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Sample records for risk study cwhrs

  1. Risk indices in comparative risk assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.

    1984-01-01

    More than a decade ago the development of comparative risk assessment studies aroused overwhelming interest. There was no doubt that data on the health and safety aspects of energy systems would greatly benefit, or even end, the debate on nuclear energy. Although such attempts are still strongly supported, the rose-coloured expectations of the early days have faded. The high uncertainties, and the contradictory aspect, of the first results might explain this evolution. The loose connection between the range of computed risk indices and the questions on which the debate was focused is another reason for this decline in interest. Important research work is being carried out aiming at reducing the different kinds of uncertainties. Rather than the uncertainties, the paper considers the meaning of available risk indices and proposes more significant indices with respect to the goals of risk assessment. First, the indices which are of frequent use in comparative studies are listed. The stress is put on a French comparative study from which most examples are drawn. Secondly, the increase in magnitude of the indices and the decrease in the attributability of the risk to a given system is shown to be a consequence of the trend towards more comprehensive analyses. Thirdly, the ambiguity of such indices as the collective occupational risk is underlined, and a possible solution is suggested. Whenever risk assessments are related to pragmatic decision making problems it is possible to find satisfactory risk indices. The development of cost-effectiveness analyses and the proposals for quantitative safety goals clearly demonstrate this point. In the field of comparison of social impacts some proposals are made, but there remain some gaps still to be filled. (author)

  2. Regulatory cost-risk study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs. (JDB)

  3. Regulatory cost-risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    This study is intended to provide some quantitative perspective by selecting certain examples of criteria for which estimates of risks and costs can be obtained, and the balance of the various risks, (i.e., internal versus external risks), can be put into perspective. 35 refs., 39 tabs

  4. German risk study of PWR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kafka, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, first the status of German Risk Study is presented briefly. Specific reference is made to the investigations in Phase B of the study and related programs. Significant elements involved in the risk assessment for NPPs, mainly in the field of system and structural reliability analyses are mentioned. In particular, important outcomes and limiting facts in the process of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to evaluate the safety standard and above all the influence of individual components or subsystems on core melt frequency are discussed. (orig.)

  5. The impact of risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, B.

    The report is a summary of the reports of various subprojects on nuclear safety. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role and usefulness of major risk studies in societal opinion forming and decision making processes. The primary research material consisted in seven major risk studies, three of which were concerned with radioactive waste handling, two with reactor safety and two with comparative studies of various sources of energy. Special attention was given to the following four aspects: a) the way in which the studies were interpreted b)the extent to which these studies have clarified the risks they analyse c) the extent to which these studies have narrowed the scientific debate d) the degree to which these studies have actually influenced safety measures and regulatory policy. The picture which emerges is one of success in relation to the effects on the nuclear establishment and largely a failure as attempts at settling disputes and informing the public. (G.B.)

  6. Risk communication. Risk studies in social science; Risk communication. Risk kenkyu eno shakai kagakuteki approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asami, M. [Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-05

    It is recently, that is, in and after the 1980s that socio-scientific approaches began to be made to studies on `risk`. It started to be made clear that the progress of the scientific technology does not necessarily bring about good news to man, and obvious estrangement has begun to appear between scientific evaluation and social evaluation of risk. The subject of risk communication (RC) study is to tackle a proposition whether the estrangement will continue to exist as estrangement or the estrangement can be made smaller by any means. This paper explains the recent trend of the study. For example, as for how each individual thinks about risk, that is, the risk perception, a new framework is trially being constructed by introduction of the quantitative method using psychometrics. A duty of RC is to serve to bridge the gap between scientific technology and society which are controlled by values which are incompatible with each other. Therefore, RC will be more and more important. 15 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. What is the purpose of risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past few years, more or less comprehensive risk analyses have been carried out for numerous nuclear power plants, especially in the USA. The first risk studies conducted, especially the Rasmussen Study and the 'German Risk Study,' investigated sequences of accidents up to their environmental impacts. Risk studies today are focused mostly on assessments of technical safety, which is why they are extended only as far as the determination of core meltdown frequencies or radionuclide releases. Studies of this type are also called probabilistic safety analyses. (orig.) [de

  8. Study of International Standards of Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykan Volodymyr L.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of existing international standards of risk management, an important factor of improvement of risk management in domestic corporations and enterprises and development of recommendations on application of international standards in Ukraine, in particular, within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management. The conducted study shows that approaches on organisation of the process of risk management, used in standards of risk management, are of general character and differ with the degree of detailing. Their undoubted value in development of risk management in Ukraine is identification of a general direction of building corporate systems of risk management in practice. The said approaches at the national and corporate levels of standardisation in Ukraine within the framework of building corporate systems of risk management would allow improvement of risk management in corporations and enterprises. The prospect of further studies of domestic specialists in the field of risk management is development of the domestic standard of risk management with consideration of modern domestic specific features of development of risk management in Ukraine and leading foreign experience.

  9. Hybrid Risk Management Methodology: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacky Siu-Lun Ting

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Risk management is a decision-making process involving considerations of political, social, economic and engineering factors with relevant risk assessments relating to a potential hazard. In the last decade, a number of risk management tools are introduced and employed to manage and minimize the uncertainty and threats realization to the organizations. However, the focus of these methodologies are different; in which companies need to adopt various risk management principles to visualize a full picture of the organizational risk level. Regarding to this, this paper presents a new approach of risk management that integrates Hierarchical Holographic Modeling (HHM, Enterprise Risk Management (ERM and Business Recovery Planning (BCP for identifying and assessing risks as well as managing the consequences of realized residual risks. To illustrate the procedures of the proposed methodology, a logistic company ABC Limited is chosen to serve as a case study Through applying HHM and ERM to investigate and assess the risk, ABC Limited can be better evaluated the potential risks and then took the responsive actions (e.g. BCP to handle the risks and crisis in near future.

  10. Environmental Comparative Risk Assessment: A Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Health and environmental impacts associated with energy production and industrial activities as well as food production and agricultural activities have had great concern in the last decades. Early activities emerged in late 80s of the last century through an Inter- Agency project (lAEA, UNDY, WHO, ... ) on the comparative risk assessment from energy systems and industrial complexes. A work-shop on Risk Assessment and Management in large industrial areas was held in Alexandria Egypt on 20-33 Det 1993, sponsored by IAEA. Several conferences, experts work groups and workshops were held there of Recent trends in determining risks are: 1. Use of probabilistic risk assessment approach to identify hazardous activities and accident scenario. 2. development of data base on failure probabilities and appropriate physical models. 3. Development of related directives and regulations and criteria Comparative risk assessment case study as a tool for comparing risk is emphasized Criteria of exposure to human and ecological risks are addressed

  11. Risk modelling study for carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhan, G; Gardiner, E D; Abidia, A F; Chetter, I C; Renwick, P M; Johnson, B F; Wilkinson, A R; McCollum, P T

    2001-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify factors that influence the risk of stroke or death following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and to develop a model to aid in comparative audit of vascular surgeons and units. A series of 839 CEAs performed by four vascular surgeons between 1992 and 1999 was analysed. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to model the effect of 15 possible risk factors on the 30-day risk of stroke or death. Outcome was compared for four surgeons and two units after adjustment for the significant risk factors. The overall 30-day stroke or death rate was 3.9 per cent (29 of 741). Heart disease, diabetes and stroke were significant risk factors. The 30-day predicted stroke or death rates increased with increasing risk scores. The observed 30-day stroke or death rate was 3.9 per cent for both vascular units and varied from 3.0 to 4.2 per cent for the four vascular surgeons. Differences in the outcomes between the surgeons and vascular units did not reach statistical significance after risk adjustment. Diabetes, heart disease and stroke are significant risk factors for stroke or death following CEA. The risk score model identified patients at higher risk and aided in comparative audit.

  12. The implications of the German Risk Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Koeberlein, K.

    1980-01-01

    The methods and results of the German Risk Study published in 1979 are summarized and its implications for reactor safety are discussed. It has led to suggestions that risk analysis should be more widely used for nuclear and other technological systems. It has also identified the need for specific system modifications and confirmed trends in safety research. (author)

  13. Seismic risk analysis in the German risk study phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasser, D.; Liemersdorf, J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses some aspects of the seismic risk part of the German risk study for nuclear power plants, phase B. First simplified analyses in phase A of the study allowed a rough classification of structures and systems of the PWR reference plant according to their seismic risk contribution. These studies were extended in phase B using improved models for the dynamic analyses of buildings, structures and components as well as for the probabilistic analyses of seismic loading, failure probabilities and event trees. The methodology of deriving probabilistic seismic load descriptions is explained and compared with the methods in phase A of the study and in other studies. Some details of the linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures are reported, in order to demonstrate the influence of different assumptions for material behavior and failure criteria. The probabilistic structural and event tree analyses are discussed with respect to the distribution assumptions, acceptable simplifications, special results for the PWR reference plant and, finally, the influence of model uncertainties

  14. Seismic risk analyses in the German Risk Study, phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Liemersdorf, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper discusses some aspects of the seismic risk part of the German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants, Phase B. First simplified analyses in Phase A of the study allowed only a rough classification of structures and systems of the PWR reference plant according to their seismic risk contribution. These studies were extended in Phase B using improved models for the dynamic analyses of buildings, structures and components as well as for the probabilistic analyses of seismic loading, failure probabilities and event trees. The methodology of deriving probabilistic seismic load descriptions is explained and compared with the methods in Phase A of the study and in other studies. Some details of the linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses of structures are reported in order to demonstrate the influence of different assumptions for material behaviour and failure criteria. The probabilistic structural and event tree analyses are discussed with respect to distribution assumptions, acceptable simplifications and model uncertainties. Some results for the PWR reference plant are given. (orig.)

  15. Probabilistic relationships in acceptable risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Acceptable risk studies involve uncertainties in future events: consequences and associated values, the acceptability levels, and the future decision environment. Probabilistic procedures afford the basic analytical tool to study the influence of each of these parameters on the acceptable risk decision, including their interrelationships, and combinations. A series of examples are presented in the paper in increasing complexity to illustrate the principles involved and to quantify the relationships to the acceptable risk decision. The basic objective of such studies is to broaden the scientific basis of acceptable risk decision making. It is shown that rationality and consistency in decision making is facilitated by such studies and that rather simple relationships exist in many situations of interest. The variation in criteria associated with an increase in the state of knowledge or change in the level of acceptability is also discussed

  16. Probabilistic relationships in acceptable risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    Acceptable risk studies involve uncertainties in future events; consequences and associated values, the acceptability levels, and the future decision environment. Probabilistic procedures afford the basic analytical tool to study the influence of each of these parameters on the acceptable risk decision, including their interrelationships, and combinations. A series of examples are presented in the paper in increasing complexity to illustrate the principles involved and to quantify the relationships to the acceptable risk decision. The basic objective of such studies is to broaden the scientific basis of acceptable risk decision making. It is shown that rationality and consistency in decision making is facilitated by such studies and that rather simple relationships exist in many situations of interest. The variation in criteria associated with an increase in the state of knowledge or change in the level of acceptability is also discussed. (Auth.)

  17. RISK CONCEPT AND RISK ASSESSMENT IN EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze CAN

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Basic aim of an epidemiological study is to quantify the association between the exposure and the outcome of interest. To achieve this, the incidence of disease in a group of individuals exposed to the putative risk factors must be compared with the incidence in a group of persons not exposed. This comparison can be summarized by calculating either the ratio of the measures of disease occurrence for the two groups, which indicates the likelihood of developing the disease in the exposed individuals relative to those unexposed, or the difference between the two, which provides information about the absolute effect of the exposure in those exposed compared with those unexposed. Some terms about relative risk were explained and examine with samples in this article. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(5.000: 374-381

  18. German risk study, phase (DRS-B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, W.

    1992-01-01

    The first risk investigations were primarily intended to estimate the risk of accidents in nuclear power plants and to compare it with other natural risk and civilization risks. The American reactor safety study WASH 1400 and the German risk study phase A (DRS-A) gave a detailed analyses of the offsite consequences of accidents, especially the magnitude and frequency of health damage for the population. Risk investigations today are primarily used to examine the design of safety systems and to further develop the entire safety concept. Safety investigations have shown that nuclear power plants still possess safety reserves if safety systems do not operate as planned. These safety reserves can be exploited in the sense of a further development of safety by plant internal emergency measures. One purpose of risk analyses is to identify such measures and to evaluate their feasibility and effectiveness. The most important goals of the investigations in DRS-B were: Identification of vulnerabilities and possible safety improvements; determination of safety reserves during accident sequences exceeding the design limits; evaluation of plant internal emergency measures. Thus, goals in phase B compared with phase A have changed from investigations of the magnitude of damage to detailed analysis of the plant systems response under accident conditions. The magnitude of possible fission product releases is also determined in phase B. However, no new accident consequence calculations are performed. Figs and tabs

  19. Superfund risk assessment in soil contamination studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoddinott, K.B.

    1992-01-01

    This symposium was held in New Orleans, Louisiana on January 30-31, 1991. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on risk assessment associated with soil contamination. The conference included presentations in the following categories: site characterization; fate and transport; toxicity, exposures, and receptors; risk characterization/case studies; and establishing cleanup levels. Individual papers have been cataloged separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  20. Social amplification of risk: An empirical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, W.; Slovic, P.; Kasperson, R.; Kasperson, J.; Renn, O.; Emani, S.

    1990-09-01

    The social amplification of risk is a theoretical framework that addresses an important deficiency of formal risk assessment methods and procedures. Typically assessments of risk from technological mishaps have been based upon the expected number of people who could be killed or injured or the amount of property that might be damaged. The diverse and consequential impacts that followed in the aftermath of the Three Mile Island accident make it clear that risk assessments that exclude the role of public perceptions of risk will greatly underestimate the potential costs of certain types of hazards. The accident at Three Mile Island produced no direct fatalities and few, if any, expected deaths due to cancer, yet few other accidents in history have had such costly societal impacts. The experience of amplified impacts argues for the development of a broadened theoretical and methodological perspective capable of integrating technical assessment of risk with public perceptions. This report presents the results to date in an ongoing research effort to better understand the complex processes by which adverse events produce impacts. In particular this research attempts to construct a framework that can account for those events that have produced, or are capable of producing, greater societal impacts than would be forecast by traditional risk assessment methods. This study demonstrates that the social amplification of risk involves interactions between sophisticated technological hazards, public and private institutions, and subtle individual and public perceptions and behaviors. These factors, and the variables underlying the intricate processes of social amplification that occur in modern society, are not fully defined and clarified in this report. 19 refs., 9 figs., 10 tabs

  1. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  2. Coffee and cardiovascular risk; an epidemiological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.A. Bak (Annette)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises several studies on the effect of coffee and caffeine on cardiovascular risk in general, and the effect on serum lipids, blood pressure and selected hemostatic variables in particular. The association between coffee use and cardiovascular morbidity and

  3. Discussion of some issues in risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jingyuan; Liu Yuanzhong

    1998-01-01

    The concept of risk, the methods for assessing risk and the acceptability of risk are discussed. The emphasis was laid on the three components for complete description of a risk: scenario, probability and consequence of an event. The disadvantages of the concept and presentation of risk used in some risk analysis were pointed out. The paper emphasized that it is necessary to explicitly consider the multi-dimensionality of risk in the assessment and management of risk. Several important factors influencing the acceptability of risk and the methodology for evaluating the acceptability of risk were also described

  4. The German risk study. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, K.

    1980-01-01

    A severe nuclear power plant accident can be followed by a considerable release of radioactive effluents into the atmosphere. Due to atmospheric dispersion, areas of different sizes can be contaminated. The corresponding doses can cause early illnesses, early fatalities, latent effects and genetic effects. They are accompanied by economic effects. Within the consequence model of the German Risk Study, early and late fatalities and genetically significant doses are calculated. The calculations are based on real data or phenomena such as the population around 19, present or future German sites, or 115 real weather sequences, as well as on models such as an atmospheric dispersion model, a dose model, a model of protective actions or a health effects model. Within this lecture, the consequence model applied in the German Risk Study will be discussed in detail and the results will be presented. (orig./RW)

  5. Acceptable risk in reactor safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, J.R.; Shinozuka, M.; Shah, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    Acceptable risk is defined in terms of its five basic parameters: the hazard or problem; the probability of occurrence; the consequence; the possible alternative actions; and the value system of the community or the society. The problem of consistency in design at a site and between differing sites is discussed and solutions are suggested. Techniques for consistent deterministic and probabilistic setting limits and design standards are illustrated using data from AEC Reactor Safety Study, WASH-1400. The influence of level of consequence is discussed and a general methodology for decision analysis in resource allocation problem is briefly introduced and illustrated. The concept of acceptable risk is put in a quantitative format that can be used by engineers and planners. Bayesian statistical methods are introduced to develop the methodologies

  6. Studying risk factors associated with Human Leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leptospirosis is one of the most under diagnosed and underreported disease in both developed and developing countries including India. It is established that environmental conditions and occupational habit of the individuals put them at risk of acquiring disease, which varies from community to community. Various seroprevalence studies across the world have documented emerging situation of this neglected tropical disease, but limited have probed to identify the risk factors, especially in India. Objectives: The objective of this study was to identify the environmental and occupational risk factors associated with the disease in Udupi District. Materials and Methods: This population-based case-control study was carried out in Udupi, a District in Southern India from April 2012 until August 2012. Udupi is considered to be endemic for Leptospirosis and reported 116 confirmed cases in the year 2011. Seventy of 116 laboratory confirmed cases and 140 sex matched neighborhood healthy controls participated in the study. A predesigned, semi-structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection through house to house visit and observations were noted about environmental conditions. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis (back ward conditional logistic regression was performed by using STATA version 9.2 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA to identify potential risk factors. Results: Occupational factors such as outdoor activities (matched odds ratio [OR] of 3.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.19-13.0, presence of cut or wound at body parts during work (matched OR: 4.88, CI: 1.83-13.02 and environmental factors such as contact with rodents through using the food materials ate by rat (matched OR: 4.29, CI: 1.45-12.73 and contact with soil or water contaminated with urine of rat (matched OR: 4.58, CI: 1.43-14.67 were the risk factors identified to be associated with disease. Conclusion: Leptospirosis is still

  7. Risk of suicide in high risk pregnancy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Jorge, Vanessa Marques Ferreira; Nonnenmacher, Daniele; Fráguas Junior, Renério; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de; Zugaib, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    To identify the risk of suicidal behavior in high-risk pregnant women at a public hospital in São Paulo. We conducted a semi-structured interview with each of the participants (n = 268) through a previously prepared questionnaire. Risk of suicidal behavior was assessed by the Portuguese version of PRIME-MD. The mean age of patients was 29 years (SD = 0.507) and gestation period was 30 weeks (SD = 0.556). Of the total sample, specific risk of suicide was found in 5% (n = 14). Of these, 85% have a stable relationship (married or cohabitating), the pregnancy was planned in 50% of cases, and 71% have no religion or professional activities. The correlation of risk of suicide with data from marital status, planned birth, age, education, professional practice, risk of prematurity, and religion showed that having a religion is statistically significant (p = 0.012). There were no positive associations for any of the other selected variables when compared with the risk of suicide. By correlating the risk of suicide with other characteristic symptoms of major depression, there was statistical significance in the sample with regard to insomnia or hypersomnia (p = 0.003), fatigue or loss of energy (p = 0.001), decreased or increased appetite (p = 0.005), less interest in daily activities (p = 0.000), depressed mood (p = 0.000), feelings of worthlessness or guilt (p = 0.000), decreased concentration (p = 0.002), and agitation or psychomotor retardation (p = 0.002). We found that religion can be a protective factor against suicidal behavior. Besides providing a social support network needed by women during pregnancy, religion supports belief in life after death and in a loving God, giving purpose to life and self esteem and providing models for coping with crises. The results show the importance of prevention and early diagnosis of suicidal behavior, since suicide is an attempt to move from one sphere to another by force, seeking to solve what seems impossible.

  8. Risk management strategies by Australian farmers: two case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nam C.; Wegener, Malcolm K.; Russell, Iean W.; Cameron, Donald; Coventry, David; Cooper, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    Australian farmers operate in one of the most risky farming environments in the world. They have to cope with numerous sources of risk including weather uncertainty, variable market prices, and institutional changes in their business management. This paper reports results from two case studies undertaken to examine the issues of farming risks and risk management strategies in Australia. The first case study found that unpredictable weather, financial risk, marketing risk, and personal risk we...

  9. Study reputational risk in an audit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Volkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of international sanctions and the formation of intense competition among companies in the Russian market and the related need to assess their risk of reputation that directly affect the value of the goodwill of the company is very important. The article presents the main reputational risks Russian enterprises, which need to be analyzed in the course of the audit. The definition of "reputational risk", which is a challenge due to the problems associated with certain norms of economic security. Currently in economics there are no deep research on managing reputational risks of commercial structures. Is a list of the main risks for Russian companies, such as fraud, financial problems, bankruptcy, information leaks, lawsuits, violating the legislation and labor disputes, allegations of money laundering, tax evasion. It is concluded that the occurrence of at least one of reputational risks will inevitably lead to the gradual emergence of the rest. As well as a diagram the relationship reputational risks. Under the present scheme, identified reputational risks that arise in the financial problems of the enterprise. It was determined that the most significant reputational risks are tax evasion, violation of the law and labor disputes, allegations of money laundering and lawsuits. These risks are managed should have a strategic character. The strategic nature of the management can be achieved through the implementation of effective marketing communication policy. The risk management policy should be made a compulsory item - audit of the calculation and analysis of reputational risk. Compiled scheme of action needed to reputational risk.

  10. Man, technology and risk: a study on intuitive risk assessment and attitudes towards nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O

    1981-06-01

    Using the instruments of empirical social sciences, a cross-section study was conducted comprising experiments on qualitative risk characteristics, in-depth interviews on mechanisms of risk perception and representative surveys of the public on technical risk sources, in particular with regard to nuclear energy. The results of these studies show that person-related expectations in respect of risk consequences, the possibility of personal influencing control, the severeness of risk consequences and one's own risk propensity play a significant role in the evaluation of risks.

  11. Risk assessment. Report of a Royal Society study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The report is in sections, entitled: preface; summary and conclusions; introduction (historical and organizational); estimating engineering risks (techniques of risk estimation and forms of expression of risk); laboratory experiments for estimation of biological risks; estimation of risk from observations on man (travel, medical procedures; occupations; sport); the perception of risks; (as an example of attitudes towards a single hazard, studies of nuclear power are considered among other topics in this section); risk management (estimation; perception; acceptability, analysis of risk, costs and benefits; safety standards; decision-making process; possible guidelines).

  12. Percutaneous penetration studies for risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorelli, Vittorio; Andersen, Helle Raun; Angerer, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    . In order to predict the systemic risk of dermally absorbed chemicals and to enable agencies to set safety standards, data is needed on the rates of percutaneous penetration of important chemicals. Standardization of in vitro tests and comparison of their results with the in vivo data could produce...... internationally accepted penetration rates and/or absorption percentages very useful for regulatory toxicology. The work of the Percutaneous Penetration Subgroup of EC Dermal Exposure Network has been focussed on the standardization and validation of in vitro experiments, necessary to obtain internationally...... accepted penetration rates for regulatory purposes. The members of the Subgroup analyzed the guidelines on percutaneous penetration in vitro studies presented by various organizations and suggested a standardization of in vitro models for percutaneous penetration taking into account their individual...

  13. Adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, John; Johnson, Ilona; Popat, Hashmat; Morgan, Maria Z; Gill, Paul

    2018-04-24

    For effective risk communication, clinicians must understand patients' values and beliefs in relation to the risks of treatment. This qualitative study aimed to explore adolescent perceptions of orthodontic treatment risks and risk information. Five focus groups were carried out with 32 school/college pupils aged 12-18 in Wales, UK. Participants were purposively selected and had all experienced orthodontic treatment. A thematic approach was used for analysis and data collection was completed at the point of data saturation. Four themes emerged from the data; (a) day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment, (b) important orthodontic risk information, (c) engaging with orthodontic risk information and (d) managing the risks of orthodontic treatment. Day-to-day risks of orthodontic treatment that were affecting participants "here and now" were of most concern. Information about preventing the risks of treatment was deemed to be important. Participants did not actively seek risk information but engaged passively with information from convenient sources. Perceptions of risk susceptibility influenced participants' management of the risks of orthodontic treatment. This study demonstrates that adolescent patients can understand information about the nature and severity of orthodontic treatment risks. However, adolescent patients can have false perceptions if the risks are unfamiliar, perceived only to have a future impact or if seen as easy to control. Adolescent patients must be provided with timely and easily accessible risk information and with practical solutions to prevent the risks of treatment. The views and experiences gathered in this study can assist clinicians to better understand their young patients' beliefs about treatment risks, facilitate effective risk communication and contribute to improved patient-centred care. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Study on the risk-informed regulation of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chaogui

    2007-01-01

    The risk-informed regulation is a modern type of NPP safety management mode using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches. It is necessary to entirely and systematically study the associated regulations, standards and practices in order to promote the developments of risk-informed regulations in China. This paper introduces the risk-informed regulation, gives out the basic principles, method and acceptance risk criteria of risk-informed decision,making, discusses the PSA requirements for risk-informed decision-making and makes some suggestions about the application of risk-informed regulations in Chinese NPP. (authors)

  15. An overview of the fire risk scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.; Lambright, J.A.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Fire Risk Scoping Study was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The study was initiated as a result of previous USNRC-sponsored fire research efforts that had identified certain fire risk issues that had not been addressed in previously completed commercial nuclear power plant fire risk analyses. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC-sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  16. Risk Based Corrosion Studies at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.

    2010-01-01

    TYPE I and II (ASTM 285-B) - Experienced stress corrosion cracking (SCC), 2 have been closed; 22 scheduled for closure by 2017, and No active leak sites today. TYPE III (ASTM A516-70 and A537 Class I) - Post-fabrication relief of weld residual stresses, Improved resistance to SCC and brittle fracture, No leakage history, and Receives new waste. The objectives are to utilize statistical methods to reduce conservatism in current chemistry control program; and express nitrite inhibitor limits in terms of pitting risk on waste tank steel. Conclusions are: (1) A statistically designed experimental study has been undertaken to improve the effectiveness of the minimum nitrite concentrations to inhibit pitting corrosion; (2) Mixture/amount model supports that pitting depends on the ratio of aggressive to inhibitive anions, as well as the concentration of each species; (3) Secondary aggressive species, Cl - and SO 4 2- , significantly effect the corrosion response; and (4) Results support the reduction of the chemistry control nitrite inhibitor concentrations in the regime of 0.8-1.0 M nitrate.

  17. Antiepileptic drugs and risk of suicide: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J.B.; Hansen, Peter Riis; Erdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Patients with epilepsy or psychiatric diseases have increased risk of suicide, but whether the risk is influenced by antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment is unclear. Studies have suggested that AEDs in general increase the risk of suicidal behaviour shortly after initiation. This study inve...

  18. Risk Assessment Stability: A Revalidation Study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Craig S.

    2009-01-01

    The actuarial method is the gold standard for risk assessment in child welfare, juvenile justice, and criminal justice. It produces risk classifications that are highly predictive and that may be robust to sampling error. This article reports a revalidation study of the Arizona Risk/Needs Assessment instrument, an actuarial instrument for juvenile…

  19. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  20. Racing risk, gendering responsibility: a qualitative study of how ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative ...

  1. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  2. Implementation of Risk Management in Malaysian Construction Industry: Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Rahman, Hamzah; Wang, Chen; Sheik Mohamad, Farhanim

    2015-01-01

    Construction industries are exposed to wide array of risks, such as financial, design, and contractual ones, which might have a direct impact on their performance toward achieving the desired objectives. Risk Management is a proactive decision-making process used to minimize and manage the risks in the most efficient and appropriate manner. However, most construction firms in Malaysia do not apply formal risk management in their projects. Thus, this study aims to identify the actual process o...

  3. Putting risk analysis into perspective: a comparative review of major societal risk studies of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooley, J.E.; Hansson, B.; Kaspersson, R.; ORiordan, T.; Paschen, H.

    1983-04-01

    The emphasis in this final report of the project Evaluation of major Swedish energy risk assessments in an international perspective is shifted towards the comparative aspect. The comprehensive nuclear risk study has been used as an instrument to satisfy many needs simultaneously. The research consisted of an examination of existing risk studies of five nations, namely West Germany, UK, US, Canada and Sweden. The effect of nuclear risk studies on society at large and on public attitude towards nuclear power in particular is discussed. Finally, the effect on the nuclear establishment is analysed. (G.B.)

  4. On the complementary presentation of results of risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhardt, J.; Bayer, A.

    1983-01-01

    The presentation of the loss of years of life provides the opportunity to illustrate in complementary way the mortality risks evaluated as part of risk studies. As phase A of the DRS (German risk study nuclear power plants) bears upon the results of the American ''Reactor Safety Study'' (WASH 1400) it does not contain that factor of failure which has only been determined in subsequent studies. Phase B intends to present the results of risk assessments increasingly in form of abridged lifetime. (orig.) [de

  5. Study on risk factors of PWR accidents beyond design basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Seung Hoon; Nah, W. J.; Bang, Y. S.; Oh, D. Y.; Oh, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    Development of the regulatory guidelines for Beyond Design Basis Accidents (BDBA) with high risk requires a detailed investigation of major factors contributing to the event risk. In this study, each event was classified by the level of risk, based on the probabilistic safety assessment results, so that BDBA with high risk could be selected, with consideration of foreign and domestic regulations, and operating experiences. The regulatory requirements and technical backgrounds for the selected accidents were investigated, and effective regulatory approaches for risk reduction of the accidents. The following conclusions were drawn from this study: - Selected high risk BDBA is station blackout, anticipated without scram, total loss of feedwater. - Major contributors to the risk of selected events were investigated, and appropriate assessment of them was recommended for development of the regulatory guidelines

  6. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities: Risk management executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km 2 Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This document is the first in a four volume series that comprise the risk management study for the retired, surplus facilities. Volume 2 is the risk evaluation work procedure; volume 3 provides the results for the risk evaluation; and volume 4 is the risk-reduction cost comparison

  7. Risk Management in Information Technology Project: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornelius Irfandhi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The companies are facing some risks due to changes in a dynamic environment. If risks are not managed properly, it will have some negative impacts on the companies at the present and the future. One important function of the Information Technology (IT governance is risk management. Risk management in IT project aims to provide a safe environment for IT projects undertaken. Risk management becomes an important process for the success of IT projects. This article discussed the risk of IT project and whether there was a relationship between risk management and the success of the project. The method used was performing a literature review of several scientific articles which published between 2010 and 2014. The results of this study are the presence of risk management and risk manager influence the success of the project. Risk analysis and risk monitoring and control also have a relationship with the subjective performance of IT projects. If risk management is applied properly, the chance of the success of the projects undertaken can be increased. 

  8. Feasibility study of component risk ranking for plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Koji; Yonebayashi, Kenji; Narumiya, Yoshiyuki; Sakata, Kaoru; Kumano, Tetsuji

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power is the base load electricity source in Japan, and reduction of operation and maintenance cost maintaining or improving plant safety is one of the major issues. Recently, Risk Informed Management (RIM) is focused as a solution. In this paper, the outline regarding feasibility study of component risk ranking for plant maintenance for a typical Japanese PWR plant is described. A feasibility study of component risk raking for plant maintenance optimization is performed on check valves and motor-operated valves. Risk ranking is performed in two steps using probabilistic analysis (quantitative method) for risk ranking of components, and deterministic examination (qualitative method) for component review. In this study, plant components are ranked from the viewpoint of plant safety / reliability, and the applicability for maintenance is assessed. As a result, distribution of maintenance resources using risk ranking is considered effective. (author)

  9. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-06-08

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study's multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  10. Correlational Study of Risk Management and Information Technology Project Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Seth J.

    2014-01-01

    Many IT projects fail despite the best efforts to keep these projects within budget, schedule, and scope. Few studies have looked at the effect of project risk management tools and techniques on project success. The primary focus of this study was to examine the extent to which utilization of project risk management processes influence project…

  11. Risk perception, experience, and objective risk: a cross-national study with European emergency survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Daniela; Kehl, Doris; Hulse, Lynn; Schmidt, Silke

    2014-07-01

    Understanding public risk perceptions and their underlying processes is important in order to learn more about the way people interpret and respond to hazardous emergency events. Direct experience with an involuntary hazard has been found to heighten the perceived risk of experiencing the same hazard and its consequences in the future, but it remains unclear if cross-over effects are possible (i.e., experience with one hazard influencing perceived risk for other hazards also). Furthermore, the impact of objective risk and country of residence on perceived risk is not well understood. As part of the BeSeCu (Behavior, Security, and Culture) Project, a sample of 1,045 survivors of emergencies from seven European countries (i.e., Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland, Sweden, Spain, Turkey, and Italy) was drawn. Results revealed heightened perceived risk for emergency events (i.e., domestic and public fires, earthquakes, floods, and terrorist attacks) when the event had been experienced previously plus some evidence of cross-over effects, although these effects were not so strong. The largest country differences in perceived risk were observed for earthquakes, but this effect was significantly reduced by taking into account the objective earthquake risk. For fires, floods, terrorist attacks, and traffic accidents, only small country differences in perceived risk were found. Further studies including a larger number of countries are welcomed. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Review of studies related to uncertainty in risk analsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rish, W.R.; Marnicio, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating on a national level the risks associated with technological sources of ionizing radiation in the environment. A critical activity of the ORP is analyzing and evaluating risk. The ORP believes that the analysis of uncertainty should be an integral part of any risk assessment; therefore, the ORP has initiated a project to develop framework for the treatment of uncertainty in risk analysis. Summaries of recent studies done in five areas of study are presented

  13. Review of studies related to uncertainty in risk analsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rish, W.R.; Marnicio, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation Programs (ORP) is responsible for regulating on a national level the risks associated with technological sources of ionizing radiation in the environment. A critical activity of the ORP is analyzing and evaluating risk. The ORP believes that the analysis of uncertainty should be an integral part of any risk assessment; therefore, the ORP has initiated a project to develop framework for the treatment of uncertainty in risk analysis. Summaries of recent studies done in five areas of study are presented.

  14. Risk of falls after withdrawal of fall-risk-increasing drugs: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Nathalie; Stricker, Bruno H. Ch; Pols, Huib A. P.; van der Cammen, Tischa J. M.

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Falling in older persons is a frequent and serious clinical problem. Several drugs have been associated with increased fall risk. The objective of this study was to identify differences in the incidence of falls after withdrawal (discontinuation or dose reduction) of fall-risk-increasing drugs

  15. Risk of cardiovascular disease? A qualitative study of risk interpretation among patients with high cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, P.; Edwards, A.; Risor, M. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown the importance of paying attention to lay peoples' interpretations of risk of disease, in order to explain health-related behavior. However, risk interpretations interplay with social context in complex ways. The objective was to explore how asymptomatic...

  16. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J.

    2017-01-01

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study’s multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  17. HERMES probabilistic risk assessment. Pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisot, F.; Munoz, J.

    1993-01-01

    The study was performed in 1989 of the contribution of probabilistic analysis for the optimal construction of system safety status in aeronautical and European nuclear industries, shows the growing trends towards incorporation of quantitative safety assessment and lead to an agreement to undertake a prototype proof study on Hermes. The main steps of the study and results are presented in the paper

  18. NEW MARKERS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR RISK: FROM STUDIES TO CLINICAL GUIDELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Anichkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available New markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are the subject of an intensive discussion in the scientific literature. The biomarkers (newlipid parameters, inflammatory markers and signs of subclinical atherosclerosis are candidates to be included in models to assess the cumulative risk of CVD. The paper considers the basic studies dealing with new markers of CVD risk and their place in current clinical recommendations.

  19. Basic aspects and results of the German risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Heuser, F.W.

    1981-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the investigations and results of the German Risk Study (Phase A). Similar to its American counterpart [Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400)], the German Risk Study assesses the societal risks associated with potential accidents in nuclear power plants sited in the Federal Republic of Germany. The technical part of the analysis was performed for a representative pressurized-water-reactor nuclear power plant of the 1300-MW(e) class. For the risk assessment, 19 sites were considered, with a total of 25 reactor units presently in operation, under construction, or undergoing the licensing procedure. In the spring of 1981 a translation of the main report [German Risk Study-Main Report (EPRI-NP-1804-SR)], including the investigations and results of Phase A, was published by the Electric Power Research Institute

  20. The study of risk in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Simonneau

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of published evidence exists on the risk factors for disease progression in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. The Scientific Steering Committee for the Study of Risk in PAH was established to bring together leading clinical and statistical experts in PAH and risk modelling, for the purpose of advancing the understanding of the risk of development and progression of PAH. Herein, we discuss the impact of this information on three key areas: 1 clinical decision-making; 2 policy and reimbursement; and 3 future trials and research.

  1. Modelling and propagation of uncertainties in the German Risk Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, E.; Krzykacz, B.

    1982-01-01

    Risk assessments are generally subject to uncertainty considerations. This is because of the various estimates that are involved. The paper points out those estimates in the so-called phase A of the German Risk Study, for which uncertainties were quantified. It explains the probabilistic models applied in the assessment to their impact on the findings of the study. Finally the resulting subjective confidence intervals of the study results are presented and their sensitivity to these probabilistic models is investigated

  2. Risk factors for autism: An Egyptian study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farida El-Baz

    IQ assessment using Stanford–Binrent intelligence scale, and assessment of severity ... All studied developmental milestones were delayed among autistic children than ... Peer review under responsibility of Ain Shams University. ..... Treatment and educa- ..... communication in people with autism and intellectual disability. J.

  3. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  4. Psychosocial risks evaluation factors: study with higher education teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Lopes Borges

    2018-02-01

    Method: The study consisted of the administration of two instruments, one for the characterization of the sample and the other for assessing psychosocial risk factors — the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire — consisting of 76 items (5-point Likert scale, distributed in five dimensions, which measure indicators of exposure to psychosocial risks and their effects. Results: The study included 59 teachers, mostly men (50.8%, aged between 41 - 50 years (45.8%, with master's degree (59%, assistant professors (47.5%; with a stable employment relationship (68%, years of service between 14-17 years (18.7% and teaching between 11 - 17 hours a week (64.4%. The analysis of the various subscales revealed a psychosocial risk, showing that teachers are in a situation of vulnerability. There were significant differences between the risks experienced in public higher education and those experienced in private higher education. Gender, age, academic background, and professional category influenced the type of psychosocial risk. Conclusions: The study confirms the importance of the evaluation of psychosocial risk factors in the exercise of the teaching profession in higher education. It is recognized that it is necessary to assess and manage psychosocial risks in order to promote healthy working conditions, ensure respect and fair treatment, and encourage the promotion of work / family life balance, in order to minimize psychosocial risks and situations of vulnerability in higher education teachers.

  5. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Epidemiological studies of radiation risks (NRPB Association)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.; Kellerer, A.M.; Chmelevsky, D.

    1993-01-01

    Objectives of project are: to analyse data on populations exposed to high doses of radiation, such as the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and groups of uranium miners; to examine data on populations exposed at low doses and methods for analysing such data; to perform preparatory work for the compilation of 'probability of causation' tables that are specific to EC countries and that also cover radon daughter exposures; to study the incidence and mortality from thyroid cancer in a cohort with medical exposures to 131 I; to study cancer incidence and mortality among Swedish patients given radiotherapy for skin haemangioma in childhood; and to examine the incidence of second tumours among Italian patients given radiotherapy for cancer of the head, neck, breast, endometrium, uterine cervix or thyroid. Results of the six contributions for the reporting period are presented. (R.P.) 4 refs

  7. Screening situations for risk of ethical conflicts: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol L; Hellyer, Joan Henriksen; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Miers, Anne G; Squire, Karina

    2015-05-01

    Ethical conflicts, often leading to poor teamwork and moral distress, are very challenging to patients, patients' families, and health care providers. A proactive approach to ethical conflicts may improve patient care outcomes. To examine acceptability and feasibility of an ethics screening and early intervention tool for use by nurses caring for critically ill patients. Twenty-eight nurses in 2 medical centers applied the ethics screening tool to 55 patient situations. Nurses assessed situations for risk factors and early indicators of ethical conflicts and analyzed level of risk. At study completion, nurses participated in focus group discussions about the tool's benefits and challenges. Frequency counts were performed on risk factors and early indicators of ethical conflicts. Content analysis was used on written explanations regarding high-, medium-, and low-risk situations and on focus group data. Older patients with multiple comorbid conditions and aggressive treatments were frequently assessed to be at risk for ethical conflicts. Nurses who witnessed patients' suffering and deterioration were likely to initiate the screening process. The most prominent family risk factors included unrealistic expectations and adamancy about treatment. The most prominent early indicators were signs of patients' suffering, unrealistic expectations, and providers' own moral distress. High-risk situations averaged a greater number of risk factors and early indicators than did medium- and low-risk situations. Certain risk factors featured prominently in high-risk situations. A phenomenon of shared suffering emerged from the study and signifies the importance of relational strategies such as routine family conferences and ethics consultation. ©2015 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  8. Automated Risk Assessment for School Violence: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzman, Drew; Ni, Yizhao; Griffey, Marcus; Bachtel, Alycia; Lin, Kenneth; Jackson, Hannah; Sorter, Michael; DelBello, Melissa

    2018-05-01

    School violence has increased over the past ten years. This study evaluated students using a more standard and sensitive method to help identify students who are at high risk for school violence. 103 participants were recruited through Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) from psychiatry outpatient clinics, the inpatient units, and the emergency department. Participants (ages 12-18) were active students in 74 traditional schools (i.e. non-online education). Collateral information was gathered from guardians before participants were evaluated. School risk evaluations were performed with each participant, and audio recordings from the evaluations were later transcribed and manually annotated. The BRACHA (School Version) and the School Safety Scale (SSS), both 14-item scales, were used. A template of open-ended questions was also used. This analysis included 103 participants who were recruited from 74 different schools. Of the 103 students evaluated, 55 were found to be moderate to high risk and 48 were found to be low risk based on the paper risk assessments including the BRACHA and SSS. Both the BRACHA and the SSS were highly correlated with risk of violence to others (Pearson correlations>0.82). There were significant differences in BRACHA and SSS total scores between low risk and high risk to others groups (p-values machine learning algorithm achieved an AUC of 91.02% when using the interview content to predict risk of school violence, and the AUC increased to 91.45% when demographic and socioeconomic data were added. Our study indicates that the BRACHA and SSS are clinically useful for assessing risk for school violence. The machine learning algorithm was highly accurate in assessing school violence risk.

  9. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, O [Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.). Programmgruppe Technik und Gesellschaft; Swaton, E [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Joint IAEA-IIASA Risk Assessment Group

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed.

  10. Psychological and sociological approaches to study risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.; Swaton, E.

    1984-01-01

    Technological progress and its impacts on humankind has caused an increasing awareness of risk, and objective, statistical estimations are often inadequate to alleviate the public's fright and fear. Research on risk perception using psychological and sociological approaches is trying to bridge this gap. As a first step, a distinction must be made between the technical definition of risk (probability x consequences) and the social definition, in which additional parameters (source, dimensions, timeframe, exposure) need to be included. The methodology of risk assessment, though objective by design, is limited in the interpretability of its results, if the calculation of consequences does not take public perceptions and social effects into account. The problems and advantages of risk assessment are discussed, and the key questions for risk perception research are presented. Various techniques are available to study risk perception and attitudes towards risk; selection of a specific technique is determined by the objective of the research, namely sociological implications or psychological cognitions. Several empirical studies in both areas are presented and the results discussed. (author)

  11. Czech miner studies of lung cancer risk from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence of lung cancer risk from radon is based mainly on studies of miners. Two such studies among Czech uranium miners were established in 1970 and 1980. A subcohort of 5002 miners and a nested-in case-control study contribute to a joint European project. In this paper, the subcohort of miners with 495 lung cancers is described. The excess relative risk depends linearly on cumulative exposure incurred more than 5 years before. The relative effect from exposures in the distant past decreases by 62% per decade. Simultaneously, the excess relative risk is lower by 43% per decade in dependence on age at exposure. The effect of smoking, partly analysed in the study, suggests a twofold elevation in the relative risk coefficient among non-smokers, but this difference is not significant. (author)

  12. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  13. Main results of the German nuclear power plant risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzmann, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; purpose and task of the German risk study; approach; results of investigations (analyses of engineered plant features; determination of accident consequences); emergency response model; protective actions and countermeasures; evaluation. (U.K.)

  14. Risk factors for oligodendroglial tumors: a pooled international study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCarthy, Bridget J; Rankin, Kristin M; Aldape, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Oligodendroglial tumors are rare subtypes of brain tumors and are often combined with other glial tumors in epidemiological analyses. However, different demographic associations and clinical characteristics suggest potentially different risk factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate p...

  15. BNSF San Bernardino case study : positive train control risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration funded the BNSF San Bernardino Case Study to verify its Generalized Train Movement : Simulator (GTMS) risk assessment capabilities on a planned implementation of the I-ETMS PTC system. The analysis explicitly : sim...

  16. Physical activity, obesity, weight change, and risk of atrial fibrillation: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxley, Rachel R; Misialek, Jeffrey R; Agarwal, Sunil K; Loehr, Laura R; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Chen, Lin Y; Alonso, Alvaro

    2014-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) has previously been suggested to attenuate the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) conferred by excess body weight and weight gain. We prospectively examined the relationship between body size, weight change, and level of PA in a biracial cohort of middle-aged men and women. Baseline characteristics on risk factor levels were obtained on 14 219 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. AF incidence was ascertained from 1987 to 2009. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the associations between body mass index, waist circumference, relative weight change, and PA level with incident AF. During follow-up, there were 1775 cases of incident AF. Body mass index and waist circumference were positively associated with AF as was weight loss/gain of >5% initial body weight. An ideal level of PA had a small protective effect on AF risk and partially attenuated the risk of AF associated with excess weight in men but not women: compared with men with a normal body mass index, the risk of AF in obese men with an ideal, intermediate, and poor level of PA at baseline was increased by 37%, 129%, and 156% (Pinteraction=0.04). During follow-up, PA did not modify the association between weight gain and risk of AF. Obesity and extreme weight change are risk factors for incident AF, whereas being physically active is associated with a small reduction in risk. In men only, being physically active offset some, but not all, of the risk incurred with excess body weight. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Methods and models used in comparative risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devooght, J.

    1983-01-01

    Comparative risk studies make use of a large number of methods and models based upon a set of assumptions incompletely formulated or of value judgements. Owing to the multidimensionality of risks and benefits, the economic and social context may notably influence the final result. Five classes of models are briefly reviewed: accounting of fluxes of effluents, radiation and energy; transport models and health effects; systems reliability and bayesian analysis; economic analysis of reliability and cost-risk-benefit analysis; decision theory in presence of uncertainty and multiple objectives. Purpose and prospect of comparative studies are assessed in view of probable diminishing returns for large generic comparisons [fr

  18. Lifestyle Risk Factors Increase the Risk of Hospitalization for Sciatica: Findings of Four Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Euro, Ulla; Heliövaara, Markku; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Karppinen, Jaro; Lahti, Jouni; Rahkonen, Ossi; Raitakari, Olli T; Solovieva, Svetlana; Yang, Xiaolin; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of lifestyle risk factors on the risk of hospitalization for sciatica and to determine whether overweight or obesity modifies the effect of leisure-time physical activity on hospitalization for sciatica. We included 4 Finnish prospective cohort studies (Health 2000 Survey, Mobile Clinic Survey, Helsinki Health Study, and Young Finns Study) consisting of 34,589 participants and 1259 hospitalizations for sciatica during 12 to 30 years of follow-up. Sciatica was based on hospital discharge register data. We conducted a random-effects individual participant data meta-analysis. After adjustment for confounding factors, current smoking at baseline increased the risk of subsequent hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-56%), whereas past smokers were no longer at increased risk. Obesity defined by body mass index increased the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 36% (95% CI 7%-74%), and abdominal obesity defined by waist circumference increased the risk by 41% (95% CI 3%-93%). Walking or cycling to work reduced the risk of hospitalization for sciatica by 33% (95% CI 4%-53%), and the effect was independent of body weight and other leisure activities, while other types of leisure activities did not have a statistically significant effect. Smoking and obesity increase the risk of hospitalization for sciatica, whereas walking or cycling to work protects against hospitalization for sciatica. Walking and cycling can be recommended for the prevention of sciatica in the general population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Power sector investment risk and renewable energy: A Japanese case study using portfolio risk optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Anindya; Kojima, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The conventional pricing mechanism used for electricity systematically hides huge investment risks which are embedded in the overall cost of production. Although consumers are often unaware of these risks, they present a large financial burden on the economy. This study applies the portfolio optimization concepts from the field of finance to demonstrate the scope of greater utilization of renewable energies (RE) while reducing the embedded investment risk in the conventional electricity sector and its related financial burden. This study demonstrates that RE investment can compensate for the risks associated with the total input costs; such costs being external volatilities of fossil fuel prices, capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and the carbon costs. By means of example, this case study shows that Japan could in theory obtain up to 9% of its electricity supply from green sources, as compared to the present 1.37%, based on the utilization of a portfolio risk-analysis evaluation. Explicit comparison of the monetary values of the investment risks of conventional and renewable energy sources shows that renewable energies have high market competitiveness. The study concludes with a recommendation that, as a business objective, investors would benefit by focusing on electricity supply portfolio risk minimization instead of cost. This could also inherently increase the supply of renewable energy in the market. - Research highlights: ►Energy sector investors should not be bothered only about the absolute cost figures of the input factors like fossil fuels but should also be careful about the fluctuation of their costs while making the investment decisions. ►Inclusion of renewable energy in the investment portfolio can increase the cost apparently but can reduce the risk hedging costs, too. ►International carbon price may not be a good factor to encourage renewable energy investment in the market.

  20. German study on the risks of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollny, V.

    1987-01-01

    The 'Deutsche Risikostudie Kernkraftwerke', DRS, (German study on the risks of nuclear plants) calculates a frequency of 1/10000 years (i.e. once in 10000 years of reactor operation) for the event of insufficient cooling of the reactor core occurring. The resulting collective risk is put at approximately 10 deaths per year for 25 plants. As the explanations show, the error margin of such a risk statement is enormous. Moreover, much seems to indicate that the risk was underrated. Apart from this, risk analyses are of doubtful value in the decision process for or against the introduction of large-scale technologies. They cannot replace the individual decision of all concerned. (orig./HSCH) [de

  1. Case studies: Risk-based analysis of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Minton, L.A.; Gaertner, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The SOCRATES computer program uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) or a system level risk analysis to calculate changes in risk due to changes in the surveillance test interval and/or the allowed outage time stated in the technical specification. The computer program can accommodate various testing strategies (such as staggered or simultaneous testing) to allow modeling of component testing as it is carried out at a plant. The methods and computer program are an integral part of a larger decision process aimed at determining benefits from technical specification changes. These benefits can include cost savings to the utilities by reducing forced shutdowns with no adverse impacts on risk. Three summaries of case study applications are included to demonstrate the types of results that can be achieved through risk-based evaluation of technical specifications. (orig.)

  2. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  3. Study on information dissemination for effective nuclear risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study are to develop an information system and guideline for nuclear risk communication between expert and citizens as well as between both experts in terms of lessons learned from serious disaster such as Fukushima Dai-ich NPP accident. Technical standards for disseminating a result and process of seismic/tsunami PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) of nuclear facility as well as nuclear risk information in an emergency, and risk communication in normal times are needed. Tins study examines the framework, contents, and technical basis for developing an information system for nuclear risk communication. In addition, this study identifies the communication issues of nuclear risk communication concerning the seismic/tsunami PRA through the testing information systems in areas around nuclear facilities and by providing effective implementation guidelines. JNES has developed the information system specified as Protection of Nuclear Power Plants against Tsunamis and Post Earthquake considerations in the External Zone (TiPEEZ) as part of IAEA International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) Extra Budgetary Programme (EBP). The EBP is currently preparing technical documents (TECDOC) regarding the implementation of the TiPEEZ. After the Fukushima accident, there has been increasing demand for disaster mitigation systems to share risk information between nuclear organizations and local municipalities. JNES and Niigata Institute of Technology conduct implementation of TiPEEZ for the practical use based on the corroborative works with Kashiwazaki city and citizens. (author)

  4. Social network, social support, and risk of incident stroke: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Mako; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Iso, Hiroyasu; Mosley, Thomas H; Rose, Kathryn M; Lutsey, Pamela L

    2014-10-01

    Having a small social network and lack of social support have been associated with incident coronary heart disease; however, epidemiological evidence for incident stroke is limited. We assessed the longitudinal association of a small social network and lack of social support with risk of incident stroke and evaluated whether the association was partly mediated by vital exhaustion and inflammation. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study measured social network and social support in 13 686 men and women (mean, 57 years; 56% women; 24% black; 76% white) without a history of stroke. Social network was assessed by the 10-item Lubben Social Network Scale and social support by a 16-item Interpersonal Support Evaluation List-Short Form. During a median follow-up of 18.6 years, 905 incident strokes occurred. Relative to participants with a large social network, those with a small social network had a higher risk of stroke (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.44 [1.02-2.04]) after adjustment for demographics, socioeconomic variables, marital status, behavioral risk factors, and major stroke risk factors. Vital exhaustion, but not inflammation, partly mediated the association between a small social network and incident stroke. Social support was unrelated to incident stroke. In this sample of US community-dwelling men and women, having a small social network was associated with excess risk of incident stroke. As with other cardiovascular conditions, having a small social network may be associated with a modestly increased risk of incident stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Human risk relationships derived from epidemiology and laboratory studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuddihy, R.G.; Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Proven techniques are needed for incorporating the results of laboratory toxicology studies into human risk assessments. Two sample calculations of lung cancer risk factors for inhaled radioactive particles and diesel engine exhaust are given here to illustrate a toxicology information matrix approach. This approach combines the results of epidemiology and laboratory animal studies of the substance or agent of principal concern, along with similar information on other surrogate substances. Beyond the estimates of lung cancer risk factors derived by using this approach, an additional advantage is gained by having estimates of uncertainty that can be obtained by incorporating all available toxicology information into the analysis. This approach is recommended for both risk assessment and in designing follow-on toxicology studies to improve preliminary assessments for new potentially harmful agents entering our environment

  6. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Arias, R. [Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Prades, A. [Ciemat, Madrid (Spain); Arranz, L. [Hospital Ramon y Cajal, Madrid (Spain); Macias, M.T. [CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2000-05-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  7. Sustainability and Risk Disclosure: An Exploratory Study on Sustainability Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Truant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure (2014/95/EU, the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB, the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB, and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC stress the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social, and environmental risks within financial and social-environmental reporting. Institutional pressure has notably increased among organizations, in setting up risk management tools to understand sustainability risks within managerial and reporting practices. Given such institutional pressure, the corporate reaction in providing additional sustainability risk disclosure calls for attention and scrutiny. Therefore, this study aims at addressing such issues from an exploratory perspective. We based our analysis on a sample of large Italian organizations that issued sustainability disclosure in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, G4 guidelines, and we tested the relationship between their level of risk disclosure and other relevant variables. Consistently with the literature, we found that “experienced” sustainable reporters provide a significant volume of disclosure, and that disclosure quality on risk is positively influenced by their international presence and reporting experience. However, when accounting for specific risk-related areas of disclosure, only a few of them seem to adopt a managerial perspective linking strategy, risk metrics, and disclosure.

  8. The structure of risk perception. A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Arias, R.; Prades, A.; Arranz, L.; Macias, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    Research by cognitive and social psychologists has demonstrated that when lay persons make estimates of risks they do not merely calculate in terms of probabilistic information. People tend to construe the risk in accordance with other schemata. The Psychometric Paradigm (Slovic et. al., 1980), found out two main dimensions in the perception of risk: the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness factors. This paper presents some of the key findings of a comparative Latin-American study on radiological risk perception in the health area. The main objective is to check whether or not the Dread and the Familiarity-Voluntariness dimensions explain the perception of risk in this specific context. A questionnaire was distributed to outpatient samples from ten countries: Argentine, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, and Spain, thanks to the collaboration of the different National Radioprotection Societies of the above mentioned countries, and of other concerned professionals (in case they didn't have any association at the time). A list of 22 risks, including both radiological and non-radiological ones, were evaluated on two rating scales: possibility and seriousness. Factor analysis, both exploratory and confirmatory, as well as Multidimensional Scaling will be used for the data analysis. The paper will discuss the main cross-cultural differences with regard to the structure of risk perception. The peculiarities of the health related risks will be emphasised. (author)

  9. Study of a risk-based piping inspection guideline system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Shiaw-Wen; Hwang, Wen-Tsung; Tsai, Chih-Hung

    2007-02-01

    A risk-based inspection system and a piping inspection guideline model were developed in this study. The research procedure consists of two parts--the building of a risk-based inspection model for piping and the construction of a risk-based piping inspection guideline model. Field visits at the plant were conducted to develop the risk-based inspection and strategic analysis system. A knowledge-based model had been built in accordance with international standards and local government regulations, and the rational unified process was applied for reducing the discrepancy in the development of the models. The models had been designed to analyze damage factors, damage models, and potential damage positions of piping in the petrochemical plants. The purpose of this study was to provide inspection-related personnel with the optimal planning tools for piping inspections, hence, to enable effective predictions of potential piping risks and to enhance the better degree of safety in plant operations that the petrochemical industries can be expected to achieve. A risk analysis was conducted on the piping system of a petrochemical plant. The outcome indicated that most of the risks resulted from a small number of pipelines.

  10. Risk for Researchers Studying Social Deviance or Criminal Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Brougham

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Researchers often encounter dangerous situations while conducting social research. The concept of risk to researchers refers to the possible harm that may occur to researchers while in the field or after leaving a research project. This study explores issues experienced by social scientists engaged in research on social deviance or criminal behavior. The goal of this research was to discover the types of risk experienced by social scientists and any mediating factors affecting the experience of risk. An online survey was conducted to gather data on issues experienced by social scientists. This study found that researchers experienced a variety of risks within the categories of physical/health, emotional, legal, and personal/professional. Each of the survey options for risk were reported by at least one respondent; however, the greatest number of risks reported were of an emotional or personal/professional nature. There were no mediating factors found to be significant in relation to the experience of risk. This was a surprising finding especially for the variable of gender as it is suggested that gender plays a role in the experience of difficulties.

  11. Gout in Older Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bridget Teevan; Köttgen, Anna; Law, Andrew; Grams, Morgan; Baer, Alan N.; Coresh, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age predict the onset of gout in older age. Methods: We studied the incidence of gout in older adults using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective U.S. population–based cohort of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing follow-up. A genetic urate score was formed from common urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms for eight genes. The adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of incident gout by traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The cumulative incidence from middle age to age 65 was 8.6% in men and 2.5% in women; by age 75 the cumulative incidence was 11.8% and 5.0%. In middle age, increased adiposity, beer intake, protein intake, smoking status, hypertension, diuretic use, and kidney function (but not sex) were associated with an increased gout risk in older age. In addition, a 100 µmol/L increase in genetic urate score was associated with a 3.29-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.63–6.63) increased gout risk in older age. Conclusions: These findings suggest that traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age may be useful for identifying those at risk of gout in older age. PMID:26714568

  12. Risk factors for cataract: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ughade Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed as a hospital-based, group-matched, case-control investigation into the risk factors associated with age-related cataract in central India. The study included 262 cases of age-related cataract and an equal number of controls. A total of 21 risk factors were evaluated: namely, low socioeconomic status (SES, illiteracy, marital status, history of diarrhoea, history of diabetes, glaucoma, use of cholinesterase inhibitors, steroids, spironolactone, nifedipine, analgesics, myopia early in life, renal failure, heavy smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, hypertension, low body mass index (BMI, use of cheaper cooking fuel, working in direct sunlight, family history of cataract, and occupational exposure. In univariate analysis, except marital status, low BMI, renal failure, use of steroids, spironolactone, analgesics, and occupational exposure, all 14 other risk factors were found significantly associated with age-related cataract. Unconditional multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the significance of low SES, illiteracy, history of diarrhoea, diabetes, glaucoma, myopia, smoking, hypertension and cheap cooking fuel. The etiological role of these risk factors in the outcome of cataract is confirmed by the estimates of attributable risk proportion. The estimates of population attributable risk proportion for these factors highlight the impact of elimination of these risk factors on the reduction of cataract in this population.

  13. Recent case studies and advancements in probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    During the period from 1977 to 1984, Pickard, Lowe and Garrick, Inc., had the lead in preparing several full scope probabilistic risk assessments for electric utilities. Five of those studies are discussed from the point of view of advancements and lessons learned. The objective and trend of these studies is toward utilization of the risk models by the plant owners as risk management tools. Advancements that have been made are in presentation ad documentation of the PRAs, generation of more understandable plant level information, and improvements in methodology to facilitate technology transfer. Specific areas of advancement are in the treatment of such issues as dependent failures, human interaction, and the uncertainty in the source term. Lessons learned cover a wide spectrum and include the importance of plant specific models for meaningful risk management, the role of external events in risk, the sensitivity of contributors to choice of risk index, and the very important finding that the public risk is extremely small. The future direction of PRA is to establish less dependence on experts for in-plant application. Computerizing the PRAs such that they can be accessed on line and interactively is the key

  14. Updating risk prediction tools: a case study in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankerst, Donna P; Koniarski, Tim; Liang, Yuanyuan; Leach, Robin J; Feng, Ziding; Sanda, Martin G; Partin, Alan W; Chan, Daniel W; Kagan, Jacob; Sokoll, Lori; Wei, John T; Thompson, Ian M

    2012-01-01

    Online risk prediction tools for common cancers are now easily accessible and widely used by patients and doctors for informed decision-making concerning screening and diagnosis. A practical problem is as cancer research moves forward and new biomarkers and risk factors are discovered, there is a need to update the risk algorithms to include them. Typically, the new markers and risk factors cannot be retrospectively measured on the same study participants used to develop the original prediction tool, necessitating the merging of a separate study of different participants, which may be much smaller in sample size and of a different design. Validation of the updated tool on a third independent data set is warranted before the updated tool can go online. This article reports on the application of Bayes rule for updating risk prediction tools to include a set of biomarkers measured in an external study to the original study used to develop the risk prediction tool. The procedure is illustrated in the context of updating the online Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator to incorporate the new markers %freePSA and [-2]proPSA measured on an external case-control study performed in Texas, U.S.. Recent state-of-the art methods in validation of risk prediction tools and evaluation of the improvement of updated to original tools are implemented using an external validation set provided by the U.S. Early Detection Research Network. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome and Falls Risk: A Multi-Center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisaya, Michele L.; Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Lipton, Richard B.; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai K.; Verghese, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Background The Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome (MCR) is characterized by slow gait speed and cognitive complaints. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine if the presence of MCR increases the risk of falls in older people. Methods Individual participant data (n = 6,204) from five longitudinal studies from three countries were used for this analysis. MCR diagnosis was defined as both the presence of objectively measured slow gait speed and subjective cognitive complaints in those without dementia or mobility disability. Falls were prospectively ascertained using phone calls or questionnaires. Log binomial regression was performed to determine if MCR increased the risk of falls separately in each cohort. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool results from all cohorts. Results The mean age of participants was 74.9 (SD 6.8) years and 44% (n = 2728) were male. Overall 33.9% (n = 2104) reported a fall over follow-up. Pooled relative risk of MCR with any falls was RR 1.44 95% CI 1.16, 1.79. The components of MCR, slow gait (RR 1.30 95% CI 1.14, 1.47) and cognitive complaint (RR 1.25, 95% CI 1.07, 1.46) were also associated with an increased risk of any falls. In sub-analyses MCR was associated with any fall independent of previous falls (RR 1.29 95% CI 1.09, 1.53) and with multiple falls (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.25, 2.51). Conclusion MCR is associated with an increased risk of falls. The increase in risk was higher than for its individual components. The simplicity of the MCR makes it an attractive falls risk screening tool for the clinic. PMID:27340851

  16. The Oncogenic Risks of Diagnostic CT Scam Studies in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent, R.

    2004-01-01

    Brenner et al (2001) reported that estimates of the exposure to children from CT scans indicates that the exposures are both higher than from conventional radiographic studies and higher than is necessary to obtain quality examinations. utilizing the oncogenic risk data from the RERF study in Japan, Brenner et al estimated that the oncogenic risk in this population of CT exposed children exposed each year would result in an additional 500 cases of cancer. This risk estimate is supported by the RERF epidemiological data obtained from the populations exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. the increased risks associated with the increased exposure from CT scans have raised concern and stimulated discussion. Although there is little doubt about the benefits of CT scans in improving the health care of children, there is concern about the estimated oncogenic risk, especially since the frequency of CT studies has been increasing. Applying the oncogenic risks of ionizing radiation from the RERF data may not be appropriate for all types of radiation exposure for accurately predicting the incidence of cancer in exposed children because of the impact of 1) partial versus whole-body irradiation, and 2) the protraction of the exposure. Other population of children who have been exposed to radiation and whose incidence of cancer has been studied will be presented and those studies indicate that the risk of cancer is much lower or not increased at all with exposures in the diagnostic range. finally, the dramatic impact of the use of CT scans in clinical pediatric practice saves lives and improves diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, it is crucial that a scholarly evaluation of the risks and benefits should be initiated. The radiology community and the manufacturers have already initiated programs to decrease the exposure significantly. But it is essential that well-planned, retrospective and prospective epidemiology studies should be initiated to study the oncogenic risks. If you want to

  17. Suicide risk in placebo-controlled studies of major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storosum, J. G.; van Zwieten, B. J.; van den Brink, W.; Gersons, B. P.; Broekmans, A. W.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if fear of an increased risk of attempted suicide in placebo groups participating in placebo-controlled studies is an argument against the performance of placebo-controlled trials in studies of major depression. All short-term and long-term,

  18. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites......BACKGROUND: Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample...... (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. RESULTS: While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores...

  19. Social ties and risk for cancer - a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C.; Prescott, E.; Gronbaek, M.

    2009-01-01

    consisted of 8 548 Danes who had been examined in 1991-1994 within the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The median length of follow-up was 9.3 years (range, 0-11.2 years). Social ties were measured from answers to a questionnaire on social networks. Regression analyses for cancers at the most frequent sites......Background. Poor social support and small social networks have been associated with increased risks for conditions such as coronary heart disease as well as with overall mortality. We investigated the association between social ties and risk for cancer. Material and methods. The study sample...... (breast, lung, prostate and colon and rectum) were conducted with the Cox proportional hazards model, with adjustment for a number of well-known risk factors for cancer. Results. While we found no significant association between social ties and risk for cancer in men, women with high social network scores...

  20. Exploring inductive risk case studies of values in science

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Science is the most reliable means available for understanding the world around us and our place in it. But, since science draws conclusions based on limited empirical evidence, there is always a chance that a scientific inference will be incorrect. That chance, known as inductive risk, is endemic to science. Though inductive risk has always been present in scientific practice, the role of values in responding to it has only recently gained extensive attention from philosophers, scientists, and policy-makers. Exploring Inductive Risk brings together a set of eleven concrete case studies with the goals of illustrating the pervasiveness of inductive risk, assisting scientists and policymakers in responding to it, and moving theoretical discussions of this phenomenon forward. The case studies range over a wide variety of scientific contexts, including the drug approval process, high energy particle physics, dual-use research, climate science, research on gender disparities in employment, clinical trials, and to...

  1. Familial risks of glomerulonephritis - a nationwide family study in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrawi, Delshad Saleh; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Fjellstedt, Erik; Sundquist, Kristina; Zöller, Bengt

    2016-08-01

    Familial risks of glomerulonephritis (acute, chronic and unspecified glomerulonephritis) have not been studied. This study aims to determine the familial risks of glomerulonephritis. Individuals born from1932 onwards diagnosed with glomerulonephritis (acute [n = 7011], chronic [n = 10,242] and unspecified glomerulonephritis [n = 5762]) were included. The familial risk (Standardized incidence ratio = SIR) was calculated for individuals whose parents/full-siblings were diagnosed with glomerulonephritis compared to those whose parents/full-siblings were not. The procedure was repeated for spouses. Familial concordant risk (same disease in proband and exposed relative) and discordant risk (different disease in proband and exposed relative) of glomerulonephritis were determined. Familial concordant risks (parents/full-sibling history) were: SIR = 3.57 (95% confidence interval, 2.77-4.53) for acute glomerulonephritis, SIR = 3.84 (3.37-4.36) for chronic glomerulonephritis and SIR = 3.75 (2.85-4.83) for unspecified glomerulonephritis. High familial risks were observed if two or more relatives were affected; the SIR was 209.83 (150.51-284.87) in individuals with at least one affected parent as well as one full-sibling. The spouse risk was only moderately increased (SIR = 1.53, 1.33-1.75). Family history of glomerulonephritis is a strong predictor for glomerulonephritis, and is a potentially useful tool in clinical risk assessment. Our data emphasize the contribution of familial factors to the glomerulonephritis burden in the community. Key Messages The familial risks (full-sibling/parent history) of glomerulonephritis (acute, chronic and unspecified glomerulonephritis) have not been determined previously. The familial risks of glomerulonephritis were increased among individuals with family history of acute, chronic or unspecified glomerulonephritis. The familial risks of glomerulonephritis were slightly increased among spouses indicating a

  2. Psychosocial risk factors, weight changes and risk of obesity: the Copenhagen City Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Louise Bagger; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Prescott, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the effects of a range of psychosocial factors on weight changes and risk of obesity. The study population consisted of the 4,753 participants in the third (1991-1994) and fourth wave (2001-2003) of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. At baseline...... the participants were asked comprehensive questions on major life events, work stress, vital exhaustion, social network, economic hardship, and intake of sleep medication. Weight and height were measured by health professionals. Weight changes and incident obesity was used as outcome measures. The participants...... in the associations between social network, economic hardship and weight gain or obesity. The number of psychosocial risk factors, as an indicator for clustering, was not associated with weight gain or obesity. In conclusion, major life events and vital exhaustion seem to play a role for weight gain and risk...

  3. Risk factors of kernicterus; a study in 312 icteric neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjati Ardakani S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kernicterus, also known as bilirubin encephalopathy, is a neurologic syndrome resulting from the deposition of unconjugated bilirubin in the basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei. Indirect bilirubin is toxic for brain. Neurologic dysfunction (BIND that include acute phase (hyperbilirubin encephalopathy and chronic phase (Kernicterus resulting from hyperbilirubinemia and disruption of blood brain barrier. In this study, the association between bilirubin encephalopathy and risk factors was evaluated. Methods: In this retrospective study, 312 icteric neonates were admitted in the neonatal ward of Children's Hospital, Medical Center, Tehran, and 305 of these cases were evaluated. Patient histories were taken and physical examinations were performed. For each patient, the age, sex, birth weight, time of discharge from the hospital and risk factors were recorded, and a questionnaire was completed. Results: In this study, of the 305 icteric neonates evaluated, 25 cases had kernicterus. Risk factors included acidosis, prematurity, hemolysis, hypoglycemia, sepsis, respiratory distress, low birth weight, ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency. The mean level of bilirubin in cases of kernicterus was 32 mg/dl and in the others was 20 mg/dl (p=0.001. Kernicterus was most common among high risk neonates (p<0.001. Birth weight less than 2,500 gm was also an important factor (p=0.04. Conclusion: High-risk neonates need prompt treatment for hyperbilirubinemia compared to low risk neonates.

  4. Supply chain risk management of newspaper industry: A quantitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartika, Viny; Hisjam, Muh.; Sutopo, Wahyudi

    2018-02-01

    The newspaper industry has several distinctive features that make it stands out from other industries. The strict delivery deadline and zero inventory led to a very short time frame for production and distribution. On the other hand, there is pressure from the newsroom to encourage the start of production as slowly as possible in order to enter the news, while there is pressure from production and distribution to start production as early as possible. Supply chain risk management is needed in determining the best strategy for dealing with possible risks in the newspaper industry. In a case study of a newspaper in Surakarta, quantitative approaches are made to the newspaper supply chain risk management by calculating the expected cost of risk based on the magnitude of the impact and the probability of a risk event. From the calculation results obtained that the five risks with the highest value are newspaper delays to the end customer, broken plate, miss print, down machine, and delayed delivery of newspaper content. Then analyzed appropriate mitigation strategies to cope with such risk events.

  5. Nutritional risk assessment for Hip fracture, A Case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Torbergsen, Anne Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Patients were included from September 2009 until April 2011. In total 116 patients and 73 healthy non-fractured controls participated. The study has 3 parts. In the first part, we studied micronutrients and the risk of hip fracture in a case control study. In the second part, we conducted a randomized controlled nutrition intervention trial and finally, in the third part, we studied if micronutrients were associated with delirium in...

  6. Risk factors associated with lipomyelomeningocele: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Arash; Hanaei, Sara; Fadakar, Kaveh; Dadkhah, Sahar; Arjipour, Mahdi; Habibi, Zohreh; Nejat, Farideh; El Khashab, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    In general, it seems that both genetic and environmental factors play important roles in the induction of neural tube defects. Lipomyelomeningocele (LipoMMC) is a rather common type of closed neural tube defect, but only limited studies have investigated the potential risk factors of this anomaly. Therefore, the purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the risk factors involved in LipoMMC formation. Various risk factors were evaluated in 35 children between 1 month and 10 years of age with LipoMMC in a hospital-based case-control study. The 2 control arms consisted of 35 children with myelomeningocele (MMC group) and 35 children with congenital anomalies other than central nervous system problems (control group). All groups were matched for age and visited the same hospital. A structured questionnaire was used for the collection of all data, including the mothers' weight and height during pregnancy, education, reproductive history, previous abortions, and socioeconomic status, as well as the parents' consanguinity and family history of the same anomalies. Univariate analysis of the children with LipoMMC compared to the control group showed that the use of periconceptional folic acid supplementation was significantly lower in the MMC and LipoMMC groups compared to the control group. In addition, comparison of the MMC and control groups revealed statistically significant differences regarding the use of folic acid and maternal obesity. In multivariate analysis, use of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester was an independent risk factor for LipoMMC and MMC. Furthermore, maternal obesity was a significantly positive risk factor for MMC. The probable risk factors for LipoMMC were investigated in this case-control study. Consumption of folic acid in the periconceptional period and during the first trimester is an independent protective factor against LipoMMC. It seems that larger studies are needed to examine other possible

  7. Integrated Risk Research. Case of Study: Motozintla, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Jaimes, M.

    2015-12-01

    This integrated risk research include the analysis of all components of individual constituents of risk such hazard identification, hazard exposure, and vulnerability. We determined risk to natural hazards in the community of Motozintla located in southern Mexico in the state of Chiapas (15.37ºN, 92.25ºW. Due to its geographical and geological location, this community is continuously exposed mainly to earthquakes, landslides and floods. We developed integrated studies and analysis of seismic zonation, landslides and flood susceptibility using standard methodologies. Vulnerability was quantified from data collected from local families interviews considering five social variables: characteristics of housing construction, availability of basic public services, family economic conditions, existing community plans for disaster preparedness, and risk perception. Local families surveyed were randomly selected considering a sample statistically significant. Our results were spatially represented using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Structural vulnerability curves were generated for typical housing constructions. Our integrated risk analysis demonstrates that the community of Motozintla has a high level of structural and socio-economical risk to floods and earthquakes. More than half of the population does not know any existing Civil Protection Plan and perceive that they are in high risk to landslides and floods. Although the community is located in a high seismic risk zone, most of the local people believe that cannot be impacted by a large earthquake. These natural and social conditions indicate that the community of Motozintla has a very high level of risk to natural hazards. This research will support local decision makers in developing an integrated comprehensive natural hazards mitigation and prevention program.

  8. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  9. The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Friedman, Daniel J; Mulder, Hillary; Kucharska-Newton, Anna; Rosamond, Wayne R; Lopes, Renato D; Gersh, Bernard J; Mark, Daniel B; Curtis, Lesley H; Post, Wendy S; Prineas, Ronald J; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2017-08-23

    Prior studies have demonstrated a link between the metabolic syndrome and increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Whether the metabolic syndrome is associated with sudden cardiac death is uncertain. We characterized the relationship between sudden cardiac death and metabolic syndrome status among participants of the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) Study (1987-2012) free of prevalent coronary heart disease or heart failure. Among 13 168 participants, 357 (2.7%) sudden cardiac deaths occurred during a median follow-up of 23.6 years. Participants with the metabolic syndrome (n=4444) had a higher cumulative incidence of sudden cardiac death than those without it (n=8724) (4.1% versus 2.3%, P metabolic syndrome, the metabolic syndrome was independently associated with sudden cardiac death (hazard ratio, 1.70, 95% confidence interval, 1.37-2.12, P metabolic syndrome criteria components. The risk of sudden cardiac death varied according to the number of metabolic syndrome components (hazard ratio 1.31 per additional component of the metabolic syndrome, 95% confidence interval, 1.19-1.44, P metabolic syndrome was associated with a significantly increased risk of sudden cardiac death irrespective of sex or race. The risk of sudden cardiac death was proportional to the number of metabolic syndrome components. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Drug and alcohol crash risk : a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study used a case-control design to estimate the risk of crashes involving drivers using drugs, alcohol or both. Data was collected in Virginia Beach, Virginia, for 20 months. The study obtained biological measures on more than 3,000 crash...

  11. Stroke risk and NSAIDs: A systematic review of observational studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Varas-Lorenzo (Cristina); N. Riera-Guardia (Nuria); B. Calingaert (Brian); J. Castellsague (Jordi); A. Pariente (Antoine); L. Scotti (Lorenza); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); S. Perez-Gutthann (Susana)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAims: To perform a quantitative systematic review of observational studies on the risk of stroke associated with the use of individual NSAIDs. Methods and results: Searches were conducted using the Medline database within PubMed (1990-2008). Observational cohort or case-control studies

  12. Debris Flow Risk Management Framework and Risk Analysis in Taiwan, A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Ting-Chi; Hsu, Wen-Ko; Chiou, Lin-Bin; Cheng, Chin-Tung; Lo, Wen-Chun; Chen, Chen-Yu; Lai, Cheng-Nong; Ju, Jiun-Ping

    2010-05-01

    Taiwan is located on a seismically active mountain belt between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasian plate. After 1999's Chi-Chi earthquake (Mw=7.6), landslide and debris flow occurred frequently. In Aug. 2009, Typhoon Morakot struck Taiwan and numerous landslides and debris flow events, some with tremendous fatalities, were observed. With limited resources, authorities should establish a disaster management system to cope with slope disaster risks more effectively. Since 2006, Taiwan's authority in charge of debris flow management, the Soil and Water Conservation Bureau (SWCB), completed the basic investigation and data collection of 1,503 potential debris flow creeks around Taiwan. During 2008 and 2009, a debris flow quantitative risk analysis (QRA) framework, based on landslide risk management framework of Australia, was proposed and conducted on 106 creeks of the 30 villages with debris flow hazard history. Information and value of several types of elements at risk (bridge, road, building and crop) were gathered and integrated into a GIS layer, with the vulnerability model of each elements at risk applied. Through studying the historical hazard events of the 30 villages, numerical simulations of debris flow hazards with different magnitudes (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 years return period) were conducted, the economic losses and fatalities of each scenario were calculated for each creek. When taking annual exceeding probability into account, the annual total risk of each creek was calculated, and the results displayed on a debris flow risk map. The number of fatalities and frequency were calculated, and the F-N curves of 106 creeks were provided. For F-N curves, the individual risk to life per year of 1.0E-04 and slope of 1, which matched with international standards, were considered to be an acceptable risk. Applying the results of the 106 creeks onto the F-N curve, they were divided into 3 categories: Unacceptable, ALARP (As Low As Reasonable Practicable) and

  13. Risk prediction of major complications in individuals with diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, C M; Matsushita, K; Woodward, M; Wagenknecht, L E; Coresh, J; Selvin, E

    2016-09-01

    To develop a prediction equation for 10-year risk of a combined endpoint (incident coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, lower extremity hospitalizations) in people with diabetes, using demographic and clinical information, and a panel of traditional and non-traditional biomarkers. We included in the study 654 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, a prospective cohort study, with diagnosed diabetes (visit 2; 1990-1992). Models included self-reported variables (Model 1), clinical measurements (Model 2), and glycated haemoglobin (Model 3). Model 4 tested the addition of 12 blood-based biomarkers. We compared models using prediction and discrimination statistics. Successive stages of model development improved risk prediction. The C-statistics (95% confidence intervals) of models 1, 2, and 3 were 0.667 (0.64, 0.70), 0.683 (0.65, 0.71), and 0.694 (0.66, 0.72), respectively (p < 0.05 for differences). The addition of three traditional and non-traditional biomarkers [β-2 microglobulin, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and cystatin C-based eGFR] to Model 3 significantly improved discrimination (C-statistic = 0.716; p = 0.003) and accuracy of 10-year risk prediction for major complications in people with diabetes (midpoint percentiles of lowest and highest deciles of predicted risk changed from 18-68% to 12-87%). These biomarkers, particularly those of kidney filtration, may help distinguish between people at low versus high risk of long-term major complications. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Studies of cancer risk among Chernobyl liquidators: materials and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesminiene, A.; Cardis, E.; Tenet, V.; Ivanov, V.K.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Malakhova, I.; Stengrevics, A.; Tekkel, M.

    2002-01-01

    The current paper presents the methods and design of two case-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators - one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, the other of thyroid cancer risk - carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. The specific objective of these studies is to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low-to-medium- (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consists of the approximately 10,000 Baltic, 40,000 Belarus and 51,000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. Four controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, matched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confounding factors for the tumours of interest. Overall, 136 cases and 595 controls after receiving their consent were included in the studies. A method of analytical dose reconstruction has been developed, validated and applied to the estimation of doses and related uncertainties for all the subjects in the study. Dose-response analyses are underway and results are likely to have important implications to assess the adequacy of existing protection standards, which are based on risk estimates derived from analyses of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors and other high dose studies. (author)

  15. Main results of the German risk study - phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    To start the author introduces briefly some comments on main tasks and objectives of risk analysises which at least after the Chernobyl accident should be emphasized more explicitly. Following on some main results of the system - and accident event tree analysis of the German Risk Study, Phase B, are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with the analysis of core melt accidents performed in context of the study. Hetero investigations on the hydrogen problem and investigations on containment venting after a core melt accident will be discussed in more detail

  16. Offshore risk assessment principles, modelling and applications of QRA studies

    CERN Document Server

    Vinnem, Jan-Erik

    2007-01-01

    attempt has been made to capture the new trends in the regulations, to the extent they are known. There have over the last 10-15 years been published a few textbooks on risk assessment, most of them are devoted to relatively generic topics. Some are also focused on the risk management aspects, in general and with offshore applicability. None are known to address the needs and topics of the use of QRA studies by the offshore industry in particular. The present work is trying to bridge this gap. The use of QRA studies is somewhat special in Northern Europe, and par- cularly in Norway. The use of

  17. Treatment of operator actions in the HTGR risk assessment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K.N.; Silady, F.A.; Hannaman, G.W.

    1979-12-01

    Methods are presented for the treatment of operator actions, developed in the AIPA risk assessment study. Some examples are given of how these methods were applied to the analysis of potential HTGR accidents. Realistic predictions of accident risks required a balanced treatment of both beneficial and detrimental actions and responses of human operators and maintenance crews. Th essential elements of the human factors methodology used in the AIPA study include event tree and fault tree analysis, time-dependent operator response and repair models, a method for quantifying common cause failure probabilities, and synthesis of relevant experience data for use in these models

  18. Using a familiar risk comparison within a risk ladder to improve risk understanding by low numerates: a study of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen

    2011-07-01

    Previous experimental research provides evidence that a familiar risk comparison within a risk ladder is understood by low- and high-numerate individuals. It especially helps low numerates to better evaluate risk. In the present study, an eye tracker was used to capture individuals' visual attention to a familiar risk comparison, such as the risk associated with smoking. Two parameters of information processing-efficiency and level-were derived from visual attention. A random sample of participants from the general population (N= 68) interpreted a given risk level with the help of the risk ladder. Numeracy was negatively correlated with overall visual attention on the risk ladder (r(s) =-0.28, p= 0.01), indicating that the lower the numeracy, the more the time spent looking at the whole risk ladder. Numeracy was positively correlated with the efficiency of processing relevant frequency (r(s) = 0.34, p improving risk communication formats. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness, BMI, and risk of hypertension: the HYPGENE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Church, Timothy S; Rice, Treva; Bouchard, Claude; Blair, Steven N

    2007-10-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness and regular physical activity are inversely associated with the risk of hypertension, and exercise training has been shown to lower elevated blood pressure (BP). Genetic factors contribute significantly to the interindividual differences in endurance training-induced changes in BP. However, similar data on the genotype-by-fitness interactions on the risk of hypertension are scarce. In 2000, we started a systematic collection of blood samples from all consenting subjects of the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) with a goal to generate a resource for studies addressing genotype-by-fitness interaction effects on various health-related end points. Here, we introduce the rationale and design of the first study based on the ACLS genetics resource focusing on hypertension as the health outcome (HYPGENE study), and we report the associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and body mass index (BMI) with the risk of hypertension. All HYPGENE subjects (N = 1234) were healthy and normotensive at their first clinic visit. Cases (N = 629) developed hypertension during the follow-up period (mean 8.7 yr), whereas controls (N = 605) remained normotensive (mean follow-up 10.1 yr). Cardiorespiratory fitness was the strongest predictor of the hypertension risk, with each maximal metabolic equivalent unit being associated with a 19% lower risk (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 12-24%). Each baseline BMI unit was associated with a 9% higher hypertension risk (95% CI, 4-13%). However, the association of BMI was greatly attenuated (odds ratio 1.04 [95% CI, 0.99-1.09]) when fitness also was included in the model. The HYPGENE study will provide an excellent resource to address hypotheses regarding the genetic basis of hypertension while taking cardiorespiratory fitness level into account.

  20. Risk factors for breast cancer in the breast cancer risk model study of Guam and Saipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Chong, Marie; White, Kami K; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Buyum, Arielle; Badowski, Grazyna; Blas-Laguaña, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Chamorro Pacific Islanders in the Mariana Islands have breast cancer incidence rates similar to, but mortality rates higher than, those of U.S. women. As breast cancer risk factors of women of the Mariana Islands may be unique because of ethnic and cultural differences, we studied established and suspected risk factors for breast cancer in this unstudied population. From 2010-2013, we conducted retrospective case-control study of female breast cancer (104 cases and 185 controls) among women in the Mariana Islands. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each of various lifestyle-related factors from logistic regression of breast cancer, in all women and in pre- and postmenopausal women separately. Tests for interaction of risk factors with ethnicity were based on the Wald statistics for cross-product terms. Of the medical and reproductive factors considered - age at menarche, breastfeeding, number of live births, age at first live birth, hormone use, and menopause - only age at first live birth was confirmed. Age at first live birth, among parous women, was higher among cases (mean 24.9 years) than controls (mean 23.2 years); with increased breast cancer risk (OR=2.53; 95% CI, 1.04-6.19 for age≥30y compared to risk and only in Filipino women. The association with many other established risk factors, such as BMI, hormone use and physical activity, were in the expected direction but were not significant. Associations for family history of breast cancer and alcohol intake were not evident CONCLUSIONS: The results provide a basis for cancer prevention guidance for women in the Mariana Islands. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Illness and risk behaviour in health care students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelin, Martin; Evengård, Birgitta; Palmgren, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The numbers of university students studying abroad increase every year. These students are not tourists as their studies require different types of travel that expose them to different risks. Moreover, health care students (HCSs) may be exposed to even greater risks according to their travel destinations and itineraries. Clearly, research-based pre-travel advice is needed. This study reports on a prospective survey conducted from April 2010 to January 2014 of health care and non-health care students from Swedish universities in Umeå, Stockholm and Gothenburg studying abroad. Of the 393 students included in the study, 85% responded. Over half (55%) were HCSs. Pre-travel health information was received by 79% and information on personal safety by 49% of HCSs. The rate of illness during travel was 52%. Health care students more often travelled to developing regions and were at increased risk for travellers' diarrhoea. One in 10 experienced theft and 3% were involved in traffic accidents. One in five met a new sexual partner during travel and 65% of these practised safe sex. Half of all participants increased their alcohol consumption while abroad; high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk for being a victim of theft, as well as for meeting a new sexual partner during travel. University authorities are responsible for the safety and well-being of students studying abroad. This study supplies organisers and students with epidemiological data that will help improve pre-travel preparation and increase student awareness of the potential risks associated with studying abroad. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Systematic review of perceptive studies on nuclear risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Mariana Gama de

    2014-01-01

    This present work contains the study of risk perception in different areas of interaction. For it was made an analysis using methodology previously recognized and tested: a systematic review in the search for better understanding of the perception of risk in the nuclear area. Through this study it was possible to understand the potential of the systematic review as a tool for information that encompass the perception of risk as a whole. Making it possible to trace parameters to find out why the world's people have an aversion to certain matters relating to nuclear energy. Considering that if you can understand what drives the people has disgust on nuclear area, it is probably possible to create alternatives to remedy this lack of information and knowledge about the area. Causing the population to realize the benefits that nuclear power brings to people. (author)

  3. Gout in Older Adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Bridget Teevan; Köttgen, Anna; Law, Andrew; Grams, Morgan; Baer, Alan N; Coresh, Josef; McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A

    2016-04-01

    It is unclear whether traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age predict the onset of gout in older age. We studied the incidence of gout in older adults using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective U.S. population-based cohort of middle-aged adults enrolled between 1987 and 1989 with ongoing follow-up. A genetic urate score was formed from common urate-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms for eight genes. The adjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval of incident gout by traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The cumulative incidence from middle age to age 65 was 8.6% in men and 2.5% in women; by age 75 the cumulative incidence was 11.8% and 5.0%. In middle age, increased adiposity, beer intake, protein intake, smoking status, hypertension, diuretic use, and kidney function (but not sex) were associated with an increased gout risk in older age. In addition, a 100 µmol/L increase in genetic urate score was associated with a 3.29-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.63-6.63) increased gout risk in older age. These findings suggest that traditional and genetic risk factors in middle age may be useful for identifying those at risk of gout in older age. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  5. Risk Factors as Major Determinants of Resilience: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Yohanan; Kimhi, Shaul; Lahad, Mooli; Leykin, Dmitry; Goroshit, Marina

    2018-03-16

    The present study was conducted in the context of current concerns about replication in psychological research. It claims that risk factors should be regarded as an integral part of the definition of individual resilience, which should be defined in terms of the balance between individual strength or protective factors, and individual vulnerability or risk factors (IND-SVR). Five independent samples, including 3457 Israeli participants, were employed to determine the effects of resilience promoting and resilience suppressing variables on the IND-SVR index of resilience, and on its two components: recovery from adversity, and distress symptoms. Five path analyses were employed for determining the role of distress symptoms as a measure of psychological resilience, as compared to other indices of this resilience. Results indicated the major role of risk factors (distress symptoms) as an integral component of resilience. This role was generally replicated in the five investigated samples. Risk factors are legitimate, valid, and useful parts of the definition of psychological resilience. Resilience research has shifted away from studying individual risk factors to investigating the process through which individuals overcome the hardships they experience. The present data seem to suggest that this shift should be reexamined.

  6. Study of operational risk-based configuration control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesely, W E [Science Applications International Corp., Dublin, OH (United States); Samanta, P K; Kim, I S [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-08-01

    This report studies aspects of a risk-based configuration control system to detect and control plant configurations from a risk perspective. Configuration control, as the term is used here, is the management of component configurations to achieve specific objectives. One important objective is to control risk and safety. Another is to operate efficiently and make effective use of available resources. PSA-based evaluations are performed to study configuration to core-melt frequency and core-melt probability for two plants. Some equipment configurations can cause large core-melt frequency and there are a number of such configurations that are not currently controlled by technical specifications. However, the expected frequency of occurrence of the impacting configurations is small and the core-melt probability contributions are also generally small. The insights from this evaluation are used to develop the framework for an effective risk-based configuration control system. The focal points of such a system and the requirements for tools development for implementing the system are defined. The requirements of risk models needed for the system, and the uses of plant-specific data are also discussed. 18 refs., 25 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Communicating cardiovascular disease risk: an interview study of General Practitioners' use of absolute risk within tailored communication strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-05-29

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs' descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: 'positive', 'scare tactic', and 'indirect'. A 'positive' strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A 'scare tactic' strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to 'scare' them into taking action. An 'indirect' strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice.

  8. Risk in technical and scientific studies: general introduction to uncertainty management and the concept of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    George Apostolakis (MIT) presented an introduction to the concept of risk and uncertainty management and their use in technical and scientific studies. He noted that Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) provides support to the overall treatment of a system as an integrated socio-technical system. Specifically, QRA aims to answer the questions: - What can go wrong (e.g., accident sequences or scenarios)? - How likely are these sequences or scenarios? - What are the consequences of these sequences or scenarios? The Quantitative Risk Assessment deals with two major types of uncertainty. An assessment requires a 'model of the world', and this preferably would be a deterministic model based on underlying processes. In practice, there are uncertainties in this model of the world relating to variability or randomness that cannot be accounted for directly in a deterministic model and that may require a probabilistic or aleatory model. Both deterministic and aleatory models of the world have assumptions and parameters, and there are 'state-of-knowledge' or epistemic uncertainties associated with these. Sensitivity studies or eliciting expert opinion can be used to address the uncertainties in assumptions, and the level of confidence in parameter values can be characterised using probability distributions (pdfs). Overall, the distinction between aleatory and epistemic uncertainties is not always clear, and both can be treated mathematically in the same way. Lessons on safety assessments that can be learnt from experience at nuclear power plants are that beliefs about what is important can be wrong if a risk assessment is not performed. Also, precautionary approaches are not always conservative if failure modes are not identified. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize that uncertainties will remain despite a quantitative risk assessment: e.g., is the scenario list complete, are the models accepted as reasonable, and are parameter probability distributions representative of

  9. Perinatal mortality and associated risk factors: a case control study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality is reported to be five times higher in developing than in developed nations. Little is known about the commonly associated risk factors for perinatal mortality in Southern Nations National Regional State of Ethiopia. METHODS: A case control study for perinatal mortality was conducted in ...

  10. Ruptured uterus in Kano, Nigeria - study of risk factors | Omole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a comparative prospective study of the risk factors for ruptured uterus in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2005. Forty six women with ruptured uterus (cases) were compared with two hundred and thirty women who delivered without ruptured uterus ...

  11. Original Article Studies on Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-20

    Dec 20, 2011 ... Risk factors such as blood transfusion was 32.0% among male ... females. Unfortunately, the prevalence of HBV appears high among the studied ... form of both acute and chronic viral hepatitis ... of expression for this disease, at this phase the .... Alcohol consumption .... Hepatitis B virus Infection in China.

  12. Risk factors of kernicterus; a study in 312 icteric neonates

    OpenAIRE

    Behjati Ardakani S; Nikkhah A; Sedaghat M

    2007-01-01

    Background: Kernicterus, also known as bilirubin encephalopathy, is a neurologic syndrome resulting from the deposition of unconjugated bilirubin in the basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei. Indirect bilirubin is toxic for brain. Neurologic dysfunction (BIND) that include acute phase (hyperbilirubin encephalopathy) and chronic phase (Kernicterus) resulting from hyperbilirubinemia and disruption of blood brain barrier. In this study, the association between bilirubin encephalopathy and risk fact...

  13. Epidemiological study of risk factors in pediatric asthma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Methods: This cross sectional study involved 206 asthmatic children, 5 to 15 years old. They were enrolled from the School ... exercise-induced asthma while 64.6% stated that emotional stress triggered their symptoms. ... Keywords: asthma severity; asthma triggers; children; residence; risk factors; smoking; social status.

  14. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  15. Homocysteine and venous thrombosis : studies into risk and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Huub Pieter Jan

    2006-01-01

    Homocysteine is a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Elevated concentrations can be treated with folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The main study (chapter 9) in this thesis is a randomized placebo-controlled trial in which patients with a first event of deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary

  16. Evaluating Risk Awareness in Undergraduate Students Studying Mechanical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, G. S.; Balchin, K.; Mufamadi, P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the development of risk awareness among undergraduate students studying mechanical engineering at a South African university. A questionnaire developed at the University of Liverpool was modified and used on students from the first, second and third year cohorts to assess their awareness in the areas of professional…

  17. Genetic risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a familial aggregation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, S.L.; Hoyng, C.B.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnitude of the genetic risk of nonsyndromic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) in a familial aggregation study. DESIGN: Two hundred three consecutive patients with RRD and 461 controls without RRD were ascertained at the Department of Ophthalmology of the

  18. Genetic risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment a familial aggregation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Go (Sioe Lie); C. Hoyng (Carel); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate the magnitude of the genetic risk of nonsyndromic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) in a familial aggregation study. Design: Two hundred three consecutive patients with RRD and 461 controls without RRD were ascertained at the Department of Ophthalmology

  19. Risk factors of knee osteoarthritis, WHO-ILAR-COPCORD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barghamdi M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To evaluate the association between age, sex, BMI, waist/hip ratio, smoking, religion, ethnicity, education and knee osteoarthritis. "nMethods: Eligible subjects were randomly included from participants of Tehran COPCORD study, of whom 480 subjects with knee osteoarthritis were compared to 490 subjects without (case-control study. Using a questionnaire developed by COPCORD group (Asia & Oceania, we enquired about the risk factors of knee osteoarthritis i.e. age, sex, BMI, Waist/Hip ratio, religion, ethnicity, education and smoking. Knee osteoarthritis was defined using ACR criteria. Each knee was unit of analysis using GEE technique to evaluate these associations. "nResults: Age (OR; 1.096; CI95%: 1.091-1.1; P: 0.00 and sex (OR; 2.85; CI95%: 2.49-3.28; P: 0.00 showed significant association with knee osteoarthritis. Overweight (OR; 1.81; CI95%: 1.28-2.55; P: 0.00 and obesity (OR; 3.3; CI95%: 2.34-4.66; P: 0.00 both showed higher risk for knee osteoarthritis. The association between waist/hip ratio and knee osteoarthritis showed an OR of 5.28, CI95%: 0.89-31.44; P: 0.07. However, this association was only borderline significant. People with different religion or ethnicity and smokers had no extra risks for knee osteoarthritis. Higher education is a protective factor for knee osteoarthritis as people who had university education compared to people with no/primary education showed a lower risk for knee osteoarthritis (OR; 0.54; CI95%: 0.38-0.78; P: 0.00. "nConclusions: Our study confirmed that elderly, females, overweight and obese people are at higher risk to develop knee osteoarthritis as found in western societies. Higher education is a protective factor against knee osteoarthritis. Ethnicity, religion and smoking showed no extra risk of knee osteoarthritis.

  20. Study on the possibility of measurement of individual risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Ayako; Fujimoto, Junzo; Takeda, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    In industry, because of retirement of postwar baby-boom generation and decreasing labor accident by improvement in facilities, diminished worker's risk perception is concerned about. Although hazard prediction activity (KY: Kiken-Yochi) is carried out for improvement of workers' risk perception in sites, it is get into a rut not to estimate the effects of the activity. Then the purpose of this study is to examine the possibility of measuring and estimating individual inherent risk perception not depending on the experiences and knowledge, and to confirm the effects of the experiences and knowledge on one's risk perception. Eleven subjects were requested to detect the hazards and to estimate the results and the extents of damage in the three films (1: working at an office (all subjects had the experience), 2: feeding at the GS (gas station) (half of them had the experience), 3: overhauling a valve (no one had the experience)) that were included in some hazards. The rate of hazards detection and the accuracies of 5 categories, that were hazards, results, damage of human, damage of objects or facilities and coping, were calculated. The experience of feeding had effects on the rate of hazards detection and some of the accuracies at the film of feeding at the GS. Also, all of indices were significantly lower at the firm of overhauling a valve than the firm of working at an office. These results showed that the experiences and knowledge were affected on one's risk perception. Meanwhile, the similarity of the tendency to the rate of hazards detection and the accuracies between 2 firms except for the firm of feeding was found by means of the ordinal correlation. The result showed that it will be able to measure the individual inherent risk perception from the number of hazards detection and the depth of the context. The future issues are discussed for developing the method to evaluate the risk perception. (author)

  1. Valuing Drinking Water Risk Reductions Using the Contingent Valuation Method: A Methodological Study of Risks from THM and Giardia (1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study develops contingent valuation methods for measuring the benefits of mortality and morbidity drinking water risk reductions. The major effort was devoted to developing and testing a survey instrument to value low-level risk reductions.

  2. [Risk factors for Parkinson disease: an epidemiologic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Duarte; Garrett, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) remains in a certain part unknown. Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are sometimes considered to be putative contributors to its origin. Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the possible role of environmental risk factors present during adult life or aging, once pure genetic forms of PD are rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible environmental and familial risk factors for PD. We performed a hospital based case-control study using 88 PD patients with neurologist confirmed diagnostic, and 176 sex, age, and residence similar controls. Several possible risk factors were evaluated related to life style, past history, family history, occupational history and other exposures to potential neurotoxin agents. Statistical differences, using a 95% confidence interval, were observed in positive family history of PD (p = 0,002), occupation category (p = 0,001), rural living (p = 0,037), living/working near a industry (p = 0,017), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and in-secticides (p coffee consumption (p = 0,036) and tea consumption (p = 0,001). Sex and age adjusted logistic regression showed as potential risk factors, a positive family history of PD (odds ratio [OR] = 9,996; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2,19-45,597), blue collar occupations (OR = 3,967; 95% CI = 1,670-9,426), exposure to pesticides, herbicides and insecticides (OR = 2,619 ; 95% CI = 1,170-5,862). An inverse relationship was found between tea consumption and the risk of PD (OR = 0,356; 95% CI = 0,174-0,727). The results of the study show that both familial and environmental factors may contribute to the development of PD. Like other studies suggest, PD is of unknown, but presumably multifactorial etiology.

  3. Engineered nanomaterial risk. Lessons learnt from completed nanotoxicology studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnston, Helinor; Pojana, Giulio; Zuin, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    PARTICLE_RISK was one of the first multidisciplinary projects funded by the European Commission's Framework Programme that was responsible for evaluating the implications of nanomaterial (NM) exposure on human health. This project was the basis for this review which identifies the challenges...... and identifying the limitations and failings of existing research. We have reflected on what commonly encountered challenges exist and explored how these issues may be resolved. In particular, the following is discussed (i) NM selection (ii) NM physico-chemical characterisation; (iii) NM dispersion; (iv...... that exist within the assessment of NM risk. We have retrospectively reflected on the findings of completed nanotoxicology studies to consider what progress and advances have been made within the risk assessment of NMs, as well as discussing the direction that nanotoxicology research is taking...

  4. Risk informed decision making - a pre-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2004-04-01

    Examples of risk-informed decisions are establishing maintenance programmes, optimising inspection policies and justifying plant modifications, and revising technical specifications. Applications in daily situations can be such as accepting or rejecting exemptions from technical specifications. The aim of this pre-study was to identify the status of risk-informed decision making at Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants and nuclear safety authorities. Responses to a questionnaire were obtained either by interviews or by e-mail from two Swedish and two Finnish NPPs, SKI and STUK. The development of a risk-informed decision procedure based on decision analytic ideas is worth recommending. A clear documentation format is a part of such procedure. In order to serve as a basis for final decision, the documentation should include clearly defined decision criteria, qualification of PSA model for the issue under analysis, description of most important uncertainties and assumptions. (au)

  5. Study on risk insight for additional ILRT interval extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, M. R.; Hong, S. Y.; Kim, M. K.; Chung, B. S.; Oh, H. C.

    2005-01-01

    In U.S., the containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test (ILRT) interval was extended from 3 times per 10 years to once per 10 years based on NUREG-1493 'Performance-Based Containment Leak-Test Program' in 1995. In September, 2001, ILRT interval was extended up to once per 15 years based on Nuclear Energy Industry (NEI) provisional guidance 'Interim Guidance for Performing Risk Impact Assessments In Support of One-Time Extensions for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test Surveillance Intervals'. In Korea, the containment ILRT was performed with 5 year interval. But, in MOST(Ministry of Science and Technology) Notice 2004-15 'Standard for the Leak- Rate Test of the Nuclear Reactor Containment', the extension of the ILRT interval to once per 10 year can be allowed if some conditions are met. So, the safety analysis for the extension of Yonggwang Nuclear (YGN) Unit 1 and 2 ILRT interval extension to once per 10 years was completed based on the methodology in NUREG-1493. But, during review process by regulatory body, KINS, it was required that some various risk insight or index for risk analysis should be developed. So, we began to study NEI interim report for 15 year ILRT interval extension. As previous analysis based on NUREG-1493, MACCS II (MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System) computer code was used for the risk analysis of the population, and the population dose was selected as a reference index for the risk evaluation

  6. Study of Systemic Risk Involved in Mutual Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Kishore C.; Dash, Monika

    Systemic risk, may be defined as the risk that contaminates to the whole system, consisting of many interacting agents that fail one after another. These agents, in an economic context, could be firms, banks, funds, or other financial institutions. Systemic risk is a macroscopic property of a system which emerges due to the nonlinear interaction of agents on a microscopic level. A stock market itself is a system in which there are many sub-systems, like Dowjones, Nifty, Sensex, Nasdaq, Nikkei and other market indices in global perspective. In Indian market, subsystems may be like Sensex, Nifty, BSE200, Bankex, smallcap index, midcap index, S&P CNX 500 and many others. Similarly there are many mutual funds, which have their own portfolio of different stocks, bonds etc. We have attempted to study the systemic risk involved in a fund as a macroscopic object with regard to its microscopic components as different stocks in its portfolio. It is observed that fund managers do manage to reduce the systemic risk just like we take precautions to control the spread of an epidemic.

  7. Basic principles and results of the German risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.; Bayer, A.

    1980-01-01

    In June 1976 the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology had commissioned the Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit to write the German Risk Study, the first part of which has now been completed after three years of work and has been publicized recently. The German Risk Study is an attempt to define the societal risk posed by accidents in nuclear power plants under conditions in Germany. For this purpose, the accident rates and the resultant health hazards were determined. By adopting most of the basic premises and methods of the American Rasmussen Study, the German study is to allow a comparison to be made with the results of that study. The calculations were based on 19 sites with a total of 25 nuclear generating units presently in operation, under construction or in the licensing procedure in the Federal Republic of Germany. The technical studies were conducted on a 1300 MW PWR as the representative example. The results show that the decisive contributions are made by uncontrolled minor loss-of-coolant accidents and by failures of power supply (emergency power case). Large loss-of-coolant accidents do not play a role. The study also shows the decisive safety function of the containment. (orig.) [de

  8. Sudbury soils study : summary of volume 3 : ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    The Sudbury soils study was comprised of 3 volumes: (1) a background, study organization and 2001 soils survey; (2) a human health risk assessment; and (3) an ecological risk assessment (ERA). This document provided details of the ERA, which was conducted to characterize the current and future risks of chemicals of concern (COC) to terrestrial and ecosystem components from Sudbury smelter particulate emissions. The extent to which COC are preventing the recovery of regionally representative terrestrial plant communities was investigated. Risks to terrestrial wildlife populations and endangered species and communities were evaluated. Samples of soil, water, sediment, plants, terrestrial invertebrates, and fish tissue were collected. Data were then analyzed by scientists and independent consultants in order to assess the impacts of arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and selenium. Results of the study indicated that terrestrial plant communities in the region continue to be impacted by COC in the soil, as well as by soil erosion, low nutrient levels, and a lack of soil organic matter. Direct impacts on wildlife populations were also observed. 5 refs., 7 tabs., 21 figs.

  9. The Risk-Stratified Osteoporosis Strategy Evaluation study (ROSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubin, Katrine Hass; Holmberg, Teresa; Rothmann, Mette Juel

    2015-01-01

    The risk-stratified osteoporosis strategy evaluation study (ROSE) is a randomized prospective population-based study investigating the effectiveness of a two-step screening program for osteoporosis in women. This paper reports the study design and baseline characteristics of the study population....... 35,000 women aged 65-80 years were selected at random from the population in the Region of Southern Denmark and-before inclusion-randomized to either a screening group or a control group. As first step, a self-administered questionnaire regarding risk factors for osteoporosis based on FRAX......(®) was issued to both groups. As second step, subjects in the screening group with a 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fractures ≥15 % were offered a DXA scan. Patients diagnosed with osteoporosis from the DXA scan were advised to see their GP and discuss pharmaceutical treatment according to Danish...

  10. Postoperative infection risk after splenectomy: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmparas, Galinos; Lamb, Alexander W; Lee, Debora; Nguyen, Brandon; Eng, Jamie; Bloom, Matthew B; Ley, Eric J

    2015-05-01

    Splenectomy is associated with a life-long risk for overwhelming infections. The risk for early post-operative infectious complications following traumatic and elective splenectomy is, however, understudied. This investigation aimed to determine if splenectomy increases the risk for post-operative infections. This was a retrospective review of prospectively collected data on patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) between 1/2011 and 7/2013 investigating the risk for infectious complications in patients undergoing a splenectomy compared with those undergoing any other abdominal surgery. During the 30-month study period, a total of 1884 patients were admitted to the SICU. Of those, 33 (2%) had a splenectomy and 493 (26%) had an abdominal surgery. The two groups were well balanced for age, APACHE IV score >20, and past medical history, including diabetes mellitus, cardiac history, renal failure or immunosuppression. Patients undergoing splenectomy were more likely to have sustained a traumatic injury (30% vs. 7%, p splenectomy was associated with increased risk for infectious complications (49% vs. 29%, Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) [95% CI]: 2.7 [1.3, 5.6], p = 0.01), including intra-abdominal abscess (9% vs. 3%, AOR [95% CI]: 4.3 [1.1, 16.2], p = 0.03). On a subgroup analysis, there were no differences between traumatic and elective splenectomy with regards to overall infectious complications (50% vs. 46%, p = 0.84), although, abdominal abscess developed only in those who had an elective splenectomy (0% vs. 12%, p = 0.55). Splenectomy increases the risk for post-operative infectious complications. Further studies identifying strategies to decrease the associated morbidity are necessary. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantifying pathogen risks associated with potable reuse: A risk assessment case study for Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoueyan, Erfaneh; Ahmad, Sajjad; Eisenberg, Joseph N S; Pecson, Brian; Gerrity, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the reliability and equivalency of three different potable reuse paradigms: (1) surface water augmentation via de facto reuse with conventional wastewater treatment; (2) surface water augmentation via planned indirect potable reuse (IPR) with ultrafiltration, pre-ozone, biological activated carbon (BAC), and post-ozone; and (3) direct potable reuse (DPR) with ultrafiltration, ozone, BAC, and UV disinfection. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was performed to (1) quantify the risk of infection from Cryptosporidium oocysts; (2) compare the risks associated with different potable reuse systems under optimal and sub-optimal conditions; and (3) identify critical model/operational parameters based on sensitivity analyses. The annual risks of infection associated with the de facto and planned IPR systems were generally consistent with those of conventional drinking water systems [mean of (9.4 ± 0.3) × 10 -5 to (4.5 ± 0.1) × 10 -4 ], while DPR was clearly superior [mean of (6.1 ± 67) × 10 -9 during sub-optimal operation]. Because the advanced treatment train in the planned IPR system was highly effective in reducing Cryptosporidium concentrations, the associated risks were generally dominated by the pathogen loading already present in the surface water. As a result, risks generally decreased with higher recycled water contributions (RWCs). Advanced treatment failures were generally inconsequential either due to the robustness of the advanced treatment train (i.e., DPR) or resiliency provided by the environmental buffer (i.e., planned IPR). Storage time in the environmental buffer was important for the de facto reuse system, and the model indicated a critical storage time of approximately 105 days. Storage times shorter than the critical value resulted in significant increases in risk. The conclusions from this study can be used to inform regulatory decision making and aid in the development of design or operational

  12. German risk study on nuclear power plants. Vol. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertz, V.; Gueldner, W.; Hoemke, P.; Hoertner, H.; Lindauer, E.; Linden, J. von; Preischl, W.; Reichart, G.; Roehrs, W.

    1980-01-01

    This appendix discusses those studies which were carried out in phase A of the German Risk Study on the following problems: occurrence frequencies of initiating events, evaluation of the reactor pressure vessel, failure rates and failure probabilities for components, probabilities for human error. The appendix describes the general procedure used in determining these parameters. In addition, it gives the individual values used and the sources employed to determine these values. (orig.) [de

  13. Social Amplification of Risk and Crisis Communication Planing - Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciugelu, I.; Frunzaru, V.; Armas, I.; Duntzer, A.; Stan, S.

    2012-04-01

    Risk management has become a dominant concern of public policy and the ability of government to anticipate the strength and focus of public concerns remains weak. The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) was designed to assist in this endeavor. It aims to facilitate a greater understanding of the social processes that can mediate between a hazard event and its consequences. SARF identifies categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between risk event and its consequences and suggests a causal and temporal sequence in which they act. Information flows first through various sources and then channels, triggering social stations of amplification, initiating individual station of amplification and precipitating behavioral reactions. The International Risk Governance Council Framework is an interdisciplinary and multilevel approach, linking risk management and risk assessment sphere through communication. This study aims to identify categories of mediator/moderator that intervene between the risk event and its consequences, using a survey on earthquake risk perception addressing population of Bucharest city. Romania has a unique seismic profile in Europe, being the country with the biggest surface affected in case of a serious earthquake. Considering the development of the urban area that took place in the last two decades and the growing number of inhabitants, Bucharest is the largest city in Romania and is exposed to extensive damages in case of an earthquake. The sociological survey has been conducted in December 2009 on a representative sample of the Bucharest population aged 18 and over (N=1376) using one stage sampling design. We used a stratified sample method shearing the investigated populations in six layers according to the six sectors of Bucharest. The respondents were selected using random digit dialling method (RDD) and the questionnaires were administered by research staff with computer assisted telephone interviewing method (CATI). The

  14. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted

  15. Studies on health risks to persons exposed to plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelz, G.L.; Stebbings, J.H. Jr.; Healy, J.W.; Hempelmann, L.H.

    1979-01-01

    Two studies on Los Alamos workers exposed to plutonium have shown no increase in cancers of the lung, bone, and liver, three principal cancers of interest following plutonium deposition. A clinical study of 26 workers exposed 32 years ago shows no cases of cancer other than two skin cancers that were excised successfully. A mortality study of 224 workers, all persons with estimated deposition of 10 nCi or moe in 1974, showed no excess of mortality due to any cause. No bone or liver cancers were present, while one death due to lung cancer was observed as compared to an expected three cases. These negative findings on such small groups are not able to prove or disprove the validity of commonly used risk estimates as recommended in the 1972 BEIR and 1977 UNSCEAR reports, but the data do indicate that much higher risk estimates are not warranted.

  16. A field study comparing two methods of transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmon, M.F.; Brey, R.R.; Gesell, T.F.; Oberg, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    RADTRAN 4 is a computer code used for; assessing risks associated with the transportation of nuclear materials. The code employs the common modeling practice of using default values for input variables to simplify the modeling of complex scenarios, thus producing conservative final risk determinations. To better address local public concerns it is of interest to quantify the introduced conservatism by taking a site-specific approach to radiation risk assessment. With RISKIND, incident-free and accident condition doses were calculated for two suburban population groups using both default input parameters; and site-specific values to describe population demographics of regions in Pocatello, Idaho, along the I-15 corridor. The use of site-specific parameters resulted in incident-free doses ranging from the same order of magnitude to one order of magnitude less than the doses calculated with default input parameters. Correcting accident condition doses for the age distribution of the populations and employing site-specific weather data resulted in doses 1.1 times lower than estimated using default input parameters. Dose-risks calculated with RISKIND for the two population groups using site-specific data were of the same order of magnitude as the risk calculated using RADTRAN 4 for the suburban population described in DOE/EIS-0203-D. This study revealed in one specific application that use of default and site-specific parameters resulted in comparable dose estimates. If this tendency were to hold generally true over other environments and model variables, then risk assessors might prefer to select codes on the basis of criteria such as (1) the number of variables to select from; (2) ability to calculate consequences directly, and (3) outputs geared to addressing public concerns

  17. Not all risks are created equal: A twin study and meta-analyses of risk taking across seven domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X T Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Rui; Xuan, Yan-Hua; Chen, Jie; Li, Shu

    2016-11-01

    Humans routinely deal with both traditional and novel risks. Different kinds of risks have been a driving force for both evolutionary adaptations and personal development. This study explored the genetic and environmental influences on human risk taking in different task domains. Our approach was threefold. First, we integrated several scales of domain-specific risk-taking propensity and developed a synthetic scale, including both evolutionarily typical and modern risks in the following 7 domains: cooperation/competition, safety, reproduction, natural/physical risk, moral risk, financial risk, and gambling. Second, we conducted a twin study using the scale to estimate the contributions of genes and environment to risk taking in each of these 7 domains. Third, we conducted a series of meta-analyses of extant twin studies across the 7 risk domains. The results showed that individual differences in risk-taking propensity and its consistency across domains were mainly regulated by additive genetic influences and individually unique environmental experiences. The heritability estimates from the meta-analyses ranged from 29% in financial risk taking to 55% in safety. Supporting the notion of risk-domain specificity, both the behavioral and genetic correlations among the 7 domains were generally low. Among the relatively few correlations between pairs of risk domains, our analysis revealed a common genetic factor that regulates moral, financial, and natural/physical risk taking. This is the first effort to separate genetic and environmental influences on risk taking across multiple domains in a single study and integrate the findings of extant twin studies via a series of meta-analyses conducted in different task domains. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Risk factors for neurocysticercosis: A study from Northwest India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Girotra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurocysticercosis (NCC is a common cause of epilepsy in the low- and middle-income countries. The risk factors for NCC vary from region to region. Aims: To study the risk factors NCC among patients with NCC and compare with age-and gender-matched controls without NCC. Setting and Design: Hospital-based case-control study. Materials and Methods: A total of 214 subjects were studied (109 NCC patients and 105 age- and gender-matched controls without NCC. The participants were selected from neurology and medical wards of a tertiary referral hospital in Northwest India. They were interviewed by trained medical interns using a questionnaire. Results: Patients with NCC were more likely to dispose garbage close to water source (P = 0.01, eat nonvegetarian food (P < 0.001, and often eat in restaurants (P < 0.001. Pigs were seen more in and around the NCC patient′s houses than the control subjects residential areas (P = 0.001. A total of 15% of the NCC subjects lived close to slaughter houses, while only 2.7% of the control group stayed near a slaughter house (P = 0.002. Conclusions: Unhygienic practices, nonvegetarian food, and eating in restaurants were the risk factors for NCC in this study. There is an opportunity for prevention of NCC using public education.

  19. Dietary habits and stomach cancer risk in the JACC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokui, Noritaka; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kiyomi; Kondo, Takaaki; Kikuchi, Shogo; Toyoshima, Hideaki; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2005-06-01

    Despite a declining incidence, stomach cancer is still a dominant cancer in Japan. The association between dietary habits and stomach cancer risk was investigated in a large prospective study in Japan. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire from 1988 through 1990. Food frequency questionnaire was used to evaluate the consumption of 33 selected food items. Proportional hazard model was used to determine the hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of stomach cancer for different levels of the dietary intakes. A western style breakfast showed an inverse association with stomach cancer risk in males (HR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.35-0.70). Women who consumed liver three to four times per week and more than once per day had a significant increased risk, respectively (HR=2.02, 95% CI: 1.12-3.63, HR=3.16, 95% CI: 1.16-8.62 ). A clear dose-response relationship between the intake of liver and stomach cancer risk was observed. We found no association between stomach cancer mortality and the consumption of fruit such as mandarin orange, and vegetables such as carrots and spinach in both men and women. The consumption of high salt foods such as miso soup and pickles was also not significantly associated with the mortality of stomach cancer in both sexes. This prospective study suggested that a western-style breakfast is associated with a lower risk of stomach cancer, although some differences in the association were seen between men and women.

  20. Welding, a risk factor of lung cancer: the ICARE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrat, Mireille; Guida, Florence; Mattei, Francesca; Cénée, Sylvie; Cyr, Diane; Févotte, Joëlle; Sanchez, Marie; Menvielle, Gwenn; Radoï, Loredana; Schmaus, Annie; Woronoff, Anne-Sophie; Luce, Danièle; Stücker, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the relationship between lung cancer and occupational exposure to welding activity in ICARE, a population-based case-control study. Analyses were restricted to men (2276 cases, 2780 controls). Welding exposure was assessed through detailed questionnaires, including lifelong occupational history. ORs were computed using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for lifelong cigarette smoking and occupational exposure to asbestos. Among the regular welders, welding was associated with a risk of lung cancer (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.5), which increased with the duration (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.9 when duration >10 years), and was maximum 10-20 years since last welding. The risk was more pronounced in case of gas welding (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.3), when the workpiece was covered by paint, grease, or other substances (OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.4) and when it was cleaned with chemical substances before welding. No statistically significant increase in lung cancer risk was observed among occasional welders. Although these results should be confirmed, we showed that type of welding and mode of workpiece preparation are important determinants of the lung cancer risk in regular welders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. German risk study on nuclear power stations. Phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    The German Risk Study on Nuclear Power Stations is concerned with investigations of accidents in nuclear facilities and their associated risks. These investigations are undertaken on behalf of the federal Minister of Research and Technology. They have been broken down into two phases (Phase A and Phase B). The results of Phase A were published in 1979 (GRS 79). This report contains a summary of the investigations relating to Phase B. After an introduction setting out the basic principles and aim of the study, a general review will be given of the most important results. The course of the investigations and the results have already been published in a Technical Report (GRS 89). (author)

  2. Modelling of protective actions in the German Risk Study (FRG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    An emergency response model for nuclear accidents has to allow for a great number of widely different emergency conditions. In addition, it should be compatible with the pertinent laws, regulations, ordinances, guidelines, criteria and reference levels. The German (FRG) guidelines are basic and flexible rather than precise, many decisions being left to the emergency management. In the Risk Study these decisions had to be anticipated. After a brief discussion of the basis of the emergency response model employed in the German Risk Study (FRG), the essential requirements to be met are listed. The main part of the paper deals with the rationale and specification of protective actions. As a result of the calculations the numbers of persons and sizes of areas involved in protective actions are presented. The last section deals with the variation of input data. (author)

  3. Anybody can do Value at Risk: A Nonparametric Teaching Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Powell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR has become a benchmark methodology among investors and banks for measuring market risk. Commercially available modelling packages can be both expensive and inflexible, thereby restricting their use by academic researchers and teachers. Usingnonparametric methodology, this paper provides a step-by-step teaching study on how to use Excel to construct a VaR spreadsheet for an individual asset as well as for a portfolio. This can benefit financial modelling teachers by providing them with a readily useable teaching study on how to model VaR, as well as benefit researchers by showing them how to construct an inexpensive and flexible VaR model.

  4. A Clinical Risk Score for Atrial Fibrillation in a Biracial Prospective Cohort (From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study)

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Alanna M.; Agarwal, Sunil K.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Chambless, Lloyd E.; Crow, Richard; Ambrose, Marietta; Alonso, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    A risk score for AF has been developed by the Framingham Heart Study; however the applicability of this risk score, derived from whites, to predict new-onset AF in non-whites is uncertain. Therefore, we developed a 10-year risk score for new-onset AF using risk factors commonly measured in clinical practice using 14,546 individuals from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, a prospective community-based cohort of blacks and whites in the United States. During 10 years of follow-up, 5...

  5. Brain function and structure and risk for incident diabetes: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancks, Michael P; Alonso, Alvaro; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Mosley, Thomas H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Pankow, James S

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes is prospectively associated with cognitive decline. Whether lower cognitive function and worse brain structure are prospectively associated with incident diabetes is unclear. We analyzed data for 10,133 individuals with cognitive function testing (1990-1992) and 1212 individuals with brain magnetic resonance imaging (1993-1994) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities cohort. We estimated hazard ratios for incident diabetes through 2014 after adjustment for traditional diabetes risk factors and cohort attrition. Higher level of baseline cognitive function was associated with lower risk for diabetes (per 1 standard deviation, hazard ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval = 0.90, 0.98). This association did not persist after accounting for baseline glucose level, case ascertainment methods, and cohort attrition. No association was observed between any brain magnetic resonance imaging measure and incident diabetes. This is one of the first studies to prospectively evaluate the association between both cognitive function and brain structure and the incidence of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 the Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Kajal; Sreenivas, V; Velpandian, T; Kapil, Umesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Risk factors for gallbladder cancer (GBC) except gallstones are not well known. The objective was to study the risk factors for GBC. In a case-control study, 200 patients with GBC, 200 healthy controls and 200 gallstones patients as diseased controls were included prospectively. The risk factors studied were related to socioeconomic profile, life style, reproduction, diet and bile acids. On comparing GBC patients (mean age 51.7 years; 130 females) with healthy controls, risk factors were chemical exposure [odd ratios (OR): 7.0 (2.7-18.2); p < 0.001)], family history of gallstones [OR: 5.3 (1.5-18.9); p < 0.01)], tobacco [OR: 4.1 (1.8-9.7); p < 0.001)], fried foods [OR: 3.1 (1.7-5.6); p < 0.001], joint family [OR: 3.2 (1.7-6.2); p < 0.001], long interval between meals [OR: 1.4 (1.2-1.6); p < 0.001] and residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 3.3 (1.8-6.2); p < 0.001]. On comparing GBC cases with gallstone controls, risk factors were female gender [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3); p = 0.004], residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 2.3 (1.2-4.4); p = 0.012], fried foods [OR: 2.5 (1.4-4.4); p < 0.001], diabetes [OR: 2.7 (1.2-6.4); p = 0.02)], tobacco [OR 3.8 (1.7-8.1); p < 0.001)] and joint family [OR: 2.1 (1.2-3.4); p = 0.004]. The ratio of secondary to primary bile acids was significantly higher in GBC cases than gallstone controls (20.8 vs. 0.44). Fried foods, tobacco, chemical exposure, family history of gallstones, residence in Gangetic belt and secondary bile acids were significant risk factors for GBC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  7. Measuring adolescents’ exposure to victimization: The Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Helen L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wertz, Jasmin; Gray, Rebecca; Newbury, Joanne; Ambler, Antony; Zavos, Helena; Danese, Andrea; Mill, Jonathan; Odgers, Candice L.; Pariante, Carmine; Wong, Chloe C.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents mutlilevel findings on adolescents’ victimization exposure from a large longitudinal cohort of twins. Data were obtained from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological study of 2,232 children (1,116 twin pairs) followed to 18 years of age (with 93% retention). To assess adolescent victimization we combined best practices in survey research on victimization with optimal approaches to measuring life stress and traumatic experiences, and introduce a reliable system for coding severe victimization. One in three children experienced at least one type of severe victimization during adolescence (crime victimization, peer/sibling victimization, internet/mobile phone victimization, sexual victimization, family violence, maltreatment, or neglect), and most types of victimization were more prevalent amongst children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Exposure to multiple victimization types was common, as was re-victimization; over half of those physically maltreated in childhood were also exposed to severe physical violence in adolescence. Biometric twin analyses revealed that environmental factors had the greatest influence on most types of victimization, while severe physical maltreatment from caregivers during adolescence was predominantly influenced by heritable factors. The findings from this study showcase how distinct levels of victimization measurement can be harmonized in large-scale studies of health and development. PMID:26535933

  8. Risk policies and risk perceptions: a comparative study of environmental health risk policy and perception in six European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.; Moerman, G.; Spruijt, P.; van Poll, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the influence that health risk policies have on the citizens’ perceptions of those health risks. Previously, detailed mixed methods research revealed that noise annoyance policies shaped noise perception. This idea is now applied to nine different environmental health risks in

  9. Appendix 2: Risk-based framework and risk case studies. Risk case study: a framework for assessing climate change risks to forest carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems have the ability to reduce the effects of climate change through the sequestration of carbon (C) (Pan et al. 2011) as well as contribute to net emissions through disturbance events such as wildfires and widespread tree mortality (Kurz et al. 2008). A conceptual framework for assessing climate-change risks to forest ecosystem C stocks facilitates...

  10. Study on practical application of risk informed inservice inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Chikahiro; Machida, Hideo; Takeda, Shuhei; Miyata, Koichi; Nishino, Shoichiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes pilot study relevant to the application of risk informed inservice inspection (RI-ISI) to class 1 piping systems in a Japanese typical BWR5 plant. The benefits of making use of risk information are improvement in plant safety, quality of inspection and explanation of security activities in nuclear power plants. The current RI-ISI procedures and rules were developed to take advantage of lessons learned from PSA data and piping failure experiences, and are expected to rationalize of security activities for plant operation and maintenance. To introduce RI-ISI, it is necessary to collaborate with industry, academia and government. Development of the technical basis is one of the key issues to become practical of RI-ISI programs. (author)

  11. German risk study 'nuclear power plants, phase B'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1989-01-01

    The results of the German risk study 'Nuclear power plants, phase B' indicate that an accident in a nuclear power plant which cannot be managed by the safety systems according to design, is extremely improbable: Its probability is at about 3 to 100,000 per year and plant. Even if the safety systems fail, emergency measures can be effected in a nuclear power plant to prevent an accident. These in-plant emergency measures diminish the probability of a core meltdown to about 4 to 1,000,000 per year and plant. Hence, the accident risk is greatly reduced. The information given by the author are to smooth the emotional edge in the discussion about the safety of nuclear power plants. (orig.) [de

  12. A Matched Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Risk in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vietnam has a low age-standardized incidence of breast cancer, but the incidence is rising rapidly with economic development. We report data from a matched case-control study of risk factors for breast cancer in the largest cancer hospital in Vietnam. Methods. 492 incident breast cancer cases unselected for family history or age at diagnosis and 1306 control women age 25–75 were recruited from the National Cancer Hospital (BVK, Hanoi. Structured interviews were conducted and pathology data was centrally reported at the National Cancer Hospital of Vietnam, in Hanoi. Results. Our analysis included 294 matched pairs. Mean age at diagnosis was 46.7 years. Lower mean parity, older age at first parity, increasing weight and BMI at age 18, and increasing BMI at diagnosis were positively correlated with breast cancer cases compared to controls. Age at first menarche and duration of breastfeeding were not statistically different between cases and controls. Conclusions. In this study we demonstrate that breast cancer in Vietnam is associated with some but not all of the published risk factors from Western populations. Our data is consistent with other studies of breast cancer in Asian populations.

  13. Objectives and present status of the German risk evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.; Koeberlein, K.; Heuser, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    For the German risk evaluation study, analogous to the Rasmussen report (WASH--1400), embarked upon in June 1976, the Kernkraftwerk Biblis B serves as the plant of reference. The first interim results are available for various sub-headings of the study. The main finding seems to be the decisive importance of the containment in limiting the accident consequences even in those cases where, on account of postulated failure of safety systems, the melt down of the reactor core is to be expected. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Telephone Care Management of Fall Risk:: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Elizabeth A; Pence, Maureen; Williams, Barbara; MacCornack, Frederick A

    2017-03-01

    Care management has been found to be more effective than usual care for some chronic conditions, but few studies have tested care management for prevention of elder falls. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telephone care management of older adults presenting for medical attention due to a fall. The setting was an independent practice association in western Washington serving 1,300 Medicare Advantage-insured patients. Patients aged ≥65 years treated for a fall in an emergency department or their primary care provider's office were contacted via telephone by a care manager within 48 hours of their fall-related visit and invited to participate in a telephone-administered interview to identify modifiable fall risk factors and receive recommendations and follow-up to address identified risk factors. Data from care manager records, patient medical records, and healthcare claims for the first 6 months (November 2009-April 2010) of program implementation were analyzed in 2011. The feasibility of screening and management of fall risk factors over the telephone and the effect on medically attended falls were assessed. Twenty-two patients eligible for fall care management were reached and administered the protocol. Administration took 15-20 minutes and integrated easily with the care manager's other responsibilities. Follow-through on recommendations varied, from 45% for those for whom exercise participation was recommended to 100% for other recommendations. No medically attended falls occurred over 6 months of follow-up. Telephone care management of fall risk appears feasible and may reduce falls requiring medical attention. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Racing risk, gendering responsibility: a qualitative study of how South African students talk about sexual risk and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Riet, Mary; Nicholson, Tamaryn Jane

    2014-01-01

    Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative study used focus groups and interviews with a sample of 28 tertiary level students and 7 peri-urban youth. The constructions of risk intersected with raced and gendered narratives around sexual risk and responsibility. These constructions were used by the participants to assign and displace responsibility for the risks of HIV and pregnancy, rendering some groups immune to these risks. This constitutes a form of stigmatisation and also has implications for participants' prevention practices.

  16. A study on the risk perception of light pollution and the process of social amplification of risk in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Choi, Jae Wook; Lee, Eunil; Cho, Yong Min; Ahn, Hyung Rae

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the risk perception level of each light pollution type was analyzed, and the effects of the variables (e.g., psychometric paradigm factor, trust in the government, etc.) on the process of the increase in the risk perception were analyzed. For the sample population (1096 persons) in Korea, the risk perception levels of each light pollution type and other environmental and health risk factors were compared, and the relative magnitude was examined. In addition, to test which variables affect the group with high-risk perception of each light pollution type, a logistic regression analysis was performed. For the group with highest risk perception of light pollution, the odds ratios (OR) of all psychometric paradigms (excluding controllability) increased compared to those of the group with low-risk perception. Additionally, the level showing the acquisition of information from the media and the recollection level of media criticism on each light pollution type showed a statistically significant increase. Especially, the risk perception of light trespass increased as trust in the government decreased. The significance of this study includes the finding that the public's risk perception of light pollution was significantly affected by the psychometric paradigm factors. Moreover, this study analyzed the differences of the variables that affect the increase in the risk perception of each light pollution type and provided a theoretical framework that can practically reflect the strategy for the risk communication of light pollution.

  17. Ferritin levels and risk of heart failure-the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Odilson M; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Nadruz, Wilson; Claggett, Brian; Couper, David; Eckfeldt, John H; Pankow, James S; Anker, Stefan D; Solomon, Scott D

    2017-03-01

    Severe iron overload is associated with cardiac damage, while iron deficiency has been related to worse outcomes in subjects with heart failure (HF). This study investigated the relationship between ferritin, a marker of iron status, and the incidence of HF in a community-based cohort. We examined 1063 participants who were free of heart failure from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study in whom ferritin serum levels were measured at baseline (1987-1989). The participants (mean age 52.7 ± 5.5 years, 62% women), were categorized in low (200 ng/mL in women and >300 ng/mL in men; n = 247) ferritin levels. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between ferritin and incident HF. After 21 ± 4.6 years of follow-up, HF occurred in 144 (13.5%) participants. When compared with participants with normal ferritin levels, participants with low ferritin levels had a higher risk of HF [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-4.35; P = 0.02] as did those with high ferritin levels (HR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.25; P = 0.04), after adjusting for potential confounders. Notably, low ferritin levels remained associated with incident HF even after excluding subjects with anaemia (HR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.11-4.68; P = 0.03). Derangements in iron metabolism, either low or high ferritin serum levels, were associated with higher risk of incident HF in a general population, even without concurrent anaemia. These findings suggest that iron imbalance might play a role in the development of HF. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Expert risk perceptions and the social amplification of risk: A case study in invasive tree pests and diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Urquhart, Julie; Potter, Clive; Barnett, Julie; Fellenor, John; Mumford, John; Quine, Christopher P.

    2017-01-01

    The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) is often used as a conceptual tool for studying diverse risk\\ud perceptions associated with environmental hazards. While widely applied, it has been criticised for implying that\\ud it is possible to define a benchmark ‘real’ risk that is determined by experts and around which public risk\\ud perceptions can subsequently become amplified. It has been argued that this objectification of risk is particularly\\ud problematic when there are high leve...

  19. Diabetes and Prediabetes and Risk of Hospitalization: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Kalyani, Rita R; Golden, Sherita; Stearns, Sally C; Wruck, Lisa; Yeh, Hsin Chieh; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    To examine the magnitude and types of hospitalizations among persons with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diagnosed diabetes. This study included 13,522 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (mean age 57 years, 56% female, 24% black, 18% with prediabetes, 4% with undiagnosed diabetes, 9% with diagnosed diabetes) with follow-up in 1990-2011 for hospitalizations. Participants were categorized by diabetes/HbA1c status: without diagnosed diabetes, HbA1c prediabetes, 5.7 to prediabetes had 1.3 times higher rates of hospitalization than those without diabetes and HbA1c prediabetes are at a significantly elevated risk of hospitalization compared with those without diabetes. Substantial excess rates of hospitalizations in persons with diagnosed diabetes were for endocrine, infection, and iatrogenic/injury causes, which may be preventable with improved diabetes care. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  20. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km 2 Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included

  1. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  2. Familial risk of epilepsy: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peljto, Anna L.; Barker-Cummings, Christie; Vasoli, Vincent M.; Leibson, Cynthia L.; Hauser, W. Allen; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all previous studies of familial risk of epilepsy have had potentially serious methodological limitations. Our goal was to address these limitations and provide more rigorous estimates of familial risk in a population-based study. We used the unique resources of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify all 660 Rochester, Minnesota residents born in 1920 or later with incidence of epilepsy from 1935–94 (probands) and their 2439 first-degree relatives who resided in Olmsted County. We assessed incidence of epilepsy in relatives by comprehensive review of the relatives’ medical records, and estimated age-specific cumulative incidence and standardized incidence ratios for epilepsy in relatives compared with the general population, according to proband and relative characteristics. Among relatives of all probands, cumulative incidence of epilepsy to age 40 was 4.7%, and risk was increased 3.3-fold (95% confidence interval 2.75–5.99) compared with population incidence. Risk was increased to the greatest extent in relatives of probands with idiopathic generalized epilepsies (standardized incidence ratio 6.0) and epilepsies associated with intellectual or motor disability presumed present from birth, which we denoted ‘prenatal/developmental cause’ (standardized incidence ratio 4.3). Among relatives of probands with epilepsy without identified cause (including epilepsies classified as ‘idiopathic’ or ‘unknown cause’), risk was significantly increased for epilepsy of prenatal/developmental cause (standardized incidence ratio 4.1). Similarly, among relatives of probands with prenatal/developmental cause, risk was significantly increased for epilepsies without identified cause (standardized incidence ratio 3.8). In relatives of probands with generalized epilepsy, standardized incidence ratios were 8.3 (95% confidence interval 2.93–15.31) for generalized epilepsy and 2.5 (95% confidence interval 0.92–4.00) for focal epilepsy. In relatives of

  3. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milutinović

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to assess nurses' perceptions of risk factors for the development of phlebitis, with a special focus on the perception of phlebitic potentials of some infusion medications and solutions.Method: a cross-sectional questionnaire study, which included a sample of 102 nurses.Results: Nurses recognized some factors that may reduce the incidence of phlebitis; however, more than half of the nurses were unaware that the material and diameter of the cannula can affect the incidence rate of phlebitis. Furthermore,underlying disease and high pH of medications or solutions were identified as potential risk factors, whereas low pH and low osmolality were not. Nurses identified Vancomycin and Benzylpenicillin antibiotics with the strongest phlebitic potential. Among other medications and intravenous fluids, Aminophylline, Amiodaronehydrochloride and Potassium chloride 7.4% were identified as potentially causing phlebitis.Conclusion: predisposing factors for phlebitis relating to patients and administered therapy were identified by nurses, while some cannula related risk factors, in particular its physicochemical properties and the time for cannula replacement, were not fully perceived.

  4. Risk factor for phlebitis: a questionnaire study of nurses' perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milutinović, Dragana; Simin, Dragana; Zec, Davor

    2015-01-01

    to assess nurses' perceptions of risk factors for the development of phlebitis, with a special focus on the perception of phlebitic potentials of some infusion medications and solutions. a cross-sectional questionnaire study, which included a sample of 102 nurses. Nurses recognized some factors that may reduce the incidence of phlebitis; however, more than half of the nurses were unaware that the material and diameter of the cannula can affect the incidence rate of phlebitis. Furthermore,underlying disease and high pH of medications or solutions were identified as potential risk factors, whereas low pH and low osmolality were not. Nurses identified Vancomycin and Benzylpenicillin antibiotics with the strongest phlebitic potential. Among other medications and intravenous fluids, Aminophylline, Amiodaronehydrochloride and Potassium chloride 7.4% were identified as potentially causing phlebitis. predisposing factors for phlebitis relating to patients and administered therapy were identified by nurses, while some cannula related risk factors, in particular its physicochemical properties and the time for cannula replacement, were not fully perceived.

  5. Behavioral control and reward sensitivity in adolescents’ risk taking behavior : A longitudinal TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  6. Behavioral Control and Reward Sensitivity in Adolescents' Risk Taking Behavior : A Longitudinal TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Margot; Oldehinkel, Tineke; Vollebergh, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental theories of risk behavior hypothesize that low behavioral control in combination with high reward sensitivity explains adolescents' risk behavior. However, empirical studies examining this hypothesis while including actual risk taking behavior in adolescence are lacking. In this

  7. Risk Factors for Anemia in Pregnancy: A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutuja Pundkar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of the study was to find the risk factors leading to Anemia in pregnancy. The main objective was to study the various sociodemographic factors leading to anemia. And to assess the knowledge about anemia among study participants. Material and methods: The present Case control study was carried out at Primary Health Centre, to determine the risk factors leading to anemia in pregnancy. A total of 308 pregnant females were registered. Among them two groups were made, group I cases and group II controls. Each group had 50 cases each. Laboratory test were done and females having hemoglobin less than 11mg/dl were considered anemic. Anemic females were considered cases and females having Hb >11mg/dl were considered controls. Data analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: The overall mean haemoglobin (Hb was 11.55g/dL in controls, whereas it was seen that among the cases it was 9.58g/dL.It would seem that diet, family size, education, social class, gravida and parity are associated with anemia in pregnancy. Conclusion: After adjusting for all the possible covariates there seems to be significant association between Hb levels and age group, education level, family size, diet, gravida and parity.

  8. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  9. The German risk study for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1980-01-01

    In August 1979 results of the ''German Risk Study for Nuclear Power Plants'' were published. The Main Report, in which approach and results of the study are documented, has been available since the end of 1979. It was the charter of the study - which was performed on behalf of the Minister of Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany - to apply as far as possible the methods of the US Reactor Safety Study (WASH-1400) to German plant and site conditions. A direct transfer of the results was not deemed justified, mainly for the following reasons: There is quite a number of differences between the design of the reference plants of WASH-1400 (Surry-1, Peach Bottom-2) and German nuclear power plants. The mean population density in the Federal Republic of Germany is more than ten times of the United States. In the vicinity of nuclear power plants the ratio is about 3:1. To calculate the collective risk resulting from reactor accidents, a total of 25 plants at 19 different sites in the Federal Republic of Germany were considered. This included all plants with 600 MW or more electrical output, which were in operation, under construction or in licensing process by July 1, 1977. As an approximation to the real situation, it has been assumed that all 25 plants are technically identical to the reference plant

  10. Childhood Psychosocial Cumulative Risks and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Kubzansky, Laura D.; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Juonala, Markus; Kivimäki, Mika; Josefsson, Kim; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Raitakari, Olli T

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adverse experiences in childhood may influence cardiovascular risk in adulthood. We examined the prospective associations between types of psychosocial adversity as well as having multiple adversities (e.g., cumulative risk) with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and its progression among young adults. Higher cumulative risk score in childhood was expected to be associated with higher IMT and its progression. Methods Participants were 2265 men and women (age range: 24-39 years in 2001) from the on-going Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study whose carotid IMT were measured in 2001 and 2007. A cumulative psychosocial risk score, assessed at the study baseline in 1980, was derived from four separate aspects of the childhood environment that may impose risk (childhood stressful life-events, parental health behavior family, socioeconomic status, and childhood emotional environment). Results The cumulative risk score was associated with higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.001; padulthood, including adulthood health behavior, adulthood socioeconomic status and depressive symptoms. Among the individual childhood psychosocial risk categories, having more stressful life-events was associated with higher IMT in 2001 (b=.007; se=.003; p=.016) and poorer parental health behavior predicted higher IMT in 2007 (b=.004; se=.002; p=.031) after adjustment for age, sex and childhood cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Early life psychosocial environment influences cardiovascular risk later in life and considering cumulative childhood risk factors may be more informative than individual factors in predicting progression of preclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood. PMID:26809108

  11. Effective Project Risk management in Micro Companies : Case study for Persona Optima Iceland ehf.

    OpenAIRE

    Bražinskaitė, Justina

    2011-01-01

    This study is meant to be a guide for micro companies regarding effective project risk management. The main purpose of this thesis is to introduce project risk management and build a user-friendly managerial model toward effective project risk management in micro companies. The research is based on a case company Persona Optima Iceland ehf. analysis. The study investigates risk management, uncertainties and risks in projects, project risk management, its models and particularities in orde...

  12. Prospective Study of Fasting Blood Glucose and Intracerebral Hemorrhagic Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Cheng; Li, Guohong; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Gurol, Mahmut E; Yuan, Xiaodong; Hui, Ying; Ruan, Chunyu; Vaidya, Anand; Wang, Yanxiu; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2018-01-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is an established independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, the association between fasting blood glucose and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is limited and inconsistent. The objective of the current study was to examine the potential impact of long-term fasting blood glucose concentration on subsequent risk of ICH. This prospective study included 96 110 participants of the Kailuan study, living in Kailuan community, Tangshan city, China, who were free of cardiovascular diseases and cancer at baseline (2006). Fasting blood glucose concentration was measured in 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. Updated cumulative average fasting blood glucose concentration was used as primary exposure of the current study. Incident ICH from 2006 to 2015 was confirmed by review of medical records. During 817 531 person-years of follow-up, we identified 755 incident ICH cases. The nadir risk of ICH was observed at fasting blood glucose concentration of 5.3 mmol/L. The adjusted hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ICH were 1.59 (95% CI, 1.26-2.02) for diabetes mellitus or fasting blood glucose ≥7.00 mmol/L, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02-1.69) for impaired fasting blood glucose (fasting blood glucose, 6.10-6.99 mmol/L), 0.98 (95% CI, 0.78-1.22) for fasting blood glucose 5.60 to 6.09 mmol/L, and 2.04 (95% CI, 1.23-3.38) for hypoglycemia (fasting blood glucose, fasting blood glucose 4.00 to 5.59 mmol/L. The results persisted after excluding individuals who used hypoglycemic, aspirin, antihypertensive agents, or anticoagulants, and those with intracerebral hemorrhagic cases occurred in the first 2 years of follow-up. In this large community-based cohort, low (fasting blood glucose concentrations were associated with higher risk of incident ICH, relative to fasting blood glucose concentrations of 4.00 to 6.09 mmol/L. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Bankruptcy Risk in IFRS Era. Case Study on BSE Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin BURCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The path of international accounting convergence is, unanimously accepted by all decision makers of the international financial reporting environment, as being the best solution towards reducing differences in international accounting. The idea of core standards is embraced by our country, too, the proof being the last legislative changes in Romanian accounting framework. This study aims to highlight a small part of the economic consequences of the decision to extend the mandatory use of IFRS standards to the statutory financial statements, also. More exactly we will underline the changes registered at the level of bankruptcy risk measureson a samples of companies listed on BSE.

  14. Risk-based Comparative Study of Fluid Power Pitch Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liniger, Jesper; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; N. Soltani, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Proper functioning of the pitch system is essential to both normal operation and safety critical shut down of modern multi megawatt wind turbines. Several studies on field failure rates for such turbines show that pitch systems are a major contributor to failures which entails an increased risk....... Thus, more reliable and safe concepts are needed. A review of patents and patent applications covering fluid power pitch concepts, reveals that many propose closed-type hydraulic systems. This paper proposes a closed-type concept with a bootstrap reservoir. In contrary to a conventional system where...

  15. Credit Risk Management. A study on risk integration in the bank lending process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleddens, Linda Elsa Wilhelmina

    2011-01-01

    Credit risk management has been a topic much written about in the last decade. Substantial credit risk losses can undermine the stability of the bank. Both banks and national bank supervisors have realized the need to invest in credit risk management. Partly driven by regulations such as the Basel

  16. Main results of the german risk study, phase B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    Work on the German Risk Study is under contract of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology. The reference plant for the analysis is the Biblis nuclear power plant, Unit B, a KWU pressurized water reactor of the 1300 MWel class. The plant is in operation since 1976. First results on Phase A of the study have been published in 1979. Investigations on Phase B have been foreseen to endeepen the analysis. The principal purpose of these investigations is to improve and to optimize the plant's safety features on a more realistic basis. Main objectives of Phase B are: - Completeness of accident event tree analysis taking into account further accident initiating events. - Identification and analyses of accident management measures which are adequate to minimize accidental risk. - improvement of the analysis on an as far as possible realistic basis, thereby taking into account recent results of safety research. The paper deals with the most important results of the plant analyses (level 1 and level 2) which have been performed within the scope of Phases B of the study

  17. Family studies to find rare high risk variants in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rikke Dyhr; Christensen, Anne Francke; Olesen, Jes

    2017-12-01

    variants (less than five), while other studies found several possible variants. Not all of them were genome wide significant. Four studies performed follow-up analyses in unrelated cases and controls and calculated odds ratios that supported an association between detected variants and risk of disease. Studies of 11 diseases identified rare variants that segregated fully or to a large degree with the disease in the pedigrees. It is possible to find rare high risk variants for common complex diseases through a family-based approach. One study using a family approach and NGS to find rare variants in migraine has already been published but with strong limitations. More studies are under way.

  18. An empirical study for ranking risk factors using linear assignment: A case study of road construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Foroughi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Road construction projects are considered as the most important governmental issues since there are normally heavy investments required in such projects. There is also shortage of financial resources in governmental budget, which makes the asset allocation more challenging. One primary step in reducing the cost is to determine different risks associated with execution of such project activities. In this study, we present some important risk factors associated with road construction in two levels for a real-world case study of rail-road industry located between two cities of Esfahan and Deligan. The first group of risk factors includes the probability and the effects for various attributes including cost, time, quality and performance. The second group of risk factors includes socio-economical factors as well as political and managerial aspects. The study finds 21 main risk factors as well as 193 sub risk factors. The factors are ranked using groups decision-making method called linear assignment. The preliminary results indicate that the road construction projects could finish faster with better outcome should we carefully consider risk factors and attempt to reduce their impacts.

  19. Risk Management from Corporate and FM Perspectives: Two case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ünver, Kadir; Jensen, Per Anker

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Risk Management (RM) is perceived and practiced in Facilities Management (FM) and corporate management and to evaluate the potential benefits of an increased application. Theory: RM is a generic management discipline, but apparently it has not achieved the attention...... as most critical in each company. Both companies could benefit from a more integrated application of RM covering both corporate management and FM. Originality/value: This is among the first descriptive studies looking at RM from both corporate and FM perspectives, which is essential to increase...... it deserves in FM. Application of RM in FM could help to increase the strategic importance and awareness of FM among corporate managers. Approach: A preliminary study with expert interviews was initially conducted followed by a main study with an interview survey in two Danish case companies - a real estate...

  20. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant DE-FG01-96EW56093) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program and presents a synopsis of the effort that began in 1995 and will officially conclude on April 30, 2000. (author)

  1. Development of cancer risk estimates from epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation risk estimates may be made for an increase in mortality from, or for an increase in incidence of, particular types of disease. For both endpoints, two numerical systems of risk expression are used: the absolute risk system (usually the excess deaths or cases per million persons per year per rad), and the relative risk system (usually excess deaths or cases per year per rad expressed as a percentage of those normally expected). Risks may be calculated for specific age groups or for a general population. An alternative in both risk systems is the estimation of cumulative of lifetime risk rather than annual risk (e.g. in excess deaths per million per rad over a specified long period including the remainder of lifespan). The derivation of both absolute and relative risks is illustrated by examples. The effects on risk estimates of latent period, follow-up time, age at exposure and age standardization within dose groups are illustrated. The dependence of the projected cumulative (lifetime) risk on the adoption of a constant absolute risk or constant relative risk is noted. The use of life-table data in the adjustment of cumulative risk for normal mortality following single or annual doses is briefly discussed

  2. Expert risk perceptions and the social amplification of risk: A case study in invasive tree pests and diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Julie; Potter, Clive; Barnett, Julie; Fellenor, John; Mumford, John; Quine, Christopher P

    2017-11-01

    The Social Amplification of Risk Framework (SARF) is often used as a conceptual tool for studying diverse risk perceptions associated with environmental hazards. While widely applied, it has been criticised for implying that it is possible to define a benchmark 'real' risk that is determined by experts and around which public risk perceptions can subsequently become amplified. It has been argued that this objectification of risk is particularly problematic when there are high levels of scientific uncertainty and a lack of expert consensus about the nature of a risk and its impacts. In order to explore this further, this paper examines how 'experts' - defined in this case as scientists, policy makers, outbreak managers and key stakeholders - construct and assemble their understanding of the risks associated with two invasive tree pest and disease outbreaks in the UK, ash dieback and oak processionary moth. Through semi-structured interviews with experts in each of the case study outbreaks, the paper aims to better understand the nature of information sources drawn on to construct perceptions of tree health risks, especially when uncertainty is prevalent. A key conclusion is that risk assessment is a socially-mediated, relational and incremental process with experts drawing on a range of official, anecdotal and experiential sources of information, as well as reference to past events in order to assemble the risk case. Aligned with this, experts make attributions about public concern, especially when the evidence base is incomplete and there is a need to justify policy and management actions and safeguard reputation.

  3. The study of the risk management model of construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bo; Feng Yanping; Liu Changbin

    2010-01-01

    The paper first analyzed the development of the risk management of construction project and the risk management processes, and then briefly introduced the risk management experience of foreign project management. From the project management by objectives point of view, the greatest risk came from the lack of clarity of the objectives in the project management, which led to the project's risk emergence. In the analysis of the principles of the project objectives identification and risk allocation, the paper set up a project management model which insurance companies involved in the whole process of the project management, and simply analyzed the roles of insurance company at last. (authors)

  4. A prospective study of maternal carboxyhemoglobin and preeclampsia risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Carole B.; Williams, Michelle A.; Schiff, Melissa A.; Koenig, Jane Q.; Dills, Russell; Yu, Jianbo

    2009-01-01

    Summary We aimed to measure the relation between early-pregnancy maternal carboxyhemoglobin and subsequent preeclampsia risk. We conducted a nested case-control analysis using data from a western Washington State cohort study (1996–2004). We measured maternal whole blood carboxyhemoglobin in 128 women who developed preeclampsia and 419 normotensive controls (mean gestational age at blood draw, 14.8 weeks). After adjustment for confounders, high (≥1%) versus low (carboxyhemoglobin odds ratios [OR] and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were 4.09 [1.30, 12.9] in parous women, 0.53 [0.23, 1.26] in nulliparous women, and 1.11 [0.55, 2.25] in the overall study population (parity interaction p=0.01). The influence of parity on the association was unexpected. The association between high carboxyhemoglobin and preeclampsia risk in parous women implicates hypoxia at the fetal-maternal interface as a pathogenic mechanism. These results also suggest that the etiology of the disease may differ according to parity. PMID:20078828

  5. Perceptions of risk in adults with a low or high risk profile of developing type 2 diabetes; a cross sectional population-bases study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriaanse, M.C.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Dekker, J.M.; Spijkerman, A.M.W.; Nijpels, G.; Heine, R.J.; Snoek, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the perceived seriousness and risk of type 2 diabetes among low risk with high risk profile non-diabetic subjects and examine the relationship of perceived risk with multiple self-reported risk indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study among 4435 low risk

  6. Lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation according to optimal, borderline, or elevated levels of risk factors: cohort study based on longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerk, Laila; Wang, Biqi; Preis, Sarah R; Larson, Martin G; Lubitz, Steven A; Ellinor, Patrick T; McManus, David D; Ko, Darae; Weng, Lu-Chen; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Frost, Lars; Benjamin, Emelia J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine the association between risk factor burdens—categorized as optimal, borderline, or elevated—and the lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation. Design Community based cohort study. Setting Longitudinal data from the Framingham Heart Study. Participants Individuals free of atrial fibrillation at index ages 55, 65, and 75 years were assessed. Smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes, and history of heart failure or myocardial infarction were assessed as being optimal (that is, all risk factors were optimal), borderline (presence of borderline risk factors and absence of any elevated risk factor), or elevated (presence of at least one elevated risk factor) at index age. Main outcome measure Lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation at index age up to 95 years, accounting for the competing risk of death. Results At index age 55 years, the study sample comprised 5338 participants (2531 (47.4%) men). In this group, 247 (4.6%) had an optimal risk profile, 1415 (26.5%) had a borderline risk profile, and 3676 (68.9%) an elevated risk profile. The prevalence of elevated risk factors increased gradually when the index ages rose. For index age of 55 years, the lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation was 37.0% (95% confidence interval 34.3% to 39.6%). The lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation was 23.4% (12.8% to 34.5%) with an optimal risk profile, 33.4% (27.9% to 38.9%) with a borderline risk profile, and 38.4% (35.5% to 41.4%) with an elevated risk profile. Overall, participants with at least one elevated risk factor were associated with at least 37.8% lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation. The gradient in lifetime risk across risk factor burden was similar at index ages 65 and 75 years. Conclusions Regardless of index ages at 55, 65, or 75 years, an optimal risk factor profile was associated with a lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation of about one in five; this risk rose to more than one in three in individuals with at least

  7. Novice drivers' risky driving behavior, risk perception, and crash risk: findings from the DRIVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca; Senserrick, Teresa; Boufous, Soufiane; Stevenson, Mark; Chen, Huei-Yang; Woodward, Mark; Norton, Robyn

    2009-09-01

    We explored the risky driving behaviors and risk perceptions of a cohort of young novice drivers and sought to determine their associations with crash risk. Provisional drivers aged 17 to 24 (n = 20 822) completed a detailed questionnaire that included measures of risk perception and behaviors; 2 years following recruitment, survey data were linked to licensing and police-reported crash data. Poisson regression models that adjusted for multiple confounders were created to explore crash risk. High scores on questionnaire items for risky driving were associated with a 50% increased crash risk (adjusted relative risk = 1.51; 95% confidence interval = 1.25, 1.81). High scores for risk perception (poorer perceptions of safety) were also associated with increased crash risk in univariate and multivariate models; however, significance was not sustained after adjustment for risky driving. The overrepresentation of youths in crashes involving casualties is a significant public health issue. Risky driving behavior is strongly linked to crash risk among young drivers and overrides the importance of risk perceptions. Systemwide intervention, including licensing reform, is warranted.

  8. Study of Hip Fracture Risk using Tree Structured Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Y

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In dieser Studie wird das Hüftfraktur-Risiko bei postmenopausalen Frauen untersucht, indem die Frauen in verschiedene Subgruppen hinsichtlich dieses Risikos klassifiziert werden. Frauen in einer gemeinsamen Subgruppe haben ein ähnliches Risiko, hingegen in verschiedenen Subgruppen ein unterschiedliches Hüftfraktur-Risiko. Die Subgruppen wurden mittels der Tree Structured Survival Analysis (TSSA aus den Daten von 7.665 Frauen der SOF (Study of Osteoporosis Fracture ermittelt. Bei allen Studienteilnehmerinnen wurde die Knochenmineraldichte (BMD von Unterarm, Oberschenkelhals, Hüfte und Wirbelsäule gemessen. Die Zeit von der BMD-Messung bis zur Hüftfraktur wurde als Endpunkt notiert. Eine Stichprobe von 75% der Teilnehmerinnen wurde verwendet, um die prognostischen Subgruppen zu bilden (Trainings-Datensatz, während die anderen 25% als Bestätigung der Ergebnisse diente (Validierungs-Datensatz. Aufgrund des Trainings-Datensatzes konnten mittels TSSA 4 Subgruppen identifiziert werden, deren Hüftfraktur-Risiko bei einem Follow-up von im Mittel 6,5 Jahren bei 19%, 9%, 4% und 1% lag. Die Einteilung in die Subgruppen erfolgte aufgrund der Bewertung der BMD des Ward'schen Dreiecks sowie des Oberschenkelhalses und nach dem Alter. Diese Ergebnisse konnten mittels des Validierungs-Datensatzes reproduziert werden, was die Sinnhaftigkeit der Klassifizierungregeln in einem klinischen Setting bestätigte. Mittels TSSA war eine sinnvolle, aussagekräftige und reproduzierbare Identifikation von prognostischen Subgruppen, die auf dem Alter und den BMD-Werten beruhen, möglich. In this paper we studied the risk of hip fracture for post-menopausal women by classifying women into different subgroups based on their risk of hip fracture. The subgroups were generated such that all the women in a particular subgroup had relatively similar risk while women belonging to two different subgroups had rather different risks of hip fracture. We used the Tree Structured

  9. Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  10. Evidence of lung cancer risk from animal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-03-01

    Human epidemiological data provide the most important basis for assessing risks of radon exposures. However, additional insight into the nature of exposure-response relationships is provided by animal experimentation and dosimetric determinations. Animal studies have now been conducted for more than 50 years to examine the levels of pollutants in underground mines that were responsible for the respiratory effects observed among miners. This work has emphasized respiratory cancer and the interaction of radon with other agents, such as ore dust, diesel-engine-exhaust fumes and cigarette smoke. The more recent data on radon-daughter inhalation exposures were provided by two American research centers, The University of Rochester (UR) and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), and by the Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA) laboratory in France. Approximately 2000 mice, 100 rats and 80 dogs were employed in the completed UR studies, begun in the mid 1950s; 800 hamsters, 5000 rats and 100 dogs in the ongoing PNL studies, begun in the late 1960s; and 10,000 rats in the ongoing COGEMA studies, also begun in the late 1960s. More complete updated biological effects, data resulting from chronic radon-daughter inhalation exposures of mice, hamsters, rats and beagle dogs were examined. Emphasis on the carcinogenic effects of radon-decay product exposure, including the influences of radon-daughter exposure rate, unattached fraction and disequilibrium, and co-exposures to other pollutants. Plausible values for the radon (radon-daughter) lifetime lung-cancer risk coefficients are also provided. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary: main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the objectives and organization of the reactor safety study; the basic concepts of risk; the nature of nuclear power plant accidents; risk assessment methodology; reactor accident risk; and comparison of nuclear risks to other societal risks

  12. A risk communication case study: the Nevada risk assessment/management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hechanova, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Risk Assessment/Management Program (NRAMP) is part of a national effort by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop new sources of information and approaches to risk assessment, risk management, risk communication and public outreach as these objectives relate to the ecological and human health effects of radioactive and hazardous material management and site remediation activities. This paper reviews the innovation behind the NRAMP project and presents a synopsis of the NRAMP effort which occurred from 1995 to 2000. The primary goals of the DOE in awarding the cooperative agreement establishing NRAMP were to (I) use a risk-based approach to evaluate the consequences of alternative actions in DOE's Environmental Remediation Programs at sites in Nevada and (2) use a neutral and credible institution outside the DOE to perform the risk assessments and contribute to public education about environmental management issues at the Nevada Test Site. (author)

  13. Case Study: University of Anyplace: Strategic Legal Risk Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John T.; Ferguson, Rowan

    2000-01-01

    Considers legal issues and risks faced by a fictional American university as it seeks to establish an operation based in London. Addresses the first step in the process of risk management, the risk review exercise, and provides an explanation of the legal issues involved to allow progression to the second stage in the process (evaluation of the…

  14. The risk of upcoding in casemix systems: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbusch, Paul J M; Oostenbrink, Jan B; Zuurbier, Joost J; Schaepkens, Frans J M

    2007-05-01

    With the introduction of a diagnosis related group (DRG) classification system in the Netherlands in 2005 it has become relevant to investigate the risk of upcoding. The problem of upcoding in the US casemix system is substantial. In 2004, the US Centres for Medicare and Medicaid estimated that the total number of improper Medicare payments for the Prospective Payment system for acute inpatient care (both short term and long term) amounted to US$ 4.8 billion (5.2%). By comparing the casemix systems in the US, Australian and Dutch healthcare systems, this article illustrates why certain casemix systems are more open to the risk of upcoding than other systems. This study identifies various market, control and casemix characteristics determining the weaknesses of a casemix reimbursement system to upcoding. It can be concluded that fewer opportunities for upcoding occur in casemix systems that do not allow for-profit ownership and in which the coder's salary does not depend on the outcome of the classification process. In addition, casemix systems in which the first point in time of registration is at the beginning of the care process and in which there are a limited number of occasions to alter the registration are less vulnerable to the risk of upcoding. Finally, the risk of upcoding is smaller in casemix systems that use classification criteria that are medically meaningful and aligned with clinical practice. Comparing the US, Australian and Dutch systems the following conclusions can be drawn. Given the combined occurrences of for-profit hospitals and the use of the secondary diagnosis criterion to classify DRGs, the US casemix system tends to be more open to upcoding than the Australian system. The strength of the Dutch system is related to the detailed classification scheme, using medically meaningful classification criteria. Nevertheless, the detailed classification scheme also causes a weakness, because of its increased complexity compared with the US and

  15. Study on default setting for risk-informed regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, S.C.; Ha, J.J.; Jung, W.D.; Jeong, K.S.; Han, S.H.

    1998-12-01

    Both performing and validating a detailed risk analysis of a complex system are costly and time-consuming undertakings. With the increased use of probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) in regulatory decision making, both regulated parties and regulators have generally favored the use of defaults, because they can greatly facilitate the process of performing a PSA in the first place as well as the process of reviewing and verifying the PSA. The use of defaults may also ensure more uniform standards of PSA quality. However, regulatory agencies differ in their approaches to the use of default values, and the implications of these differences are not yet well understood. Moreover, large heterogeneity among licensees makes it difficult to set suitable defaults. This study focus on the development of model for setting defaults in order to achieve more applicability of risk-informed regulation. In particular, explored are the effects of different levels of conservatism in setting defaults, and their implications for the crafting of regularity incentives. (author). 17 refs., 1 tab

  16. German risk study for nuclear power plants. Vol. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracht, K.F.; Javeri, V.; Keusenhoff, J.; Meier, S.; Roehrs, W.; Scharfe, A.; Tiltmann, M.; Mayinger, F.

    1980-01-01

    This appendix contains the analyses on core melt accidents carried out for the German risk study. These accidents constitute a major portion of the event sequences relevant to the risk. It deals, in particular, with the processes involved in the reactor core melt, the behaviour of the containment vessel including the possible types of failures, and the consequences of possible steam explosions. The investigations were performed for limiting cases for which a complete failure of the emergency core cooling and residual heat removal system is anticipated. Under these conditions, the reactor core melts down and penetrates the reactor pressure vessel bottom. In the course of the following interaction between core melt and concrete foundation, the melt is assumed to come into contact with the sump water. The evaporation of the sump water leads to an overpressure failure of the containment vessel within approximately one day after accident initiation. A destruction of the containment as a consequence of a steam explosion is considered highly unprobable. (orig.) [de

  17. Prospective study of coffee consumption and risk of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sääksjärvi, K; Knekt, P; Rissanen, H; Laaksonen, M A; Reunanen, A; Männistö, S

    2008-07-01

    To examine the prediction of coffee consumption on the incidence of Parkinson's disease. The study population comprised 6710 men and women, aged 50-79 years and free from Parkinson's disease at the baseline. At baseline, enquiries were made about coffee consumption in a self-administered questionnaire as the average number of cups per day. During a 22-year follow-up, 101 incident cases of Parkinson's disease occurred. Parkinson's disease cases were identified through a nationwide registry of patients receiving medication reimbursement, which is based on certificates from neurologist. After adjustments for age, sex, marital status, education, community density, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, body mass index, hypertension and serum cholesterol, the relative risk for subjects drinking 10 or more cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.26 (95% confidence interval 0.07-0.99, P-value for trend=0.18). The association was stronger among overweight persons and among persons with lower serum cholesterol level (P-value for interaction=0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The results support the hypothesis that coffee consumption reduces the risk of Parkinson's disease, but protective effect of coffee may vary by exposure to other factors.

  18. Integrated source-risk model for radon: A definition study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laheij, G.M.H.; Aldenkamp, F.J.; Stoop, P.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of a source-risk model is to support policy making on radon mitigation by comparing effects of various policy options and to enable optimization of counter measures applied to different parts of the source-risk chain. There are several advantages developing and using a source-risk model: risk calculations are standardized; the effects of measures applied to different parts of the source-risk chain can be better compared because interactions are included; and sensitivity analyses can be used to determine the most important parameters within the total source-risk chain. After an inventory of processes and sources to be included in the source-risk chain, the models presently available in the Netherlands are investigated. The models were screened for completeness, validation and operational status. The investigation made clear that, by choosing for each part of the source-risk chain the most convenient model, a source-risk chain model for radon may be realized. However, the calculation of dose out of the radon concentrations and the status of the validation of most models should be improved. Calculations with the proposed source-risk model will give estimations with a large uncertainty at the moment. For further development of the source-risk model an interaction between the source-risk model and experimental research is recommended. Organisational forms of the source-risk model are discussed. A source-risk model in which only simple models are included is also recommended. The other models are operated and administrated by the model owners. The model owners execute their models for a combination of input parameters. The output of the models is stored in a database which will be used for calculations with the source-risk model. 5 figs., 15 tabs., 7 appendices, 14 refs

  19. Obesity, physical activity and cancer risks: Results from the Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Carlos; Bauman, Adrian; Egger, Sam; Sitas, Freddy; Nair-Shalliker, Visalini

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, but the evidence linking PA with lower cancer risk is inconclusive. We examined the independent and interactive effects of PA and obesity using body mass index (BMI) as a proxy for obesity, on the risk of developing prostate (PC), postmenopausal breast (BC), colorectal (CRC), ovarian (OC) and uterine (UC) cancers. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for cancer specific confounders, in 6831 self-reported cancer cases and 1992 self-reported cancer-free controls from the Cancer Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study, using unconditional logistic regression. For women, BMI was positively associated with UC risk; specifically, obese women (BMI≥30kg/m 2 ) had nearly twice the risk of developing UC compared to women with healthy-BMI-range (risk of developing any cancer type, CRC and PC. In particular, obese men had 37% (OR=1.37;CI:1.11-1.70), 113% (OR=2.13;CI:1.55-2.91) and 51% (OR=1.51;CI:1.17-1.94) higher risks of developing any cancer, CRC and PC respectively, when compared to men with healthy-BMI-range (BMIrisks of CRC, UC and BC. In particular, the highest level of PA (versus nil activity) was associated with reduced risks of CRC (OR=0.60;CI:0.44-0.84) and UC (OR=0.47;CI:0.27-0.80). Reduced risks of BC were associated with low (OR=0.66;CI:0.51-0.86) and moderate (OR=0.72;CI:0.57-0.91) levels of PA. There was no association between PA levels and cancer risks for men. We found no evidence of an interaction between BMI and PA in the CLEAR study. These findings suggest that PA and obesity are independent cancer risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. University Lawyers: A Study of Legal Risk, Risk Management and Role in Work Integrated Learning Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Craig; Klopper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Work integrated learning (WIL) is in growing demand by multiple stakeholders within the higher education sector in Australia. There are significant and distinct legal risks to universities associated with WIL programmes. University lawyers, along with WIL administrators and university management, are responsible for managing legal risk. This…

  1. Plantar pitted keratolysis: a study from non-risk groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Feride Kaptanoglu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pitted keratolysis is an acquired, superficial bacterial infection of the skin which is characterized by typical malodor and pits in the hyperkeratotic areas of the soles. It is more common in barefooted people in tropical areas, or those who have to wear occlusive shoes, such as soldiers, sailors and athletes. In this study, we evaluated 41 patients who had been diagnosed with plantar pitted keratolysis. The patients were of high socioeconomic status, were office-workers, and most had a university degree. Malodor and plantar hyperhydrosis were the most frequently reported symptoms. The weight-bearing metatarsal parts of the feet were those most affected. Almost half the women in the study gave a history of regular pedicure and foot care in a spa salon. Mean treatment duration was 19 days. All patients were informed about the etiology of the disease, predisposing factors and preventive methods. Recurrences were observed in only 17% of patients during the one year follow-up period. This study emphasizes that even malodorous feet among non-risk city dwellers may be a sign of plantar pitted keratolysis. A study of the real incidence of the disease in a large population-based series is needed.

  2. Longitudinal patterns and predictors of multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents : the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A.M.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    BACKGROUND: Most studies on multiple health risk behaviors among adolescents have cross-sectionally studied a limited number of health behaviors or determinants. PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence, longitudinal patterns and predictors of individual and multiple health risk behaviors among

  3. Risk Communication as a Tool for Training Apprentice Welders: A Study about Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Severo, Luana de Oliveira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Turik, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    The present study has aimed to identify the perceptions of apprentice welders about physical, chemical, biological, and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed; identify types of occupational accidents involving apprentice welders; and report the development of a socioenvironmental education intervention as a tool for risk communication for apprentice welders. A quantitative study was performed with 161 apprentice welders in Southern Brazil in 2011. Data collection was performed via structured interviews with the apprentice welders about risk perception, occupational accidents, and time experienced in welding. The data were analyzed using SPSS 19.0. The participants identified the following risk types: physical (96.9%), chemical (95%), physiological (86.3%), and biological (51.5%). In this sample, 39.7% of apprentice welders reported occupational accidents and 27.3% reported burning. The inferential analysis showed that the frequency of risk perception factors increases with the length of experience, and apprentice welders who have experienced accidents during welding activity perceive a higher amount of risk factors than those who have never experienced them. It is concluded that apprentice welders perceive risks and that they tend to relate risks with the occurrence of occupational accidents as an indicator of the dangerous nature of their activity. PMID:23326211

  4. Potential risk factors for diabetic neuropathy: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraei Mahdi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus type II afflicts at least 2 million people in Iran. Neuropathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes and lowers the patient's quality of life. Since neuropathy often leads to ulceration and amputation, we have tried to elucidate the factors that can affect its progression. Methods In this case-control study, 110 diabetic patients were selected from the Shariati Hospital diabetes clinic. Michigan Neuropathic Diabetic Scoring (MNDS was used to differentiate cases from controls. The diagnosis of neuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction studies (nerve conduction velocity and electromyography. The multiple factors compared between the two groups included consumption of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, blood pressure, serum lipid level, sex, smoking, method of diabetes control and its quality. Results Statistically significant relationships were found between neuropathy and age, gender, quality of diabetes control and duration of disease (P values in the order: 0.04, 0.04, Conclusion In this study, hyperglycemia was the only modifiable risk factor for diabetic neuropathy. Glycemic control reduces the incidence of neuropathy, slows its progression and improves the diabetic patient's quality of life. More attention must be paid to elderly male diabetic patients with poor diabetes control with regard to regular foot examinations and more practical education.

  5. Valdez air health study - Exposure monitoring and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.R.; Mikkelsen, R.

    1991-01-01

    In Valdez, Alaska there is concern about exposure of the public to benzene and other light hydrocarbons emitted during the loading of tankers from the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. As part of an overall risk assessment, the Valdez Air Health Study, a personal, indoor and outdoor air sampling program patterned after EPA's TEMA Study was designed and carried out. A unique feature of the study is that, during sampling periods, SF 6 tracer was released at the terminal site to represent terminal hydrocarbon emissions to provide a basis for directly quantitating any contribution of terminal emissions to personal exposure. Sixty citizens at Valdez were selected to wear vests containing sampling equipment for 24-hour periods summer and winter. At the homes of 30 of the participants simultaneous indoor and outdoor samples for hydrocarbons and tracer were collected during the period that each participant collected personal air samples. The paper reviews the design of the program, details of the procedures used, results of the August, 1990 program and preliminary results from the February-March, 1991 program

  6. Australian Defence Risk Management Framework: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    disadvantage or gain. There may be a range of possible outcomes associated with an event. Definition 1.3.3 Event An incident or situation, which occurs in a...prohibitive insurance costs. Sometimes, advantages may far outweigh disadvantages making risk more justifiable. The unacceptable risks are...objectives, work culture and risk management approaches. Globalisation and introduction of new technologies have significantly complicated the situation

  7. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low socioeconomic...

  8. From field studies to risk management: the Sensib project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercat-Rommens, C.; Renaud, P.

    2004-01-01

    The consequences for the man and the environment of the discharges of nuclear facilities depend on the importance and the nature of the discharges, but also on the environment which receives them. Thus, the impact of a pollution, which is expressed in term of toxicity, risk or economic consequences, varies according to the characteristics of the environment and the use of this environment by the man. The radioecological sensitivity can be defined as the response of the environment to a radioactive pollution. This response is expressed through various indicators: the activity of a radionuclide at a precise moment, a stock of radionuclide in a given environmental compartment or a flux of radionuclide... For a determined discharge, the higher is the response, the more sensitive is the environment. If all the ecosystems appear sensitive, their sensitivity does not concern the same criteria and it is currently difficult to compare these criteria between them; is it more hazardous to have a stock of radioactivity present in a natural space or to have an important but time-limited concentration of radionuclides in a river used for irrigation? The idea of the SENSIB project is to create a standardized tool which makes it possible to represent and to compare with the same scale the sensitivity of various ecosystems. The sensitivity indexes, which will be developed during the project, aim to represent the intensity of the environmental response. These indicators, which are the result of the transfer of the radionuclides in the environment, depend on various intrinsic parameters of the ecosystems (climate, soil, agricultural practises...). The SENSIB project, based on results of field studies conducted by IRSN, aims to develop both a methodology to calculate sensitivity indexes and a radioecological sensitivity scale usable for risk management. (author)

  9. Risk assessment study of fire following earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

    2013-04-01

    After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemistry enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprises earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

  10. Risk assessment study of fire following an earthquake: a case study of petrochemical enterprises in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Lin, L.

    2014-04-01

    After an earthquake, the fire risk of petrochemical enterprises is higher than that of other enterprises as it involves production processes with inflammable and explosive characteristics. Using Chinese petrochemical enterprises as the research object, this paper uses a literature review and case summaries to study, amongst others, the classification of petrochemical enterprises, the proportion of daily fires, and fire loss ratio. This paper builds a fire following an earthquake risk assessment model of petrochemical enterprises based on a previous earthquake fire hazard model, and the earthquake loss prediction assessment method, calculates the expected loss of the fire following an earthquake in various counties and draws a risk map. Moreover, this research identifies high-risk areas, concentrating on the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, and Shandong, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces. Differences in enterprise type produce different levels and distribution of petrochemical enterprise earthquake fire risk. Furthermore, areas at high risk of post-earthquake fires and with low levels of seismic fortification require extra attention to ensure appropriate mechanisms are in place.

  11. Improving interMediAte Risk management. MARK study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Gil Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk functions fail to identify more than 50% of patients who develop cardiovascular disease. This is especially evident in the intermediate-risk patients in which clinical management becomes difficult. Our purpose is to analyze if ankle-brachial index (ABI, measures of arterial stiffness, postprandial glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, self-measured blood pressure and presence of comorbidity are independently associated to incidence of vascular events and whether they can improve the predictive capacity of current risk equations in the intermediate-risk population. Methods/Design This project involves 3 groups belonging to REDIAPP (RETICS RD06/0018 from 3 Spanish regions. We will recruit a multicenter cohort of 2688 patients at intermediate risk (coronary risk between 5 and 15% or vascular death risk between 3-5% over 10 years and no history of atherosclerotic disease, selected at random. We will record socio-demographic data, information on diet, physical activity, comorbidity and intermittent claudication. We will measure ABI, pulse wave velocity and cardio ankle vascular index at rest and after a light intensity exercise. Blood pressure and anthropometric data will be also recorded. We will also quantify lipids, glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in a fasting blood sample and postprandial capillary glucose. Eighteen months after the recruitment, patients will be followed up to determine the incidence of vascular events (later follow-ups are planned at 5 and 10 years. We will analyze whether the new proposed risk factors contribute to improve the risk functions based on classic risk factors. Discussion Primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases is a priority in public health policy of developed and developing countries. The fundamental strategy consists in identifying people in a high risk situation in which preventive measures are effective and efficient. Improvement of these predictions in our country

  12. Chronic kidney disease and bleeding risk in patients at high cardiovascular risk: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocak, G; Rookmaaker, M B; Algra, A; de Borst, G J; Doevendans, P A; Kappelle, L J; Verhaar, M C; Visseren, F L

    2018-01-01

    Essentials The association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding is unknown. We followed 10 347 subjects at high cardiovascular risk for bleeding events. Chronic kidney disease was associated with a 1.5-fold increased bleeding risk. Especially albuminuria rather than decreased kidney function was associated with bleeding events. Background There are indications that patients with chronic kidney disease have an increased bleeding risk. Objectives To investigate the association between chronic kidney disease and bleeding in patients at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 10 347 subjects referred to the University Medical Center Utrecht (the Netherlands) from September 1996 to February 2015 for an outpatient visit with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease (Second Manifestation of Arterial disease [SMART] cohort). Patients were staged according to the KDIGO guidelines, on the basis of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria, and were followed for the occurrence of major hemorrhagic events until March 2015. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for bleeding were calculated with Cox proportional hazards analyses. Results The incidence rate for bleeding in subjects with chronic kidney disease was 8.0 per 1000 person-years and that for subjects without chronic kidney disease was 3.5 per 1000 person-years. Patients with chronic kidney disease (n = 2443) had a 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.2-1.9) increased risk of bleeding as compared with subjects without chronic kidney disease (n = 7904) after adjustment. Subjects with an eGFR of Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for bleeding in patients with classic risk factors for arterial disease or with symptomatic arterial disease, especially in the presence of albuminuria. © 2017 University Medical Center Utrecht. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis © 2017 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. Risk perception and risk management in cloud computing: results from a case study of Swiss companies

    OpenAIRE

    Brender, Nathalie; Markov, Iliya

    2013-01-01

    In today's economic turmoil, the pay-per-use pricing model of cloud computing, its flexibility and scalability and the potential for better security and availability levels are alluring to both SMEs and large enterprises. However, cloud computing is fraught with security risks which need to be carefully evaluated before any engagement in this area. This article elaborates on the most important risks inherent to the cloud such as information security, regulatory compliance, data location, inve...

  14. Prediction of Adulthood Obesity Using Genetic and Childhood Clinical Risk Factors in the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, Fatemeh; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pitkänen, Niina; Juonala, Markus; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma; Kelly, Tanika; Li, Changwei; Bazzano, Lydia; Elo, Laura L; Raitakari, Olli T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Early prediction of obesity is essential for prevention. The aim of this study is to assess the use of childhood clinical factors and the genetic risk factors in predicting adulthood obesity using machine learning methods. A total of 2262 participants from the Cardiovascular Risk in YFS (Young Finns Study) were followed up from childhood (age 3-18 years) to adulthood for 31 years. The data were divided into training (n=1625) and validation (n=637) set. The effect of known genetic risk factors (97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms) was investigated as a weighted genetic risk score of all 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS97) or a subset of 19 most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (WGRS19) using boosting machine learning technique. WGRS97 and WGRS19 were validated using external data (n=369) from BHS (Bogalusa Heart Study). WGRS19 improved the accuracy of predicting adulthood obesity in training (area under the curve [AUC=0.787 versus AUC=0.744, P obesity. Predictive accuracy is highest among young children (3-6 years), whereas among older children (9-18 years) the risk can be identified using childhood clinical factors. The model is helpful in screening children with high risk of developing obesity. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Insurance and Risk Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vylder, F; Haezendonck, J

    1986-01-01

    Canadian financial institutions have been in rapid change in the past five years. In response to these changes, the Department of Finance issued a discussion paper: The Regulation of Canadian Financial Institutions, in April 1985, and the government intends to introduce legislation in the fall. This paper studi.es the combinantion of financial institutions from the viewpoint of ruin probability. In risk theory developed to describe insurance companies [1,2,3,4,5J, the ruin probability of a company with initial reserve (capital) u is 6 1 -:;-7;;f3 u 1jJ(u) = H6 e H6 (1) Here,we assume that claims arrive as a Poisson process, and the claim amount is distributed as exponential distribution with expectation liS. 6 is the loading, i.e., premium charged is (1+6) times expected claims. Financial institutions are treated as "insurance companies": the difference between interest charged and interest paid is regarded as premiums, loan defaults are treated as claims.

  16. Causation in risk assessment and management: models, inference, biases, and a microbial risk-benefit case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, L A; Ricci, P F

    2005-04-01

    Causal inference of exposure-response relations from data is a challenging aspect of risk assessment with important implications for public and private risk management. Such inference, which is fundamentally empirical and based on exposure (or dose)-response models, seldom arises from a single set of data; rather, it requires integrating heterogeneous information from diverse sources and disciplines including epidemiology, toxicology, and cell and molecular biology. The causal aspects we discuss focus on these three aspects: drawing sound inferences about causal relations from one or more observational studies; addressing and resolving biases that can affect a single multivariate empirical exposure-response study; and applying the results from these considerations to the microbiological risk management of human health risks and benefits of a ban on antibiotic use in animals, in the context of banning enrofloxacin or macrolides, antibiotics used against bacterial illnesses in poultry, and the effects of such bans on changing the risk of human food-borne campylobacteriosis infections. The purposes of this paper are to describe novel causal methods for assessing empirical causation and inference; exemplify how to deal with biases that routinely arise in multivariate exposure- or dose-response modeling; and provide a simplified discussion of a case study of causal inference using microbial risk analysis as an example. The case study supports the conclusion that the human health benefits from a ban are unlikely to be greater than the excess human health risks that it could create, even when accounting for uncertainty. We conclude that quantitative causal analysis of risks is a preferable to qualitative assessments because it does not involve unjustified loss of information and is sound under the inferential use of risk results by management.

  17. Cumulative risk, cumulative outcome: a 20-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Atkinson

    Full Text Available Cumulative risk (CR models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO. We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6 explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20. The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a "mediated net of adversity" model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes.

  18. Risk management study for the retired Hanford Site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, G.A.; Shultz, M.V.; Taylor, W.E.

    1993-04-01

    Risk from retired surplus facilities has always been assumed to be low at the Hanford Site as the facilities are inactive and have few potentials for causing an offsite hazardous material release. However,the fatal accident that occurred in the spring of 1992 in which an employee fell through a deteriorated roof at the 105-F Reactor Building has raised the possibility that retired facilities represent a greater risk than was originally assumed. Therefore, Westinghouse Hanford Company and the US Department of Energy management have determined that facility risk management strategies and programmatic plans should be reevaluated to assure risks are identified and appropriate corrective action plans are developed. To evaluate risk management strategies, accurate risk information about the current and projected condition of the facilities must be developed. This work procedure has been created to address the development of accurate and timely risk information. By using the evaluation results in this procedure, it will be possible to create a prioritized baseline for managing facility risk until all retired surplus facilities are demolished

  19. Case study of ecological risk assessment at an Alaska airport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.A.; Foster, T.L.; Zieber, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for 10 sites at a remote location that has unique biological resources. Chemicals of concern included petroleum, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dioxins and furans. Risks to 23 species of mammals and birds were evaluated by using toxicity reference values and a hazard quotient approach analogous to the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) approach for evaluating noncarcinogenic human health effects. Risks to fish and aquatic invertebrates were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for water analogous to the USEPA's water quality criteria. Risks to plants were evaluated using risk-based concentrations for soil. Toxicity reference values and risk-based concentrations were developed by applying uncertainty factors to the highest quality toxicity data available in the literature. Intake rates for wildlife were obtained from the USEPA's wildlife exposure factors handbook, or were estimated using allometric equations. The sizes of wildlife home ranges were compared with the size of each site to determine species- and site-specific exposure frequencies. Indicator chemicals were selected to represent the chemical and toxicological characteristics of petroleum fractions. The species most often at risk were found to be fish and aquatic invertebrates, as well as small-bodied, ground-dwelling or ground-feeding wildlife

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TRADITIONAL AND ENTERPRISE RISK MANAGEMENT -A THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cican Simona-Iulia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The complexity, volatility and unpredictability of the current economic environment are a daily reminder that organizations face many risks. The traditional approach, according to which risk is a necessary evil which must be removed, is no longer sufficient and that is why companies nowadays are forced to spend significant resources to manage risks. Risk transparency is what one looks for; therefore, identification and management of risks within an organization become increasingly necessary for success and longevity. Risk approach has a major role in a company’s ability to avoid, reduce and turn risks into opportunities. Enterprise risk management is a new concept that revolutionizes the traditional approach and summarizes risk management in an integrated, comprehensive and strategic system. Studies use several synonyms for enterprise risk management such as integrated risk management, holistic risk management, global risk management and strategic risk management. Enterprise risk management implements at the end of the last century a new way to deal with risks: the holistic approach. This risks approach – i.e. interaction of several types of risks which become increasingly threatening and varied and may cause more damage than individual risk – brings forward the need of risk management and raises issues at the highest level of company management. For a proper view on company risks, each individual risk and the possibility of risk interaction must be understood. This is essential to establish a risk classification according to their impact on the company. Traditional approach on risk management, as a management function, is limited to only threats and losses, so relatively few organizations see risks as potential earning-generated opportunities. However, risk management process is not radically changed. Enterprise risk management is an improved version of the traditional risk management, created by expanding its scope. The new risk

  1. Study on Risk Approaches in Software Development Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu BRANDAS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk approaches in project development led to the integration in the IT project management methodologies and software development of activities and processes of risk management. The diversity and the advanced level of the used technologies in IT projects with increasing com-plexity leads to an exponential diversification of risk factors.The purpose of this research is to identify the level of the risk approach in IT projects both at the IT project management and software development methodologies level and the level of the perception of IT project man-agers, IT managers and IT analysts in Romanian IT companies. Thus, we want to determine the correlation between the use of a project management or software development methodology and the overall level of risk perceived by the project managers using these methodologies.

  2. Case Study of Engineering Risk in Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Dan Mihai

    2018-03-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to show where the engineering of risk management is placed and how its implementation has been tried in multinational companies in automotive industry from Romania. A large number of companies don't use a strategy to avoid the engineering risk in their design products. The main reason is not because these companies haven't heard about standards for risk management such as ISO 31000; the problem is that the business units which were summed up, have just set up a risk list at the beginning of the project, without any follow up. The purpose of this article is to create an implementation risk tracking in automotive industry companies in Romania, due to a change request from customers according to supply companies within the quality process, in the research and development phase.

  3. Association between subjective risk perception and objective risk estimation in patients with atrial fibrillation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweiker, David; Zweiker, Robert; Winkler, Elisabeth; Roesch, Konstantina; Schumacher, Martin; Stepan, Vinzenz; Krippl, Peter; Bauer, Norbert; Heine, Martin; Reicht, Gerhard; Zweiker, Gudrun; Sprenger, Martin; Watzinger, Norbert

    2017-09-25

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is state-of-the-art therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common arrhythmia worldwide. However, little is known about the perception of patients with AF and how it correlates with risk scores used by their physicians. Therefore, we correlated patients' estimates of their own stroke and bleeding risk with the objectively predicted individual risk using CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc and HAS-BLED scores. Cross-sectional prevalence study using convenience sampling and telephone follow-up. Eight hospital departments and one general practitioner in Austria. Patients' perception of stroke and bleeding risk was opposed to commonly used risk scoring. Patients with newly diagnosed AF and indication for anticoagulation. Comparison of subjective risk perception with CHA 2 DS 2 -VASc and HAS-BLED scores showing possible discrepancies between subjective and objective risk estimation. Patients' judgement of their own knowledge on AF and education were also correlated with accuracy of subjective risk appraisal. Ninety-one patients (age 73±11 years, 45% female) were included in this study. Subjective stroke and bleeding risk estimation did not correlate with risk scores (ρ=0.08 and ρ=0.17). The majority of patients (57%) underestimated the individual stroke risk. Patients feared stroke more than bleeding (67% vs 10%). There was no relationship between accurate perception of stroke and bleeding risks and education level. However, we found a correlation between the patients' judgement of their own knowledge of AF and correct assessment of individual stroke risk (ρ=0.24, p=0.02). During follow-up, patients experienced the following events: death (n=5), stroke (n=2), bleeding (n=1). OAC discontinuation rate despite indication was 3%. In this cross-sectional analysis of OAC-naive patients with AF, we found major differences between patients' perceptions and physicians' assessments of risks and benefits of OAC. To ensure shared decision-making and informed

  4. An overview of the fire risk scoping study objectives, approach, findings and follow-on efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.; Lambright, J.A.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Fire Risk Scoping Study was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and performed at Sandia National Laboratories. The study was initiated as a result of previous USNRC-sponsored fire research efforts that had identified certain fire risk issues which had not been addressed in previously completed commercial nuclear power plant fire risk analyses. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Cyber Risk Management for Critical Infrastructure: A Risk Analysis Model and Three Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paté-Cornell, M-Elisabeth; Kuypers, Marshall; Smith, Matthew; Keller, Philip

    2018-02-01

    Managing cyber security in an organization involves allocating the protection budget across a spectrum of possible options. This requires assessing the benefits and the costs of these options. The risk analyses presented here are statistical when relevant data are available, and system-based for high-consequence events that have not happened yet. This article presents, first, a general probabilistic risk analysis framework for cyber security in an organization to be specified. It then describes three examples of forward-looking analyses motivated by recent cyber attacks. The first one is the statistical analysis of an actual database, extended at the upper end of the loss distribution by a Bayesian analysis of possible, high-consequence attack scenarios that may happen in the future. The second is a systems analysis of cyber risks for a smart, connected electric grid, showing that there is an optimal level of connectivity. The third is an analysis of sequential decisions to upgrade the software of an existing cyber security system or to adopt a new one to stay ahead of adversaries trying to find their way in. The results are distributions of losses to cyber attacks, with and without some considered countermeasures in support of risk management decisions based both on past data and anticipated incidents. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Scientific reporting is suboptimal for aspects that characterize genetic risk prediction studies: a review of published articles based on the Genetic RIsk Prediction Studies statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Adriana I; Mihaescu, Raluca; Ioannidis, John P A; Khoury, Muin J; Little, Julian; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Janssens, A Cecile J W

    2014-05-01

    Our main objective was to raise awareness of the areas that need improvements in the reporting of genetic risk prediction articles for future publications, based on the Genetic RIsk Prediction Studies (GRIPS) statement. We evaluated studies that developed or validated a prediction model based on multiple DNA variants, using empirical data, and were published in 2010. A data extraction form based on the 25 items of the GRIPS statement was created and piloted. Forty-two studies met our inclusion criteria. Overall, more than half of the evaluated items (34 of 62) were reported in at least 85% of included articles. Seventy-seven percentage of the articles were identified as genetic risk prediction studies through title assessment, but only 31% used the keywords recommended by GRIPS in the title or abstract. Seventy-four percentage mentioned which allele was the risk variant. Overall, only 10% of the articles reported all essential items needed to perform external validation of the risk model. Completeness of reporting in genetic risk prediction studies is adequate for general elements of study design but is suboptimal for several aspects that characterize genetic risk prediction studies such as description of the model construction. Improvements in the transparency of reporting of these aspects would facilitate the identification, replication, and application of genetic risk prediction models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antiepileptic drugs and risk of suicide: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Peter Riis; Erdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    . The case-crossover analysis estimated AED treatment initiation to increase the risk of suicide (odds ratio (OR): 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-2.49). Clonazepam (OR: 2.01, CI: 1.25-3.25), valproate (OR: 2.08, CI: 1.01-4.16), lamotrigine (OR: 3.15, CI: 1.35-7.34) and phenobarbital (OR: 1.96, CI...... that clonazepam, valproate, lamotrigine and phenobarbital relatively shortly after treatment initiation may increase the risk of suicide. The increased risk of suicide associated with these AEDs appears to be a consistent finding. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...

  8. The systematic risk study in technology companies at Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Marcelo Belli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This work tested if brasilian technology companies has a greater systematic risk than traditional companies in Brazil. For to achieve tje purpose, two companies samples , one of technology companies and the other of traditional companies, were composed. The tecnique employed was a multiple regression analysis considering a dichotomous variable wich represents the technological factor and another numerical variable wich represents the intangibility degree of  companies. As a dependent variable was considered the CAPM systematic risk. The results indicated that technology companies have a greater systematic risk than traditional companies regardless of the degree of intangibility.

  9. Risk assessment after coronary angioplasty with SPECT myocardial perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilletti, Jorge A.; Erriest, Juan; Mele, Anibal A.

    2007-01-01

    The chest pain can be use for stratifying the risk of the patients after coronary angioplasty. Nevertheless this strategy has shown to have a low accuracy in the detection of restenosis and myocardial ischemia. Aims: To establish the usefulness of the SPECT studies in the risk stratification after the coronary angioplasty. Evaluate the incidence of silent ischemia or symptomatic, and its impact on the prognosis. Method: There were included 107 patients (p) submitted to a gated SPECT between the year of the coronary angioplasty. The analysis of the images was performed according to different scores (SSS, SRS, SDS). These data was correlated with the symptoms of the patients. We define group 1 (G1) as the asymptomatic without ischemia (n 59p), group 2 (G2) as silent ischemia (n = 28p) and group 3 (G3) as symptomatic with ischemia (n = 20p). A clinical follow-up was done in search of events (target vessel revascularization, unstable angina, AMI and death). Results: Significant differences were not observed in the clinical variables between the different groups. The SSS was lower in the G1 compare with G2 and G3 (p 0.0001) and was similar between the last two, p = NS (SSS: G1: 2.2 ± 4.9; G2: 7.6 ± 5.9; G3: 9.5 ± 6.8). The SDS was greater in G3 vs. G1 and G2, p = 0.0001, and greater in G2 vs. G1, p = 0.0001 (SDS: G1: 0; G2: 4.8 ± 3.5; G3: 7.2 ± 6.5). No differences where observed in the SRS between the three groups. In the follow-up the total percentage of events was lesser when compare the G1 with the G2 and G3 (G1: 3.3%; G2 and G3: 18.7%; p 0.02). The percentage of annual events of the G3 symptomatic with ischemia (11.03%) and G2 silent ischemia (4.04%) did not present differences (p 0.7). When the events of the G2 (4.04%) were compared with the G1 (1.24%) we observed a trend to major frequency of events in the G2 (p = 0.6). Conclusions: The presence of myocardial ischemia after coronary angioplasty is a determinant of the prognosis. Nevertheless, the extension

  10. Leprosy among patient contacts: a multilevel study of risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Sales

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors associated with developing leprosy among the contacts of newly-diagnosed leprosy patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 6,158 contacts and 1,201 leprosy patients of the cohort who were diagnosed and treated at the Leprosy Laboratory of Fiocruz from 1987 to 2007 were included. The contact variables analyzed were sex; age; educational and income levels; blood relationship, if any, to the index case; household or non-household relationship; length of time of close association with the index case; receipt of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BGG vaccine and presence of BCG scar. Index cases variables included sex, age, educational level, family size, bacillary load, and disability grade. Multilevel logistic regression with random intercept was applied. Among the co-prevalent cases, the leprosy-related variables that remained associated with leprosy included type of household contact, [odds ratio (OR = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02, 1.73] and consanguinity with the index case, (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.42-2.51. With respect to the index case variables, the factors associated with leprosy among contacts included up to 4 years of schooling and 4 to 10 years of schooling (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.54-4.79 and 2.40, 95% CI: 1.30-4.42, respectively and bacillary load, which increased the chance of leprosy among multibacillary contacts for those with a bacillary index of one to three and greater than three (OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.19-2.17 and OR: 4.07-95% CI: 2.73, 6.09, respectively. Among incident cases, household exposure was associated with leprosy (OR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.29-2.98, compared with non-household exposure. Among the index case risk factors, an elevated bacillary load was the only variable associated with leprosy in the contacts. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biological and social factors appear to be associated with leprosy among co-prevalent cases, whereas the factors related to the

  11. The case study of climate change : the nature of risk and the risk of nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Good, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dept. of Communication

    2000-06-01

    The science of climate change is complex, large-scale and uncertain. The challenges of communicating the risks of climate change were described with particular emphasis on working with communities to explain climate change with its complex, scientific and social realities. The greenhouse effect is a feature of the earth in which a carbon dioxide blanket absorbs the sun's heat as it radiates off the earth. The paper stated that the greenhouse effect is arguably the best accepted theory in climatology, but the question is whether the huge increase in carbon dioxide that the industrial revolution has brought forth has increased the efficiency of this blanket and set the earth on a warming trend. The ultimate question is whether the earth is warming in response to human activity. It could be claimed that apart from the risk of nuclear war, the risk of climate change is the largest scale risk facing today's society. Climate change pits the burning of fossil fuels against the climate and as a modern day risk, climate change is far removed from the historic roots of environmental risks. The paper argued, that in a world based on burning fossil fuels and where those who are involved with the supply of fossil fuels hold tremendous influence, it is difficult to accept that the burning might have to stop. This paper explored how and what people currently learn about the environment and climate change through the media. A three-step communication strategy based in the United States was then proposed. The first step is aimed at journalists with focus on improved accuracy of climate change information. The second step focuses on urban centres and has as its guiding concepts self-efficacy, reasoned action and the importance of reaching people in diverse communities. The final step is aimed at political leaders, beginning with municipalities, and relies on campaigns for alternative energy.

  12. Association of Educational Attainment With Lifetime Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yasuhiko; Heiss, Gerardo; MacLehose, Richard F; Roetker, Nicholas S; Folsom, Aaron R

    2017-08-01

    Estimates of lifetime risk may help raise awareness of the extent to which educational inequalities are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). To estimate lifetime risks of CVD according to categories of educational attainment. Participants were followed from 1987 through December 31, 2013. All CVD events (coronary heart disease, heart failure, and stroke) were confirmed by physician review and International Classification of Diseases codes. A total of 13 948 whites and African Americans who were 45 to 64 years old and free of CVD at baseline were included from 4 US communities (Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; Jackson, Mississippi; and suburbs of Minneapolis, Minnesota). The data analysis was performed from June 7 to August 31, 2016. Educational attainment. We used a life table approach to estimate lifetime risks of CVD from age 45 through 85 years according to educational attainment. We adjusted for competing risks of death from underlying causes other than CVD. The sample of 13 948 participants was 56% female and 27% African American. During 269 210 person-years of follow-up, we documented 4512 CVD events and 2401 non-CVD deaths. Educational attainment displayed an inverse dose-response relation with cumulative risk of CVD, which became evident in middle age, with the most striking gap between those not completing vs completing high school. In men, lifetime risks of CVD were 59.0% (95% CI, 54.0%-64.1%) for grade school, 52.5% (95% CI, 47.7%-56.8%) for high school education without graduation, 50.9% (95% CI, 47.3%-53.9%) for high school graduation, 47.2% (95% CI, 41.5%-52.5%) for vocational school, 46.4% (95% CI, 42.8%-49.6%) for college with or without graduation, and 42.2% (95% CI, 36.6%-47.0%) for graduate/professional school; in women, 50.8% (95% CI, 45.7%-55.8%), 49.3% (95% CI, 45.1%-53.1%), 36.3% (95% CI, 33.4%-39.1%), 32.2% (95% CI, 26.0%-37.3%), 32.8% (95% CI, 29.1%-35.9%), and 28.0% (95% CI, 21

  13. Association between metabolic syndrome and bone fracture risk: A community-based study using a fracture risk assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chia-Ying; Chen, Fang-Ping; Chen, Li-Wei; Kuo, Sheng-Fong; Chien, Rong-Nan

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis and metabolic syndrome (MS) share similar risk factors. Previous studies of association between bone marrow density (BMD) and MS are controversial. Moreover, some studies revealed that MS is associated with BMD but not with bone fracture. In clinical practice, patients pay more attention to bone fracture risk than BMD values. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the association between MS and the 10-year bone fracture risk probability using a fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) from community-based data. From March 2014 to August 2015, 2689 participants (897 men and 1792 women) were enrolled in this study. Inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and C-reactive protein, and adipokines were included for analysis.The mean age was 60.2 ± 10.7 years in men and 58.9 ± 9.6 years in women. The percentage of MS was 27.6% in men and 27.9% in women. Participants were divided into 2 groups, those with or without MS. Compared with women without MS, women with MS had a higher rate of fracture risk (22.8% vs 16.3%, P = .001). In contrast, men with MS had a lower rate of fracture risk then men without MS (5.6% vs 12.3%, P = .004). However, MS loss the association with a high bone fracture risk in men based on multivariate logistical regression analysis, after adjusting for confounding factor of body mass index (BMI). Conclusively, the result of regression analysis between MS and the bone fracture risk may be different in men and women, and BMI was an important confounding factor to interfere with the regression analysis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  15. The @RISK Study: Risk communication for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welschen, Laura M C; Bot, Sandra D M; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M; van der Weijden, Trudy; Nijpels, Giel

    2010-08-05

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk to develop severe diabetes related complications, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). The risk to develop CVD can be estimated by means of risk formulas. However, patients have difficulties to understand the outcomes of these formulas. As a result, they may not recognize the importance of changing lifestyle and taking medication in time. Therefore, it is important to develop risk communication methods, that will improve the patients' understanding of risks associated with having diabetes, which enables them to make informed choices about their diabetes care.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an intervention focussed on the communication of the absolute 10-year risk to develop CVD on risk perception, attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour in patients with T2DM. The conceptual framework of the intervention is based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the Self-regulation Theory. A randomised controlled trial will be performed in the Diabetes Care System West-Friesland (DCS), a managed care system. Newly referred T2DM patients of the DCS, younger than 75 years will be eligible for the study. The intervention group will be exposed to risk communication on CVD, on top of standard managed care of the DCS. This intervention consists of a simple explanation on the causes and consequences of CVD, and possibilities for prevention. The probabilities of CVD in 10 year will be explained in natural frequencies and visualised by a population diagram. The control group will receive standard managed care. The primary outcome is appropriateness of risk perception. Secondary outcomes are attitude and intention to change lifestyle behaviour and illness perception. Differences between baseline and follow-up (2 and 12 weeks) between groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The study was powered on 120 patients in each group. This innovative risk

  16. Preliminary plan for case-control crash risk study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-31

    The goal of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) is to reduce commercial vehicle-related fatalities and injuries. This is achieved through a thorough understanding of crash characteristics, precursors, and risk factors. This will h...

  17. A study of new potential risk factors for Down syndrome in Upper Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The well-established risk factor, advanced maternal age, was not found in many of the Down syndrome cases in Egypt, while other possible risk factors have not been well studied yet. In view of this, we have conducted the present study to clarify that issue and throw some lights on other potential risk factors in Down ...

  18. Snus and risk of gastroesophageal reflux. A population-based case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lie, Tina Malene; Bomme, Maria; Hveem, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux, but whether other tobacco products increase the risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate if snus increases the risk of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based...

  19. Risk Management and Disaster Recovery in Public Libraries in South Australia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Diane L.; Evans, Nina; Kaeding, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports the findings of a study of risk management in public libraries. The focus of the research was to determine whether the libraries had a risk management and disaster plan for major disasters. Method: A qualitative study was done to investigate risk management and disaster recovery in public libraries in South…

  20. H15-42: CFD analysis for risk analysis in urban environments - Tilburg city case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsbosch-Dam, C.; Mack, A.; Ratingen, S. van; Rosmuller, N.; Trijssenaar, I.

    2013-01-01

    For risk analysis studies, relatively simple dispersion models are generally applied, such as Gaussian dispersion and dense gas dispersion models. For rail transport risk analyses in the Netherlands, fixed consequence distances are applied for various standard scenarios of hazardous materials

  1. Kidney Measures with Diabetes and Hypertension on Cardiovascular Disease : The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alexander, Nadine; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Ballew, Shoshana; Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Astor, Brad C.; Coresh, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Background: Whether the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) with cardiovascular risk differs based on diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HTN) status remains unanswered. Methods: We investigated 11,050 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (fourth examination

  2. Human Health Risk Assessment: A case study application of principles in dose response assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case study application workshop will build on fundamental concepts and techniques in risk assessment presented and archived at previous TRAC meeting workshops. Practical examples from publicly available, peer reviewed risk assessments will be used as teaching aids. Course ...

  3. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms and subsequent cancer risk: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo

    2011-01-01

    Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...

  4. Cardiovascular Risk and Serum Hyaluronic Acid: A Preliminary Study in a Healthy Population of Low/Intermediate Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanastasopoulou, Chrysanthi; Papastamataki, Maria; Karampatsis, Petros; Anagnostopoulou, Eleni; Papassotiriou, Ioannis; Sitaras, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been found to be an important trigger of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigate the possible association of serum HA with cardiovascular disease risk in a population of low/intermediate risk for cardiovascular events. We enrolled 200 subjects with low/intermediate risk for developing cardiovascular disease. High specific C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used as an indicator of preclinical atherosclerosis. The Framingham score was used to calculate the cardiovascular risk. Participants with dyslipidemia had significantly higher levels of serum HA than those without dyslipidemia (t-test, P = 0.05), higher levels of hsCRP (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.04), and higher cardiovascular risk according to the Framingham score (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.05). Serum HA concentration correlated significantly with the Framingham score for risk for coronary heart disease over the next 10 years (Spearman r = 0.152, P = 0.02). Diabetic volunteers had significantly higher HA than those without diabetes (t-test, P = 0.02). Participants with metabolic syndrome had higher serum HA levels and higher hsCRP (Kruskal-Wallis test, P = 0.01) compared to volunteers without metabolic syndrome (t-test, P = 0.03). Serum HA should be explored as an early marker of atheromatosis and cardiovascular risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Melissa M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Bowers, Daniel C; Sklar, Charles A; Green, Daniel M; Donaldson, Sarah S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Neglia, Joseph P; Meadows, Anna T; Robison, Leslie L

    2009-05-10

    Childhood cancer survivors often experience complications related to cancer and its treatment that may adversely affect quality of life and increase the risk of premature death. The purpose of this manuscript is to review how data derived from Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) investigations have facilitated identification of childhood cancer survivor populations at high risk for specific organ toxicity and secondary carcinogenesis and how this has informed clinical screening practices. Articles previously published that used the resource of the CCSS to identify risk factors for specific organ toxicity and subsequent cancers were reviewed and results summarized. CCSS investigations have characterized specific groups to be at highest risk of morbidity related to endocrine and reproductive dysfunction, pulmonary toxicity, cerebrovascular injury, neurologic and neurosensory sequelae, and subsequent neoplasms. Factors influencing risk for specific outcomes related to the individual survivor (eg, sex, race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, attained age), sociodemographic status (eg, education, household income, health insurance) and cancer history (eg, diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis) have been consistently identified. These CCSS investigations that clarify risk for treatment complications related to specific treatment modalities, cumulative dose exposures, and sociodemographic factors identify profiles of survivors at high risk for cancer-related morbidity who deserve heightened surveillance to optimize outcomes after treatment for childhood cancer.

  6. A Risk Management Framework to Characterize Black Swan Risks: A Case Study of Lightning Effects on Insensitive High Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gary A.

    Effective and efficient risk management processes include the use of high fidelity modeling and simulation during the concept exploration phase as part of the technology and risk assessment activities, with testing and evaluation tasks occurring in later design development phases. However, some safety requirements and design architectures may be dominated by the low probability/high consequence "Black Swan" vulnerabilities that require very early testing to characterize and efficiently mitigate. Failure to address these unique risks has led to catastrophic systems failures including the space shuttle Challenger, Deepwater Horizon, Fukushima nuclear reactor, and Katrina dike failures. Discovering and addressing these risks later in the design and development process can be very costly or even lead to project cancellation. This paper examines the need for risk management process adoption of early hazard phenomenology testing to inform the technical risk assessment, requirements definition and conceptual design. A case study of the lightning design vulnerability of the insensitive high explosives being used in construction, mining, demolition, and defense industries will be presented to examine the impact of this vulnerability testing during the concept exploration phase of the design effort. While these insensitive high explosives are far less sensitive to accidental initiation by fire, impact, friction or even electrical stimuli, their full range of sensitivities have not been characterized and ensuring safe engineering design and operations during events such as lightning storms requires vulnerability testing during the risk assessment phase.

  7. Childhood abuse, parental warmth, and adult multisystem biological risk in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Judith E; Gruenewald, Tara L; Taylor, Shelley E; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Matthews, Karen A; Seeman, Teresa E

    2013-10-15

    Childhood abuse increases adult risk for morbidity and mortality. Less clear is how this "toxic" stress becomes embedded to influence health decades later, and whether protective factors guard against these effects. Early biological embedding is hypothesized to occur through programming of the neural circuitry that influences physiological response patterns to subsequent stress, causing wear and tear across multiple regulatory systems. To examine this hypothesis, we related reports of childhood abuse to a comprehensive 18-biomarker measure of multisystem risk and also examined whether presence of a loving parental figure buffers against the impact of childhood abuse on adult risk. A total of 756 subjects (45.8% white, 42.7% male) participated in this ancillary substudy of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. Childhood stress was determined by using the Risky Families Questionnaire, a well-validated retrospective self-report scale. Linear regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, parental education, and oral contraceptive use found a significant positive relationship between reports of childhood abuse and multisystem health risks [B (SE) = 0.68 (0.16); P childhood was associated with lower multisystem health risks [B (SE) = -0.40 (0.14); P childhood had the highest multisystem risk in adulthood.

  8. Nuclear and environmental risk perceptions: results from a study with university students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boemer, Veronica Araujo; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2010-01-01

    The deployment of advanced technologies depends on public acceptance. Studies on risk perception can assist decision makers in their choices and working methodology, as well as science communicators. In this work, the field study was conducted with a university population with the objective of compare the perceptions of nuclear risk and environmental. Concluding that the perception of environmental risk has excelled in public opinion, overcoming the perceived nuclear risk. (author)

  9. Combination of diabetes risk factors and hepatic steatosis in Chinese: the Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese (CRC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liang

    Full Text Available Hepatic steatosis has been related to insulin resistance and increased diabetes risk. We assessed whether combination of diabetes risk factors, evaluated by the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score, was associated with risk of hepatic steatosis in an apparently healthy Chinese population.The study samples were from a community-based health examination survey in central China. In total 1,780 men and women (18-64 y were included in the final analyses. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed by ultrasonography. We created combination of diabetes risk factors score on basis of age, Body Mass Index, waist circumference, physical activity at least 4 h a week, daily consumption of fruits, berries or vegetables, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, history of high blood glucose. The total risk score is a simple sum of the individual weights, and values range from 0 to 20.Hepatic steatosis was present 18% in the total population. In multivariate models, the odds ratios of hepatic steatosis were 1.20 (95%CI 1.15-1.25 in men and 1.25 (95%CI 1.14-1.37 in women by each unit increase in the combination of diabetes risk factors score, after adjustment for blood pressure, liver enzymes, plasma lipids, and fasting glucose. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for hepatic steatosis was 0.78 (95%CI 0.76-0.80, 0.76 in men (95%CI 0.74-0.78 and 0.83 (95%CI 0.79-0.87 in women.Our data suggest that combination of major diabetes risk factors was significantly related to risk of hepatic steatosis in Chinese adults.

  10. Risk of caries and oral health: preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The incidence of injury cariosa remains high, despite the improvements achieved in the last years. Recent national epidemiological surveys, 4 years old children have healthy teeth in 80% of cases at 12 years the percentage is reduced to 50%. In Italy, the almost total absence on the territory of “dental services to the Community”, makes even more difficult to achieve a solution to the problem “caries.” To address this problem, the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Policy in October 2008 adopted the national guidelines in order to make suggestions to the various professionals (pediatricians, dentists, microbiologists, dental hygienists, etc., making them interact to maintain and restore oral health. It was the first time that the Ministry of Health has addressed the problem by inserting the figure of the microbiologist in dentistry. Aims. The present study aim was to identify subjects at risk of caries by clinical microbiological testing of saliva and the index DMFT/dmft (Decayed, Missing and Filling Permanent Teeth in both adults and particularly children in order to take preventive measures early as reported in “National guidelines for the promotion of oral health and prevention of oral diseases in age of development”. The study began in June 2009 and will last one year with as goal to have, in 2010, 90% of children between 5 and 6 years caries free and 18 years with any lost tooth decay. Materials and methods. Recruited 164 patients were divided into three age groups: 124 adults aged between 20 and 40 years, 40 children which 21 till 5 years old and 19 till 12 years old. Microbiological testing was aimed by finding CFU / ml of saliva of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp., Slide CRT bacteria (Ivoclar. Clinically, intraoral examination was performed to evaluate the DMFT (Decayed teeth, Missing or Filling calculated over 28 permanent teeth and the dmft (decayed teeth, missing or filling calculated on 20

  11. Managing discovery risks--A Tevatron case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakul Banerjee

    2004-01-01

    To meet the increasing need for higher performance, Management of Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has undertaken various projects to improve systems associated with the Tevatron high-energy particle collider located at Batavia, Illinois. One of the larger projects is the Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) system. The objective of this project is to replace the existing BPM electronics and software system that was originally installed during early 1980s, along with the original construction of the Tevatron.The original system consists of 236 beam position monitors located around the underground tunnel of the accelerator. Above ground control systems are attached to these monitors using pickup cables. When the Tevatron collider is operational, signals received from the BPMs are used to perform a number of control and diagnostic tasks. The original system can only capture the proton signals from the collider. The new system, when fully operational, will be able to capture combined proton and antiproton signals and will be able to separate the antiproton signal from the combined signal at high resolution. This significant enhancement was beyond the range of technical capabilities when the Tevatron was constructed about two decades ago. To take advantage of exceptional progress made in the hardware and software area in past two decades, Department of Energy approved funding of the BPM electronics and software replacement project. The approximate length of the project is sixteen months with a budget of four million dollars not including overhead, escalation, and contingencies. Apart from cost and schedule risks, there are two major risks associated with this research and development project. The primary risk is the risk of discovery. Since the Tevatron beam path is highly complex, BPMs have to acquire and process a large amount of data. In this environment, analysis of data to separate antiproton signals is even more complex. Finding an optimum algorithm that can

  12. Prediction of Adult Dyslipidemia Using Genetic and Childhood Clinical Risk Factors: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuotio, Joel; Pitkänen, Niina; Magnussen, Costan G; Buscot, Marie-Jeanne; Venäläinen, Mikko S; Elo, Laura L; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Juonala, Markus; Raitakari, Olli T

    2017-06-01

    Dyslipidemia is a major modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We examined whether the addition of novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms for blood lipid levels enhances the prediction of adult dyslipidemia in comparison to childhood lipid measures. Two thousand four hundred and twenty-two participants of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had participated in 2 surveys held during childhood (in 1980 when aged 3-18 years and in 1986) and at least once in a follow-up study in adulthood (2001, 2007, and 2011) were included. We examined whether inclusion of a lipid-specific weighted genetic risk score based on 58 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 71 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for triglycerides improved the prediction of adult dyslipidemia compared with clinical childhood risk factors. Adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, physical activity, and smoking in childhood, childhood lipid levels, and weighted genetic risk scores were associated with an increased risk of adult dyslipidemia for all lipids. Risk assessment based on 2 childhood lipid measures and the lipid-specific weighted genetic risk scores improved the accuracy of predicting adult dyslipidemia compared with the approach using only childhood lipid measures for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.806 versus 0.811; P =0.01) and triglycerides (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.740 versus area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve 0.758; P dyslipidemia in adulthood. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Major dietary patterns and cardiovascular risk factors from childhood to adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilä, Vera; Räsänen, Leena; Raitakari, Olli T; Marniemi, Jukka; Pietinen, Pirjo; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma

    2007-07-01

    Studies on the impact of single nutrients on the risk of CVD have often given inconclusive results. Recent research on dietary patterns has offered promising information on the effects of diet as a whole on the risk of CVD. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study with a 21-year follow-up to date. The subjects were children and adolescents at baseline (3-18 years, n 1768) and adults at the latest follow-up study (24-39 years, n 1037). We investigated the associations between two major dietary patterns and several risk factors for CVD. In longitudinal analyses with repeated measurements, using multivariate mixed linear regression models, the traditional dietary pattern (characterised by high consumption of rye, potatoes, butter, sausages, milk and coffee) was independently associated with total and LDL cholesterol concentrations, apolipoprotein B and C-reactive protein concentrations among both genders, and also with systolic blood pressure and insulin levels among women and concentrations of homocysteine among men (P health-conscious food choices (such as high consumption of vegetables, legumes and nuts, tea, rye, cheese and other dairy products, and alcoholic beverages) was inversely, but less strongly associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Our results support earlier findings that dietary patterns have a role in the development of CVD.

  14. Flood risk in a changing world - a coupled transdisciplinary modelling framework for flood risk assessment in an Alpine study area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Schneeberger, Klaus; Winter, Benjamin; Pazur, Robert; Förster, Kristian; Achleitner, Stefan; Bolliger, Janine

    2017-04-01

    Devastating flood events have caused substantial economic damage across Europe during past decades. Flood risk management has therefore become a topic of crucial interest across state agencies, research communities and the public sector including insurances. There is consensus that mitigating flood risk relies on impact assessments which quantitatively account for a broad range of aspects in a (changing) environment. Flood risk assessments which take into account the interaction between the drivers climate change, land-use change and socio-economic change might bring new insights to the understanding of the magnitude and spatial characteristic of flood risks. Furthermore, the comparative assessment of different adaptation measures can give valuable information for decision-making. With this contribution we present an inter- and transdisciplinary research project aiming at developing and applying such an impact assessment relying on a coupled modelling framework for the Province of Vorarlberg in Austria. Stakeholder engagement ensures that the final outcomes of our study are accepted and successfully implemented in flood management practice. The study addresses three key questions: (i) What are scenarios of land- use and climate change for the study area? (ii) How will the magnitude and spatial characteristic of future flood risk change as a result of changes in climate and land use? (iii) Are there spatial planning and building-protection measures which effectively reduce future flood risk? The modelling framework has a modular structure comprising modules (i) climate change, (ii) land-use change, (iii) hydrologic modelling, (iv) flood risk analysis, and (v) adaptation measures. Meteorological time series are coupled with spatially explicit scenarios of land-use change to model runoff time series. The runoff time series are combined with impact indicators such as building damages and results are statistically assessed to analyse flood risk scenarios. Thus, the

  15. Lipid profile, cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean high-risk population: The ESCARVAL-RISK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Gil-Guillen, Vicente F; Redon, Josep; Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Pallares-Carratala, Vicente; Navarro-Perez, Jorge; Valls-Roca, Francisco; Sanchis-Domenech, Carlos; Fernandez-Gimenez, Antonio; Perez-Navarro, Ana; Bertomeu-Martinez, Vicente; Bertomeu-Gonzalez, Vicente; Cordero, Alberto; Pascual de la Torre, Manuel; Trillo, Jose L; Carratala-Munuera, Concepcion; Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Uso, Ruth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Cooper, Richard; Sanz, Gines; Castellano, Jose M; Ascaso, Juan F; Carmena, Rafael; Tellez-Plaza, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The potential impact of targeting different components of an adverse lipid profile in populations with multiple cardiovascular risk factors is not completely clear. This study aims to assess the association between different components of the standard lipid profile with all-cause mortality and hospitalization due to cardiovascular events in a high-risk population. This prospective registry included high risk adults over 30 years old free of cardiovascular disease (2008-2012). Diagnosis of hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes mellitus was inclusion criterion. Lipid biomarkers were evaluated. Primary endpoints were all-cause mortality and hospital admission due to coronary heart disease or stroke. We estimated adjusted rate ratios (aRR), absolute risk differences and population attributable risk associated with adverse lipid profiles. 51,462 subjects were included with a mean age of 62.6 years (47.6% men). During an average follow-up of 3.2 years, 919 deaths, 1666 hospitalizations for coronary heart disease and 1510 hospitalizations for stroke were recorded. The parameters that showed an increased rate for total mortality, coronary heart disease and stroke hospitalization were, respectively, low HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.25, 1.29 and 1.23; high Total/HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.22, 1.38 and 1.25; and high Triglycerides/HDL-Cholesterol: aRR 1.21, 1.30, 1.09. The parameters that showed highest population attributable risk (%) were, respectively, low HDL-Cholesterol: 7.70, 11.42, 8.40; high Total/HDL-Cholesterol: 6.55, 12.47, 8.73; and high Triglycerides/HDL-Cholesterol: 8.94, 15.09, 6.92. In a population with cardiovascular risk factors, HDL-cholesterol, Total/HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides/HDL-cholesterol ratios were associated with a higher population attributable risk for cardiovascular disease compared to other common biomarkers.

  16. Risk identication of tailorable context-aware systems: a case study and lessons learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarifi Eslami, Mohammed; Sapkota, Brahmananda; Zarghami, Alireza; Vriezekolk, E.; van Sinderen, Marten J.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Wieringa, P.A.

    In this paper, we discuss possible risks posed by the application of tailorable context-aware systems in real-life practices. We use a tailorable context-aware system in the homecare domain as a case study to identify and analyse such risks. Next, we discuss which of these risks can be generalized

  17. Cancer and risk of cerebral venous thrombosis: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, S. M.; Hiltunen, S.; Lindgren, E.; Jood, K.; Zuurbier, S. M.; Middeldorp, S.; Putaala, J.; Cannegieter, S. C.; Tatlisumak, T.; Coutinho, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cancer is an established risk factor for leg vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Controlled studies assessing the risk of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in patients with cancer have not been performed. Objective: To assess whether cancer is a risk factor for CVT. Patients/Methods:

  18. Motives for Risk-Taking in Adolescence: A Cross-Cultural Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloep, M.; Guney, N.; Cok, F.; Simsek, O. F.

    2009-01-01

    Most research on adolescent risk-taking has been conducted in Western societies, but it is as yet unknown whether motives to engage in risk behaviours show cultural variety. This study sets out to investigate differences in perceived motives to engage in perceived risks in Turkish and Welsh samples of young people (N = 922) between 14 and 20 years…

  19. Putative Risk Factors in Developmental Dyslexia: A Case-Control Study of Italian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascheretti, Sara; Marino, Cecilia; Simone, Daniela; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Riva, Valentina; Cellino, Maria Rosaria; Maziade, Michel; Brombin, Chiara; Battaglia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Although dyslexia runs in families, several putative risk factors that cannot be immediately identified as genetic predict reading disability. Published studies analyzed one or a few risk factors at a time, with relatively inconsistent results. To assess the contribution of several putative risk factors to the development of dyslexia, we conducted…

  20. Prevalence and risk indicators of depression in elderly nursing home patients : the AGED study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenelis, K; Eisses, AMH; Beekman, ATF; Kluiter, H; Ribbe, MW

    2004-01-01

    Background: Depression is a common and disabling psychiatric disorder in later life. Particular frail nursing home patients seem to be at increased risk. Nursing home-based studies on risk indicators of depression are scarce. Methods: Prevalence and risk indicators of depression were assessed in 333

  1. Computed tomography in children: multicenter cohort study design for the evaluation of cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krille, L.; Jahnen, A.; Mildenberger, P.; Schneider, K.; Weisser, G.; Zeeb, H.; Blettner, M.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is a known risk factor for cancer. Cancer risk is highest after exposure in childhood. The computed tomography is the major contributor to the average, individual radiation exposure. Until now the association has been addressed only in statistical modeling. We present the first feasible study design on childhood cancer risk after exposure to computed tomography.

  2. Risk Management for Study Abroad Programs: Issues and Resources to Inform Program Development, Administration, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a practical background to the health and safety risks and challenges for U.S. colleges and universities and other program providers. Potential risks, field-based guidelines, good practices, and resources to support the management of risks by study abroad offices will be covered.

  3. The South African Stroke Risk in General Practice Study | Connor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two hundred general practices were randomly selected from lists provided by pharmaceutical .representatives. Each GP approached 50 consecutive patients aged 30 years and older. Patients completed an information sheet and the GP documented the patient's risk factors. The resulting sample is relevant.if not necessarily ...

  4. Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease : a genetic-epidemiologic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe work presented in this thesis has been motivated by the Jack of knowledge of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. It has been long recognised that genetic factors are implicated, in particular in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.4 But to what extent are genetic factors involved?

  5. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.V.A.; Greaves-Lord, K.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Methods: Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys

  6. The risk of upcoding in casemix systems : A comparative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, P.; Oostenbrink, J.; Schaepkens, F.F.J.M.; Zuurbier, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of a diagnosis related group (DRG) classification system in the Netherlands in 2005 it has become relevant to investigate the risk of upcoding. The problem of upcoding in the US casemix system is substantial. In 2004, the US Centres for Medicare and Medicaid estimated that the

  7. Clinical Studies in Risk Stratification & Therapy of Thoracic Aortic Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamman, AV

    2017-01-01

    For this thesis we aimed to summarize outcomes and optimal treatment modality for thoracic aortic disease, discuss new imaging techniques and improve the use of current imaging modalities. Furthermore, we aimed to improve risk stratification for uncomplicated type B aortic dissection (TBAD) and

  8. Risk Factors for Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Cancer Death in a Japanese Population: Findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Masakazu; Mori, Mitsuru; Mikami, Kazuya; Miki, Tsuneharu; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakao, Masahiro; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Suzuki, Koji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Wakai, Kenji; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of bladder cancer is lower in Asian than in Western countries. However, the crude incidence and mortality of bladder cancer have recently increased in Japan because of the increased number of senior citizens. We have already reported risk factors for urothelial cancer in a large populationbased cohort study in Japan (JACC study). However, we did not evaluate the cancer risk in the upper and lower urinary tract separately in our previous study. Here we evaluated the risk of cancer death in the upper and lower urinary tracts, separately, using the database of the JACC study. The analytic cohort included 46,395 males and 64,190 females aged 40 to 79 years old. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Current smoking increased the risk of both upper and lower urinary tract cancer deaths. A history of kidney disease was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer death, even after controlling for age, sex and smoking status. The present study confirmed that current smoking increases the risk of both upper and lower urinary tract cancer deaths and indicated the possibility that a history of kidney disease may be a risk factor for bladder cancer death in the Japanese population.

  9. A risk prediction model for xerostomia: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Alessandro; Nordio, Francesco; Gohel, Anita

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the prevalence of xerostomia in dental patients and built a xerostomia risk prediction model by incorporating a wide range of risk factors. Socio-demographic data, past medical history, self-reported dry mouth and related symptoms were collected retrospectively from January 2010 to September 2013 for all new dental patients. A logistic regression framework was used to build a risk prediction model for xerostomia. External validation was performed using an independent data set to test the prediction power. A total of 12 682 patients were included in this analysis (54.3%, females). Xerostomia was reported by 12.2% of patients. The proportion of people reporting xerostomia was higher among those who were taking more medications (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.13) or recreational drug users (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9). Rheumatic diseases (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.88-2.51), psychiatric diseases (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.05-2.68), eating disorders (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.55-3.36) and radiotherapy (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.43-2.80) were good predictors of xerostomia. For the test model performance, the ROC-AUC was 0.816 and in the external validation sample, the ROC-AUC was 0.799. The xerostomia risk prediction model had high accuracy and discriminated between high- and low-risk individuals. Clinicians could use this model to identify the classes of medications and systemic diseases associated with xerostomia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sabine, E-mail: muellers@neuropeds.ucsf.edu [Department of Neurology, Pediatrics and Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Fullerton, Heather J. [Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Goldsby, Robert E. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Packer, Roger J. [Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Sklar, Charles A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bowers, Daniel C. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  11. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively

  12. Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2015-02-01

    The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications.

  13. Developing smartphone apps for behavioural studies: The AlcoRisk app case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony; de Salas, Kristy; Lewis, Ian; Schüz, Benjamin

    2017-08-01

    Smartphone apps have emerged as valuable research tools to sample human behaviours at their time of occurrence within natural environments. Human behaviour sampling methods, such as Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA), aim to facilitate research that is situated in ecologically valid real world environments rather than laboratory environments. Researchers have trialled a range of EMA smartphone apps to sample human behaviours such as dieting, physical activity and smoking. Software development processes for EMA smartphones apps, however, are not widely documented with little guidance provided for the integration of complex multidisciplinary behavioural and technical fields. In this paper, the AlcoRisk app for studying alcohol consumption and risk taking tendencies is presented alongside a software development process that integrates these multidisciplinary fields. The software development process consists of three stages including requirements analysis, feature and interface design followed by app implementation. Results from a preliminary feasibility study support the efficacy of the AlcoRisk app's software development process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Student nurse perceptions of risk in relation to international placements: a phenomenological research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Debra A

    2012-11-01

    International nursing electives have been identified as a positive learning experience for students. However, whilst there are risks associated with international student placements in general, there is a scarcity of research specifically relating to student nurse's experiences of risk. This study aimed to investigate UK undergraduate student nurse experiences of risk during an international placement. A phenomenological methodology was applied and semi-structured interviews were conducted with student nurses who had recently returned from an international clinical placement abroad. Ten, second year student nurses, studying on a pre-registration diploma/BSc (Hons) Nursing Studies/Registered Nurse programme from one UK University participated in the study. Findings from the study highlighted that students felt that three types of risk existed; physical risk, clinical-professional risk and socio-cultural risk. Perceptions of risk were influenced by sociological theory relating to the concept of 'the other' and students attempted to reduce risk by employing strategies to reduce 'Otherness'. They also applied psychological theory relating to heuristics such as 'safety in numbers.' It also emerged from the study that exposure to perceived risk enhanced learning as students reported that it encouraged personal and professional development in particular and so assisted students in their move toward self-actualisation. It is suggested, and intended, that findings from this study can be applied to the preparation of students to further enhance their safety and learning experience during international placements abroad. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studying borrower level risk characteristics of education loan in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam Bandyopadhyay

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the granular level risk of education loan using a cross section of data from 5000 borrowers obtained from four major public sector banks in India. The findings suggest that education loan defaults are mainly influenced by security, borrower margin, and repayment periods. The presence of guarantor or co-borrower and collateral significantly reduce default loss rates. The socioeconomic characteristics of borrowers and their regional locations also act as important factors associated with education loan defaults. The results suggest that by segmenting borrowers by probability of default and loss given default in a multidimensional scale, banks can adopt better risk mitigation and pricing strategies to resolve borrower problems.

  16. Uncertainty propagation in probabilistic risk assessment: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.; Metcalf, D.R.; Pegram, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Three uncertainty propagation techniques, namely method of moments, discrete probability distribution (DPD), and Monte Carlo simulation, generally used in probabilistic risk assessment, are compared and conclusions drawn in terms of the accuracy of the results. For small uncertainty in the basic event unavailabilities, the three methods give similar results. For large uncertainty, the method of moments is in error, and the appropriate method is to propagate uncertainty in the discrete form either by DPD method without sampling or by Monte Carlo. (orig.)

  17. Sustainability and Risk Disclosure: An Exploratory Study on Sustainability Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Truant; Laura Corazza; Simone Domenico Scagnelli

    2017-01-01

    Recent policy changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure (2014/95/EU), the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB), the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB), and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) stress the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social, and environmental risks within financial ...

  18. Organ utilization from increased infectious risk donors: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Huillier, Arnaud G; Humar, Atul; Payne, Clare; Kumar, Deepali

    2017-12-01

    Donors with an increased risk of transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), or hepatitis C virus (HCV) (increased risk donors [IRDs]) are a potential source of organs for transplant. Organs from IRDs can be utilized with appropriate recipient consent and post-transplant follow-up. We reviewed the characteristics and utilization of IRDs in our Organ Procurement Organization (OPO) over a 2-year period. Donor information from April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was obtained through the OPO database. Only consented donors were included. Donors were categorized as IRDs according to Health Canada/Canadian Standards Association (CSA) criteria. A total of 494 potential donors were identified, of which 92 (18.6%) were IRDs. Of these, at least one organ was transplanted from 76 (82.6%). Risk factors for IRDs included injection drug user (IDU) (12%), men having sex with men (MSM) (7%), commercial sex worker (CSW) (4%), and incarceration (24%). Fifty-nine percent (253/429) of IRD organs were utilized. The most frequently used organ was kidney, followed by liver. Median number of organs recovered per IRD was 3 (interquartile range: 2-5). Nucleic acid testing (NAT) was performed in 18.5% (17/92) of IRDs. Reasons for NAT were IDU (n = 2), MSM (n = 2), CSW (n = 2), and previous incarceration (n = 7). Organ utilization from donors that had NAT was similar to donors who did not (94% vs 80%, P = .29). Follow-up NAT was done in multiple factors contribute to the perception of infectious risk from such organs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Risk indicators of anxiety throughout adolescence: the TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, F V A; Greaves-Lord, K; Ormel, J; Verhulst, F C; Huizink, A C

    2011-06-01

    The aim was to identify risk indicators from preadolescence (age period 10-12) that significantly predict unfavorable deviations from normal anxiety development throughout adolescence (age period 10-17 years). Anxiety symptoms were assessed in a community sample of 2,220 boys and girls at three time-points across a 5-year interval. Risk indicators were measured at baseline and include indicators from the child, family, and peer domain. Associations with anxiety were measured with multilevel growth curve analyses. A stable difference in anxiety over adolescence was found between high and low levels of a range of child factors (frustration, effortful control), family factors (emotional warmth received from parents, lifetime parental internalizing problems), and peer factor (victims of bullying) (P competence, unfavorable parenting styles, and bully victims, decreased over adolescence (P parental education and family composition were not significant. Adjustment for concurrent depressive symptoms attenuated the associations, but those that were significant at P social phobia, panic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms) was reported for each association. Several child, family, and peer factors measured in preadolescence were risk indicators of high levels of anxiety symptoms throughout adolescence. Some factors (such as rejective parenting) were vulnerability indicators for anxiety in early adolescence only, whereas other factors (such as peer victimization) were indicators of long-term elevated anxiety levels. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Farmers' Perceived Risks of Climate Change and Influencing Factors: A Study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  1. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and influencing factors: a study in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dang, Hoa; Li, Elton; Nuberg, Ian; Bruwer, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Many countries are confronting climate change that threatens agricultural production and farmers' lives. Farmers' perceived risks of climate change and factors influencing those perceived risks are critical to their adaptive behavior and well-planned adaptation strategies. However, there is limited understanding of these issues. In this paper, we attempt to quantitatively measure farmers' perceived risks of climate change and explore the influences of risk experience, information, belief in climate change, and trust in public adaptation to those perceived risks. Data are from structured interviews with 598 farmers in the Mekong Delta. The study shows that perceived risks to production, physical health, and income dimensions receive greater priority while farmers pay less attention to risks to happiness and social relationships. Experiences of the events that can be attributed to climate change increase farmers' perceived risks. Information variables can increase or decrease perceived risks, depending on the sources of information. Farmers who believe that climate change is actually happening and influencing their family's lives, perceive higher risks in most dimensions. Farmers who think that climate change is not their concern but the government's, perceive lower risks to physical health, finance, and production. As to trust in public adaptation, farmers who believe that public adaptive measures are well co-ordinated, perceive lower risks to production and psychology. Interestingly, those who believe that the disaster warning system is working well, perceive higher risks to finance, production, and social relationships. Further attention is suggested for the quality, timing, and channels of information about climate change and adaptation.

  2. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women: A rural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal R Tandon

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed alarmingly high prevalence of most of the conventional CVRFs, especially diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and other risk factors in postmenopausal women from rural areas.

  3. Alcohol and ovarian cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Zeegers, M.P.A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573

  4. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A.; Ward, Heather A.; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M.; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H.; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C.; Sanchez, Maria Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Previous case–control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the

  5. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the

  6. Adherence to healthy lifestyle and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuilin; Tobias, Deirdre K; Chavarro, Jorge E; Bao, Wei; Wang, Dong; Ley, Sylvia H; Hu, Frank B

    2014-09-30

    To quantify the association between a combination of healthy lifestyle factors before pregnancy (healthy body weight, healthy diet, regular exercise, and not smoking) and the risk of gestational diabetes. Prospective cohort study. Nurses' Health Study II, United States. 20,136 singleton live births in 14,437 women without chronic disease. Self reported incident gestational diabetes diagnosed by a physician, validated by medical records in a previous study. Incident first time gestational diabetes was reported in 823 pregnancies. Each lifestyle factor measured was independently and significantly associated with risk of gestational diabetes. The combination of three low risk factors (non-smoker, ≥ 150 minutes a week of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and healthy eating (top two fifths of Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 adherence score)) was associated with a 41% lower risk of gestational diabetes compared with all other pregnancies (relative risk 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.71). Addition of body mass index (BMI) diabetes compared with all other pregnancies (relative risk 0.48, 0.38 to 0.61). Compared with pregnancies in women who did not meet any of the low risk lifestyle factors, those meeting all four criteria had an 83% lower risk of gestational diabetes (relative risk 0.17, 0.12 to 0.25). The population attributable risk percentage of the four risk factors in combination (smoking, inactivity, overweight, and poor diet) was 47.5% (95% confidence interval 35.6% to 56.6%). A similar population attributable risk percentage (49.2%) was observed when the distributions of the four low risk factors from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-10) data were applied to the calculation. Adherence to a low risk lifestyle before pregnancy is associated with a low risk of gestational diabetes and could be an effective strategy for the prevention of gestational diabetes. © Zhang et al 2014.

  7. Work time control, sleep & accident risk: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Philip; Albrecht, Sophie; Kecklund, Göran; Beckers, Debby G J; Leineweber, Constanze

    We examined whether the beneficial impact of work time control (WTC) on sleep leads to lower accident risk, using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Sweden. Logistic regressions examined WTC in 2010 and 2012 as predictors of accidents occurring in the subsequent 2 years (N = 4840 and 4337, respectively). Sleep disturbance and frequency of short sleeps in 2012 were examined as potential mediators of the associations between WTC in 2010 and subsequent accidents as reported in 2014 (N = 3636). All analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational category, weekly work hours, shift work status, job control and perceived accident risk at work. In both waves, overall WTC was inversely associated with accidents (p = 0.048 and p = 0.038, respectively). Analyses of the sub-dimensions of WTC indicated that Control over Daily Hours (influence over start and finish times, and over length of shift) did not predict accidents in either wave, while Control over Time-off (CoT; influence over taking breaks, running private errands during work and taking paid leave) predicted fewer accidents in both waves (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010). Sleep disturbance in 2012 mediated associations between WTC/CoT in 2010 and accidents in 2014, although effects' sizes were small (effectWTC = -0.006, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.018 to -0.001; effectCoT = -0.009, 95%CI = -0.022 to -0.001; unstandardized coefficients), with the indirect effects of sleep disturbance accounting for less than 5% of the total direct and indirect effects. Frequency of short sleeps was not a significant mediator. WTC reduces the risk of subsequently being involved in an accident, although sleep may not be a strong component of the mechanism underlying this association.

  8. Quantifying the risk of incompatible kidney transplantation: a multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orandi, B J; Garonzik-Wang, J M; Massie, A B; Zachary, A A; Montgomery, J R; Van Arendonk, K J; Stegall, M D; Jordan, S C; Oberholzer, J; Dunn, T B; Ratner, L E; Kapur, S; Pelletier, R P; Roberts, J P; Melcher, M L; Singh, P; Sudan, D L; Posner, M P; El-Amm, J M; Shapiro, R; Cooper, M; Lipkowitz, G S; Rees, M A; Marsh, C L; Sankari, B R; Gerber, D A; Nelson, P W; Wellen, J; Bozorgzadeh, A; Gaber, A O; Montgomery, R A; Segev, D L

    2014-07-01

    Incompatible live donor kidney transplantation (ILDKT) offers a survival advantage over dialysis to patients with anti-HLA donor-specific antibody (DSA). Program-specific reports (PSRs) fail to account for ILDKT, placing this practice at regulatory risk. We collected DSA data, categorized as positive Luminex, negative flow crossmatch (PLNF) (n = 185), positive flow, negative cytotoxic crossmatch (PFNC) (n = 536) or positive cytotoxic crossmatch (PCC) (n = 304), from 22 centers. We tested associations between DSA, graft loss and mortality after adjusting for PSR model factors, using 9669 compatible patients as a comparison. PLNF patients had similar graft loss; however, PFNC (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-2.23, p = 0.007) and PCC (aHR = 5.01, 95% CI: 3.71-6.77, p < 0.001) were associated with increased graft loss in the first year. PLNF patients had similar mortality; however, PFNC (aHR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28-3.26; p = 0.003) and PCC (aHR = 4.59; 95% CI: 2.98-7.07; p < 0.001) were associated with increased mortality. We simulated Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services flagging to examine ILDKT's effect on the risk of being flagged. Compared to equal-quality centers performing no ILDKT, centers performing 5%, 10% or 20% PFNC had a 1.19-, 1.33- and 1.73-fold higher odds of being flagged. Centers performing 5%, 10% or 20% PCC had a 2.22-, 4.09- and 10.72-fold higher odds. Failure to account for ILDKT's increased risk places centers providing this life-saving treatment in jeopardy of regulatory intervention. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Site-Specific ecological risk assessment. Case-study 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, John

    “Development of a decision support system for sustainable management of contaminated land by linking bioavailability, ecological risk and ground water pollution of organic pollutants”or in short “LIBERATION”. The presentation includes examples on how to scale and integrate the results from various scientific......The decision supporting and integrating assessment tool, TRIAD, is used site-specific on PAH- and heavy metal contaminated sites in Denmark. The various aspects of the TRIAD approach are used on a set of chemistry-, ecotoxicology- and ecology related data collected among others in the EU project...

  10. The Effect of Subjective Risk Attitudes and Overconfidence on Risk Taking Behaviors: A Experimental Study Based on Traders of the Chinese Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi-An; Xiao, Yinghong; Chen, Hui; Chen, Liang

    Our research analyzes the effect of the traders’ subjective risk attitude, optimism and overconfidence on their risk taking behaviors on the Chinese Stock Market by experimental study method. We find that investors’ risk taking behavior is significantly affected by their subjective risk attitude, optimism and overconfidence. Our results also argue that the objective return and volatility of stock are not as good predictors of risk taking behavior as subjective risk and return measures. Moreover, we illustrate that overconfidence and optimism have an significant impact on risk taking behavior In line with theoretical models.

  11. Dairy Supply Chain Risk Management in Bangladesh: Field studies of Factors and Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasnuba Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain risk management (SCRM has gained wide attention among the academia and the business community in the present competitive business world. This paper aims to investigate the main risk factors associated with the dairy industry along with focuses on possible mitigation strategy to mitigate those risks. Qualitative field study has been undertaken in this research. The results of the interviews identify the different risk issues along with the possible mitigation strategies, embedded at storage, processing and distribution level in dairy industry of Bangladesh. The practical implication will contribute significantly to the dairy sector in terms of mitigating risks.

  12. Measures of abdominal adiposity and the risk of stroke: the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenant, Marie; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Wagner, Aline; Kee, Frank; Palmieri, Luigi; Ferrario, Marco M; Montaye, Michèle; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2011-10-01

    Excess fat accumulates in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue compartments. We tested the hypothesis that indicators of visceral adiposity, namely, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), are better predictors of stroke risk than body mass index (BMI). The association of BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR with stroke was assessed in 31,201 men and 23,516 women, free of vascular disease at baseline, from the MOnica Risk, Genetics, Archiving and Monograph (MORGAM) study. During a mean follow-up of 11 years, 1130 strokes were recorded. Relative risks (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression after stratification for center and adjustment for age, smoking, educational level, alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and BMI and model fit was assessed using log-likelihoods. BMI, WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke in men. After full adjustment including BMI, the relative risks for stroke remained significant for WC (1.19 [1.02 to 1.34] per 1 SD increase in WC), WHR (1.14 [1.03 to 1.26]), and WHtR (1.50 [1.28 to 1.77]). Among women, the extent of the associations with stroke risk was similar for WHtR (1.31 [1.04 to 1.65]), WC (1.19 [0.96 to 1.47]), and WHR (1.08 [0.97 to 1.22]). Further analyses by World Health Organization obesity categories showed that WC, WHR, and WHtR were associated with the risk of stroke also in lean men and women (BMI<25 kg/m2), independently of confounders, cardiovascular risk factors, and BMI. Indicators of abdominal adiposity, especially WHtR, are more strongly associated with stroke risk than BMI. These results emphasize the importance of measuring abdominal adiposity, especially in lean subjects.

  13. A case-control study estimating accident risk for alcohol, medicines and illegal drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Paula Colette Kuypers

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the risk of having a traffic accident after using alcohol, single drugs, or a combination, and to determine the concentrations at which this risk is significantly increased.A population-based case-control study was carried out, collecting whole blood samples of both cases and controls, in which a number of drugs were detected. The risk of having an accident when under the influence of drugs was estimated using logistic regression adjusting for gender, age and time period of accident (cases/sampling (controls. The main outcome measures were odds ratio (OR for accident risk associated with single and multiple drug use. In total, 337 cases (negative: 176; positive: 161 and 2726 controls (negative: 2425; positive: 301 were included in the study.Main findings were that 1 alcohol in general (all the concentrations together caused an elevated crash risk; 2 cannabis in general also caused an increase in accident risk; at a cut-off of 2 ng/mL THC the risk of having an accident was four times the risk associated with the lowest THC concentrations; 3 when ranking the adjusted OR from lowest to highest risk, alcohol alone or in combination with other drugs was related to a very elevated crash risk, with the highest risk for stimulants combined with sedatives.The study demonstrated a concentration-dependent crash risk for THC positive drivers. Alcohol and alcohol-drug combinations are by far the most prevalent substances in drivers and subsequently pose the largest risk in traffic, both in terms of risk and scope.

  14. German risk study, phase B: Results of the event tree and fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoertner, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper deals with the most important results of the level 1 analysis performed in Phase B of the German Risk Study and with the insights it provided. The question is raised, to what extent the results of risk analyses can be verified against available operating experience. In this respect the results of the German Risk Study will be compared with the estimates of the German Precursor Study. Finally, the results of the German investigations are briefly compared with the results of recent U.S. risk analyses. (orig.)

  15. Study on institutionalization of risk-informed performance-based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. G.; Hong, S. Y.; Seo, M. R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    In this study, for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation in Korea, the latest technical movements of overseas countries are examined and reviewed. And the issues that was found when license change petition using risk information was submitted in Korean regulatory body are reviewed. Based on these review, the applicable areas to domestic situation will be found and proposed. This study can contribute to setting up the proper direction for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation.

  16. Cost risk analysis of radioactive waste management Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsstroem, J.

    2006-12-01

    This work begins with exposition of the basics of risk analysis. These basics are then applied to the Finnish radioactive waste disposal environment in which the nuclear power companies are responsible for all costs of radioactive waste management including longterm disposal of spent fuel. Nuclear power companies prepare cost estimates of the waste disposal on a yearly basis to support the decision making on accumulation of resources to the nuclear waste disposal fund. These cost estimates are based on the cost level of the ongoing year. A Monte Carlo simulation model of the costs of the waste disposal system was defined and it was used to produce preliminary results of its cost risk characteristics. Input data was synthesised by modifying the original coefficients of cost uncertainty to define a cost range for each cost item. This is a suitable method for demonstrating results obtainable by the model but it is not accurate enough for supporting decision making. Two key areas of further development were identified: the input data preparation and identifying and handling of (i.e. eliminating or merging) interacting cost elements in the simulation model. Further development in both of the mentioned areas can be carried out by co-operating with the power companies as they are the sources of the original data. (orig.)

  17. Risk-free assets: Are they truly risk-free? A comparative study of South African rates and instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, A.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the price of a financial instrument is something that happens every day in the financial markets. Every price starts off with a spot price adjusted for interest until maturity of the particular instrument. The interest is usually described as risk-free interest. The price so determined is the most basic price that an investor is willing to pay if not risk is involved. Risk-free assets, then, are securities of which the future rates of return are known with certainty. An exceptional degree of confidence in the issuer of the security brings about this certainty. Risk-free assets are normally in the fixed income securities (capital markets investment category or in the liquid money market instruments such as treasury bills, category. This study attempts to determine whether the risk-free rates used by treasury managers and traders in South Africa to formulate their bond yield curves and which are used in valuation models, may be deemed risk-free. The study specifies certain criteria that an asset must satisfy in order to be used as a risk-free asset. Short term and long term South African instruments are compared to the US counterpart instruments, to gain an understanding of the South African instruments relative to the US ones. The behaviour of the risk-free instruments used in South Africa is also compared to the FTSE/JSE All Share Index and gold spot prices, which are perceived to be a risky asset classes. To gain some understanding of the behaviour of these instruments, analyses were done from different angles. The standard deviations of the daily percentage changes of the R157 were significantly lower than that of the ALSI and the gold spot price change. Compared to the ALSI and gold spot price, therefore, the R157 may be deemed a “low risk” instrument. The JIBAR was even less volatile that the R157. Interestingly, the US instruments were substantially more risky than the SA instruments over the analysis period. Also the JIBAR

  18. Determinants of disparities between perceived and physiological risk of falling among elderly people: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder; Lord, Stephen R

    2010-08-18

    To gain an understanding of elderly people's fear of falling by exploring the prevalence and determinants of perceived and physiological fall risk and to understand the role of disparities in perceived and physiological risk in the cause of falls. Prospective cohort study. Community sample drawn from eastern Sydney, Australia. 500 men and women aged 70-90 years. Baseline assessment of medical, physiological, and neuropsychological measures, with physiological fall risk estimated with the physiological profile assessment, and perceived fall risk estimated with the falls efficacy scale international. Participants were followed up monthly for falls over one year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that perceived and physiological fall risk were both independent predictors of future falls. Classification tree analysis was used to split the sample into four groups (vigorous, anxious, stoic, and aware) based on the disparity between physiological and perceived risk of falling. Perceived fall risk was congruent with physiological fall risk in the vigorous (144 (29%)) and aware (202 (40%)) groups. The anxious group (54 (11%)) had a low physiological risk but high perceived fall risk, which was related to depressive symptoms (P=0.029), neurotic personality traits (P=0.026), and decreased executive functioning (P=0.010). The stoic group (100 (20%)) had a high physiological risk but low perceived fall risk, which was protective for falling and mediated through a positive outlook on life (P=0.001) and maintained physical activity and community participation (P=0.048). Many elderly people underestimated or overestimated their risk of falling. Such disparities between perceived and physiological fall risk were primarily associated with psychological measures and strongly influenced the probability of falling. Measures of both physiological and perceived fall risk should be included in fall risk assessments to allow tailoring of interventions for preventing falls in

  19. Breast cancer risk in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) heterozygotes: haplotype study in French AT families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, N; Andrieu, N; Ossian, K; Laugé, A; Croquette, M-F; Griscelli, C; Debré, M; Bressac-de-Paillerets, B; Aurias, A; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) families have suggested that AT heterozygotes could have an increased cancer risk, especially breast cancer (BC) in women. It has also been suggested that an increased sensibility of AT heterozygotes to the effect of ionizing radiation could be responsible for the increased BC risk. BC relative risk (RR) estimation in AT heterozygotes within families ascertained through AT children is presented here. Family data collected included demographic characteristics, occurrence of cancers, past radiation exposures and blood samples. DNA samples were studied using seven ATM linked microsatellites markers allowing AT haplotypes reconstitution. The relative risk of BC was assessed using French estimated incidence rates. A significant increase risk of BC is found among obligate ATM heterozygotes with a point estimate of 3.32 (P = 0.002). BC relative risk calculated according to age is significantly increased among the obligate ATM heterozygotes female relatives with an age ≤ 44 years (RR = 4.55, P = 0.005). The BC relative risk is statistically borderline among the obligate ATM heterozygote female relatives with an age ≥ 45 years (RR = 2.48, P = 0.08). The estimated BC relative risk among ATM heterozygotes is consistent with previously published data. However, the increased risk is only a little higher than classical reproductive risk factors and similar to the risk associated with a first-degree relative affected by BC. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10362113

  20. PARS risk charts: A 10-year study of risk assessment for cardiovascular diseases in Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizal Sarrafzadegan

    Full Text Available This study was designed to develop a risk assessment chart for the clinical management and prevention of the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Iranian population, which is vital for developing national prevention programs. The Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS is a population-based prospective study of 6504 Iranian adults ≥35 years old, followed-up for ten years, from 2001 to 2010. Behavioral and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined every five years, while biennial follow-ups for the occurrence of the events was performed by phone calls or by verbal autopsy. Among these participants, 5432 (2784 women, 51.3% were CVD free at baseline examination and had at least one follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to predict the risk of ischemic CVD events, including sudden cardiac death due to unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The model fit statistics such as area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC, calibration chi-square and the overall bias were used to assess the model performance. We also tested the Framingham model for comparison. Seven hundred and five CVD events occurred during 49452.8 person-years of follow-up. The event probabilities were calculated and presented color-coded on each gender-specific PARS chart. The AUROC and Harrell's C indices were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.72-0.76 and 0.73, respectively. In the calibration, the Nam-D'Agostino χ2 was 10.82 (p = 0.29. The overall bias of the proposed model was 95.60%. PARS model was also internally validated using cross-validation. The Android app and the Web-based risk assessment tool were also developed as to have an impact on public health. In comparison, the refitted and recalibrated Framingham models, estimated the CVD incidence with the overall bias of 149.60% and 128.23% for men, and 222.70% and 176.07% for women, respectively. In conclusion, the PARS risk assessment chart is a simple, accurate, and well-calibrated tool for predicting a 10-year

  1. Homocysteine Slovakia study: study design and occurrence of hyperhomocysteinaemia and other risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietava, J; B, B Vohnout; Dukat, A; Fodor, G J

    2012-01-01

    Slovakia belong to the European Union countries with the high incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in general and IHD in particular. Homocystein-Slovakia is crossectional population study realised in subjects in high risk age 35-75 years in two groups. The first consists of patients with verified stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) (M= 152; F = 167) aged 60.8±9.37 yrs (males) res. 63.1±7.56 years (females) (NS) who were randomly selected from two cardiological registrars. Second population was formed by general population who were dichotomised according their medical records into IHD patients (M= 31, F= 53) and apparently healthy controls (M= 47; F = 55), the later in significantly younger age as patients, but in same age for intergender comparison 49.6±10.3 vs 46.6±9.2 yrs (NS). We found very high prevalence of classic as well as newer risk factors and risk markers both in IHD patients and in controls. Increased homocysteinen (Hcy >15 µmo/l for males and Hcy >13 µmo/l for females) was found even in 32.9 % of patients and 13.6 % of controls (pHomocystein Slovakia study found very high prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with stable ischemic heart disease. Even the prevalence in healthy controls correspond to data reported for MI patients in Western countries. Vitamins regulating metabolism of homocysteine also shown high prevalence, however, without differences between IHD patients and controls (Tab. 5, Fig. 1, Ref. 27).

  2. Seismic fragilities for nuclear power plant risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Ravindra, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    Seismic fragilities of critical structures and equipment are developed as families of conditional failure frequency curves plotted against peak ground acceleration. The procedure is based on available data combined with judicious extrapolation of design information on plant structures and equipment. Representative values of fragility parameters for typical modern nuclear power plants are provided. Based on the fragility evaluation for about a dozen nuclear power plants, it is proposed that unnecessary conservatism existing in current seismic design practice could be removed by properly accounting for inelastic energy absorption capabilities of structures. The paper discusses the key contributors to seismic risk and the significance of possible correlation between component failures and potential design and construction errors

  3. Poverty and sexual concurrency: a case study of STI risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Emma K; Leonard, Lori; Lenoir, Chavonne; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2008-08-01

    This paper is about sexual concurrency, or maintaining multiple sexual partnerships that overlap in time. Sexual concurrency is a concept that is used in the field of public health to explain the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Sexual concurrency has also been proposed as a site of intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates, particularly among those populations who carry the heaviest STI burden: adolescents and African Americans. In this paper, we use ethnographic data collected from a group of African American adolescents living in Baltimore to examine the socially produced configurations of risks and relationships that are obscured by the term sexual concurrency. The data we present show the limits of this concept, and suggest that structural reforms, including improvements to education, drug treatment, and work opportunities, are necessary to reduce racial disparities in STI rates.

  4. Cereal fiber intake may reduce risk of gastric adenocarcinomas : The EPIC-EURGAST study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendez, M. A.; Pera, Guillem; Aguclo, Antonio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Carneiro, Ftima; Berrino, Franco; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goeran; Manjer, Jonas; Johansson, Ingegerd; Stenling, Roger; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Tormo, Maria J.; Quiros, Jose R.; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J.; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Jensen, Majken; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Ocke, Marga C.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous case-control studies suggest dietary fiber may reduce risk of gastric cancer, but this has not been confirmed prospectively. A previous case-control study reported reduced risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinomas associated with cereal fiber, but not with fruit or vegetable fiber. To date,

  5. Study the rate of fertility and risk factors of schizophrenia in Najaf, Iraq

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is designed to investigate the main risk factors, which increased the incidence of schizophrenia and the rate of fertility in patients measuring sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) and prolactin hormone. The aim of study was to evaluate the fertility rate and risk factors of schizophrenia. Blood samples were ...

  6. Anthropometry, physical activity, and endometrial cancer risk: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2004-01-01

    Although obesity is an established risk factor for endometrial cancer, evidence linking risk to height, weight change since age 20, and physical activity is limited. In this case-cohort study, 62 573 women from The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer were followed up from 1986 to 1995, and

  7. Risk models for lower extremity injuries among short- and long distance runners : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Poppel, Dennis; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G.M.; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Koes, Bart W.; Verhagen, Arianne P.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Running injuries are very common. Risk factors for running injuries are not consistently described across studies and do not differentiate between runners of long- and short distances within one cohort. Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine risk factors for running injuries

  8. 3A.05: HYPERTENSION AND RISK OF EVENTS ASSOCIATED TO REDUCED EGFR. THE ESCARVAL-RISK STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez-Plaza, M; Orozco-Beltran, D; Gil-Guillen, V; Navarro-Pérez, J; Pallares, V; Valls, F; Fernandez, A; Martin-Moreno, J M; Sanchis, C; Dominguez-Lucas, A; Redon, J

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential impact of hypertension in the increased CVD risk associated with CKD in a population with at least one main CV risk factor (CVRF), hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes.(Figure is included in full-text article.) : 54,620 men and women aged 30 years or older with at least one of main CVRF (hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidemia), who attended for routine health maintenance have been selected. Patients with a history of a previous CVD event were excluded. At the time of inclusion information about CVRF and their active treatments as well as smoking habit and biochemistry lab values were collected from the EHR. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-EPI. Participants were followed-up for the first episode of hospitalization for myocardial infarction or stroke and all cause of death were collected. Interaction terms for dichotomous eGFR (>=60, dislipidemia 86%, diabetes in 35.5% and obesity in 41,8%. A total of 7884 (14.4%) patients had eGFR below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and among them 1807 (3.3%) 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 or lower. During a time follow-up of 3.2 years, patients years exposure, 960 death were recorded. A significant increment in the risk for total mortality was observed in subjects with eGFR 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 or below adjusted for multiple potential confounders (HR 1.83, 1.28-2.62; CI 95th). In normotensive subjects the risk did not increase below 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 in contrast with the increment in hypertensives. (Figure 1 on the previous page). eGFR is a prevalent condition in patients with the main CV risk factors. eGFR below <45 ml/min/1.73 m2 increases mortality risk. Hypertension by itself had an important role in the risk of mortality in patients with low eGFR on top of other CV risk factors.

  9. Cancer risk awareness and screening uptake in individuals at higher risk for colon cancer: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Delavari, Alireza; Barzin, Gilda; Amani, Mohammad; Majidi, Azam; Sadjadi, Alireza; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2016-12-20

    We aimed to measure cancer knowledge and feasibility of a screening colonoscopy among a cohort of individuals at higher risk of colon cancer. This study was conducted as part of an ongoing screening cohort, in which first degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with colon cancer are invited to participate in a free of charge screening colonoscopy. We enrolled 1017 FDRs in the study between 2013 and 2014 measuring their data on demographics, cancer knowledge and colonoscopy uptake. A p value of aware of their increased risk for cancer, near 35.0% had ever heard about colonoscopy with 22% aware of the correct age to start screening. Comparing cancer knowledge of FDRs at high risk versus those at moderate risk, we recorded non-significant differences (p>0.05). Almost two-thirds of FDRs expressed willingness to undergo a colonoscopy and 49.2% completed the procedure, of which 12.8% had advanced neoplasm. Our data indicated that remarkable numbers of FDRs were not still informed of their cancer risk or never received a physician recommendation for screening. The desirable uptake at first invitation, which would be higher over successive invitations, supports the feasibility of a family-based recruitment approach for early screening. This has promising implications to introduce targeted screening colonoscopy into the healthcare system in Iran and other developing nations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. The Auckland Cataract Study: Assessing Preoperative Risk Stratification Systems for Phacoemulsification Surgery in a Teaching Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bia Z; Patel, Dipika V; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate 2 preoperative risk stratification systems for assessing the risk of complications in phacoemulsification cataract surgery, performed by residents, fellows, and attending physicians in a public teaching hospital. Cohort study. One observer assessed the clinical data of 500 consecutive cases, prior to phacoemulsification cataract surgery performed between April and June 2015 at Greenlane Clinical Centre, Auckland, New Zealand. Preoperatively 2 risk scores were calculated for each case using the Muhtaseb and Buckinghamshire risk stratification systems. Complications, intraoperative and postoperative, and visual outcomes were analyzed in relation to these risk scores. Intraoperative complication rates increased with higher risk scores using the Muhtaseb or Buckinghamshire stratification system (P = .001 and P = .003, respectively, n = 500). The odds ratios for residents and fellows were not significantly different from attending physicians after case-mix adjustment according to risk scores (P > .05). Postoperative complication rates increased with higher Buckinghamshire risk scores but not with Muhtaseb scores (P = .014 and P = .094, respectively, n = 476). Postoperative corrected-distance visual acuity was poorer with higher risk scores (P < .001 for both, n = 476). This study confirms that the risk of intraoperative complications increases with higher preoperative risk scores. Furthermore, higher risk scores correlate with poorer postoperative visual acuity and the Buckinghamshire risk score also correlates with postoperative complications. Therefore, preoperative assessment using such risk stratification systems could assist individual informed consent, preoperative surgical planning, safe allocation of cases to trainees, and more meaningful analyses of outcomes for individual surgeons and institutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk of Cerebral Infarction in Japanese Hemodialysis Patients: Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort Study (MID study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsunori Toida

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Predictors including the preventive effects of antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs on cerebral infarction (CI events have not yet been clarified in dialysis patients. The aim of the present study was to examine the risk of CI and preventive effects of these drugs in Japanese hemodialysis patients. Methods: Patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (n=1,551, median age (interquartile range, 69.0 (59.0-78.0 years; 41.5% female were enrolled in the Miyazaki Dialysis Cohort Study and prospectively followed-up for 3 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox's regression analyses were used to clarify the risk of CI. Results: Eighty-four patients developed CI at an incidence of 21.5/1000 patients per year. The presence of a previous history of CI, atrial fibrillation (AF, and diabetes mellitus in addition to age were also identified as predictive factors for new CI, whereas no relationship was observed between antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant usage and CI. Furthermore, no significant difference was noted in the frequency of CI events between patients with AF who received warfarin and those who did not. Conclusions: The incidence of CI was higher in dialysis patients with a previous history of CI and AF; however, the preventive effects of antiplatelet/anticoagulant drugs on the development of CI were not evident.

  12. Self-reported cardiac risks and interest in risk modification among volunteer firefighters: a survey-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Patrick; Ablah, Elizabeth

    2008-12-01

    Coronary heart disease causes approximately 45% of firefighter deaths annually. Although firefighters have clinically significant cardiac risks, a paucity of research and data exists. To evaluate firefighters' cardiac risk factors as well as their motivation to resolve these risk factors. During a 3-month period, volunteer firefighters representing the 79 fire departments serving Nassau and Suffolk counties in Long Island, NY, were asked to complete a nonvalidated, 19-item questionnaire regarding their health habits, medical history, and demographics. A total of 730 surveys were returned among a potential study population of 20,590 volunteer firefighters. More than three-quarters of respondents met the criteria for being overweight or obese, and nearly 40% reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or both. Most respondents expressed at least some interest in attending a fire department-sponsored health lecture and participating in a fitness program. Firefighters expressed desire to learn more about risk factor modifications and have fire departments take a more active role in helping firefighters improve their health. The effectiveness of resources and intervention programs should be assessed.

  13. Individual and occupational risk factors for knee osteoarthritis – Study protocol of a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillon Bertil

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA is one of the frequent and functionally impairing disorders of the musculoskeletal system. In the literature, a number of occupational risk factors are discussed as being related to the development and progress of knee joint diseases, e.g. working in kneeling or squatting posture, lifting and carrying of heavy weights. The importance of the single risk factors and the possibility of prevention are currently under discussion. Besides the occupational factors, a number of individual risk factors are important, too. The distinction between work-related factors and individual factors is crucial in assessing the risk and in deriving preventive measures in occupational health. In existing studies, the occupational stress is determined mainly by surveys in employees and/or by making assumptions about individual occupations. Direct evaluation of occupational exposure has been performed only exceptionally. The aim of the research project ArGon is the assessment of different occupational factors in relation to individual factors (e.g. constitutional factors, leisure time activities, sports, which might influence the development and/or progression of knee (OA. The project is designed as a case control study. Methods/Design To raise valid data about the physical stress associated with occupational and leisure time activities, patients with and without knee OA are questioned by means of a standardised questionnaire and an interview. The required sample size was estimated to 800 cases and an equal number of controls. The degree and localisation of the knee cartilage or joint damages in the cases are documented on the basis of radiological, arthroscopic and/or operative findings in a patient record. Furthermore, occupational exposure is analysed at selected workplaces. To evaluate the answers provided in the questionnaire, work analysis is performed. Discussion In this research project, specific information on the

  14. Conflicting Incentives Risk Analysis: A Case Study of the Normative Peer Review Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaute Wangen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to conduct risk assessments of complex incentive systems, using a case study of the normative Peer Review Process (PRP. This research centers on appliances and adaptations of the Conflicting Incentives Risk Analysis (CIRA. First as an approach to Root Cause Analysis of a known incident, and then for a full assessment of the incentives in the PRP together with possible risk treatments. CIRA uses an alternative notion of risk, where risk modeling is in terms of conflicting incentives between the risk owner and the stakeholders concerning the execution of actions. Compared to traditional risk assessment approaches, CIRA provides an insight into the underlying incentives behind a risk, and not just the technical vulnerability, likelihood and consequence. The main contributions of this work are an approach to obtain insight into incentives as root causes, and an approach to detecting and analyzing risks from incentives in the normative PRP. This paper also discusses risk treatments in terms of incentives to make the PRP more robust, together with a discussion of how to approach risk analysis of incentives.

  15. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, John; Heddle, Nancy; Webert, Kathryn; Arnold, Emmy; McCurdy, Bronwen

    2011-08-24

    Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches.

  16. Do expert assessments converge? An exploratory case study of evaluating and managing a blood supply risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Emmy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Examining professional assessments of a blood product recall/withdrawal and its implications for risk and public health, the paper introduces ideas about perceptions of minimal risk and its management. It also describes the context of publicly funded blood transfusion in Canada and the withdrawal event that is the basis of this study. Methods Interviews with 45 experts from administration, medicine, blood supply, laboratory services and risk assessment took place using a multi-level sampling framework in the aftermath of the recall. These experts either directly dealt with the withdrawal or were involved in the management of the blood supply at the national level. Data from these interviews were coded in NVivo for analysis and interpretation. Analytically, data were interpreted to derive typifications to relate interview responses to risk management heuristics. Results While all those interviewed agreed on the importance of patient safety, differences in the ways in which the risk was contextualized and explicated were discerned. Risk was seen in terms of patient safety, liability or precaution. These different risk logics are illustrated by selected quotations. Conclusions Expert assessments did not fully converge and it is possible that these different risk logics and discourses may affect the risk management process more generally, although not necessarily in a negative way. Patient safety is not to be compromised but management of blood risk in publicly funded systems may vary. We suggest ways of managing blood risk using formal and safety case approaches.

  17. Predicting Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: One of the major risk factors that can cause death in the world is also type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM. Turkey does not have a vehicle in the society has been formulate predicting the risk of developing DM. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of DM risk in Turkish society using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC tool. Material and Method: This is a cross-sectional study. The data has been obtained from %u201Cbehavioral risk factors for chronic diseases study%u201D that was made in the province of Yozgat, in 2011. The study population included 825 subjects between 25 to 79 years old who had measured their blood sugar before, but who were not diagnosed DM. DM risk level was calculated using FINDRISC tool. The scale score is between 0-26, %u226515 points are considered high risk (risk ratio 1/3. In analyzing the data, t-test, ANOVA and chi-square test and binary logistic regression were used. Results: Of the subjects 10 years of DM risk score%u2019s mean was 8.8 ± 4.6. When FINDRISC score low / medium and high divided into 2 groups, the proportion of those in the high risk group is 11.5%. This rate is similar to the 10-year incidence of DM calculated (11-12.4% for Turkey. In this study, all of the factors taken into FINDRISC calculations were statistically significant (p 0.05. Discussion: FINDRISC used to be in the DM risk calculations of Turkish population. One out of every ten adults are at high risk of developing DM in 10 years. To avoid this problem urgently needs to be implemented by the various programs on an individual and societal level.

  18. Information security risk management for computerized health information systems in hospitals: a case study of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Javad; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, hospitals in Iran - similar to those in other countries - have experienced growing use of computerized health information systems (CHISs), which play a significant role in the operations of hospitals. But, the major challenge of CHIS use is information security. This study attempts to evaluate CHIS information security risk management at hospitals of Iran. This applied study is a descriptive and cross-sectional research that has been conducted in 2015. The data were collected from 551 hospitals of Iran. Based on literature review, experts' opinion, and observations at five hospitals, our intensive questionnaire was designed to assess security risk management for CHISs at the concerned hospitals, which was then sent to all hospitals in Iran by the Ministry of Health. Sixty-nine percent of the studied hospitals pursue information security policies and procedures in conformity with Iran Hospitals Accreditation Standards. At some hospitals, risk identification, risk evaluation, and risk estimation, as well as risk treatment, are unstructured without any specified approach or methodology. There is no significant structured approach to risk management at the studied hospitals. Information security risk management is not followed by Iran's hospitals and their information security policies. This problem can cause a large number of challenges for their CHIS security in future. Therefore, Iran's Ministry of Health should develop practical policies to improve information security risk management in the hospitals of Iran.

  19. Increased risk of ischemic stroke in cervical cancer patients: a nationwide population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Su, Yu-Chieh; Hung, Shih-Kai; Huang, Yung-Sung; Tung, Chien-Hsueh; Lee, Ching-Chih; Lee, Moon-Sing; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lin, Hon-Yi; Hsu, Feng-Chun; Tsai, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Increased risk of ischemic stroke has been validated for several cancers, but limited study evaluated this risk in cervical cancer patients. Our study aimed to evaluate the risk of ischemic stroke in cervical cancer patients. The study analyzed data from the 2003 to 2008 National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) provided by the National Health Research Institutes in Taiwan. Totally, 893 cervical cancer patients after radiotherapy and 1786 appendectomy patients were eligible. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess the risk of ischemic stroke. The 5-year cumulative risk of ischemic stroke was significantly higher for the cervical cancer group than for the control group (7.8% vs 5.1%; p <0.005). The risk of stroke was higher in younger (age <51 years) than in older (age ≥51 years) cervical cancer patients (HR = 2.73, p = 0.04; HR = 1.37, p = 0.07) and in patients with more than two comorbid risk factors (5 years cumulative stroke rate of two comorbidities: 15% compared to no comorbidities: 4%). These study demonstrated cervical cancer patients had a higher risk of ischemic stroke than the general population, especially in younger patients. Strategies to reduce this risk should be assessed

  20. Information security risk management for computerized health information systems in hospitals: a case study of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Javad; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, hospitals in Iran – similar to those in other countries – have experienced growing use of computerized health information systems (CHISs), which play a significant role in the operations of hospitals. But, the major challenge of CHIS use is information security. This study attempts to evaluate CHIS information security risk management at hospitals of Iran. Materials and methods This applied study is a descriptive and cross-sectional research that has been conducted in 2015. The data were collected from 551 hospitals of Iran. Based on literature review, experts’ opinion, and observations at five hospitals, our intensive questionnaire was designed to assess security risk management for CHISs at the concerned hospitals, which was then sent to all hospitals in Iran by the Ministry of Health. Results Sixty-nine percent of the studied hospitals pursue information security policies and procedures in conformity with Iran Hospitals Accreditation Standards. At some hospitals, risk identification, risk evaluation, and risk estimation, as well as risk treatment, are unstructured without any specified approach or methodology. There is no significant structured approach to risk management at the studied hospitals. Conclusion Information security risk management is not followed by Iran’s hospitals and their information security policies. This problem can cause a large number of challenges for their CHIS security in future. Therefore, Iran’s Ministry of Health should develop practical policies to improve information security risk management in the hospitals of Iran. PMID:27313481

  1. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  2. Cancer and the risk for taking early retirement pension: a Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    , physical and psychological comorbidity, low education and low income. Three risk categories were identified (high, medium and low) by cancer site and we found that in the high risk category, people diagnosed with leukemia, prostate cancer or ovary cancer had a more than two-fold increased risk for ERP......AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for taking early retirement pension (ERP) in cancer survivors who were working at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide and population based cohort study including 44,905 persons aged 30-60 years diagnosed with selected...... cancers in the period 1981-2000 and 211,562 randomly sampled cancer-free controls. Information on socioeconomic status, demography and physical and psychiatric comorbidity was obtained from Danish administrative registries. RESULTS: We analyzed the risk for ERP adjusted for known risk factors and found...

  3. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    from various Danish longitudinal registers. Data were analysed with conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: This study confirms that people living in more urbanized areas are at a higher risk of suicide than their counterparts in less urbanized areas. However, this excess risk is largely eliminated...... when adjusted for personal marital, income, and ethnic differences; it is even reversed when further adjusted for psychiatric status. Moreover, the impact of urbanicity on suicide risk differs significantly by sex and across age. Urban living reduces suicide risk significantly among men, especially......BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...

  4. Religion and the risk of suicide: longitudinal study of over 1 million people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Dermot; Rosato, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Durkheim's seminal historical study demonstrated that religious affiliation reduces suicide risk, but it is unclear whether this protective effect persists in modern, more secular societies. To examine suicide risk according to Christian religious affiliation and by inference to examine underlying mechanisms for suicide risk. If church attendance is important, risk should be lowest for Roman Catholics and highest for those with no religion; if religiosity is important, then 'conservative' Christians should fare best. A 9-year study followed 1 106 104 people aged 16-74 years at the 2001 UK census, using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for census-based cohort attributes. In fully adjusted models analysing 1119 cases of suicide, Roman Catholics, Protestants and those professing no religion recorded similar risks. The risk associated with conservative Christians was lower than that for Catholics (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.97). The relationship between religious affiliation and suicide established by Durkheim may not pertain in societies where suicide rates are highest at younger ages. Risks are similar for those with and without a religious affiliation, and Catholics (who traditionally are characterised by higher levels of church attendance) do not demonstrate lower risk of suicide. However, religious affiliation is a poor measure of religiosity, except for a small group of conservative Christians, although their lower risk of suicide may be attributable to factors such as lower risk behaviour and alcohol consumption. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Studies on risk estimation to public from medical radiation (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hai Yong; Kim, Jong Hyung; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Kim, Ji Soon; Oh, Hyeon Joo; Kim, Cheol Hyeon; Yang, Hyun Kyu [Korea Food and Drug Administraion, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chan Il [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    A nationwide survey was conducted to give representative levels of effective doses to patient for 17 types of CT examination and also representative level of MGD (mean glandular dose) to standard breast for mammography X-ray equipment. The effective doses to patient from 16 CT scanners were estimated from measurement of CTDI (Computed Tomography Dose Index) in air by multiplying conversion coefficients which are specified by National Radiological Protection Board in United Kingdom. The lowest and hightest mean values of effective dose measured to patient from CT scanner were 0.05 mSv for IAM examination and 17.75 mSv for routine abdomen examination, respectively. The average values of 17 effective doses were lower than other results of foreign countrys' surveys. The mean glandular doses to a standard breast for 26 mammography units were estimated from measurement of the air kerma at the surface of a 40 mm plain Perspex phantom by applying conversion factors described in Report 59 of the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine of United Kingdom. The exposure factors for this measurement were those used clinically at each hospital. The average MGD to standard breast was 1.06 mGy in units with grid and 0.49 mGy in units without grid. These results are lower than guidance levels by IPSM and AAPM. These results will be used for risk estimation to the Korean public from the medical radiation.

  6. Analysis of Supply Chain Risk Management Strategies: Case Study of Supply Chain Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Dias Carvalho; Leticia Ishikawa

    2016-01-01

    Supply Chain Risk Management refers to a set of strategies used by companies to avoid supply chain disruption caused by damage at production facilities, natural disasters, capacity issues, inventory problems, incorrect forecasts, and delays. Many companies use the techniques of the Toyota Production System, which in a way goes against a better management of supply chain risks. This paper studies key events in some multinationals to analyze the trade-off between the best supply chain risk mana...

  7. Supply chain risk management processes for resilience: A study of South African grocery manufacturers

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Simba; Wesley Niemann; Theuns Kotzé; Assilah Agigi

    2017-01-01

    Background: The supply chain risk management (SCRM) process is aimed at the implementation of strategies that assist in managing both daily and exceptional risks facing the supply chain through continuous risk assessment to reduce vulnerability and ensure continuity. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the SCRM process enables supply chain resilience among grocery manufacturers in South Africa. The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG)-manufacturing industry faces incre...

  8. The Role of Knowledge and Risk Beliefs in Adolescent E-Cigarette Use: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob A. Rohde; Seth M. Noar; Casey Horvitz; Allison J. Lazard; Jennifer Cornacchione Ross; Erin L. Sutfin

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-cigarettes and other vaping devices among adolescents is an urgent public health problem due to the concern about adolescent exposure to nicotine. This study examined: (1) adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about e-cigarette risks; and (2) whether knowledge and risk beliefs were associated with e-cigarette use. N = 69 adolescents completed a cross-sectional survey about e-cigarette knowledge, attitudes (i.e., risk beliefs), and behavior (KAB). Nearly half (47%) of the sampl...

  9. Risk Management Practices in Islamic Bank: A Case Study of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Uddin, Md Akther

    2015-01-01

    Islamic banking industry has been growing rapidly for last three decades. As risk is inherent in banking business it is necessary to develop a comprehensive risk management framework and process. In this paper, a humble attempt has been made to study and analyze risk management practices of Islami Bank Bangladesh Limited (IBBL), one of the leading Islamic banks in Bangaladesh. Annual reports of IBBL and 7 other full-fledged Islamic banks, Bangladesh Bank, the central bank of Bangladesh, publi...

  10. Job Stress Risk Factors Among Power Generation and Machine Production Employees: A Case Study-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Naghavi; M.R. Hajgholami; Y. Shokoohi; F. Zayeri

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: Job stress has been adverse effects on performance, quality of work, absents, unsafe behaviors and occupational accidents and also health problems. Risk factors of job stress can be different in various workplaces. Risk factors determination is the first step of job stress management. Identifying these risk factors among workers of Power production & Machine production industries was the aim of this study. Methods: First parts of Osipow questionnaire was used for ...

  11. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease : The doetinchem cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Smit, Henriëtte A.; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Verschuren, W. M Monique

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Design: Population-based cohort

  12. Quantifying the benefits of achieving or maintaining long-term low risk profile for cardiovascular disease: The Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.; Smit, H.A.; van der Schouw, Y.T.; Daviglus, M.L.; Verschuren, W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies investigating the relation between risk profiles and cardiovascular disease have measured risk at baseline only. We investigated maintenance and changes of risk profiles over time and their potential impact on incident cardiovascular disease. Design: Population-based cohort

  13. Perceived Risk towards Mobile Banking: A case study of Malaysia Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuhidan, Shuhaida Mohamed; Rahah Hamidi, Saidatul; Syazwani Saleh, Intan

    2017-08-01

    The advancement of technology and the raise of smart devices ownership in Malaysia has eventually increase the exploration of mobile banking services. Mobile banking has been first commercialized in Malaysia on 2005 and expected to growth. Despite the exponential growth, the mobile banking penetration rate is slow compared to online banking. This study aims to highlight the issues and challenges of mobile banking and to have insight on young adulthood perceived risk towards mobile banking, specifically in Malaysia. In order to support the exploratory study, these risks are surveyed in quantitative study conducted among young adulthood in Malaysia. The self-administered questionnaire distributed through email with 384 respondents indicated that the most impacted facets perceiveed risks are performance risk, following by security risk. The results of this study can be used by the practitioner to address the customer challenges, customer interest and concern for mobile banking service improvement.

  14. Self-Reported Stroke Risk Stratification: Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, George; McClure, Leslie A; Moy, Claudia S; Howard, Virginia J; Judd, Suzanne E; Yuan, Ya; Long, D Leann; Muntner, Paul; Safford, Monika M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O

    2017-07-01

    The standard for stroke risk stratification is the Framingham Stroke Risk Function (FSRF), an equation requiring an examination for blood pressure assessment, venipuncture for glucose assessment, and ECG to determine atrial fibrillation and heart disease. We assess a self-reported stroke risk function (SRSRF) to stratify stroke risk in comparison to the FSRF. Participants from the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) were evaluated at baseline and followed for incident stroke. The FSRF was calculated using directly assessed stroke risk factors. The SRSRF was calculated from 13 self-reported questions to exclude those with prevalent stroke and assess stroke risk. Proportional hazards analysis was used to assess incident stroke risk using the FSRF and SRSRF. Over an average 8.2-year follow-up, 939 of 23 983 participants had a stroke. The FSRF and SRSRF produced highly correlated risk scores ( r Spearman =0.852; 95% confidence interval, 0.849-0.856); however, the SRSRF had higher discrimination of stroke risk than the FSRF (c SRSRF =0.7266; 95% confidence interval, 0.7076-0.7457; c FSRF =0.7075; 95% confidence interval, 0.6877-0.7273; P =0.0038). The 10-year stroke risk in the highest decile of predicted risk was 11.1% for the FSRF and 13.4% for the SRSRF. A simple self-reported questionnaire can be used to identify those at high risk for stroke better than the gold standard FSRF. This instrument can be used clinically to easily identify individuals at high risk for stroke and also scientifically to identify a subpopulation enriched for stroke risk. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. How young people communicate risks of snowmobiling in northern Norway: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehus, Grete; Germeten, Sidsel; Henriksen, Nils

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to understand how the risks of snowmobiling are communicated among northern Norwegian youths. Study design. A qualitative design with focus group interviews was chosen. Interviews centred on safety precautions and estimation of risks related to snowmobiling and driving patterns. Eighty-one students (31 girls and 50 boys) aged between 16 and 23 years from 8 high schools were interviewed in 17 focus groups that were segregated by gender. Interview data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Boys and girls communicated differently about risks. Peer-group conformity appeared stronger among boys than girls. Boys did not spontaneously relate risks to their snowmobile activities, while girls did. Boys focused upon training, coping and balance between control and lack of control while driving. Girls talked about risks, were aware of risks and sought to avoid risky situations, in contrast to boys. Boys' risk communication in groups was about how to manage challenging situations. Their focus overall was on trying to maintain control while simultaneously testing their limits. Three risk categories emerged: those who drive as they ought to (mostly girls), those who occasionally take some risks (boys and girls) and those who are extreme risk-takers (a smaller number of boys). Perceptions of and communication about risk are related to gender, peer group and familiarity with risk-taking when snowmobiling. Northern Norwegian boys' driving behaviour highlights a specific need for risk reduction, but this must also draw upon factors such as acceptance of social and cultural codes and common sense related to snowmobiling.

  16. Fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sugawara, Y; Kuriyama, S; Kakizaki, M; Nagai, M; Ohmori-Matsuda, K; Sone, T; Hozawa, A; Nishino, Y; Tsuji, I

    2009-01-01

    Background: Evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that high fish consumption may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of studies in humans have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer incidence in Japan, where fish is widely consumed. Methods: We analysed data from 39?498 men and women registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who...

  17. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rachel; Barker, Joseph; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lubwama, George; Bagenda, Danstan; Lane, Tim; Opio, Alex; Hladik, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS) to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  18. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel King

    Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  19. Puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders: a review of human and animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Puberty as a Critical Risk Period for Eating Disorders: A Review of Human and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Puberty is one of the most frequently discussed risk periods for the development of eating disorders. Prevailing theories propose environmentally mediated sources of risk arising from the psychosocial effects (e.g., increased body dissatisfaction, decreased self-esteem) of pubertal development in girls. However, recent research highlights the potential role of ovarian hormones in phenotypic and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. The goal of this paper is to review data from human and animal studies in support of puberty as a critical risk period for eating disorders and evaluate the evidence for hormonal contributions. Data are consistent in suggesting that both pubertal status and pubertal timing significantly impact risk for most eating disorders in girls, such that advanced pubertal development and early pubertal timing are associated with increased rates of eating disorders and their symptoms in both cross-sectional and longitudinal research. Findings in boys have been much less consistent and suggest a smaller role for puberty in risk for eating disorders in boys. Twin and animal studies indicate that at least part of the female-specific risk is due to genetic factors associated with estrogen activation at puberty. In conclusion, data thus far support a role for puberty in risk for eating disorders and highlight the need for additional human and animal studies of hormonal and genetic risk for eating disorders during puberty. PMID:23998681

  1. A Pilot Study on Developing a Standardized and Sensitive School Violence Risk Assessment with Manual Annotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzman, Drew H; Ni, Yizhao; Griffey, Marcus; Patel, Bianca; Warren, Ashaki; Latessa, Edward; Sorter, Michael

    2017-09-01

    School violence has increased over the past decade and innovative, sensitive, and standardized approaches to assess school violence risk are needed. In our current feasibility study, we initialized a standardized, sensitive, and rapid school violence risk approach with manual annotation. Manual annotation is the process of analyzing a student's transcribed interview to extract relevant information (e.g., key words) to school violence risk levels that are associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology (social media and video games), and other activities. In this feasibility study, we first implemented school violence risk assessments to evaluate risk levels by interviewing the student and parent separately at the school or the hospital to complete our novel school safety scales. We completed 25 risk assessments, resulting in 25 transcribed interviews of 12-18 year olds from 15 schools in Ohio and Kentucky. We then analyzed structured professional judgments, language, and patterns associated with school violence risk levels by using manual annotation and statistical methodology. To analyze the student interviews, we initiated the development of an annotation guideline to extract key information that is associated with students' behaviors, attitudes, feelings, use of technology and other activities. Statistical analysis was applied to associate the significant categories with students' risk levels to identify key factors which will help with developing action steps to reduce risk. In a future study, we plan to recruit more subjects in order to fully develop the manual annotation which will result in a more standardized and sensitive approach to school violence assessments.

  2. [Case-control study of risk factors associated with constipation. The FREI Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas Vives, A; Polanco Allué, I

    2005-04-01

    Children represent one of the patient groups most affected by constipation. Our objective was to identify and describe the risk factors associated with childhood constipation. The study had a case-control, retrospective, open and multicenter design. Clinical data on possible risk factors were collected through an ad-hoc questionnaire. Two groups were studied: children with and without constipation. Nine hundred twenty-one children were recruited; of these, 898 (97.6%) were included in the statistical analysis. There were 408 (45.4%) children in the constipated group and 490 (54.5%) in the non-constipated group. Most of the children with constipation (53.6%) had a maternal history of constipation compared with 21.4% of children without constipation (p constipated children reported a lack of regularity in their toilet habits while 64.9 % of the children without constipation went to the toilet regularly. Toilet training started slightly earlier (at 3 years) in children without constipation (93.2%) than in those with the disorder (83.8%) (p constipation never used the toilet compared with 26.8% of those without constipation (p constipation drank less than four glasses of water per day compared with 47.1% of those without constipation (p constipation than in those without (p constipation found in this study were a familial history of constipation, irregular toilet habits, low dietary fiber contents and no fruit intake. The main preventive factors against constipation were water and vegetable consumption and training on the use of the toilet at school. Daily toilet training and dietary changes are needed to prevent constipation among children and to achieve regular defecation. This preventive intervention should be reinforced at school.

  3. Beyond Framingham risk factors and coronary calcification: does aortic valve calcification improve risk prediction? The Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälsch, Hagen; Lehmann, Nils; Mahabadi, Amir A; Bauer, Marcus; Kara, Kaffer; Hüppe, Patricia; Moebus, Susanne; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Dragano, Nico; Schmermund, Axel; Stang, Andreas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund

    2014-06-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is considered a manifestation of atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated whether AVC adds to cardiovascular risk prediction beyond Framingham risk factors and coronary artery calcification (CAC). A total of 3944 subjects from the population based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (59.3±7.7 years; 53% females) were evaluated for coronary events, stroke, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (including all plus CV death) over 9.1±1.9 years. CT scans were performed to quantify AVC. Cox proportional hazards regressions and Harrell's C were used to examine AVC as event predictor in addition to risk factors and CAC. During follow-up, 138 (3.5%) subjects experienced coronary events, 101 (2.6%) had a stroke, and 257 (6.5%) experienced CVD events. In subjects with AVC>0 versus AVC=0 the incidence of coronary events was 8.0% versus 3.0% (pAVC scores (pAVC scores (3rd tertile) remained independently associated with coronary events (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.81) and CVD events (HR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.58). After further adjustment for CAC score, HRs were attenuated (coronary events 1.55, 95% CI 0.89 to 2.69; CVD events 1.29, 95% CI 0.83 to 2.00). When adding AVC to the model containing traditional risk factors and CAC, Harrell's C indices did not increase for coronary events (from 0.744 to 0.744) or CVD events (from 0.759 to 0.759). AVC is associated with incident coronary and CVD events independent of Framingham risk factors. However, AVC fails to improve cardiovascular event prediction over Framingham risk factors and CAC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Dietary Protein Sources and Risk for Incident Chronic Kidney Disease: Results From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Bernhard; Selvin, Elizabeth; Liang, Menglu; Coresh, Josef; Grams, Morgan E; Petruski-Ivleva, Natalia; Steffen, Lyn M; Rebholz, Casey M

    2017-07-01

    Dietary protein restriction is recommended for patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency. Long-term data on the relationship between dietary protein sources and risk for incident kidney disease in individuals with normal kidney function are largely missing. This study aimed to assess the association between dietary protein sources and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study participants from 4 US communities. A total of 11,952 adults aged 44-66 years in 1987-1989 who were free of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 . A 66-item food frequency questionnaire was used to assess food intake. CKD stage 3 was defined as a decrease in eGFR of ≥25% from baseline resulting in an eGFR of less than 60 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 ; CKD-related hospitalization; CKD-related death; or end-stage renal disease. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During a median follow-up of 23 years, there were 2,632 incident CKD cases. Red and processed meat consumption was associated with increased CKD risk (HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 1.23, 95% CI: 1.06-1.42, p trend  = 0.01). In contrast, higher dietary intake of nuts, legumes, and low-fat dairy products was associated with lower CKD risk (nuts: HR Q5 vs. Q1 : 0.81, 95% CI: 0.72-0.92, p trend protein sources with risk of incident CKD; with red and processed meat being adversely associated with CKD risk; and nuts, low-fat dairy products, and legumes being protective against the development of CKD. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Combining Climate Scenarios and Risk Management Approach—A Finnish Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Molarius

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on nature and the environment have been widely discussed and studied. Traditionally, a company’s continuity management is based on risk analysis. There are also attempts to implement scenario-based methods in the risk management procedures of companies. For industrial decision makers, it is vital to acknowledge the impacts of climate change with regards to their adaptation strategies. However, a scenario-based approach is not always the most effective way to analyze these risks. This paper investigates the integration of scenario and risk-based methods for a company’s adaptation planning. It considers the uncertainties of the climate change scenarios and the recognized risks as well as suitable adaptation strategies. The paper presents the results of climate risk analysis prepared for two Finnish hydropower plants. The introduced method was first piloted in 2008 and then again in 2015. The update of the analysis pointed out that at the company level, the climate risks and other risks originating from governmental or political decisions form an intertwined wholeness where the origin of the risk is difficult to outline. It seems that, from the business point of view, the main adaptation strategies suggested by the integrated risk and scenarios approach are those that support buying “safety margins” in new investments and reducing decision time horizons. Both of these adaptation strategies provide an advantage in the circumstances where also political decisions and societal changes have a great effect on decision making.

  6. Identifying patient preferences for communicating risk estimates: A descriptive pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Connor Annette M

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients increasingly seek more active involvement in health care decisions, but little is known about how to communicate complex risk information to patients. The objective of this study was to elicit patient preferences for the presentation and framing of complex risk information. Method To accomplish this, eight focus group discussions and 15 one-on-one interviews were conducted, where women were presented with risk data in a variety of different graphical formats, metrics, and time horizons. Risk data were based on a hypothetical woman's risk for coronary heart disease, hip fracture, and breast cancer, with and without hormone replacement therapy. Participants' preferences were assessed using likert scales, ranking, and abstractions of focus group discussions. Results Forty peri- and postmenopausal women were recruited through hospital fliers (n = 25 and a community health fair (n = 15. Mean age was 51 years, 50% were non-Caucasian, and all had completed high school. Bar graphs were preferred by 83% of participants over line graphs, thermometer graphs, 100 representative faces, and survival curves. Lifetime risk estimates were preferred over 10 or 20-year horizons, and absolute risks were preferred over relative risks and number needed to treat. Conclusion Although there are many different formats for presenting and framing risk information, simple bar charts depicting absolute lifetime risk were rated and ranked highest overall for patient preferences for format.

  7. Enhancing local action planning through quantitative flood risk analysis: a case study in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Jesica Tamara; Escuder-Bueno, Ignacio; Perales-Momparler, Sara; Ramón Porta-Sancho, Juan

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a method to incorporate and promote quantitative risk analysis to support local action planning against flooding. The proposed approach aims to provide a framework for local flood risk analysis, combining hazard mapping with vulnerability data to quantify risk in terms of expected annual affected population, potential injuries, number of fatalities, and economic damages. Flood risk is estimated combining GIS data of loads, system response, and consequences and using event tree modelling for risk calculation. The study area is the city of Oliva, located on the eastern coast of Spain. Results from risk modelling have been used to inform local action planning and to assess the benefits of structural and non-structural risk reduction measures. Results show the potential impact on risk reduction of flood defences and improved warning communication schemes through local action planning: societal flood risk (in terms of annual expected affected population) would be reduced up to 51 % by combining both structural and non-structural measures. In addition, the effect of seasonal population variability is analysed (annual expected affected population ranges from 82 to 107 %, compared with the current situation, depending on occupancy rates in hotels and campsites). Results highlight the need for robust and standardized methods for urban flood risk analysis replicability at regional and national scale.

  8. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in persons with paraplegia: the Stockholm spinal cord injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahman, Kerstin; Nash, Mark S; Westgren, Ninni; Lewis, John E; Seiger, Ake; Levi, Richard

    2010-03-01

    To examine cardiovascular disease risk factors and risk clusters in Swedish persons with traumatic wheelchair-dependent paraplegia. Prospective examination. A total of 135 individuals aged 18-79 years with chronic (>or= 1 year) post-traumatic paraplegia. Cardiovascular disease risk factors; dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, overweight, smoking, and medication usage for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, were analyzed according to authoritative guidelines. Stepwise regression tested the effects of age, gender, and injury characteristics on cardiovascular disease risks. High-prevalence risk factors were dyslipidemia (83.1%), hypertension (39.3%), and overweight (42.2%) with pervasive clustering of these risks. Being older was related to increased cardiovascular disease risk, except for dyslipidemia. Hypertension was more common in low-level paraplegia. Prevalence of impaired fasting glucose was lower than previously reported after paraplegia. A high percentage of persons being prescribed drug treatment for dyslipidemia and hypertension failed to reach authoritative targets for cardiovascular disease risk reduction. Swedish persons with paraplegia are at high risk for dyslipidemia, hypertension, and overweight. Impaired fasting glucose was not as common as reported in some previous studies. Pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia and hypertension often failed to achieve recommended targets. Population-based screening and therapeutic countermeasures to these cardiovascular disease risks are indicated.

  9. A qualitative study on acceptable levels of risk for pregnant women in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Indira S E; van der Graaf, Rieke; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2017-05-15

    There is ambiguity with regard to what counts as an acceptable level of risk in clinical research in pregnant women and there is no input from stakeholders relative to such research risks. The aim of our paper was to explore what stakeholders who are actively involved in the conduct of clinical research in pregnant women deem an acceptable level of risk for pregnant women in clinical research. Accordingly, we used the APOSTEL VI study, a low-risk obstetrical randomised controlled trial, as a case-study. We conducted a prospective qualitative study using 35 in-depth semi-structured interviews and one focus group. We interviewed healthcare professionals, Research Ethics Committee members (RECs) and regulators who are actively involved in the conduct of clinical research in pregnant women, in addition to pregnant women recruited for the APOSTEL VI case-study in the Netherlands. Three themes characterise the way stakeholders view risks in clinical research in pregnant women in general. Additionally, one theme characterises the way healthcare professionals and pregnant women view risks with respect to the case-study specifically. First, ideas on what constitutes an acceptable level of risk in general ranged from a preference for zero risk for the foetus up to minimal risk. Second, the desirability of clinical research in pregnant women in general was questioned altogether. Third, stakeholders proposed to establish an upper limit of risk in potentially beneficial clinical research in pregnant women in order to protect the foetus and the pregnant woman from harm. Fourth and finally, the case-study illustrates that healthcare professionals' individual perception of risk may influence recruitment. Healthcare professionals, RECs, regulators and pregnant women are all risk adverse in practice, possibly explaining the continuing underrepresentation of pregnant women in clinical research. Determining the acceptable levels of risk on a universal level alone is insufficient

  10. Sexual risk behaviour trajectories among men who have sex with menat risk for HIV in Amsterdam, the Netherlands: a 10 year follow-up study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, Maartje; Heijne, Janneke Cornelia Maria; Geskus, Ronald; Daas, Chantal Den; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Matser, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Sexual risk behaviour changes during a person's life course. Insights in sexual risk behaviour trajectories of MSM may provide starting points for the timing of HIV prevention methods. We aimed to study longitudinal trajectories of sexual risk behaviour predictive of HIV acquisition from sexual

  11. Study on the evaluation system for the coal safety management based on risk pre-control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin-chun; XU Hai-xia; WANG Pei; SONG Xue-feng

    2009-01-01

    The new type of risk management is process management.First,the hazard sources are identified before coal mine accidents occur,and then the pre-control measure and information monitoring method based on classifying the hidden hazard sources are given.Lastly,the risk pre-alarm and risk control method are confirmed,the management standard and management measure are used to eliminate the hidden hazard sources.In this study,an evaluation system is built to evaluate the result of risk management.

  12. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring: a birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Mortensen, Erik L; Wang, August G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...

  13. Suicide and mental illness in parents and risk of suicide in offspring : A birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Wang, August

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A family history of completed suicide and psychiatric illness has been identified as risk factors for suicide. AIMS: To examine the risk of offspring suicide in relation to parental history of suicide and other parental risk factors. METHOD: The study population consisted of 7,177 adult...... the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register. RESULTS: Forty-eight cohort members, 77 mothers and 133 fathers had committed suicide during the follow-up. Independent of parental psychiatric illness and social status, parental suicide significantly increased suicide risk in offspring (hazard ratio 4...

  14. Adoptive paternal age and risk of psychosis in adoptees: a register based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Ek

    Full Text Available The association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in the off-spring is well established. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. In order to investigate whether the psychosocial environment associated with growing up with an aged father explains the increased risk we conducted a study of all adoptive children in Sweden from 1955-1985 (n =31 188. Their risk of developing schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis in relation to advancing age of their adoptive fathers' was examined. We found no association between risk of psychoses and advancing adoptive paternal age. There was no support of psychosocial environmental factors explaining the "paternal age effect".

  15. Empirical Study on the Relationship between Efficiency, Capital and Risk into the Banking System of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina MANTA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study the relationship between the efficiency of the Romanian banks and the risk taken and also the banking capital. In our opinion, this analysis is important because it offers important findings regarding the influence of risk on banking profitability and on banking efficiency. Moreover, over the analyzed period the risks faced by banks increased significantly. Therefore, it is important to know exactly the relationship between efficiency, capital and risk in order to better understand the behavior of bank management.

  16. Traffic risk behavior and perceptions of Thai motorcyclists: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathurng Hongsranagon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate Thai motorcyclists' traffic risk behavior and their perceptions of it, information of value in the design and implementation of public health policies and campaigns for the reduction of road injuries. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire completed by 399 motorcyclists in Muang Krabi district, Krabi province, Thailand. The questionnaire focused on the respondents' perceptions of general traffic risks and the specific risks at 3 identified hazardous sites. The results of the survey indicated that the correct fastening of helmet straps had a relationship with responsible traffic risk perceptions.

  17. How do patients at risk portray candidates for coronary heart disease? A qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, J.C.; Malterud, K.; Fugelli, P.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how patients at risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) portray candidates for CHD. DESIGN: Qualitative interview study. SETTING: Norway. SUBJECTS: A total of 20 men and 20 women diagnosed with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) recruited through a lipid clinic. MAIN...... considered their notions to be valid for assessing people's risk of CHD, others questioned how valid their notions were. CONCLUSION: Doctors should recognize that distancing is a way patients cope with risk and that such a strategy may have psychological and moral reasons. When communicating about risk...

  18. Mendelian Randomization Study of Body Mass Index and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrift, Aaron P.; Gong, Jian; Peters, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Background: High body mass index (BMI) is consistently linked to increased risk of colorectal cancer for men, whereas the association is less clear for women. As risk estimates from observational studies may be biased and/or confounded, we conducted a Mendelian randomization study to estimate...... the causal association between BMI and colorectal cancer. Methods: We used data from 10,226 colorectal cancer cases and 10,286 controls of European ancestry. The Mendelian randomization analysis used a weighted genetic risk score, derived from 77 genome-wide association study–identified variants associated......, rather than overall obesity, is a more important risk factor for men requires further investigation. Impact: Overall, conventional epidemiologic and Mendelian randomization studies suggest a strong association between obesity and the risk of colorectal cancer....

  19. Risk perception among women receiving genetic counseling: a population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Sunde, Lone; Johansen, Christoffer

    2007-01-01

    -up study of 213 women who received genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, 319 women who underwent mammography (Reference Group I), and a random sample of 1070 women from the general population (Reference Group II). RESULTS: Women who received genetic counseling decreased...... counseling, compared to a reduction of 5% (p=0.03) and 2% (p=0.01) in Reference Groups I and II, respectively. Risk communicated only in words, inaccurate risk perception at baseline, and presence of a familial mutation appeared to be predictors of inaccurate risk perception 12 months after counseling......BACKGROUND: We aimed to explore the impact of genetic counseling on perceived personal lifetime risk of breast cancer, the accuracy of risk perception, and possible predictors of inaccurate risk perception 1 year following counseling. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective follow...

  20. Personality differences predict health-risk behaviors in young adulthood: evidence from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A; Begg, D; Dickson, N; Harrington, H; Langley, J; Moffitt, T E; Silva, P A

    1997-11-01

    In a longitudinal study of a birth cohort, the authors identified youth involved in each of 4 different health-risk behaviors at age 21: alcohol dependence, violent crime, unsafe sex, and dangerous driving habits. At age 18, the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ) was used to assess 10 distinct personality traits. At age 3, observational measures were used to classify children into distinct temperament groups. Results showed that a similar constellation of adolescent personality traits, with developmental origins in childhood, is linked to different health-risk behaviors at 21. Associations between the same personality traits and different health-risk behaviors were not an artifact of the same people engaging in different health-risk behaviors; rather, these associations implicated the same personality type in different but related behaviors. In planning campaigns, health professionals may need to design programs that appeal to the unique psychological makeup of persons most at risk for health-risk behaviors.

  1. Familial Risk and Heritability of Colorectal Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Rebecca E; Möller, Sören; Passarelli, Michael N

    2017-01-01

    included 39,990 monozygotic and 61,443 same-sex dizygotic twins from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer. We compared each cancer's risk in twins of affected co-twins relative to the cohort risk (familial risk ratio; FRR). We then estimated the proportion of variation in risk that could be attributed......BACKGROUND & AIMS: We analyzed data from twins to determine how much the familial risk of colorectal cancer can be attributed to genetic factors vs environment. We also examined whether heritability is distinct for colon vs rectal cancer, given evidence of distinct etiologies. METHODS: Our data set...... to genetic factors (heritability). RESULTS: From earliest registration in 1943 through 2010, 1861 individuals were diagnosed with colon cancer and 1268 with rectal cancer. Monozygotic twins of affected co-twins had an FRR for colorectal cancer of 3.1 (95% CI, 2.4-3.8) relative to the cohort risk. Dizygotic...

  2. Limitations and risks of meta-analyses of longevity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebastiani, Paola; Bae, Harold; Gurinovich, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    Searching for genetic determinants of human longevity has been challenged by the rarity of data sets with large numbers of individuals who have reached extreme old age, inconsistent definitions of the phenotype, and the difficulty of defining appropriate controls. Meta-analysis - a statistical...... method to summarize results from different studies - has become a common tool in genetic epidemiology to accrue large sample sizes for powerful genetic association studies. In conducting a meta-analysis of studies of human longevity however, particular attention must be made to the definition of cases...... and controls (including their health status) and on the effect of possible confounders such as sex and ethnicity upon the genetic effect to be estimated. We will show examples of how a meta-analysis can inflate the false negative rates of genetic association studies or it can bias estimates of the association...

  3. Nitrosamines in bacon: a case study of balancing risks.

    OpenAIRE

    McCutcheon, J W

    1984-01-01

    Nitrite has been used for centuries to preserve, color, and flavor meat. Today, about 10 billion pounds of cured meat products are produced annually, accounting for some one-tenth of the American food supply. Regulators became concerned about the safety of using nitrite in the early 1960s when studies showed the presence of carcinogenic nitrosamines in cured meat products. In the early 1970s, a study at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology implicated nitrite itself as a carcinogen. As st...

  4. Colorectal Cancer: A Study of Risk Factors in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Bhattacharya, Saikat; Basu, Rivu; Bera, Pranati; Halder, Aniket

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Age, sex, living place (urban or rural), smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary pattern, obesity are considered as risk factors for Colorectal cancer. Our study was done to evaluate the association between these risk factors and colorectal cancer in the population of North Bengal.

  5. Treatment with rivastigmine or galantamine and risk of urinary incontinence : results from a Dutch database study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroger, Edeltraut; Van Marum, Rob; Souverein, Patrick; Carmichael, Pierre Hugues; Egberts, Toine

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) may increase the risk of urinary incontinence (UI). Objective: To assess whether ChEI use was associated with the risk of UI among older patients with AD. Methods: A crossover cohort study using the PHARMO Record Linkage

  6. Treatment with rivastigmine or galantamine and risk of urinary incontinence : Results from a Dutch database study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroger, Edeltraut; Van Marum, Rob; Souverein, Patrick; Carmichael, Pierre Hugues; Egberts, Toine

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) with cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) may increase the risk of urinary incontinence (UI). Objective: To assess whether ChEI use was associated with the risk of UI among older patients with AD. Methods: A crossover cohort study using the PHARMO Record Linkage

  7. Patient safety risk factors in minimally invasive surgery : A validation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, S.P.; Ter Kuile, M.; Dankelman, J.; Jansen, F.W.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to adapt and validate a patient safety (PS) framework for minimally invasive surgery (MIS) as a first step in understanding the clinical relevance of various PS risk factors in MIS. Eight patient safety risk factor domains were identified using frameworks from a systems

  8. Determinants of attaining and maintaining a low cardiovascular risk profile-the Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Daviglus, Martha L; Smit, Henriëtte A; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: While maintenance of a low cardiovascular risk profile is essential for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, few people maintain a low CVD risk profile throughout their life. We studied the association of demographic, lifestyle, psychological factors and family history of CVD with

  9. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in basketball and volleyball players : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Worp, H.; Van Ark, M.; Zwerver, J.; Van den Akker-Scheek, I.

    2012-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a

  10. Childhood and adolescent energy restriction and subsequent colorectal cancer risk: Results from The Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. d; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is suggested to lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We investigated this in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Information on diet and other risk factors was collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when cohort members were

  11. Youth Perspectives on Risk and Resiliency: A Case Study from Juiz De Fora, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Penelope; Nikolajski, Cara; Borrero, Sonya; Zickmund, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present work seeks to contribute to studies of cross-cultural risk and resiliency by presenting results from qualitative research with adolescents attending programs for at-risk youth in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. In 1990, Brazil introduced the Child and Adolescent Act (ECA), a significant piece of legislation that has had a direct impact on how…

  12. Anthropometry in relation to prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A.G.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Dorant, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2000-01-01

    In the Netherlands Cohort Study, the authors investigated whether anthropometry is associated with prostate cancer risk. At baseline in 1986, 58,279 men aged 55-69 years completed a self- administered questionnaire on diet, anthropometry, and other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of

  13. Risk of atrial fibrillation among bisphosphonate users: a multicenter, population-based, Italian study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Herrera (Lizbeth); I. Leal (Ingrid); F. Lapi (Francesco); M.J. Schuemie (Martijn); V. Arcoraci (Vincenzo); F. Cipriani (Francesco); E. Sessa (E.); A. Vaccheri (Alberto); C. Piccinni (C.); T. Staniscia (Tommaso); A. Vestri (Annarita); M. Di Bari (M.); G. Corrao (Giovanni); A. Zambon (A.); D Gregori (Dario); F. Carle (F.); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam); G. Mazzaglia (Giampiero); G. Trifirò (Gianluca)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractSummary: Bisphosphonate treatment is used to prevent bone fractures. A controversial association of bisphosphonate use and risk of atrial fibrillation has been reported. In our study, current alendronate users were associated with a higher risk of atrial fibrillation as compared with

  14. Perceptions of food risk management among key stakeholders: Results from a cross-European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van E.; Frewer, L.J.; Chryssochoidis, G.M.; Houghton, J.R.; Korzen-Bohr, S.; Krystallis, T.; Lassen, J.; Pfenning, U.; Rowe, G.

    2006-01-01

    In designing and implementing appropriate food risk management strategies, it is important to examine how key stakeholders perceive both the practice and effectiveness of food risk management. The objective of this study is to identify similarities and differences in perceptions of, and attitudes

  15. The potential of large studies for building genetic risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a new paradigm to assess hereditary risk prediction in common diseases, such as prostate cancer. This genetic risk prediction concept is based on polygenic analysis—the study of a group of common DNA sequences, known as singl

  16. Mandated Psychological Assessments for Suicide Risk in a College Population: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Grace L.; Marshall, Donn; Poyner, Sunney R.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of a protocol mandating psychological assessment of college students exhibiting specific signs of suicide risk and/or nonsuicidal self-harm. Thirty-seven current and former students who had been documented as at risk completed a structured interview in person or by phone. Outcomes suggest this…

  17. Recurrence risk of low Apgar score among term singletons: a population-based cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensing, Sabine; Schaaf, Jelle M.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Mol, Ben W. J.; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2014-01-01

    To examine the risk of recurrence of low Apgar score in a subsequent term singleton pregnancy. Population-based cohort study. The Netherlands. A total of 190,725 women with two subsequent singleton term live births between 1999 and 2007. We calculated the recurrence risk of low Apgar score after

  18. Suicide risk in schizophrenia – a follow-up study after 20 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. This study re-evaluated, after a period of 20 years, a cohort of patients with schizophrenia who had been considered to be at high risk for suicide. The outcome and social factors associated with their suicide risk were investigated over the two decades. Method. Subjects were contacted and interviewed face to face ...

  19. Suicide risk in relation to level of urbanicity - a population-based linkage study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Ping

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The extent to which the high suicide rate in urban areas is influenced by exposures to risk factors for suicide other than urbanicity remains unknown. This population-based study aims to investigate suicide risk in relation to the level of urbanicity in the context of other factors...

  20. Risk factors for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a reanalysis of case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P.W.M. Wientjens (Dorothee); Z. Davanipour; K. Kondo; W.B. Matthews; R.G. Will (Robert); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); A. Hofman (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo review the evidence for risk factors of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), we pooled and reanalyzed the raw data of three case-control studies. The pooled data set comprised 178 patients and 333 control subjects. The strength of association between CJD and putative risk factors was

  1. Dietary epicatechin intake and 25-year risk of cardiovascular mortality: the Zutphen Elderly Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dower, J.I.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Kromhout, D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prospective cohort studies have shown that the consumption of cocoa and tea is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and cocoa and tea have been shown to improve CVD risk factors in randomized controlled trials. Cocoa and tea are major dietary sources of the

  2. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Women: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zack, Rachel M.; Golan, Jenna; Aboud, Said; Msamanga, Gernard; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2014-01-01

    Premature delivery, a significant cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide, is particularly prevalent in the developing world. As HIV is highly prevalent in much of sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to determine risk factors for prematurity among HIV-positive pregnancies. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors of preterm (

  3. Mother's education and offspring asthma risk in 10 European cohort studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewis, Kate Marie; Ruiz, Milagros; Goldblatt, Peter; Morrison, Joana; Porta, Daniela; Forastiere, Francesco; Hryhorczuk, Daniel; Zvinchuk, Oleksandr; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josephe; Lioret, Sandrine; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Vrijheid, Martine; Torrent, Maties; Iniguez, Carmen; Larranaga, Isabel; Harskamp-van Ginkel, Margreet W.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Klanova, Jana; Svancara, Jan; Barross, Henrique; Correia, Sofia; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Faresjo, Tomas; Marmot, Michael; Pikhart, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Highly prevalent and typically beginning in childhood, asthma is a burdensome disease, yet the risk factors for this condition are not clarified. To enhance understanding, this study assessed the cohort-specific and pooled risk of maternal education on asthma in children aged 3-8 across 10 European

  4. Long working hours and cancer risk: a multi-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkila, K.; Nyberg, S.T.; Madsen, I.E.; Vroome, E. de; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J.B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Erbel, R.; Ferrie, J.E.; Fransson, E.; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.; Jöckel, K.H.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Lunau, T.; Nielsen, M.L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pejtersen, J.H.; Pentti, J.; Shipley, M.J.; Steptoe, A.; Suominen, S.B.; Theorell, T.; Vahtera, J.; Westerholm, P.J.M.; Westerlund, H.; Dragano, N.; Rugulies, R.; Kawachi, I.; Batty, G.D.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Virtanen, M.; Kivimäki, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk

  5. Risk identification in the infrastructure construction industry : a supply chain case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achard, P.O.; Nucciarelli, A.; Rosato, R.; Svensson, G.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the risk identification within a supply chain of an infrastructure construction project. This research is based on a case study of risk management within a supply chain in the infrastructure construction industry. Data have been collected from an

  6. Prospective study of falls and risk factors for falls in adults with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol A

    2012-06-10

    Retrospective studies of inpatients with cancer suggest that a cancer diagnosis confers a high risk of falls. In adults with advanced cancer, we aimed to prospectively document the incidence of falls, identify the risk factors, and determine if falls in this population occur predominantly in older patients.

  7. The Role of Knowledge and Risk Beliefs in Adolescent E-Cigarette Use: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Rohde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of e-cigarettes and other vaping devices among adolescents is an urgent public health problem due to the concern about adolescent exposure to nicotine. This study examined: (1 adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about e-cigarette risks; and (2 whether knowledge and risk beliefs were associated with e-cigarette use. N = 69 adolescents completed a cross-sectional survey about e-cigarette knowledge, attitudes (i.e., risk beliefs, and behavior (KAB. Nearly half (47% of the sample reported ever using e-cigarettes. The majority of adolescents knew about many of the risks of e-cigarettes, with no differences between never- and ever-users. However, risk beliefs, such as worrying about health risks of using e-cigarettes, varied across groups. Compared to never-users, e-cigarette ever-users were significantly less likely to worry about e-cigarette health risks, less likely to think that e-cigarettes would cause them negative health consequences, and less likely to believe that e-cigarette use would lead to addiction. In a multivariable logistic regression, prior combustible cigarette use, mother’s education, and addiction risk beliefs about e-cigarettes emerged as significant predictors of adolescents’ e-cigarette use. This study reveals that while knowledge is not associated with adolescent e-cigarette use, risk beliefs do predict use.

  8. Anticipatory vigilance: A grounded theory study of minimising risk within the perioperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Brid; Andrews, Tom; Savage, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    To explore and explain how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Perioperative nurses care for patients who are having surgery or other invasive explorative procedures. Perioperative care is increasingly focused on how to improve patient safety. Safety and risk management is a global priority for health services in reducing risk. Many studies have explored safety within the healthcare settings. However, little is known about how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. Classic grounded theory. Ethical approval was granted for all aspects of the study. Thirty-seven nurses working in 11 different perioperative settings in Ireland were interviewed and 33 hr of nonparticipant observation was undertaken. Concurrent data collection and analysis was undertaken using theoretical sampling. Constant comparative method, coding and memoing and were used to analyse the data. Participants' main concern was how to minimise risk. Participants resolved this through engaging in anticipatory vigilance (core category). This strategy consisted of orchestrating, routinising and momentary adapting. Understanding the strategies of anticipatory vigilance extends and provides an in-depth explanation of how nurses' behaviour ensures that risk is minimised in a complex high-risk perioperative setting. This is the first theory situated in the perioperative area for nurses. This theory provides a guide and understanding for nurses working in the perioperative setting on how to minimise risk. It makes perioperative nursing visible enabling positive patient outcomes. This research suggests the need for training and education in maintaining safety and minimising risk in the perioperative setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The Role of Knowledge and Risk Beliefs in Adolescent E-Cigarette Use: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jacob A; Noar, Seth M; Horvitz, Casey; Lazard, Allison J; Cornacchione Ross, Jennifer; Sutfin, Erin L

    2018-04-23

    The use of e-cigarettes and other vaping devices among adolescents is an urgent public health problem due to the concern about adolescent exposure to nicotine. This study examined: (1) adolescents’ knowledge and beliefs about e-cigarette risks; and (2) whether knowledge and risk beliefs were associated with e-cigarette use. N = 69 adolescents completed a cross-sectional survey about e-cigarette knowledge, attitudes (i.e., risk beliefs), and behavior (KAB). Nearly half (47%) of the sample reported ever using e-cigarettes. The majority of adolescents knew about many of the risks of e-cigarettes, with no differences between never- and ever-users. However, risk beliefs, such as worrying about health risks of using e-cigarettes, varied across groups. Compared to never-users, e-cigarette ever-users were significantly less likely to worry about e-cigarette health risks, less likely to think that e-cigarettes would cause them negative health consequences, and less likely to believe that e-cigarette use would lead to addiction. In a multivariable logistic regression, prior combustible cigarette use, mother’s education, and addiction risk beliefs about e-cigarettes emerged as significant predictors of adolescents’ e-cigarette use. This study reveals that while knowledge is not associated with adolescent e-cigarette use, risk beliefs do predict use.

  10. The influence of surgeon personality factors on risk tolerance: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Jack; Suarez, Luis; Kyriakides, Tassos; Nadzam, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the association between surgeon personality factors (measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality inventory (MBTI(®))) and risk tolerance (measured by the Revised Physicians' Reactions to Uncertainty (PRU) and Physician Risk Attitude (PRA) scales). Instrument assessing surgeon personality profile (MBTI) and 2 questionnaires measuring surgeon risk tolerance and risk aversion (PRU and PRA). Saint Raphael campus of Yale New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut. Twenty categorical surgery residents and 7 surgical core faculty members. The following findings suggest there might be a relationship between surgeon personality factors and risk tolerance. In certain areas of risk assessment, it appears that surgeons with personality factors E (Extravert), T (Thinking), and P (Perception) demonstrated higher tolerance for risk. Conversely, as MBTI(®) dichotomies are complementary, surgeons with personality factors I (Introvert), F (Feeling), and J (Judgment) suggest risk aversion on these same measures. These findings are supported by at least 2 studies outside medicine demonstrating that personality factors E, N, T, and P are associated with risk taking. This preliminary research project represents an initial step in exploring what may be considered a fundamental component in a "successful" surgical personality. © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Behavioral Monitoring of Sexual Offenders Against Children in Virtual Risk Situations: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fromberger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The decision about unsupervised privileges for sexual offenders against children (SOC is one of the most difficult decisions for practitioners in forensic high-security hospitals. Facing the possible consequences of the decision for the society, a valid and reliable risk management of SOCs is essential. Some risk management approaches provide frameworks for the construction of relevant future risk situations. Due to ethical reasons, it is not possible to evaluate the validity of constructed risk situations in reality. The aim of the study was to test if behavioral monitoring of SOCs in high-immersive virtual risk situations provides additional information for risk management. Six SOCs and seven non-offender controls (NOC walked through three virtual risk situations, confronting the participant with a virtual child character. The participant had to choose between predefined answers representing approach or avoidance behavior. Frequency of chosen answers were analyzed in regards to knowledge of the participants about coping skills and coping skills focused during therapy. SOCs and NOCs behavior differed only in one risk scenario. Furthermore, SOCs showed in 89% of all cases a behavior not corresponding to their own belief about adequate behavior in comparable risk situations. In 62% of all cases, SOCs behaved not corresponding to coping skills they stated that therapists focused on during therapy. In 50% of all cases, SOCs behaved in correspondence to coping skills therapists stated that they focused on during therapy. Therapists predicted the behavior of SOCs in virtual risk situations incorrect in 25% of all cases. Thus, virtual risk scenarios provide the possibility for practitioners to monitor the behavior of SOCs and to test their decisions on unsupervised privileges without endangering the community. This may provide additional information for therapy progress. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive and ecological validity

  12. Behavioral Monitoring of Sexual Offenders Against Children in Virtual Risk Situations: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromberger, Peter; Meyer, Sabrina; Jordan, Kirsten; Müller, Jürgen L

    2018-01-01

    The decision about unsupervised privileges for sexual offenders against children (SOC) is one of the most difficult decisions for practitioners in forensic high-security hospitals. Facing the possible consequences of the decision for the society, a valid and reliable risk management of SOCs is essential. Some risk management approaches provide frameworks for the construction of relevant future risk situations. Due to ethical reasons, it is not possible to evaluate the validity of constructed risk situations in reality. The aim of the study was to test if behavioral monitoring of SOCs in high-immersive virtual risk situations provides additional information for risk management. Six SOCs and seven non-offender controls (NOC) walked through three virtual risk situations, confronting the participant with a virtual child character. The participant had to choose between predefined answers representing approach or avoidance behavior. Frequency of chosen answers were analyzed in regards to knowledge of the participants about coping skills and coping skills focused during therapy. SOCs and NOCs behavior differed only in one risk scenario. Furthermore, SOCs showed in 89% of all cases a behavior not corresponding to their own belief about adequate behavior in comparable risk situations. In 62% of all cases, SOCs behaved not corresponding to coping skills they stated that therapists focused on during therapy. In 50% of all cases, SOCs behaved in correspondence to coping skills therapists stated that they focused on during therapy. Therapists predicted the behavior of SOCs in virtual risk situations incorrect in 25% of all cases. Thus, virtual risk scenarios provide the possibility for practitioners to monitor the behavior of SOCs and to test their decisions on unsupervised privileges without endangering the community. This may provide additional information for therapy progress. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the predictive and ecological validity of behavioral

  13. A study on the social risk-judgment for nuclear energy : development of the risk-judgment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung

    1999-02-01

    Despite the fact that nuclear power has become a major energy source in Korea, the public attitude toward it shows a typical NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) phenomenon. In order for designing an effective policy, it is essential to obtain reliable knowledge about how the public perceive and judge the risks and benefits of nuclear energy. A public risk judgment model was developed through both constructing the perception variables by Latent Class Analysis and quantifying the relationship between acceptance and perception variables by Logistic Regression. Two independent sets of nation-wide survey data provided the parameter estimates and the validity of the model. As a result, the perception level of risks and benefits could be quantified and National Acceptance and Local Acceptance could be modeled by the perception variables. While lay people judge the risks and benefits through the process of perception, experts have relevant knowledge and information about nuclear energy and depend on the scientific facts or inferences in judgment process. Thus their opinion and consensus should be examined and taken into account during policy formulation process. For the purpose of eliciting expert's opinion, the web-based on-line survey system (eBOSS) was developed. The Web provides an easy graphical user interface that enables users to complete the survey at their own convenience and answer questions in a low-overhead fashion. Using the survey system, experts' views were tallied, analyzed and compared with the public. While there were differences in the perception of risks as well as benefits between the public and expert, similar preferences on alternative policies appeared. This study is one of the first attempts to statistically examine the nexus between the perception and the acceptance of nuclear energy. The methodologies may give the basis for investigating the structure of the public attitude on new technologies and the results can be useful to design public

  14. Family studies to find rare high risk variants in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Dyhr; Christensen, Anne Francke; Olesen, Jes

    2017-01-01

    genetic variants with bigger effect size may be involved in the disease. Since migraine has a tendency to cluster in families, a family approach might be the way to find these variants. This is also indicated by identification of migraine-associated loci in classical linkage-analyses in migraine families....... A single migraine study using a candidate-gene approach was performed in 2010 identifying a rare mutation in the TRESK potassium channel segregating in a large family with migraine with aura, but this finding has later become questioned. The technologies of next-generation sequencing (NGS) now provides...... an affordable tool to investigate the genetic variation in the entire exome or genome. The family-based study design using NGS is described in this paper. We also review family studies using NGS that have been successful in finding rare variants in other common complex diseases in order to argue the promising...

  15. Carcinogenic risk for workers exposed to ionizing radiation. A critical review of present epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on workers who have been exposed to ionizing radiation have allowed to demonstrate certain cancer risks associated with elevated, often retrospectively reconstituted exposures. Present studies on still active workers or workers having worked for the last 15 years are indispensable to define the risk associated with low irradiation doses; they must, however, take into account confounding factors that may play a role in the etiology of the cancer studied

  16. Study warns of radiation risk in medical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-10-01

    A study of a million US patients suggests that some who undergo medical imaging could be exposed to more ionizing radiation than those who work with radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The study, reported in The New England Journal of Medicine (361 849), implies that current exposure to radiation from conventional X-ray equipment as well as computed tomography (CT) and positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners could lead to tens of thousands of extra cases of cancer in the US alone.

  17. A qualitative study of alcohol risk perceptions among drinkers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is evidence in the scientific literature linking alcohol-related deaths and morbidities with excessive alcohol consumption, yet individuals are often undeterred by their experiences of negative alcohol-related outcomes. In seeking to understand this behavior, this exploratory qualitative study was undertaken among ...

  18. Study of some biochemical and genetic risk factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) ( both serum levels and the genotypes of the MCP-1 A-2518G polymorphism) with the development of carotid atherosclerosis in systemic ...

  19. Estrogen Metabolism and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    standard, linguaggio comune , necessario a stabilire protocolli di collaborazione) Start Up Progetto Certificazione ISO 9001, IFO, Rome, Italy 3rd December...28 June 2008 CONCLUSIONS In summary, in the context of a still limited scientific panorama, our study and meta- analysis provide evidence...Department of Urology, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Rome, Italy 7 Scientific Direction, National Cancer Institute Regina Elena, Rome, Italy

  20. Two Adolescents at Risk for Schizophrenia: A Family Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichert, Louise C.

    1979-01-01

    Studies complex factors contributing to the development of adolescent psychoses in two stepbrothers. Neurodevelopmental difficulties make them vulnerable to their parents' fears and conflicts. This affects the quality of their total life experience and the kind of parent-child relationships leading to their psychoses. A discussion by Saul L. Brown…

  1. Alcohol consumption and dementia risk: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Huifu; Wan, Yu; Tan, Chenchen; Li, Jieqiong; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that light-to-moderate alcohol intake may protect against dementia while excessive drinking may instead increase the risk. Nonetheless, these findings need cautious interpretations due to varying methodologies and lack of standard definition, which hindered our transferring into preventative practice. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose–response association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Eleven studies with 73,330 participants and 4586 cases for all-cause dementia (ACD), five studies with 52,715 participants and 1267 cases for Alzheimer’s dementia (AD) and four studies with 49,535 participants and 542 cases for vascular dementia were included. We observed a nonlinear association between alcohol consumption and ACD risk (p_n_o_n_l_i_n_e_a_r_i_t_y < 0.05). The alcohol dose associated with lower risk of dementia was confined to at most 12.5 g/day, with the risk hitting bottom (RR ≈ 0.9) at roughly 6 g/day. Of note, the ACD risk seemed to be elevated (≈10%) when the dose surpasses certain levels: 23 drinks/week or 38 g/day. For the alcohol type, recommendation for wine is prioritized. The subgroup analysis further indicated that the effect of alcohol may be greater in younger adults (<60 years old) with regard to fighting against dementia. Modest alcohol consumption (≤12.5 g/day) is associated with a reduced risk of dementia with 6 g/day of alcohol conferring a lower risk than other levels while excessive drinking (≥38 g/day) may instead elevate the risk.

  2. Risk assessment in infrastructure in educational institution: A study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasdan Ismail, Ahmad; Adilah Hamzah, Noor; Kamilah Makhtar, Nor; Azhar Mat Daud, Khairul; Zulkarnaen Khidzir, Nik; Husna Che Hassan, Nurul; Arifpin Mansor, Muhamad

    2017-10-01

    This particular study was conducted to assess the hazard exposure in education institution and to highlight the possible risk level available. The assessment utilised is Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC). There was a 2008’s form in order to determine the risk level of the hazard. There were over 111 of education institutions were selected around Malaysia to perform this assessment. Area chosen for each institution was office, playing field, canteen, classroom, toilet and drainage. By referring HIRARC Guideline 2008, the determination of risk rank is measure based on the formula likelihood multiply severity and the rank need to refer from risk matrix standard. There are several hazard have be found and shows the high, medium and low of risk level. The higher level of risk was discussed in the study which is hazard found in playing field and hazard in office. There several hazard that need to be control by education management to avoid increase of case accident in Education Sector, Malaysia. As conclusion, the exposure hazard among the staff and educators is high and further action and control are needed. Further study need to explore the best recommendation for control measure of the hazard exposed by education institution.

  3. Performance Risks Allocation in Bot Infrastructure in Nigeria: A Case Study of Lagos Infrastructure Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Gabriel A.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed allocation, criteria and allotment effectiveness of performance risks in Build- Operate-Transfer (BOT transportation infrastructure in Nigeria using Lagos Infrastructure Project (LIP as a case study. LIP is the only BOT-procured tolled road that has attained ‘operate’ stage of BOT cycle in Nigeria. It revealed that more operating risks were actually allocated to the concessionaire than the grantor and most of the risks were preferred retained by the allottee. Significant fraction of the risks was effectively allocated between the concessionaire and grantor except those that involve close interface between participants. While grantor rated nine risks high and seven risks very high; the concessionaire assessed nine risks to be high and five risks to be very high; the grantor rated the effectiveness level to be seventy three per cent and the concessionaire assessed it to be sixty four per cent. The study recommended that the evolving knowledge from Lagos Infrastructure Project (LIP should be documented to guide future BOT transactions in Nigeria.

  4. Chemical and radiation environmental risk management at the crossroads: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, N.; Burke, T.; Locke, P.

    1999-01-01

    Although many of the major environmental risk management decisions we face today require the simultaneous evaluation and control of both radiological and chemical risks, the separation of radiation and chemical risk management persists along legal, regulatory, programmatic, training and professional practice levels. In June 1998, a panel of 40 chemical and radiation risk experts met at an interactive workshop entitled 'Addressing the Similarities and Differences in Chemical and Radiation Environmental Risk Management,' in Annapolis, Maryland to discuss several perspectives on harmonizing chemical and radiation risk management approaches. At the conclusion of the meeting, workshop participants recommended that case studies of clean-up sites at which radioactive materials and hazardous chemical risks were addressed, be developed to help educate participants in the harmonization dialogue about their counterpart's issues, stimulate discussion and sharpen issues in a way that they can be resolved. Several key risk management issues that were highlighted from the discussion at the Annapolis meeting are being evaluated in the case studies. They include: decision criteria, costs and public/stakeholder input. This paper presents these key issues and the approach taken in the case studies. (author)

  5. Coffee Consumption and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Large Updated Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyue Xie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of coffee consumption in the development of various types of cancer has been extensively investigated in epidemiologic studies. How coffee consumption may modulate risk of gastric cancer, however, remains a subject open for investigation. To better quantify this relation, we quantitatively summarized evidence from prospective studies. Eligible studies were identified on PubMed and Embase databases. The summary risk estimates were obtained using the random-effects model. Subgroup, sensitivity and dose-response analyses were conducted. The present meta-analysis included 12 prospective cohort studies. A pooled analysis of these studies suggested that coffee consumption (highest vs. lowest consumption was not associated with risk of gastric cancer (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.93–1.36. In the subgroup analysis, significant increased risk was detected in the U.S. studies (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.06–1.74 and in the studies with <10 years of follow-up (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.00–1.54, and the greatest increase in risk was observed in those studies without adjustment for smoking (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.13–1.93. There was some evidence of publication bias (P for Egger’s test = 0.03. Cumulative evidence from prospective studies suggests that coffee consumption is not associated with risk of gastric cancer. The observed positive results may be confounded by smoking and need further investigation.

  6. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M E; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afarideh, Mohsen; Afshin, Ashkan; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Komal; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, François; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Ansari, Hossein; Antó, Josep M.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T; Anwari, Palwasha; Arian, Nicholas; Ärnlöv, Johan; Artaman, Al; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Asayesh, Hamid; Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G.Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Ballew, Shoshana H.; Barac, Aleksandra; Barber, Ryan M; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L; Bärnighausen, Till; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H; Batis, Carolina; Battle, Katherine E.; Baumgarner, Blair R.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bell, Michelle L; Bennett, Derrick A; Bennett, James R.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Berhane, Adugnaw; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beuran, Mircea; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhansali, Anil; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Bikbov, Boris; Birungi, Charles; Biryukov, Stan; Blosser, Christopher D.; Boneya, Dube Jara; Bou-Orm, Ibrahim R.; Brauer, Michael; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Brenner, Hermann; Brugha, Traolach S; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto; Butt, Zahid A.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Cárdenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos A; Catalá-López, Ferrán; Cercy, Kelly; Chang, Hsing Yi; Charlson, Fiona J; Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Cirillo, Massimo; Cohen, Aaron J; Comfort, Haley; Cooper, Cyrus; Coresh, Josef; Cornaby, Leslie; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Criqui, Michael H; Crump, John A; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, José; Davey, Gail; Davitoiu, Dragos V; Davletov, Kairat; de Courten, Barbora; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Degenhardt, Louisa; Deiparine, Selina; Dellavalle, Robert P; Deribe, Kebede; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Ding, Eric L; Djalalinia, Shirin; Do, Huyen Phuc; Dokova, Klara; Doku, David Teye; Donkelaar, Aaron van; Dorsey, E Ray; Driscoll, Tim R; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Duncan, Sarah; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad; Enayati, Ahmadali; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E; Eshrati, Babak; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Faraon, Emerito Jose Aquino; Farinha, Carla Sofia e.Sa; Faro, André; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fay, Kairsten; Feigin, Valery L; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, João C.; Ferrari, Alize J; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J; Frostad, Joseph J; Fullman, Nancy; Fürst, Thomas; Furtado, Joao M.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ganji, Morsaleh; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Geleto, Ayele; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Gething, Peter W.; Ghajar, Alireza; Gibney, Katherine B; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gillum, Richard F; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Giussani, Giorgia; Godwin, William W.; Gona, Philimon N.; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Graetz, Nicholas; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guo, Jingwen; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Tanush; Gupta, Vipin; Gutiérrez, Reyna A; Hachinski, Vladimir; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Harb, Hilda L; Hareri, Habtamu Abera; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hawley, Caitlin; Hay, Simon I; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Hendrie, Delia; Heredia-Pi, Ileana Beatriz; Hernandez, Julio Cesar Montañez; Hoek, Hans W; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hoy, Damian G; Hsairi, Mohamed; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, John J; Huang, Hsiang; Ibrahim, Norlinah Mohamed; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Ikeda, Chad; Inoue, Manami; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Jackson, Maria Delores; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Jauregui, Alejandra; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Johansson, Lars R.K.; Johnson, Catherine O.; Jonas, Jost B; Jürisson, Mikk; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kamal, Ritul; Karch, André; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kastor, Anshul; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kelbore, Sefonias Getachew; Kemmer, Laura; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Jun Y.; Kim, Yun Jin; Kim, Daniel; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kisa, Adnan; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knibbs, Luke D; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Kumar, G Anil; Kutz, Michael; Kyu, Hmwe H; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lan, Qing; Lansingh, Van C; Larsson, Anders; Lee, Paul H.; Lee, Alexander; Leigh, James; Leung, Janni; Levi, Miriam; Levy, Teresa Shamah; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liben, Misgan Legesse; Lim, Stephen S; Linn, Shai; Liu, Patrick; Lodha, Rakesh; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katherine J.; Lopez, Alan D; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A; Lozano, Rafael; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rajesh; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manguerra, Helena; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Martin, Randall V; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Mathur, Manu Raj; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Matzopoulos, Richard; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Colm; McGrath, John W; Mehata, Suresh; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Meier, Toni; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Mensah, George A; Mensink, Gert B.M.; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meretoja, Atte; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane; Micha, Renata; Millear, Anoushka; Miller, Ted R; Minnig, Shawn; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammed, Kedir Endris; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohan, Murali B.V.; Mokdad, Ali H; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moraga, Paula; Morawska, Lidia; Morrison, Shane D.; Mountjoy-Venning, Cliff; Mueller, Ulrich O; Mullany, Erin C; Muller, Kate; Murray, Christopher J L; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Nangia, Vinay; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Negoi, Ionut; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nguyen, Quyen Le; Nguyen, Trang Huyen; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Minh Hao; Nichols, Emma; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nomura, Marika; Nong, Vuong Minh; Norheim, Ole F; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Olagunju, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olsen, Helen E.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Ota, Erika; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; PA, Mahesh; Pacella, Rosana E.; Pana, Adrian; Panda, Basant Kumar; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D; Patten, Scott B; Patton, George C.; Pereira, David M; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Pillay, Julian David; Piradov, Michael A.; Pishgar, Farhad; Plass, Dietrich; Pletcher, Martin A.; Polinder, Suzanne; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prasad, Narayan; Purcell, Carrie; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Rawaf, Salman; Rehm, Colin D.; Rehm, Jürgen; Reiner, Robert C.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M.N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Reynales-Shigematsu, Luz Myriam; Rezaei, Satar; Ribeiro, Antonio L; Rivera, Juan A.; Roba, Kedir Teji; Rojas-Rueda, David; Roman, Yesenia; Room, Robin; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Rubagotti, Enrico; Rushton, Lesley; Sadat, Nafis; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Salama, Joseph; Salomon, Joshua A; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan Ramon; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Sánchez-Pimienta, Tania G; Santomauro, Damian; Santos, Itamar S; Santric Milicevic, Milena M.; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Schneider, Ione J C; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schwebel, David C; Schwendicke, Falk; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G; Serdar, Berrin; Servan-Mori, Edson E; Shaddick, Gavin; Shaheen, Amira; Shahraz, Saeid; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shamsipour, Mansour; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Sharma, Jayendra; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Shen, Jiabin; Shi, Peilin; Shibuya, Kenji; Shields, Chloe; Shiferaw, Mekonnen Sisay; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Min Jeong; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shishani, Kawkab; Shoman, Haitham; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Pedro; Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves; Singh, Jasvinder A; Singh, Virendra; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Smith, David L.; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr H.A.; Sobngwi, Eugene; Soneji, Samir; Sorensen, Reed J.D.; Sposato, Luciano A; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Srinivasan, Vinay; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steinke, Sabine; Stokes, Mark Andrew; Strub, Bryan; Subart, Michelle; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Suliankatchi, Rizwan Abdulkader; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L; Szoeke, Cassandra E.I.; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tadakamadla, Santosh Kumar; Takahashi, Ken; Takala, Jukka S.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tanner, Marcel; Tarekegn, Yihunie L.; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesssema, Belay; Thakur, J. S.; Thamsuwan, Ornwipa; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; Theis, Andrew M.; Thomas, Matthew Lloyd; Thomson, Alan J.; Thrift, Amanda G; Tillmann, Taavi; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tobollik, Myriam; Tollanes, Mette C.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Torre, Anna; Tortajada, Miguel; Touvier, Mathilde; Tran, Bach Xuan; Truelsen, Thomas; Tuem, Kald Beshir; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Updike, Rachel; Uthman, Olalekan A.; van Boven, Job F.M.; Varughese, Santosh; Vasankari, Tommi J; Veerman, Lennert J; Venkateswaran, Vidhya; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Vos, Theo; Wadilo, Fiseha; Wakayo, Tolassa; Wallin, Mitchell T; Wang, Yuan Pang; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G; Weiss, Daniel J.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Woldeyes, Belete Getahun; Wolfe, Charles D A; Woodbrook, Rachel; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadgir, Simon; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zavala-Arciniega, Luis; Zhang, Xueying; Zimsen, Stephanie Raman M.; Zipkin, Ben; Zodpey, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health

  7. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background
    The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to

  8. Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 84 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Afshin, Ashkan; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Abyu, Gebre Yitayih; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Komal; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Ansari, Hossein; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Hoek, Hans W.; van Boven, Job F. M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of risk factor exposure and attributable burden of disease. By providing estimates over a long time series, this study can monitor risk exposure trends critical to health

  9. A Study of Program Manager Effectiveness and Risk Taking Propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Kelly Sherwin, my section leader , has been a great source of leadership and inspiration . Next, I would like to thank Lieutenant Colonel Fred Westfall...managers peiZ.rm ten basic tasks which can be broken into three categories. The categories and tasks are: Interpersonal Roles 1. Figurehead 2. Leader 3...17:59). When-a program manager is successful, he is not necessarily effective (10:10). Luthans studied this phenomenon by examining the managerial

  10. Carotenoids and risk of fracture: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuhong; Song, Chunli; Song, Xiaochao; Zhang, Xi; Li, Xinli

    2017-01-10

    To quantify the association between dietary and circulating carotenoids and fracture risk, a meta-analysis was conducted by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for eligible articles published before May 2016. Five prospective and 2 case-control studies with 140,265 participants and 4,324 cases were identified in our meta-analysis. Among which 5 studies assessed the association between dietary carotenoids levels and hip fracture risk, 2 studies focused on the association between circulating carotenoids levels and any fracture risk. A random-effects model was employed to summarize the risk estimations and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Hip fracture risk among participants with high dietary total carotenoids intake was 28% lower than that in participants with low dietary total carotenoids (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.51, 1.01). A similar risk of hip fracture was found for β-carotene based on 5 studies, the summarized OR for high vs. low dietary β-carotene was 0.72 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.95). However, a significant between-study heterogeneity was found (total carotene: I2 = 59.4%, P = 0.06; β-carotene: I2 = 74.4%, P = 0.04). Other individual carotenoids did not show significant associations with hip fracture risk. Circulating carotene levels had no significant association with any fracture risk, the pooled OR (95% CI) was 0.83 (0.59, 1.17). Based on the evidence from observational studies, our meta-analysis supported the hypothesis that higher dietary total carotenoids or β-carotene intake might be potentially associated with a low risk of hip fracture, however, future well-designed prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials are warranted to specify the associations between carotenoids and fracture.

  11. Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo B. Batacan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light intensity physical activity (LIPA on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors remain to be established. This review summarizes the effects of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL examining LIPA and CVD risk factors (body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile and CVD-related markers (maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 published between 1970 and 2015 was performed on 15 March 2015. A total of 33 intervention studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and markers were included in this review. Results indicated that LIPA did not improve CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in healthy individuals. LIPA was found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in physically inactive populations with a medical condition. Reviewed studies show little support for the role of LIPA to reduce CVD risk factors. Many of the included studies were of low to fair study quality and used low doses of LIPA. Further studies are needed to establish the value of LIPA in reducing CVD risk.

  12. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Danish National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Rasmussen, Steen; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø; Greisen, Gorm; la Cour, Morten

    2016-04-01

    One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark. A retrospective, register-based cohort study. The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration number. Each of the 31 candidate risk factors were evaluated in univariate analyses, while adjusted for known risk factors (i.e., gestational age [GA] at delivery, small for gestational age [SGA], multiple births, and male sex). Significant outcomes were analyzed thereafter in a backward selection multiple logistic regression model. Treatment-demanding ROP and its associations to candidate risk factors. Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-4.08; P large study population, blood transfusion and mechanical ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment-demanding ROP during a recent birth period (2003-2008). Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A systematic review of epidemiologic studies assessing condom use and risk of syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Catherine A; Dunne, Eileen F; Warner, Lee

    2009-07-01

    Although systematic reviews of epidemiologic studies have been conducted for condom use and the risk of several sexually transmitted diseases, there have been no such reviews for condom use and syphilis. A systematic literature review of epidemiologic studies published from 1972 to 2008 was conducted to evaluate study methods and measures of association reported for condom use and risk of syphilis. All 12 included studies had significant methodologic limitations. Nine (75%) studies were cross-sectional. Although 11 (92%) studies assessed consistent condom use, no studies assessed correct use or condom use problems, nor did any document exposure to a partner infected with syphilis. Ten studies had insufficient information to distinguish prevalent from incident infections. Two studies that assessed both incident infection and consistent condom use suggested a reduced risk of syphilis with consistent condom use; 1 study was statistically significant. Significant methodologic limitations exist for all reviewed studies of syphilis and condom use. Among the 2 most rigorously designed studies, both suggested a reduced risk of syphilis with consistent condom use. Additional studies incorporating rigorous methods are needed to further assess the effect of condom use on risk of syphilis.

  14. Risk Factors Influencing Smoking Behavior: A Turkish Twin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öncel, Sevgi Yurt; Dick, Danielle M.; Maes, Hermine H.; Alıev, Fazil

    2015-01-01

    Aim In this study, we introduce the first twin study in Turkey, focusing on smoking behavior, and laying the foundation to register all twins born in Turkey for research purposes. Using Turkish twins will contribute to our understanding of health problems in the context of cultural differences. Materials and methods We assessed 309 twin pairs (339 males and 279 females) aged between 15 and 45 years living in the Kırıkkale and Ankara regions of Turkey, and administered a health and lifestyle interview that included questions about smoking status and smoking history. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics, t-tests, chi-square tests, and bivariate and multivariate clustered logistic regression. In addition, we fit bivariate Structural Equation Models (SEM) to determine contributions of latent genetic and environmental factors to smoking outcomes in this sample. Results One hundred seventy-eight participants (28.8%) were identified as smokers, smoking every day for a month or longer, of whom 79.2% were males and 20.8% were females. Mean values for number of cigarettes per day and the Fagerstrom Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND; Fagerstrom, 1978) score were higher in males than in females, and age of onset was earlier in males. There was a significant positive correlation between the FTND score and number of cigarettes smoked per day, and a significant negative correlation between both variables and age at onset of smoking. Our study showed that gender, presence of a smoking twin in the family, age, alcohol use, marital status, daily sports activities, and feeling moody all played a significant role in smoking behavior among twins. The twin analysis suggested that 79.5% of the liability to FTND was influenced by genetic factors and 20.5% by unique environment, while familial resemblance for smoking initiation was best explained by common environmental factors. Conclusions Marked differences in the prevalence of smoking behavior in men versus women were

  15. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in basketball and volleyball players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, H; van Ark, M; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I

    2012-12-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a large representative sample of basketball and volleyball players. Separate risk factors for men and women, basketball and volleyball players, and athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT were identified. All basketball and volleyball players between ages 18 and 35 from the Dutch Basketball Association and the Dutch Volleyball Association were invited to complete an online questionnaire on knee complaints and risk factors for PT. The logistic regression analyses included 2224 subjects. The risk factors for PT were age, playing at the national level, being male and playing volleyball (compared with playing basketball). The risk factors for men and women were comparable. Among volleyball players, outside hitters and middle blockers/hitters had an increased risk compared with setters. For basketball players, no risk factors could be identified. No differences in the risk factors were found between athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT. These findings should be taken into account for prevention and rehabilitation purposes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Risk-based decision making: The East Fork Poplar Creek case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.R.J.; Sample, B.E.; Suter, G.W.; Parkhurst, B.R.; Teed, R.S.

    1999-12-01

    A probabilistic risk assessment revealed that methylmercury released from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 weapons facility at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, poses moderate risks to mink and kingfishers residing near the receiving waters of East Fork Poplar Creek. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released from this facility pose severe risks to mink but little risk to kingfishers. The objective of this study was to use a risk-based decision-making approach to select remedial cleanup levels for each of these contaminants. The authors conducted Monte Carlo simulations to estimate total daily intakes of each contaminant by mink (mercury and PCBs) and kingfishers (PCBs only) for a range of exposure-reduction scenarios. The resulting exposure distributions were then integrated with their respective dose-response curves to estimate postremediation risks. The results indicated that total mercury levels in surface water would need to be reduced from current levels (mean = 0.225 {micro}g/L) to 0.03 to 0.05 {micro}g/L to reduce risks to very low levels (<5% probability of {ge}20% mortality) for both mink and kingfishers. If interested parties define acceptable risk as, for example, a 20% probability of {gt} 10% mortality, then mercury levels would need to be reduced to 0.14 {micro}g/L. The PCBs analysis indicated that reducing water-borne exposures would produce only a modest reduction in risk to mink because much of the current exposure is through terrestrial exposure pathways.

  17. Serum Lipids and the Risk of Gastrointestinal Malignancies in the Swedish AMORIS Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulaningsih, W.; Garmo, H.; Holmberg, L.; Hemelrijck, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Metabolic syndrome has been linked to an increased cancer risk, but the role of dyslipidaemia in gastrointestinal malignancies is unclear. We aimed to assess the risk of oesophageal, stomach, colon, and rectal cancers using serum levels of lipid components. Methods. From the Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk (AMORIS) study, we selected 540,309 participants (>20 years old) with baseline measurements of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and glucose of whom 84,774 had baseline LDL cholesterol (LDL), HDL cholesterol (HDL), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess glucose and lipid components in relation to oesophageal, stomach, colon, and rectal cancer risk. Results. An increased risk of oesophageal cancer was observed in persons with high TG (e.g. HR: 2.29 (95% CI: 1.42-3.68) for the 4th quartile compared to the 1st) and low LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, TC/HDL ratio, log (TG/HDL), and apoB/apoA-I ratio. High glucose and TG were linked with an increased colon cancer risk, while high TC levels were associated with an increased rectal cancer risk. Conclusion. The persistent link between TC and rectal cancer risk as well as between TG and oesophageal and colon cancer risk in normoglycaemic individuals may imply their substantiality in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis.

  18. Night Shift Work and Risk of Depression: Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Aeyoung; Myung, Seung Kwon; Cho, Jung Jin; Jung, Yu Jin; Yoon, Jong Lull; Kim, Mee Young

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to assess whether night shift work is associated with the risk of depression by using a meta-analysis of observational studies. We searched PubMed and EMBASE in August, 2016 to locate eligible studies and investigated the association between night shift work and the risk of depression, reporting outcome measures with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In the meta-analysis of a total of 11 observational studies with 9 cross-sectional study, 1 longitudinal study, and 1 cohort study, night shift work was significantly associated with an increased risk of depression (OR/RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.24-1.64; I² = 78.0%). Also, subgroup meta-analyses by gender, night shift work duration, type of occupation, continent, and type of publication showed that night shift work was consistently associated with the increased risk of depression. The current meta-analysis suggests that night shift work is associated with the increased risk of depression. However, further large prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm this association. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  19. Replication of prostate cancer risk loci in a Japanese case-control association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiroki; Penney, Kathryn L; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Katoh, Takahiko; Yamano, Yuko; Yamakado, Minoru; Kimura, Takahiro; Kuruma, Hidetoshi; Kamata, Yuko; Egawa, Shin; Freedman, Matthew L

    2009-10-07

    Two prostate cancer genome-wide scans in populations of European ancestry identified several genetic variants that are strongly associated with prostate cancer risk. The effect of these risk variants and their cumulative effect in other populations are unknown. We evaluated the association of 23 risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with prostate cancer risk and clinical covariates (Gleason score, tumor aggressiveness, and age at diagnosis) in men of Japanese ancestry (311 case subjects and 1035 control subjects) using unconditional logistic regression. We also used logistic regression to test the association between increasing numbers of independently associated risk alleles and the risk of prostate cancer, prostate cancer aggressiveness, and age at diagnosis. All statistical tests were two-sided. Seven of the 23 SNPs (five independent loci) were associated with prostate cancer risk (P values ranged from .0084 to 2.3 x 10(-8) and effect sizes [estimated as odds ratios, ORs] ranged from 1.35 to 1.82). None of the seven SNPs was associated with Gleason score or aggressive disease. rs6983561 and rs4430796 were associated with age at diagnosis (Ps = .0188 and .0339, respectively). Men with six or more risk alleles (27% of case patients and 11% of control subjects) had a higher risk of prostate cancer than men with two or fewer risk alleles (7% of case patients and 20% of control subjects) (OR = 6.22, P = 1.5 x 10(-12)). These results highlight the critical importance of considering ancestry in understanding how risk alleles influence disease and suggest that risk estimates and variants differ across populations. It is important to perform studies in multiple ancestral populations so that the composite genetic architecture of prostate cancer can be rigorously addressed.

  20. The role of qualitative risk assessment in environmental management: A Kazakhstani case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajenthira, Arani, E-mail: arani.kajenthira@gmail.com [Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School (United States); Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); Holmes, John, E-mail: johnho@earth.ox.ac.uk [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford (United Kingdom); McDonnell, Rachael, E-mail: rachael.mcdonnell@ouce.ox.ac.uk [School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-15

    Successful environmental management is partly contingent on the effective recognition and communication of environmental health risks to the public. Yet risk perceptions are known to differ between experts and laypeople; laypeople often exhibit higher perceptions of risk in comparison to experts, particularly when these risks are associated with radiation, nuclear power, or nuclear waste. This paper consequently explores stakeholder risk perceptions associated with a mercury-contaminated chloralkali production facility in Kazakhstan. Using field observations and in-depth interviews conducted in the vicinity of the Pavlodar Chemical Plant, this work assesses the relevance of the substantial on-site mercury contamination to the health and livelihoods of the local population with the goal of informing remediation activity through a combination of quantitative and qualitative risk assessments. The findings of this research study cannot be broadly generalized to all the primary stakeholders of the site due to the small sample size; however, the indifference of the local population towards both the possibility of mercury-related health risks and the need for mitigation activity could pose a substantial barrier to successful site remediation and also suggests that a qualitative understanding of stakeholder risk perceptions could play an important role in striving towards sustainable, long-term environmental risk management. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mercury spill in Kazakhstan created environmental and health risks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We evaluated the role of risk communication/perception in environmental management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Long-term risk mitigation was impeded by lack of engagement of site stakeholders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Prioritizing engagement of the local population is critical for remediation success.

  1. The role of qualitative risk assessment in environmental management: A Kazakhstani case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajenthira, Arani; Holmes, John; McDonnell, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Successful environmental management is partly contingent on the effective recognition and communication of environmental health risks to the public. Yet risk perceptions are known to differ between experts and laypeople; laypeople often exhibit higher perceptions of risk in comparison to experts, particularly when these risks are associated with radiation, nuclear power, or nuclear waste. This paper consequently explores stakeholder risk perceptions associated with a mercury-contaminated chloralkali production facility in Kazakhstan. Using field observations and in-depth interviews conducted in the vicinity of the Pavlodar Chemical Plant, this work assesses the relevance of the substantial on-site mercury contamination to the health and livelihoods of the local population with the goal of informing remediation activity through a combination of quantitative and qualitative risk assessments. The findings of this research study cannot be broadly generalized to all the primary stakeholders of the site due to the small sample size; however, the indifference of the local population towards both the possibility of mercury-related health risks and the need for mitigation activity could pose a substantial barrier to successful site remediation and also suggests that a qualitative understanding of stakeholder risk perceptions could play an important role in striving towards sustainable, long-term environmental risk management. - Highlights: ► A mercury spill in Kazakhstan created environmental and health risks. ► We evaluated the role of risk communication/perception in environmental management. ► Long-term risk mitigation was impeded by lack of engagement of site stakeholders. ► Prioritizing engagement of the local population is critical for remediation success.

  2. Weather as a risk factor for epileptic seizures: A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Florian; Walther, Mario; Schiffner, Rene; Rupprecht, Sven; Rasche, Marius; Kockler, Michael; Witte, Otto W; Schlattmann, Peter; Schwab, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Most epileptic seizures occur unexpectedly and independently of known risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of patients' perception that weather is a risk factor for epileptic seizures. Using a hospital-based, bidirectional case-crossover study, 604 adult patients admitted to a large university hospital in Central Germany for an unprovoked epileptic seizure between 2003 and 2010 were recruited. The effect of atmospheric pressure, relative air humidity, and ambient temperature on the onset of epileptic seizures under temperate climate conditions was estimated. We found a close-to-linear negative correlation between atmospheric pressure and seizure risk. For every 10.7 hPa lower atmospheric pressure, seizure risk increased in the entire study population by 14% (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.28). In patients with less severe epilepsy treated with one antiepileptic medication, seizure risk increased by 36% (1.36, 1.09-1.67). A high relative air humidity of >80% increased seizure risk in the entire study population by up to 48% (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11-1.96) 3 days after exposure in a J-shaped association. High ambient temperatures of >20°C decreased seizure risk by 46% in the overall study population (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.90) and in subgroups, with the greatest effects observed in male patients (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Low atmospheric pressure and high relative air humidity are associated with an increased risk for epileptic seizures, whereas high ambient temperatures seem to decrease seizure risk. Weather-dependent seizure risk may be accentuated in patients with less severe epilepsy. Our results require further replication across different climate regions and cohorts before reliable clinical recommendations can be made. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  3. Symptoms of anxiety or depression and risk of fracture in older people: the Hertfordshire Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Catharine R; Dennison, Elaine M; Edwards, Mark; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prospective association between symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of fracture in older people. Results showed that men, but not women, with probable anxiety at baseline had an increased risk of fracture. The use of psychotropic drugs has been linked with an increased risk of fracture in older people, but there are indications that the conditions for which these drugs were prescribed may themselves influence fracture risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of fracture in older people. The study design is a prospective cohort study. One thousand eighty-seven men and 1,050 women aged 59-73 years completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data on incident fracture during an average follow-up period of 5.6 years were collected through interview and a postal questionnaire. Compared to men with no or few symptoms of anxiety (score ≤7 on the HADS anxiety subscale), men with probable anxiety (score ≥11) had an increased risk of fracture: After adjustment for age and potential confounding factors, the odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval) was 4.03 (1.55, 10.5). There were no associations between levels of anxiety and fracture risk in women. Few men or women had probable depression at baseline (score ≥11 on the HADS depression subscale). Amongst men with possible depression (score 8-10), there was an increased risk of fracture that was of borderline significance: multivariate-adjusted OR 3.57 (0.99, 12.9). There was no association between possible depression and fracture risk in women. High levels of anxiety in older men may increase their risk of fracture. Future research needs to replicate this finding in other populations and investigate the underlying mechanisms.

  4. Infections as risk factor for autoimmune diseases - A nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Philip Rising; Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Deleuran, Bent Winding

    2016-01-01

    Viruses, bacteria and other infectious pathogens are the major postulated environmental triggers of autoimmunity. In the present nation-wide study we describe the association between infections and 29 autoimmune diseases. We used the Danish Civil Registration System to identify 4.5 million persons...... to the etiology of autoimmune diseases together with genetic factors....... born between 1945 and 2000. Information on infections and autoimmune diseases was obtained from the Danish Hospital Register. The cohort was followed from 1977 to 2012. Incidence rate ratios for developing an autoimmune disease were estimated using poisson regression. We found an association between...

  5. Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U. S. commercial nuclear power plants. Executive summary: main report. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-01

    Information is presented concerning the objectives and organization of the reactor safety study; the basic concepts of risk; the nature of nuclear power plant accidents; risk assessment methodology; reactor accident risk; and comparison of nuclear risks to other societal risks.

  6. Colon cancer risk and different HRT formulations: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thai Do

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies have found no increased risk of colon cancer associated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT, or even a decreased risk. But information about the effects of different HRT preparations is lacking. Methods A case-control study was performed within Germany in collaboration with regional cancer registries and tumor centers. Up to 5 controls were matched to each case of colon cancer. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Stratified analyses were performed to get an impression of the risk associated with different estrogens and progestins. Results A total of 354 cases of colon cancer were compared with 1422 matched controls. The adjusted overall risk estimate for colon cancer (ColC associated with ever-use of HRT was 0.97 (0.71 – 1.32. No clinically relevant trends for ColC risk were observed with increasing duration of HRT use, or increasing time since first or last HRT use in aggregate. Whereas the overall risk estimates were stable, the numbers in many of the sub-analyses of HRT preparation groups (estrogens and progestins were too small for conclusions. Nevertheless, if the ColC risk estimates are taken at face value, most seemed to be reduced compared with never-use of HRT, but did not vary much across HRT formulation subgroups. In particular, no substantial difference in ColC risk was observed between HRT-containing conjugated equine estrogens (CEE or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and other formulations more common in Europe. Conclusion Ever-use of HRT was not associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In contrary, most risk estimates pointed non-significantly toward a lower ColC risk in HRT ever user. They did not vary markedly among different HRT formulations (estrogens, progestins. However, the small numbers and the overlapping nature of the subgroups suggest cautious interpretation.

  7. Insurance, Public Assistance, and Household Flood Risk Reduction: A Comparative Study of Austria, England, and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, Susanne; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Surminski, Swenja; Nenciu-Posner, Cristina; Lorant, Anna; Ionescu, Radu; Patt, Anthony

    2018-04-01

    In light of increasing losses from floods, many researchers and policymakers are looking for ways to encourage flood risk reduction among communities, business, and households. In this study, we investigate risk-reduction behavior at the household level in three European Union Member States with fundamentally different insurance and compensation schemes. We try to understand if and how insurance and public assistance influence private risk-reduction behavior. Data were collected using a telephone survey (n = 1,849) of household decisionmakers in flood-prone areas. We show that insurance overall is positively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. Warranties, premium discounts, and information provision with respect to risk reduction may be an explanation for this positive relationship in the case of structural measures. Public incentives for risk-reduction measures by means of financial and in-kind support, and particularly through the provision of information, are also associated with enhancing risk reduction. In this study, public compensation is not negatively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. This does not disprove such a relationship, but the negative effect may be mitigated by factors related to respondents' capacity to implement measures or social norms that were not included in the analysis. The data suggest that large-scale flood protection infrastructure creates a sense of security that is associated with a lower level of preparedness. Across the board there is ample room to improve both public and private policies to provide effective incentives for household-level risk reduction. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. House of risk approach for assessing supply chain risk management strategies: A case study in Crumb Rubber Company Ltd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Immawan Taufiq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk is an uncertain and can have both negative and positive impacts. If the risks have a negative impact then a company will incur losses. CRUMB RUBBER COMPANY LTD is one of crumb rubber company in West Kalimantan. The length of the supply chain contained in CRUMB RUBBER COMPANY LTD and the high dependence on suppliers leads to vulnerability. So the purpose of this research is to identify the risk and determine the priority of source of risk along with the priority of handling it on CRUMB RUBBER COMPANY LTD supply chain with House of Risk approach. House of risk approach consists of two phases. Phase 1 is used to determine the dominant risk agent and phase 2 determines the effective action to deal with the dominant risk agent. From the research results, there are 19 risk events and 29 risk agents identified. The result of house of risk in phase 1 is known that 13 of 28 risk agents are dominant risk agent. Then the priority handling strategy in house of risk in phase 2, in this phase obtained 18 priority risk handling strategies.

  9. VTE Risk assessment - a prognostic Model: BATER Cohort Study of young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Lothar Aj; Dominh, Thai; Assmann, Anita; Schramm, Wolfgang; Schürmann, Rolf; Hilpert, Jan; Spannagl, Michael

    2005-04-18

    BACKGROUND: Community-based cohort studies are not available that evaluated the predictive power of both clinical and genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is, however, clinical need to forecast the likelihood of future occurrence of VTE, at least qualitatively, to support decisions about intensity of diagnostic or preventive measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10-year observation period of the Bavarian Thromboembolic Risk (BATER) study, a cohort study of 4337 women (18-55 years), was used to develop a predictive model of VTE based on clinical and genetic variables at baseline (1993). The objective was to prepare a probabilistic scheme that discriminates women with virtually no VTE risk from those at higher levels of absolute VTE risk in the foreseeable future. A multivariate analysis determined which variables at baseline were the best predictors of a future VTE event, provided a ranking according to the predictive power, and permitted to design a simple graphic scheme to assess the individual VTE risk using five predictor variables. RESULTS: Thirty-four new confirmed VTEs occurred during the observation period of over 32,000 women-years (WYs). A model was developed mainly based on clinical information (personal history of previous VTE and family history of VTE, age, BMI) and one composite genetic risk markers (combining Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutation). Four levels of increasing VTE risk were arbitrarily defined to map the prevalence in the study population: No/low risk of VTE (61.3%), moderate risk (21.1%), high risk (6.0%), very high risk of future VTE (0.9%). In 10.6% of the population the risk assessment was not possible due to lacking VTE cases. The average incidence rates for VTE in these four levels were: 4.1, 12.3, 47.2, and 170.5 per 104 WYs for no, moderate, high, and very high risk, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our prognostic tool - containing clinical information (and if available also genetic data) - seems to be

  10. VTE Risk assessment – a prognostic Model: BATER Cohort Study of young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schürmann Rolf

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based cohort studies are not available that evaluated the predictive power of both clinical and genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE. There is, however, clinical need to forecast the likelihood of future occurrence of VTE, at least qualitatively, to support decisions about intensity of diagnostic or preventive measures. Materials and methods A 10-year observation period of the Bavarian Thromboembolic Risk (BATER study, a cohort study of 4337 women (18–55 years, was used to develop a predictive model of VTE based on clinical and genetic variables at baseline (1993. The objective was to prepare a probabilistic scheme that discriminates women with virtually no VTE risk from those at higher levels of absolute VTE risk in the foreseeable future. A multivariate analysis determined which variables at baseline were the best predictors of a future VTE event, provided a ranking according to the predictive power, and permitted to design a simple graphic scheme to assess the individual VTE risk using five predictor variables. Results Thirty-four new confirmed VTEs occurred during the observation period of over 32,000 women-years (WYs. A model was developed mainly based on clinical information (personal history of previous VTE and family history of VTE, age, BMI and one composite genetic risk markers (combining Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutation. Four levels of increasing VTE risk were arbitrarily defined to map the prevalence in the study population: No/low risk of VTE (61.3%, moderate risk (21.1%, high risk (6.0%, very high risk of future VTE (0.9%. In 10.6% of the population the risk assessment was not possible due to lacking VTE cases. The average incidence rates for VTE in these four levels were: 4.1, 12.3, 47.2, and 170.5 per 104 WYs for no, moderate, high, and very high risk, respectively. Conclusion Our prognostic tool – containing clinical information (and if available also genetic data

  11. Systematic Review of Studies of Workplace Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and Lung Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhuo WANG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been reported that there was a close relationship between lung cancer risk and environmental tobacco smoke at workplace. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Methods By searching Medline, CENTRAL (the Cochrane central register of controlledtrials, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI and VIP et al, we collected both domestic and overseas published documents on workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure and lung cancer risk. Random or fixed effect models were applied to conduct systematic review on the study results, the combined odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated as well. Results 22 reports were included into the combined analysis, which indicated that 25% lung cancer risk was increased by exposing to workplace environment tobacco smoke (OR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.13-1.39, P < 0.001. For female the increased risk was 22% (OR=1.22, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42, P=0.011. For male the increased risk was 54%, but it does not reach the statistical significance (OR=1.54, 95%CI: 0.74-3.18, P=0.247. Conclusion Workplace environmental tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor of lung cancer risk among non-smoking subjects. Especially for non-smoking women who expose to workplace environment tobacco smoke have a close relationship with lung cancer.

  12. Race and fall risk: data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Q; Huang, Jin; Varadhan, Ravi; Agrawal, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    the objective of this study was to explore whether race-based difference in fall risk may be mediated by environmental and physical performance risk factors. using data from a nationally representative longitudinal survey of 7,609 community-dwelling participants in the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS), we evaluated whether racial differences in fall risk may be explained by physical performance level (measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery), mobility disability, physical activity level and likelihood of living alone. Multivariate Poisson regression and mediation models were used in analyses. in whites and blacks, the annual incidence of 'any fall' was 33.8 and 27.1%, respectively, and the annual incidence of 'recurrent falls' was 15.5 and 12.3%, respectively. Compared with whites, blacks had relative risks of 0.7 (95% confidence interval 0.6-0.8) and 0.6 (0.5-0.8) for sustaining any fall and recurrent falls, respectively, in adjusted analyses. Blacks had poorer performance on the SPPB (P risk factors collectively acted as suppressors and none of these factors accounted for the racial differences in fall risk observed. relative to whites, blacks were at 30 and 40% decreased risk of sustaining any fall and recurrent falls, respectively. This difference in risk remains unexplained. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Seroepidemiological Study of Brucellosis in High Risk Groups in Boyerahmad 1384

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AM Khosravani

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that may have a major public health and economic impact in most countries. The disease appears as a Malt fever in humans and abortion in animals. This study was designed to determine the serologic titer of Brucella in high risk and non high risk people in Boyerahmad. Materials & Methods: A retrospective seroepidemiological study was performed on samples collected from 604 high risk and non high risk people using Rose Bengol test, tube standard test as a rapid test and 2 mercaptoethanol (2ME and comb's wright as a confirmatory test. The data collected were analyzed by X2 test via SPSS. Results: Seroprevalence of Brucellosis in high risk people appeared to be high in the Rose Bengal and tube standard test (TST 6.62 at titer ≥1/40 whereas for non high risk it was 0%. Confirmation test in high risk people was shown with 2ME in four people. Conclusion: Brucellosis is a major cause of disease in high risk people which can be due to direct or indirect contact with diary products of the related animals.

  14. Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Abhijit; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Allen, Naomi E.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Appleby, Paul N.; Almquist, Martin; Schmidt, Julie A.; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha L.; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kühn, Tilman; Katze, Verena A.; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tsironis, Christos; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Peeters, Petra H.; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J. Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Arriola, Larraitz; Gavrila, Diana; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results from several cohort and case-control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. Methods: The association between

  15. A cross-sectional study on obesity and related risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    communiable diseases (NCDs). The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of obesity and identify its risk factors among women of the central market of Lusonga in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods: in October 2014, ...

  16. A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case control study of breast cancer risk and exposure to injectable progestogen contraceptives. R. Bailie, J Katzenellenbogen, M. Hoffman, G Schierhout, H Truter, D Dent, A Gudgeon, J van Zyl, L Rosenberg, S Shapiro ...

  17. German Phase B [risk study] highlights the role of [reactor] accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Phase B of the German probabilistic risk assessment study, now scheduled for publication this month, suggests that reactor accident management measures can prevent or mitigate about 90 per cent of event sequences. (author)

  18. NIH study finds that coffee drinkers have lower risk of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older adults who drank coffee -- caffeinated or decaffeinated -- had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health,

  19. Low Vertical Clearance Truss Bridges : Risk Assessment and Retrofit Mitigation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-10

    The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) has over 60 steel truss bridges in its inventory with vertical clearances less than the minimum 16-6 required for new bridges. This study evaluates the risks of oversized vehicle impacts...

  20. Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Meng, Qingyang; Xi, Qiulei; Zhuang, Qiulin; Han, Yusong; Gao, Ying; Ding, Qiurong; Wu, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Consumption of dietary fat has been reported to be associated with gastric cancer risk, but the results of epidemiologic studies remain inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence regarding the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify observational studies providing quantitative estimates between dietary fat and gastric cancer risk. Random effects model was used to calculate the summary relative risk(SRR) in the highest versus lowest analysis. Categorical dose-response analysis was conducted to quantify the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using I2 and tau2(between study variance)statistics. Subgroup analysis and publication bias analysis were also performed. Results Twenty-two articles were included in the meta-analysis. The SRR for gastric cancer was 1.18 for individuals with highest intake versus lowest intake of total fat (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.999–1.39; n = 28; Pgastric cancer risk were observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that intake of total fat is potentially positively associated with gastric cancer risk, and specific subtypes of fats account for different effects. However, these findings should be confirmed by further well-designed cohort studieswith detailed dietary assessments and strict control of confounders. PMID:26402223

  1. Allergic conditions and risk of hematological malignancies in adults: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartzbaum Judith

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two contradictory hypotheses have been proposed to explain the relationship between allergic conditions and malignancies, the immune surveillance hypothesis and the antigenic stimulation hypothesis. The former advocates that allergic conditions may be protective against development of cancer, whereas the latter proposes an increased risk. This relationship has been studied in several case-control studies, but only in a few cohort studies. Methods The association between allergic conditions and risk of developing leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloma was investigated in a cohort of 16,539 Swedish twins born 1886–1925. Prospectively collected, self-reported information about allergic conditions such as asthma, hay fever or eczema was obtained through questionnaires administered in 1967. The cohort was followed 1969–99 and cancer incidence was ascertained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Results Hives and asthma tended to increase the risk of leukemia (relative risk [RR] = 2.1, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0–4.5 and RR = 1.6, 95% CI 0.8–3.5, respectively. There was also an indication of an increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with eczema during childhood (RR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.0–5.3. Conclusion In contrast to most previous studies, our results do not indicate a protective effect of allergic conditions on the risk of developing hematological malignancies. Rather, they suggest that allergic conditions might increase the risk of some hematological malignancies.

  2. The Alaska Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study: cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Anne P; Redwood, Diana G; Kelly, Janet J

    2012-04-01

    The Alaska Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study assessed cancer risk among 3,821 Alaska Native people (AN). We present the prevalence of selected cancer risk factors and comparison with Healthy People 2010 goals. Participants completed extensive computer-assisted self-administered questionnaires on diet, physical activity, tobacco and alcohol use, cancer screening, family history of cancer, and environmental exposures. Measurement data were collected on blood pressure, height, weight, waist/hip circumference, fasting serum lipids, and glucose. Cancer risk factors are high for the Alaska EARTH study population. For all risk factors studied except for vegetable consumption, Alaska EARTH Study participants did not meet Healthy People 2010 goals. This study is unique in providing questionnaire and measurement data of cancer risk factors on a larger study sample than any previous study among AN living in Alaska. Data show that the prevalence of most cancer risk factors exceeded national recommendations. Given the disease disparities that exist for the AN population, these data provide important baseline data that can be used to target health interventions and reduce health disparities.

  3. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaki, M.; Nyberg, S. T.; Batty, G. D.; Kawachi, I.; Jokela, M.; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J. B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Dragano, N.; Fransson, E. I.; Heikkila, K.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Kumari, M.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (≥55 per week) and those working standard 35–40 h/week. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Work...

  4. Opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudlou, Siavash; Cnattingius, Sven; Montgomery, Scott; Aarabi, Mohsen; Semnani, Shahriar; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Bahmanyar, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Use of narcotic or "recreational" drugs has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, the associations might be confounded by other factors related to high-risk behaviours. This is the first study to investigate the association between traditional opium use during pregnancy and risk of preterm delivery. We performed a population-based cohort study in the rural areas of the Golestan province, Iran between 2008 and 2010. We randomly selected 920 women who used (usually smoked) opium during pregnancy and 920 women who did not. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between the opium use during pregnancy and preterm delivery and adjustment was made for potential confounding factors. This study shows compared with non-use of opium and tobacco, use of only opium during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.05-2.32), and the risk was more than two-fold increased among dual users of opium and tobacco (OR = 2.31; 95% CI 1.37-3.90). We observed that opium use only was associated with a doubled risk for preterm caesarean delivery (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.82) but not for preterm vaginal delivery (OR = 1.25; 95% CI 0.75-2.07). Dual use of opium and tobacco was associated with a substantially increased risk of vaginal preterm delivery (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.41-4.71). Opium use during pregnancy among non-tobacco smokers is associated with an increased risk of preterm caesarean delivery, indicating an increased risk of a compromised foetus before or during labour. Women who use both opium and smoked during pregnancy have an increased risk of preterm vaginal delivery, indicating an increased risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  5. Work and Risk: Perceptions of Nuclear-Power Personnel. a Study in Grounded Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Claire Dewitt

    1992-01-01

    The utility industry has devoted time and money to assure personnel within nuclear power plants are informed about occupational risks. Radiation-protection training programs are designed to present information to employees about occupational radiation and protective procedures. Work -related concerns are known to create stress, affect the morale of the workforce, influence collective bargaining, and increase compensation claims. This study was designed to determine perceptions of risk among employees of nuclear power plants and identify variables that influence these perceptions. Four power plants were included in the study, one in Canada and three in the United States. Data were generated through participant observations and interviews of 350 participants during a period of 3 weeks at each plant. Data were gathered and analyzed following procedures advanced by Grounded Theory, a naturalistic methodology used in this study. Training content, information, and communication materials were additional sources of data. Findings indicated employees believed health and safety risks existed within the work environment. Perceptions of risk were influenced by training quality, the work environment, nuclear myths and images of the general public, and fears of family members. Among the three groups of workers, administration personnel, security personnel, and radiation workers, the latter identified a larger number of risks. Workers perceived radiation risks, shift work, and steam pipe ruptures as high-level concerns. Experiencing stress, making mistakes, and fear of sabotage were concerns shared among all employee groups at various levels of concern. Strategies developed by employees were used to control risk. Strategies included teamwork, humor, monitoring, avoidance, reframing, and activism. When risks were perceived as uncontrollable, the employee left the plant. A coping strategy of transferring concerns about radiological risks to nonradiological risks were uncovered in

  6. Risk Factors Profile of Shoulder Dystocia in Oman: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maha M. Al-Khaduri; Rania Mohammed Abudraz; Sayed G. Rizvi; Yahya M. Al-Farsi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factor profile of shoulder dystocia and associated neonatal complications in Oman, a developing Arab country. Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted among 111 cases with dystocia and 111 controls, identified during 1994-2006 period in a tertiary care hospital in Oman. Controls were randomly selected among women who did not have dystocia, and were matched to cases on the day of delivery. Data related to potential risk factor...

  7. Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of acute myocardial infarction: the HUNT 2 study

    OpenAIRE

    Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2013-01-01

    Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status...

  8. Symptoms of anxiety and depression and risk of heart failure: The HUNT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gustad, Lise Tuset; Laugsand, Lars Erik; Janszky, Imre; Dalen, Håvard; Bjerkeset, Ottar

    2014-01-01

    Aims The nature of the association of depression and anxiety with risk for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains unclear. We aimed to study the prospective association of single and recurrent self-reported symptoms of anxiety and depression with a risk of AMI in a large Norwegian population based cohort. Methods and results In the second wave of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2, 1995–97) baseline data on anxiety and depression symptoms, sociodemographic variables, health status...

  9. An approach for integrating toxicogenomic data in risk assessment: The dibutyl phthalate case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Euling, Susan Y., E-mail: euling.susan@epa.gov [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Chad M. [ToxStrategies, Inc., 23501 Cinco Ranch Blvd., Suite G265, Katy, TX 77494 (United States); Chiu, Weihsueh A. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Benson, Robert [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8, Mail code 8P-W, 1595 Wynkoop Street, Denver, CO 80202 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    An approach for evaluating and integrating genomic data in chemical risk assessment was developed based on the lessons learned from performing a case study for the chemical dibutyl phthalate. A case study prototype approach was first developed in accordance with EPA guidance and recommendations of the scientific community. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was selected for the case study exercise. The scoping phase of the dibutyl phthalate case study was conducted by considering the available DBP genomic data, taken together with the entire data set, for whether they could inform various risk assessment aspects, such as toxicodynamics, toxicokinetics, and dose–response. A description of weighing the available dibutyl phthalate data set for utility in risk assessment provides an example for considering genomic data for future chemical assessments. As a result of conducting the scoping process, two questions—Do the DBP toxicogenomic data inform 1) the mechanisms or modes of action?, and 2) the interspecies differences in toxicodynamics?—were selected to focus the case study exercise. Principles of the general approach include considering the genomics data in conjunction with all other data to determine their ability to inform the various qualitative and/or quantitative aspects of risk assessment, and evaluating the relationship between the available genomic and toxicity outcome data with respect to study comparability and phenotypic anchoring. Based on experience from the DBP case study, recommendations and a general approach for integrating genomic data in chemical assessment were developed to advance the broader effort to utilize 21st century data in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Performed DBP case study for integrating genomic data in risk assessment • Present approach for considering genomic data in chemical risk assessment • Present recommendations for use of genomic data in chemical risk assessment.

  10. Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and Decem...

  11. Genetic liability, prenatal health, stress and family environment: risk factors in the Harvard Adolescent Family High Risk for schizophrenia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, Deborah J; Faraone, Stephen V; Glatt, Stephen J; Tsuang, Ming T; Seidman, Larry J

    2014-08-01

    The familial ("genetic") high-risk (FHR) paradigm enables assessment of individuals at risk for schizophrenia based on a positive family history of schizophrenia in first-degree, biological relatives. This strategy presumes genetic transmission of abnormal traits given high heritability of the illness. It is plausible, however, that adverse environmental factors are also transmitted in these families. Few studies have evaluated both biological and environmental factors within a FHR study of adolescents. We conceptualize four precursors to psychosis pathogenesis: two biological (genetic predisposition, prenatal health issues (PHIs)) and two environmental (family environment, stressful life events (SLEs)). Participants assessed between 1998 and 2007 (ages 13-25) included 40 (20F/20M) adolescents at FHR for schizophrenia (FHRs) and 55 (31F/24M) community controls. 'Genetic load' indexed number of affected family members relative to pedigree size. PHI was significantly greater among FHRs, and family cohesion and expressiveness were less (and family conflict was higher) among FHRs; however, groups did not significantly differ in SLE indices. Among FHRs, genetic liability was significantly associated with PHI and family expressiveness. Prenatal and family environmental disruptions are elevated in families with a first-degree relative with schizophrenia. Findings support our proposed 'polygenic neurodevelopmental diathesis-stress model' whereby psychosis susceptibility (and resilience) involves the independent and synergistic confluence of (temporally-sensitive) biological and environmental factors across development. Recognition of biological and social environmental influences across critical developmental periods points to key issues relevant for enhanced identification of psychosis susceptibility, facilitation of more precise models of illness risk, and development of novel prevention strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands : cohort study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normén, A.L.; Brants, H.A.M.; Voorrips, L.E.; Andersson, H.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2001-01-01

    Background: Plant sterols in vegetable foods might prevent colorectal cancer. Objective: The objective was to study plant sterol intakes in relation to colorectal cancer risk in an epidemiologic study. Design: The study was performed within the framework of the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and

  13. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Costa de Macêdo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02, lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4, catholic religion (OR = 1.70 , four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2, three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1, use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0, and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7. Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5 and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7 were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability.

  14. Risk factors for syphilis in women: case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Vilma Costa; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; de Frias, Paulo Germano; Romaguera, Luciana Maria Delgado; Caires, Silvana de Fátima Ferreira; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors related to the occurrence of syphilis in women treated at public maternity hospitals. METHODS This is a case-control study (239 cases and 322 controls) with women admitted to seven maternity hospitals in the municipality of Recife, Brazil, from July 2013 to July 2014. Eligible women were recruited after the result of the VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) under any titration. The selection of cases and controls was based on the result of the serology for syphilis using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The independent variables were grouped into: sociodemographic, behavioral, clinical and obstetric history, and health care in prenatal care and maternity hospital. Information was obtained by interview, during hospitalization, with the application of a questionnaire. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using logistic regression to identify the predicting factors of the variable to be explained. RESULTS The logistic regression analysis identified as determinant factors for gestational syphilis: education level of incomplete basic education or illiterate (OR = 2.02), lack of access to telephone (OR = 2.4), catholic religion (OR = 1.70 ), four or more pregnancies (OR = 2.2), three or more sexual partners in the last year (OR = 3.1), use of illicit drugs before the age of 18 (OR = 3.0), and use of illicit drugs by the current partner (OR = 1.7). Only one to three prenatal appointments (OR = 3.5) and a previous history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 9.7) were also identified as determinant factors. CONCLUSIONS Sociodemographic, behavioral, and health care factors are associated with the occurrence of syphilis in women and should be taken into account in the elaboration of universal strategies aimed at the prevention and control of syphilis, but with a focus on situations of greater vulnerability. PMID:28832758

  15. Heterogeneity in risk of prostate cancer: A Swedish population-based cohort study of competing risks and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggström, Christel; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Garmo, Hans; Robinson, David; Stattin, Pär; Rowley, Mark; Coolen, Anthony C C; Holmberg, Lars

    2018-05-09

    Most previous studies of prostate cancer have not taken into account that men in the studied populations are also at risk of competing event, and that these men may have different susceptibility to prostate cancer risk. The aim of this study was to investigate heterogeneity in risk of prostate cancer, using a recently developed latent class regression method for competing risks. We further aimed to elucidate the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prostate cancer risk, and to compare the results with conventional methods for survival analysis. We analysed the risk of prostate cancer in 126,482 men from the comparison cohort of the Prostate Cancer Data base Sweden (PCBaSe) 3.0. During a mean follow-up of 6 years 6,036 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer and 22,393 men died. We detected heterogeneity in risk of prostate cancer with two distinct latent classes in the study population. The smaller class included 9% of the study population in which men had a higher risk of prostate cancer and the risk was stronger associated with class membership than any of the covariates included in the study. Moreover, we found no association between T2DM and risk of prostate cancer after removal of the effect of informative censoring due to competing risks. The recently developed latent class for competing risks method could be used to provide new insights in precision medicine with the target to classify individuals regarding different susceptibility to a particular disease, reaction to a risk factor or response to treatment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  16. Depression and risk of fracture and bone loss: an updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Liu, B; Tonmoy, S

    2018-03-12

    This meta-analysis pooled results from 23 qualifying individual cohort studies and found that depression was significantly associated with an increased risk of fractures and bone loss. The association between depression and risk of fracture remains controversial. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to examine the effect of depression on the risk of osteoporotic fractures and bone loss. We searched databases and reviewed citations in relevant articles for eligible cohort studies. Two investigators independently conducted study selection, appraisal, and data abstraction through the use of a standardized protocol. Random effect models were used for meta-analysis. Cochrane Q and I 2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. Funnel plots and rank correlation tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Twenty-three studies were included for meta-analysis. In studies that reported hazard ratio (HR) as the outcome (nine studies [n = 309,862]), depression was associated with 26% increase in fracture risk (HR = 1.26, 95% CI, 1.10-1.43, p meta-analysis having modified inclusion criteria and in different subgroup analyses as well. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the meta-analysis; however, no significant publication bias was detected. Depression is associated with a significant increased risk in fracture and bone loss. Effective prevention may decrease such risk.

  17. Risk reduction strategies in laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Manohar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: As the advancements, modifications and standardization of laparoscopy are taking place, there is a need for the reduction in morbidity associated with laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy. This study was performed to determine and reconfirm the advantages of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy over its open counterpart. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred open live donor nephrectomy (ODN cases were compared to 264 cases of laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN. Pretransplant functional and radiological evaluation was done routinely by excretory urogram and renal arteriography. In case of vascular variations, CT angiography was preferred. Open cases were done by conventional method and laparoscopic group underwent certain technical and surgical modifications, including meticulous planning for the port placement. Operative time, analgesia requirement, start of the orals, hospital stay, blood loss, late allograft function, incidence of rejection, complications and technical problems were analyzed. RESULTS: Operative time was 135.8 ± 43 and 165 ± 44.4 min ( P < 0.0001, requirement of analgesia was 60.5 ± 40 and 320 ± 120 mg ( P < 0.0001, hospital stay was 4 ± 0.04 and 5.7 ± 2.03 days ( P < 0.0001, warm ischemia time was 6.1 ± 2.0 and 4.1 ± 0.80 min ( P < 0.0001 and time taken for the serum creatinine to stabilize in the recipient was 4.1 ± 1.6 and 4.32 ± 1.40 days ( P =0.06 for LDN and ODN groups respectively. There was a significant reduction in the blood loss in LDN group ( P =0.0005. Overall complications were 6.81 and 14.5% and ureteric injury was seen in 0.37 and 1% in LDN and ODN respectively. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy can now be performed with low morbidity and mortality to both donors and recipients and is proving to be the preferred operation to open donor nephrectomy. Our continued innovations in technical modifications have made this novel operation successful.

  18. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...... the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from...

  19. Acute Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Nationwide Matched-cohort Study in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegård, Jakob; Cronin Fenton, Deirdre; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe

    2018-01-01

    . Pancreatic cancer risk was expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs, calculated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Cox models were stratified by age, sex, and year of pancreatitis diagnosis and adjusted for alcohol- and smoking-related conditions, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Results We...... included 41,669 patients diagnosed with incident acute pancreatitis and 208,340 comparison individuals. Patients with acute pancreatitis had an increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared with the age- and sex-matched general population throughout the follow-up period. The risk decreased over time......Background & Aims Acute pancreatitis may be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. However, findings from studies on this association are conflicting. We investigated the association between acute pancreatitis and increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods We conducted a nationwide, population...

  20. Diabetes risk assessment among squatter settlements in Pakistan: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiesha Ishaque

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM has evolved as a major public health concern worldwide, as its prevalence is increasing exponentially. Pakistan now ranks seventh among the countries with the highest burden of DM. It is expected to become one of the major causes of morbidity within the next 25 years. Therefore, finding an effective way to identify individuals at risk of developing diabetes is a necessity. The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC has proved to be an effective noninvasive screening tool for identifying individuals at risk for developing diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of individuals who are at risk for developing DM and their risk of developing DM over the next 10 years using the FINDRISC tool.

  1. A qualitative descriptive study of risk reduction for coronary disease among the Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Choi Wan; Lopez, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Achieving optimal control and reduction in coronary heart disease (CHD) risks in Hong Kong (HK) remains significant and requires exploring. This article addresses the ability to reduce CHD risks among the HK Chinese. Through secondary analysis, a qualitative descriptive design using focus group interviews and content analysis were adopted. Older and younger adults were invited for the study. An interview schedule was used to guide discussions during focus group interviews. Four categories emerged from the data: planning of health actions, control of risk-reducing behavior, perceived opportunities for understanding CHD, and chest pain appraisal. Local culture and population needs play a central role in disease perception and prevention. The findings are essential to target strategies for initiating health acts for younger adults and establish public education resources that underscore understanding of CHD risk, symptom recognition, and disease management, particularly among those middle-aged and older people at high risk and with the diseased populations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism and breast cancer risk: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Mette; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Ehrenstein, Vera; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Dekkers, Olaf M; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-04-01

    The association between thyroid disease and breast cancer risk remains unclear. We, therefore examined the association between hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and breast cancer risk. This was a population-based cohort study. Using nationwide registries, we identified all women in Denmark with a first-time hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, 1978-2013. We estimated the excess risk of breast cancer among patients with hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism compared with the expected risk in the general population, using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) as a measure of risk ratio. Breast cancer diagnoses in the first 12 months following diagnosis of thyroid disease were excluded from the calculations to avoid diagnostic work-up bias. We included 61, 873 women diagnosed with hypothyroidism and 80, 343 women diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Median follow-up time was 4.9 years (interquartile range (IQR): 1.8-9.5 years) for hypothyroidism and 7.4 years (IQR: 3.1-13.5 years) for hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism was associated with a slightly increased breast cancer risk compared with the general population (SIR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.07-1.16), which persisted beyond 5 years of follow-up (SIR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.19). In comparison, hypothyroidism was associated with a slightly lower risk of breast cancer (SIR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.88-1.00). Stratification by cancer stage at diagnosis, estrogen receptor status, age, comorbidity, history of alcohol-related disease and clinical diagnoses of obesity produced little change in cancer risk. We found an increased risk of breast cancer in women with hyperthyroidism and a slightly decreased risk in women with hypothyroidism indicating an association between thyroid function level and breast cancer risk. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  3. Health Risk Assessment of Harmful Chemicals: Case Study in a Petrochemical Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Motovagheh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims In the most chemical process industries, workers are exposed to various chemicals and working with these chemicals without considering safety and health considerations can lead to different harmful symptoms. For deciding about control measures and reducing risk to acceptable level , it is necessary to assess the health risk of exposing to harmful chemicals by aid of specific risk assessment techniques in the process industries. The purpose of this study was to assess the health risks arising from the exposures to chemicals in a petrochemical industry.  methods A simple and applied method was used for health risk assessment of chemicals in a petrochemical industry. Firstly job tasks and work process were determined and then different chemicals in each tasks identified and risk ranking was calculated in each job task by aid of hazard and exposure rate.   Results The result showed that workers are exposed to 10 chemicals including Methyl ethyl ketone, Epichlorohydrin, Sulfuric acid, Phenol, Chlorobenzene, Toluene, Isopropanol, Methylene chloride, Chlorideric Acid and Acetone during their work in plant. From these chemicals, the highest risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in the jobs of tank and utility operations and maintenance workers. The next high risk level was for Epichlorohydrin in technical inspecting and Methyl ethyl ketone in Tank and utility operations operator.     Conclusion Hazard information and monitoring data of chemical agents in the chemical industries can be used for assessing health risks from exposures to chemicals and ranking jobs by their risk level. These data can be used for resource allocation for control measures and reducing risk level to acceptable level.    

  4. Lifetime risk of developing coronary heart disease in Aboriginal Australians: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Hoy, Wendy E

    2013-01-30

    Lifetime risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) is an important yardstick by which policy makers, clinicians and the general public can assess and promote the awareness and prevention of CHD. The lifetime risk in Aboriginal people is not known. Using a cohort with up to 20 years of follow-up, we estimated the lifetime risk of CHD in Aboriginal people. A cohort study. A remote Aboriginal region. 1115 Aboriginal people from one remote tribal group who were free from CHD at baseline were followed for up to 20 years. During the follow-up period, new CHD incident cases were identified through hospital and death records. We estimated the lifetime risks of CHD with and without adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes. Participants were followed up for 17 126 person-years, during which 185 developed CHD and 144 died from non-CHD causes. The average age at which the first CHD event occurred was 48 years for men and 49 years for women. The risk of developing CHD increased with age until 60 years and then decreased with age. Lifetime cumulative risk without adjusting for competing risk was 70.7% for men and 63.8% for women. Adjusting for the presence of competing risk of death from non-CHD causes, the lifetime risk of CHD was 52.6% for men and 49.2% for women. Lifetime risk of CHD is as high as one in two in both Aboriginal men and women. The average age of having first CHD events was under 50 years, much younger than that reported in non-Aboriginal populations. Our data provide useful knowledge for health education, screening and prevention of CHD in Aboriginal people.

  5. A Study of the Perception of Health Risks among College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenggang; Fan, Jingbo

    2013-01-01

    The present survey was designed to investigate the perception of health risks among college students in China. The data are the responses of a sample of 3,069 college students at one university to surveys that include measures of several dimensions of public judgments about fifteen specific hazards. Chinese college students conveyed their concerns as falling into three broad categories: Environmental (e.g., global warming, natural catastrophes, the ozone hole, air pollution, chemical pollution, pesticides in food), Technological (e.g., nuclear power stations, thermal power, genetically modified food, medical X-rays), and Social (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, overtime study or work, mental stress, motor vehicle accidents). The data were collected with a self-report questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the levels of perceived risk according to the percent of “high risk” responses as well as the mean response values. Generally, the hazards that were perceived as posing the greatest health risk were those belonging to the social health risks; items related to technology risks received the lowest percentage of “high health risk” rankings. Traditional environmental risks such as natural catastrophes, pollution issues (chemical pollution, air pollution), and pesticides in food were ranked as being relatively high risks. The respondents were less concerned about new emerging issues and long-term environmental risks (global warming). In this survey, motor vehicle accidents were considered to be a “high health risk” by the greatest percentage of respondents. Generally speaking, the female respondents’ degree of recognition of health risks is higher than that of male respondents. Only for the item of smoking was the male respondents’ degree higher than that of females. There is also a geographic imbalance in the health risk perceptions. The degree of recognition of health risks from respondents in municipalities is generally

  6. Risk management perspective for climate service development - Results from a study on Finnish organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjanne, Atte; Haavisto, Riina; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Gregow, Hilppa

    2017-10-01

    Weather, climate and climate change can cause significant risks to businesses and public administration. However, understanding these processes can also create opportunities. Information can help to manage these risks and opportunities, but in order to do so, it must be in line with how risk management and decision making works. To better understand how climate risks and opportunities are reflected in different organizational processes and what types of information is needed and used, we conducted a study on the perceptions and management of weather and climate risks in Finnish organizations and on their use of weather and climate information. In addition, we collected feedback on how the existing climate information tools should be developed. Data on climate risk management was collected in an online survey and in one full-day workshop. The survey was aimed to the Finnish public and private organizations who use weather and climate data and altogether 118 responses were collected. The workshop consisted of two parts: weather and climate risk management processes in general and the development of the current information tools to further address user needs.We found that climate risk management in organizations is quite diverse and often de-centralized and that external experts are considered the most useful sources of information. Consequently, users emphasize the need for networks of expertise and sector-specific information tools. Creating such services requires input and information sharing from the user side as well. Better temporal and spatial accuracy is naturally asked for, but users also stressed the need for transparency when it comes to communicating uncertainties, and the availability and up-to-datedness of information. Our results illustrate that weather and climate risks compete and blend in with other risks and changes perceived by the organizations and supporting information is sought from different types of sources. Thus the design and evaluation of

  7. Supply chain risk management processes for resilience: A study of South African grocery manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Simba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The supply chain risk management (SCRM process is aimed at the implementation of strategies that assist in managing both daily and exceptional risks facing the supply chain through continuous risk assessment to reduce vulnerability and ensure continuity. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether the SCRM process enables supply chain resilience among grocery manufacturers in South Africa. The fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG-manufacturing industry faces increased risk because of the nature of their products being perishable with a limited shelf life. Method: This study was conducted using a descriptive qualitative research design. Data were collected by means of 12 semi-structured interviews with senior supply chain practitioners within the South African grocery manufacturing industry. Findings: The study found that most firms informally implement SCRM processes of risk identification, assessment, mitigation and monitoring to mitigate disruptions. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the SCRM processes facilitate resilience among grocery manufacturers in South Africa. Conclusion: The managerial implications show that supply chain managers of grocery manufacturers should formalise the SCRM process and develop risk assessment scales to better prioritise risks in order to run a resilient supply chain. The research contributes to the supply chain management field by adding to the scarce literature relating to SCRM as an enabler of supply chain resilience in a South African context.

  8. Subsite-Specific Dietary Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer: A Review of Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Hjartåker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A shift in the total incidence from left- to right-sided colon cancer has been reported and raises the question as to whether lifestyle risk factors are responsible for the changing subsite distribution of colon cancer. The present study provides a review of the subsite-specific risk estimates for the dietary components presently regarded as convincing or probable risk factors for colorectal cancer: red meat, processed meat, fiber, garlic, milk, calcium, and alcohol. Methods. Studies were identified by searching PubMed through October 8, 2012 and by reviewing reference lists. Thirty-two prospective cohort studies are included, and the estimates are compared by sex for each risk factor. Results. For alcohol, there seems to be a stronger association with rectal cancer than with colon cancer, and for meat a somewhat stronger association with distal colon and rectal cancer, relative to proximal colon cancer. For fiber, milk, and calcium, there were only minor differences in relative risk across subsites. No statement could be given regarding garlic. Overall, many of the subsite-specific risk estimates were nonsignificant, irrespective of exposure. Conclusion. For some dietary components the associations with risk of cancer of the rectum and distal colon appear stronger than for proximal colon, but not for all.

  9. Cohort study of risk factors for breast cancer in post menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Arthur J; He, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The present study assessed more than 800 potential risk factors to identify new predictors of breast cancer and compare the independence and relative importance of established risk factors. Data were collected by the Women's Health Initiative and included 147,202 women ages 50 to 79 who were enrolled from 1993 to 1998 and followed for 8 years. Analyses performed in 2011 and 2012 used the Cox proportional hazard regression to test the association between more than 800 baseline risk factors and incident breast cancer. Baseline factors independently associated with subsequent breast cancer at the prelative with prostate cancer, colon polyps, smoking, no breast augmentation, and no osteoporosis. Risk factors previously reported that were not independently associated with breast cancer in the present study included socioeconomic status, months of breast feeding, age at first birth, adiposity measures, adult weight gain, timing of initiation of hormone therapy, and several dietary, psychological, and exercise variables. Family history was not found to alter the risk associated with other factors. These results suggest that some risk factors not commonly studied may be important for breast cancer and some frequently cited risk factors may be relatively unimportant or secondary.

  10. Parental Divorce, Familial Risk for Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: A Three-Generation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousoura, Eleni; Verdeli, Helen; Warner, Virginia; Wickramaratne, Priya; Baily, Charles David Richard

    2012-10-01

    Research suggests a link between parental divorce and negative child outcomes; however, the presence of parental depression may confound this relationship. Studies exploring the simultaneous effects of depression and parents' divorce on the adjustment of their children are scarce and rarely have a longitudinal design. This is the first three-generation study of the relative effects of depression and divorce on offspring psychopathology, based on data from a 25-year longitudinal study with families at high and low risk for depression. One hundred seventy-eight grandchildren (mean age = 13.9 years) of depressed and nondepressed parents and grandparents were evaluated by raters blind to their parents' and grandparents' clinical status. We found that in both low and high-risk children, divorce had a limited impact on child adjustment over and above familial risk for depression. Divorce had a significant effect on child outcomes only among high-risk grandchildren with a depressed grandparent and non-depressed parents, with this group showing a threefold risk for anxiety disorders. Results support previous findings suggesting that familial risk for depression largely overshadows the effect of parental divorce on child psychopathology. Possible reasons for the lack of association between divorce and child psychopathology among low-risk offspring are discussed.

  11. A case-control study of risk of leukaemia in relation to mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R; Laing, S; Swerdlow, A J

    2010-11-23

    Mobile phone use is now ubiquitous, and scientific reviews have recommended research into its relation to leukaemia risk, but no large studies have been conducted. In a case-control study in South East England to investigate the relation of acute and non-lymphocytic leukaemia risk to mobile phone use, 806 cases with leukaemia incident 2003-2009 at ages 18-59 years (50% of those identified as eligible) and 585 non-blood relatives as controls (provided by 392 cases) were interviewed about mobile phone use and other potentially aetiological variables. No association was found between regular mobile phone use and risk of leukaemia (odds ratio (OR)=1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.76, 1.46). Analyses of risk in relation to years since first use, lifetime years of use, cumulative number of calls and cumulative hours of use produced no significantly raised risks, and there was no evidence of any trends. A non-significantly raised risk was found in people who first used a phone 15 or more years ago (OR=1.87, 95% CI=0.96, 3.63). Separate analyses of analogue and digital phone use and leukaemia subtype produced similar results to those overall. This study suggests that use of mobile phones does not increase leukaemia risk, although the possibility of an effect after long-term use, while biologically unlikely, remains open.