Andrews, C

    2003-06-01

    There are many health risks involved with the use of weight loss products by normal weight women. The mass media may compound this problem through the promotion of weight loss products and a thin body size. This study tested women's perceptions of different weight loss product ads to determine if body dysphoria (i.e., an over concern with body size and shape in normal weight people) was associated with risk beliefs, past behaviors, and intention toward using weight loss products. Normal weight women (age range = 18-41 yr), who were classified as either high (n=45) or low (n=43) on a measure of body dysphoria, rated different weight loss products according to their perception of health risks, past behavior, and their intention to consume the products. These products were a dietary fat substitute (olestra), a prescription obesity medication (sibutramine), and an over-the-counter appetite suppressant (phenylpropanolamine). High body dysphoric women reported higher intentions to use the products as well as increased prior use of two of the three weight loss products. High body dysphoric women did not believe that these weight loss products were harmless. They recognized potential health risks associated with using such products, but nonetheless, expressed intention to use these weight loss products at a higher frequency. Also, several variables related to body image were found to effectively discriminate normal weight women at risk for abusing weight loss products. This study found that women who do not need to lose weight but have significant body image concerns were willing to use potentially harmful weight loss products despite the knowledge that such products might pose significant health risks. Techniques utilized by advertising regulatory agencies such as warning labels did not have a strong deterrent effect for stated intentions to use the products. Implications of these findings for public health policy issues were discussed.

  15. Tourniquets do not increase the total blood loss or re-amputation risk in transtibial amputations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied, Christian; Tengberg, Peter T; Holm, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the total blood loss (TBL) and the safety with respect to the re-amputation rate after transtibial amputation (TTA) conducted with and without a tourniquet. METHODS: The study was a single-centre retrospective cohort study of patients with a primary TTA admitted between January...... 2013 and April 2015. All patients with a primary TTA were assessed for inclusion if the amputation was performed because of arteriosclerosis or diabetic complications. All patients underwent a standardized TTA procedure that was performed approximately 10 cm below the knee joint and performed...... portion, which equals 55 g/L of haemoglobin. The TBL during the first four postoperative days was calculated based on the haemoglobin level and the estimated blood volume. The re-amputation rate was evaluated within 30 d. RESULTS: Seventy-four out of 86 consecutive patients who underwent TTA within...

  16. Habitats at Risk. Global Warming and Species Loss in Globally Significant Terrestrial Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, J.R.; Liu, Canran; Miller, L.B.; Allnutt, T.; Hansen, L.

    2002-02-01

    In this study, a suite of models of global climate and vegetation change is used to investigate three important global warming-induced threats to the terrestrial Global 200 ecoregions: (1) Invasions by new habitat types (and corresponding loss of original habitat types); (2) Local changes of habitat types; (3) High rates of required species migration. Seven climate models (general circulation models or GCMs) and two vegetation models (BIOME3 and MAPSS) were used to produce 14 impact scenarios under the climate associated with a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentrations, which is expected to occur in less than 100 years. Previous analyses indicated that most of the variation among the impact scenarios was attributable to the particular vegetation model used, hence the authors provide results separately for the two models. The models do not provide information on biodiversity per se, but instead simulate current and future potential distributions of major vegetation types (biomes) such as tundra and broadleaf tropical rain forest

  17. Global climate change increases risk of crop yield losses and food insecurity in the tropical Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, Richard; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Feeley, Kenneth J

    2018-02-01

    One of the greatest current challenges to human society is ensuring adequate food production and security for a rapidly growing population under changing climatic conditions. Climate change, and specifically rising temperatures, will alter the suitability of areas for specific crops and cultivation systems. In order to maintain yields, farmers may be forced to change cultivation practices, the timing of cultivation, or even the type of crops grown. Alternatively, farmers can change the location where crops are cultivated (e.g., to higher elevations) to track suitable climates (in which case the plants will have to grow in different soils), as cultivated plants will otherwise have to tolerate warmer temperatures and possibly face novel enemies. We simulated these two last possible scenarios (for temperature increases of 1.3°C and 2.6°C) in the Peruvian Andes through a field experiment in which several traditionally grown varieties of potato and maize were planted at different elevations (and thus temperatures) using either the local soil or soil translocated from higher elevations. Maize production declined by 21%-29% in response to new soil conditions. The production of maize and potatoes declined by >87% when plants were grown under warmer temperatures, mainly as a result of the greater incidence of novel pests. Crop quality and value also declined under simulated migration and warming scenarios. We estimated that local farmers may experience severe economic losses of up to 2,300 US$ ha -1  yr -1 . These findings reveal that climate change is a real and imminent threat to agriculture and that there is a pressing need to develop effective management strategies to reduce yield losses and prevent food insecurity. Importantly, such strategies should take into account the influences of non-climatic and/or biotic factors (e.g., novel pests) on plant development. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Glacier loss and hydro-social risks in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Bryan G.; French, Adam; Baraer, Michel; Carey, Mark; Bury, Jeffrey; Young, Kenneth R.; Polk, Molly H.; Wigmore, Oliver; Lagos, Pablo; Crumley, Ryan; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Lautz, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Accelerating glacier recession in tropical highlands and in the Peruvian Andes specifically is a manifestation of global climate change that is influencing the hydrologic cycle and impacting water resources across a range of socio-environmental systems. Despite predictions regarding the negative effects of long-term glacier decline on water availability, many uncertainties remain regarding the timing and variability of hydrologic changes and their impacts. To improve context-specific understandings of the effects of climate change and glacial melt on water resources in the tropical Andes, this article synthesizes results from long-term transdisciplinary research with new findings from two glacierized Peruvian watersheds to develop and apply a multi-level conceptual framework focused on the coupled biophysical and social determinants of water access and hydro-social risks in these settings. The framework identifies several interacting variables-hydrologic transformation, land cover change, perceptions of water availability, water use and infrastructure in local and regional economies, and water rights and governance-to broadly assess how glacier change is embedded with social risks and vulnerability across diverse water uses and sectors. The primary focus is on the Santa River watershed draining the Cordillera Blanca to the Pacific. Additional analysis of hydrologic change and water access in the geographically distinct Shullcas River watershed draining the Huaytapallana massif towards the city of Huancayo further illuminates the heterogeneous character of hydrologic risk and vulnerability in the Andes.

  19. Effect of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk: A randomized 1-year trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundfør, T M; Svendsen, M; Tonstad, S

    2018-07-01

    Long-term adherence to conventional weight-loss diets is limited while intermittent fasting has risen in popularity. We compared the effects of intermittent versus continuous energy restriction on weight loss, maintenance and cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity and ≥1 additional component of metabolic syndrome. In total 112 participants (men [50%] and women [50%]) aged 21-70 years with BMI 30-45 kg/m 2 (mean 35.2 [SD 3.7]) were randomized to intermittent or continuous energy restriction. A 6-month weight-loss phase including 10 visits with dieticians was followed by a 6-month maintenance phase without additional face-to-face counselling. The intermittent energy restriction group was advised to consume 400/600 kcal (female/male) on two non-consecutive days. Based on dietary records both groups reduced energy intake by ∼26-28%. Weight loss was similar among participants in the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (8.0 kg [SD 6.5] versus 9.0 kg [SD 7.1]; p = 0.6). There were favorable improvements in waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol with no difference between groups. Weight regain was minimal and similar between the intermittent and continuous energy restriction groups (1.1 kg [SD 3.8] versus 0.4 kg [SD 4.0]; p = 0.6). Intermittent restriction participants reported higher hunger scores than continuous restriction participants on a subjective numeric rating scale (4.7 [SD 2.2] vs 3.6 [SD 2.2]; p = 0.002). Both intermittent and continuous energy restriction resulted in similar weight loss, maintenance and improvements in cardiovascular risk factors after one year. However, feelings of hunger may be more pronounced during intermittent energy restriction. www.clinicaltrials.govNCT02480504. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine

  20. Professional Rugby Union players have a 60% greater risk of time loss injury after concussion: a 2-season prospective study of clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266

  1. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  2. The use of hearing protection devices with approach risk perception of noise induced hearing loss in several manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Fouladi Deahghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective : Noise is a widespread physical agent and although is a most risk factors in workplaces that workers of health to exposed. Thus, different actions is done for reduce exposure to it in work places, which one of them is use of hearing protection devices. The use of hearing protection devices with approach risk perception of noise induced hearing loss in several manufacturing industry Method: This study was Cross-sectional study and done in five industrial unit with a sound pressure level more of 85 dB-A with the participation of 340 workers. To collect data , individual risk perception and self-investigator questionnaires were used. After collecting data, statistical analysis including Cronbach's alpha and regression were used to analyze the data. Results : Range use of hearing protection devices during shifts work by workers, respectively equal to: 50.4% sometimes, 31.58% never and 18.2% at all times. Also, results indicate significant differences between individual differences and hearing protection devices. Conclusion : Results of this study showed that individual risk perception as an important factor, can do a significant role in predicting the behavior of personals in the use of hearing protection devices, which should be considered in any design and implementation of hearing protection program.

  3. Effects of weight loss and long-term weight maintenance with diets varying in protein and glycemic index on cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögebakan, Özlem; Kohl, Angela; Osterhoff, Martin A.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes).......We sought to separately examine the effects of either weight loss or diets varying in protein content and glycemic index without further changes in body weight on cardiovascular risk factors within the Diet, Obesity, and Genes study (DiOGenes)....

  4. Timing of pregnancy, postpartum risk of virologic failure and loss to follow-up among HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoya, Dorina; Sineke, Tembeka; Brennan, Alana T; Long, Lawrence; Fox, Matthew P

    2017-07-17

    We assessed the association between the timing of pregnancy with the risk of postpartum virologic failure and loss from HIV care in South Africa. This is a retrospective cohort study of 6306 HIV-positive women aged 15-49 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, initiated on ART between January 2004 and December 2013 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The incidence of virologic failure (two consecutive viral load measurements of >1000 copies/ml) and loss to follow-up (>3 months late for a visit) during 24 months postpartum were assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling. The rate of postpartum virologic failure was higher following an incident pregnancy on ART [adjusted hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.7] than among women who initiated ART during pregnancy. This difference was sustained among women with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl at delivery (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0). Predictors of postpartum virologic failure were being viremic, longer time on ART, being 25 or less years old and low CD4 cell count and anaemia at delivery, as well as initiating ART on stavudine-containing or abacavir-containing regimen. There was no difference postpartum loss to follow-up rates between the incident pregnancies group (hazard ratio 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.1) and those who initiated ART in pregnancy. The risk of virologic failure remains high among postpartum women, particularly those who conceive on ART. The results highlight the need to provide adequate support for HIV-positive women with fertility intention after ART initiation and to strengthen monitoring and retention efforts for postpartum women to sustain the benefits of ART.

  5. Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin; Gregory, Kevin; Arsintescu, Lucia; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload occur to some extent for ground and flight crews, prior to and during spaceflight missions. Ground evidence indicates that such risk factors may lead to performance decrements and adverse health outcomes, which could potentially compromise mission objectives. Efforts are needed to identify the environmental and mission conditions that interfere with sleep and circadian alignment, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resiliency to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. Specifically, this report highlights a collection of new evidence to better characterize the risk and reveals new gaps in this risk as follows: Sleep loss is apparent during spaceflight. Astronauts consistently average less sleep during spaceflight relative to on the ground. The causes of this sleep loss remain unknown, however ground-based evidence suggests that the sleep duration of astronauts is likely to lead to performance impairment and short and long-term health consequences. Further research is needed in this area in order to develop screening tools to assess individual astronaut sleep need in order to quantify the magnitude of sleep loss during spaceflight; current and planned efforts in BHP's research portfolio address this need. In addition, it is still unclear whether the conditions of spaceflight environment lead to sleep loss or whether other factors, such as work overload lead to the reduced sleep duration. Future data mining efforts and continued data collection on the ISS will help to further characterize factors contributing to sleep loss. Sleep inertia has not been evaluated during spaceflight. Ground-based studies confirm that it takes two to four hours to achieve optimal performance after waking from a sleep episode. Sleep inertia has been associated with increased accidents and reduced performance in operational environments. Sleep inertia poses considerable risk during spaceflight when emergency

  6. Risk Factors for Hearing Loss in Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuur, Charlotte L.; Simis, Yvonne J.; Lamers, Emmy A.; Hart, Augustinus A.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Balm, Alfons J.; Rasch, Coen R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment of head-and-neck carcinoma. The objective of this study was to perform a prospective multivariate assessment of the dose-effect relationship between intensity-modulated RT and hearing loss. Methods and Materials: Pure tone audiometry at 0.250-16 kHz was obtained before and after treatment in 101 patients (202 ears). All patients received full-course intensity-modulated RT (range, 56-70 Gy), with a median cochlear dose of 11.4 Gy (range, 0.2-69.7). Results: Audiometry was performed 1 week before and a median of 9 weeks (range, 1-112) after treatment. The mean hearing deterioration at pure tone average air-conduction 1-2-4 kHz was small (from 28.6 dB HL to 30.1 dB HL). However, individual patients showed clinically significant hearing loss, with 10-dB threshold shift incidences of 13% and 18% at pure tone averages air-conduction 1-2-4 kHz and 8-10-12.5 kHz, respectively. Post-treatment hearing capability was unfavorable in the case of greater inner ear radiation doses (p <0.0001), unfavorable baseline hearing capability (p <0.0001), green-eyed patients (p <0.0001), and older age (p <0.0001). Using multivariate analysis, a prediction of individual hearing capabiltity after treatment was made. Conclusion: RT-induced hearing loss in the mean population is modest. However, clinically significant hearing loss was observed in older patients with green eyes and unfavorable pretreatment hearing. In these patients, the intended radiation dose may be adjusted according to the proposed predictive model, aiming to decrease the risk of ototoxicity.

  7. Sensitivity of soil phosphorus tests in predicting the potential risk of phosphorus loss from pasture soil

    OpenAIRE

    H. SOINNE; K. SAARIJÄRVI; M. KARPPINEN

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of urine and dung additions on the phosphorus (P) chemistry of pasture land and to compare the sensitivity of two soil extraction methods in assessing the P-loading risk. In a field experiment, urine and dung were added to soil in amounts corresponding to single excrement portions and the soil samples, taken at certain intervals, were analysed for pHH2O, acid ammonium acetate extractable P (PAc) and water extractable total P (TPw), and mo...

  8. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mariño-Sánchez, Franklin; Quintó, Llorenç; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, Cèsar; Marin, Concepció

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants Newspaper readers of all ages and gender; 9348 surveys were analysed from the 10 783 returned. Main outcome measures Characteristics of surveyed population, olfaction by age and gender, smell self-perception and smell impairment risk factors. Terms normosmia, hyposmia and anosmia were used when participants detected, recognised or identified all four, one to three or none of the odours, respectively. Results Survey profile was a 43-year-old woman with medium–high educational level, living in a city. Olfaction was considered normal in 80.6% (detection), 56% (recognition/memory) and 50.7% (identification). Prevalence of smell dysfunction was 19.4% for detection (0.3% anosmia, 19.1% hyposmia), 43.5% for recognition (0.2% anosmia, 43.3% hyposmia) and 48.8% for identification (0.8% anosmia, 48% hyposmia). Olfaction was worse (polfactory self-perception for detection; low educational level, poor self-perception and pregnancy for recognition; and older age, poor self-perception and history of head trauma and loss of smell for identification. Smoking and exposure to noxious substances were mild protective factors for smell recognition. Conclusions Sense of smell in women is better than in men suggesting a learning process during life with deterioration in older ages. Poor self-perception, history of smell loss, head trauma and pregnancy are potential risk factors for olfactory disorders. PMID:23135536

  9. Increased greenhouse effect substantiated through measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skartveit, Arvid

    2001-01-01

    The article presents studies on the greenhouse effect which substantiates the results from satellite measurements during the period 1970 - 1997. These show an increased effect due to increase in the concentration of the climatic gases CO 2 , methane, CFC-11 and CFC-12 in the atmosphere

  10. 21 CFR 514.4 - Substantial evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... adequate and well-controlled studies, such as a study in a target species, study in laboratory animals... and conditions of use. Substantial evidence of effectiveness of a new animal drug shall demonstrate that the new animal drug is effective for each intended use and associated conditions of use for and...

  11. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  12. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to CranMax® and reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The food that is the subject of the claim is CranMax®. The Panel considers that the food, CranMax®, which is the subject of the claim is sufficiently characterised...... in relation to the claimed effect. The Panel considers that reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract is a beneficial physiological effect. One human study from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation...... of the claim did not show an effect of CranMax® on reduction of the risk of urinary tract infection by inhibiting the adhesion of certain bacteria in the urinary tract. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of CranMax® and reduction...

  13. Urban seismic risk assessment: statistical repair cost data and probable structural losses based on damage scenario—correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadou, Anastasia K.; Baltzopoulou, Aikaterini D.; Karabinis, Athanasios I.

    2016-06-01

    The current seismic risk assessment is based on two discrete approaches, actual and probable, validating afterwards the produced results. In the first part of this research, the seismic risk is evaluated from the available data regarding the mean statistical repair/strengthening or replacement cost for the total number of damaged structures (180,427 buildings) after the 7/9/1999 Parnitha (Athens) earthquake. The actual evaluated seismic risk is afterwards compared to the estimated probable structural losses, which is presented in the second part of the paper, based on a damage scenario in the referring earthquake. The applied damage scenario is based on recently developed damage probability matrices (DPMs) from Athens (Greece) damage database. The seismic risk estimation refers to 750,085 buildings situated in the extended urban region of Athens. The building exposure is categorized in five typical structural types and represents 18.80 % of the entire building stock in Greece. The last information is provided by the National Statistics Service of Greece (NSSG) according to the 2000-2001 census. The seismic input is characterized by the ratio, a g/ a o, where a g is the regional peak ground acceleration (PGA) which is evaluated from the earlier estimated research macroseismic intensities, and a o is the PGA according to the hazard map of the 2003 Greek Seismic Code. Finally, the collected investigated financial data derived from different National Services responsible for the post-earthquake crisis management concerning the repair/strengthening or replacement costs or other categories of costs for the rehabilitation of earthquake victims (construction and function of settlements for earthquake homeless, rent supports, demolitions, shorings) are used to determine the final total seismic risk factor.

  14. An examination of the overlap between genetic and environmental risk factors for intentional weight loss and overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Tracey D; Treloar, Susan A; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2009-09-01

    To further our understanding of how intentional weight loss (IWL) and overeating are related, we examined the shared genetic and environmental variance between lifetime IWL and overeating. Interview data were available for 1,976 female twins (both members of 439 and 264 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, respectively), mean age = 40.61, SD = 4.72. We used lifetime diagnostic data for eating disorders obtained from a semistructured psychiatric telephone interview, examined in a bivariate twin analysis. Both lifetime behaviors were measured on a 3-point scale, where absence of IWL or overeating formed one anchor on the scale and lifetime anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) formed the opposite anchors, respectively. In line with previous findings, a higher body mass index was significantly associated with the lifetime presence of IWL and/or overeating (odds ratio = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.19). The best fitting twin model contained additive genetic and nonshared environmental influence influencing both IWL and overeating, with correlations between these influences of 0.61 (95% CI: 0.35-0.92) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.07-0.42), respectively. About 37% of genetic risk factors were considered to overlap between IWL and overeating, and with only 6% of overlap between environmental risk factors. Thus, considerable independence of risk factors was indicated.

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to capsaicin and maintenance of body weight after weight loss (ID 2039, 2041, 2042), increase in carbohydrate oxidation (ID 2040), and contribution to normal hair growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to capsaicin and contribution to the maintenance or achievement of a normal body weight, increase in carbohydrate oxidation, and contribution to normal hair growth. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...

  16. Loss of international medical experiences: knowledge, attitudes and skills at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzen, Corita R; Legome, Eric

    2007-11-28

    Despite the great influence International Medical Experiences (IMs) can have on young physicians and their impact on patients and communities, they are not offered in all training programs and are at risk of being reduced in some due to stringent guidelines for funding of graduate medical education. IMs provide unique experiences in clinical, epidemiologic, cultural, and political arenas. From an educational perspective, they broaden a physician's differential diagnostic skills and introduce clinical entities rarely seen in the U.S. Time spent in developing countries emphasizes the importance of community health and increases cultural and linguistic competence. Experience working with the underserved during an IM has been shown to increase interest in volunteerism, humanitarian efforts, and work with underserved populations both in the US and abroad. IMs also afford physicians the opportunity to learn about the delivery of health care abroad and are associated with an increase in primary care specialty choice. It is time for the leaders in graduate medical education to prioritize international health opportunities. Leaders in academic medicine can press for changes in reimbursement patterns at the national level or special funds for international electives. Hospitals can set up separate accounts to help finance resident salaries and benefits while abroad. Individual departments must be flexible with resident schedules to allow elective time. Medical students and housestaff can organize and lobby larger organizations such as the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Association of Medical Colleges (AAMC), and specialty groups to make IMs universally accessible.

  17. Emergency Department Crowding and Loss of Medical Licensure: A New Risk of Patient Care in Hallways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Derlet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 32-year-old male recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes treated at an urban university emergency department (ED crowded to 250% over capacity. His initial symptoms of shortness of breath and feeling ill for several days were evaluated with chest radiograph, electrocardiogram (EKG, and laboratory studies, which suggested mild diabetic ketoacidosis. His medical care in the ED was conducted in a crowded hallway. After correction of his metabolic abnormalities he felt improved and was discharged with arrangements made for outpatient follow-up. Two days later he returned in cardiac arrest, and resuscitation efforts failed. The autopsy was significant for multiple acute and chronic pulmonary emboli but no coronary artery disease. The hospital settled the case for $1 million and allocated major responsibility to the treating emergency physician (EP. As a result the state medical board named the EP in a disciplinary action, claiming negligence because the EKG had not been personally interpreted by that physician. A formal hearing was conducted with the EP’s medical license placed in jeopardy. This case illustrates the risk to EPs who treat patients in crowded hallways, where it is difficult to provide the highest level of care. This case also demonstrates the failure of hospital administration to accept responsibility and provide resources to the ED to ensure patient safety. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(2:137–141.

  18. Impact of childhood trauma and cognitive emotion regulation strategies on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Baek, Kwangyeol; Kwon, Jae-Hyung; Jeong, Jaeseung; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Although poor decision-making ultimately impairs quality of life in depression, few studies describe the clinical characteristics of patients suffering from dysfunctional decision-making. This study aims to delineate the effect of childhood trauma and other personality factors on risk-aversive and loss-aversive patterns of decision-making in patients with depression. A total of 50 depressive patients completed surveys for the measurement of sociodemographic factors, trauma loads and other clinical characteristics, including depression, anxiety, and strategies for emotion regulation. Risk aversion and loss aversion were quantified using probability discounting task and a 50:50 gamble on monetary decision-making task under specified risks. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors, predicting risk aversion or loss aversion in depression. Childhood trauma was the most prominent factor predicting loss aversion in patients with depressive disorders. Overall maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were associated with risk aversion. Childhood trauma and specific strategies of emotion regulation contribute to risk or loss aversion in patients with depression. These findings may provide useful insight into elaborative evaluation and interventions to improve decision-making and quality of life in patients with depression.

  19. The Effect of PCDH15 Gene Variations on the Risk of Noise-induced Hearing Loss in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiang Rong; Wang, Jing Jing; Yang, Qiu Yue; Jiao, Jie; He, Li Hua; Yu, Shan Fa; Gu, Gui Zhen; Chen, Guo Shun; Zhou, Wen Hui; Wu, Hui; Li, Yan Hong; Zhang, Huan Ling; Zhang, Zeng Rui; Jin, Xian Ning

    2017-02-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a complex disease caused by interactions between environmental and genetic factors. This study investigated whether genetic variability in protocadherin related 15 (PCDH15) underlies an increased susceptibility to the development of NIHL in a Chinese population. The results showed that compared with the TT genotype of rs11004085, CT/CC genotypes were associated with an increased risk of NIHL [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.64; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14-6.11, P = 0.024]. Additionally, significant interactions between the rs11004085 and rs978842 genetic variations and noise exposure were observed in the high-level exposure groups (P variations in PCDH15 modify the susceptibility to NIHL development in humans. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving access to optometry services for people at risk of preventable sight loss: a qualitative study in five UK locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamon, S; Hayden, C; Lee, H; Trudinger, D; Appelbee, E; Hurrell, D-L; Richardson, I

    2014-12-01

    Reducing preventable sight loss is an increasing priority for public health and health care providers. We examined the factors affecting people's use of optometry services in population groups at increased risk of sight loss. This is a qualitative study in five UK locations. In England, participants were from the Pakistani and Black Caribbean communities; in Scotland from the Pakistani community; and in Northern Ireland and Wales from white socio-economically deprived communities. Thirty-four focus groups were conducted (n = 289). The study included people who attend optometry services and people not engaged with services. Barriers to access included limited awareness of eye health and eye disease, concern about the cost of spectacles and the appropriateness of optometry in a commercial setting. Attendance at the optometrist was primarily symptom led. A positive previous experience or continuing relationship with the optometrist helped to alleviate the barriers and promote attendance. Addressing the disparity between the broader messages about eye health and the current perception of the function of optometry could help improve access to services. Uptake may be improved through the co-production of interventions that better resonate with local communities. Non-retail service delivery options should be explored. © The Author 2014, Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  1. Effects of prescribed burning on marsh-elevation change and the risk of wetland loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Grace, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Marsh-elevation change is the net effect of biophysical processes controlling inputs versus losses of soil volume. In many marshes, accumulation of organic matter is an important contributor to soil volume and vertical land building. In this study, we examined how prescribed burning, a common marsh-management practice, may affect elevation dynamics in the McFaddin National Wildlife Refuge, Texas by altering organic-matter accumulation. Experimental plots were established in a brackish marsh dominated by Spartina patens, a grass found throughout the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic marshes. Experimental plots were subjected to burning and nutrient-addition treatments and monitored for 3.5 years (April 2005 – November 2008). Half of the plots were burned once in 2006; half of the plots were fertilized seasonally with nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Before and after the burns, seasonal measurements were made of soil physicochemistry, vegetation structure, standing and fallen plant biomass, aboveground and belowground production, decomposition, and accretion and elevation change (measured with Surface Elevation Tables (SET)). Movements in different soil strata (surface, root zone, subroot zone) were evaluated to identify which processes were contributing to elevation change. Because several hurricanes occurred during the study period, we also assessed how these storms affected elevation change rates. The main findings of this study were as follows: 1. The main drivers of elevation change were accretion on the marsh surface and subsurface movement below the root zone, but the relative influence of these processes varied temporally. Prior to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike (September 2008), the main driver was subsurface movement; after the hurricane, both accretion and subsurface movement were important. 2. Prior to Hurricanes Gustav and Ike, rates of elevation gain and accretion above a marker horizon were higher in burned plots compared to nonburned plots, whereas

  2. Does the method of weight loss effect long-term changes in weight, body composition or chronic disease risk factors in overweight or obese adults? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Washburn

    Full Text Available Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain.To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors.PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013 for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review.Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included.Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc. and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up.Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼ 55% of loss was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise.

  3. The Use of the Kurtosis-Adjusted Cumulative Noise Exposure Metric in Evaluating the Hearing Loss Risk for Complex Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong-Wei; Qiu, Wei; Heyer, Nicholas J; Zhang, Mei-Bian; Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Yi-Ming; Hamernik, Roger P

    2016-01-01

    To test a kurtosis-adjusted cumulative noise exposure (CNE) metric for use in evaluating the risk of hearing loss among workers exposed to industrial noises. Specifically, to evaluate whether the kurtosis-adjusted CNE (1) provides a better association with observed industrial noise-induced hearing loss, and (2) provides a single metric applicable to both complex (non-Gaussian [non-G]) and continuous or steady state (Gaussian [G]) noise exposures for predicting noise-induced hearing loss (dose-response curves). Audiometric and noise exposure data were acquired on a population of screened workers (N = 341) from two steel manufacturing plants located in Zhejiang province and a textile manufacturing plant located in Henan province, China. All the subjects from the two steel manufacturing plants (N = 178) were exposed to complex noise, whereas the subjects from textile manufacturing plant (N = 163) were exposed to a G continuous noise. Each subject was given an otologic examination to determine their pure-tone HTL and had their personal 8-hr equivalent A-weighted noise exposure (LAeq) and full-shift noise kurtosis statistic (which is sensitive to the peaks and temporal characteristics of noise exposures) measured. For each subject, an unadjusted and kurtosis-adjusted CNE index for the years worked was created. Multiple linear regression analysis controlling for age was used to determine the relationship between CNE (unadjusted and kurtosis adjusted) and the mean HTL at 3, 4, and 6 kHz (HTL346) among the complex noise-exposed group. In addition, each subject's HTLs from 0.5 to 8.0 kHz were age and sex adjusted using Annex A (ISO-1999) to determine whether they had adjusted high-frequency noise-induced hearing loss (AHFNIHL), defined as an adjusted HTL shift of 30 dB or greater at 3.0, 4.0, or 6.0 kHz in either ear. Dose-response curves for AHFNIHL were developed separately for workers exposed to G and non-G noise using both unadjusted and adjusted CNE as the exposure

  4. Prevalence of bovine fascioliasis, areas at risk and ensuing losses in the state of Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Martins de Aquino

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study had to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of areas at risk of bovine fascioliasis in the state of Goiás, central-western Brazil between 2007 and 2014; to evaluate the associations of some epidemiological variables with occurrences of Fasciola hepatica in animals; and to estimate the economic losses that this parasite on the cattle industry. It could be concluded that of 23,255,979 animals slaughtered, the average prevalence of F. hepatica in cattle in Goiás during the period evaluated was 0.0026% (95% CI: 0.0024-0.0028. In the State of Goias, in about then years (since when this parasite was found for the first time by other researchers in 2007, F. hepatica was diagnosed in 168 new municipalities. Using the regression analysis, the effective bovine herd size was a significant risk factor (OR= 1.21; 95% CI 1.1022-1.4510; p ≤ 0.05 for cattle to be infected with fascioliasis in the state of Goiás. The cattle-rearing industry lost approximately R$ 15,072.75 (US$ 4,785 due to condemn of livers with Fasciola in the state of Goiás. New studies need to be conducted in these regions, with the aim to identify the likelihood of presence of intermediate hosts, which might serve as a source of F. hepatica infection for definitive hosts.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss among liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) cylinder infusion workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Ju; Chang, Chin-Kuo

    2009-12-01

    We assessed the exposure levels of noise, estimated prevalence, and identify risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among male workers with a cross-sectional study in a liquefied petroleum gas cylinder infusion factory in Taipei City. Male in-field workers exposed to noise and administrative controls were enrolled in 2006 and 2007. Face-to-face interviews were applied for demographics, employment history, and drinking/smoking habit. We then performed the measurements on noise levels in field and administration area, and hearing thresholds on study subjects with standard apparatus and protocols. Existence of hearing loss > 25 dBHL for the average of 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz was accordingly determined for NIHL. The effects from noise exposure, predisposing characteristics, employment-related factors, and personal habits to NIHL were estimated by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. A total of 75 subjects were involved in research and 56.8% of in-field workers had NIHL. Between the in-field and administration groups, hearing thresholds on the worse ear showed significant differences at frequencies of 4 k, 6 k, and 8 kHz with aging considered. Adjusted odds ratio for field noise exposure (OR=99.57, 95% CI: 3.53, 2,808.74) and frequent tea or coffee consumption (OR=0.03, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.51) were found significant. Current study addressed NIHL in a specific industry in Taiwan. Further efforts in minimizing its impact are still in need.

  6. Risk Factors for Preoperative Seizures and Loss of Seizure Control in Patients Undergoing Surgery for Metastatic Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Adela; Weingart, Jon D; Gallia, Gary L; Lim, Michael; Brem, Henry; Bettegowda, Chetan; Chaichana, Kaisorn L

    2017-08-01

    Metastatic brain tumors are the most common brain tumors in adults. Patients with metastatic brain tumors have poor prognoses with median survival of 6-12 months. Seizures are a major presenting symptom and cause of morbidity and mortality. In this article, risk factors for the onset of preoperative seizures and postoperative seizure control are examined. Adult patients who underwent resection of one or more brain metastases at a single institution between 1998 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Of 565 patients, 114 (20.2%) patients presented with seizures. Factors independently associated with preoperative seizures were preoperative headaches (P = 0.044), cognitive deficits (P = 0.031), more than 2 intracranial metastatic tumors (P = 0.013), temporal lobe location (P = 0.031), occipital lobe location (P = 0.010), and bone involvement by tumor (P = 0.029). Factors independently associated with loss of seizure control after surgical resection were preoperative seizures (P = 0.001), temporal lobe location (P = 0.037), lack of postoperative chemotherapy (P = 0.010), subtotal resection of tumor (P = 0.022), and local recurrence (P = 0.027). At last follow-up, the majority of patients (93.8%) were seizure-free. Thirty patients (5.30%) in total had loss of seizure control, and only 8 patients (1.41%) who did not have preoperative seizures presented with new-onset seizures after surgical resection of their metastases. The brain is a common site for metastases from numerous primary cancers, such as breast and lung. The identification of factors associated with onset of preoperative seizures as well as seizure control postoperatively could aid management strategies for patients with metastatic brain tumors. Patients with preoperative seizures who underwent resection tended to have good seizure control after surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Determining the effect of worker exposure conditions on the risk of hearing loss in noisy industrial workroom using Cox proportional hazard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Mohsen; Fereidan, Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam; Tajik, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In noisy workrooms, exposure conditions such as noise level, exposure duration and use of hearing protection devices are contributory factors to hearing loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure conditions on the risk of hearing loss using the Cox model. Seventy workers, employed in a press workshop, were selected to study their hearing threshold using an audiometric test. Their noise exposure histories also were analyzed. The results of the Cox model showed that the job type, smoking and the use of protection devices were effective to induce hearing loss. The relative risk of hearing loss in smokers was 1.1 times of non-smokers The relative risk of hearing loss in workers with the intermittent use of protection devices was 3.3 times those who used these devices continuously. The Cox model could analyze the effect of exposure conditions on hearing loss and provides useful information for managers in order to improve hearing conservation programs.

  8. Is there a risk to safety when working in the New South Wales underground coal-mining industry while having binaural noise-induced hearing loss?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viljoen, D.A.; Nie, V.; Guest, M. [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia)

    2006-03-15

    This study is designed to investigate the possible association between hearing loss and accidents in the New South Wales underground coal-mining industry. The study was conducted, gathering data over a 10-year period from 1994 to 2003, which identified 97 cases that have had accidents and 983 controls that have had no accidents. Hearing loss levels were noted and compared in the cases and controls. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether the variables were significant risk factors in the occurrence of accidents. Hearing loss levels in the total cohort varied from 0 to 54%. The proportion of cases with hearing loss appeared to be significantly higher in the young age group of {lt} 29 years than in the controls, but was not significantly different in the older age groups. This study indicates that workers who have lost up to 54% binaural high tone hearing and are older than 29 years do not appear to have an increased risk to safety when compared with workers who do not have hearing loss. However, workers in the young age group of {lt} 29 years who have high tone hearing loss may be at an increased risk of accident.

  9. Modelling the Frequency of Operational Risk Losses under the Basel II Capital Accord: A Comparative study of Poisson and Negative Binomial Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Silver, Toni O.

    2013-01-01

    2013 dissertation for MSc in Finance and Risk Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. \\ud \\ud This study investigated the two major methods of modelling the frequency of\\ud operational losses under the BCBS Accord of 1998 known as Basel II Capital\\ud Accord. It compared the Poisson method of modelling the frequency of\\ud losses to that of the Negative Binomial. The frequency of operational losses\\ud was investigated using a cross section of se...

  10. Substantiating the Incurred but not Reported Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgeta Vintilã

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to handle past and future liability taken by insurance contracts concluded, any insurance company must constitute and maintain technical reserves. Substantiating technical reserves is done through actuarial methods and its over-evaluation or under-evaluation influence solvency and financial performance of the insurance companies, in the sense of reducing solvency through over-evaluating reserves and, respectively, influencing profit (hence of outstanding tax through under-evaluating reserves. An important reserve for insurance companies is represented by the incurred but not reported reserve, as it allows the estimation of the liability the company may confront in the future, generated by events occurred in the past, which are not currently known in the present but will be reported in the future.

  11. The effect of prophylactic intravenous tranexamic acid on blood loss after vaginal delivery in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammad-Alizadeh, Sakineh; Abbasalizadeh, Fatemeh; Shirdel, Mina

    2015-02-01

    To determine the effect of prophylactic tranexamic acid (TA) on calculated and measured blood loss after vaginal delivery in women at low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. In this double-blind randomised controlled trial, 120 women with a singleton pregnancy were randomly allocated to receive either one gram intravenous TA or placebo in addition to 10 IU oxytocin after delivery of the fetus. Calculated blood loss was determined based on haematocrit before delivery and 12-24 h postdelivery. The quantity of blood loss was measured during two time periods: from delivery of the fetus to placental expulsion and from placental expulsion to the end of the second hour after childbirth. The mean (SD) calculated total blood loss (519 (320) vs 659 (402) mL, P = 0.036) and measured blood loss from placental delivery to 2 h postpartum (69 (39) vs 108 (53) mL, P  1000 mL was lower in the TA group (7% vs 18%, P = 0.048). Prophylactic TA reduces blood loss after vaginal delivery in women with a low risk of postpartum haemorrhage. The prophylactic use of TA may reduce blood loss complications and enhance maternal health. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Frequency, risk factors, and adverse sequelae of bone loss in patients with ostomy for inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Supriya; Wu, Xianrui; Moore, Travis; Shen, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Bone loss in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with ostomy has not been systemically studied. The aims of the study were to evaluate the frequency, risk factors, and sequelae of bone loss in patients with IBD and stomas and to monitor the change in bone mineral density (BMD) over time after ostomy. A total of 126 patients met the inclusion criteria (i.e., those with IBD diagnosis and stoma), including ileostomy (N = 120), colostomy (N = 3), and jejunostomy (N = 3). BMD was measured on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Patients were classified as having normal or low BMD based on the International Society for Clinical Densitometry criteria. Thirty-two demographic and clinical variables were evaluated with logistic regression models. At a median of 6.6 years (interquartile range, 2-18.7 yr) after stoma, 37 (29.4%) patients had a low BMD. On univariate analysis, there were no significant differences between the normal and low BMD groups in the following variables: gender, race, age at diagnosis of IBD, prevalence of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, age at ostomy, duration from diagnosis to DEXA and from ostomy to DEXA, menopausal age, diabetes, hypothyroidism, renal stones, short bowel syndrome, history of smoking or excessive alcohol use, family history of IBD or osteoporosis, daily calcium and vitamin D supplement, estrogen replacement, and steroid use. Body mass index was significantly lower in the low BMD group than the normal BMD group (23.3 ± 5.5 versus 26.0 ± 5.2, P = 0.013). Fragility fracture occurred in 8 (21.6%) patients in low BMD group and 4 (4.5%) patients in normal BMD group (P = 0.006). In a multivariate analysis, low body mass index was the only covariate-adjusted factor associated with low BMD. In patients with multiple DEXA scans available over time after ostomy, hip BMD was found to improve marginally, and the lumbar and femoral BMD remained stable. Low BMD was common in patients with IBD after ostomy, largely based on

  13. Moving beyond the cost-loss ratio: economic assessment of streamflow forecasts for a risk-averse decision maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-06-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. Numerous studies have shown that ensemble forecasts are of higher quality than deterministic ones. Many studies also conclude that decisions based on ensemble rather than deterministic forecasts lead to better decisions in the context of flood mitigation. Hence, it is believed that ensemble forecasts possess a greater economic and social value for both decision makers and the general population. However, the vast majority of, if not all, existing hydro-economic studies rely on a cost-loss ratio framework that assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. To overcome this important flaw, this study borrows from economics and evaluates the economic value of early warning flood systems using the well-known Constant Absolute Risk Aversion (CARA) utility function, which explicitly accounts for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker. This new framework allows for the full exploitation of the information related to a forecasts' uncertainty, making it especially suited for the economic assessment of ensemble or probabilistic forecasts. Rather than comparing deterministic and ensemble forecasts, this study focuses on comparing different types of ensemble forecasts. There are multiple ways of assessing and representing forecast uncertainty. Consequently, there exist many different means of building an ensemble forecasting system for future streamflow. One such possibility is to dress deterministic forecasts using the statistics of past error forecasts. Such dressing methods are popular among operational agencies because of their simplicity and intuitiveness. Another approach is the use of ensemble meteorological forecasts for precipitation and temperature, which are then provided as inputs to one or many hydrological model(s). In this study, three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared: simple statistically dressed

  14. The bereavement experience of adolescents and early young adults with cancer: Peer and parental loss due to death is associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza-Marie Johnson

    Full Text Available Adolescents commonly experience loss due to death, and perceived closeness to the deceased can often increase the intensity of bereavement. Adolescents and early young adult (AeYA oncology patients may recall previous losses or experience new losses, possibly of other children with cancer, while coping with their own increased risk of mortality. The bereavement experiences of AeYA patients are not well described in the literature.This analysis of bereavement sought to describe the prevalence and types of losses, the support following a death, and the impact of loss on AeYAs aged 13-21 years with malignant disease (or a hematologic disorder requiring allogeneic transplant. Participants were receiving active oncologic therapy or had completed therapy within the past 3 years. Participants completed a bereavement questionnaire and inventories on depression, anxiety, and somatization. The cross-sectional study enrolled 153 AeYAs (95% participation, most (88% of whom had experienced a loss due to death. The most commonly reported losses were of a grandparent (58% or friend (37%. Peer deaths were predominantly cancer related (66%. Many participants (39% self-identified a loss as "very significant." As loss significance increased, AeYAs were more likely to report that it had changed their life "a lot/enormously" (P<0.0001, that they were grieving "slowly or never got over it" (P<0.0001, and that they felt a need for more professional help (P = 0.026. Peer loss was associated with increased risk of adverse psychological outcomes (P = 0.029, as was parental loss (P = 0.018.Most AeYAs with serious illness experience the grief process as slow or ongoing. Peer or parental loss was associated with increased risk of negative mental health outcomes. Given the high prevalence of peer loss, screening for bereavement problems is warranted in AeYAs with cancer, and further research on grief and bereavement is needed in AeYAs with serious illness.

  15. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 2: Integrated loss of vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology to a Space Shuttle environment, particularly to the potential of losing the Shuttle during nominal operation is addressed. The different related concerns are identified and combined to determine overall program risks. A fault tree model is used to allocate system probabilities to the subsystem level. The loss of the vehicle due to failure to contain energetic gas and debris, to maintain proper propulsion and configuration is analyzed, along with the loss due to Orbiter, external tank failure, and landing failure or error.

  16. Beliefs about weight and breast cancer: an interview study with high risk women following a 12 month weight loss intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Claire E; Harvie, Michelle; Howell, Anthony; Evans, D Gareth; Hulbert-Williams, Nick; Donnelly, Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in the UK. Lifestyle factors including excess weight contribute to risk of developing the disease. Whilst the exact links between weight and breast cancer are still emerging, it is imperative to explore how women understand these links and if these beliefs impact on successful behaviour change. Overweight/obese premenopausal women (aged 35-45) with a family history of breast cancer (lifetime risk 17-40%) were invited to a semi-structured interview following their participation in a 12 month weight loss intervention aimed at reducing their risk of breast cancer. Interviews were carried out with 9 women who successfully achieved ≥5% weight loss and 11 who were unsuccessful. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. Three themes were developed from the analysis. The first theme how women construct and understand links between weight and breast cancer risk is composed of two subthemes, the construction of weight and breast cancer risk and making sense of weight and breast cancer risk. This theme explores women's understanding of what contributes to breast cancer risk and whether they believe that weight loss could reduce their breast cancer risk. The second theme motivation and adherence to weight loss interventions explains that breast cancer risk can be a motivating factor for adherence to a weight loss intervention. The final theme, acceptance of personal responsibility for health is composed of two subthemes responsibility for one's own health and responsibility for family health through making sensible lifestyle choices. Beliefs about weight and breast cancer risk were informed by social networks, media reports and personal experiences of significant others diagnosed with breast cancer. Our study has highlighted common doubts, anxieties and questions and the importance of providing a credible rationale for weight control and weight loss which addresses individual concerns. Counselling and health

  17. Specializing on vulnerable habitat: Acropora selectivity among damselfish recruits and the risk of bleaching-induced habitat loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, M. C.

    2012-03-01

    Coral reef habitats are increasingly being degraded and destroyed by a range of disturbances, most notably climate-induced coral bleaching. Habitat specialists, particularly those associated with susceptible coral species, are clearly among the most vulnerable to population decline or extinction. However, the degree of specialization on coral microhabitats is still unclear for one of the most ubiquitous, abundant and well studied of coral reef fish families—the damselfishes (Pomacentridae). Using high taxonomic resolution surveys of microhabitat use and availability, this study provides the first species-level description of patterns of Acropora selectivity among recruits of 10 damselfish species in order to determine their vulnerability to habitat degradation. In addition, surveys of the bleaching susceptibility of 16 branching coral species revealed which preferred recruitment microhabitats are at highest risk of decline as a result of chronic coral bleaching. Four species (i.e., Chrysiptera parasema, Pomacentrus moluccensis, Dascyllus melanurus and Chromis retrofasciata) were identified as highly vulnerable because they used only branching hard corals as recruitment habitat and primarily associated with only 2-4 coral species. The bleaching surveys revealed that five species of Acropora were highly susceptible to bleaching, with more than 50% of colonies either severely bleached or already dead. These highly susceptible corals included two of the preferred microhabitats of the specialist C. parasema and represented a significant proportion of its total recruitment microhabitat. In contrast, highly susceptible corals were rarely used by another specialist, P. moluccensis, suggesting that this species faces a lower risk of bleaching-induced habitat loss compared to C. parasema. As degradation to coral reef habitats continues, specialists will increasingly be forced to use alternative recruitment microhabitats, and this is likely to reduce population

  18. An update on risk factors for cartilage loss in knee osteoarthritis assessed using MRI-based semiquantitative grading methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizai, Hamza [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Department of Radiology, San Antonio, TX (United States); Roemer, Frank W. [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Hayashi, Daichi [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Crema, Michel D. [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Hospital do Coracao and Teleimagem, Department of Radiology, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Felson, David T. [Boston University School of Medicine, Clinical Epidemiology Research and Training Unit, Boston, MA (United States); Guermazi, Ali [Boston University School of Medicine, Quantitative Imaging Center, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha (Qatar); Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-11-07

    Arthroscopy-based semiquantitative scoring systems such as Outerbridge and Noyes' scores were the first to be developed for the purpose of grading cartilage defects. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became available faor evaluation of the osteoarthritic knee joint, these systems were adapted for use with MRI. Later on, grading methods such as the Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Score, the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score and the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score were designed specifically for performing whole-organ assessment of the knee joint structures, including cartilage. Cartilage grades on MRI obtained with these scoring systems represent optimal outcome measures for longitudinal studies, and are designed to enhance understanding of the knee osteoarthritis disease process. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe cartilage assessment in knee osteoarthritis using currently available MRI-based semiquantitative whole-organ scoring systems, and to provide an update on the risk factors for cartilage loss in knee osteoarthritis as assessed with these scoring systems. (orig.)

  19. Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) analysis for McMaster Nuclear Reactor through probabilistic risk assessment (PRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, T.; Garland, W.J. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: hats@mcmaster.ca

    2006-07-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was conducted for the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) sequence in the McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR). A level 1 PRA was completed including event sequence modeling, system modeling, and quantification. To support the quantification of the accident sequence identified, data analysis using the Bayesian method and human reliability analysis (HRA) using the ASEP approach were performed. Since human performance in research reactors is significantly different from that in power reactors, a different time-oriented HRA model was proposed and applied for the estimation of the human error probability (HEP) of core relocation. This HEP estimate was less than that by the ASEP approach by a factor of about 2. These two HEP estimates were used for sensitivity analysis, and modeling uncertainty in the PRA models was quantified. This showed the necessity of appropriate human reliability models in PRA for research reactors. This method could be implemented for the operators' actions which require extensive manual execution with little cognitive load, as might be the case for some maintenance operations in power reactors. (author)

  20. An update on risk factors for cartilage loss in knee osteoarthritis assessed using MRI-based semiquantitative grading methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizai, Hamza; Roemer, Frank W.; Hayashi, Daichi; Crema, Michel D.; Felson, David T.; Guermazi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopy-based semiquantitative scoring systems such as Outerbridge and Noyes' scores were the first to be developed for the purpose of grading cartilage defects. As magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) became available faor evaluation of the osteoarthritic knee joint, these systems were adapted for use with MRI. Later on, grading methods such as the Whole Organ Magnetic Resonance Score, the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score and the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score were designed specifically for performing whole-organ assessment of the knee joint structures, including cartilage. Cartilage grades on MRI obtained with these scoring systems represent optimal outcome measures for longitudinal studies, and are designed to enhance understanding of the knee osteoarthritis disease process. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe cartilage assessment in knee osteoarthritis using currently available MRI-based semiquantitative whole-organ scoring systems, and to provide an update on the risk factors for cartilage loss in knee osteoarthritis as assessed with these scoring systems. (orig.)

  1. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  2. Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) / Emergency Core Coolant System (ECCS Evaluation of Risk-Informed Margins Management Strategies for a Representative Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilard, Ronaldo Henriques [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) toolkit and methodology are proposed for investigating nuclear power plant core, fuels design and safety analysis, including postulated Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. This toolkit, under an integrated evaluation model framework, is name LOCA toolkit for the US (LOTUS). This demonstration includes coupled analysis of core design, fuel design, thermal hydraulics and systems analysis, using advanced risk analysis tools and methods to investigate a wide range of results.

  3. Estimated medical expenditure and risk of job loss among rheumatoid arthritis patients undergoing tofacitinib treatment: post hoc analyses of two randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendas-Baum, Regina; Kosinski, Mark; Singh, Amitabh; Mebus, Charles A; Wilkinson, Bethany E; Wallenstein, Gene V

    2017-08-01

    RA causes high disability levels and reduces health-related quality of life, triggering increased costs and risk of unemployment. Tofacitinib is an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of RA. These post hoc analyses of phase 3 data aimed to assess monthly medical expenditure (MME) and risk of job loss for tofacitinib treatment vs placebo. Data analysed were from two randomized phase 3 studies of RA patients (n = 1115) with inadequate response to MTX or TNF inhibitors (TNFi) receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily, adalimumab (one study only) or placebo, in combination with MTX. Short Form 36 version 2 Health Survey physical and mental component summary scores were translated into predicted MME via an algorithm and concurrent inability to work and job loss risks at 6, 12 and 24 months, using Medical Outcomes Study data. MME reduction by month 3 was $100 greater for tofacitinib- than placebo-treated TNFi inadequate responders (P 20 and 6% reductions from baseline, respectively. By month 3 of tofacitinib treatment, the odds of inability to work decreased ⩾16%, and risk of future job loss decreased ∼20% (P tofacitinib- than placebo-treated MTX inadequate responders (P tofacitinib treatment, the odds of inability to work decreased ⩾31% and risk of future job loss decreased ⩾25% (P Tofacitinib treatment had a positive impact on estimated medical expenditure and risk of job loss for RA patients with inadequate response to MTX or TNFi. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  4. Amygdala damage eliminates monetary loss aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Benedetto; Camerer, Colin F; Adolphs, Ralph

    2010-02-23

    Losses are a possibility in many risky decisions, and organisms have evolved mechanisms to evaluate and avoid them. Laboratory and field evidence suggests that people often avoid risks with losses even when they might earn a substantially larger gain, a behavioral preference termed "loss aversion." The cautionary brake on behavior known to rely on the amygdala is a plausible candidate mechanism for loss aversion, yet evidence for this idea has so far not been found. We studied two rare individuals with focal bilateral amygdala lesions using a series of experimental economics tasks. To measure individual sensitivity to financial losses we asked participants to play a variety of monetary gambles with possible gains and losses. Although both participants retained a normal ability to respond to changes in the gambles' expected value and risk, they showed a dramatic reduction in loss aversion compared to matched controls. The findings suggest that the amygdala plays a key role in generating loss aversion by inhibiting actions with potentially deleterious outcomes.

  5. How can investment in the landscape or the interface reduce the risk of house loss from wildfires? A comparative study between Sydney, Australia and California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penman, Trent; Bradstock, Ross; Collins, Luke; Fotheringham, Cj; Keeley, Jon; Labiosa, Bill; Price, Owen; Syphard, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Wildfire can result in significant losses to people and property. Management agencies undertake a range of actions in the landscape and at the interface to reduce this risk. Data relating to the success of individual treatments varies, with some approaches well understood and others less so. Research has rarely attempted to consider the interactive effects of treatments in order to determine optimal management strategies that reduce the risk of loss. Bayesian Networks provide a statistical framework for undertaking such an analysis. Here we apply Bayesian Networks to examine the trade-offs in investment in preventative actions (e.g., fuel treatment, community education, development controls) and suppressive actions (e.g., initial attack, landscape suppression, property protection) in two fire prone regions -Sydney, Australia and California, USA. Investment in management actions at the interface resulted in the greatest reduction in the risk of house loss for both of the study regions. Landscape treatments had a limited ability to change the risk of house loss.

  6. Design of the SHAPE-2 study: the effect of physical activity, in addition to weight loss, on biomarkers of postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A.M.; Iestra, Jolein I.; Schuit, Albertine J.; May, Anne M.; Takken, Tim; Veldhuis, Wouter B.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Wittink, Harriet; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and overweight are two known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Former exercise intervention studies showed that physical activity influences sex hormone levels, known to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer, mainly when concordant loss of body weight

  7. A predictive model of the association between gene polymorphism and the risk of noise-induced hearing loss caused by gunfire noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Chih Yuan

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: In this study, we found that although loud noise could usually result in hearing damage, the clinical characteristics of hearing loss were irrelevant to gunfire noise. The gene polymorphisms provide predictors for us to evaluate the risk of NIHL prior to gunshot training.

  8. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... D linked to miscarriage among women with prior pregnancy loss Release: Anti-HIV drug combination does not increase preterm birth risk, study suggests Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance of pregnancy loss All related ...

  9. Does the Method of Weight Loss Effect Long-Term Changes in Weight, Body Composition or Chronic Disease Risk Factors in Overweight or Obese Adults? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Richard A.; Szabo, Amanda N.; Lambourne, Kate; Willis, Erik A.; Ptomey, Lauren T.; Honas, Jeffery J.; Herrmann, Stephen D.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in biological changes from weight loss by energy restriction and/or exercise may be associated with differences in long-term weight loss/regain. Objective To assess the effect of weight loss method on long-term changes in weight, body composition and chronic disease risk factors. Data Sources PubMed and Embase were searched (January 1990-October 2013) for studies with data on the effect of energy restriction, exercise (aerobic and resistance) on long-term weight loss. Twenty articles were included in this review. Study Eligibility Criteria Primary source, peer reviewed randomized trials published in English with an active weight loss period of >6 months, or active weight loss with a follow-up period of any duration, conducted in overweight or obese adults were included. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Considerable heterogeneity across trials existed for important study parameters, therefore a meta-analysis was considered inappropriate. Results were synthesized and grouped by comparisons (e.g. diet vs. aerobic exercise, diet vs. diet + aerobic exercise etc.) and study design (long-term or weight loss/follow-up). Results Forty percent of trials reported significantly greater long-term weight loss with diet compared with aerobic exercise, while results for differences in weight regain were inconclusive. Diet+aerobic exercise resulted in significantly greater weight loss than diet alone in 50% of trials. However, weight regain (∼55% of loss) was similar in diet and diet+aerobic exercise groups. Fat-free mass tended to be preserved when interventions included exercise. PMID:25333384

  10. Credit Risk Management. A study on risk integration in the bank lending process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddens, Linda Elsa Wilhelmina

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk management has been a topic much written about in the last decade. Substantial credit risk losses can undermine the stability of the bank. Both banks and national bank supervisors have realized the need to invest in credit risk management. Partly driven by regulations such as the Basel

  11. Substantial Union or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Jamei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body union, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial union. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial union of mind and body with their substantial distinction; despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than union theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories

  12. Substantial :union: or Substantial Distinction of Mind and Body in Descartes\\' Metaphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Jamei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Descartes’ metaphysics there are two different kinds of substances in the world of creatures: “thinking substance” and “extended substance” or soul and matter. In Descartes’ philosophy the soul is equal to the mind and considered as a “thinking substance”. This immaterial substance is the essence of the human being. Body, being considered as a “matter“, is an “extended substance” and entirely distinct from the soul. The soul, therefore, exists and may be known prior to body and, not being corporeal, can exist after human death. Hence, Descartes can prove the immortality of human soul in the framework of the principle of substantial distinction. On the other hand, as a physiologist and psychologist, Descartes indeed believes in mind-body :union:, so that some causal interactions between mind and body show their substantial :union:. In this essay, the authors show that Descartes faces a serious problem in combining substantial :union: of mind and body with their substantial distinction despite of his efforts in introducing the idea of pineal gland, the problem remains unsolved. Therefore it seems that as he cannot dispense with his only reason for proving the immortality of human soul, he has to hold the mind-body distinction theory in his metaphysics. Indeed, Descartes prefers to support the distinction theory rather than :union: theory in confronting a thesis and an antithesis stating one of two theories.

  13. Loss of dysbindin-1, a risk gene for schizophrenia, leads to impaired group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptor function in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev K Bhardwaj

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The expression of dysbindin-1, a protein coded by the risk gene dtnbp1, is reduced in the brains of schizophrenia patients. Evidence indicates a role of dysbindin-1 in dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission. Glutamatergic transmission and plasticity at excitatory synapses is critically regulated by G-protein coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR family members, that have been implicated in schizophrenia. Here, we report a role of dysbindin-1 in hippocampal group 1 mGluR (mGluRI function in mice. In hippocampal synaptoneurosomal preparations from sandy (sdy mice, that have a loss of function mutation in dysbindin-1 gene, we observed a striking reduction in mGluRI agonist [(S-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine] (DHPG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. This mGluR-ERK1/2 deficit occurred in the absence of significant changes in protein levels of the two members of the mGluRI family (i.e., mGluR1 and mGluR5 or in another mGluRI signaling pathway, i.e., protein kinase C (PKC. Aberrant mGluRI-ERK1/2 signaling affected hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the sdy mutants as DHPG-induced long-term depression (LTD at CA1 excitatory synapses was significantly reduced. Behavioral data suggest that the mGluRI hypofunction may underlie some of the cognitive abnormalities described in sdy mice as the administration of CDPPB (3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl benzamide, a positive allosteric modulator of mGluR5, rescued short-term object recognition and spatial learning and memory deficits in these mice. Taken together, our data suggest a novel role of dysbindin-1 in regulating mGluRI functions.

  14. A Functional Model for the Integration of Gains and Losses under Risk: Implications for the Measurement of Subjective Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Ricardo G.; Oliveira, Armando M.; Garriga-Trillo, Ana; Grieco, Alba

    2012-01-01

    In order to be treated quantitatively, subjective gains and losses (utilities/disutilities) must be psychologically measured. If legitimate comparisons are sought between them, measurement must be at least interval level, with a common unit. If comparisons of absolute magnitudes across gains and losses are further sought, as in standard…

  15. An Observational Study of Honey Bee Colony Winter Losses and Their Association with Varroa destructor, Neonicotinoids and Other Risk Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der R.; Gray, A.; Rijk, de T.C.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents results of an analysis of honey bee losses over the winter of 2011-2012 in the Netherlands, from a sample of 86 colonies, located at 43 apiaries. The apiaries were selected using spatially stratified random sampling. Colony winter loss data were collected and related to various

  16. Critical weight loss in head and neck cancer - prevalence and risk factors at diagnosis : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Vissink, A.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; van Oort, R.P.; Roodenburg, J.L.N.

    Goals of work Critical weight loss (>= 5% in 1 month or >= 10% in 6 months) is a common phenomenon in head and neck cancer patients. It is unknown which complaints are most strongly related to critical weight loss in head and neck cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this explorative

  17. Randomized comparison of a multidisciplinary job-retention vocational rehabilitation program with usual outpatient care in patients with chronic arthritis at risk for job loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Buck, Petronella D M; le Cessie, Saskia; van den Hout, Wilbert B; Peeters, Andreas J; Ronday, Herman K; Westedt, Marie-Louise; Breedveld, Ferdinand C; Vliet Vlieland, Theodora P M

    2005-10-15

    Work disability is a major consequence of inflammatory rheumatic conditions. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions aimed at the prevention or reduction of work disability in rheumatic diseases is limited. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of a multidisciplinary job-retention vocational rehabilitation (VR) program in patients with a rheumatic condition who were at risk for job loss. A total of 140 patients with a chronic rheumatic condition were randomly assigned to either a multidisciplinary job-retention VR program (n = 74) or usual outpatient care (UC) (n = 66). Patients in the VR group were assessed and guided by a multidisciplinary team, whereas patients in the UC group received care as initiated by their rheumatologist, supplemented with written information. The main outcome measure was the occurrence of job loss (complete work disability or unemployment); additional outcome measures included job satisfaction, pain, functional status, emotional status, and quality of life. There was no difference between the 2 groups regarding the proportion of patients having lost their job at any time point, with 24% and 23% of the patients in the VR and UC groups, respectively, having lost their job after 24 months. Over the total period of 24 months, patients in the VR group had a significantly greater improvement of the fatigue visual analog scale and of emotional status (all P values job-retention VR program did not reduce the risk of job loss but improved fatigue and mental health in patients with chronic rheumatic diseases at risk for job loss.

  18. Analysis of risk factors for loss of lumbar lordosis in patients who had surgical treatment with segmental instrumentation for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trobisch, Per D; Samdani, Amer F; Betz, Randal R; Bastrom, Tracey; Pahys, Joshua M; Cahill, Patrick J

    2013-06-01

    Iatrogenic flattening of lumbar lordosis in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) was a major downside of first generation instrumentation. Current instrumentation systems allow a three-dimensional scoliosis correction, but flattening of lumbar lordosis remains a significant problem which is associated with decreased health-related quality of life. This study sought to identify risk factors for loss of lumbar lordosis in patients who had surgical correction of AIS with the use of segmental instrumentation. Patients were included if they had surgical correction for AIS with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation Lenke type 1 or 2 and if they had a minimum follow-up of 24 months. Two groups were created, based on the average loss of lumbar lordosis. The two groups were then compared and multivariate analysis was performed to identify parameters that correlated to loss of lumbar lordosis. Four hundred and seventeen patients were analyzed for this study. The average loss of lumbar lordosis at 24 months follow-up was an increase of 10° lordosis for group 1 and a decrease of 15° for group 2. Risk factors for loss of lumbar lordosis included a high preoperative lumbar lordosis, surgical decrease of thoracic kyphosis, and the particular operating surgeon. The lowest instrumented vertebra or spinopelvic parameters were two of many parameters that did not seem to influence loss of lumbar lordosis. This study identified important risk factors for decrease of lumbar lordosis in patients who had surgical treatment for AIS with segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, including a high preoperative lumbar lordosis, surgical decrease of thoracic kyphosis, and factors attributable to a particular operating surgeon that were not quantified in this study.

  19. Communicating Earthquake Preparedness: The Influence of Induced Mood, Perceived Risk, and Gain or Loss Frames on Homeowners' Attitudes Toward General Precautionary Measures for Earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Michèle; Stauffacher, Michael; Matthes, Jörg; Wiemer, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    Despite global efforts to reduce seismic risk, actual preparedness levels remain universally low. Although earthquake-resistant building design is the most efficient way to decrease potential losses, its application is not a legal requirement across all earthquake-prone countries and even if, often not strictly enforced. Risk communication encouraging homeowners to take precautionary measures is therefore an important means to enhance a country's earthquake resilience. Our study illustrates that specific interactions of mood, perceived risk, and frame type significantly affect homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The interdependencies of the variables mood, risk information, and frame type were tested in an experimental 2 × 2 × 2 design (N = 156). Only in combination and not on their own, these variables effectively influence attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. The control variables gender, "trait anxiety" index, and alteration of perceived risk adjust the effect. Overall, the group with the strongest attitudes toward general precautionary actions for earthquakes are homeowners with induced negative mood who process high-risk information and gain-framed messages. However, the conditions comprising induced negative mood, low-risk information and loss-frame and induced positive mood, low-risk information and gain-framed messages both also significantly influence homeowners' attitudes toward general precautionary measures for earthquakes. These results mostly confirm previous findings in the field of health communication. For practitioners, our study emphasizes that carefully compiled communication measures are a powerful means to encourage precautionary attitudes among homeowners, especially for those with an elevated perceived risk. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Where attention falls: Increased risk of falls from the converging impact of cortical cholinergic and midbrain dopamine loss on striatal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Martin; Albin, Roger L; Kucinski, Aaron; Lustig, Cindy

    2014-07-01

    Falls are a major source of hospitalization, long-term institutionalization, and death in older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Limited attentional resources are a major risk factor for falls. In this review, we specify cognitive-behavioral mechanisms that produce falls and map these mechanisms onto a model of multi-system degeneration. Results from PET studies in PD fallers and findings from a recently developed animal model support the hypothesis that falls result from interactions between loss of basal forebrain cholinergic projections to the cortex and striatal dopamine loss. Striatal dopamine loss produces inefficient, low-vigor gait, posture control, and movement. Cortical cholinergic deafferentation impairs a wide range of attentional processes, including monitoring of gait, posture and complex movements. Cholinergic cell loss reveals the full impact of striatal dopamine loss on motor performance, reflecting loss of compensatory attentional supervision of movement. Dysregulation of dorsomedial striatal circuitry is an essential, albeit not exclusive, mediator of falls in this dual-system model. Because cholinergic neuromodulatory activity influences cortical circuitry primarily via stimulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and because agonists at these receptors are known to benefit attentional processes in animals and humans, treating PD fallers with such agonists, as an adjunct to dopaminergic treatment, is predicted to reduce falls. Falls are an informative behavioral endpoint to study attentional-motor integration by striatal circuitry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Where attention falls: Increased risk of falls from the converging impact of cortical cholinergic and midbrain dopamine loss on striatal function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarter, Martin; Albin, Roger L.; Kucinski, Aaron; Lustig, Cindy

    2015-01-01

    Falls are a major source of hospitalization, long-term institutionalization, and death in older adults and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Limited attentional resources are a major risk factor for falls. In this review, we specify cognitive–behavioral mechanisms that produce falls and map these mechanisms onto a model of multi-system degeneration. Results from PET studies in PD fallers and findings from a recently developed animal model support the hypothesis that falls result from interactions between loss of basal forebrain cholinergic projections to the cortex and striatal dopamine loss. Striatal dopamine loss produces inefficient, low-vigor gait, posture control, and movement. Cortical cholinergic deafferentation impairs a wide range of attentional processes, including monitoring of gait, posture and complex movements. Cholinergic cell loss reveals the full impact of striatal dopamine loss on motor performance, reflecting loss of compensatory attentional supervision of movement. Dysregulation of dorsomedial striatal circuitry is an essential, albeit not exclusive, mediator of falls in this dual-system model. Because cholinergic neuromodulatory activity influences cortical circuitry primarily via stimulation of α4β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and because agonists at these receptors are known to benefit attentional processes in animals and humans, treating PD fallers with such agonists, as an adjunct to dopaminergic treatment, is predicted to reduce falls. Falls are an informative behavioral endpoint to study attentional–motor integration by striatal circuitry. PMID:24805070

  2. The ability of cover crops to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus losses from arable land in southern Scandinavia and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, H.; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2016-01-01

    ]). The data indicate that CCs do not substantially reduce total P losses by runoff and leaching. The effects of CCs on total P leaching varied between a relative increase of 86% and a decrease of 43%. Climate conditions involving freezing-thawing during winter increased the risk of losses of dissolved P from...

  3. Epidemiology and Risk Factors of Tooth Loss among Iranian Adults: Findings from a Large Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Khazaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the prevalence of tooth loss and different prosthetic rehabilitations among Iranian adults, as well as the potential determinants of tooth loss. Methods. In a cross-sectional community-based study conducted among 8094 Iranian adults living in Isfahan province, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess epidemiologic features of tooth loss. Results. Thirty-two percent of subjects had all their teeth, 58.6% had lost less than 6, and 7.2% of participants had lost more than 6 teeth. One hundred and sixty-nine individuals (2.2% were edentulous. Among participants, 2.3% had single jaw removable partial denture, 3.6% had complete removable denture in both jaws, and 4.6% had fixed prosthesis. Others reported no prosthetic rehabilitation (89.5%. In the age subgroup analysis (≤35 and >35 years old tooth loss was more prevalent among men than women (OR=2.8 and 1.9, resp., P35 years (adjusted OR=1.29, P<0.01. Conclusions. Tooth loss is highly prevalent in Iranian adult population. Community programs promoting oral health for prevention of tooth loss should be considered taking into account its major determinants including lower educational level, male gender, smoking, and metabolic abnormality.

  4. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and until...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and until...

  6. Decision Making in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): Anterior Cingulate Cortex Signals Loss-Aversion but not the Infrequency of Risky Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Brown, Joshua W.; Bogg, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are key regions involved in risk appraisal during decision making, but accounts of how these regions contribute to decision-making under risk remain contested. To help clarify the roles of these and other related regions, we used a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002) to distinguish between decision-making and feedback-related processes when participants decided to pursue a gain as the probability of loss increased parametrically. Specifically, we set out to test whether ACC and IFG/AI regions correspond to loss-aversion at the time of decision making in a way that is not confounded with either reward-seeking or infrequency effects. When participants chose to discontinue inflating the balloon (win option), we observed greater ACC and mainly bilateral IFG/AI activity at the time of decision as the probability of explosion increased, consistent with increased loss-aversion but inconsistent with an infrequency effect. In contrast, we found robust vmPFC activity when participants chose to continue inflating the balloon (risky option), consistent with reward-seeking. However, in the cingulate and mainly bilateral IFG regions, BOLD activation decreased when participants chose to inflate the balloon as the probability of explosion increased, findings consistent with a reduced loss-aversion signal. Our results highlight the existence of distinct reward-seeking and loss-averse signals during decision-making, as well as the importance of distinguishing decision and feedback signals. PMID:22707378

  7. Decision making in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): anterior cingulate cortex signals loss aversion but not the infrequency of risky choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Brown, Joshua W; Bogg, Tim

    2012-09-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are key regions involved in risk appraisal during decision making, but accounts of how these regions contribute to decision making under risk remain contested. To help clarify the roles of these and other related regions, we used a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 75-84, 2002) to distinguish between decision-making and feedback-related processes when participants decided to pursue a gain as the probability of loss increased parametrically. Specifically, we set out to test whether the ACC and IFG/AI regions correspond to loss aversion at the time of decision making in a way that is not confounded with either reward-seeking or infrequency effects. When participants chose to discontinue inflating the balloon (win option), we observed greater ACC and mainly bilateral IFG/AI activity at the time of decision as the probability of explosion increased, consistent with increased loss aversion but inconsistent with an infrequency effect. In contrast, we found robust vmPFC activity when participants chose to continue inflating the balloon (risky option), consistent with reward seeking. However, in the cingulate and in mainly bilateral IFG regions, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent activation decreased when participants chose to inflate the balloon as the probability of explosion increased, findings that are consistent with a reduced loss aversion signal. Our results highlight the existence of distinct reward-seeking and loss-averse signals during decision making, as well as the importance of distinguishing between decision and feedback signals.

  8. Diet-Induced Weight Loss Reduces DNA Damage and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight/Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nayara Pereira; Santos, Ana Celly Souza dos; Costa, Eduardo Caldas; Azevedo, George Dantas; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Fayh, Ana Paula Trussardi; Lemos, Telma Maria Araújo Moura

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of following a diet to induce weight loss (500 kcal deficit per day) over DNA damage and cardiometabolic risk factors in women with overweight/obesity diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A study was conducted in Natal, RN, Brazil selecting overweight/obese (body mass index ≥25 and weight loss, decreased sexual hormone and cardiometabolic markers such as insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were verified In the multivariate regression analysis, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and progesterone were responsible for the variation markers in DNA damage before the diet, losing its influence upon diet. DNA damage and the impact of cardiometabolic risk factors decreased after the intervention in women with PCOS, indicating the relevance of a nutritional approach in this group of patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Risk of hearing loss in children exposed to gentamicin for the treatment of sepsis in young infancy: A community based cohort study in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, U.; Ali, S.A.; Tikmani, S.S.; Zaidi, A.K.; Azam, S.I.; Saleem, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the safety of gentamicin when used in a community setting to treat neonatal sepsis. Methods: The study was conducted in peri-urban areas of Karachi from September 2009 to April 2010. The exposed group consisted of children 6 months to 3 years of age who were treated for sepsis during 0-2 months of age in the community, with a regimen that included gentamicin for at least five days. The control group included children from the same area who never received gentamicin. The outcome measure was hearing loss, which was assessed by Brainstem Evoked Response Audiometry. Results: Of the 255 children enrolled, 125 (49%) received gentamicin, while 130 (51%) were not exposed to gentamicin. Children in the gentamicin exposed group were not at increased risk for hearing loss compared to controls (n=30; 30.9% vs. n=33; 31.4%, RR 0.98; 95% CI: 0.60-1.61). Children with history of ear discharge (RR 1.7) and children with family history of deafness (RR 2.0) were more at risk for having hearing loss. Conclusion: No association was found between hearing loss and gentamicin exposure in a community setting for the management of sepsis in the first two months of life. (author)

  10. Job loss and broken partnerships: do the number of stressful life events influence the risk of ischemic heart disease in men?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    % confidence interval 1.02-1.85). We found no indication of dose-response relationship between number of events and risk of IHD. CONCLUSION: In this study of middle-aged men, we found only weak support for the effect of psychosocial stress on IHD measured with register based life events; we found that IHD...... was associated with broken partnerships but not with job loss. We did not find that the risk of incident IHD varied with the number of these stressful life events....

  11. The Effects of Weight Perception on Adolescents’ Weight-Loss Intentions and Behaviors: Evidence from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoyong Fan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between self-perception of being overweight and weight loss intentions, eating and exercise behaviors, as well as extreme weight-loss strategies for U.S. adolescents. This study uses 50,241 observations from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS 2001–2009, which were nationally representative sample of 9th- through 12th-grade students in both public and private schools in the US. This study finds that, irrespective of the weight status base on self-reported weight and height, adolescents who perceive themselves as overweight have a stronger intention to lose weight, but do not develop better eating and exercise habits, compared with their counterparts of same gender and reported weight status. Normal-weight adolescents, if they perceive themselves as overweight, are more likely to engage in health-compromising weight-loss methods. This study shows that it is critical to transform weight-loss intentions into actual behaviors among overweight/obese adolescents and improve the efficacy of behavioral interventions against childhood obesity. It also highlights the need of establishing a correct perception of body weight among normal weight adolescents to curb extreme weight-loss methods.

  12. History of pregnancy loss increases the risk of mental health problems in subsequent pregnancies but not in the postpartum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Chojenta

    Full Text Available While grief, emotional distress and other mental health conditions have been associated with pregnancy loss, less is known about the mental health impact of these events during subsequent pregnancies and births. This paper examined the impact of any type of pregnancy loss on mental health in a subsequent pregnancy and postpartum. Data were obtained from a sub-sample (N = 584 of the 1973-78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a prospective cohort study that has been collecting data since 1996. Pregnancy loss was defined as miscarriage, termination due to medical reasons, ectopic pregnancy and stillbirth. Mental health outcomes included depression, anxiety, stress or distress, sadness or low mood, excessive worry, lack of enjoyment, and feelings of guilt. Demographic factors and mental health history were controlled for in the analysis. Women with a previous pregnancy loss were more likely to experience sadness or low mood (AOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.11 to 2.76, p = 0.0162, and excessive worry (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.24 to 3.24, p = 0.0043 during a subsequent pregnancy, but not during the postpartum phase following a subsequent birth. These results indicate that while women who have experienced a pregnancy loss are a more vulnerable population during a subsequent pregnancy, these deficits are not evident in the postpartum.

  13. Evaluating of the spatial heterogeneity of soil loss tolerance and its effects on erosion risk in the carbonate areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss tolerance (T value is one of the criteria in determining the necessity of erosion control measures and ecological restoration strategy. However, the validity of this criterion in subtropical karst regions is strongly disputed. In this study, T value is calculated based on soil formation rate by using a digital distribution map of carbonate rock assemblage types. Results indicated a spatial heterogeneity and diversity in soil loss tolerance. Instead of only one criterion, a minimum of three criteria should be considered when investigating the carbonate areas of southern China because the one region, one T value concept may not be applicable to this region. T value is proportionate to the amount of argillaceous material, which determines the surface soil thickness of the formations in homogenous carbonate rock areas. Homogenous carbonate rock, carbonate rock intercalated with clastic rock areas and carbonate/clastic rock alternation areas have T values of 20, 50 and 100 t/(km2 a, and they are extremely, severely and moderately sensitive to soil erosion. Karst rocky desertification (KRD is defined as extreme soil erosion and reflects the risks of erosion. Thus, the relationship between T value and erosion risk is determined using KRD as a parameter. The existence of KRD land is unrelated to the T value, although this parameter indicates erosion sensitivity. Erosion risk is strongly dependent on the relationship between real soil loss (RL and T value rather than on either erosion intensity or the T value itself. If RL > > T, then the erosion risk is high despite of a low RL. Conversely, if T > > RL, then the soil is safe although RL is high. Overall, these findings may clarify the heterogeneity of T value and its effect on erosion risk in a karst environment.

  14. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  15. Predictive Value of Intraoperative Thromboelastometry for the Risk of Perioperative Excessive Blood Loss in Infants and Children Undergoing Congenital Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Shim, Haeng Seon; Kim, Won Ho; Lee, Sue-Young; Park, Sun-Kyung; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook; Kim, Chung Su

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory hemostatic variables and parameters of rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) were evaluated for their ability to predict perioperative excessive blood loss (PEBL) after congenital cardiac surgery. Retrospective and observational. Single, large university hospital. The study comprised 119 children younger than 10 years old undergoing congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intraoperative excessive blood loss was defined as estimated blood loss≥50% of estimated blood volume (EBV). Postoperative excessive blood loss was defined as measured postoperative chest tube and Jackson-Pratt drainage≥30% of EBV over 12 hours or≥50% of EBV over 24 hours in the intensive care unit. PEBL was defined as either intraoperative or postoperative excessive blood loss. External temogram (EXTEM) and fibrinogen temogram (FIBTEM) were analyzed before and after CPB with ROTEM and laboratory hemostatic variables. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Incidence of PEBL was 19.3% (n = 23). Independent risk factors for PEBL were CPB time>120 minutes, post-CPB FIBTEM alpha-angle, clot firmness after 10 minutes20%. Laboratory hemostatic variables were not significant in multivariate analysis. The risk prediction model was developed from the results of multivariate analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.90-0.99). Post-CPB ROTEM may be useful for predicting both intraoperative and postoperative excessive blood loss in congenital cardiac surgery. This study provided an accurate prediction model for PEBL and supported intraoperative transfusion guidance using post-CPB FIBTEM-A10 and EXTEM-A10. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Loss-of-function variants in the filaggrin gene are a significant risk factor for peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Sara J.; Asai, Yuka; Cordell, Heather J.; Campbell, Linda E.; Zhao, Yiwei; Liao, Haihui; Northstone, Kate; Henderson, John; Alizadehfar, Reza; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe; Morgan, Kenneth; Roberts, Graham; Masthoff, Laury J. N.; Pasmans, Suzanne G. M. A.; van den Akker, Peter C.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Lack, Gideon; Clarke, Ann; Hull, Peter R.; Irvine, Alan D.; McLean, W. H. Irwin

    Background: IgE-mediated peanut allergy is a complex trait with strong heritability, but its genetic basis is currently unknown. Loss-of-function mutations within the filaggrin gene are associated with atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases; therefore, filaggrin is a candidate gene in the

  17. Is tree loss associated with cardiovascular-disease risk in the Women's Health Initiative? A natural experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan; Yvonne L. Michael; Demetrios Gatziolis; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Eric A. Whitsel

    2015-01-01

    Data from the Women's Health Initiative were used to quantify the relationship between the loss of trees to an invasive forest pest—the emerald ash borer—and cardiovascular disease. We estimated semi- parametric Cox proportional hazards model of time to cardiovascular disease, adjusting for confounders. We defined the incidence of cardiovascular disease as acute...

  18. The risk of hearing loss in a population with a high prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben

    2013-01-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) affects 65-330 million people in the developing part of the world and develops in early childhood. Knowledge of the long-term effects on hearing is scarce. Hearing loss (HL) can cause reduced ability to communicate, impair language development and academic...

  19. Randomized trial of a phone- and web-based weight loss program for women at elevated breast cancer risk: the HELP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa; Nelson, Sandahl H; Hartman, Sheri; Patterson, Ruth E; Parker, Barbara A; Pierce, John P

    2016-08-01

    Excess weight and physical inactivity are modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. Behavioral intervention is particularly important among women with an elevated risk profile. This trial tested an intervention that trained women to use a self-monitoring website to increase activity and lose weight. Women with BMI ≥27.5 kg/m(2) at elevated breast cancer risk were randomized to the intervention (N = 71) or usual care (N = 34). The intervention group received telephone-based coaching and used web-based self-monitoring tools. At 6 months, significant weight loss was observed in the intervention group (4.7 % loss from starting weight; SD = 4.7 %) relative to usual care (0.4 % gain; SD = 3.0 %) (p web- and phone-based approach produced modest but significant improvements in weight and physical activity for women at elevated breast cancer risk.

  20. The Effects of Gain- versus Loss-Framed Messages Following Health Risk Information on Physical Activity in Individuals With Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithopoulos, Alexander; Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2017-06-01

    Few people with multiple sclerosis engage in physical activity. Messaging interventions may motivate more physical activity among these individuals. The purpose of this online study was to evaluate an intervention presenting participants with multiple sclerosis (N = 237) with risk information (i.e., information demonstrating people with multiple sclerosis are more likely to experience certain health issues) or no risk information followed by gain- or loss-framed physical activity messages. Participants completed questionnaires on Days 1, 6, and 28 and received information material on Days 2-5. The dependent variables were as follows: physical activity intentions and behavior, response and task efficacy, perceived threat (i.e., perception of threat to health issues relevant to people with multiple sclerosis), and avoidance (i.e., avoiding thinking about/doing something about the health issues presented in the messages). Analyses indicated physical activity and response efficacy increased over time. Also, participants receiving risk information had higher levels of physical activity and perceived threat. However, manipulation checks showed no differences between participants regarding perceptions of risk information or gain/loss-framed messages. Despite the lack of impact of the framing intervention, this study suggests that a brief informational intervention can positively influence physical activity and certain correlates of physical activity among people with multiple sclerosis.

  1. Combined aerobic and resistance exercise is effective for achieving weight loss and reducing cardiovascular risk factors without deteriorating bone health in obese young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Sub Lim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeWeight loss reduces cardiovascular risk factors in the obese. However, weight reduction through diet negatively affects long-term bone health. The aim of study was to determine the ability of combined aerobic and resistance exercise (CE to reduce weight and cardiovascular risk without diminishing bone health.MethodsTwenty-five young adults participated in an 8-week weight loss CE program. Subjects were allocated to an obese group or a control group by body mass index (BMI. Body weight, BMI, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine and total hip were measured before and after the CE trial. Serum levels of metabolic markers, including adipokines and bone markers, were also evaluated.ResultsWeight loss was evident in the obese group after the 8 weeks CE trial. Fat mass was significantly reduced in both groups. Fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, leptin and aminotransferases level were significantly reduced from baseline only in the obese group. High density lipoprotein cholesterol increased in both groups. Hip BMD increased in the obese group. In all study subjects, BMI changes were correlated with HOMA-IR, leptin, and HDL changes. BMI decreases were correlated with lumbar spine BMD increases, lumbar spine BMD increases were positively correlated with osteocalcin changes, and lumbar spine bone mineral content increases were correlated negatively with C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen changes.ConclusionThese findings suggest that CE provides effective weight loss and improves cardiovascular risk factors without diminishing BMD. Furthermore, they indicate that lumbar spine BMD might be maintained by increasing bone formation and decreasing bone resorption.

  2. Loss-of-Function Mutations in APOC3 and Risk of Ischemic Vascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders Berg; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with an increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease. Whether lifelong low levels of nonfasting triglycerides owing to mutations in the gene encoding apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) are associated with a reduced risk of isch...

  3. Obesity and Hypertension, Heart Failure, and Coronary Heart Disease—Risk Factor, Paradox, and Recommendations for Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Artham, Surya M.; Lavie, Carl J.; Milani, Richard V.; Ventura, Hector O.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity prevalence has reached epidemic proportions and is independently associated with numerous cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cancers, sleep apnea, and other major CVDs. Obesity has significant negative impact on CVD, including hypertension, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and arrhythmias via its maladaptive effects on individual CVD risk factors and cardiac structure and function. Despite this negative association...

  4. Substantial Early, But Nonprogressive Neuronal Loss in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Spinal Cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmer, Lucas; Albert, Monika; Buss, Armin; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J.; Antel, Jack P.; Brueck, Wolfgang; Stadelmann, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Research in multiple sclerosis (MS) has recently been focusing on the extent of neuroaxonal damage and its contribution to disease outcome. In the present Study, we examined spinal cord tissue from 30 clinically well-characterized MS patients. MS, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and control

  5. A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvetsky, Allison C; Edelstein, Sharon L; Walford, Geoffrey; Boyko, Edward J; Horton, Edward S; Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Knowler, William C; Montez, Maria G; Temprosa, Marinella; Hoskin, Mary; Rother, Kristina I; Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-11-01

    Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants. Methods: Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The associations between intakes of macronutrients and various food groups and body weight among DPP participants at baseline were assessed by linear regression, adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, sex, calorie intake, and PA. Models that predicted weight loss at year 1 were adjusted for baseline weight, change in calorie intake, and change in PA and stratified by treatment allocation (MET, ILS, and PLBO). All results are presented as estimates ± SEs. Results: A total of 3234 participants were enrolled in the DPP; 2924 had completed dietary data (67.5% women; mean age: 50.6 ± 10.7 y). Adjusted for calorie intake, baseline weight was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake (-1.14 ± 0.18 kg body weight/100 kcal carbohydrate, P fat (1.25 ± 0.21 kg/100 kcal, P fat (1.96 ± 0.46 kg/100 kcal, P loss after 1 y was associated with increases in carbohydrate intake, specifically dietary fiber, and decreases in total fat and saturated fat intake. Conclusions: Higher carbohydrate consumption among DPP participants, specifically high-fiber carbohydrates, and lower total and saturated fat intake best predicted weight loss when adjusted for changes in calorie intake. Our results support the benefits of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet in the context of overall calorie reduction leading to weight loss, which may prevent diabetes in high-risk individuals. This trial was registered

  6. The occurrence of high-risk factors for hearing loss in very-low-birth-weight neonates: a retrospective exploratory study of targeted hearing screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Amisha; Khoza-Shangase, Katijah

    2012-12-01

    The current study aimed at determining the type and frequency of high-risk factors for hearing loss in a group of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates in a tertiary hospital in South Africa with the objective of collating evidence that could be used in arguing for or against revisiting targeted hearing screening in developing countries. Furthermore, the study aimed at investigating the relationship between the identified high-risk factors and hearing screening results. In a retrospective data review design, data were collated from files from the VLBW project; this included hearing screening records, as well as records from participant medical and audiology files. Records of 86 neonates with birth weights ranging between 680 g and 1500 g were reviewed. Findings indicated that neonatal jaundice, exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), mechanical or assisted ventilation, and neonatal intensive care unit stay greater than 48 hours were the most frequently occurring high-risk factors for hearing loss in the current sample. These factors are consistent with those listed in the high-risk register of the Health Professions Council of South Africa for the South African context. Findings confirm the complexity of risk factors, and the influence that a variety of factors such as poor follow-up or return rate might have on the implementation of early hearing detection and intervention. The importance of establishing context-specific risk factors for effective implementation of targeted screening protocols where niversal newborn hearing screening is not yet a reality was highlighted by the current study.

  7. Comparison of Risk Factor Profiles for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma Subtypes Defined by Pattern of Visual Field Loss: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jae H; Loomis, Stephanie J; Rosner, Bernard A; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2015-04-01

    We explored whether risk factor associations differed by primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) subtypes defined by visual field (VF) loss pattern (i.e., paracentral or peripheral). We included 77,157 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 42,773 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS 1986-2010), and incident medical record confirmed cases of paracentral (n = 440) and peripheral (n = 865) POAG subtypes. We evaluated African heritage, glaucoma family history, body mass index (BMI), mean arterial blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, physical activity, smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol intake. We used competing risk Cox regression analyses modeling age as the metameter and stratified by age, cohort, and event type. We sequentially identified factors with the least significant differences in associations with POAG subtypes ("stepwise down" approach with P for heterogeneity [P-het] 0.10) adverse associations with both POAG subtypes were observed with glaucoma family history, diabetes, African heritage, greater caffeine intake, and higher mean arterial pressure. These data indicate that POAG with early paracentral VF loss has distinct as well as common determinants compared with POAG with peripheral VF loss.

  8. Blood-loss Management in Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; Mirza, Muhammad; Knaub, Mark A

    2018-01-15

    Substantial blood loss during spine surgery can result in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Proper preoperative planning and communication with the patient, anesthesia team, and operating room staff can lessen perioperative blood loss. Advances in intraoperative antifibrinolytic agents and modified anesthesia techniques have shown promising results in safely reducing blood loss. The surgeon's attention to intraoperative hemostasis and the concurrent use of local hemostatic agents also can lessen intraoperative bleeding. Conversely, the use of intraoperative blood salvage has come into question, both for its potential inability to reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions as well as its cost-effectiveness. Allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with elevated risks, including surgical site infection. Thus, desirable transfusion thresholds should remain restrictive.

  9. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing or...

  10. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conformity and substantial compliance. 604.6... FOR ELIGIBILITY FOR UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 604.6 Conformity and substantial compliance. (a) In... for the administration of its UC program. (b) Resolving Issues of Conformity and Substantial...

  11. Noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Sliwinska-Kowalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL still remains a problem in developed countries, despite reduced occupational noise exposure, strict standards for hearing protection and extensive public health awareness campaigns. Therefore NIHL continues to be the focus of noise research activities. This paper summarizes progress achieved recently in our knowledge of NIHL. It includes papers published between the years 2008-2011 (in English, which were identified by a literature search of accessible medical and other relevant databases. A substantial part of this research has been concerned with the risk of NIHL in the entertainment sector, particularly in professional, orchestral musicians. There are also constant concerns regarding noise exposure and hearing risk in "hard to control" occupations, such as farming and construction work. Although occupational noise has decreased since the early 1980s, the number of young people subject to social noise exposure has tripled. If the exposure limits from the Noise at Work Regulations are applied, discotheque music, rock concerts, as well as music from personal music players are associated with the risk of hearing loss in teenagers and young adults. Several recent research studies have increased the understanding of the pathomechanisms of acoustic trauma, the genetics of NIHL, as well as possible dietary and pharmacologic otoprotection in acoustic trauma. The results of these studies are very promising and offer grounds to expect that targeted therapies might help prevent the loss of sensory hair cells and protect the hearing of noise-exposed individuals. These studies emphasize the need to launch an improved noise exposure policy for hearing protection along with developing more efficient norms of NIHL risk assessment.

  12. Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factor in overweight adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondike, Stephen B; Copperman, Nancy; Jacobson, Marc S

    2003-03-01

    To compare the effects of a low-carbohydrate (LC) diet with those of a low-fat (LF) diet on weight loss and serum lipids in overweight adolescents. A randomized, controlled 12-week trial. Atherosclerosis prevention referral center. Random, nonblinded assignment of participants referred for weight management. The study group (LC) (n = 16) was instructed to consume vs 4.1 +/- 4.9 kg, P <.05) and had improvement in non-HDL cholesterol levels (P <.05). There was improvement in LDL cholesterol levels (P <.05) in the LF group but not in the LC group. There were no adverse effects on the lipid profiles of participants in either group. The LC diet appears to be an effective method for short-term weight loss in overweight adolescents and does not harm the lipid profile.

  13. The risk of hearing loss associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture with and without concurrent noise exposure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozi, Maryam; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mirzaei, Ramazan; Dehghan Haghighi, Javid; Eftekharian, Fatemeh

    2017-06-19

    This study is a meta-analysis of the previous epidemiological studies which investigated the quantitative estimates of the association between independent or combined exposure to noise and mixed organic solvents and hearing loss until October 2014. Overall, 15 studies with information on 7530 individuals (6% female) were included. Having assessed - by puretone audiometry - the adjusted odds ratio estimates for the association between solvents mixture exposure and the risk of developing hearing loss stood at 2.05 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.9). Similarly, for subjects who were concurrently exposed to noise and solvents mixture, an OR of 2.95 (95% CI: 2.1-4.17) was obtained. There was some evidence of heterogeneity within each of the 2 exposure groups (p heterogeneity hearing loss for workers exposed to organic solvents even at quite low concentration. Moreover, if such exposure is accompanied by noise, it will exacerbate the extent of hearing loss. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):521-535. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. Agricultural Rivers at Risk: Dredging Results in a Loss of Macroinvertebrates. Preliminary Observations from the Narew Catchment, Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Mateusz Grygoruk; Magdalena Frąk; Aron Chmielewski

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem deterioration in small lowland agricultural rivers that results from river dredging entails a significant threat to the appropriate ecohydrological conditions of these water bodies, expressed as homogenization of habitats and loss of biodiversity. Our study was aimed at a comparison of abundance and taxonomic structure of bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates in dredged and non-dredged stretches of small lowland rivers and tributaries of the middle Narew River, namely: Czaplinianka, Tu...

  15. Comparison of risk factors for tooth loss between professional drivers and white-collar workers: an internet survey

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Seitaro; YOSHINO, Koichi; TAKAYANAGI, Atsushi; ISHIZUKA, Yoichi; SATOU, Ryouichi; KAMIJO, Hideyuki; SUGIHARA, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to examine tooth loss and associated factors among professional drivers and white-collar workers. The participants were recruited by applying screening procedures to a pool of Japanese registrants in an online database. The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire. A total of 592 professional drivers and 328 white-collar workers (male, aged 30 to 69 years) were analyzed. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to ...

  16. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.; Mullette-Gillman, O?Dhaniel A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valu...

  17. Do you want the good news or the bad news? Gain- versus loss-framed messages following health risk information: The effects on leisure time physical activity beliefs and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca L; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-12-01

    The primary purpose was to examine the relative effectiveness of chronic disease and psychological health risk information combined with gain- versus loss-framed leisure time physical activity (LTPA) messages for changing perceived personal risk, LTPA response efficacy (i.e., the belief that LTPA can effectively reduce risk), and LTPA intentions. A secondary purpose was to explore the relationship between message framing and cognitive processing. Baseline assessments of perceived risk for inactivity-related disease and psychological health problems, LTPA response efficacy, and intentions were measured among 96 individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Participants read population-specific information about the risk for inactivity-related disease and psychological health problems following SCI, and perceived risk was reassessed. Participants were then randomized to read LTPA response efficacy messages emphasizing the benefits of LTPA (gain framed) or the risks of inactivity (loss framed). Immediately following message exposure, cognitive processing (i.e., thought listing and message recall), LTPA response efficacy, and LTPA intentions were assessed. Changes in perceived risk were observed following exposure to health risk information. Changes in LTPA response efficacy and intentions were greater following loss-framed messages targeting psychological health compared with gain-framed messages. Greater cognitive processing was observed following loss-framed messages compared with gain-framed messages. Following exposure to psychological health risk information, loss-framed messages may be more effective than gain-framed messages for eliciting cognitive processing and changing LTPA beliefs and intentions.

  18. KIT Mutation and Loss of 14q May Be Sufficient for the Development of Clinically Symptomatic Very Low-Risk GIST.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Karl Klinke

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the minimal set of genetic alterations required for the development of a very low risk clinically symptomatic gastro-intestinal stromal tumour within the stomach wall. We studied the genome of a very low-risk gastric gastro-intestinal stromal tumour by whole-genome sequencing, comparative genomic hybridisation and methylation profiling. The studied tumour harboured two typical genomic lesions: loss of the long arm of chromosome 14 and an activating mutation in exon 11 of KIT. Besides these genetic lesions, only two point mutations that may affect tumour progression were identified: A frame-shift deletion in RNF146 and a missense mutation in a zinc finger of ZNF407. Whilst the frameshift deletion in RNF146 seemed to be restricted to this particular tumour, a similar yet germline mutation in ZNF407 was found in a panel of 52 gastro-intestinal stromal tumours from different anatomical sites and different categories. Germline polymorphisms in the mitotic checkpoint proteins Aurora kinase A and BUB1 kinase B may have furthered tumour growth. The epigenetic profile of the tumour matches that of other KIT-mutant tumours. We have identified mutations in three genes and loss of the long arm of chromosome 14 as the so far minimal set of genetic abnormalities sufficient for the development of a very low risk clinically symptomatic gastric stromal tumour.

  19. Self-assessment of hearing status and risk of noise-induced hearing loss in workers in a rolling stock plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Zamojska, Małgorzata; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2012-01-01

    Noise measurements and questionnaire inquiries were carried out for 124 workers of a rolling stock plant to develop a hearing conservation program. On the basis of that data, the risk of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was evaluated. Additionally, the workers' hearing ability was assessed with the (modified) Amsterdam inventory for auditory disability and handicap, (m)AIADH. The workers had been exposed to noise at A-weighted daily noise exposure levels of 74-110 dB for 1-40 years. Almost one third of the workers complained of hearing impairment and the (m)AIADH results showed some hearing difficulties in over half of them. The estimated risk of hearing loss over 25 dB in the frequency range of 3-6 kHz was 41-50% when the standard method of predicting NIHL specified in Standard No. ISO 1999:1990 was used. This risk increased to 50-67% when noise impulsiveness, coexposure to organic solvents, elevated blood pressure and smoking were included in calculations.

  20. Using non-performing loan ratios as default rates in the estimation of credit losses and macroeconomic credit risk stress testing: A case from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guray Kucukkocaoglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, inspired by the Credit Portfolio View approach, we intend to develop an econometric credit risk model to estimate credit loss distributions of Turkish Banking System under baseline and stress macro scenarios, by substituting default rates with non-performing loan (NPL ratios. Since customer number based historical default rates are not available for the whole Turkish banking system’s credit portfolio, we used NPL ratios as dependent variable instead of default rates, a common practice for many countries where historical default rates are not available. Although, there are many problems in using NPL ratios as default rates such as underestimating portfolio losses as a result of totally non-homogeneous total credit portfolios and transferring non-performing loans to asset management companies from banks’ balance sheets, our aim is to underline and limit some ignored problems using accounting based NPL ratios as default rates in macroeconomic credit risk modeling. Developed models confirm the strong statistical relationship between systematic component of credit risk and macroeconomic variables in Turkey. Stress test results also are compatible with the past experiences

  1. Plasma interleukin-6 levels, glutathione peroxidase and isoprostane in obese women before and after weight loss. Association with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougoulia, Maria; Triantos, Athanassios; Koliakos, George

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the levels of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), glutathione peroxidase and isoprostane in obese women and their association with markers of cardiovascular risk factors before and after weight loss. 36 healthy obese women of reproductive age (group A: age (mean+/-SD) 35.4+/-9.2 years, Body Mass Index (BMI) 38.5+/-7 kg/m2) and 30 healthy, normal weight women (group B: age mean+/-SD 34.9+/-7.4 y., BMI 24+/-1.1 kg/m2) were included in the study. Glucose tolerance was normal in all participating women. Il-6, glutathione peroxidase and isoprostane, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), insulin, fasting plasma glucose, HOMA-IR as well as the lipid profile were evaluated. Body weight, BMI, Waist to Hip ratio (W/H) ratio, Waist Circumference (WC), %free fat mass and the %fat mass were also measured. A hypo-caloric diet was prescribed for the obese women and all participants were re-examined after six months. In obese women after weight loss, anthropometric obesity markers (BMI, W/H ratio), %fat, lipid profile, insulin levels and inflammation indices such as IL-6 and CRP, the oxidative stress index isoprostane, as well as glutathione peroxidase were significantly ameliorated. The levels of serum glutathione peroxidase activity were negatively correlated with IL-6 levels and were significantly increased after weight reduction. In obese women there was an association between IL-6 levels and the values of %fat, %free fat mass, insulin and HOMA-IR before and after weight loss. Weight loss is related to reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation; this beneficial effect could possibly be translated into reduction of cardiovascular risk in obese individuals.

  2. Loss of breast epithelial marker hCLCA2 promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition and indicates higher risk of metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, Vijay; Yu, Yang; Cao, Deshou; Sun, Miao; McLean, Janel R.; Hollier, Brett G.; Cheng, Jiming; Mani, Sendurai A.; Rao, Krishna; Premkumar, Louis; Elble, Randolph

    2013-01-01

    Transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states is a feature of both normal development and tumor progression. We report that expression of chloride channel accessory protein hCLCA2 is a characteristic of epithelial differentiation in the immortalized MCF10A and HMLE models, while induction of EMT by cell dilution, TGFbeta, or mesenchymal transcription factors sharply reduces hCLCA2 levels. Attenuation of hCLCA2 expression by lentiviral shRNA caused cell overgrowth and focus formation, enhanced migration and invasion, and increased mammosphere formation in methylcellulose. These changes were accompanied by downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and fibronectin. Moreover, hCLCA2 expression is greatly downregulated in breast cancer cells with a mesenchymal or claudin-low profile. These observations suggest that loss of hCLCA2 may promote metastasis. We find that higher-than-median expression of hCLCA2 is associated with a one-third lower rate of metastasis over an 18 year period among breast cancer patients compared to lower-than-median (n=344, unfiltered for subtype). Thus, hCLCA2 is required for epithelial differentiation, and its loss during tumor progression contributes to metastasis. Overexpression of hCLCA2 has been reported to inhibit cell proliferation and is accompanied by increases in chloride current at the plasma membrane and reduced intracellular pH (pHi). We found that knockdown cells have sharply reduced chloride current and higher pHi, both characteristics of tumor cells. These results suggest a mechanism for the effects on differentiation. Loss of hCLCA2 may allow escape from pHi homeostatic mechanisms, permitting the higher intracellular and lower extracellular pH that are characteristic of aggressive tumor cells. PMID:21909135

  3. [Effects of phosphorus application rates and depths on P utilization and loss risk in a maize-soybean intercropping system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Song, Chun; Zhou, Pan; Wang, Jia Yu; Xui, Feng; Ye, Fang; Wang, Xiao Chun; Yang, Wen Yu

    2018-04-01

    In order to explore the advantage of intercropping on phosphorus (P) efficient utilization and the reduction of soil P loss, a field experiment in a maize-soybean intercropping system, which included three P application (P 2 O 5 ) rates (CP: 168 kg·hm -2 ; RP 1 : 135 kg·hm -2 ; RP 2 : 101 kg·hm -2 ) and three P application depths (D 1 : applied in 5 cm depth; D 2 : applied in 15 cm depth; D 3 : 1/2 of P fertilizer applied in 5 cm depth and another 1/2 in 15 cm depth) was carried out to analyze the effects of P application rates and depth on crop aboveground biomass, grain yield, crop P uptake, soil total and available P contents, and soil P adsorption-desorption characteristics. Compared with control treatment, the aboveground biomass, grain yield, crop P uptake, soil total P, and available P content were increased significantly by P application, regardless of P rate and application depth. Under the same application depth, RP 1 had similar grain yield but higher crop P uptake compared with CP, and thus higher P apparent utilization efficiency. Under the same P application rate, the application depth of D 2 had the highest crop aboveground biomass, grain yield, P uptake, soil total P, and available P. According to the characteristic of soil P adsorption-desorption, the treatment with the rate of RP 1 and the depth of D 2 had the strongest soil P retention capacity, which had advantage in alleviating P loss. These results suggested that reducing application rate but increasing application depth of P fertilizer could improve P use efficiency and reduce soil P loss without sacrifice in crop production in maize-soybean relay intercropping system.

  4. Annexin A5 Promoter Haplotype M2 Is Not a Risk Factor for Recurrent Pregnancy Loss in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagirnaja, Liina; Nõmmemees, Diana; Rull, Kristiina

    2015-01-01

    and recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), however with inconclusive results. STUDY SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A retrospective case-control study combining resequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was undertaken in 313 women with unexplained RPL and 214 fertile women from Estonia...... compared to controls both in Estonia (8.1% vs 15.2%, respectively) and Denmark (9.7% vs 12.6%). The high M2 prevalence in fertile controls was consistent with estimations for European and East Asian populations (9.6%-16.0%). CONCLUSIONS: This study cautions to consider the M2 haplotype as a deterministic...

  5. Applying the Land Use Portfolio Model to Estimate Natural-Hazard Loss and Risk - A Hypothetical Demonstration for Ventura County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, Laura B.

    2008-01-01

    With costs of natural disasters skyrocketing and populations increasingly settling in areas vulnerable to natural hazards, society is challenged to better allocate its limited risk-reduction resources. In 2000, Congress passed the Disaster Mitigation Act, amending the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, Pub. L. 93-288, 1988; Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2002, 2008b; Disaster Mitigation Act, 2000), mandating that State, local, and tribal communities prepare natural-hazard mitigation plans to qualify for pre-disaster mitigation grants and post-disaster aid. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was assigned to coordinate and implement hazard-mitigation programs, and it published information about specific mitigation-plan requirements and the mechanisms (through the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program-HMGP) for distributing funds (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2002). FEMA requires that each community develop a mitigation strategy outlining long-term goals to reduce natural-hazard vulnerability, mitigation objectives and specific actions to reduce the impacts of natural hazards, and an implementation plan for those actions. The implementation plan should explain methods for prioritizing, implementing, and administering the actions, along with a 'cost-benefit review' justifying the prioritization. FEMA, along with the National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS), supported the development of HAZUS ('Hazards U.S.'), a geospatial natural-hazards loss-estimation tool, to help communities quantify potential losses and to aid in the selection and prioritization of mitigation actions. HAZUS was expanded to a multiple-hazard version, HAZUS-MH, that combines population, building, and natural-hazard science and economic data and models to estimate physical damages, replacement costs, and business interruption for specific natural-hazard scenarios. HAZUS

  6. An assessment of the individual and social risks of Athens population resulting from a hypothetical loss-of-coolant-accident release of the Greek Research Reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollas, John; Synodinou, Varvara; Varsamis, G.; Antoniades, John; Catsaros, Nicolas.

    1984-03-01

    In this report the loss-of-coolant-accident consequences for the Greek Research Reactor-1 which is located within the limits of Athens are estimated. The source term emerges from a conservative 20% coremelt with 25 isotopes taken into consideration. Individual and social risks are calculated to a distance of 20 km from the reactor site, an area covering the whole Athens region of 3,081,000 inhabitants. Latent health effects due to both initial an chronic exposure from inhalation of resuspended radionuclides and exposure to groundshine from contaminated ground are assessed. (author)

  7. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  8. Unwanted pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and other risk factors for intimate partner violence in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruneh, Fentanesh Nibret; Chuang, Kun-Yang; Ntenda, Peter A M; Chuang, Ying-Chih

    2017-11-07

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) has one of the highest rates of violence against women in the world; however, few studies have focused on this issue. In this study, we assessed the interrelationship among intimate partner violence (IPV), unintended pregnancy, pregnancy loss, and other sociodemographic factors in the DRC. Our analyses were based on data from the DRC demographic and health survey, conducted from November 2013 to February 2014. We constructed generalized estimating equation models to analyze the data from a sample of 5,120 married women. Our results showed that having a husband or partner who exhibited controlling behaviors, women who justified wife-beating, having a mother who had experienced IPV, and having a husband or partner who consumed alcohol were positively associated with IPV, whereas decision-making autonomy among women was negatively associated with IPV. In the community, the proportion of women who had experienced IPV and that of those who had completed secondary or higher education were positively and negatively associated with any IPV type, respectively. In addition, emotional IPV and any IPV type were positively associated with pregnancy loss. Our results indicate the necessity of implementing programs targeting gender equality at both individual and community levels.

  9. Effect of a High Protein Weight Loss Diet on Weight, High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein, and Cardiovascular Risk among Overweight and Obese Women: A Parallel Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Azadbakht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies regarding the effects of high protein (HP diets on cardiovascular (CVD risk factors have reported contradictory results. We aimed to determine the effects of an HP diet on CVD risk factors and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP among overweight and obese women. In this randomized controlled trial, we recruited 60 overweight and obese women, aged 20–65, into an HP or energy-restricted control diet for three months (protein, carbohydrate, and fat: 25%, 45%, and 30% versus 15%, 55%, and 30%, resp.. Total protein was divided between animal and plant sources in a 1 : 1 ratio, and animal sources were distributed equally between meats and dairy products. Fasting blood samples, hs-CRP, lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and anthropometric measurements were assessed using standard guidelines. Percent change was significantly different between the two diet groups for weight (standard protein (SP: −3.90 ± 0.26 versus HP: −6.10 ± 0.34%; , resp. and waist circumference (SP: −3.03 ± 0.21 versus HP: −5.06 ± 0.28%; , resp.. Percent change of fasting blood glucose (FBG substantially decreased in the control group compared to the HP group (−9.13 ± 0.67 versus −4.93 ± 1.4%; P = 0.01, resp.. Total cholesterol, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP decreased both in the HP and in the control diet groups (P = 0.06, P = 0.07, and P = 0.09, resp.; however, the results were marginally significant. Serum levels of hs-CRP were reduced both in the control (−0.08 ± 0.11%, P = 0.06 and in the high protein groups (−0.04 ± 0.09%, P = 0.06. The energy-restricted HP diet resulted in more beneficial effects on weight loss and reduction of waist circumference. CVD risk factors may improve with HP diets among overweight and obese women. When using isoenergetic weight loss diets, total cholesterol, hs-CRP, and SBP were marginally significantly reduced, independent of dietary protein content

  10. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  11. Diastolic pressure indices offer a novel approach to predicting risk of graft loss after pediatric heart transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Erin L; Bradford, Miranda C; Friedland-Little, Joshua M; Hong, Borah J; Kemna, Mariska S; Chen, Jonathan M; Law, Yuk M

    2018-03-01

    PH is a risk factor for GL after HTx. However, traditional parameters are not reliable predictors of risk in children. We hypothesized that DPI (dPAP and DPG) are predictive of GL in pediatric HTx recipients. The UNOS/SRTR database was reviewed to identify pediatric HTx recipients (age <18 years) between 1994 and 2013. Recipients with pretransplant hemodynamic data were grouped by diagnosis (CMP or CHD), and the groups were analyzed separately. Bivariate Cox regression analysis examined the association between hemodynamic variables and GL. DPI showed the strongest association with early GL in recipients with CMP (dPAP: HR = 1.25 [1.09-1.42]; DPG: 1.24 [1.11-1.38]). Among CHD recipients, DPI were associated with early GL in those with preexisting PH (dPAP: HR = 1.16 [1.01-1.33]; DPG: HR = 1.10 [1.00-1.21]). No cutoff values for "high-risk" DPI were identified, but a continuous relationship between higher DPI and risk of early GL was observed. DPI are associated with early GL in select pediatric HTx recipients. Our findings suggest that DPI should be considered as part of routine hemodynamic assessment for pediatric HTx candidates. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Risk allocation in a public-private catastrophe insurance system : an actuarial analysis of deductibles, stop-loss, and premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Y.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Dijkstra, T. K.

    A public-private (PP) partnership could be a viable arrangement for providing insurance coverage for catastrophe events, such as floods and earthquakes. The objective of this paper is to obtain insights into efficient and practical allocations of risk in a PP insurance system. In particular, this

  13. Risk allocation in a public-private catastrophe insurance system : An actuarial analysis of deductibles, stop-loss, and premiums

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Y.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Dijkstra, Th.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    A public-private (PP) partnership could be a viable arrangement for providing insurance coverage for catastrophe events, such as floods and earthquakes. The objective of this paper is to obtain insights into efficient and practical allocations of risk in a PP insurance system. In particular, this

  14. Complementary sex determination substantially increases extinction proneness of haplodiploid populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Amro; Packer, Laurence

    2005-07-26

    The role of genetic factors in extinction is firmly established for diploid organisms, but haplodiploids have been considered immune to genetic load impacts because deleterious alleles are readily purged in haploid males. However, we show that single-locus complementary sex determination ancestral to the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps) imposes a substantial genetic load through homozygosity at the sex locus that results in the production of inviable or sterile diploid males. Using stochastic modeling, we have discovered that diploid male production (DMP) can initiate a rapid and previously uncharacterized extinction vortex. The extinction rate in haplodiploid populations with DMP is an order of magnitude greater than in its absence under realistic but conservative demographic parameter values. Furthermore, DMP alone can elevate the base extinction risk in haplodiploids by over an order of magnitude higher than that caused by inbreeding depression in threatened diploids. Thus, contrary to previous expectations, haplodiploids are more, rather than less, prone to extinction for genetic reasons. Our findings necessitate a fundamental shift in approaches to the conservation and population biology of these ecologically and economically crucial insects.

  15. Persistent weight loss with a non-invasive novel medical device to change eating behaviour in obese individuals with high-risk cardiovascular risk profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Seck

    Full Text Available In evidence-based weight-loss programs weight regain is common after an initial weight reduction. Eating slowly significantly lowers meal energy intake and hunger ratings. Despite this knowledge, obese individuals do not implement this behaviour. We, thus tested the hypothesis of changing eating behaviour with an intra-oral medical device leading to constant weight reduction in overweight and obesity. Six obese patients (6 men, age 56 ± 14, BMI 29 ± 2 kg / m2 with increased CVRF profile were included in this prospective study. All patients had been treated for obesity during the last 10 years in a single centre and had at least 3 frustrate evidence-based diets. Patients received a novel non-invasive intra-oral medical device to slow eating time. Further advice included not to count calories, to avoid any other form of diet, to take their time with their meals, and to eat whatever they liked. This device was used only during meals for the first 4 to 8 weeks for a total of 88 [20-160] hours. Follow-up period was 23 [15-38] months. During this period, patients lost 11% [5-20%] (p5%, and 67% (4/6 achieved a >10% bodyweight loss. In the course of the study, altered eating patterns were observed. There were no complications with the medical device. Of note, all patients continued to lose weight after the initial intervention period (p<0.001 and none of them had weight regain. With this medical device, overweight and obese patients with a history of previously frustrating attempts to lose weight achieved a significant and sustained weight loss over two years. These results warrant the ongoing prospective randomised controlled trial to prove concept and mechanism of action.German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00011357.

  16. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90 and temperature (10–25 °C in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a respiration rate; (b dry matter losses (DML; (c ZEN production and (d relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  17. Medically Unexplained Symptoms and the risk of loss of labor market participation - A prospective study in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løngaard, Katja; Bjorner, Jacob Bue; Fink, Per

    2015-01-01

    follow-up. MUS participants also showed an elevated RR with regard to risk of disability pensioning, however this association was not statistically significant (RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 0.77-5.52). CONCLUSION: MUS seem to have a negative effect on labor market participation defined by LTSA and unemployment......BACKGROUND: Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are frequently encountered in general practice. However, little is known whether MUS affects labor market participation. We investigated the prospective association between MUS at baseline and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), unemployment...... treatment. Participants were classified with MUS if they: a) had reported three or more symptoms during the last month, and b) did not have a chronic condition, neither in the self-reported nor the register data. We assessed LTSA, unemployment, and disability pensioning by linking our data with National...

  18. Age-related loss of EGF-receptor related protein (ERRP) in the aging colon is a potential risk factor for colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Eva M; Levi, Edi; Du, Jianhua; Xu, Hu; Majumdar, Adhip P N

    2004-12-01

    Although in Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGF-receptor (EGFR) in mucosa of much of the gastrointestinal tract, including the colon, regulation of this process is poorly understood. We hypothesize that loss of suppressor of EGFR may partly be responsible for this process. To test this hypothesis, we examined the expression of EGFR related protein (ERRP), a recently identified negative regulator of EGFR, in the colonic mucosa during aging and following administration of the colonic carcinogen dimethylhydrazine (DMH) that resulted in the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which are considered to be precursor of adenoma and carcinoma. In Fischer-344 rats, aging is associated with increased activation of EGFR in the colonic mucosa, as evidenced by 30-35% increase in the levels of tyrosine phosphorylated EGFR in the proximal and distal colon of aged (20-22 months old) than in young (4-6 months old) rats. In contrast, the levels of ERRP in both regions of the colon of aged rats were decreased by 50-60%, compared to their younger counterparts. Administration of DMH, which induced a greater number of ACF in the colon of aged rats than in young animals, resulted in a corresponding reduction in ERRP in the colon. These results suggest that loss of ERRP expression is a common event during aging and early stages of chemically induced colon cancer. We also suggest that loss of ERRP could be a risk factor for developing colorectal cancer in the older population.

  19. Furthering the understanding of olfaction, prevalence of loss of smell and risk factors: a population-based survey (OLFACAT study)

    OpenAIRE

    Mullol, Joaquim; Alobid, Isam; Mari?o-S?nchez, Franklin; Quint?, Lloren?; de Haro, Josep; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel; Valero, Antonio; Picado, C?sar; Marin, Concepci?

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate olfaction in general population, prevalence of olfactory dysfunction and related risk factors. Design: Cross-sectional population-based survey, distributing four microencapsulated odorants (rose, banana, musk and gas) and two self-administered questionnaires (odour description; epidemiology/health status). Setting: The survey was distributed to general population through a bilingual (Catalan, Spanish) newspaper in Catalonia (Spain), on December 2003. Participants: N...

  20. Medically unexplained symptoms and the risk of loss of labor market participation--a prospective study in the Danish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loengaard, Katja; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Fink, Per Klausen; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner

    2015-09-02

    Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are frequently encountered in general practice. However, little is known whether MUS affects labor market participation. We investigated the prospective association between MUS at baseline and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), unemployment, and disability pensioning in a 5-year-follow-up study. In the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 2005, 8187 randomly selected employees from the Danish general population answered a questionnaire on work and health. Responses were linked with national registers on prescribed medication and hospital treatment. Participants were classified with MUS if they: a) had reported three or more symptoms during the last month, and b) did not have a chronic condition, neither in the self-reported nor the register data. We assessed LTSA, unemployment, and disability pensioning by linking our data with National registers of social transfer payments. Of the 8187 participants, 272 (3.3%) were categorized with MUS. Compared to healthy participants, participants with MUS had an increased risk of LTSA (Rate ratio (RR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.28-2.42), and of unemployment (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02-2.15) during follow-up. MUS participants also showed an elevated RR with regard to risk of disability pensioning, however this association was not statistically significant (RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 0.77-5.52). MUS seem to have a negative effect on labor market participation defined by LTSA and unemployment, whereas it is more uncertain whether MUS affects risk of disability pensioning.

  1. No more broken hearts: weight loss after bariatric surgery returns patients' postoperative risk to baseline following coronary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baimas-George, Maria; Hennings, Dietric L; Al-Qurayshi, Zaid; Emad Kandil; DuCoin, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    The obesity epidemic is associated with a rise in coronary surgeries because obesity is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Bariatric surgery is linked to improvement in cardiovascular co-morbidities and left ventricular function. No studies have investigated survival advantage in postoperative bariatric patients after coronary surgery. To determine if there is a benefit after coronary surgery in patients who have previously undergone bariatric surgery. National Inpatient Sample. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of the National Inpatient Sample database from 2003 to 2010. We selected bariatric surgical patients who later underwent coronary surgery (n = 257). A comparison of postoperative complications and mortality after coronary surgery were compared with controls (n = 1442) using χ 2 tests, linear regression analysis, and multivariate logistical regression models. A subset population was identified as having undergone coronary surgery (n = 1699); of this population, 257 patients had previously undergone bariatric surgery. They were compared with 1442 controls. The majority was male (67.2%), white (82.6%), and treated in an urban environment (96.8%). Patients with bariatric surgery assumed the risk of postoperative complications after coronary surgery that was associated with their new body mass index (BMI) (BMI999.9, 95% CI .18 to>999.9, P = .07). Length of stay was significantly longer in postbariatric patients (BMIbariatric patients have a return to baseline risk of morbidity and mortality after coronary surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Role of MicroRNAs in Environmental Risk Factors, Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, and Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Verónica; Cui, Julia Yue; Daimiel, Lidia; Espinosa-Díez, Cristina; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Lamas, Santiago

    2018-03-20

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and define part of the epigenetic signature. Their influence on every realm of biomedicine is established and progressively increasing. The impact of environment on human health is enormous. Among environmental risk factors impinging on quality of life are those of chemical nature (toxic chemicals, heavy metals, pollutants, and pesticides) as well as those related to everyday life such as exposure to noise or mental and psychosocial stress. Recent Advances: This review elaborates on the relationship between miRNAs and these environmental risk factors. The most relevant facts underlying the role of miRNAs in the response to these environmental stressors, including redox regulatory changes and oxidative stress, are highlighted and discussed. In the cases wherein miRNA mutations are relevant for this response, the pertinent literature is also reviewed. We conclude that, even though in some cases important advances have been made regarding close correlations between specific miRNAs and biological responses to environmental risk factors, a need for prospective large-cohort studies is likely necessary to establish causative roles. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 773-796.

  3. Characteristics of children with unilateral hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth M; Al-Essa, Rakan S; Whittingham, JoAnne; Fitzpatrick, Jessica

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of children with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), examine deterioration in hearing, and explore amplification decisions. Population-based data were collected prospectively from time of diagnosis. Serial audiograms and amplification details were retrospectively extracted from clinical charts to document the trajectory and management of hearing loss. The study included all children identified with UHL in one region of Canada over a 13-year period (2003-2015) after implementation of universal newborn hearing screening. Of 537 children with permanent hearing loss, 20.1% (108) presented with UHL at diagnosis. They were identified at a median age of 13.9 months (IQR: 2.8, 49.0). Children with congenital loss were identified at 2.8 months (IQR: 2.0, 3.6) and made up 47.2% (n = 51), reflecting that a substantial portion had late-onset, acquired or late-identified loss. A total of 42.4% (n = 39) showed deterioration in hearing, including 16 (17.4%) who developed bilateral loss. By study end, 73.1% (79/108) of children had received amplification recommendations. Up to 20% of children with permanent HL are first diagnosed with UHL. About 40% are at risk for deterioration in hearing either in the impaired ear and/or in the normal hearing ear.

  4. Sarcocystis spp. in llamas (Lama glama) in Southern Bolivia: a cross sectional study of the prevalence, risk factors and loss in income caused by carcass downgrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, A L; Limon, G; Vides, H; Cortez, A; Guitian, J

    2014-10-01

    Llamas (Lama glama) are intermediate hosts of the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis spp. This parasite is described as causing economic losses in the production of llama meat in South America. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence, identify risk factors and explore spatial patterns of Sarcocystis in llamas in an area of the Bolivian High Plateau including estimating financial losses due to carcass downgrades as a result of the presence of Sarcocystis cysts. Information was collected from a local abattoir between 2006 and 2011 on 1196 llamas. Sarcocystis status was determined at meat inspection where any carcasses with one or more visible cysts were deemed Sarcocystis positive. A high prevalence was found, estimated to vary between 23.4% (95% CI 16.6-30.1) in 2007 and 50.3% (95% CI 44.4-56.3) in 2011. Period prevalence between 2006 and 2011 was estimated at 34.1% (95% CI 31.4-36.8). Age, sex and type (analogous to breed) were identified as risk factors for Sarcocystis using a mixed-effects logistic regression model adjusting for clustering by community and owner. Llamas over 4.5 years of age had an increased odds of being Sarcocystis positive (OR 19.31, 95% CI 9.10-40.98) as well as females (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.13-2.68) and long haired type llamas (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.26-2.87). An interaction between age and sex was detected indicating that the increased odds of disease from the youngest age group to the 2.5-4.5 years group was much more pronounced in females than in males. Spatial patterns of Sarcocystis were explored at district level by means of Standardised Morbidity Ratios and some spatial heterogeneity was revealed. Estimates of financial loss due to the disease were calculated using the difference in price paid for Sarcocystis positive and negative meat. Loss due to Sarcocystis varied per year but could be up to 20% of the annual income generated through the abattoir by sale of meat. Overall this study shows a high prevalence of Sarcocystis in the study

  5. Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Una; Spence, Michelle; Courtney, C Hamish; McKinley, Michelle C; Ennis, Cieran N; McCance, David R; McEneny, Jane; Bell, Patrick M; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    Low-fat hypocaloric diets reduce insulin resistance and prevent type 2 diabetes in those at risk. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are advocated as an alternative, but reciprocal increases in dietary fat may have detrimental effects on insulin resistance and offset the benefits of weight reduction. We investigated a low-fat (20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) versus a low-carbohydrate (60% fat, 20% carbohydrate) weight reduction diet in 24 overweight/obese subjects ([mean +/- SD] BMI 33.6 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), aged 39 +/- 10 years) in an 8-week randomized controlled trial. All food was weighed and distributed, and intake was calculated to produce a 500 kcal/day energy deficit. Insulin action was assessed by the euglycemic clamp and insulin secretion by meal tolerance test. Body composition, adipokine levels, and vascular compliance by pulse-wave analysis were also measured. Significant weight loss occurred in both groups (P loss with no difference between groups (P = 0.71). The change in overall systemic arterial stiffness was, however, significantly different between diets (P = 0.04); this reflected a significant decrease in augmentation index following the low-fat diet, compared with a nonsignificant increase within the low-carbohydrate group. This study demonstrates comparable effects on insulin resistance of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets independent of macronutrient content. The difference in augmentation index may imply a negative effect of low-carbohydrate diets on vascular risk.

  6. Risk-informed analysis of the large break loss of coolant accident and PCT margin evaluation with the RISMC methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, T.H.; Liang, K.S.; Cheng, C.K.; Pei, B.S.; Patelli, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • With RISMC methodology, both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties have been considered. • 14 probabilistically significant sequences have been identified and quantified. • A load spectrum for LBLOCA has been conducted with CPCT and SP of each dominant sequence. • Comparing to deterministic methodologies, the risk-informed PCT margin can be greater by 44–62 K. • The SP of the referred sequence to cover 99% in the load spectrum is only 5.07 * 10 −3 . • The occurrence probability of the deterministic licensing sequence is 5.46 * 10 −5 . - Abstract: For general design basis accidents, such as SBLOCA and LBLOCA, the traditional deterministic safety analysis methodologies are always applied to analyze events based on a so called surrogate or licensing sequence, without considering how low this sequence occurrence probability is. In the to-be-issued 10 CFR 50.46a, the LBLOCA will be categorized as accidents beyond design basis and the PCT margin shall be evaluated in a risk-informed manner. According to the risk-informed safety margin characterization (RISMC) methodology, a process has been suggested to evaluate the risk-informed PCT margin. Following the RISMC methodology, a load spectrum of PCT for LBLOCA has been generated for the Taiwan’s Maanshan Nuclear Power plant and 14 probabilistic significant sequences have been identified. It was observed in the load spectrum that the conditional PCT generally ascends with the descending sequence occurrence probability. With the load spectrum covering both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, the risk-informed PCT margin can be evaluated by either expecting value estimation method or sequence probability coverage method. It was found that by comparing with the traditional deterministic methodology, the PCT margin evaluated by the RISMC methodology can be greater by 44–62 K. Besides, to have a cumulated occurrence probability over 99% in the load spectrum, the occurrence probability of the

  7. Risk-informed analysis of the large break loss of coolant accident and PCT margin evaluation with the RISMC methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, T.H. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Liang, K.S., E-mail: ksliang@alum.mit.edu [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Cheng, C.K.; Pei, B.S. [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101 Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Road, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Patelli, E. [Institute of Risk and Uncertainty, University of Liverpool, Room 610, Brodie Tower, L69 3GQ (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • With RISMC methodology, both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties have been considered. • 14 probabilistically significant sequences have been identified and quantified. • A load spectrum for LBLOCA has been conducted with CPCT and SP of each dominant sequence. • Comparing to deterministic methodologies, the risk-informed PCT margin can be greater by 44–62 K. • The SP of the referred sequence to cover 99% in the load spectrum is only 5.07 * 10{sup −3}. • The occurrence probability of the deterministic licensing sequence is 5.46 * 10{sup −5}. - Abstract: For general design basis accidents, such as SBLOCA and LBLOCA, the traditional deterministic safety analysis methodologies are always applied to analyze events based on a so called surrogate or licensing sequence, without considering how low this sequence occurrence probability is. In the to-be-issued 10 CFR 50.46a, the LBLOCA will be categorized as accidents beyond design basis and the PCT margin shall be evaluated in a risk-informed manner. According to the risk-informed safety margin characterization (RISMC) methodology, a process has been suggested to evaluate the risk-informed PCT margin. Following the RISMC methodology, a load spectrum of PCT for LBLOCA has been generated for the Taiwan’s Maanshan Nuclear Power plant and 14 probabilistic significant sequences have been identified. It was observed in the load spectrum that the conditional PCT generally ascends with the descending sequence occurrence probability. With the load spectrum covering both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties, the risk-informed PCT margin can be evaluated by either expecting value estimation method or sequence probability coverage method. It was found that by comparing with the traditional deterministic methodology, the PCT margin evaluated by the RISMC methodology can be greater by 44–62 K. Besides, to have a cumulated occurrence probability over 99% in the load spectrum, the occurrence probability

  8. Exploring Cascading Effects of Multimodal Communication Skills in Infants with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan Y.; Hampton, Lauren H.

    2018-01-01

    Infants and toddlers with hearing loss (HL) are at risk for developing communicative delays that can have a substantial lasting effect. Understanding child characteristics that may be targeted in early intervention is essential to maximizing communicative outcomes in children with HL. Among the most malleable predictors of communication skills…

  9. The effect of a low-fat, high-protein or high-carbohydrate ad libitum diet on weight loss maintenance and metabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, M; van Baak, M A; Monsheimer, S; Saris, W H M

    2009-03-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are often advocated for weight reduction and weight loss maintenance. The aim was to compare the effect of low-fat, high-carbohydrate (HC) and low-fat, HP ad libitum diets on weight maintenance after weight loss induced by a very low-calorie diet, and on metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy obese subjects. Forty-eight subjects completed the study that consisted of an energy restriction period of 5-6 weeks followed by a weight maintenance period of 12 weeks. During weight maintenance subjects received maltodextrin (HC group) or protein (HP group) (casein (HPC subgroup) or whey (HPW subgroup)) supplements (2 x 25 g per day), respectively and consumed a low-fat diet. Subjects in the HP diet group showed significantly better weight maintenance after weight loss (2.3 kg difference, P=0.04) and fat mass reduction (2.2 kg difference, P=0.02) than subjects in the HC group. Triglyceride (0.6 mM difference, P=0.01) and glucagon (9.6 pg ml(-1) difference, P=0.02) concentrations increased more in the HC diet group, while glucose (0.3 mM difference, P=0.02) concentration increased more in the HP diet group. Changes in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, insulin, HOMAir index, HbA1c, leptin and adiponectin concentrations did not differ between the diets. No differences were found between the casein- or whey-supplemented HP groups. These results show that low-fat, high-casein or whey protein weight maintenance diets are more effective for weight control than low-fat, HC diets and do not adversely affect metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in weight-reduced moderately obese subjects without metabolic or cardiovascular complications.

  10. " Evaluation Of Some Epidemiologic Parameters, Risk Factors, Clinical And Audiological Characteristics Of 48 Patients With Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amiridavan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL is an emergency situation, and is one of the most controversial subjects in domain of otolaryngology. In this article, we have analyzed some Epidemiologic Characteristics, clinical features, audiological Characteristics, and other findings in routine serological tests and MRI of 48 cases with SSNHL ,who came or were referred to us in the past 2 years. Study design: Cross sectional. Materials and Methods: In 48 patients with chief complaint of SSNHL, from June 2003 to Feb. 2005, who were admitted in clinic of otolaryngology- in Kashani Hospital -Isfahan- Iran, physical examination and history taking, audiological evaluation, MRI,and serological tests were performed in a similar way , and data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: From 48 cases(M:28 ,F:20 with mean age of 40.9(+/-15.9 years, left ear was involved in 26 cases (54.1% ,and right ear in 19 cases (39.5% ,and in 3 cases (6.3%,both sides were involved. The severity of hearing loss was “subjectively” HIGH in 78% of patients, and the mean threshold of hearing had been calculated as 69 dB. The most common pattern in pure tone audiometry curves ,was ‘flat pattern’(75% ,and then ,’down sloping pattern’(16%.The most adjunctive clinical symptom was “tinnitus”(in 78.7%, and 40% of patients had “true vertigo”. 44.4% of our patients had some evidences of upper respiratory tract infections (URIs during recent 2 weeks. Positive family history, smoking, alcohol intake ,oral contraceptive and ototoxic drugs consumption were uncommon. 24% of cases (11 of 39 had increased ESR, and 100% of 39 patients had negative VDRL. Diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying disease (in 6 cases.From 20 patients ,who were succeeded to perform brain and ear MRI, 2 cases had tumor in internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle. Conclusion: SSNHL has some limitations in being studied histopathologically or in the form of

  11. EFSA ND A Panel ( EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and “ reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the d evelopment of attention, difficulties in children with ADHD - like symptoms ” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Minami Nutrition Health BVBA, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation...... of a health claim related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms”. The food constituent, EPA, which is the subject...... of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms. These children are also characterised by less...

  12. Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings -

    Science.gov (United States)

    only an estimated 1% of commercial buildings are built to net-zero energy criteria. One reason for this Continuum Magazine | NREL Net-Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Net -Zero Building Technologies Create Substantial Energy Savings Researchers work to package and share step

  13. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing from...

  14. Agricultural Rivers at Risk: Dredging Results in a Loss of Macroinvertebrates. Preliminary Observations from the Narew Catchment, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Grygoruk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem deterioration in small lowland agricultural rivers that results from river dredging entails a significant threat to the appropriate ecohydrological conditions of these water bodies, expressed as homogenization of habitats and loss of biodiversity. Our study was aimed at a comparison of abundance and taxonomic structure of bottom-dwelling macroinvertebrates in dredged and non-dredged stretches of small lowland rivers and tributaries of the middle Narew River, namely: Czaplinianka, Turośnianka, Dąb, and Ślina. The experimental setup was (1 to collect samples of the bottom material from the river stretches that either persisted in a non-modified state (dredging was not done there in the last few years or had been subjected to river dredging in the year of sampling; and (2 to analyze the abundance and taxonomic structure of macroinvertebrates in the collected samples. The study revealed that at the high level of statistical significance (from p = 0.025 to p = 0.001, the total abundance of riverbed macroinvertebrates in the dredged stretches of the rivers analyzed was approximately 70% lower than in non-dredged areas. We state that the dredging of small rivers in agricultural landscapes seriously affects their ecological status by negatively influencing the concentrations and species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates.

  15. Tooth surface loss, prevalence and associated risk factors among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhouri, N M; Ziada, H M; Ahmed, G I; Kamis, A H

    2010-12-01

    Investigate Tooth Surface Loss TSL, among 12-14 years school children in Khartoum State, Sudan; evaluate pattern, severity and determine relationship between TSL, dietary habits and socio-economical status. Cross sectional survey among primary public and private schools. Cluster sample of 1,138 12 to 14-year old students from both public and private school. Mild and moderate TSL was measured on buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular incisors and canines and occlusal, buccal, lingual/palatal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular premolars and molars. Surfaces scored according to criterion described by the National Survey of Child Dental Health. The prevalence of TSL was found to be 74%. Mild and moderate TSL was detected on palatal surfaces of maxillary central incisors followed by occlusal surfaces of mandibular molars. TSL into the pulp was not detected. A high prevalence of 74% was found with mild and moderate TSL with no pulpal involvement. There was an association between consumption of erosive foods and the prevalence of TSL. Socio-economic status and gender did not present significant differences.

  16. Nontumorous enlargement of the internal auditory canal. A risk factor for sensorineural hearing loss? A high resolution CT-study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmer, H.; Rummeny, E.J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Niedermeyer, H.P. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). ENT-Clinic; Kehl, V. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology

    2015-06-15

    First aim of the study was to define normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal (IAC). In the second part the clinical relevance of IAC-enlargement was analyzed, considering also lesions of the subtle structures at the fundus of the internal auditory canal. 440 high resolution CT-scans of the temporal bone were used for retrospective analysis of the internal auditory canal and its fundus region. The mean value of the IAC diameter in axial and coronal plane was determined. In 20 of 440 patients IAC enlargement was found. In the group with pronounced enlargement (3fold SD) nearly all patients suffered from hearing impairment. In some of them we found structural abnormalities near the IAC fundus in the CSF/perilymph border zone. A new CT-based definition of normal shape and diameter of the internal auditory canal is presented. There is some evidence that a pathologic transmission of CSF-pressure in case of IAC-enlargement and/or abnormal fistulous communications could play an important role in the pathophysiology of hearing loss.

  17. Risk and the neoliberal state: why post-Mitch lessons didn't reduce El Salvador's earthquake losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, B

    2001-09-01

    Although El Salvador suffered light losses from Hurricane Mitch in 1998, it benefited from the increased international aid and encouragement for advance planning, especially mitigation and prevention interventions. Thus, one would have supposed, El Salvador would have been in a very advantageous position, able more easily than its economically crippled neighbours, Honduras and Nicaragua, to implement the 'lessons of Mitch'. A review of the recovery plan tabled by the El Salvador government following the earthquakes of early 2001 shows that despite the rhetoric in favour of 'learning the lessons of Mitch', very little mitigation and prevention had actually been put in place between the hurricane (1998) and the earthquakes (2001). The recovery plan is analysed in terms of the degree to which it deals with root causes of disaster vulnerability, namely, the economic and political marginality of much of the population and environmental degradation. An explanation for the failure to implement mitigation and preventive actions is traced to the adherence by the government of El Salvador to an extreme form of neoliberal, free market ideology, and the deep fissures and mistrust in a country that follow a long and bloody civil war.

  18. Perceptions of the risk of child abduction or loss and the utility of child electronic security devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R M; Pasnak, R

    1997-09-01

    Perceptions of the susceptibility of young children to becoming lost or being abducted, and of the potential usefulness of child electronic security devices, were examined via a questionnaire. Data were provided by 41 volunteers, most of them from a local government office centre. The questionnaire asked for demographic data, and then for the risk of a child being abducted or lost when under the supervision of different caregivers and in different situations. The probable effectiveness of three common abductor ploys was also addressed. The questionnaire concluded with 10 questions about child electronic security devices. Respondents viewed mothers, fathers, and grandparents as equally responsible caregivers and young adults/babysitters as the least responsible. These effects diminished as the age of the children increased. The garden at home was judged to be the most secure environment for children of all ages, while an amusement park was judged the least secure environment. Children were perceived to be more at risk of an abduction when a stranger asked for physical assistance or to take them to the hospital because their parents were hurt, than when asked for directions. Furthermore, the respondents expressed a moderately strong need for child electronic security devices, and viewed parents who use them as more responsible than those who do not.

  19. Decisions under unpredictable losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of the descriptive adequacy of the extit{restated diversification principle} is presented. The principle postulates that risk-averse utility maximizers will pool risks for their mutual benefit, even if information is missing about the probabilities of losses. It is enough for people to assume that they face equal risks when they pool risks. The results of the experiment support the principle.

  20. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  1. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO₂ Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cela, Esther; Kiaitsi, Elsa; Sulyok, Michael; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2018-02-17

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (a w ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO₂ production. There was an increase in temporal CO₂ production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 a w treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO₂ in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 a w /20-25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 a w . The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95-0.93 a w and 20 °C/0.95 a w . ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  2. Biochemical alteration in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome associated with an increased risk of sensorineural hearing loss; additional insights in cochlear renal relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mashad, Ghada Mohamed; Abo El Fotoh, Wafaa Moustafa M; Zein El Abedein, Ahmed Mahmoud; Abd El Sadek, Fatma Abd El Raoof

    2017-06-01

    Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) are at risk of hearing loss due to the adverse impact of medications and related immunological and genetic factors on both cochlea and kidney. So this work was planned to evaluate hearing status in children with INS and to clarify the possible associated risk factors by interpreting the clinical and laboratory profiles of those children. Ninety children with INS aged 5-14 years [30 patients with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS), 30 patients with steroid dependent/frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (SDNS/FRNS), and 30 patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS)], and 90 age and sex matched normal controls were enrolled into this study. Laboratory measurements of serum calcium, creatinine, cholesterol, blood urea and other relevant investigations were done. Pure tone audiometry was done with the sensory-neural hearing loss (SNHL) diagnosed when the level bone conduction was >20 dB and the difference in air to the bone gap was children with INS had SNHL, mostly of mild degree HL and primarily occurred at the lower frequencies. A highly significant statistical difference between controls and various types of nephrotic syndrome regarding pure tone audiometry measurements at frequencies 250, 500, 1000 Hz, whereas insignificant difference interpreting pure tone audiometry measurements in 2000, 4000 and 8000 Hz. Children with different phenotypes of nephrotic syndrome are at risk of sensorineural hearing impairment. The hazards associated with this impairment were higher blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypocalcemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Meal replacement based on Human Ration modulates metabolic risk factors during body weight loss: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Natalia Elizabeth Galdino; Enes, Bárbara Nery; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha

    2014-04-01

    A meal replacement may be an effective strategy in the management of obesity to increase antioxidant intake, attenuating oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of a new nutritional supplement to reduce metabolic risk parameters in obese women. In a randomized controlled crossover study (2 × 2), 22 women (percentage body fat 40.52 ± 3.75%; body mass index-BMI 28.72 ± 2.87 kg/m²; 35.04 ± 5.6 years old) were allocated into two treatments: hypocaloric diet and drink containing "Human Ration" (HR) consumption (CRHR), and hypocaloric diet and control drink consumption (CR). The study consisted of 2 periods of 5 weeks with 1 week of washout in two orders (CR → CRHR and CRHR → CR). Caloric restriction was 15%, based on estimated energy requirement. Anthropometric, clinical and metabolic risk parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of each period. Some metabolic risk factors were favorably modulated in both interventions: reduction in body weight (CR -0.74 ± 1.27 kg; p = 0.01; CRHR -0.77 ± 1.3 kg; p = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) (CR -0.27 ± 0.51 kg/m²; p = 0.02; CRHR -0.30 ± 0.52 kg/m²; p = 0.01) and HOMA-IR (CR -0.35 ± 0.82; p = 0.02, CRHR -0.41 ± 0.83; p = 0.03). However, CRHR reduced waist circumference (-2.54 ± 2.74 cm; p < 0.01) and gynoid fat (-0.264 ± 0.28 g; p < 0.01), and increased HDL-c levels (0.08 ± 0.15 mmol/l; p = 0.04). Associated with hypocaloric diet, the intake of a nutritional supplement rich in phytochemicals as a breakfast substitute for 5 weeks had no additional effect on weight reduction than caloric restriction alone, but increased central lipolysis and improved the lipoprotein profile.

  4. Complex risk analysis for loss of electric power in liquid metal nuclear reactor by system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2012-07-15

    The power stabilization of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is investigated in the aspect of the liquid metal coolant. The quantification of the risk analysis is performed by the system dynamics (SD) method which is processed by the feedback and accumulation complex algorithms. The Vensim software package is used for the simulations, which is supported by the Monte-Carlo method. There are 2 kinds of considerations as the economic and safety properties. The result shows the stability of the operations when the power can be decided. This shows the higher efficiency of the reactor. The failure frequency is 16/60 = 27%. In the event of Power Stabilized, the failure event is in the quite lower frequency rate. The commercial use of the reactor is important in the operations. (orig.)

  5. Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Alain J; Nordmann, Abigail; Briel, Matthias; Keller, Ulrich; Yancy, William S; Brehm, Bonnie J; Bucher, Heiner C

    2006-02-13

    Low-carbohydrate diets have become increasingly popular for weight loss. However, evidence from individual trials about benefits and risks of these diets to achieve weight loss and modify cardiovascular risk factors is preliminary. We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to identify trials comparing the effects of low-carbohydrate diets without restriction of energy intake vs low-fat diets in individuals with a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) of at least 25. Included trials had to report changes in body weight in intention-to-treat analysis and to have a follow-up of at least 6 months. Two reviewers independently assessed trial eligibility and quality of randomized controlled trials. Five trials including a total of 447 individuals fulfilled our inclusion criteria. After 6 months, individuals assigned to low-carbohydrate diets had lost more weight than individuals randomized to low-fat diets (weighted mean difference, -3.3 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5.3 to -1.4 kg). This difference was no longer obvious after 12 months (weighted mean difference, -1.0 kg; 95% CI, -3.5 to 1.5 kg). There were no differences in blood pressure. Triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values changed more favorably in individuals assigned to low-carbohydrate diets (after 6 months, for triglycerides, weighted mean difference, -22.1 mg/dL [-0.25 mmol/L]; 95% CI, -38.1 to -5.3 mg/dL [-0.43 to -0.06 mmol/L]; and for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, weighted mean difference, 4.6 mg/dL [0.12 mmol/L]; 95% CI, 1.5-8.1 mg/dL [0.04-0.21 mmol/L]), but total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values changed more favorably in individuals assigned to low-fat diets (weighted mean difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol after 6 months, 5.4 mg/dL [0.14 mmol/L]; 95% CI, 1.2-10.1 mg/dL [0.03-0.26 mmol/L]). Low-carbohydrate, non-energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as

  6. In-situ soil loss monitoring in a small Mediterranean catchment to assess the siltation risk of a limno-reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, E.; Bienes-Allas, R.; Martínez-Pérez, S.; Sastre-Merlín, A.

    2012-04-01

    The existence of large reservoirs under Mediterranean climate causes some negative impacts. The construction of small dams in the riverine zone of these reservoirs is an innovative idea designed to counteract some of those impacts, generating a body of water with a constant level which we have termed "limno-reservoirs". Pareja Limno-reservoir, located in the influence area of the Entrepeñas Reservoir (Guadalajara) is among the first limno-reservoirs built in Spain, and the first having a double function: environmental and recreational. The limno-reservoir basin (85.5 Km2) enjoys a Mediterranean climate, however, cold temperatures prevail in winter and maximum annual variation may be around 50 °C. Average annual precipitation is 600 mm, with high variability too. Most of the basin is dominated by a high limestone plateau, while a more erodible lithology surfaces in the hillsides of the Ompólveda River and its tributaries. These characteristics make the basin representative of central Spain. Despite the unquestionable interest of the initiative, it construction has raised some issues about its environmental viability. One of them is related to its siltation risk, as the area shows signs of high erosion rates that have been contrasted in previous empirical studies. An in-situ soil loss monitoring network has been installed in order to determine the soil loss and deposition rates in the limno-reservoir basin (85.5 km2). It includes 15 sampling plots for inter-rill erosion and 8 for sedimentation, each one containing 16 erosion sticks. Rill erosion was studied monitoring 8 rills with a needle micro-profiler, quantifying the sediment deposition in their terminal zone with sticks. These control points have been located in places where the soil type, land use and slope present are representative of the basin, in order to extrapolate the results to similar areas. In-situ monitoring has been performed for three years, starting in 2009 and carrying out sampling every 3

  7. Dietary Intake of Protein from Different Sources and Weight Regain, Changes in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors after Weight Loss: The DIOGenes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen A. van Baak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increase in dietary protein intake has been shown to improve weight loss maintenance in the DIOGenes trial. Here, we analysed whether the source of the dietary proteins influenced changes in body weight, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors during the weight maintenance period while following an energy-restricted diet. 489 overweight or obese participants of the DIOGenes trial from eight European countries were included. They successfully lost >8% of body weight and subsequently completed a six month weight maintenance period, in which they consumed an ad libitum diet varying in protein content and glycemic index. Dietary intake was estimated from three-day food diaries. A higher plant protein intake with a proportional decrease in animal protein intake did not affect body weight maintenance or cardiometabolic risk factors. A higher plant protein intake from non-cereal products instead of cereal products was associated with benefits for body weight maintenance and blood pressure. Substituting meat protein for protein from other animal sources increased insulin and HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This analysis suggests that not only the amount of dietary proteins, but also the source may be important for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, randomized trials are needed to test the causality of these associations.

  8. Lifetime risks, loss of life expectancy, and health care expenditures for 19 types of cancer in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu TY

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Yi Wu,1 Chia-Hua Chung,2 Chia-Ni Lin,3 Jing-Shiang Hwang,2 Jung-Der Wang3,4 1Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Institute of Statistical Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; 4Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan Background: The mortality rates for different cancers are no longer an efficient tool for making national policy. The purpose of this study were to quantify the lifetime risks, life expectancies (LEs after diagnosis, expected years of life lost (EYLL, and lifetime health care expenditures for 19 major cancers in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 831,314 patients with 19 pathologically proven cancers were abstracted from the Taiwan Cancer Registry from 1998 to 2012. They were linked to the National Mortality Registry (1998–2014 and National Health Insurance reimbursement database (1998–2013 for survival and health care costs. We estimated the cumulative incidence rate for ages 0–79 years and the lifetime survival function for patients with different cancer sites. The EYLL was calculated by subtracting the LE of each cancer cohort from that of the age- and sex-matched referents simulated from national life tables. The estimated lifetime cost was calculated by adding up the product of survival probability and mean cost at the corresponding duration-to-date after adjustment for the inflation to the year of 2013. Results: There were 5 cancers with a lifetime risk exceeding 4%: colorectal, liver, lung, and prostate in males, and breast and colorectal in females. Cancers with EYLL of >10 years were: esophageal, intrahepatic bile ducts, liver, pancreas, oral, nasopharyngeal, leukemia, lung, and gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts and biliary tract in males, and intrahepatic bile ducts

  9. SU-F-T-116: Predicting IQ and the Risk of Hearing Loss Following Proton Versus Photon Radiotherapy for Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, D; Sharpe, M; Laperriere, N; Hodgson, D; Ng, A; Tsang, D

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. Methods: Patients who had received radical IMRT were randomly selected from our retrospective database: 10 cases each of craniopharyngioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma, and 20 cases of glioma. The existing planning CT and contours were used to generate IMPT plans. The RBE-corrected dose to brain structures and cochleas were calculated for both IMPT and IMRT. A model was applied to estimate IQ using a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The reported incidence of hearing loss as a function of cochlear dose was used to estimate the rate of occurrence. Results: The average brain dose was less in all IMPT plans compared to IMRT: ranging from a 6.7% reduction (P=0.003) in the case of medulloblastoma to 38% (P=0.007) for craniopharyngioma. This dose reduction translated into a gain in IQ of 1.9 points on average for protons vs photons for the whole cohort at 5 years post-treatment (P=0.011). In terms of specific diseases, the gains in IQ ranged from 0.8 points for medulloblastoma, to 2.7 points for craniopharyngioma. Hearing loss probability was evaluated on a per-ear-basis and was found to be systematically less for proton versus photon: overall 2.9% versus 7.2% (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A novel method was developed to predict neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric brain tumor patients on a case-by-case basis. A modest gain in IQ was systematically observed for proton in all patients. Given the uncertainties within the model used and our reinterpretation, these gains may be underestimated.

  10. Moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein weight loss diet reduces cardiovascular disease risk compared to high carbohydrate, low protein diet in obese adults: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Ellen M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the metabolic effects of two weight loss diets differing in macronutrient composition on features of dyslipidemia and post-prandial insulin (INS response to a meal challenge in overweight/obese individuals. Methods This study was a parallel-arm randomized 4 mo weight loss trial. Adults (n = 50, 47 ± 7 y matched on BMI (33.6 ± 0.6 kg/m2, P = 0.79 consumed energy restricted diets (deficit ~500 kcal/d: PRO (1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 protein and -1.d-1 protein and > 220 g/d carbohydrate for 4 mos. Meal challenges of respective diets were utilized for determination of blood lipids and post-prandial INS and glucose response at the beginning and end of the study. Results There was a trend for PRO to lose more weight (-9.1% vs. -7.3%, P = 0.07 with a significant reduction in percent fat mass compared to CHO (-8.7% vs. -5.7%; P = 0.03. PRO also favored reductions in triacylglycerol (-34% vs. -14%; P P = 0.05; however, CHO favored reduction in LDL-C (-7% vs. +2.5%; P P P Conclusion A weight loss diet with moderate carbohydrate, moderate protein results in more favorable changes in body composition, dyslipidemia, and post-prandial INS response compared to a high carbohydrate, low protein diet suggesting an additional benefit beyond weight management to include augmented risk reduction for metabolic disease.

  11. Effects of grapefruit, grapefruit juice and water preloads on energy balance, weight loss, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk in free-living obese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswender Kevin D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing dietary energy density has proven to be an effective strategy to reduce energy intakes and promote weight control. This effect appears most robust when a low energy dense preload is consumed before meals. Yet, much discussion continues regarding the optimal form of a preload. The purpose of the present study was to compare effects of a solid (grapefruit, liquid (grapefruit juice and water preload consumed prior to breakfast, lunch and dinner in the context of caloric restriction. Methods Eighty-five obese adults (BMI 30-39.9 were randomly assigned to (127 g grapefruit (GF, grapefruit juice (GFJ or water preload for 12 weeks after completing a 2-week caloric restriction phase. Preloads were matched for weight, calories, water content, and energy density. Weekly measures included blood pressure, weight, anthropometry and 24-hour dietary intakes. Resting energy expenditure, body composition, physical performance and cardiometabolic risk biomarkers were assessed. Results The total amount (grams of food consumed did not change over time. Yet, after preloads were combined with caloric restriction, average dietary energy density and total energy intakes decreased by 20-29% from baseline values. Subjects experienced 7.1% weight loss overall, with significant decreases in percentage body, trunk, android and gynoid fat, as well as waist circumferences (-4.5 cm. However, differences were not statistically significant among groups. Nevertheless, the amount and direction of change in serum HDL-cholesterol levels in GF (+6.2% and GFJ (+8.2% preload groups was significantly greater than water preload group (-3.7%. Conclusions These data indicate that incorporating consumption of a low energy dense dietary preload in a caloric restricted diet is a highly effective weight loss strategy. But, the form of the preload did not have differential effects on energy balance, weight loss or body composition. It is notable that subjects in GF

  12. SU-F-T-116: Predicting IQ and the Risk of Hearing Loss Following Proton Versus Photon Radiotherapy for Pediatric Brain Tumor Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, D; Sharpe, M; Laperriere, N; Hodgson, D [UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Ng, A [UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Tsang, D [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The increased sparing of normal tissues in intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) compared to photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in brain tumor treatments should translate into improved neurocognitive outcomes. Models were used to estimate the intelligence quotient (IQ) and the risk of hearing loss 5 years post radiotherapy and to compare outcomes of proton against photon in pediatric brain tumors. Methods: Patients who had received radical IMRT were randomly selected from our retrospective database: 10 cases each of craniopharyngioma, ependymoma and medulloblastoma, and 20 cases of glioma. The existing planning CT and contours were used to generate IMPT plans. The RBE-corrected dose to brain structures and cochleas were calculated for both IMPT and IMRT. A model was applied to estimate IQ using a Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The reported incidence of hearing loss as a function of cochlear dose was used to estimate the rate of occurrence. Results: The average brain dose was less in all IMPT plans compared to IMRT: ranging from a 6.7% reduction (P=0.003) in the case of medulloblastoma to 38% (P=0.007) for craniopharyngioma. This dose reduction translated into a gain in IQ of 1.9 points on average for protons vs photons for the whole cohort at 5 years post-treatment (P=0.011). In terms of specific diseases, the gains in IQ ranged from 0.8 points for medulloblastoma, to 2.7 points for craniopharyngioma. Hearing loss probability was evaluated on a per-ear-basis and was found to be systematically less for proton versus photon: overall 2.9% versus 7.2% (P < 0.001). Conclusion: A novel method was developed to predict neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric brain tumor patients on a case-by-case basis. A modest gain in IQ was systematically observed for proton in all patients. Given the uncertainties within the model used and our reinterpretation, these gains may be underestimated.

  13. Methodology for substantiation of the fast reactor fuel element serviceability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsykanov, V.A.; Maershin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    Methodological aspects of fast reactor fuel element serviceability substantiation are presented. The choice of the experimental program and strategies of its realization to solve the problem set in short time, taking into account available experimental means, are substantiated. Factors determining fuel element serviceability depending on parameters and operational conditions are considered. The methodological approach recommending separate studing of the factors, which points to the possibility of data acquisition, required for the development of calculational models and substantiation of fuel element serviceability in pilot and experimental reactors, is described. It is shown that the special-purpose data are more useful for the substantiation of fuel element serviceability and analytical method development than unsubstantial and expensive complex tests of fuel elements and fuel assemblies, which should be conducted only at final stages for the improvement of the structure on the whole

  14. Nuclear industry in a country with a substantial oil reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.; Castillo, H.; Costa, D.; Galan, I.; Martinez, M.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of the development of a nuclear industry in a country like Mexico, with a substantial oil reserve is analyzed, taking into account the technical, economical, political, ecological and social aspects of the problem. (author)

  15. Disruption of adolescents' circadian clock: The vicious circle of media use, exposure to light at night, sleep loss and risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touitou, Yvan; Touitou, David; Reinberg, Alain

    2016-11-01

    Although sleep is a key element in adolescent development, teens are spending increasing amounts of time online with health risks related to excessive use of electronic media (computers, smartphones, tablets, consoles…) negatively associated with daytime functioning and sleep outcomes. Adolescent sleep becomes irregular, shortened and delayed in relation with later sleep onset and early waking time due to early school starting times on weekdays which results in rhythm desynchronization and sleep loss. In addition, exposure of adolescents to the numerous electronic devices prior to bedtime has become a great concern because LEDs emit much more blue light than white incandescent bulbs and compact fluorescent bulbs and have therefore a greater impact on the biological clock. A large number of adolescents move to evening chronotype and experience a misalignment between biological and social rhythms which, added to sleep loss, results in e.g. fatigue, daytime sleepiness, behavioral problems and poor academic achievement. This paper on adolescent circadian disruption will review the sensitivity of adolescents to light including LEDs with the effects on the circadian system, the crosstalk between the clock and the pineal gland, the role of melatonin, and the behavior of some adolescents(media use, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, smoking habits, stimulant use…). Lastly, some practical recommendations and perspectives are put forward. The permanent social jet lag resulting in clock misalignment experienced by a number of adolescents should be considered as a matter of public health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bulletins-Gynecology/Early-Pregnancy-Loss What are common symptoms? Causes and Risks How is it diagnosed? Is there a way to prevent? Related A-Z Topics High-Risk Pregnancy Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Stillbirth NICHD News Spotlights Release: Anti-HIV ...

  17. Loss of Nuclear Localized and Tyrosine Phosphorylated Stat5 in Breast Cancer Predicts Poor Clinical Outcome and Increased Risk of Antiestrogen Therapy Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Amy R.; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K.; Liu, Chengbao; Stringer, Ginger A.; Klimowicz, Alexander C.; Pequignot, Edward; Freydin, Boris; Tran, Thai H.; Yang, Ning; Rosenberg, Anne L.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Nevalainen, Marja T.; Shriver, Craig D.; Hyslop, Terry; Sauter, Guido; Rimm, David L.; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Rui, Hallgeir

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate nuclear localized and tyrosine phosphorylated Stat5 (Nuc-pYStat5) as a marker of prognosis in node-negative breast cancer and as a predictor of response to antiestrogen therapy. Patients and Methods Levels of Nuc-pYStat5 were analyzed in five archival cohorts of breast cancer by traditional diaminobenzidine-chromogen immunostaining and pathologist scoring of whole tissue sections or by immunofluorescence and automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) of tissue microarrays. Results Nuc-pYStat5 was an independent prognostic marker as measured by cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with node-negative breast cancer who did not receive systemic adjuvant therapy, when adjusted for common pathology parameters in multivariate analyses both by standard chromogen detection with pathologist scoring of whole tissue sections (cohort I; n = 233) and quantitative immunofluorescence of a tissue microarray (cohort II; n = 291). Two distinct monoclonal antibodies gave concordant results. A progression array (cohort III; n = 180) revealed frequent loss of Nuc-pYStat5 in invasive carcinoma compared to normal breast epithelia or ductal carcinoma in situ, and general loss of Nuc-pYStat5 in lymph node metastases. In cohort IV (n = 221), loss of Nuc-pYStat5 was associated with increased risk of antiestrogen therapy failure as measured by univariate CSS and time to recurrence (TTR). More sensitive AQUA quantification of Nuc-pYStat5 in antiestrogen-treated patients (cohort V; n = 97) identified by multivariate analysis patients with low Nuc-pYStat5 at elevated risk for therapy failure (CSS hazard ratio [HR], 21.55; 95% CI, 5.61 to 82.77; P < .001; TTR HR, 7.30; 95% CI, 2.34 to 22.78; P = .001). Conclusion Nuc-pYStat5 is an independent prognostic marker in node-negative breast cancer. If confirmed in prospective studies, Nuc-pYStat5 may become a useful predictive marker of response to adjuvant hormone therapy. PMID:21576635

  18. Comparison of high protein and high fiber weight-loss diets in women with risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Sheila M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have suggested that moderately high protein diets may be more appropriate than conventional low-fat high carbohydrate diets for individuals at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. However in most such studies sources of dietary carbohydrate may not have been appropriate and protein intakes may have been excessively high. Thus, in a proof-of-concept study we compared two relatively low-fat weight loss diets - one high in protein and the other high in fiber-rich, minimally processed cereals and legumes - to determine whether a relatively high protein diet has the potential to confer greater benefits. Methods Eighty-three overweight or obese women, 18-65 years, were randomized to either a moderately high protein (30% protein, 40% carbohydrate diet (HP or to a high fiber, relatively high carbohydrate (50% carbohydrate, > 35 g total dietary fiber, 20% protein diet (HFib for 8 weeks. Energy intakes were reduced by 2000 - 4000 kJ per day in order to achieve weight loss of between 0.5 and 1 kg per week. Results Participants on both diets lost weight (HP: -4.5 kg [95% confidence interval (CI:-3.7, -5.4 kg] and HFib: -3.3 kg [95% CI: -4.2, -2.4 kg], and reduced total body fat (HP: -4.0 kg [5% CI:-4.6, -3.4 kg] and HFib: -2.5 kg [95% CI: -3.5, -1.6 kg], and waist circumference (HP: -5.4 cm [95% CI: -6.3, -4.5 cm] and HFib: -4.7 cm [95% CI: -5.8, -3.6 cm], as well as total and LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and blood pressure. However participants on HP lost more body weight (-1.3 kg [95% CI: -2.5, -0.1 kg; p = 0.039] and total body fat (-1.3 kg [95% CI: -2.4, -0.1; p = 0.029]. Diastolic blood pressure decreased more on HP (-3.7 mm Hg [95% CI: -6.2, -1.1; p = 0.005]. Conclusions A realistic high protein weight-reducing diet was associated with greater fat loss and lower blood pressure when compared with a high carbohydrate, high fiber diet in high risk overweight and obese women.

  19. The contribution to future flood risk in the Severn Estuary from extreme sea level rise due to ice sheet mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, N.; Bates, P. D.; Siddall, M.

    2013-12-01

    The rate at which sea levels will rise in the coming century is of great interest to decision makers tasked with developing mitigation policies to cope with the risk of coastal inundation. Accurate estimates of future sea levels are vital in the provision of effective policy. Recent reports from UK Climate Impacts Programme (UKCIP) suggest that mean sea levels in the UK may rise by as much as 80 cm by 2100; however, a great deal of uncertainty surrounds model predictions, particularly the contribution from ice sheets responding to climatic warming. For this reason, the application of semi-empirical modelling approaches for sea level rise predictions has increased of late, the results from which suggest that the rate of sea level rise may be greater than previously thought, exceeding 1 m by 2100. Furthermore, studies in the Red Sea indicate that rapid sea level rise beyond 1m per century has occurred in the past. In light of such research, the latest UKCIP assessment has included a H++ scenario for sea level rise in the UK of up to 1.9 m which is defined as improbable but, crucially, physically plausible. The significance of such low-probability sea level rise scenarios upon the estimation of future flood risk is assessed using the Somerset levels (UK) as a case study. A simple asymmetric probability distribution is constructed to include sea level rise scenarios of up to 1.9 m by 2100 which are added to a current 1:200 year event water level to force a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of coastal inundation. From the resulting ensemble predictions an estimation of risk by 2100 is established. The results indicate that although the likelihood of extreme sea level rise due to rapid ice sheet mass loss is low, the resulting hazard can be large, resulting in a significant (27%) increase to the projected annual risk. Furthermore, current defence construction guidelines for the coming century in the UK are expected to account for 95% of the sea level rise distribution

  20. Determination of soil erosion risk in the Mustafakemalpasa River Basin, Turkey, using the revised universal soil loss equation, geographic information system, and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Gokhan; Aksoy, Ertugrul; Dirim, M Sabri; Tumsavas, Zeynal

    2012-10-01

    Sediment transport from steep slopes and agricultural lands into the Uluabat Lake (a RAMSAR site) by the Mustafakemalpasa (MKP) River is a serious problem within the river basin. Predictive erosion models are useful tools for evaluating soil erosion and establishing soil erosion management plans. The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) function is a commonly used erosion model for this purpose in Turkey and the rest of the world. This research integrates the RUSLE within a geographic information system environment to investigate the spatial distribution of annual soil loss potential in the MKP River Basin. The rainfall erosivity factor was developed from local annual precipitation data using a modified Fournier index: The topographic factor was developed from a digital elevation model; the K factor was determined from a combination of the soil map and the geological map; and the land cover factor was generated from Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) images. According to the model, the total soil loss potential of the MKP River Basin from erosion by water was 11,296,063 Mg year(-1) with an average soil loss of 11.2 Mg year(-1). The RUSLE produces only local erosion values and cannot be used to estimate the sediment yield for a watershed. To estimate the sediment yield, sediment-delivery ratio equations were used and compared with the sediment-monitoring reports of the Dolluk stream gauging station on the MKP River, which collected data for >41 years (1964-2005). This station observes the overall efficiency of the sediment yield coming from the Orhaneli and Emet Rivers. The measured sediment in the Emet and Orhaneli sub-basins is 1,082,010 Mg year(-1) and was estimated to be 1,640,947 Mg year(-1) for the same two sub-basins. The measured sediment yield of the gauge station is 127.6 Mg km(-2) year(-1) but was estimated to be 170.2 Mg km(-2) year(-1). The close match between the sediment amounts estimated using the RUSLE

  1. ABCC8 R1420H Loss-of-Function Variant in a Southwest American Indian Community: Association With Increased Birth Weight and Doubled Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baier, Leslie J; Muller, Yunhua Li; Remedi, Maria Sara; Traurig, Michael; Piaggi, Paolo; Wiessner, Gregory; Huang, Ke; Stacy, Alyssa; Kobes, Sayuko; Krakoff, Jonathan; Bennett, Peter H; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Hanson, Robert L; Nichols, Colin G; Bogardus, Clifton

    2015-12-01

    Missense variants in KCNJ11 and ABCC8, which encode the KIR6.2 and SUR1 subunits of the β-cell KATP channel, have previously been implicated in type 2 diabetes, neonatal diabetes, and hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy (HHI). To determine whether variation in these genes affects risk for type 2 diabetes or increased birth weight as a consequence of fetal hyperinsulinemia in Pima Indians, missense and common noncoding variants were analyzed in individuals living in the Gila River Indian Community. A R1420H variant in SUR1 (ABCC8) was identified in 3.3% of the population (N = 7,710). R1420H carriers had higher mean birth weights and a twofold increased risk for type 2 diabetes with a 7-year earlier onset age despite being leaner than noncarriers. One individual homozygous for R1420H was identified; retrospective review of his medical records was consistent with HHI and a diagnosis of diabetes at age 3.5 years. In vitro studies showed that the R1420H substitution decreases KATP channel activity. Identification of this loss-of-function variant in ABCC8 with a carrier frequency of 3.3% affects clinical care as homozygous inheritance and potential HHI will occur in 1/3,600 births in this American Indian population. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  2. Kidney graft recipients with pretransplantation HLA CLASS I antibodies and high soluble CD30 are at high risk for graft loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Libia M; París, Sara C; Arbeláez, Mario; Cotes, José M; Süsal, Caner; Torres, Yolanda; García, Luís F

    2007-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether pretransplantation HLA class I and class II antibodies and pretransplantation levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) and IgA anti-Fab autoantibodies are predictive of kidney allograft survival. Pretransplantation sera of 504 deceased-donor kidney recipients were tested for IgG HLA class I and class II antibodies, sCD30, and IgA anti-Fab levels using the CTS 4 ELISA kit. Kidney graft survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression. Regardless of the presence of HLA class II antibodies, recipients with high HLA class I reactivity had lower 1-year graft survival than recipients with low reactivity (p sCD30 had lower 5-year graft survival rate than those with low sCD30 (p sCD30 effect was observed in presensitized and nonsensitized recipients, demonstrated a synergistic effect with HLA class I antibodies (p kidney graft survival. Our results indicate that high pretransplantation sCD30 levels and HLA class I positivity increase the risk of kidney graft loss regardless of other factors. Consequently, such determinations should be routinely performed to estimate recipients' risks of graft rejection before transplantation.

  3. Study of the association between Dicer (rs3742330 A>G and Drosha (rs10719 C>T gene polymorphisms and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negin Mohseni

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drosha and Dicer are important molecules that play critical regulatory roles in the biogenesis of micro-RNA. Genetic polymorphism in the Drosha and Dicer can cause defect on the embryo implantation and lead to the recurrent abortion. The aim of this study was to evaluate an association between Drosha and Dicer gene polymorphisms and the risk of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 100 women with RPL (with unknown reasons and 100 women with a successful pregnancy (one alive child and no abortion history referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Ardebil city during 2015-2017. The frequencies of these polymorphisms were evaluated using the PCR-RFLP method. Results: Results showed no statistically significant difference in the genotype frequency of the Dicer gene polymorphism between the case and control groups (P>0.05. On the other hand, a statistically significant difference was found in the genotype frequency of the Drosha gene polymorphism between the groups (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that the Drosha gene polymorphism can be a predisposing genetic factor for RPL, whereas the Dicer gene polymorphism cannot be considered as a risk factor for predisposing RPL in the studied population.

  4. Acompanhamento do desenvolvimento da linguagem de lactentes de risco para surdez Follow-up of language development in infants with risk factors for hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Maria Zaratini Fernandes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o desenvolvimento da linguagem, de acordo com o gênero, idade gestacional e peso ao nascimento, aos quatro, oito e 12 meses, de lactentes que permaneceram em UTI Neonatal e que apresentaram um ou mais indicadores de risco para perda auditiva de aparecimento tardio. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal de lactentes nascidos entre agosto de 2007 e julho de 2008 que, na UTI, apresentaram resultado normal no Potencial Evocado Auditivo de Tronco Encefálico, e que necessitaram de monitoramento audiológico e de linguagem, por apresentarem indicadores de risco para perda auditiva. Os lactentes foram avaliados no 4º, 8º e 12° meses de vida por meio da Escala de Aquisições Iniciais de Linguagem. RESULTADOS: Compareceram a todas as avaliações 87 lactentes e 60 (69% apresentaram como indicador de risco a permanência na UTI associada à hipertensão pulmonar. Na Escala de Aquisições Iniciais de Linguagem, nove lactentes apresentaram alterações aos quatro meses e 11 lactentes aos oito meses de idade. Aos 12 meses, 18 (20,6% lactentes apresentaram alteração e desses, cinco tiveram atraso nos meses anteriores. Os dados estatísticos demonstraram que resultados alterados aos quatro e oito meses podem predizer dificuldades nas respostas dos lactentes aos 12 meses. Houve o aparecimento de desvios transitórios no desenvolvimento da linguagem oral, normalizados na maioria dos casos. CONCLUSÃO: Deve-se realizar a avaliação de linguagem no primeiro ano de vida a fim de monitorar possíveis atrasos em lactentes com indicador de risco para surdez.PURPOSE: To compare language development, according to gender, gestational age and birth weight, at four, eight and 12 months of life, of infants who remained in the Neonate Intensive Care Unit, who presented at least one risk factor for hearing loss with delayed onset. METHODS: Longitudinal study of infants born between August 2007 and July 2008, who, in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU, showed

  5. Mapping sound intensities by seating position in a university concert band: A risk of hearing loss, temporary threshold shifts, and comparisons with standards of OSHA and NIOSH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas Vedder, III

    Exposure to loud sounds is one of the leading causes of hearing loss in the United States. The purpose of the current research was to measure the sound pressure levels generated within a university concert band and determine if those levels exceeded permissible sound limits for exposure according to criteria set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Time-weighted averages (TWA) were obtained via a dosimeter during six rehearsals for nine members of the ensemble (plus the conductor), who were seated in frontal proximity to "instruments of power" (trumpets, trombones, and percussion; (Backus, 1977). Subjects received audiometer tests prior to and after each rehearsal to determine any temporary threshold shifts (TTS). Single sample t tests were calculated to compare TWA means and the maximum sound intensity exposures set by OSHA and NIOSH. Correlations were calculated between TWAs and TTSs, as well as TTSs and the number of semesters subjects reported being seated in proximity to instruments of power. The TWA-OSHA mean of 90.2 dBA was not significantly greater than the specified OSHA maximum standard of 90.0 dBA (p > .05). The TWA-NIOSH mean of 93.1 dBA was, however, significantly greater than the NIOSH specified maximum standard of 85.0 dBA (p OSHA, r = .20 for NIOSH); the correlation between TTSs and semesters of proximity to instruments of power was also considered weak (r = .13). TWAs cumulatively exceeded both association's sound exposure limits at 11 specified locations (nine subjects and both ears of the conductor) throughout the concert band's rehearsals. In addition, hearing acuity, as determined by TTSs, was substantially affected negatively by the intensities produced in the concert band. The researcher concluded that conductors, as well as their performers, must be aware of possible damaging sound intensities in rehearsals or performances.

  6. Loss Aversion in the Laboratory

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, William G.; Oxoby, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of a laboratory experiment testing for the existence of loss aversion in a standard risk aversion protocol (Holt and Laury, 2002). In our experiment, participants earn and retain money for a week before using it in an incentivized risk preference elicitation task. We find loss aversion, distinct from risk aversion, has a significant effect on behavior resulting in participants requiring higher compensation to bear risk.

  7. Application of the kurtosis statistic to the evaluation of the risk of hearing loss in workers exposed to high-level complex noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Ming; Qiu, Wei; Zeng, Lin; Chen, Shan-Song; Cheng, Xiao-Ru; Davis, Robert I; Hamernik, Roger P

    2010-08-01

    -induced effect for the two study groups. For the same exposure level, the prevalence of NIHL is greater in workers exposed to non-G noise environments than for workers exposed to G noise. The kurtosis metric may be a reasonable candidate for use in modifying exposure level calculations that are used to estimate the risk of NIHL from any type of noise exposure environment. However, studies involving a large number of workers with well-documented exposures are needed before a relation between a metric such as the kurtosis and the risk of hearing loss can be refined.

  8. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  9. Accounting for wetlands loss in a changing climate in the estimation of long-term flood risks of Devils Lake, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbin, S.; Kirilenko, A.; Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Endorheic (terminal) lakes with no water outlets are sensitive indicators of changes in climate and land cover in the watershed. Regional variation in precipitation pattern in the US Northern Great Plaines lead to a long term flooding of Devils Lake (DL), ND, leading to a 10-m water level rise in just two decades, with estimated flood mitigation costs of over $1 billion. While the climate change contribution to flooding has been established, the role of large scale land conversion to agriculture has not been researched. Wetlands play a very important part in hydrological balance by storing, absorbing and slowing peak water discharge. In ND, 49 % of wetlands are drained and converted to agriculture. We investigated the role of wetlands loss in DL flooding in current and future climate. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow in all DL watershed subbasins. The model was calibrated using the 1991-2000 USGS gauge data for the first 10 years of study period and validated for the second 10 years (2001-2010), resulting in a satisfactory model performance compared against the measured water discharge in five streams in the watershed and against observed DL water level. A set of wetland loss scenarios were created based on the historical data and the Compound Topographic Index. To emulate the historical and future climate conditions, an ensemble of CMIP5 weather integrations based on IPCC AR5 RCP scenarios was downscaled with the MarkSim weather simulator. Model simulations indicate that the land use change in the DL watershed increased the impacts of climate change on hydrology by further elevating DL water level. Conversely, wetland restoration reduce the flooding and moderates risks of a potential high-impact DL overspill to the Sheyenne River watershed. Further research will concentrate on differentiation of climate change impacts under different types of land use change scenarios.

  10. The effects of exercise and weight loss in overweight patients with hip osteoarthritis : design of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paans, Nienke; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; van der Meer, Klaas; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Stevens, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is recognised as a substantial source of disability, with pain and loss of function as principal symptoms. An aging society and a growing number of overweight people, which is considered a risk factor for OA, contribute to the growing number of cases of hip OA. In

  11. Risk factors for non-adherence and loss to follow-up in a three-year clinical trial in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Deborah A; Mosimaneotsile, Barudi; Mathebula, Unami; Chingapane, Balladiah; Gaul, Zaneta; Pals, Sherri L; Samandari, Taraz

    2011-04-25

    Participant non-adherence and loss to follow-up can compromise the validity of clinical trial results. An assessment of these issues was made in a 3-year tuberculosis prevention trial among HIV-infected adults in Botswana. Between 11/2004-07/2006, 1995 participants were enrolled at eight public health clinics. They returned monthly to receive bottles of medication and were expected to take daily tablets of isoniazid or placebo for three years. Non-adherence was defined as refusing tablet ingestion but agreeing to quarterly physical examinations. Loss to follow-up was defined as not having returned for appointments in ≥60 days. Between 10/2008-04/2009, survey interviews were conducted with 83 participants identified as lost to follow-up and 127 identified as non-adherent. As a comparison, 252 randomly selected adherent participants were also surveyed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations with selected risk factors. Men had higher odds of being non-adherent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.24; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.24-4.04) and lost to follow-up (AOR 3.08; 95%CI 1.50-6.33). Non-adherent participants had higher odds of reporting difficulties taking the regimen or not knowing if they had difficulties (AOR 3.40; 95%CI 1.75-6.60) and lower odds associated with each year of age (AOR 0.95; 95%CI 0.91-0.98), but other variables such as employment, distance from clinic, alcohol use, and understanding study requirements were not significantly different than controls. Among participants who were non-adherent or lost to follow-up, 40/210 (19.0%) reported that they stopped the medication because of work commitments and 33/210 (15.7%) said they thought they had completed the study. Men had higher odds of non-adherence and loss to follow-up than women. Potential interventions that might improve adherence in trial participants may include:targeting health education for men, reducing barriers, clarifying study expectations, educating

  12. Risk factors for non-adherence and loss to follow-up in a three-year clinical trial in Botswana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Gust

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Participant non-adherence and loss to follow-up can compromise the validity of clinical trial results. An assessment of these issues was made in a 3-year tuberculosis prevention trial among HIV-infected adults in Botswana. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Between 11/2004-07/2006, 1995 participants were enrolled at eight public health clinics. They returned monthly to receive bottles of medication and were expected to take daily tablets of isoniazid or placebo for three years. Non-adherence was defined as refusing tablet ingestion but agreeing to quarterly physical examinations. Loss to follow-up was defined as not having returned for appointments in ≥60 days. Between 10/2008-04/2009, survey interviews were conducted with 83 participants identified as lost to follow-up and 127 identified as non-adherent. As a comparison, 252 randomly selected adherent participants were also surveyed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations with selected risk factors. Men had higher odds of being non-adherent (adjusted odds ratio (AOR, 2.24; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.24-4.04 and lost to follow-up (AOR 3.08; 95%CI 1.50-6.33. Non-adherent participants had higher odds of reporting difficulties taking the regimen or not knowing if they had difficulties (AOR 3.40; 95%CI 1.75-6.60 and lower odds associated with each year of age (AOR 0.95; 95%CI 0.91-0.98, but other variables such as employment, distance from clinic, alcohol use, and understanding study requirements were not significantly different than controls. Among participants who were non-adherent or lost to follow-up, 40/210 (19.0% reported that they stopped the medication because of work commitments and 33/210 (15.7% said they thought they had completed the study. CONCLUSIONS: Men had higher odds of non-adherence and loss to follow-up than women. Potential interventions that might improve adherence in trial participants may include:targeting health education for men

  13. Financing Losses from Catastrophic Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    often held in the form of bonds, the interest on which is subject to corporate income tax , which reduces the net earnings to each insurer’s shareholders...course; it is a basic feature of the corporate income tax . But, as explained above, catastrophe insurance is distinguished from other types of

  14. SUBSTANTIATION OF SOLUTIONS PERTAINING TO COMPLEX PRODUCTION RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gurinovich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While taking an example of reconstruction and modernization of OJSC «Construction and Mounting Trust No.16, Novopolotsk» the paper substantiates solutions for complex production reconstruction. The production reconstruction is divided in three start-up facilities ensuring continuous finished-product output.

  15. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED... residence. Units which are used for purposes auxiliary to residential use (such as laundry areas, swimming...

  16. Engineering Substantially Prolonged Human Lifespans: Biotechnological Enhancement and Ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derkx, P.H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Substantial extension of the human lifespan has recently become a subject of lively debate. One reason for this is the completion in 2001 of the Human Genome Project and the experimental avenues for biogerontological research it has opened. Another is recent theoretical progress in biogerontology.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to Part 112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The..., except in the Gulf of Mexico. In the Gulf of Mexico, it means the area shoreward of the lines of...

  18. 76 FR 63846 - Substantially Underserved Trust Areas (SUTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... Cost Rural Communities; 10.861, Public Television Station Digital Transition Grant Program; 10.862... rule do not impose substantial unreimbursed direct compliance costs on Indian tribal, Alaska native, or native Hawaiian governments and sovereign institutions or have tribal implications that preempt tribal...

  19. Increase in vastus medialis cross-sectional area is associated with reduced pain, cartilage loss, and joint replacement risk in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Berry, Patricia A; Siew, Terence; Teichtahl, Andrew J; Urquhart, Donna M; Lloyd, David G; Jones, Graeme; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2012-12-01

    Although there is evidence for a beneficial effect of increased quadriceps strength on knee symptoms, the effect on knee structure is unclear. We undertook this study to examine the relationship between change in vastus medialis cross-sectional area (CSA) and knee pain, tibial cartilage volume, and risk of knee replacement in subjects with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred seventeen subjects with symptomatic knee OA underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the knee at baseline and at 2 and 4.5 years. Vastus medialis CSA was measured at baseline and at 2 years. Tibial cartilage volume was measured at baseline and at 2 and 4.5 years. Knee pain was assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index at baseline and at 2 years. The frequency of knee joint replacement over 4 years was determined. Regression coefficients (B) and odds ratios were determined along with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). After adjusting for confounders, baseline vastus medialis CSA was inversely associated with current knee pain (r = -0.16, P = 0.04) and with medial tibial cartilage volume loss from baseline to 2 years (B coefficient -10.9 [95% CI -19.5, -2.3]), but not with baseline tibial cartilage volume. In addition, an increase in vastus medialis CSA from baseline to 2 years was associated with reduced knee pain over the same time period (r = 0.24, P = 0.007), reduced medial tibial cartilage loss from 2 to 4.5 years (B coefficient -16.8 [95% CI -28.9, -4.6]), and reduced risk of knee replacement over 4 years (odds ratio 0.61 [95% CI 0.40, 0.94]). In a population of patients with symptomatic knee OA, increased vastus medialis size was associated with reduced knee pain and beneficial structural changes at the knee, suggesting that management of knee pain and optimizing vastus medialis size are important in reducing OA progression and subsequent knee replacement. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  20. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köbberling, V.; Wakker, P.P.

    2005-01-01

    To a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic utility,

  1. An Index of Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Köbberling (Veronika); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractTo a considerable extent, risk aversion as it is commonly observed is caused by loss aversion. Several indexes of loss aversion have been proposed in the literature. The one proposed in this paper leads to a clear decomposition of risk attitude into three distinct components: basic

  2. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  3. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... The term “inability to gain weight” means that there has been substantial weight loss with inability... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions...

  4. Probabilistic risk assessment for a loss of coolant accident in McMaster Nuclear Reactor and application of reliability physics model for modeling human reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Taesung

    A probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) was conducted for a loss of coolant accident, (LOCA) in the McMaster Nuclear Reactor (MNR). A level 1 PRA was completed including event sequence modeling, system modeling, and quantification. To support the quantification of the accident sequence identified, data analysis using the Bayesian method and human reliability analysis (HRA) using the accident sequence evaluation procedure (ASEP) approach were performed. Since human performance in research reactors is significantly different from that in power reactors, a time-oriented HRA model (reliability physics model) was applied for the human error probability (HEP) estimation of the core relocation. This model is based on two competing random variables: phenomenological time and performance time. The response surface and direct Monte Carlo simulation with Latin Hypercube sampling were applied for estimating the phenomenological time, whereas the performance time was obtained from interviews with operators. An appropriate probability distribution for the phenomenological time was assigned by statistical goodness-of-fit tests. The human error probability (HEP) for the core relocation was estimated from these two competing quantities: phenomenological time and operators' performance time. The sensitivity of each probability distribution in human reliability estimation was investigated. In order to quantify the uncertainty in the predicted HEPs, a Bayesian approach was selected due to its capability of incorporating uncertainties in model itself and the parameters in that model. The HEP from the current time-oriented model was compared with that from the ASEP approach. Both results were used to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative huinan reliability modeling for the manual core relocation in the LOCA risk model. This exercise demonstrated the applicability of a reliability physics model supplemented with a. Bayesian approach for modeling human reliability and its potential

  5. Oocyte cryopreservation for fertility preservation in postpubertal female children at risk for premature ovarian failure due to accelerated follicle loss in Turner syndrome or cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, K; Bedoschi, G

    2014-12-01

    To preliminarily study the feasibility of oocyte cryopreservation in postpubertal girls aged between 13 and 15 years who were at risk for premature ovarian failure due to the accelerated follicle loss associated with Turner syndrome or cancer treatments. Retrospective cohort and review of literature. Academic fertility preservation unit. Three girls diagnosed with Turner syndrome, 1 girl diagnosed with germ-cell tumor. and 1 girl diagnosed with lymphoblastic leukemia. Assessment of ovarian reserve, ovarian stimulation, oocyte retrieval, in vitro maturation, and mature oocyte cryopreservation. Response to ovarian stimulation, number of mature oocytes cryopreserved and complications, if any. Mean anti-müllerian hormone, baseline follical stimulating hormone, estradiol, and antral follicle counts were 1.30 ± 0.39, 6.08 ± 2.63, 41.39 ± 24.68, 8.0 ± 3.2; respectively. In Turner girls the ovarian reserve assessment indicated already diminished ovarian reserve. Ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation was successfully performed in all female children referred for fertility preservation. A range of 4-11 mature oocytes (mean 8.1 ± 3.4) was cryopreserved without any complications. All girls tolerated the procedure well. Oocyte cryopreservation is a feasible technique in selected female children at risk for premature ovarian failure. Further studies would be beneficial to test the success of oocyte cryopreservation in young girls. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of 3 ad libitum diets for weight-loss maintenance, risk of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes: A 6-mo randomized, controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas M; Mu, Huiling

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The optimal dietary content and type of fat and carbohydrate for weight management has been debated for decades. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the effects of 3 ad libitum diets on the maintenance of an initial weight loss of >or=8% and risk factors for CVD and diabetes during...... a 6-mo controlled dietary intervention. DESIGN: Nondiabetic overweight or obese [mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 31.5 +/- 2.6] men (n = 55) and women (n = 76) aged 28.2 +/- 4.8 y were randomly assigned to a diet providing a moderate amount of fat (35-45% of energy) and >20% of fat...... as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA diet; n = 54), to a low-fat (20-30% of energy) diet (LF diet; n = 51), or to a control diet (35% of energy as fat; n = 26). Protein constituted 10-20% of energy in all 3 diets. All foods were provided free of charge from a purpose-built supermarket. RESULTS: More subjects dropped...

  7. Influence of non-spatial working memory demands on reach-grasp responses to loss of balance: Effects of age and fall risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, Kelly P; Johnson, Brian P; Creath, Robert A; Neff, Rachel M; Rogers, Mark W

    2016-03-01

    Reactive balance recovery strategies following an unexpected loss of balance are crucial to the prevention of falls, head trauma and other major injuries in older adults. While a longstanding focus has been on understanding lower limb recovery responses, the upper limbs also play a critical role. However, when a fall occurs, little is known about the role of memory and attention shifting on the reach to grasp recovery strategy and what factors determine the speed and precision of this response beyond simple reaction time. The objective of this study was to compare response time and accuracy of a stabilizing grasp following a balance perturbation in older adult fallers compared to non-fallers and younger adults while loading the processing demands of non-spatial, verbal working memory. Working memory was engaged with a progressively challenging verb-generation task that was interrupted by an unexpected sideways platform perturbation and a pre-instructed reach to grasp response. Results revealed that the older adults, particularly those at high fall risk, demonstrated significantly increased movement time to handrail contact and grasping errors during conditions in which non-spatial memory was actively engaged. These findings provide preliminary evidence of the cognitive deficit in attention shifting away from an ongoing working memory task that underlies delayed and inaccurate protective reach to grasp responses in older adult fallers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Folic acid and homocyst(e)ine metabolic defects and the risk of placental abruption, pre-eclampsia and spontaneous pregnancy loss: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J G; Laskin, C A

    1999-09-01

    Placental infarction or abruption, recurrent pregnancy loss and pre-eclampsia are thought to arise due to defects within the placental vascular bed. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and folate, or other abnormalities within the methionine-homocyst(e)ine pathway have been implicated in the development of such placental diseases. We conducted a systematic literature review to quantify the risk of placental disease in the presence of these metabolic defects. Studies were identified through OVID Medline between 1966 and February 1999. Terms relating to the measurement of vitamin B12, folic acid, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase or homocyst(e)ine were combined with those of pre-eclampsia, placental abruption/infarction or spontaneous and habitual abortion. Human studies comprising both cases and controls and published in the English language were accepted. Their references were explored for other publications. Data were abstracted on the matching of cases with controls, the mean levels of folate, B12 or homocyst(e)ine in each group or the frequency of the homozygous state for the thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. The definition of 'abnormal' for each exposure was noted and the presence or absence of the exposure of interest for each outcome was calculated as an absolute rate with a 95 per cent confidence interval. The crude odds ratios were calculated for each study and then pooled using a random effects model. Eighteen studies were finally included. Eight studies examined the risk of placental abruption/infarction in the presence of vitamin B12 or folate deficiency, or hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia. Folate deficiency was a prominent risk factor for placental abruption/infarction among four studies, though not statistically significant (pooled odds ratio 25.9, 95 per cent CI 0.9-736.3). Hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia was also associated with placental abruption/infarction both without (pooled odds ratio 5.3, 95 per cent CI 1.8-15.9) and with methionine

  9. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function...... cycle sprints per session). Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial), and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT) were determined before and after training. RESULTS: Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose......, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise...

  10. Global forest loss disproportionately erodes biodiversity in intact landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Matthew G; Wolf, Christopher; Ripple, William J; Phalan, Ben; Millers, Kimberley A; Duarte, Adam; Butchart, Stuart H M; Levi, Taal

    2017-07-27

    Global biodiversity loss is a critical environmental crisis, yet the lack of spatial data on biodiversity threats has hindered conservation strategies. Theory predicts that abrupt biodiversity declines are most likely to occur when habitat availability is reduced to very low levels in the landscape (10-30%). Alternatively, recent evidence indicates that biodiversity is best conserved by minimizing human intrusion into intact and relatively unfragmented landscapes. Here we use recently available forest loss data to test deforestation effects on International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List categories of extinction risk for 19,432 vertebrate species worldwide. As expected, deforestation substantially increased the odds of a species being listed as threatened, undergoing recent upgrading to a higher threat category and exhibiting declining populations. More importantly, we show that these risks were disproportionately high in relatively intact landscapes; even minimal deforestation has had severe consequences for vertebrate biodiversity. We found little support for the alternative hypothesis that forest loss is most detrimental in already fragmented landscapes. Spatial analysis revealed high-risk hot spots in Borneo, the central Amazon and the Congo Basin. In these regions, our model predicts that 121-219 species will become threatened under current rates of forest loss over the next 30 years. Given that only 17.9% of these high-risk areas are formally protected and only 8.9% have strict protection, new large-scale conservation efforts to protect intact forests are necessary to slow deforestation rates and to avert a new wave of global extinctions.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL SUBSTANTIATION OF ATTRIBUTIONAL STYLE IN TRAFFIC POLICE OFFICERS’ BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Vladimirovna Merkusheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article prepared for the ‘Psychological and Methodological Aspects of Professional Personnel Training at Internal Affairs Bodies of the Russian Federation’ scholar tradition looks at the applied aspect of handling security issues by traffic police officers. It presents the results of empirical study of the employees’ psychological characteristics conducted to substantiate their attributional style, which determines the specific character as well as the qua-lity and reliability of traffic police officers’ performance. Traffic police officers’ attributional style of behavior is researched with the help of attributional cognitive techniques for hazard phenomena detection as well as social perception and attribution technique and is viewed as the most stable entity, which reflects the employee’s personal and professional focus.Goal: to provide empirical substantiation of attributional style in traffic police officers’ behavior as an integral personality characteristic that ensures timely detection of hazard phenomena.

  12. Substantiation of the road toll for heavy transport vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Burmaka, N.; Chernykh, A.

    2010-01-01

    The existing and possible additional sources of developing state and local road funds of Ukraine have been considered. The formula for calculating monthly road toll for heavy transport vehicles has been proposed. This formula includes the payment rate per every kilometer of distance, the vehicle capacity utilization factor and the run with the load. The payment rate per every kilometer of distance for transport vehicles depending on the allowed total weight has been substantiated. The given r...

  13. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. MANAGEMENT OF CREDIT LOSSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Anoshkina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the problem of credit loss management topical for modern Russian science and banking practice. The bank’s lending activity is an integral and the most profitable sphere of banking activity. Banks need to take credit risks inherent in their core business and minimize their impact through the establishment of advanced risk management systems. The study, reflected in the present paper, has been conducted in order to determine approaches to the organization of credit loss management in banking. Analysis of the system of management of credit risks and credit losses has shown that they have different scope, object and purpose. In this connection, there is an objective necessity to create a special subsystem for the management of credit losses in banks. On the basis of common bank approaches to credit risk management, the paper develops models of credit loss management: a multi-level management model in the area of ‘operational-tactical-strategic management’ and a functional management model in the area of ‘technology-execution-control’. These models are important for the modern theory and practice of banking, as they allow the bank to manage credit losses on the entire time horizon of the management process, thus opening a wide range of opportunities for the creation and implementation of large-scale programs, as well as specific techniques. This study allows drawing a conclusion about the need to consider control credit losses as a strictly regulated multi-level process, in which each division is assigned with specific objectives, tasks, functions, formally enshrined in the relevant lists, job descriptions and other legal documents.

  15. Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Bruce M.; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by non-surgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the co-morbidities, quality of life and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors following weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality following weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645

  16. Ice on wind power plants. Detection, frequency, minimizing risk for injuries to humans and production loss; Is paa vindkraftverk. Detektering, utbredning, personskaderiskminimering och produktionsbortfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerlund, Rolf (HoloOptics, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-02-15

    The project had three different objectives:- To calibrate an icing sensor, developed with the support of Vindforsk, according to the amount of ice on the rotor blades.- To determine at which degree of icing measures has to be taken to reduce the risk of public health hazards due to ice throws.- To give a general indication of the performance losses due to icing In the study a coastal shore based turbine (Vestas V44, situated close to Haernoesand in the northern Sweden) was used as the test object, a turbine placed at 176 m above sea level and 4 km away from the open sea. The turbine is also close to an attractive alpine ski-slope. Due to this the plant is closed 2-3 weeks per year to reduce the risk of ice throw. In the study two ice sensors were used, one with automatic de-icing and one without de-icing. The icing signal was sent to the operator and HoloOptics via SMS. The SMS sender was also connected to a temperature sensor. Furthermore, 12 'IceMarkers' were mounted on one of the rotor blades to verify the distribution of ice. To log the output of the turbine a logger was installed. The logger measured the 10 minutes mean power output. Wind-speed, wind-direction and temperatures were available from a mast located at a distance of 400 m to the wind turbine. Study period: March-December 2008 of which, at this location, four month are prone to icing. By the use of the IceMarkers it was found that shortly after the icing began the whole blade was relatively simultaneous covered with, minimum, a thin layer of ice (maybe less than 0,1 mm in thickness). The distribution of ice on the blade was verified by the use of a flash and a camera. However it was found to be difficult to verify at times with fog or precipitation. When temperatures varied around zero C the relation between indication and actual icing was less obvious. Sometimes the blades became/were de-iced without any indication from the corresponding indicator. The indicators themselves, without any

  17. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  18. [Hearing loss and idoneity--the segnalation of noise-induced hearing loss hearing Loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albera, Roberto; Dagna, Federico; Cassandro, Claudia; Canale, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Work idoneity in hearing loss must be related to working ability and evolution risks. Working ability is referred to the difficulties found in speech comprehension and in signals perception. As regards hearing loss evolution it is necessary to define if the subject is affected by conductive or neurosensorial hearing loss. In conductive hearing loss it is necessary to evaluate entity and frequential distribution of the deficit. In neurosensorial hearing loss it is necessary to distinguish between noise-induced hearing loss and extraprofessional hearing loss. In noise-induced hearing loss the evolution risk is high if the noise exposure is less than 10-15 years or the actual noise exposure is louder than the former. In case of extraprofessional hearing loss the evolution risk is higher in presbycusis, endolymphatic hydrops and toxic hearing loss. The necessity to report the presence on professionale noise-induced hearing loss arises if audiometric threshold is more than 25 dB at 0.5-1-2-3-4 kHz and if it is verified the professional origine of hearing loss.

  19. Long-term weight maintenance and cardiovascular risk factors are not different following weight loss on carbohydrate-restricted diets high in either monounsaturated fat or protein in obese hyperinsulinaemic men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Jennifer B; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Noakes, Manny; Wittert, Gary A; Clifton, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine after 52 weeks whether advice to follow a lower carbohydrate diet, either high in monounsaturated fat or low fat, high in protein had differential effects in a free-living community setting. Following weight loss on either a high monounsaturated fat, standard protein (HMF; 50 % fat, 20 % protein (67 g/d), 30 % carbohydrate) or a high protein, moderate fat (HP) (40 % protein (136 g/d), 30 % fat, 30 % carbohydrate) energy-restricted diet (6000 kJ/d) subjects were asked to maintain the same dietary pattern without intensive dietary counselling for the following 36 weeks. Overall weight loss was 6.2 (SD 7.3) kg (P loss at the end of the study were sex, age and reported percentage energy from protein (R2 0.22, P loss and improvement in cardiovascular risk factors with no adverse effects of a high monounsaturated fat diet.

  20. Substantial Research Secures the Blue Future for our Blue Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdel Maksoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Earth, the blue planet, is our home, and seas and oceans cover more than 70% of its surface. As the earth’s population rapidly increases and available resources decrease, seas and oceans can play a key role in assuring the long-term survival of humankind. Renewable maritime energy has huge potential to provide a considerable part of the earth’s population with decarbonised electricity generation systems. Renewable maritime energy is very flexible and can be harvested above the water’s free surface by using offshore wind turbines, on the water’s surface by using wave energy converters or below the water’s surface by using current or tidal turbines. The supposed conflict between environmental protection measures and economic interests is neither viable nor reasonable. Renewable maritime energy can be the motor for considerable substantial economic growth for many maritime regions and therefore for society at large. The fastest growing sector of renewable maritime energy is offshore wind. The annual report of the European Wind Energy Association from the year 2015 confirms the growing relevance of the offshore wind industry. In 2015, the total installed and grid-connected capacity of wind power was 12,800 MW in the EU and 6,013.4 MW in Germany. 38% of the 2015 annual installation in Germany was offshore, accounting for a capacity of 2,282.4 MW. However, there are a limited number of available installation sites in shallow water, meaning that there is an urgent need to develop new offshore structures for water depths greater than 50m. The persistent trend towards deeper waters has encouraged the offshore wind industry to look for floating wind turbine structures and larger turbines. Floating wind turbine technologies are at an early stage of development and many technical and economic challenges will still need to be faced. Nonetheless, intensive research activities and the employment of advanced technologies are the key factors in

  1. On the optimization of a CAPM portfolio using lower partial moments as measure of risk and using the possibility of safeguarding its loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreitzer, U. W.; Reznik, V.

    2007-05-01

    Using a portfolio built from bonds (investment without volatility) and shares (investment with volatility) corresponding to the CAPM we calculate the possible loss of this portfolio. The loss is measured by a so-called lower partial moment of the rate of return of the portfolio. Using this loss, we optimize the composition of the portfolio with respect to this loss. Also we investigate the optimization of the portfolio when the loss can be underwritten by an insurance. Concerning the premium of this insurance contract, we show that when the premium is defined inadequate, e.g. proportional to the investment or proportional to the amount of investment in shares, the optimal portfolio consists only of investment in shares. When the premium is defined more suitable, e.g. proportional to the loss, the optimal portfolio is built by an investment in bonds and shares.

  2. Substantial increase in acceleration potential of pyroelectric crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Lynam, S. M.; Shafroth, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on a substantial increase in the acceleration potential achieved with a LiTaO 3 pyroelectric crystal. With a single 2.5 cm diameter and 2.5 cm long z-cut crystal without electric field-enhancing nanotip we produced positive ion beams with maximal energies between 300 and 310 keV during the cooling phase when the crystal was exposed to 5 mTorr of deuterium gas. These values are about a factor of 2 larger than previously obtained with single pyroelectric crystals.

  3. CD4 count at antiretroviral therapy initiation and the risk of loss to follow-up: results from a multicentre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anna; Cornell, Morna; Schomaker, Michael; Fox, Matthew P; Orrell, Catherine; Prozesky, Hans; Stinson, Kathryn; Tanser, Frank; Egger, Matthias; Myer, Landon

    2016-06-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is now recommended irrespective of CD4 count. However data on the relationship between CD4 count at ART initiation and loss to follow-up (LTFU) are limited and conflicting. We conducted a cohort analysis including all adults initiating ART (2008-2012) at three public sector sites in South Africa. LTFU was defined as no visit in the 6 months before database closure. The Kaplan-Meier estimator and Cox's proportional hazards models examined the relationship between CD4 count at ART initiation and 24-month LTFU. Final models were adjusted for demographics, year of ART initiation, programme expansion and corrected for unascertained mortality. Among 17 038 patients, the median CD4 at initiation increased from 119 (IQR 54-180) in 2008 to 257 (IQR 175-318) in 2012. In unadjusted models, observed LTFU was associated with both CD4 counts <100 cells/μL and CD4 counts ≥300 cells/μL. After adjustment, patients with CD4 counts ≥300 cells/μL were 1.35 (95% CI 1.12 to 1.63) times as likely to be LTFU after 24 months compared to those with a CD4 150-199 cells/μL. This increased risk for patients with CD4 counts ≥300 cells/μL was largest in the first 3 months on treatment. Correction for unascertained deaths attenuated the association between CD4 counts <100 cells/μL and LTFU while the association between CD4 counts ≥300 cells/μL and LTFU persisted. Patients initiating ART at higher CD4 counts may be at increased risk for LTFU. With programmes initiating patients at higher CD4 counts, models of ART delivery need to be reoriented to support long-term retention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. SUBSTANTIATION AND EXPERIENCE OF THE VARICELLA VACCINE USAGE IN VOLGOGRAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kramar’

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyse the varicella morbidity in Volgograd. The main markers of the severity of the disease course in children are estimated retrospectively. Also the economical costs of the indoor patients treatment and annual economical losses are assessed. The article contains the results of the realization of the regional programme «Vaccination», during which 14 000 children were vaccinated with «Okavax». This programme showed both high efficiency and safety.

  5. COMPOSITIONAL AND SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURE OF THE MEDICAL DOCUMENT: FORMATION STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashova Olga Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the compositional and substantial structure of the ambulatory medical record, or "case history", which has being formed for a long time. The author allocates the three main periods in the formation of this medical document: the first period (the beginning of the 19th century – 1920s is connected with the origin and formation; the second period (1920-1980s is marked by emergence of the normative legal acts regulating registration and maintaining; the third period (1980s – up to the present is associated with the cancellation of regulations and the introduction of the new order of the Ministry of Health of the USSR that changed the document's form and name. It is determined that the composition of the case history consists of the title page and the main part. The following processes take place in the course of ambulatory medical record's formation: strengthening formalization, increase in the number of pattern text fragments, increase in the text's volume, and the implementation of bigger number of functions. The author reveals the main (informative and cumulative, accounting and additional (scientific, controlling, legal, financial functions of the document. The implementation of these functions is reflected in the compositional and substantial structure of the document text and is conditioned by a number of extralinguistic factors.

  6. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  7. Monte Carlo reactor calculation with substantially reduced number of cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Joo, H. G.; Lee, D.; Smith, K.

    2012-01-01

    A new Monte Carlo (MC) eigenvalue calculation scheme that substantially reduces the number of cycles is introduced with the aid of coarse mesh finite difference (CMFD) formulation. First, it is confirmed in terms of pin power errors that using extremely many particles resulting in short active cycles is beneficial even in the conventional MC scheme although wasted operations in inactive cycles cannot be reduced with more particles. A CMFD-assisted MC scheme is introduced as an effort to reduce the number of inactive cycles and the fast convergence behavior and reduced inter-cycle effect of the CMFD assisted MC calculation is investigated in detail. As a practical means of providing a good initial fission source distribution, an assembly based few-group condensation and homogenization scheme is introduced and it is shown that efficient MC eigenvalue calculations with fewer than 20 total cycles (including inactive cycles) are possible for large power reactor problems. (authors)

  8. Developing survey grids to substantiate freedom from exotic pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Coulston; Frank H. Koch; William D. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Systematic, hierarchical intensification of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program hexagon for North America yields a simple procedure for developing national-scale survey grids. In this article, we describe the steps to create a national-scale survey grid using a risk map as the starting point. We illustrate the steps using an exotic pest example in which...

  9. Loss of consciousness and convulsion induced by a ventricular tachycardia mimicking epilepsy in a patient with noncompaction cardiomyopathy : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dello, S. A. W. G.; Kievit, C.; Dunselman, P. H.; Alings, M.

    Convulsions and loss of consciousness can be caused by, among other things, arrhythmias, conduction disorders or epilepsy. In clinical practice it can be difficult to distinguish between these causes of syncope, even for well-trained specialists. Patients with cardiac syncope have a substantial risk

  10. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Risk range 80 to 90 Heavy city traffic, power lawn mower 90 Motorcycle 100 Snowmobile, hand drill 110 Chain saw, rock concert Injury range 120 Ambulance siren 140 (pain threshold) Jet engine at takeoff 165 12-guage ...

  11. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  12. Substantial soil organic carbon retention along floodplains of mountain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Nicholas A.; Wohl, Ellen

    2017-07-01

    Small, snowmelt-dominated mountain streams have the potential to store substantial organic carbon in floodplain sediment because of high inputs of particulate organic matter, relatively lower temperatures compared with lowland regions, and potential for increased moisture conditions. This work (i) quantifies mean soil organic carbon (OC) content along 24 study reaches in the Colorado Rocky Mountains using 660 soil samples, (ii) identifies potential controls of OC content based on soil properties and spatial position with respect to the channel, and (iii) and examines soil properties and OC across various floodplain geomorphic features in the study area. Stepwise multiple linear regression (adjusted r2 = 0.48, p sample depth, percent sand, distance from the channel, and relative elevation from the channel are significant predictors of OC content in the study area. Principle component analysis indicates limited separation between geomorphic floodplain features based on predictors of OC content. A lack of significant differences among floodplain features suggests that the systematic random sampling employed in this study can capture the variability of OC across floodplains in the study area. Mean floodplain OC (6.3 ± 0.3%) is more variable but on average greater than values in uplands (1.5 ± 0.08% to 2.2 ± 0.14%) of the Colorado Front Range and higher than published values from floodplains in other regions, particularly those of larger rivers.

  13. Substantial proportion of global streamflow less than three months old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasechko, Scott; Kirchner, James W.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-02-01

    Biogeochemical cycles, contaminant transport and chemical weathering are regulated by the speed at which precipitation travels through landscapes and reaches streams. Streamflow is a mixture of young and old precipitation, but the global proportions of these young and old components are not known. Here we analyse seasonal cycles of oxygen isotope ratios in rain, snow and streamflow compiled from 254 watersheds around the world, and calculate the fraction of streamflow that is derived from precipitation that fell within the past two or three months. This young streamflow accounts for about a third of global river discharge, and comprises at least 5% of discharge in about 90% of the catchments we investigated. We conclude that, although typical catchments have mean transit times of years or even decades, they nonetheless can rapidly transmit substantial fractions of soluble contaminant inputs to streams. Young streamflow is less prevalent in steeper landscapes, which suggests they are characterized by deeper vertical infiltration. Because young streamflow is derived from less than 0.1% of global groundwater storage, we conclude that this thin veneer of aquifer storage will have a disproportionate influence on stream water quality.

  14. Substantially Evolutionary Theorizing in Designing Software-Intensive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Sosnin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Useful inheritances from scientific experience open perspective ways for increasing the degree of success in designing of systems with software. One such way is a search and build applied theory that ta