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Sample records for risk structural equation

  1. A Structural Equation Model of Risk Perception of Rockfall for Revisit Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Fen Lee; Yun-Yao Chi

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the relationship between risk perception of rockfall and revisit intention using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. A total of 573 valid questionnaires are collected from travelers to Taroko National Park, Taiwan. The findings show the majority of travelers have the medium perception of rockfall risk, and are willing to revisit the Taroko National Park. The revisit intention to Taroko National Park is influenced by hazardous preferences, willingness-to-pa...

  2. Structural equation models to estimate risk of infection and tolerance to bovine mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Detilleux, Johann; Theron, Léonard; Duprez, Jean-Noël; Reding, Edouard; Humblet, Marie-France; Planchon, Viviane; Delfosse, Camille; Bertozzi, Carlo; Mainil, Jacques; Hanzen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background One method to improve durably animal welfare is to select, as reproducers, animals with the highest ability to resist or tolerate infection. To do so, it is necessary to distinguish direct and indirect mechanisms of resistance and tolerance because selection on these traits is believed to have different epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. Methods We propose structural equation models with latent variables (1) to quantify the latent risk of infection and to identify, amon...

  3. Structural equation models to estimate risk of infection and tolerance to bovine mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detilleux, Johann; Theron, Léonard; Duprez, Jean-Noël; Reding, Edouard; Humblet, Marie-France; Planchon, Viviane; Delfosse, Camille; Bertozzi, Carlo; Mainil, Jacques; Hanzen, Christian

    2013-03-06

    One method to improve durably animal welfare is to select, as reproducers, animals with the highest ability to resist or tolerate infection. To do so, it is necessary to distinguish direct and indirect mechanisms of resistance and tolerance because selection on these traits is believed to have different epidemiological and evolutionary consequences. We propose structural equation models with latent variables (1) to quantify the latent risk of infection and to identify, among the many potential mediators of infection, the few ones that influence it significantly and (2) to estimate direct and indirect levels of tolerance of animals infected naturally with pathogens. We applied the method to two surveys of bovine mastitis in the Walloon region of Belgium, in which we recorded herd management practices, mastitis frequency, and results of bacteriological analyses of milk samples. Structural equation models suggested that, among more than 35 surveyed herd characteristics, only nine (age, addition of urea in the rations, treatment of subclinical mastitis, presence of dirty liner, cows with hyperkeratotic teats, machine stripping, pre- and post-milking teat disinfection, and housing of milking cows in cubicles) were directly and significantly related to a latent measure of bovine mastitis, and that treatment of subclinical mastitis was involved in the pathway between post-milking teat disinfection and latent mastitis. These models also allowed the separation of direct and indirect effects of bacterial infection on milk productivity. Results suggested that infected cows were tolerant but not resistant to mastitis pathogens. We revealed the advantages of structural equation models, compared to classical models, for dissecting measurements of resistance and tolerance to infectious diseases, here bovine mastitis. Using our method, we identified nine major risk factors that were directly associated with an increased risk of mastitis and suggested that cows were tolerant but

  4. Structural Equations and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Ned

    2007-01-01

    Structural equations have become increasingly popular in recent years as tools for understanding causation. But standard structural equations approaches to causation face deep problems. The most philosophically interesting of these consists in their failure to incorporate a distinction between default states of an object or system, and deviations therefrom. Exploring this problem, and how to fix it, helps to illuminate the central role this distinction plays in our causal thinking.

  5. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  6. Competition, Innovation, Risk-Taking, and Profitability in the Chinese Banking Sector: An Empirical Analysis Based on Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ti Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new perspective to systematically investigate the cause-and-effect relationships among competition, innovation, risk-taking, and profitability in the Chinese banking industry. Our hypotheses are tested by the structural equation modeling (SEM, and the empirical results show that (i risk-taking is positively related to profitability; (ii innovation positively affects both risk-taking and profitability, and the effect of innovation on profitability works both directly and indirectly; (iii competition negatively affects risk-taking but positively affects both innovation and profitability, and the effects of competition on risk-taking and profitability work both directly and indirectly; (iv there is a cascading relationship among market competition and bank innovation, risk-taking, and profitability.

  7. The association between risk perception and behavior. Results of structural equation modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundmo, T.; Hestad, H.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: there are at least four hypotheses about the association between risk perception and behaviour. The first one is that perceived risk caused by risk exposure may awake a person's 'attention' towards the potentially-hazardous risk source, and hence cause safer behaviour. The second hypothesis is that the affective reactions may be seen as reactions to stress, i.e. a strain factor, which may reduce a person's ability to cope with risk and therefore cause enhanced risk behaviour. The third hypothesis is that risk judgements and risk behaviours are both dependent variables which do not affect each other. Consequently, a positive correlation between perceived risk and behaviour may be caused by the fact that perception and behaviour both are affected by the same predictor variables. Risk perception contain a rational as well as an emotional 'component'. The fourth hypothesis is that rational judgements of risk and emotional reactions to risk may be related differently to risk behaviour. In the present study the rational judgements and the affective reactions are split and different measures are aimed at determining both the components. The core aim of this paper is to determine whether or not they are differently related to risk behaviour. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey which was carried out among employees (n=814) at 14 plants within the industrial company Norsk Hydro in 1997 and 1998. The plants belonged to several divisions within the company. The results showed that the rational and emotional components of risk perception were related differently to risk behaviour. The rational risk judgements had a moderate direct as well as an indirect effect on risk behaviour. The affective reactions to risk were caused by the probability judgements and did not affect risk behaviour. (authors)

  8. The association between risk perception and behavior. Results of structural equation modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundmo, T.; Hestad, H. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Dragvoll (Norway). Dept. of Psychology

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: there are at least four hypotheses about the association between risk perception and behaviour. The first one is that perceived risk caused by risk exposure may awake a person's 'attention' towards the potentially-hazardous risk source, and hence cause safer behaviour. The second hypothesis is that the affective reactions may be seen as reactions to stress, i.e. a strain factor, which may reduce a person's ability to cope with risk and therefore cause enhanced risk behaviour. The third hypothesis is that risk judgements and risk behaviours are both dependent variables which do not affect each other. Consequently, a positive correlation between perceived risk and behaviour may be caused by the fact that perception and behaviour both are affected by the same predictor variables. Risk perception contain a rational as well as an emotional 'component'. The fourth hypothesis is that rational judgements of risk and emotional reactions to risk may be related differently to risk behaviour. In the present study the rational judgements and the affective reactions are split and different measures are aimed at determining both the components. The core aim of this paper is to determine whether or not they are differently related to risk behaviour. The results are based on a self-completion questionnaire survey which was carried out among employees (n=814) at 14 plants within the industrial company Norsk Hydro in 1997 and 1998. The plants belonged to several divisions within the company. The results showed that the rational and emotional components of risk perception were related differently to risk behaviour. The rational risk judgements had a moderate direct as well as an indirect effect on risk behaviour. The affective reactions to risk were caused by the probability judgements and did not affect risk behaviour. (authors)

  9. A structural equation modelling approach to explore the role of B vitamins and immune markers in lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltar, Valéria Troncoso; Xun, Wei W; Johansson, Mattias; Ferrari, Pietro; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Relton, Caroline; Ueland, Per Magne; Midttun, Øivind; Slimani, Nadia; Jenab, Mazda; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rohrmann, Sabine; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Boshuizen, Hendriek; van Gils, Carla H; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Agudo, Antonio; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; Castaño, José Maria Huerta; Larrañaga, Nerea; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Allen, Naomi E; Crowe, Francesca; Gallo, Valentina; Norat, Teresa; Krogh, Vittorio; Masala, Giovanna; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Rasmuson, Torgny; Hallmans, Göran; Roswall, Nina; Tjønneland, Anne; Riboli, Elio; Brennan, Paul; Vineis, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    The one-carbon metabolism (OCM) is considered key in maintaining DNA integrity and regulating gene expression, and may be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Several B-vitamins and amino acids have been implicated in lung cancer risk, via the OCM directly as well as immune system activation. However it is unclear whether these factors act independently or through complex mechanisms. The current study applies structural equations modelling (SEM) to further disentangle the mechanisms involved in lung carcinogenesis. SEM allows simultaneous estimation of linear relations where a variable can be the outcome in one equation and the predictor in another, as well as allowing estimation using latent variables (factors estimated by correlation matrix). A large number of biomarkers have been analysed from 891 lung cancer cases and 1,747 controls nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Four putative mechanisms in the OCM and immunity were investigated in relation to lung cancer risk: methionine-homocysteine metabolism, folate cycle, transsulfuration, and mechanisms involved in inflammation and immune activation, all adjusted for tobacco exposure. The hypothesized SEM model confirmed a direct and protective effect for factors representing methionine-homocysteine metabolism (p = 0.020) and immune activation (p = 0.021), and an indirect protective effect of folate cycle (p = 0.019), after adjustment for tobacco smoking. In conclusion, our results show that in the investigation of the involvement of the OCM, the folate cycle and immune system in lung carcinogenesis, it is important to consider complex pathways (by applying SEM) rather than the effects of single vitamins or nutrients (e.g. using traditional multiple regression). In our study SEM were able to suggest a greater role of the methionine-homocysteine metabolism and immune activation over other potential mechanisms.

  10. Risk factors and visual fatigue of baggage X-ray security screeners: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rui-Feng; Yang, Lin-Dong; Wu, Xin

    2017-05-01

    This study identified the risk factors influencing visual fatigue in baggage X-ray security screeners and estimated the strength of correlations between those factors and visual fatigue using structural equation modelling approach. Two hundred and five X-ray security screeners participated in a questionnaire survey. The result showed that satisfaction with the VDT's physical features and the work environment conditions were negatively correlated with the intensity of visual fatigue, whereas job stress and job burnout had direct positive influences. The path coefficient between the image quality of VDT and visual fatigue was not significant. The total effects of job burnout, job stress, the VDT's physical features and the work environment conditions on visual fatigue were 0.471, 0.469, -0.268 and -0.251 respectively. These findings indicated that both extrinsic factors relating to VDT and workplace environment and psychological factors including job burnout and job stress should be considered in the workplace design and work organisation of security screening tasks to reduce screeners' visual fatigue. Practitioner Summary: This study identified the risk factors influencing visual fatigue in baggage X-ray security screeners and estimated the strength of correlations between those factors and visual fatigue. The findings were of great importance to the workplace design and the work organisation of security screening tasks to reduce screeners' visual fatigue.

  11. Structural equations in language learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, M.J.

    In categorial systems with a fixed structural component, the learning problem comes down to finding the solution for a set of typeassignment equations. A hard-wired structural component is problematic if one want to address issues of structural variation. Our starting point is a type-logical

  12. Nutrition, Balance and Fear of Falling as Predictors of Risk for Falls among Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes: A Structural Equation Model (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Ines, Joanna Louise C.; Inofinada, Nina Josefa A.; Ituralde, Nielson Louie J.; Janolo, John Robert E.; Jerezo, Jnyv L.; Jhun, Hyae Suk J.

    2013-01-01

    While a number of empirical studies have been conducted regarding risk for falls among the elderly, there is still a paucity of similar studies in a developing country like the Philippines. This study purports to test through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) a model that shows the interaction between and among nutrition, balance, fear of…

  13. High risk sexual behaviors for HIV among the in-school youth in Swaziland: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacolo, Hlengiwe Nokuthula; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.

  14. High risk sexual behaviors for HIV among the in-school youth in Swaziland: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlengiwe Nokuthula Sacolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. RESULTS: The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths.

  15. High Risk Sexual Behaviors for HIV among the In-School Youth in Swaziland: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Background Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for predicting factors associated with protective sexual behaviors, including sexual abstinence and condom use, among in-school youths aged between 15 and 19 years in Swaziland. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a anonymous questionnaire. A two-stage stratified and cluster random sampling method was used. Approximately one hundred pupils from each of four schools agreed to participate in the study, providing a total sample size of 403 pupils of which 369 were ultimately included for data analysis. The response rate was 98%. Structural equation modeling was used to analyse hypothesized paths. Results The TPB model used in this study was effective in predicting protective sexual behavior among Swazi in-school youths, as shown by model fit indices. All hypothesized constructs significantly predicted intentions for abstinence and condom use, except perceived abstinence controls. Subjective norms were the strongest predictors of intention for premarital sexual abstinence; however, perceived controls for condom use were the strongest predictors of intention for condom use. Conclusions Our findings support application of the model in predicting determinants of condom use and abstinence intentions among Swazi in-school youths. PMID:23861756

  16. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities.

  17. Handbook of structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyle, Rick H

    2012-01-01

    The first comprehensive structural equation modeling (SEM) handbook, this accessible volume presents both the mechanics of SEM and specific SEM strategies and applications. The editor, contributors, and editorial advisory board are leading methodologists who have organized the book to move from simpler material to more statistically complex modeling approaches. Sections cover the foundations of SEM; statistical underpinnings, from assumptions to model modifications; steps in implementation, from data preparation through writing the SEM report; and basic and advanced applications, inclu

  18. The role of burnout syndrome as a mediator for the effect of psychosocial risk factors on the intensity of musculoskeletal disorders: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Tahereh; Pahlavian, Ahmad Heidari; Akbarzadeh, Mahdi; Motamedzade, Majid; Moghaddam, Rashid Heidari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that burnout syndrome mediates effects of psychosocial risk factors and intensity of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among hospital nurses. The sample was composed of 415 nurses from various wards across five hospitals of Iran's Hamedan University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected through three questionnaires: job content questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory and visual analogue scale. Results of structural equation modeling with a mediating effect showed that psychosocial risk factors were significantly related to changes in burnout, which in turn affects intensity of MSDs.

  19. The influence of sensation-seeking and parental and peer influences in early adolescence on risk involvement through middle adolescence: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between youth and parental sensation-seeking, peer influence, parental monitoring and youth risk involvement in adolescence using structural equation modeling. Beginning in grade-six, longitudinal data were collected from 543 students over three years. Youth sensation-seeking in grade six contributed to risk involvement in early adolescence (grades six and seven) indirectly through increased peer risk influence and decreased parental monitoring but did not have a direct contribution. It contributed directly and indirectly to risk involvement in middle adolescence (grades eight and nine). Parent sensation-seeking at baseline was positively associated with peer risk influence and negatively associated with parental monitoring; it had no direct effect on adolescent risk involvement. Parental monitoring buffers negative peer influence on adolescent risk involvement. Results highlight the need for intervention efforts to provide normative feedback about adolescent risky behaviors and to vary among families in which parents and/or youth have high sensation-seeking propensities. PMID:27030784

  20. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    disease and any measure of social deprivation. An early criticism of the Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator has been its alleged overestimation of ASCVD risk which, if confirmed in the general population, is likely to result in statin therapy being prescribed to many individuals at lower risk than...

  1. Structural Equation Modeling of Multivariate Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Stephen H. C.; Browne, Michael W.

    2007-01-01

    The covariance structure of a vector autoregressive process with moving average residuals (VARMA) is derived. It differs from other available expressions for the covariance function of a stationary VARMA process and is compatible with current structural equation methodology. Structural equation modeling programs, such as LISREL, may therefore be…

  2. Relationships among sexual self-concept, sexual risk cognition and sexual communication in adolescents: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Li, Ren-Hau; Yu, Hsing-Yi

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition affecting sexual communication in Taiwanese adolescents. Parent-adolescent sexual communication has been shown to influence adolescent sexual behaviour. Self-concept is an important predictor of human behaviour, especially sexual behaviour. Few researchers have assessed sexual self-concept in adolescents, despite its clear relevance to understanding adolescent sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was used in this study. In 2009, data were collected by questionnaire from 748 adolescent students at a junior college in Taiwan. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data from this study well. Sexual self-concept significantly predicts sexual risk cognition and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition significantly predicts sexual communication and has an intervening effect on the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition is important in explaining sexuality in adolescents. Sexual self-concept has both direct and indirect effects on sexual communication. Our findings provide concrete directions for school educators in developing sexual health programmes to increase adolescent sexual self-concept and sexual communication with their parents. Future sexual health programmes about sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition must add for increasing adolescent's sexual communication with their parents. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. High Risk Sexual Behaviors for HIV among the In-School Youth in Swaziland: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sacolo, Hlengiwe Nokuthula; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Chen, Chiung-Hua; Ou, Keng-Liang; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global efforts in response to the increased prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are mainly aimed at reducing high risk sexual behaviors among young people. However, knowledge regarding intentions of young people to engage in protective sexual behaviors is still lacking in many countries around the world, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus is the highest. The objective of this study was to test the theory of planned be...

  4. Effects of risk factors for and components of metabolic syndrome on the quality of life of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Dong-Jin; Kang, Seong Wook; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Shin, Kichul; Lee, Sang-Il; Lee, Chang Hoon; Choi, Sung Jae; Lee, Shin-Seok

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among the risk factors for and components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a hypothesized causal model using structural equation modeling (SEM) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Of the 505 SLE patients enrolled in the Korean Lupus Network (KORNET registry), 244 had sufficient data to assess the components of MetS at enrollment. Education level, monthly income, corticosteroid dose, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, Physicians' Global Assessment, Beck Depression Inventory, MetS components, and the Short Form-36 at the time of cohort entry were determined. SEM was used to test the causal relationship based on the Analysis of Moment Structure. The average age of the 244 patients was 40.7 ± 11.8 years. The SEM results supported the good fit of the model (χ 2  = 71.629, p = 0.078, RMSEA 0.034, CFI 0.972). The final model showed a direct negative effect of higher socioeconomic status and a positive indirect effect of higher disease activity on MetS, the latter through corticosteroid dose. MetS did not directly impact HRQOL but had an indirect negative impact on it, through depression. In our causal model, MetS risk factors were related to MetS components. The latter had a negative indirect impact on HRQOL, through depression. Clinicians should consider socioeconomic status and medication and seek to modify disease activity, MetS, and depression to improve the HRQOL of SLE patients.

  5. A first course in structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Raykov, Tenko

    2012-01-01

    In this book, authors Tenko Raykov and George A. Marcoulides introduce students to the basics of structural equation modeling (SEM) through a conceptual, nonmathematical approach. For ease of understanding, the few mathematical formulas presented are used in a conceptual or illustrative nature, rather than a computational one.Featuring examples from EQS, LISREL, and Mplus, A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling is an excellent beginner's guide to learning how to set up input files to fit the most commonly used types of structural equation models with these programs. The basic ideas and methods for conducting SEM are independent of any particular software.Highlights of the Second Edition include: Review of latent change (growth) analysis models at an introductory level Coverage of the popular Mplus program Updated examples of LISREL and EQS A CD that contains all of the text's LISREL, EQS, and Mplus examples.A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling is intended as an introductory book for students...

  6. Linear causal modeling with structural equations

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Emphasizing causation as a functional relationship between variables that describe objects, Linear Causal Modeling with Structural Equations integrates a general philosophical theory of causation with structural equation modeling (SEM) that concerns the special case of linear causal relations. In addition to describing how the functional relation concept may be generalized to treat probabilistic causation, the book reviews historical treatments of causation and explores recent developments in experimental psychology on studies of the perception of causation. It looks at how to perceive causal

  7. Structural equation modeling methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Jichuan

    2012-01-01

    A reference guide for applications of SEM using Mplus Structural Equation Modeling: Applications Using Mplus is intended as both a teaching resource and a reference guide. Written in non-mathematical terms, this book focuses on the conceptual and practical aspects of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Basic concepts and examples of various SEM models are demonstrated along with recently developed advanced methods, such as mixture modeling and model-based power analysis and sample size estimate for SEM. The statistical modeling program, Mplus, is also featured and provides researchers with a

  8. Advanced structural equation modeling issues and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Marcoulides, George A

    2013-01-01

    By focusing primarily on the application of structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques in example cases and situations, this book provides an understanding and working knowledge of advanced SEM techniques with a minimum of mathematical derivations. The book was written for a broad audience crossing many disciplines, assumes an understanding of graduate level multivariate statistics, including an introduction to SEM.

  9. Multiplicity Control in Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbie, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Researchers conducting structural equation modeling analyses rarely, if ever, control for the inflated probability of Type I errors when evaluating the statistical significance of multiple parameters in a model. In this study, the Type I error control, power and true model rates of famsilywise and false discovery rate controlling procedures were…

  10. Principles and practice of structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Rex B

    2015-01-01

    Emphasizing concepts and rationale over mathematical minutiae, this is the most widely used, complete, and accessible structural equation modeling (SEM) text. Continuing the tradition of using real data examples from a variety of disciplines, the significantly revised fourth edition incorporates recent developments such as Pearl's graphing theory and the structural causal model (SCM), measurement invariance, and more. Readers gain a comprehensive understanding of all phases of SEM, from data collection and screening to the interpretation and reporting of the results. Learning is enhanced by ex

  11. Structural Equation Modeling with the Smartpls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Ringle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to present a didactic example of Structural Equation Modeling using the software SmartPLS 2.0 M3. The program mentioned uses the method of Partial Least Squares and seeks to address the following situations frequently observed in marketing research: Absence of symmetric distributions of variables measured by a theory still in its beginning phase or with little “consolidation”, formative models, and/or a limited amount of data. The growing use of SmartPLS has demonstrated its robustness and the applicability of the model in the areas that are being studied. 

  12. Structural equation modeling and natural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.

    2006-01-01

    This book, first published in 2006, presents an introduction to the methodology of structural equation modeling, illustrates its use, and goes on to argue that it has revolutionary implications for the study of natural systems. A major theme of this book is that we have, up to this point, attempted to study systems primarily using methods (such as the univariate model) that were designed only for considering individual processes. Understanding systems requires the capacity to examine simultaneous influences and responses. Structural equation modeling (SEM) has such capabilities. It also possesses many other traits that add strength to its utility as a means of making scientific progress. In light of the capabilities of SEM, it can be argued that much of ecological theory is currently locked in an immature state that impairs its relevance. It is further argued that the principles of SEM are capable of leading to the development and evaluation of multivariate theories of the sort vitally needed for the conservation of natural systems.

  13. Meta-analytic structural equation modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Jak, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    This book explains how to employ MASEM, the combination of meta-analysis (MA) and structural equation modelling (SEM). It shows how by using MASEM, a single model can be tested to explain the relationships between a set of variables in several studies. This book gives an introduction to MASEM, with a focus on the state of the art approach: the two stage approach of Cheung and Cheung & Chan. Both, the fixed and the random approach to MASEM are illustrated with two applications to real data. All steps that have to be taken to perform the analyses are discussed extensively. All data and syntax files are available online, so that readers can imitate all analyses. By using SEM for meta-analysis, this book shows how to benefit from all available information from all available studies, even if few or none of the studies report about all relationships that feature in the full model of interest.

  14. Structural equation models from paths to networks

    CERN Document Server

    Westland, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This compact reference surveys the full range of available structural equation modeling (SEM) methodologies.  It reviews applications in a broad range of disciplines, particularly in the social sciences where many key concepts are not directly observable.  This is the first book to present SEM’s development in its proper historical context–essential to understanding the application, strengths and weaknesses of each particular method.  This book also surveys the emerging path and network approaches that complement and enhance SEM, and that will grow in importance in the near future.  SEM’s ability to accommodate unobservable theory constructs through latent variables is of significant importance to social scientists.  Latent variable theory and application are comprehensively explained, and methods are presented for extending their power, including guidelines for data preparation, sample size calculation, and the special treatment of Likert scale data.  Tables of software, methodologies and fit st...

  15. Construction of alternative Hamiltonian structures for field equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera, Mauricio [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Hojman, Sergio A. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Educacion, Universidad Nacional Andres Bello, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Recursos Educativos Avanzados, CREA, Santiago (Chile)

    2001-08-10

    We use symmetry vectors of nonlinear field equations to build alternative Hamiltonian structures. We construct such structures even for equations which are usually believed to be non-Hamiltonian such as heat, Burger and potential Burger equations. We improve on a previous version of the approach using recursion operators to increase the rank of the Poisson bracket matrices. Cole-Hopf and Miura-type transformations allow the mapping of these structures from one equation to another. (author)

  16. GLOBAL LINEARIZATION OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH SPECIAL STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the global linearization of the differential equations with special structures.The function in the differential equation is unbounded.We prove that the differential equation with unbounded function can be topologically linearlized if it has a special structure.

  17. Virtuous organization: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Zamahani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For years, the idea of virtue was unfavorable among researchers and virtues were traditionally considered as culture-specific, relativistic and they were supposed to be associated with social conservatism, religious or moral dogmatism, and scientific irrelevance. Virtue and virtuousness have been recently considered seriously among organizational researchers. The proposed study of this paper examines the relationships between leadership, organizational culture, human resource, structure and processes, care for community and virtuous organization. Structural equation modeling is employed to investigate the effects of each variable on other components. The data used in this study consists of questionnaire responses from employees in Payam e Noor University in Yazd province. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out and a total of 211 valid responses were received. Our results have revealed that all the five variables have positive and significant impacts on virtuous organization. Among the five variables, organizational culture has the most direct impact (0.80 and human resource has the most total impact (0.844 on virtuous organization.

  18. Integrable systems of partial differential equations determined by structure equations and Lax pair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It is shown how a system of evolution equations can be developed both from the structure equations of a submanifold embedded in three-space as well as from a matrix SO(6) Lax pair. The two systems obtained this way correspond exactly when a constraint equation is selected and imposed on the system of equations. This allows for the possibility of selecting the coefficients in the second fundamental form in a general way.

  19. Exploratory structural equation modeling of personality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tom; Hughes, David J

    2014-06-01

    The current article compares the use of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative to confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models in personality research. We compare model fit, factor distinctiveness, and criterion associations of factors derived from ESEM and CFA models. In Sample 1 (n = 336) participants completed the NEO-FFI, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form, and the Creative Domains Questionnaire. In Sample 2 (n = 425) participants completed the Big Five Inventory and the depression and anxiety scales of the General Health Questionnaire. ESEM models provided better fit than CFA models, but ESEM solutions did not uniformly meet cutoff criteria for model fit. Factor scores derived from ESEM and CFA models correlated highly (.91 to .99), suggesting the additional factor loadings within the ESEM model add little in defining latent factor content. Lastly, criterion associations of each personality factor in CFA and ESEM models were near identical in both inventories. We provide an example of how ESEM and CFA might be used together in improving personality assessment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Risk evaluation for structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenthal, A.M.; Schueller, G.I.

    1976-01-01

    The basic principles of the risk analysis, which is based on classical statistics is discussed. The significance of the Asymptotic (Extreme Value) distributions as well as the method of basing the level of acceptable risk on economical optimization procedures is pointed out. The application of the risk analysis to special type structures such as fixed offshore platforms, television towers, reactor containments and the reliability of reactor components under creep and fatigue load is elaborated by carrying out numerical examples. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory for supernonlinear evolution equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jipeng; Wang Shikun; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the superprincipal bundle and its associated superbundle. The super(nonlinear)connection on the superfiber bundle is constructed. Then by means of the connection theory, we establish the fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory of the supernonlinear evolution equation. In this geometry theory, the fermionic covariant fundamental equations determining the prolongation structure are presented. As an example, the supernonlinear Schroedinger equation is analyzed in the framework of this fermionic covariant prolongation structure theory. We obtain its Lax pairs and Baecklund transformation.

  2. The algebraic structure of lax equations for infinite matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helminck, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the algebraic structure of the tower of differential difference equations that one can associate with any commutative subalgebra of $M_k(\\mathbb{C})$. These equations can be formulated conveniently in so-called Lax equations for infinite upper- resp. lowertriangular matrices

  3. Effects of Self-care Health Behaviors on Quality of Life Mediated by Cardiovascular Risk Factors Among Individuals with Coronary Artery Disease: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhee Ahn, RN, PhD

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The findings indicate that self-efficacy, self-care health behaviors, and modifiable risk factors play an important role in QOL in adults with coronary artery disease. Patients could be more confident in performing self-care health behaviors, leading to a better QOL, by more effectively managing their cardiovascular risk factors. Nursing strategies to improve QOL in this population should include motivating them to perform self-care health behaviors.

  4. Hamiltonian structure of the Lotka-Volterra equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutku, Y.

    1990-03-01

    The Lotka-Volterra equations governing predator-prey relations are shown to admit Hamiltonian structure with respect to a generalized Poisson bracket. These equations provide an example of a system for which the naive criterion for the existence of Hamiltonian structure fails. We show further that there is a three-component generalization of the Lotka-Volterra equations which is a bi-Hamiltonian system.

  5. Fitting ARMA Time Series by Structural Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Stef

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines how the stationary ARMA (p,q) model (G. Box and G. Jenkins, 1976) can be specified as a structural equation model. Maximum likelihood estimates for the parameters in the ARMA model can be obtained by software for fitting structural equation models. The method is applied to three problem types. (SLD)

  6. A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis of Influences on Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    This study examined influences on delinquency and recidivism using structural equation modeling. The sample comprised 199,204 individuals: 99,602 youth whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile Justice and a matched control group of 99,602 youth without juvenile records. Structural equation modeling for the…

  7. Hierarchical regression analysis in structural Equation Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, P.F.

    1999-01-01

    In a hierarchical or fixed-order regression analysis, the independent variables are entered into the regression equation in a prespecified order. Such an analysis is often performed when the extra amount of variance accounted for in a dependent variable by a specific independent variable is the main

  8. Sensitivity of rocky planet structures to the equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Structures were calculated for Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, and Mars, using a core-mantle model and adjusting the core radius to reproduce the observed mass and diameter of each body. Structures were calculated using Fe and basalt equations of state of different degrees of sophistication for the core and mantle. The choice of equation of state had a significant effect on the inferred structure. For each structure, the moment of inertia ratio was calculated and compared with observed values. Linear Grueneisen equations of state fitted to limited portions of shock data reproduced the observed moments of inertia significantly better than did more detailed equations of state incorporating phase transitions, presumably reflecting the actual compositions of the bodies. The linear Grueneisen equations of state and corresponding structures seem however to be a reasonable starting point for comparative simulations of large-scale astrophysical impacts.

  9. The Impact of Privacy Concerns and Perceived Vulnerability to Risks on Users Privacy Protection Behaviors on SNS: A Structural Equation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Noora Sami Al-Saqer; Mohamed E. Seliaman

    2016-01-01

    This research paper investigates Saudi users’ awareness levels about privacy policies in Social Networking Sites (SNSs), their privacy concerns and their privacy protection measures. For this purpose, a research model that consists of five main constructs namely information privacy concern, awareness level of privacy policies of social networking sites, perceived vulnerability to privacy risks, perceived response efficacy, and privacy protecting behavior was developed. An online survey questi...

  10. Predictive model for early math skills based on structural equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Estíbaliz; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Cerda, Gamal; García-Sedeño, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Early math skills are determined by higher cognitive processes that are particularly important for acquiring and developing skills during a child's early education. Such processes could be a critical target for identifying students at risk for math learning difficulties. Few studies have considered the use of a structural equation method to rationalize these relations. Participating in this study were 207 preschool students ages 59 to 72 months, 108 boys and 99 girls. Performance with respect to early math skills, early literacy, general intelligence, working memory, and short-term memory was assessed. A structural equation model explaining 64.3% of the variance in early math skills was applied. Early literacy exhibited the highest statistical significance (β = 0.443, p < 0.05), followed by intelligence (β = 0.286, p < 0.05), working memory (β = 0.220, p < 0.05), and short-term memory (β = 0.213, p < 0.05). Correlations between the independent variables were also significant (p < 0.05). According to the results, cognitive variables should be included in remedial intervention programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. New Formulation of the Governing Equations for Analyzing Outrigger Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Er, G.-K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an easily comprehensible solution procedure is proposed for the analysis of outrigger-braced structures. The idea is based on the compatibility of the columns' axial deformation. The unknowns are selected to be the axial forces in the columns. The resulted governing equations and the equations for the optimum analysis of the outrigger locations are different from the conventional ones, but numerical analysis shows that the results obtained with the new equations are same as those obtained with conventional equations. The relations between the new equations and the conventional ones are also figured out. The new procedure of formulating the governing equations can be easily extended to more complicated cases of outrigger-braced structures.

  12. Hamiltonian structures of some non-linear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, G.Z.

    1983-06-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of the O(2,1) non-linear sigma model, generalized AKNS equations, are discussed. By reducing the O(2,1) non-linear sigma model to its Hamiltonian form some new conservation laws are derived. A new hierarchy of non-linear evolution equations is proposed and shown to be generalized Hamiltonian equations with an infinite number of conservation laws. (author)

  13. Analytic structure of solutions to multiconfiguration equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournais, Soeren [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade, Building 1530, DK-8000 Arhus C (Denmark); Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Maria [Fakultaet fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Wien, Nordbergstrasse 15, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoffmann-Ostenhof, Thomas [Institut fuer Theoretische Chemie, Waehringerstrasse 17, Universitaet Wien, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Soerensen, Thomas Oestergaard [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, Huxley Building, 180 Queen' s Gate, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: fournais@imf.au.dk, E-mail: Maria.Hoffmann-Ostenhof@univie.ac.at, E-mail: thoffman@esi.ac.at, E-mail: t.sorensen@imperial.ac.uk

    2009-08-07

    We study the regularity at the positions of the (fixed) nuclei of solutions to (non-relativistic) multiconfiguration equations (including Hartree-Fock) of Coulomb systems. We prove the following: let {l_brace}{psi}{sub 1}, ..., {psi}{sub M}{r_brace} be any solution to the rank-M multiconfiguration equations for a molecule with L fixed nuclei at R{sub 1},...,R{sub L} element of R{sup 3}. Then, for any j in {l_brace}1, ..., M{r_brace}, k in {l_brace}1, ..., L{r_brace}, there exists a neighborhood U{sub j,k} subset or equal R{sup 3} of R{sub k}, and functions {psi}{sup (1)}{sub j,k}, {psi}{sup (2)}{sub j,k}, real analytic in U{sub j,k}, such that {phi}{sub j}(x)={phi}{sub j,k}{sup (1)}(x)+|x-R{sub k}|{phi}{sub j,k}{sup (2)}(x), x element of U{sub j,k}. A similar result holds for the corresponding electron density. The proof uses the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation, as applied in [9] to the study of the eigenfunctions of the Schroedinger operator of atoms and molecules near two-particle coalescence points.

  14. Meta-analysis a structural equation modeling approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cheung, Mike W-L

    2015-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to conducting meta-analysis using structural equation modeling. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and meta-analysis are two powerful statistical methods in the educational, social, behavioral, and medical sciences. They are often treated as two unrelated topics in the literature. This book presents a unified framework on analyzing meta-analytic data within the SEM framework, and illustrates how to conduct meta-analysis using the metaSEM package in the R statistical environment. Meta-Analysis: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach begins by introducing the impo

  15. Prolongation Structure of Semi-discrete Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yongqiang; Wu Ke; Zhao Weizhong; Guo Hanying

    2007-01-01

    Based on noncommutative differential calculus, we present a theory of prolongation structure for semi-discrete nonlinear evolution equations. As an illustrative example, a semi-discrete model of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation is discussed in terms of this theory and the corresponding Lax pairs are also given.

  16. Structural invariance of the Schroedinger equation and chronoprojective geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdet, G.; Perrin, M.

    1983-07-01

    We describe an extension of the chronoprojective geometry and show how its automorphisms are related to the invariance properties of the Schroedinger equation describing a quantum test particle in any Newton-Cartan structure

  17. Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models

    CERN Document Server

    Skrondal, Anders; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia

    2004-01-01

    This book unifies and extends latent variable models, including multilevel or generalized linear mixed models, longitudinal or panel models, item response or factor models, latent class or finite mixture models, and structural equation models.

  18. A risk augmented mincer earnings equation? Taking stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    2009-01-01

    We survey the literature on the Risk Augmented Mincer equation that seeks to estimate the compensation for uncertainty in the future wage to be earned after completing an education. There is wide empirical support for the predicted positive effect of wage variance and the negative effect of wage

  19. A risk augmented Mincer earnings equation? Taking stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, J.

    2011-01-01

    We survey the literature on the Risk Augmented Mincer equation that seeks to estimate the compensation for uncertainty in the future wage to be earned after completing an education. There is wide empirical support for the predicted positive effect of wage variance and the negative effect of wage

  20. Structural equations for Killing tensors of order two. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, I.; Malhiot, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    In a preceding paper, a new form of the structural equations for any Killing tensor of order two have been derived; these equations constitute a system analogous to the Killing vector equations Nabla/sub alpha/ K/sub beta/ = ω/sub alpha beta/ = -ω/sub beta alpha/ and Nabla/sub gamma/ ω/sub alpha beta = R/sub alpha beta gamma delta/ K/sup delta/. The first integrability condition for the Killing tensor structural equations is now derived. The structural equations and the integrability condition have forms which can readily be expressed in terms of a null tetrad to furnish a Killing tensor parallel of the Newman--Penrose equations; this is briefly described. The integrability condition implies the new result, for any given space--time, that the dimension of the set of second-order Killing tensors attains its maximum possible value of 50 only if the space--time is of constant curvature. Potential applications of the structural equations are discussed

  1. Dissipative Structures of the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Kudryashov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we study the features of dissipative structures formation described by the periodic boundary value problem for the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. The numerical algorithm which is based on the pseudospectral method is presented. We prove the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed numerical method on the exact solution of the equation considered. Using this approach, we performed the numerical simulation of dissipative structure formations described by the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation. The influence of the problem parameters on these processes are studied. The quantitative and qualitative characteristics of dissipative structure formations are described. We have shown that there is a value of the control parameter at which the processes of dissipative structure formation are observed. In particular, using the cyclic convolution we define the average value of this parameter. Also, we find the dependence of the amplitude of the structures on the value of control parameter.

  2. Variables and equations in hybrid systems with structural changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van D.A.

    2001-01-01

    In many models of physical systems, structural changes are common. Such structural changes may cause a variable to change from a differential variable to an algebraic variable, or to a variable that is not defined by an equation at all. Most hybrid modelling languages either restrict the kind of

  3. Structural Equation and Mei Conserved Quantity of Mei Symmetry for Appell Equations in Holonomic Systems with Unilateral Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Liqun; Cui Jinchao; Zhang Yaoyu; Luo Shaokai

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation and Mei conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for Appell equations in holonomic systems with unilateral constraints are investigated. Appell equations and differential equations of motion for holonomic mechanic systems with unilateral constraints are established. The definition and the criterion of Mei symmetry for Appell equations in holonomic systems with unilateral constraints under the infinitesimal transformations of groups are also given. The expressions of the structural equation and Mei conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for Appell equations in holonomic systems with unilateral constraints expressed by Appell functions are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  4. Structure preserving transformations for Newtonian Lie-admissible equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrijn, F.

    1979-01-01

    Recently, a new formulation of non-conservative mechanics has been presented in terms of Hamilton-admissible equations which constitute a generalization of the conventional Hamilton equations. The algebraic structure entering the Hamilton-admissible description of a non-conservative system is that of a Lie-admissible algebra. The corresponding geometrical treatment is related to the existence of a so-called symplectic-admissible form. The transformation theory for Hamilton-admissible systems is currently investigated. The purpose of this paper is to describe one aspect of this theory by identifying the class of transformations which preserve the structure of Hamilton-admissible equations. Necessary and sufficient conditions are established for a transformation to be structure preserving. Some particular cases are discussed and an example is worked out

  5. Risk, Resources and Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng Jensen, Jesper; Ponsaing, Claus Due; Thrane, Sof

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we describe a basic mechanism by which risk events can induce indirect value losses to the risk owner: a value loss arising from a risk event interfering with activities that have no logical connection with the risk event other than that of having the same owner; a mechanism we...... to large risk events is to mitigate the consequences of the risk event through negotiating with the environment. If such negotiations fail, the subject will have no alternative but to let other activities and projects under direct control of the risk owner suffer. We end the article with conjectures....... The risk cost component presented in this article, whose existence has previously been argued in the risk literature, has been documented in a single factorial experiment with a unique simulation device named Risky Business. Through our experiments, we have shown that the first response of subjects exposed...

  6. A Structural Equation Approach to Models with Spatial Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, Johan H. L.; Folmer, Henk

    We introduce the class of structural equation models (SEMs) and corresponding estimation procedures into a spatial dependence framework. SEM allows both latent and observed variables within one and the same (causal) model. Compared with models with observed variables only, this feature makes it

  7. A structural equation approach to models with spatial dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Folmer, H.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the class of structural equation models (SEMs) and corresponding estimation procedures into a spatial dependence framework. SEM allows both latent and observed variables within one and the same (causal) model. Compared with models with observed variables only, this feature makes it

  8. A Structural Equation Approach to Models with Spatial Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Folmer, H.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the class of structural equation models (SEMs) and corresponding estimation procedures into a spatial dependence framework. SEM allows both latent and observed variables within one and the same (causal) model. Compared with models with observed variables only, this feature makes it

  9. Sensitivity Analysis in Structural Equation Models: Cases and Their Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Jolynn; MacCallum, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The detection of outliers and influential observations is routine practice in linear regression. Despite ongoing extensions and development of case diagnostics in structural equation models (SEM), their application has received limited attention and understanding in practice. The use of case diagnostics informs analysts of the uncertainty of model…

  10. On the specification of structural equation models for ecological systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grace, James B.; Anderson, T. Michael; Olff, Han; Scheiner, Samuel M.

    The use of structural equation modeling (SEM) is often motivated by its utility for investigating complex networks of relationships, but also because of its promise as a means of representing theoretical Concepts using latent variables. In this paper, we discuss characteristics of ecological theory

  11. A Structural Equation Model of Expertise in College Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Carr, Martha

    2009-01-01

    A model of expertise in physics was tested on a sample of 374 college students in 2 different level physics courses. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to expert performance in physics including strategy use, pictorial representation, categorization skills, and motivation, and these…

  12. On the Use of Structural Equation Models in Marketing Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenkamp, J.E.B.M.; Baumgartner, H.

    2000-01-01

    We reflect on the role of structural equation modeling (SEM) in marketing modeling and managerial decision making. We discuss some benefits provided by SEM and alert marketing modelers to several recent developments in SEM in three areas: measurement analysis, analysis of cross-sectional data, and

  13. Structural Equations and Causal Explanations: Some Challenges for Causal SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2010-01-01

    One common application of structural equation modeling (SEM) involves expressing and empirically investigating causal explanations. Nonetheless, several aspects of causal explanation that have an impact on behavioral science methodology remain poorly understood. It remains unclear whether applications of SEM should attempt to provide complete…

  14. A Structural Equation Model of Conceptual Change in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2011-01-01

    A model of conceptual change in physics was tested on introductory-level, college physics students. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships among variables linked to conceptual change in physics including an approach goal orientation, need for cognition, motivation, and course grade. Conceptual change in physics…

  15. Peculiar symmetry structure of some known discrete nonautonomous equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garifullin, R N; Habibullin, I T; Yamilov, R I

    2015-01-01

    We study the generalized symmetry structure of three known discrete nonautonomous equations. One of them is the semidiscrete dressing chain of Shabat. Two others are completely discrete equations defined on the square lattice. The first one is a discrete analogue of the dressing chain introduced by Levi and Yamilov. The second one is a nonautonomous generalization of the potential discrete KdV equation or, in other words, the H1 equation of the well-known Adler−Bobenko−Suris list. We demonstrate that these equations have generalized symmetries in both directions if and only if their coefficients, depending on the discrete variables, are periodic. The order of the simplest generalized symmetry in at least one direction depends on the period and may be arbitrarily high. We substantiate this picture by some theorems in the case of small periods. In case of an arbitrarily large period, we show that it is possible to construct two hierarchies of generalized symmetries and conservation laws. The same picture should take place in case of any nonautonomous equation of the Adler−Bobenko−Suris list. (paper)

  16. Liquidity Risk and Syndicate Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Evan Gatev; Philip Strahan

    2008-01-01

    We offer a new explanation of loan syndicate structure based on banks' comparative advantage in managing systematic liquidity risk. When a syndicated loan to a rated borrower has systematic liquidity risk, the fraction of passive participant lenders that are banks is about 8% higher than for loans without liquidity risk. In contrast, liquidity risk does not explain the share of banks as lead lenders. Using a new measure of ex-ante liquidity risk exposure, we find further evidence that syndica...

  17. Annotated bibliography of structural equation modelling: technical work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J T; Wolfle, L M

    1991-05-01

    Researchers must be familiar with a variety of source literature to facilitate the informed use of structural equation modelling. Knowledge can be acquired through the study of an expanding literature found in a diverse set of publishing forums. We propose that structural equation modelling publications can be roughly classified into two groups: (a) technical and (b) substantive applications. Technical materials focus on the procedures rather than substantive conclusions derived from applications. The focus of this article is the former category; included are foundational/major contributions, minor contributions, critical and evaluative reviews, integrations, simulations and computer applications, precursor and historical material, and pedagogical textbooks. After a brief introduction, we annotate 294 articles in the technical category dating back to Sewall Wright (1921).

  18. Poisson structure of the equations of ideal multispecies fluid electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The equations of the two- (or multi-) fluid model of plasma physics are recast in Hamiltonian form, following general methods of symplectic geometry. The dynamical variables are the fields of physical interest, but are noncanonical, so that the Poisson bracket in the theory is not the standard one. However, it is a skew-symmetric bilinear form which, from the method of derivation, automatically satisfies the Jacobi identity; therefore, this noncanonical structure has all the essential properties of a canonical Poisson bracket

  19. Structural Equation Modeling with Lisrel: An Initial Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh K Malhotra

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available LISREL is considered one of the most robust software packages for Structural Equation Modeling with covariance matrices, while it is also considered complex and difficult to use. In this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Marketing, we aim to present the main functions of LISREL, its features and, through a didactic example, reduce the perceived difficulty of using it. We also provide helpful guidelines to properly using this technique.

  20. Structural Equation Modeling with Lisrel: An Initial Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh K Malhotra; Evandro Luiz Lopes; Ricardo Teixeira Veiga

    2014-01-01

    LISREL is considered one of the most robust software packages for Structural Equation Modeling with covariance matrices, while it is also considered complex and difficult to use. In this special issue of the Brazilian Journal of Marketing, we aim to present the main functions of LISREL, its features and, through a didactic example, reduce the perceived difficulty of using it. We also provide helpful guidelines to properly using this technique.

  1. Structuring for technology risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapper, M.

    1993-01-01

    The Colver Power Project in Cambria County, PA, looked good in nearly all aspects, but lenders had concerns about startup problems encountered by earlier waste coal circulating fluidized bed projects. Nevertheless, a closer look at the operating history of the earlier plants showed possible risks could be handled

  2. Model Selection and Risk Estimation with Applications to Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Frederik Vissing

    eective computational tools for estimating unknown structures in dynamical systems, such as gene regulatory networks, which may be used to predict downstream eects of interventions in the system. A recommended algorithm based on the computational tools is presented and thoroughly tested in various......Broadly speaking, this thesis is devoted to model selection applied to ordinary dierential equations and risk estimation under model selection. A model selection framework was developed for modelling time course data by ordinary dierential equations. The framework is accompanied by the R software...... package, episode. This package incorporates a collection of sparsity inducing penalties into two types of loss functions: a squared loss function relying on numerically solving the equations and an approximate loss function based on inverse collocation methods. The goal of this framework is to provide...

  3. Structure-preserving algorithms for the Duffing equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang Tieqiang; Mei Fengxiang; Xie Jiafang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the dissipative and the forced terms of the Duffing equation are considered as the perturbations of nonlinear Hamiltonian equations and the perturbational effect is indicated by parameter ε. Firstly, based on the gradient-Hamiltonian decomposition theory of vector fields, by using splitting methods, this paper constructs structure-preserving algorithms (SPAs) for the Duffing equation. Then, according to the Liouville formula, it proves that the Jacobian matrix determinants of the SPAs are equal to that of the exact flow of the Duffing equation. However, considering the explicit Runge–Kutta methods, this paper finds that there is an error term of order p+1 for the Jacobian matrix determinants. The volume evolution law of a given region in phase space is discussed for different algorithms, respectively. As a result, the sum of Lyapunov exponents is exactly invariable for the SPAs proposed in this paper. Finally, through numerical experiments, relative norm errors and absolute energy errors of phase trajectories of the SPAs and the Heun method (a second-order Runge–Kutta method) are compared. Computational results illustrate that the SPAs are evidently better than the Heun method when ε is small or equal to zero. (general)

  4. Symplectic and Hamiltonian structures of nonlinear evolution equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorfman, I.Y.

    1993-01-01

    A Hamiltonian structure on a finite-dimensional manifold can be introduced either by endowing it with a (pre)symplectic structure, or by describing the Poisson bracket with the help of a tensor with two upper indices named the Poisson structure. Under the assumption of nondegeneracy, the Poisson structure is nothing else than the inverse of the symplectic structure. Also in the degenerate case the distinction between the two approaches is almost insignificant, because both presymplectic and Poisson structures split into symplectic structures on leaves of appropriately chosen foliations. Hamiltonian structures that arise in the theory of evolution equations demonstrate something new in this respect: trying to operate in local terms, one is induced to develop both approaches independently. Hamiltonian operators, being the infinite-dimensional counterparts of Poisson structures, were the first to become the subject of investigations. A considerable period of time passed before the papers initiated research in the theory of symplectic operators, being the counterparts of presymplectic structures. In what follows, we focus on the main achievements in this field

  5. Continuous Time Structural Equation Modeling with R Package ctsem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Driver

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce ctsem, an R package for continuous time structural equation modeling of panel (N > 1 and time series (N = 1 data, using full information maximum likelihood. Most dynamic models (e.g., cross-lagged panel models in the social and behavioural sciences are discrete time models. An assumption of discrete time models is that time intervals between measurements are equal, and that all subjects were assessed at the same intervals. Violations of this assumption are often ignored due to the difficulty of accounting for varying time intervals, therefore parameter estimates can be biased and the time course of effects becomes ambiguous. By using stochastic differential equations to estimate an underlying continuous process, continuous time models allow for any pattern of measurement occasions. By interfacing to OpenMx, ctsem combines the flexible specification of structural equation models with the enhanced data gathering opportunities and improved estimation of continuous time models. ctsem can estimate relationships over time for multiple latent processes, measured by multiple noisy indicators with varying time intervals between observations. Within and between effects are estimated simultaneously by modeling both observed covariates and unobserved heterogeneity. Exogenous shocks with different shapes, group differences, higher order diffusion effects and oscillating processes can all be simply modeled. We first introduce and define continuous time models, then show how to specify and estimate a range of continuous time models using ctsem.

  6. Structure and Calibration of Constitutive Equations for Granular Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawicki Andrzej

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The form of incremental constitutive equations for granular soils is discussed for the triaxial configuration. The classical elasto-plastic approach and the semi-empirical model are discussed on the basis of constitutive relations determined directly from experimental data. First, the general structure of elasto-plastic constitutive equations is presented. Then, the structure of semiempirical constitutive equations is described, and a method of calibrating the model is presented. This calibration method is based on a single experiment, performed in the triaxial apparatus, which also involves a partial verification of the model, on an atypical stress path. The model is shown to give reasonable predictions. An important feature of the semi-empirical incremental model is the definition of loading and unloading, which is different from that assumed in elasto-plasticity. This definition distinguishes between spherical and deviatoric loading/unloading. The definition of deviatoric loading/unloading has been subject to some criticism. It was therefore discussed and clarified in this paper on the basis of the experiment presented.

  7. Crystal structure optimisation using an auxiliary equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Adam J.; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron

    2015-11-01

    Standard procedures for local crystal-structure optimisation involve numerous energy and force calculations. It is common to calculate an energy-volume curve, fitting an equation of state around the equilibrium cell volume. This is a computationally intensive process, in particular, for low-symmetry crystal structures where each isochoric optimisation involves energy minimisation over many degrees of freedom. Such procedures can be prohibitive for non-local exchange-correlation functionals or other "beyond" density functional theory electronic structure techniques, particularly where analytical gradients are not available. We present a simple approach for efficient optimisation of crystal structures based on a known equation of state. The equilibrium volume can be predicted from one single-point calculation and refined with successive calculations if required. The approach is validated for PbS, PbTe, ZnS, and ZnTe using nine density functionals and applied to the quaternary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 and the magnetic metal-organic framework HKUST-1.

  8. Crystal structure optimisation using an auxiliary equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Adam J.; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Butler, Keith T.; 3 Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Global E3 Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of))" >Walsh, Aron

    2015-01-01

    Standard procedures for local crystal-structure optimisation involve numerous energy and force calculations. It is common to calculate an energy–volume curve, fitting an equation of state around the equilibrium cell volume. This is a computationally intensive process, in particular, for low-symmetry crystal structures where each isochoric optimisation involves energy minimisation over many degrees of freedom. Such procedures can be prohibitive for non-local exchange-correlation functionals or other “beyond” density functional theory electronic structure techniques, particularly where analytical gradients are not available. We present a simple approach for efficient optimisation of crystal structures based on a known equation of state. The equilibrium volume can be predicted from one single-point calculation and refined with successive calculations if required. The approach is validated for PbS, PbTe, ZnS, and ZnTe using nine density functionals and applied to the quaternary semiconductor Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 and the magnetic metal-organic framework HKUST-1

  9. Crystal structure optimisation using an auxiliary equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Adam J.; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Butler, Keith T. [Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Walsh, Aron, E-mail: a.walsh@bath.ac.uk [Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Global E" 3 Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-14

    Standard procedures for local crystal-structure optimisation involve numerous energy and force calculations. It is common to calculate an energy–volume curve, fitting an equation of state around the equilibrium cell volume. This is a computationally intensive process, in particular, for low-symmetry crystal structures where each isochoric optimisation involves energy minimisation over many degrees of freedom. Such procedures can be prohibitive for non-local exchange-correlation functionals or other “beyond” density functional theory electronic structure techniques, particularly where analytical gradients are not available. We present a simple approach for efficient optimisation of crystal structures based on a known equation of state. The equilibrium volume can be predicted from one single-point calculation and refined with successive calculations if required. The approach is validated for PbS, PbTe, ZnS, and ZnTe using nine density functionals and applied to the quaternary semiconductor Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the magnetic metal-organic framework HKUST-1.

  10. The Monge-Ampère equation: Hamiltonian and symplectic structures, recursions, and hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, P.H.M.; Krasil'shchik, I.; Verbovetsky, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Using methods of geometry and cohomology developed recently, we study the Monge-Ampère equation, arising as the first nontrivial equation in the associativity equations, or WDVV equations. We describe Hamiltonian and symplectic structures as well as recursion operators for this equation in its

  11. Validation of the Kidney Failure Risk Equation in Manitoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid H. Whitlock

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD are at risk to progress to kidney failure. We previously developed the Kidney Failure Risk Equation (KFRE to predict progression to kidney failure in patients referred to nephrologists. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the ability of the KFRE to discriminate which patients will progress to kidney failure in an unreferred population. Design: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using administrative databases. Setting: This study took place in Manitoba, Canada. Measurements: Age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR were measured. Methods: We included patients from the Diagnostic Services of Manitoba database with an eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and ACR measured between October 2006 and March 2007. Five-year kidney failure risk was predicted using the 4-variable KFRE and compared with treated kidney failure events from the Manitoba Renal Program database. Sensitivity and specificity for KFRE risk thresholds (3% and 10% over 5 years were compared with eGFR thresholds (30 and 45 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Results: Of 1512 included patients, 151 developed kidney failure over the 5-year follow-up period. The 4-variable KFRE showed a superior prognostic discrimination compared with eGFR alone (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] values, 0.90 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 0.88-0.92] for KFRE vs 0.78 [95% CI: 0.74-0.83] for eGFR. At a 3% threshold over 5 years, the KFRE had a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 62%. At 10% risk, sensitivity was 86%, and specificity was 80%. Limitations: Only 11.7% of stage 3-5 CKD patients had simultaneous ACR measurement. The KFRE does not account for other indications for referral such as suspected glomerulonephritis, polycystic kidney disease, and recurrent stone disease. Conclusions: The KFRE has been validated in a population with a demographic and referral

  12. Structure-preserving algorithms for oscillatory differential equations II

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xinyuan; Shi, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This book describes a variety of highly effective and efficient structure-preserving algorithms for second-order oscillatory differential equations. Such systems arise in many branches of science and engineering, and the examples in the book include systems from quantum physics, celestial mechanics and electronics. To accurately simulate the true behavior of such systems, a numerical algorithm must preserve as much as possible their key structural properties: time-reversibility, oscillation, symplecticity, and energy and momentum conservation. The book describes novel advances in RKN methods, ERKN methods, Filon-type asymptotic methods, AVF methods, and trigonometric Fourier collocation methods.  The accuracy and efficiency of each of these algorithms are tested via careful numerical simulations, and their structure-preserving properties are rigorously established by theoretical analysis. The book also gives insights into the practical implementation of the methods. This book is intended for engineers and sc...

  13. Structural Equation Models in a Redundancy Analysis Framework With Covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovaglio, Pietro Giorgio; Vittadini, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    A recent method to specify and fit structural equation modeling in the Redundancy Analysis framework based on so-called Extended Redundancy Analysis (ERA) has been proposed in the literature. In this approach, the relationships between the observed exogenous variables and the observed endogenous variables are moderated by the presence of unobservable composites, estimated as linear combinations of exogenous variables. However, in the presence of direct effects linking exogenous and endogenous variables, or concomitant indicators, the composite scores are estimated by ignoring the presence of the specified direct effects. To fit structural equation models, we propose a new specification and estimation method, called Generalized Redundancy Analysis (GRA), allowing us to specify and fit a variety of relationships among composites, endogenous variables, and external covariates. The proposed methodology extends the ERA method, using a more suitable specification and estimation algorithm, by allowing for covariates that affect endogenous indicators indirectly through the composites and/or directly. To illustrate the advantages of GRA over ERA we propose a simulation study of small samples. Moreover, we propose an application aimed at estimating the impact of formal human capital on the initial earnings of graduates of an Italian university, utilizing a structural model consistent with well-established economic theory.

  14. Using of Structural Equation Modeling Techniques in Cognitive Levels Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Curkovic

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available When constructing knowledge tests, cognitive level is usually one of the dimensions comprising the test specifications with each item assigned to measure a particular level. Recently used taxonomies of the cognitive levels most often represent some modification of the original Bloom’s taxonomy. There are many concerns in current literature about existence of predefined cognitive levels. The aim of this article is to investigate can structural equation modeling techniques confirm existence of different cognitive levels. For the purpose of the research, a Croatian final high-school Mathematics exam was used (N = 9626. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural regression modeling were used to test three different models. Structural equation modeling techniques did not support existence of different cognitive levels in this case. There is more than one possible explanation for that finding. Some other techniques that take into account nonlinear behaviour of the items as well as qualitative techniques might be more useful for the purpose of the cognitive levels validation. Furthermore, it seems that cognitive levels were not efficient descriptors of the items and so improvements are needed in describing the cognitive skills measured by items.

  15. Crossover integral equation theory for the liquid structure study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Chen, H.C.

    1994-08-01

    The main purpose of this work is to report on a calculation that describes the role of the long-range bridge function [H. Iyetomi and S. Ichimaru, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2434 (1982)] as applied to the study of structure of simple liquid metals. It was found here that this bridge function accounts pretty well for the major part of long-range interactions but is physically inadequate for describing the short-range part of liquid structure. To improve on the theory we have drawn attention to the crossover integral equation method which, in essence, amounts to adding to the above bridge function a short-range correction of bridge diagrams. The suggested crossover procedure has been tested for the case of liquid metal Cs. Remarkably good agreement with experiment was obtained confirming our conjecture that the crossover integral equation approach as stressed in this work is potentially an appropriate theory for an accurate study of liquid structure possibly for the supercooled liquid regime. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  16. Lagrangian structures, integrability and chaos for 3D dynamical equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustamante, Miguel D; Hojman, Sergio A

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the general setting for constructing action principles for three-dimensional first-order autonomous equations. We present the results for some integrable and non-integrable cases of the Lotka-Volterra equation, and show Lagrangian descriptions which are valid for systems satisfying Shil'nikov criteria on the existence of strange attractors, though chaotic behaviour has not been verified up to now. The Euler-Lagrange equations we get for these systems usually present 'time reparametrization' invariance, though other kinds of invariance may be found according to the kernel of the associated symplectic 2-form. The formulation of a Hamiltonian structure (Poisson brackets and Hamiltonians) for these systems from the Lagrangian viewpoint leads to a method of finding new constants of the motion starting from known ones, which is applied to some systems found in the literature known to possess a constant of the motion, to find the other and thus showing their integrability. In particular, we show that the so-called ABC system is completely integrable if it possesses one constant of the motion

  17. Structural Equation Modeling with Mplus Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2011-01-01

    Modeled after Barbara Byrne's other best-selling structural equation modeling (SEM) books, this practical guide reviews the basic concepts and applications of SEM using Mplus Versions 5 & 6. The author reviews SEM applications based on actual data taken from her own research. Using non-mathematical language, it is written for the novice SEM user. With each application chapter, the author "walks" the reader through all steps involved in testing the SEM model including: an explanation of the issues addressed illustrated and annotated testing of the hypothesized and post hoc models expl

  18. Modeling the Informal Economy in Mexico. A Structural Equation Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Brambila Macias, Jose

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses annual data for the period 1970-2006 in order to estimate and investigate the evolution of the Mexican informal economy. In order to do so, we model the informal economy as a latent variable and try to explain it through relationships between possible cause and indicator variables using structural equation modeling (SEM). Our results indicate that the Mexican informal sector at the beginning of the 1970’s initially accounted for 40 percent of GDP while slightly decreasing to s...

  19. Satisfaction in border tourism: An analysis with structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jimber del Río

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Border tourism is the temporary displacement of people to the dividing line between two countries contiguous areas. This activity promotes the economic development of these geographical regions. The aim of this research is to analyze visitors from the Dominican Republic and Haiti border. We propose the results of an empirical study with structural equations that show correlations between the attitude factor towards the border tourism, the value factors perceived by the tourist, satisfaction and loyalty of the visitor in the destination place.

  20. Reduction of structured population models to threshold-type delay equations and functional differential equations: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.L. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe (United States))

    1993-01-01

    It is shown by way of a simple example that certain structured population models lead naturally to differential delay equations of the threshold type and that these equations can be transformed in a natural way to functional differential equations. The model examined can be viewed as a model of competition between adults and juveniles of a single population. The results indicate the possibility that this competition leads to instability. 28 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Strong plasma shock structures based on the Navier--Stokes equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, K.

    1975-01-01

    The structure of a plasma collisional shock wave is examined on the basis of the Navier--Stokes equations and simultaneously on the basis of the Fokker--Planck equation. The resultant structures are compared to check the validity of the Navier--Stokes equations applied to the structures of strong shock waves. The Navier--Stokes equations give quite correct structures for weak shock waves. For the strong shock waves, the detailed structures obtained from the Navier--Stokes equations differ from the results of the Fokker--Planck equation, but the shock thicknesses of the two shock waves are in relatively close agreement

  2. Prior Sensitivity Analysis in Default Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Sara; Mulder, Joris; Oberski, Daniel L

    2017-11-27

    Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) has recently gained popularity because it enables researchers to fit complex models and solve some of the issues often encountered in classical maximum likelihood estimation, such as nonconvergence and inadmissible solutions. An important component of any Bayesian analysis is the prior distribution of the unknown model parameters. Often, researchers rely on default priors, which are constructed in an automatic fashion without requiring substantive prior information. However, the prior can have a serious influence on the estimation of the model parameters, which affects the mean squared error, bias, coverage rates, and quantiles of the estimates. In this article, we investigate the performance of three different default priors: noninformative improper priors, vague proper priors, and empirical Bayes priors-with the latter being novel in the BSEM literature. Based on a simulation study, we find that these three default BSEM methods may perform very differently, especially with small samples. A careful prior sensitivity analysis is therefore needed when performing a default BSEM analysis. For this purpose, we provide a practical step-by-step guide for practitioners to conducting a prior sensitivity analysis in default BSEM. Our recommendations are illustrated using a well-known case study from the structural equation modeling literature, and all code for conducting the prior sensitivity analysis is available in the online supplemental materials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Applied structural equation modelling for researchers and practitioners using R and Stata for behavioural research

    CERN Document Server

    Ramlall, Indranarain

    2016-01-01

    This book explains in a rigorous, concise and practical manner all the vital components embedded in structural equation modelling. Focusing on R and stata to implement and perform various structural equation models.

  4. Random-Effects Models for Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling: Review, Issues, and Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Cheung, Shu Fai

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) combines the techniques of meta-analysis and structural equation modeling for the purpose of synthesizing correlation or covariance matrices and fitting structural equation models on the pooled correlation or covariance matrix. Both fixed-effects and random-effects models can be defined in MASEM.…

  5. Generalized structured component analysis a component-based approach to structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Heungsun

    2014-01-01

    Winner of the 2015 Sugiyama Meiko Award (Publication Award) of the Behaviormetric Society of Japan Developed by the authors, generalized structured component analysis is an alternative to two longstanding approaches to structural equation modeling: covariance structure analysis and partial least squares path modeling. Generalized structured component analysis allows researchers to evaluate the adequacy of a model as a whole, compare a model to alternative specifications, and conduct complex analyses in a straightforward manner. Generalized Structured Component Analysis: A Component-Based Approach to Structural Equation Modeling provides a detailed account of this novel statistical methodology and its various extensions. The authors present the theoretical underpinnings of generalized structured component analysis and demonstrate how it can be applied to various empirical examples. The book enables quantitative methodologists, applied researchers, and practitioners to grasp the basic concepts behind this new a...

  6. Multinational Assessment of Accuracy of Equations for Predicting Risk of Kidney Failure: A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangri, N.; Grams, M.E.; Levey, A.S.; Coresh, J.; Appel, L.J.; Astor, B.C.; Chodick, G.; Collins, A.J.; Djurdjev, O.; Elley, C.R.; Evans, M.; Garg, A.X.; Hallan, S.I.; Inker, L.A.; Ito, S.; Jee, S.H.; Kovesdy, C.P.; Kronenberg, F.; Heerspink, H.J.; Marks, A.; Nadkarni, G.N.; Navaneethan, S.D.; Nelson, R.G.; Titze, S.; Sarnak, M.J.; Stengel, B.; Woodward, M.; Iseki, K.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Identifying patients at risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression may facilitate more optimal nephrology care. Kidney failure risk equations, including such factors as age, sex, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and calcium and phosphate concentrations, were previously

  7. Structural equation models of VMT growth in US urbanised areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Gallivan, Frank; Nelson, Arthur C.; Grace, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle miles travelled (VMT) is a primary performance indicator for land use and transportation, bringing with it both positive and negative externalities. This study updates and refines previous work on VMT in urbanised areas, using recent data, additional metrics and structural equation modelling (SEM). In a cross-sectional model for 2010, population, income and freeway capacity are positively related to VMT, while gasoline prices, development density and transit service levels are negatively related. Findings of the cross-sectional model are generally confirmed in a more tightly controlled longitudinal study of changes in VMT between 2000 and 2010, the first model of its kind. The cross-sectional and longitudinal models together, plus the transportation literature generally, give us a basis for generalising across studies to arrive at elasticity values of VMT with respect to different urban variables.

  8. A performance measurement using balanced scorecard and structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosha Makvandi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, balanced scorecard (BSC has been widely used as a promising method for performance measurement. BSC studies organizations in terms of four perspectives including customer, internal processes, learning and growth and financial figures. This paper presents a hybrid of BSC and structural equation modeling (SEM to measure the performance of an Iranian university in province of Alborz, Iran. The proposed study of this paper uses this conceptual method, designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some university students and professors. Using SEM technique, the survey analyzes the data and the results indicate that the university did poorly in terms of all four perspectives. The survey extracts necessary target improvement by presenting necessary attributes for performance improvement.

  9. Analisis Loyalitas Pelanggan Industri Jasa Pengiriman Menggunakan Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarika Zuhri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer loyalty is important for both product and service industries. A loyal customer keeps using the company’s product and services. For a shipping service company, retaining existing customers in order to remain faithful will certainly be very crucial. This study was to determine relationship between variables affecting customer loyalty at PT. Pos Indonesia-Banda Aceh, a shipping service industry. The research used Structural Equation Modeling (SEM and with samples of 153 questionnaires obtained through a non-probability sampling technique. By using AMOS software, it can be concluded that the perceived quality does affect customer satisfaction, perceived value has influence on the customer satisfaction, the customer satisfaction is influential to trust and the trust itself has positive influence on customer loyalty.

  10. semPLS: Structural Equation Modeling Using Partial Least Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Monecke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation models (SEM are very popular in many disciplines. The partial least squares (PLS approach to SEM offers an alternative to covariance-based SEM, which is especially suited for situations when data is not normally distributed. PLS path modelling is referred to as soft-modeling-technique with minimum demands regarding mea- surement scales, sample sizes and residual distributions. The semPLS package provides the capability to estimate PLS path models within the R programming environment. Different setups for the estimation of factor scores can be used. Furthermore it contains modular methods for computation of bootstrap confidence intervals, model parameters and several quality indices. Various plot functions help to evaluate the model. The well known mobile phone dataset from marketing research is used to demonstrate the features of the package.

  11. Structural Equation Modeling: Theory and Applications in Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzeng Yih Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystem dynamics are driven by a complex array of simultaneous cause-and-effect relationships. Understanding this complex web requires specialized analytical techniques such as Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The SEM framework and implementation steps are outlined in this study, and we then demonstrate the technique by application to overstory-understory relationships in mature Douglas-fir forests in the northwestern USA. A SEM model was formulated with (1 a path model representing the effects of successively higher layers of vegetation on late-seral herbs through processes such as light attenuation and (2 a measurement model accounting for measurement errors. The fitted SEM model suggested a direct negative effect of light attenuation on late-seral herbs cover but a direct positive effect of northern aspect. Moreover, many processes have indirect effects mediated through midstory vegetation. SEM is recommended as a forest management tool for designing silvicultural treatments and systems for attaining complex arrays of management objectives.

  12. Using structural equation modeling to investigate relationships among ecological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaeb, Z.A.; Kevin, Summers J.; Pugesek, B.H.

    2000-01-01

    Structural equation modeling is an advanced multivariate statistical process with which a researcher can construct theoretical concepts, test their measurement reliability, hypothesize and test a theory about their relationships, take into account measurement errors, and consider both direct and indirect effects of variables on one another. Latent variables are theoretical concepts that unite phenomena under a single term, e.g., ecosystem health, environmental condition, and pollution (Bollen, 1989). Latent variables are not measured directly but can be expressed in terms of one or more directly measurable variables called indicators. For some researchers, defining, constructing, and examining the validity of latent variables may be the end task of itself. For others, testing hypothesized relationships of latent variables may be of interest. We analyzed the correlation matrix of eleven environmental variables from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) using methods of structural equation modeling. We hypothesized and tested a conceptual model to characterize the interdependencies between four latent variables-sediment contamination, natural variability, biodiversity, and growth potential. In particular, we were interested in measuring the direct, indirect, and total effects of sediment contamination and natural variability on biodiversity and growth potential. The model fit the data well and accounted for 81% of the variability in biodiversity and 69% of the variability in growth potential. It revealed a positive total effect of natural variability on growth potential that otherwise would have been judged negative had we not considered indirect effects. That is, natural variability had a negative direct effect on growth potential of magnitude -0.3251 and a positive indirect effect mediated through biodiversity of magnitude 0.4509, yielding a net positive total effect of 0

  13. On the specification of structural equation models for ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Michael, Anderson T.; Han, O.; Scheiner, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of structural equation modeling (SEM) is often motivated by its utility for investigating complex networks of relationships, but also because of its promise as a means of representing theoretical concepts using latent variables. In this paper, we discuss characteristics of ecological theory and some of the challenges for proper specification of theoretical ideas in structural equation models (SE models). In our presentation, we describe some of the requirements for classical latent variable models in which observed variables (indicators) are interpreted as the effects of underlying causes. We also describe alternative model specifications in which indicators are interpreted as having causal influences on the theoretical concepts. We suggest that this latter nonclassical specification (which involves another variable type-the composite) will often be appropriate for ecological studies because of the multifaceted nature of our theoretical concepts. In this paper, we employ the use of meta-models to aid the translation of theory into SE models and also to facilitate our ability to relate results back to our theories. We demonstrate our approach by showing how a synthetic theory of grassland biodiversity can be evaluated using SEM and data from a coastal grassland. In this example, the theory focuses on the responses of species richness to abiotic stress and disturbance, both directly and through intervening effects on community biomass. Models examined include both those based on classical forms (where each concept is represented using a single latent variable) and also ones in which the concepts are recognized to be multifaceted and modeled as such. To address the challenge of matching SE models with the conceptual level of our theory, two approaches are illustrated, compositing and aggregation. Both approaches are shown to have merits, with the former being preferable for cases where the multiple facets of a concept have widely differing effects in the

  14. Solution of the stellar structure equations in Eulerian coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deupree, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium, assuming only radiative energy transport and spherical symmetry, are solved in Eulerian coordinates by a suitable modification of the Henyey method. An Eulerian approach may possibly be more suitably extended to more spatial dimensions than the usual Lagrangian procedure. The principle advantage of this method is that the equations of hydrostatic and thermal equilibrium and Poisson's equation may be solved simultaneously

  15. Study The role of latent variables in lost working days by Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Heydari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on estimations, each year about 250 million work-related injuries and many temporary or permanent disabilities occur which most are preventable. Oil and Gas industries are among industries with high incidence of injuries in the world. The aim of this study has investigated  the role and effect of different risk management variables on lost working days (LWD in the seismic projects. Methods: This study was a retrospective, cross-sectional and systematic analysis, which was carried out on occupational accidents between 2008-2015(an 8 years period in different seismic projects for oilfield exploration at Dana Energy (Iranian Seismic Company. The preliminary sample size of the study were 487accidents. A systems analysis approach were applied by using root case analysis (RCA and structural equation modeling (SEM. Tools for the data analysis were included, SPSS23 and AMOS23  software. Results: The mean of lost working days (LWD, was calculated 49.57, the final model of structural equation modeling showed that latent variables of, safety and health training factor(-0.33, risk assessment factor(-0.55 and risk control factor (-0.61 as direct causes significantly affected of lost working days (LWD in the seismic industries (p< 0.05. Conclusion: The finding of present study revealed that combination of variables affected in lost working days (LWD. Therefore,the role of these variables in accidents should be investigated and suitable programs should be considered for them.

  16. Comparing Entrepreneurship Intention: A Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the main social and economic problems that many countries face nowadays. One strategic way to overcome this problem is by fostering entrepreneurship spirit especially for unem ployment graduates. Entrepreneurship is becoming an alternative Job for students after they graduate. This is because entrepreneurship of-fers major benefits, such as setting up one’s own business and the pos-sibility of having significant financial rewards than working for others. Entrepreneurship is then offered by many universities. This research applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB by incorporating attitude toward success as an antecedent variable of the attitude to examine students’ intention to become an entrepreneur. The objective of this research is to compare entrepreneurship intention between business students and non-business students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data for this study. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents by applying the drop-off/pick-up method. A number of 294 by questionnaires were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. Two out of four hypotheses were confirmed. These hypotheses are the relationship between the attitude toward becoming an entrepreneur and the intention to try becoming an entrepreneur, and the relationship perceived behavioral control and intention to try becoming an entrepreneur. This paper also provides a discussion and offers directions for future research.

  17. Suicidal ideation in adolescents: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yu, Mi; Kim, Kyoung-Eun

    2014-06-19

    The purpose of this study is to test a model linking adolescents' experience of violence and peer support to their happiness and suicidal ideation. The participants were high school students in Seoul, and in Kyungi, and Chungnam Provinces in Korea. The Conflict Tactics Scale, School Violence Scale, Oxford Happiness Inventory, and Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire were administered to just over 1000 adolescents. The model was tested using a path analysis technique within structural equation modeling. The model fit indices suggest that the revised model is a better fit for the data than the original hypothesized model. The experience of violence had a significant negative direct effect and peer support had a significant positive direct effect on their happiness. Happiness had a significant negative effect and the experience of violence had a significant positive effect on suicidal ideation. These findings demonstrate the fundamental importance of reducing exposure of violence to adolescents, and that increasing peer support and their happiness may be the key to adolescent suicidal ideation prevention. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. How motivation affects academic performance: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, R A; Ten Cate, Th J; Vos, C M P; Westers, P; Croiset, G

    2013-03-01

    Few studies in medical education have studied effect of quality of motivation on performance. Self-Determination Theory based on quality of motivation differentiates between Autonomous Motivation (AM) that originates within an individual and Controlled Motivation (CM) that originates from external sources. To determine whether Relative Autonomous Motivation (RAM, a measure of the balance between AM and CM) affects academic performance through good study strategy and higher study effort and compare this model between subgroups: males and females; students selected via two different systems namely qualitative and weighted lottery selection. Data on motivation, study strategy and effort was collected from 383 medical students of VU University Medical Center Amsterdam and their academic performance results were obtained from the student administration. Structural Equation Modelling analysis technique was used to test a hypothesized model in which high RAM would positively affect Good Study Strategy (GSS) and study effort, which in turn would positively affect academic performance in the form of grade point averages. This model fit well with the data, Chi square = 1.095, df = 3, p = 0.778, RMSEA model fit = 0.000. This model also fitted well for all tested subgroups of students. Differences were found in the strength of relationships between the variables for the different subgroups as expected. In conclusion, RAM positively correlated with academic performance through deep strategy towards study and higher study effort. This model seems valid in medical education in subgroups such as males, females, students selected by qualitative and weighted lottery selection.

  19. Local fit evaluation of structural equation models using graphical criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoemmes, Felix; Rosseel, Yves; Textor, Johannes

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation of model fit is critically important for every structural equation model (SEM), and sophisticated methods have been developed for this task. Among them are the χ² goodness-of-fit test, decomposition of the χ², derived measures like the popular root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) or comparative fit index (CFI), or inspection of residuals or modification indices. Many of these methods provide a global approach to model fit evaluation: A single index is computed that quantifies the fit of the entire SEM to the data. In contrast, graphical criteria like d-separation or trek-separation allow derivation of implications that can be used for local fit evaluation, an approach that is hardly ever applied. We provide an overview of local fit evaluation from the viewpoint of SEM practitioners. In the presence of model misfit, local fit evaluation can potentially help in pinpointing where the problem with the model lies. For models that do fit the data, local tests can identify the parts of the model that are corroborated by the data. Local tests can also be conducted before a model is fitted at all, and they can be used even for models that are globally underidentified. We discuss appropriate statistical local tests, and provide applied examples. We also present novel software in R that automates this type of local fit evaluation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Comparing Entrepreneurship Intention: A Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina O. Sihombing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the main social and economic problems that many countries face nowadays. One strategic way to overcome this problem is by fostering entrepreneurship spirit especially for unem-ployment graduates. Entrepreneurship is becoming an alternative Job for students after they graduate. This is because entrepreneurship of fers major benefits, such as setting up one’s own business and the pos sibility of having significant financial rewards than working for others. Entrepreneurship is then offered by many universities. This research applies the theory of planned behavior (TPB by incorporating attitude toward success as an antecedent variable of the attitude to examine students’ intention to become an entrepreneur. The objective of this research is to compare entrepreneurship intention between business students and non-business students. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data for this study. Questionnaires were distributed to respondents by applying the drop-off/pick-up method. A number of 294 by questionnaires were used in the analysis. Data were analyzed by using structural equation modeling. Two out of four hypotheses were confirmed. These hypotheses are the relationship between the attitude toward becoming an entrepreneur and the intention to try becoming an entrepreneur, and the relationship perceived behavioral control and intention to try becoming an entrepreneur. This paper also provides a discussion and offers directions for future research.

  1. Structural equation modeling with EQS basic concepts, applications, and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, Barbara M

    2013-01-01

    Readers who want a less mathematical alternative to the EQS manual will find exactly what they're looking for in this practical text. Written specifically for those with little to no knowledge of structural equation modeling (SEM) or EQS, the author's goal is to provide a non-mathematical introduction to the basic concepts of SEM by applying these principles to EQS, Version 6.1. The book clearly demonstrates a wide variety of SEM/EQS applications that include confirmatory factor analytic and full latent variable models. Written in a "user-friendly" style, the author "walks" the reader through the varied steps involved in the process of testing SEM models: model specification and estimation, assessment of model fit, EQS output, and interpretation of findings. Each of the book's applications is accompanied by: a statement of the hypothesis being tested, a schematic representation of the model, explanations of the EQS input and output files, tips on how to use the pull-down menus, and the data file upon which ...

  2. Parenting Stress, Mental Health, Dyadic Adjustment: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rollè

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the 1st year of the post-partum period, parenting stress, mental health, and dyadic adjustment are important for the wellbeing of both parents and the child. However, there are few studies that analyze the relationship among these three dimensions. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between parenting stress, mental health (depressive and anxiety symptoms, and dyadic adjustment among first-time parents.Method: We studied 268 parents (134 couples of healthy babies. At 12 months post-partum, both parents filled out, in a counterbalanced order, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Edinburgh Post-natal Depression Scale, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the potential mediating effects of mental health on the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment.Results: Results showed the full mediation effect of mental health between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment. A multi-group analysis further found that the paths did not differ across mothers and fathers.Discussion: The results suggest that mental health is an important dimension that mediates the relationship between parenting stress and dyadic adjustment in the transition to parenthood.

  3. The ACTIVE conceptual framework as a structural equation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L.; Payne, Brennan R.; Casanova, Ramon; Davoudzadeh, Pega; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Farias, Sarah; Giovannetti, Tania; Ip, Edward H.; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W.; Schaie, K. Warner; Thomas, Kelsey; Willis, Sherry; Jones, Richard N.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Study Context Conceptual frameworks are analytic models at a high level of abstraction. Their operationalization can inform randomized trial design and sample size considerations. Methods The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) conceptual framework was empirically tested using structural equation modeling (N=2,802). ACTIVE was guided by a conceptual framework for cognitive training in which proximal cognitive abilities (memory, inductive reasoning, speed of processing) mediate treatment-related improvement in primary outcomes (everyday problem-solving, difficulty with activities of daily living, everyday speed, driving difficulty), which in turn lead to improved secondary outcomes (health-related quality of life, health service utilization, mobility). Measurement models for each proximal, primary, and secondary outcome were developed and tested using baseline data. Each construct was then combined in one model to evaluate fit (RMSEA, CFI, normalized residuals of each indicator). To expand the conceptual model and potentially inform future trials, evidence of modification of structural model parameters was evaluated by age, years of education, sex, race, and self-rated health status. Results Preconceived measurement models for memory, reasoning, speed of processing, everyday problem-solving, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulty, everyday speed, driving difficulty, and health-related quality of life each fit well to the data (all RMSEA .95). Fit of the full model was excellent (RMSEA = .038; CFI = .924). In contrast with previous findings from ACTIVE regarding who benefits from training, interaction testing revealed associations between proximal abilities and primary outcomes are stronger on average by nonwhite race, worse health, older age, and less education (p conceptual model. Findings suggest that the types of people who show intervention effects on cognitive performance potentially may be

  4. The ACTIVE conceptual framework as a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alden L; Payne, Brennan R; Casanova, Ramon; Davoudzadeh, Pega; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Farias, Sarah; Giovannetti, Tania; Ip, Edward H; Marsiske, Michael; Rebok, George W; Schaie, K Warner; Thomas, Kelsey; Willis, Sherry; Jones, Richard N

    2018-01-01

    Background/Study Context: Conceptual frameworks are analytic models at a high level of abstraction. Their operationalization can inform randomized trial design and sample size considerations. The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) conceptual framework was empirically tested using structural equation modeling (N=2,802). ACTIVE was guided by a conceptual framework for cognitive training in which proximal cognitive abilities (memory, inductive reasoning, speed of processing) mediate treatment-related improvement in primary outcomes (everyday problem-solving, difficulty with activities of daily living, everyday speed, driving difficulty), which in turn lead to improved secondary outcomes (health-related quality of life, health service utilization, mobility). Measurement models for each proximal, primary, and secondary outcome were developed and tested using baseline data. Each construct was then combined in one model to evaluate fit (RMSEA, CFI, normalized residuals of each indicator). To expand the conceptual model and potentially inform future trials, evidence of modification of structural model parameters was evaluated by age, years of education, sex, race, and self-rated health status. Preconceived measurement models for memory, reasoning, speed of processing, everyday problem-solving, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) difficulty, everyday speed, driving difficulty, and health-related quality of life each fit well to the data (all RMSEA .95). Fit of the full model was excellent (RMSEA = .038; CFI = .924). In contrast with previous findings from ACTIVE regarding who benefits from training, interaction testing revealed associations between proximal abilities and primary outcomes are stronger on average by nonwhite race, worse health, older age, and less education (p conceptual model. Findings suggest that the types of people who show intervention effects on cognitive performance potentially may be different from

  5. A Hamiltonian structure for the linearized Einstein vacuum field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres del Castillo, G.F.

    1991-01-01

    By considering the Einstein vacuum field equations linearized about the Minkowski metric, the evolution equations for the gauge-invariant quantities characterizing the gravitational field are written in a Hamiltonian form. A Poisson bracket between functionals of the field, compatible with the constraints satisfied by the field variables, is obtained (Author)

  6. Applications of Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling to Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Au, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) has been proposed as an extension to structural equation modeling for analyzing data with nested structure. We have begun to see a few applications in cross-cultural research in which MSEM fits well as the statistical model. However, given that cross-cultural studies can only afford collecting data…

  7. Generalized internal long wave equations: construction, hamiltonian structure and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of the theory of the internal long-wave equations (ILW) are considered. A general class of the ILW type equations is constructed by means of the Zakharov-Shabat ''dressing'' method. Hamiltonian structure and infinite numbers of conservation laws are introduced. The considered equations are shown to be Hamiltonian in the so-called second Hamiltonian structu

  8. Half-trek criterion for generic identifiability of linear structural equation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foygel, R.; Draisma, J.; Drton, M.

    2012-01-01

    A linear structural equation model relates random variables of interest and corresponding Gaussian noise terms via a linear equation system. Each such model can be represented by a mixed graph in which directed edges encode the linear equations, and bidirected edges indicate possible correlations

  9. Half-trek criterion for generic identifiability of linear structural equation models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foygel, R.; Draisma, J.; Drton, M.

    2011-01-01

    A linear structural equation model relates random variables of interest and corresponding Gaussian noise terms via a linear equation system. Each such model can be represented by a mixed graph in which directed edges encode the linear equations, and bidirected edges indicate possible correlations

  10. Generalized structural equations improve sexual-selection analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lombardi

    Full Text Available Sexual selection is an intense evolutionary force, which operates through competition for the access to breeding resources. There are many cases where male copulatory success is highly asymmetric, and few males are able to sire most females. Two main hypotheses were proposed to explain this asymmetry: "female choice" and "male dominance". The literature reports contrasting results. This variability may reflect actual differences among studied populations, but it may also be generated by methodological differences and statistical shortcomings in data analysis. A review of the statistical methods used so far in lek studies, shows a prevalence of Linear Models (LM and Generalized Linear Models (GLM which may be affected by problems in inferring cause-effect relationships; multi-collinearity among explanatory variables and erroneous handling of non-normal and non-continuous distributions of the response variable. In lek breeding, selective pressure is maximal, because large numbers of males and females congregate in small arenas. We used a dataset on lekking fallow deer (Dama dama, to contrast the methods and procedures employed so far, and we propose a novel approach based on Generalized Structural Equations Models (GSEMs. GSEMs combine the power and flexibility of both SEM and GLM in a unified modeling framework. We showed that LMs fail to identify several important predictors of male copulatory success and yields very imprecise parameter estimates. Minor variations in data transformation yield wide changes in results and the method appears unreliable. GLMs improved the analysis, but GSEMs provided better results, because the use of latent variables decreases the impact of measurement errors. Using GSEMs, we were able to test contrasting hypotheses and calculate both direct and indirect effects, and we reached a high precision of the estimates, which implies a high predictive ability. In synthesis, we recommend the use of GSEMs in studies on

  11. Application of Grounded Theory in Determining Required Elements for IPv6 Risk Assessment Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Athirah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The deployment of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6 has raised security concerns among the network administrators. Thus, in strengthening the network security, administrator requires an appropriate method to assess the possible risks that occur in their networks. Aware of the needs to calculate risk in IPv6 network, it is essential to an organization to have an equation that is flexible and consider the requirements of the network. However, the existing risk assessment equations do not consider the requirement of the network. Therefore, this paper presents the adaptation of grounded theory to search for elements that are needed to develop IPv6 risk assessment (IRA6 equation. The attack scenarios’ experiments; UDP Flooding, TCP Flooding and Multicast attacks were carried out in different network environment to show how the IPv6 risk assessment equation being used. The result shows that the IRA6 equation is more flexible to be used regardless the network sizes and easier to calculate the risk value compared to the existing risk assessment equations. Hence, network administrators can have a proper decision making and strategic planning for a robust network security.

  12. Using structural equation modeling for network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Wu, Yun-Chun

    2017-07-14

    Network meta-analysis overcomes the limitations of traditional pair-wise meta-analysis by incorporating all available evidence into a general statistical framework for simultaneous comparisons of several treatments. Currently, network meta-analyses are undertaken either within the Bayesian hierarchical linear models or frequentist generalized linear mixed models. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a statistical method originally developed for modeling causal relations among observed and latent variables. As random effect is explicitly modeled as a latent variable in SEM, it is very flexible for analysts to specify complex random effect structure and to make linear and nonlinear constraints on parameters. The aim of this article is to show how to undertake a network meta-analysis within the statistical framework of SEM. We used an example dataset to demonstrate the standard fixed and random effect network meta-analysis models can be easily implemented in SEM. It contains results of 26 studies that directly compared three treatment groups A, B and C for prevention of first bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis. We also showed that a new approach to network meta-analysis based on the technique of unrestricted weighted least squares (UWLS) method can also be undertaken using SEM. For both the fixed and random effect network meta-analysis, SEM yielded similar coefficients and confidence intervals to those reported in the previous literature. The point estimates of two UWLS models were identical to those in the fixed effect model but the confidence intervals were greater. This is consistent with results from the traditional pairwise meta-analyses. Comparing to UWLS model with common variance adjusted factor, UWLS model with unique variance adjusted factor has greater confidence intervals when the heterogeneity was larger in the pairwise comparison. The UWLS model with unique variance adjusted factor reflects the difference in heterogeneity within each comparison

  13. Dynamic modeling of interfacial structures via interfacial area transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seungjin, Kim; Mamoru, Ishii

    2005-01-01

    The interfacial area transport equation dynamically models the two-phase flow regime transitions and predicts continuous change of the interfacial area concentration along the flow field. Hence, when employed in the numerical thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, it eliminates artificial bifurcations stemming from the use of the static flow regime transition criteria. Accounting for the substantial differences in the transport phenomena of various sizes of bubbles, the two-group interfacial area transport equations have been developed. The group 1 equation describes the transport of small-dispersed bubbles that are either distorted or spherical in shapes, and the group 2 equation describes the transport of large cap, slug or churn-turbulent bubbles. The source and sink terms in the right-hand-side of the transport equations have been established by mechanistically modeling the creation and destruction of bubbles due to major bubble interaction mechanisms. In the present paper, the interfacial area transport equations currently available are reviewed to address the feasibility and reliability of the model along with extensive experimental results. These include the data from adiabatic upward air-water two-phase flow in round tubes of various sizes, from a rectangular duct, and from adiabatic co-current downward air-water two-phase flow in round pipes of two sizes. (authors)

  14. Dynamic modeling of interfacial structures via interfacial area transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seungjin, Kim; Mamoru, Ishii

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:In the current thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes using the two-fluid model, the empirical correlations that are based on the two-phase flow regimes and regime transition criteria are being employed as closure relations for the interfacial transfer terms. Due to its inherent shortcomings, however, such static correlations are inaccurate and present serious problems in the numerical analysis. In view of this, a new dynamic approach employing the interfacial area transport equation has been studied. The interfacial area transport equation dynamically models the two-phase flow regime transitions and predicts continuous change of the interfacial area concentration along the flow field. Hence, when employed in the thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, it eliminates artificial bifurcations stemming from the use of the static flow regime transition criteria. Therefore, the interfacial area transport equation can make a leapfrog improvement in the current capability of the two-fluid model from both scientific and practical point of view. Accounting for the substantial differences in the transport phenomena of various sizes of bubbles, the two-group interfacial area transport equations have been developed. The group 1 equation describes the transport of small-dispersed bubbles that are either distorted or spherical in shapes, and the group 2 equation describes the transport of large cap, slug or churn-turbulent bubbles. The source and sink terms in the right hand-side of the transport equations have been established by mechanistically modeling the creation and destruction of bubbles due to major bubble interaction mechanisms. The coalescence mechanisms include the random collision driven by turbulence, and the entrainment of trailing bubbles in the wake region of the preceding bubble. The disintegration mechanisms include the break-up by turbulence impact, shearing-off at the rim of large cap bubbles and the break-up of large cap

  15. Model Servqual Dengan Pendekatan Structural Equation Modeling (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Sistem Informasi)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurfaizal, Yusmedi

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini berjudul “MODEL SERVQUAL DENGAN PENDEKATAN STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Sistem Informasi)”. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui model Servqual dengan pendekatan Structural Equation Modeling pada mahasiswa sistem informasi. Peneliti memutuskan untuk mengambil sampel sebanyak 100 responden. Untuk menguji model digunakan analisis SEM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tangibility, reliability responsiveness, assurance dan emphaty mempunyai pengaruh...

  16. An Improved Estimation Using Polya-Gamma Augmentation for Bayesian Structural Equation Models with Dichotomous Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seohyun; Lu, Zhenqiu; Cohen, Allan S.

    2018-01-01

    Bayesian algorithms have been used successfully in the social and behavioral sciences to analyze dichotomous data particularly with complex structural equation models. In this study, we investigate the use of the Polya-Gamma data augmentation method with Gibbs sampling to improve estimation of structural equation models with dichotomous variables.…

  17. The Interplay of School Readiness and Teacher Readiness for Educational Technology Integration: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petko, Dominik; Prasse, Doreen; Cantieni, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that technological change in schools depends on multiple interrelated factors. Structural equation models explaining the interplay of factors often suffer from high complexity and low coherence. To reduce complexity, a more robust structural equation model was built with data from a survey of 349 Swiss primary school…

  18. New Hamiltonian structure of the fractional C-KdV soliton equation hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Fajun; Zhang Hongqing

    2008-01-01

    A generalized Hamiltonian structure of the fractional soliton equation hierarchy is presented by using of differential forms and exterior derivatives of fractional orders. Example of the fractional Hamiltonian system of the C-KdV soliton equation hierarchy is constructed, which is a new Hamiltonian structure

  19. Full information estimations of a system of simultaneous equations with error component structure

    OpenAIRE

    Balestra, Pietro; Krishnakumar, Jaya

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we develop full information methods for estimating the parameters of a system of simultaneous equations with error component struc-ture and establish relationships between the various structural estimat

  20. Multinational Assessment of Accuracy of Equations for Predicting Risk of Kidney Failure : A Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangri, Navdeep; Grams, Morgan E.; Levey, Andrew S.; Coresh, Josef; Appel, Lawrence J.; Astor, Brad C.; Chodick, Gabriel; Collins, Allan J.; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Elley, Raina; Evans, Marie; Garg, Amit X.; Hallan, Stein I.; Nicer, Lesley A.; Ito, Sadayoshi; Jee, Sun Ha; Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Kronenberg, Florian; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; Marks, Angharad; Nadkarni, Girish N.; Navaneethan, Sankar D.; Nelson, Robert G.; Titze, Stephanie; Sarnak, Mark J.; Stengel, Benedicte; Woodward, Mark; Iseki, Kunitoshi

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Identifying patients at risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression may facilitate more optimal nephrology care. Kidney failure risk equations were previously developed and validated in 2 Canadian cohorts. Validation in other regions and in CKD populations not under the care of a

  1. Augmentation of DAA Staggered – Solution Equations in Underwater Shock Problems for Singular Structural Mass Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. DeRuntz Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical solution of underwater shock fluid – structure interaction problems using boundary element/finite element techniques became tractable through the development of the family of Doubly Asymptotic Approximations (DAA. Practical implementation of the method has relied on the so-called augmentation of the DAA equations. The fluid and structural systems are respectively coupled by the structural acceleration vector in the surface normal direction on the right hand side of the DAA equations, and the total pressure applied to the structural equations on its right hand side. By formally solving for the acceleration vector from the structural system and substituting it into its place in the DAA equations, the augmentation introduces a term involving the inverse of the structural mass matrix. However there exist at least two important classes of problems in which the structural mass matrix is singular. This paper develops a method to carry out the augmentation for such problems using a generalized inverse technique.

  2. Discrete integration of continuous Kalman filtering equations for time invariant second-order structural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Belvin, W. Keith

    1990-01-01

    A general form for the first-order representation of the continuous second-order linear structural-dynamics equations is introduced to derive a corresponding form of first-order continuous Kalman filtering equations. Time integration of the resulting equations is carried out via a set of linear multistep integration formulas. It is shown that a judicious combined selection of computational paths and the undetermined matrices introduced in the general form of the first-order linear structural systems leads to a class of second-order discrete Kalman filtering equations involving only symmetric sparse N x N solution matrices.

  3. Matrix Methods for Solving Hartree-Fock Equations in Atomic Structure Calculations and Line Broadening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gomez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atomic structure of N-electron atoms is often determined by solving the Hartree-Fock equations, which are a set of integro-differential equations. The integral part of the Hartree-Fock equations treats electron exchange, but the Hartree-Fock equations are not often treated as an integro-differential equation. The exchange term is often approximated as an inhomogeneous or an effective potential so that the Hartree-Fock equations become a set of ordinary differential equations (which can be solved using the usual shooting methods. Because the Hartree-Fock equations are an iterative-refinement method, the inhomogeneous term relies on the previous guess of the wavefunction. In addition, there are numerical complications associated with solving inhomogeneous differential equations. This work uses matrix methods to solve the Hartree-Fock equations as an integro-differential equation. It is well known that a derivative operator can be expressed as a matrix made of finite-difference coefficients; energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors can be obtained by using linear-algebra packages. The integral (exchange part of the Hartree-Fock equation can be approximated as a sum and written as a matrix. The Hartree-Fock equations can be solved as a matrix that is the sum of the differential and integral matrices. We compare calculations using this method against experiment and standard atomic structure calculations. This matrix method can also be used to solve for free-electron wavefunctions, thus improving how the atoms and free electrons interact. This technique is important for spectral line broadening in two ways: it improves the atomic structure calculations, and it improves the motion of the plasma electrons that collide with the atom.

  4. Algebraic models for the hierarchy structure of evolution equations at small x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rembiesa, P.; Stasto, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    We explore several models of QCD evolution equations simplified by considering only the rapidity dependence of dipole scattering amplitudes, while provisionally neglecting their dependence on transverse coordinates. Our main focus is on the equations that include the processes of pomeron splittings. We examine the algebraic structures of the governing equation hierarchies, as well as the asymptotic behavior of their solutions in the large-rapidity limit

  5. Prolongation structure and linear eigenvalue equations for Einstein-Maxwell fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, D.; Neugebauer, G.

    1981-01-01

    The Einstein-Maxwell equations for stationary axisymmetric exterior fields are shown to be the integrability conditions of a set of linear eigenvalue equations for pseudopotentials. Using the method of Wahlquist and Estabrook (J. Math Phys.; 16:1 (1975)) it is shown that the prolongation structure of the Einstein-Maxwell equations contains the SU(2,1) Lie algebra. A new mapping of known solutions to other solutions has been found. (author)

  6. Developing prediction equations and a mobile phone application to identify infants at risk of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Gillian; Petherick, Emily S; Wright, John; Wilson, Brad; Samiei, Haider; Cameron, Noël; Johnson, William

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in knowledge of obesity aetiology and mobile phone technology have created the opportunity to develop an electronic tool to predict an infant's risk of childhood obesity. The study aims were to develop and validate equations for the prediction of childhood obesity and integrate them into a mobile phone application (App). Anthropometry and childhood obesity risk data were obtained for 1868 UK-born White or South Asian infants in the Born in Bradford cohort. Logistic regression was used to develop prediction equations (at 6 ± 1.5, 9 ± 1.5 and 12 ± 1.5 months) for risk of childhood obesity (BMI at 2 years >91(st) centile and weight gain from 0-2 years >1 centile band) incorporating sex, birth weight, and weight gain as predictors. The discrimination accuracy of the equations was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC); internal validity by comparing area under the curve to those obtained in bootstrapped samples; and external validity by applying the equations to an external sample. An App was built to incorporate six final equations (two at each age, one of which included maternal BMI). The equations had good discrimination (AUCs 86-91%), with the addition of maternal BMI marginally improving prediction. The AUCs in the bootstrapped and external validation samples were similar to those obtained in the development sample. The App is user-friendly, requires a minimum amount of information, and provides a risk assessment of low, medium, or high accompanied by advice and website links to government recommendations. Prediction equations for risk of childhood obesity have been developed and incorporated into a novel App, thereby providing proof of concept that childhood obesity prediction research can be integrated with advancements in technology.

  7. Examining the antecedents of Facebook acceptance via structural equation modeling: A case of CEGEP students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Doleck

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the last decade has witnessed social networking sites of varied flavors, Facebook’s user growth continues to balloon, and relatedly, Facebook remains popular among the college populace. While there has been a growing body of work on ascertaining antecedents of Facebook use among college students, Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel (CEGEP students’ acceptance of Facebook remains underexplored. The purpose of this study was to analyze CEGEP students’ acceptance of Facebook using the technology acceptance model (TAM. Structural equation modeling was conducted on data from a survey of 214 CEGEP students. We find that Facebook use is motivated by the core TAM constructs as well as the added factors of peer influence, perceived enjoyment, perceived self-efficacy, relative advantage, risk, and trust.

  8. Comparisons of Multilevel Modeling and Structural Equation Modeling Approaches to Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sehee; Kim, Soyoung

    2018-01-01

    There are basically two modeling approaches applicable to analyzing an actor-partner interdependence model: the multilevel modeling (hierarchical linear model) and the structural equation modeling. This article explains how to use these two models in analyzing an actor-partner interdependence model and how these two approaches work differently. As an empirical example, marital conflict data were used to analyze an actor-partner interdependence model. The multilevel modeling and the structural equation modeling produced virtually identical estimates for a basic model. However, the structural equation modeling approach allowed more realistic assumptions on measurement errors and factor loadings, rendering better model fit indices.

  9. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    Objective Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. Methods At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and management commitment to safety as well as demographic data. Safety performance was identified as wearing slip-resistant shoes, as measured by direct observation by the study team. We then prospectively collected participants’ hours worked and number of slips weekly for the next 12 weeks. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, we modelled safety climate as a higher order factor composed of previously identified training and management commitment factors. Results The 349 study participants experienced 1075 slips during the 12-week follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis supported modelling safety climate as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. In a structural equation model, safety climate indirectly affected prospective risk of slipping through safety performance, but no direct relationship between safety climate and slips was evident. Conclusions Results suggest that safety climate can reduce workplace slips through performance of a safety behaviour as well as suggesting a potential causal mechanism through which safety climate can reduce workplace injuries. Safety climate can be modelled as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. PMID:25710968

  10. Relationship between long working hours and depression in two working populations: a structural equation model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagasa, Takashi; Nakayama, Takeo

    2012-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that relationship reported between long working hours and depression was inconsistent in previous studies because job demand was treated as a confounder. Structural equation modeling was used to construct five models, using work-related factors and depressive mood scale obtained from 218 clerical workers, to test for goodness of fit and was externally validated with data obtained from 1160 sales workers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was also performed. The model that showed that long working hours increased depression risk when job demand was regarded as an intermediate variable was the best fitted model (goodness-of-fit index/root-mean-square error of approximation: 0.981 to 0.996/0.042 to 0.044). The odds ratio for depression risk with work that was high demand and 60 hours or more per week was estimated at 2 to 4 versus work that was low demand and less than 60 hours per week. Long working hours increased depression risk, with job demand being an intermediate variable.

  11. Nonlinear structures for extended Korteweg–de Vries equation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The presence of immobile nanodust grains changes the general properties of the ...... rational-type solutions, which may be helpful to explain the creation of very .... investigate the behaviour of nonlinear structures in the Earth's ionosphere ...

  12. Quality of peas modelled by a structural equation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, A. C.; Juhl, H. J.; Hansen, M.

    2000-01-01

    in a PLS structural model with the Total Food Quality Model as starting point. The results show that texture and flavour do have approximately the same effect on consumers' perception of overall quality. Quality development goals for plant breeders would be to optimse perceived flavour directly...

  13. Further insights on the French WISC-IV factor structure through Bayesian structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golay, Philippe; Reverte, Isabelle; Rossier, Jérôme; Favez, Nicolas; Lecerf, Thierry

    2013-06-01

    The interpretation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) is based on a 4-factor model, which is only partially compatible with the mainstream Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence measurement. The structure of cognitive batteries is frequently analyzed via exploratory factor analysis and/or confirmatory factor analysis. With classical confirmatory factor analysis, almost all cross-loadings between latent variables and measures are fixed to zero in order to allow the model to be identified. However, inappropriate zero cross-loadings can contribute to poor model fit, distorted factors, and biased factor correlations; most important, they do not necessarily faithfully reflect theory. To deal with these methodological and theoretical limitations, we used a new statistical approach, Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM), among a sample of 249 French-speaking Swiss children (8-12 years). With BSEM, zero-fixed cross-loadings between latent variables and measures are replaced by approximate zeros, based on informative, small-variance priors. Results indicated that a direct hierarchical CHC-based model with 5 factors plus a general intelligence factor better represented the structure of the WISC-IV than did the 4-factor structure and the higher order models. Because a direct hierarchical CHC model was more adequate, it was concluded that the general factor should be considered as a breadth rather than a superordinate factor. Because it was possible for us to estimate the influence of each of the latent variables on the 15 subtest scores, BSEM allowed improvement of the understanding of the structure of intelligence tests and the clinical interpretation of the subtest scores. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Integrability and Poisson Structures of Three Dimensional Dynamical Systems and Equations of Hydrodynamic Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumral, Hasan

    Poisson structure of completely integrable 3 dimensional dynamical systems can be defined in terms of an integrable 1-form. We take advantage of this fact and use the theory of foliations in discussing the geometrical structure underlying complete and partial integrability. We show that the Halphen system can be formulated in terms of a flat SL(2,R)-valued connection and belongs to a non-trivial Godbillon-Vey class. On the other hand, for the Euler top and a special case of 3-species Lotka-Volterra equations which are contained in the Halphen system as limiting cases, this structure degenerates into the form of globally integrable bi-Hamiltonian structures. The globally integrable bi-Hamiltonian case is a linear and the sl_2 structure is a quadratic unfolding of an integrable 1-form in 3 + 1 dimensions. We complete the discussion of the Hamiltonian structure of 2-component equations of hydrodynamic type by presenting the Hamiltonian operators for Euler's equation and a continuum limit of Toda lattice. We present further infinite sequences of conserved quantities for shallow water equations and show that their generalizations by Kodama admit bi-Hamiltonian structure. We present a simple way of constructing the second Hamiltonian operators for N-component equations admitting some scaling properties. The Kodama reduction of the dispersionless-Boussinesq equations and the Lax reduction of the Benney moment equations are shown to be equivalent by a symmetry transformation. They can be cast into the form of a triplet of conservation laws which enable us to recognize a non-trivial scaling symmetry. The resulting bi-Hamiltonian structure generates three infinite sequences of conserved densities.

  15. Assessing Actual Visit Behavior through Antecedents of Tourists Satisfaction among International Tourists in Jordan: A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayed Moh’d Al Muala

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Jordan tourism industry is facing fluctuating tourist visit provoked by dissatisfaction, high visit risk, low hotel service, or negative Jordan image. This study aims to examine the relationships between the antecedents of tourist satisfaction and actual visit behavior in tourism of Jordan, and the mediating effect of tourist satisfaction (SAT in the relationship between Jordan image (JOM, service climate (SER and actual visit behavior (ACT. A total of 850 international tourists completed a survey that were conducted at southern sites in Jordan. Using structural equation modeling (SEM technique, confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA was performed to examine the reliability and validity of the measurement, and the structural equation modeling techniques (Amos 6.0 were used to evaluate the casual model. Results of the study demonstrate the strong predictive power and explain of international tourists’ behavior in Jordan. The findings highlighted that the relationship between Jordan image and service climate are significant and positive on actual visit behavior.

  16. Parameter Estimation of Structural Equation Modeling Using Bayesian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Kurnia Sari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is a process of influencing, directing or giving an example of employees in order to achieve the objectives of the organization and is a key element in the effectiveness of the organization. In addition to the style of leadership, the success of an organization or company in achieving its objectives can also be influenced by the commitment of the organization. Where organizational commitment is a commitment created by each individual for the betterment of the organization. The purpose of this research is to obtain a model of leadership style and organizational commitment to job satisfaction and employee performance, and determine the factors that influence job satisfaction and employee performance using SEM with Bayesian approach. This research was conducted at Statistics FNI employees in Malang, with 15 people. The result of this study showed that the measurement model, all significant indicators measure each latent variable. Meanwhile in the structural model, it was concluded there are a significant difference between the variables of Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment toward Job Satisfaction directly as well as a significant difference between Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance. As for the influence of Leadership Style and variable Organizational Commitment on Employee Performance directly declared insignificant.

  17. Application of partial differential equation modeling of the control/structural dynamics of flexible spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Rajiyah, H.

    1991-01-01

    Partial differential equations for modeling the structural dynamics and control systems of flexible spacecraft are applied here in order to facilitate systems analysis and optimization of these spacecraft. Example applications are given, including the structural dynamics of SCOLE, the Solar Array Flight Experiment, the Mini-MAST truss, and the LACE satellite. The development of related software is briefly addressed.

  18. Fitting Data to Model: Structural Equation Modeling Diagnosis Using Two Scatter Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces two simple scatter plots for model diagnosis in structural equation modeling. One plot contrasts a residual-based M-distance of the structural model with the M-distance for the factor score. It contains information on outliers, good leverage observations, bad leverage observations, and normal cases. The other plot contrasts…

  19. Hamiltonian structure of isospectral deformation equation and semi-classical approximation to factorized S-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    We consider semi-classical approximation to factorized S-matrices. We show that this new class of matrices, called s-matrices, defines Hamiltonian structures for isospectral deformation equations. Concrete examples of factorized s-matrices are constructed and they are used to define Hamiltonian structure for general two-dimensional isospectral deformation systems. (orig.)

  20. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are…

  1. Application of Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling to Evaluate the Academic Motivation Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guay, Frédéric; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Litalien, David; Valois, Pierre; Vallerand, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the authors examined the construct validity of scores of the Academic Motivation Scale using exploratory structural equation modeling. Study 1 and Study 2 involved 1,416 college students and 4,498 high school students, respectively. First, results of both studies indicated that the factor structure tested with exploratory…

  2. Filamentary structures of the cosmic web and the nonlinear Schroedinger type equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tigrak, E; Weygaert, R van de; Jones, B J T

    2011-01-01

    We show that the filamentary type structures of the cosmic web can be modeled as solitonic waves by solving the reaction diffusion system which is the hydrodynamical analogous of the nonlinear Schroedinger type equation. We find the analytical solution of this system by applying the Hirota direct method which produces the dissipative soliton solutions to formulate the dynamical evolution of the nonlinear structure formation.

  3. Structural interactions in ionic liquids linked to higher-order Poisson-Boltzmann equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossey, R.; Maggs, A. C.; Podgornik, R.

    2017-06-01

    We present a derivation of generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equations starting from classical theories of binary fluid mixtures, employing an approach based on the Legendre transform as recently applied to the case of local descriptions of the fluid free energy. Under specific symmetry assumptions, and in the linearized regime, the Poisson-Boltzmann equation reduces to a phenomenological equation introduced by Bazant et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 046102 (2011)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.046102, whereby the structuring near the surface is determined by bulk coefficients.

  4. Discrete variational derivative method a structure-preserving numerical method for partial differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Furihata, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) have become increasingly important in the description of physical phenomena. Unlike Ordinary Differential Equations, PDEs can be used to effectively model multidimensional systems. The methods put forward in Discrete Variational Derivative Method concentrate on a new class of ""structure-preserving numerical equations"" which improves the qualitative behaviour of the PDE solutions and allows for stable computing. The authors have also taken care to present their methods in an accessible manner, which means that the book will be useful to engineer

  5. A computational method for direct integration of motion equations of structural systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusa, L.; Ciacci, R.; Creco, A.; Rossi, F.

    1975-01-01

    The dynamic analysis of structural systems requires the solution of the matrix equations: Md 2 delta/dt(t) + Cddelta/dt(t) + Kdelta(t) = F(t). Many numerical methods are available for direct integration of this equation and their efficiency is due to the fulfillment of the following requirements: A reasonable order of accuracy must be obtained for the approximation of the response relevant to the first modes: the model contributions relevant to the eigenvalues with large real part must be essentially neglected. This paper presents a step-by-step numerical scheme for the integration of this equation which satisfies the requirements previously mentioned. (Auth.)

  6. A novel hierarchy of differential—integral equations and their generalized bi-Hamiltonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Yun-Yun; Geng Xian-Guo; He Guo-Liang

    2014-01-01

    With the aid of the zero-curvature equation, a novel integrable hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations associated with a 3 × 3 matrix spectral problem is proposed. By using the trace identity, the bi-Hamiltonian structures of the hierarchy are established with two skew-symmetric operators. Based on two linear spectral problems, we obtain the infinite many conservation laws of the first member in the hierarchy

  7. Investigating the Theoretical Structure of the DAS-II Core Battery at School Age Using Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Golay, Philippe; McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2018-01-01

    Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM) was used to investigate the latent structure of the Differential Ability Scales-Second Edition core battery using the standardization sample normative data for ages 7-17. Results revealed plausibility of a three-factor model, consistent with publisher theory, expressed as either a higher-order (HO) or a…

  8. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-07-01

    Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees' perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and management commitment to safety as well as demographic data. Safety performance was identified as wearing slip-resistant shoes, as measured by direct observation by the study team. We then prospectively collected participants' hours worked and number of slips weekly for the next 12 weeks. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, we modelled safety climate as a higher order factor composed of previously identified training and management commitment factors. The 349 study participants experienced 1075 slips during the 12-week follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis supported modelling safety climate as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. In a structural equation model, safety climate indirectly affected prospective risk of slipping through safety performance, but no direct relationship between safety climate and slips was evident. Results suggest that safety climate can reduce workplace slips through performance of a safety behaviour as well as suggesting a potential causal mechanism through which safety climate can reduce workplace injuries. Safety climate can be modelled as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Assessment of the effect of visual impairment on mortality through multiple health pathways: structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Sharon L; Lee, David J; Lam, Byron L; Zheng, D Diane; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-08-01

    To estimate the direct effects of self-reported visual impairment (VI) on health, disability, and mortality and to estimate the indirect effects of VI on mortality through health and disability mediators. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is a population-based annual survey designed to be representative of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population. The National Death Index of 135,581 NHIS adult participants, 18 years of age and older, from 1986 to 1996 provided the mortality linkage through 2002. A generalized linear structural equation model (GSEM) with latent variable was used to estimate the results of a system of equations with various outcomes. Standard errors and test statistics were corrected for weighting, clustering, and stratification. VI affects mortality, when direct adjustment was made for the covariates. Severe VI increases the hazard rate by a factor of 1.28 (95% CI: 1.07-1.53) compared with no VI, and some VI increases the hazard by a factor of 1.13 (95% CI: 1.07-1.20). VI also affects mortality indirectly through self-rated health and disability. The total effects (direct effects plus mediated effects) on the hazard of mortality of severe VI and some VI relative to no VI are hazard ratio (HR) 1.54 (95% CI: 1.28-1.86) and HR 1.23 (95% CI: 1.16-1.31), respectively. In addition to the direct link between VI and mortality, the effects of VI on general health and disability contribute to an increased risk of death. Ignoring the latter may lead to an underestimation of the substantive impact of VI on mortality.

  10. Fluid/Structure Interaction Studies of Aircraft Using High Fidelity Equations on Parallel Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruswamy, Guru; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Abstract Aeroelasticity which involves strong coupling of fluids, structures and controls is an important element in designing an aircraft. Computational aeroelasticity using low fidelity methods such as the linear aerodynamic flow equations coupled with the modal structural equations are well advanced. Though these low fidelity approaches are computationally less intensive, they are not adequate for the analysis of modern aircraft such as High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) and Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) which can experience complex flow/structure interactions. HSCT can experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations whereas AST can experience transonic buffet associated structural oscillations. Both aircraft may experience a dip in the flutter speed at the transonic regime. For accurate aeroelastic computations at these complex fluid/structure interaction situations, high fidelity equations such as the Navier-Stokes for fluids and the finite-elements for structures are needed. Computations using these high fidelity equations require large computational resources both in memory and speed. Current conventional super computers have reached their limitations both in memory and speed. As a result, parallel computers have evolved to overcome the limitations of conventional computers. This paper will address the transition that is taking place in computational aeroelasticity from conventional computers to parallel computers. The paper will address special techniques needed to take advantage of the architecture of new parallel computers. Results will be illustrated from computations made on iPSC/860 and IBM SP2 computer by using ENSAERO code that directly couples the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations with high resolution finite-element structural equations.

  11. On Robust Stability of Differential-Algebraic Equations with Structured Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kononov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider a linear time-invariant system of differential-algebraic equations (DAE, which can be written as a system of ordinary differential equations with non-invertible coefficients matrices. An important characteristic of DAE is the unsolvability index, which reflects the complexity of the internal structure of the system. The question of the asymptotic stability of DAE containing the uncertainty given by the matrix norm is investigated. We consider a perturbation in the structured uncertainty case. It is assumed that the initial nominal system is asymptotically stable. For the analysis, the original equation is reduced to the structural form, in which the differential and algebraic subsystems are separated. This structural form is equivalent to the input system in the sense of coincidence of sets of solutions, and the operator transforming the DAE into the structural form possesses the inverse operator. The conversion to structural form does not use a change of variables. Regularity of matrix pencil of the source equation is the necessary and sufficient condition of structural form existence. Sufficient conditions have been obtained that perturbations do not break the internal structure of the nominal system. Under these conditions robust stability of the DAE with structured uncertainty is investigated. Estimates for the stability radius of the perturbed DAE system are obtained. The text of the article is from the simpler case, in which the perturbation is present only for an unknown function, to a more complex one, under which the perturbation is also present in the derivative of the unknown function. We used values of the real and the complex stability radii of explicit ordinary differential equations for obtaining the results. We consider the example illustrating the obtained results.

  12. ANALISIS STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING PADA PENGARUH KEBIASAAN MENGAKSES FACEBOOK TERHADAP KUALITAS HIDUP DAN PRESTASI AKADEMIK MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalim Nalim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to determine the effect on quality of life Facebook and students' academic achievement. A total of 210 samples were taken from three universities with proportional multistage random sampling method, while data analysis was conducted using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with software lisrel 8.80 (student version. The results showed, although according to the investigators alleged that Facebook had a negative impact on quality of life, but the effect was not significant. This is evident from the t value of -1.90 (less than 1.96. Similarly, the structural equation generated, quality of life and Facebook together provide significant influence on academic achievement (with values of t are respectively 0.69 and -0.92. Keywords: structural equation modeling, custom facebook access, quality of life, student academic achievement

  13. Testing strong factorial invariance using three-level structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne eJak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias across groups. Although this approach is possible in principle, it is hardly practical when the number of groups is large or when the group size is relatively small. Jak, Oort and Dolan (2013 showed how strong factorial invariance across large numbers of groups can be tested in a multilevel structural equation modeling framework, by treating group as a random instead of a fixed variable. In the present study, this model is extended for use with three-level data. The proposed method is illustrated with an investigation of strong factorial invariance across 156 school classes and 50 schools in a Dutch dyscalculia test, using three-level structural equation modeling.

  14. Reformulation of Maxwell's equations to incorporate near-solute solvent structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Kun; Lim, Carmay

    2008-09-04

    Maxwell's equations, which treat electromagnetic interactions between macroscopic charged objects in materials, have explained many phenomena and contributed to many applications in our lives. Derived in 1861 when no methods were available to determine the atomic structure of macromolecules, Maxwell's equations assume the solvent to be a structureless continuum. However, near-solute solvent molecules are highly structured, unlike far-solute bulk solvent molecules. Current methods cannot treat both the near-solute solvent structure and time-dependent electromagnetic interactions in a macroscopic system. Here, we derive "microscopic" electrodynamics equations that can treat macroscopic time-dependent electromagnetic field problems like Maxwell's equations and reproduce the solvent molecular and dipole density distributions observed in molecular dynamics simulations. These equations greatly reduce computational expense by not having to include explicit solvent molecules, yet they treat the solvent electrostatic and van der Waals effects more accurately than continuum models. They provide a foundation to study electromagnetic interactions between molecules in a macroscopic system that are ubiquitous in biology, bioelectromagnetism, and nanotechnology. The general strategy presented herein to incorporate the near-solute solvent structure would enable studies on how complex cellular protein-ligand interactions are affected by electromagnetic radiation, which could help to prevent harmful electromagnetic spectra or find potential therapeutic applications.

  15. Augmentation of DAA Staggered – Solution Equations in Underwater Shock Problems for Singular Structural Mass Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    DeRuntz Jr., John A.

    2005-01-01

    The numerical solution of underwater shock fluid – structure interaction problems using boundary element/finite element techniques became tractable through the development of the family of Doubly Asymptotic Approximations (DAA). Practical implementation of the method has relied on the so-called augmentation of the DAA equations. The fluid and structural systems are respectively coupled by the structural acceleration vector in the surface normal direction on the right hand side of the DAA equa...

  16. New Equations for Calculating Principal and Fine-Structure Atomic Spectra for Single and Multi-Electron Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdoval, Wayne A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Berry, David A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Shultz, Travis R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2018-03-09

    A set of equations are presented for calculating atomic principal spectral lines and fine-structure energy splits for single and multi-electron atoms. Calculated results are presented and compared to the National Institute of Science and Technology database demonstrating very good accuracy. The equations do not require fitted parameters. The only experimental parameter required is the Ionization energy for the electron of interest. The equations have comparable accuracy and broader applicability than the single electron Dirac equation. Three Appendices discuss the origin of the new equations and present calculated results. New insights into the special relativistic nature of the Dirac equation and its relationship to the new equations are presented.

  17. The structure of solutions of the matrix linear unilateral polynomial equation with two variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Dzhaliuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the structure of solutions of the matrix linear polynomial equation $A(\\lambdaX(\\lambda+B(\\lambdaY(\\lambda=C(\\lambda,$ in particular, possible degrees of the solutions. The solving of this equation is reduced to the solving of the equivalent matrix polynomial equation with matrix coefficients in triangular forms with invariant factors on the main diagonals, to which the matrices $A (\\lambda, B(\\lambda$ \\ and \\ $C(\\lambda$ are reduced by means of semiscalar equivalent transformations. On the basis of it, we have pointed out the bounds of the degrees of the matrix polynomial equation solutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the uniqueness of a solution with a minimal degree are established. An effective method for constructing minimal degree solutions of the equations is suggested. In this article, unlike well-known results about the estimations of the degrees of the solutions of the matrix polynomial equations in which both matrix coefficients are regular or at least one of them is regular, we have considered the case when the matrix polynomial equation has arbitrary matrix coefficients $A(\\lambda$ and $B(\\lambda.$ 

  18. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling With Applications in the Medical and Behavioral Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2012-01-01

    This book provides clear instructions to researchers on how to apply Structural Equation Models (SEMs) for analyzing the inter relationships between observed and latent variables. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling introduces basic and advanced SEMs for analyzing various kinds of complex data, such as ordered and unordered categorical data, multilevel data, mixture data, longitudinal data, highly non-normal data, as well as some of their combinations. In addition, Bayesian semiparametric SEMs to capture the true distribution of explanatory latent variables are introduce

  19. Structural equation modelling based data fusion for technology forecasting: A generic framework

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Staphorst, L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available to explain the variations in independent variables as functions (commonly referred to regression functions) of variations in dependent variables [13]. With this knowledge it is then possible to perform prediction and forecasting of the values that dependent....G.; “A General Method for Estimating a Linear Structural Equation System,” in Structural Equation Models in the Social Sciences, eds.: A.S. Goldberger and O. D. Duncan, New York: Seminar, 1973. [15] Steinberg, A.N. and Rogova, G.; "Situation...

  20. Comparing direct and iterative equation solvers in a large structural analysis software system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, E. L.

    1991-01-01

    Two direct Choleski equation solvers and two iterative preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) equation solvers used in a large structural analysis software system are described. The two direct solvers are implementations of the Choleski method for variable-band matrix storage and sparse matrix storage. The two iterative PCG solvers include the Jacobi conjugate gradient method and an incomplete Choleski conjugate gradient method. The performance of the direct and iterative solvers is compared by solving several representative structural analysis problems. Some key factors affecting the performance of the iterative solvers relative to the direct solvers are identified.

  1. Noise-sustained structure, Intermittency, and the Ginzburg--Landau equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deissler, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The time-dependent generalized Ginzburg--Landau equation is an equation that is related to many physical systems. Solutions of this equation in the presence of low-level external noise are studied. Numerical solutions of this equation in the stationary frame of refernce and with nonzero group velocity that is greater than a critical velocity exhibit a selective spatial amplification of noise resulting in spatially growing waves. These waves in turn result in the formation of a dynamic structure. It is found that the microscopic noise plays an importuant role in the macroscopic dynamics of the system. For certain parameter values the system exhibits intermittent turbulent behavior in which the random nature of the external noise plays a crucial role. A mechanism which may be responsible for the intermittent turbulence occurring in some fluid systems is suggested

  2. On global structure of general solution of the Chew-Sow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerdt, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    The Chew-Low equations for static p-wave πN-scattering are considered. The equations are formulated in the form of a system of three nonlinear difference equations of the first order which have the general solution depending on three arbitrary periodic functions. An approach to the global construction of the general solution is suggested which is based on the series expansion in powers of one of the arbitrary functions C(ω) determining the structure of the invariant curve for the Chew-Low equations. It is shown that the initial nonlinear problem is reduced to the linear one in every order in C(ω). By means of solving the linear problem the general solution is found in the first-order approximation in C(ω) [ru

  3. Spinor-electron wave guided modes in coupled quantum wells structures by solving the Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, Jesus; Nistal, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    A quantum analysis based on the Dirac equation of the propagation of spinor-electron waves in coupled quantum wells, or equivalently coupled electron waveguides, is presented. The complete optical wave equations for Spin-Up (SU) and Spin-Down (SD) spinor-electron waves in these electron guides couplers are derived from the Dirac equation. The relativistic amplitudes and dispersion equations of the spinor-electron wave-guided modes in a planar quantum coupler formed by two coupled quantum wells, or equivalently by two coupled slab electron waveguides, are exactly derived. The main outcomes related to the spinor modal structure, such as the breaking of the non-relativistic degenerate spin states, the appearance of phase shifts associated with the spin polarization and so on, are shown.

  4. Risk Informed Structural Systems Integrity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber

    2017-01-01

    The present paper is predominantly a conceptual contribution with an appraisal of major developments in risk informed structural integrity management for offshore installations together with a discussion of their merits and the challenges which still lie ahead. Starting point is taken in a selected...... overview of research and development contributions which have formed the basis for Risk Based Inspection Planning (RBI) as we know it today. Thereafter an outline of the methodical basis for risk informed structural systems integrity management, i.e. the Bayesian decision analysis is provided in summary....... The main focus is here directed on RBI for offshore facilities subject to fatigue damages. New ideas and methodical frameworks in the area of robustness and resilience modeling of structural systems are then introduced, and it is outlined how these may adequately be utilized to enhance Structural Integrity...

  5. Behavioural Comparison of Driverswhen Driving a Motorcycle or a Car: A Structural Equation Modelling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Topolšek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to investigate if the drivers behave in the same way when they are driving a motorcycle or a car. For this purpose, the Motorcycle Rider Behaviour Questionnaire and Driver Behaviour Questionnaire were conducted among the same drivers population. Items of questionnaires were used to develop a structural equation model with two factors, one for the motorcyclist’s behaviour, and the other for the car driver’s behaviour. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were also applied in this study. Results revealed a certain difference in driving behaviour. The principal reason lies probably in mental consciousness that the risk-taking driving of a motorbike can result in much more catastrophic consequences than when driving a car. The drivers also pointed out this kind of thinking and the developed model has statistically confirmed the behavioural differences. The implications of these findings are also argued in relation to the validation of the appropriateness of the existing traffic regulations.

  6. Effects of floodgates operation on nitrogen transformation in a lake based on structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Longji; Zhou, Haixuan; Xie, Xinyu; Li, Xueke; Zhang, Duoying; Jia, Liming; Wei, Qingbin; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Ma, Yingying

    2018-08-01

    Floodgates operation is one of the primary means of flood control in lake development. However, knowledge on the linkages between floodgates operation and nitrogen transformation during the flood season is limited. In this study, water samples from six sampling sites along Lake Xingkai watershed were collected before and after floodgates operation. The causal relationships between environmental factors, bacterioplankton community composition and nitrogen fractions were determined during flood season. We found that concentrations of nitrogen fractions decreased significantly when the floodgates were opened, while the concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and NO 3 - increased when the floodgates had been shut for a period. Further, we proposed a possible mechanism that the influence of floodgates operation on nitrogen transformation was largely mediated through changes in dissolved organic matter, dissolved oxygen and bacterioplankton community composition as revealed by structural equation modeling (SEM). We conclude that floodgates operation has a high risk for future eutrophication of downstream watershed, although it can reduce nitrogen content temporarily. Therefore, the environmental impacts of floodgates operation should be carefully evaluated before the floodwaters were discharged into downstream watershed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy Is Associated With Offspring's Musculoskeletal Pain in Adolescence: Structural Equation Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Anni-Julia; Paananen, Markus; Marttila, Riikka; Auvinen, Juha; Miettunen, Jouko; Karppinen, Jaro

    2017-07-01

    Smoking and behavioral problems are related to musculoskeletal (MS) pain in adolescence. Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is associated with offspring's behavioral problems but its relation to MS pain in adolescence is unknown. Our purpose was to investigate whether there is an association between MSDP, the number of pain sites in adolescence, and the factors that potentially mediate this relationship. We evaluated the association of MSDP with offspring's MS pain at 16 years among participants of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (n = 6436, 3360 girls, 68% of all births) using Chi-square test and independent samples t test. We used structural equation modeling to assess the mediating factors stratified by gender. MSDP was frequent (22%) associating with paternal smoking (p adolescents whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy than among those whose mothers were nonsmokers (p = .002 boys, p = .012 girls). The association between MSDP and MS pain at 16 years was mediated by externalizing problems at 8 years (p adolescence, and the association was mediated by offspring's externalizing problems during childhood and early adolescence. This study indicates that MSDP increases the risk of MS pain in adolescence and the effect is mediated by externalizing problems. Our results add to the evidence on harmfulness of MSDP for offspring, and can be used as additional information in interventions aiming to influence MSDP. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Bifurcation structure of localized states in the Lugiato-Lefever equation with anomalous dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rivas, P.; Gomila, D.; Gelens, L.; Knobloch, E.

    2018-04-01

    The origin, stability, and bifurcation structure of different types of bright localized structures described by the Lugiato-Lefever equation are studied. This mean field model describes the nonlinear dynamics of light circulating in fiber cavities and microresonators. In the case of anomalous group velocity dispersion and low values of the intracavity phase detuning these bright states are organized in a homoclinic snaking bifurcation structure. We describe how this bifurcation structure is destroyed when the detuning is increased across a critical value, and determine how a bifurcation structure known as foliated snaking emerges.

  9. A model for oral health gradients in children: using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behbahanirad, A; Joulaei, H; Jamali, J; Vossoughi, M; Golkari, A

    2017-03-01

    Detecting the underlying socioeconomic and behavioral determinants is essential for reducing oral health disparities in children. To test a conceptual model in children to explore the interaction amongst social, environmental, behavioral factors and oral health outcomes. This analytic cross-sectional study was performed in 2014-2015 in Shiraz, Iran. The sampling was conducted using a multistage stratified design to represent the whole 6-year-olds in Shiraz County. Participants were 830, 6-year-old first grade primary schoolchildren and their parents. Children were examined to register decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) and simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S). Parents were asked for data on socio-cultural risk factors, oral health behaviors and children's oral health related quality of life (C-OHRQoL). Data on environmental risk factors were collected from several sources. The proposed model, a development of Peterson's, was tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The tested model could empirically demonstrate the wide range of social and behavioral factors affecting C-OHRQoL. Socioeconomic status (SES) affected the OHRQoL of children through several pathways. Tooth brushing frequency, use of oral health services and consuming cariogenic foods were the mediators, through which SES affected dmft and subsequently C-OHRQoL. Using the modified Petersen's model and SEM, the paths in which different distal and proximal factors affect oral health outcomes in children could be clearly identified. It showed that addressing the underlying social, economic and behavioral determinants is essential for reducing oral health disparities among Iranian children. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  10. On establishing constitutive equations for use in design of high-temperature fast-reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    The presentation describes the approach being used to establish constitutive equations for wide use in the design of fast breeder reactor (FBR) components in the US. The approach combines exploratory experiments, constitutive model studies, studies of computational techniques, and tests of simple structural configurations. Short-time (elastic-plastic) behavior, long-time (creep) behavior, and their interactions are considered, and some of the background to equations now identified for use in current FBR design applications involving three structural alloys is discussed. Comments are also given on current efforts aimed at identifying improved constitutive equations for these alloys and on properties data required for design applications. References are cited which have addressed the status of the process at various times. (Auth.)

  11. Thermodynamically self-consistent integral equations and the structure of liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Kahl, G.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the application of the new thermodynamically self-consistent integral equations for the determination of the structural properties of liquid metals. We present a detailed comparison of the structure (S(q) and g(r)) for models of liquid alkali metals as obtained from two thermodynamically self-consistent integral equations and some published exact computer simulation results; the range of states extends from the triple point to the expanded metal. The theories which only impose thermodynamic self-consistency without any fitting of external data show an excellent agreement with the simulation results, thus demonstrating that this new type of integral equation is definitely superior to the conventional ones (hypernetted chain, Percus-Yevick, mean spherical approximation, etc). (author)

  12. Determinants of Regional Female Labour Market Participation in the Netherlands : A Spatial Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, An; Noback, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyses the determinants of female labour participation. Structural equation modelling is used to handle theoretical concepts and to solve the typical problem of multicollinearity. The proposed methodology is applied to a dataset for the year 2002 made up of a sample of 278 municipalities

  13. A Robust Bayesian Approach for Structural Equation Models with Missing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Xia, Ye-Mao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, normal/independent distributions, including but not limited to the multivariate t distribution, the multivariate contaminated distribution, and the multivariate slash distribution, are used to develop a robust Bayesian approach for analyzing structural equation models with complete or missing data. In the context of a nonlinear…

  14. Structural Observability and Sensor Node Selection for Complex Networks Governed by Nonlinear Balance Equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kawano, Yu; Cao, Ming

    2017-01-01

    We define and then study the structural observability for a class of complex networks whose dynamics are governed by the nonlinear balance equations. Although related notions of observability of such complex networks have been studied before and in particular, necessary conditions have been reported

  15. Residuals and the Residual-Based Statistic for Testing Goodness of Fit of Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldnes, Njal; Foss, Tron; Olsson, Ulf Henning

    2012-01-01

    The residuals obtained from fitting a structural equation model are crucial ingredients in obtaining chi-square goodness-of-fit statistics for the model. The authors present a didactic discussion of the residuals, obtaining a geometrical interpretation by recognizing the residuals as the result of oblique projections. This sheds light on the…

  16. Communication: Multireference equation of motion coupled cluster: A transform and diagonalize approach to electronic structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nooijen, M.; Demel, Ondřej; Datta, D.; Kong, L.; Shamasundar, K. R.; Lotrich, V.; Huntington, L. M.; Neese, F.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 8 (2014), 081102 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP208/10/P041; GA ČR GAP208/11/2222 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Electronic states * Electronic structure * Equations of motion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014

  17. Linear indices in nonlinear structural equation models : best fitting proper indices and other composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, T.K.; Henseler, J.

    2011-01-01

    The recent advent of nonlinear structural equation models with indices poses a new challenge to the measurement of scientific constructs. We discuss, exemplify and add to a family of statistical methods aimed at creating linear indices, and compare their suitability in a complex path model with

  18. Structural Equation Modeling towards Online Learning Readiness, Academic Motivations, and Perceived Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horzum, Mehmet Baris; Kaymak, Zeliha Demir; Gungoren, Ozlem Canan

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between online learning readiness, academic motivations, and perceived learning was investigated via structural equation modeling in the research. The population of the research consisted of 750 students who studied using the online learning programs of Sakarya University. 420 of the students who volunteered for the research and…

  19. Anti-Transgender Prejudice: A Structural Equation Model of Associated Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, Esther N.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to identify theoretically relevant key correlates of anti-transgender prejudice. Specifically, structural equation modeling was used to test the unique relations of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) prejudice; traditional gender role attitudes; need for closure; and social dominance orientation with anti-transgender prejudice.…

  20. Relationships among Adolescents' Leisure Motivation, Leisure Involvement, and Leisure Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Li, Ren-Hau; Chen, Sheng-Hwang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to test a cause-and-effect model of factors affecting leisure satisfaction among Taiwanese adolescents. A structural equation model was proposed in which the relationships among leisure motivation, leisure involvement, and leisure satisfaction were explored. The study collected data from 701 adolescent…

  1. A Methodological Review of Structural Equation Modelling in Higher Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Teegan

    2016-01-01

    Despite increases in the number of articles published in higher education journals using structural equation modelling (SEM), research addressing their statistical sufficiency, methodological appropriateness and quantitative rigour is sparse. In response, this article provides a census of all covariance-based SEM articles published up until 2013…

  2. The Effect of Authentic Leadership on School Culture: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Engin; Oztekin-Bayir, Ozge

    2018-01-01

    In the study, the effect of school principals' authentic leadership behaviors on teachers' perceptions of school culture was tested with the structural equation model. The study was carried out with the correlation research design. Authentic leadership behavior was taken as the independent variable, and school culture was taken as the dependent…

  3. Parsimonious Structural Equation Models for Repeated Measures Data, with Application to the Study of Consumer Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, Terry; Haubl, Gerald; Tipps, Steven W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research reflects a growing awareness of the value of using structural equation models to analyze repeated measures data. However, such data, particularly in the presence of covariates, often lead to models that either fit the data poorly, are exceedingly general and hard to interpret, or are specified in a manner that is highly data…

  4. Cultural, Social, and Economic Capital Constructs in International Assessments: An Evaluation Using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Daniel H.; Sandoval-Hernández, Andrés; Lüdtke, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The article employs exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to evaluate constructs of economic, cultural, and social capital in international large-scale assessment (LSA) data from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2006 and the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2009. ESEM integrates the…

  5. Testing Mediation Using Multiple Regression and Structural Equation Modeling Analyses in Secondary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Spencer D.

    2011-01-01

    Mediation analysis in child and adolescent development research is possible using large secondary data sets. This article provides an overview of two statistical methods commonly used to test mediated effects in secondary analysis: multiple regression and structural equation modeling (SEM). Two empirical studies are presented to illustrate the…

  6. Performance and scaling of locally-structured grid methods forpartial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colella, Phillip; Bell, John; Keen, Noel; Ligocki, Terry; Lijewski, Michael; Van Straalen, Brian

    2007-07-19

    In this paper, we discuss some of the issues in obtaining high performance for block-structured adaptive mesh refinement software for partial differential equations. We show examples in which AMR scales to thousands of processors. We also discuss a number of metrics for performance and scalability that can provide a basis for understanding the advantages and disadvantages of this approach.

  7. An Application of Structural Equation Modeling for Developing Good Teaching Characteristics Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiakoksong, Somjin; Niwattanakul, Suphakit; Angskun, Thara

    2013-01-01

    Ontology is a knowledge representation technique which aims to make knowledge explicit by defining the core concepts and their relationships. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is a statistical technique which aims to explore the core factors from empirical data and estimates the relationship between these factors. This article presents an…

  8. Understanding the Impact of Trauma Exposure on Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Long; Zhang, Xing-Li; Shi, Jian-Nong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of trauma exposure on the posttraumatic stress symptomatology (PTSS) of children who resided near the epicenter of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. The mechanisms of this impact were explored via structural equation models with self-esteem and coping strategies included as mediators. The…

  9. A Structural Equation Model of Customer Satisfaction and Future Purchase of Mail-Order Speciality Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai, L.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyses the relationship between satisfaction with mail-order speciality food attributes, overall satisfaction, and likelihood of future purchase using a structural equation model. The results indicate that customer satisfaction is associated with both service and product features of mail order speciality food.

  10. Prescriptive Statements and Educational Practice: What Can Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Offer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal structural equation modeling (SEM) can be a basis for making prescriptive statements on educational practice and offers yields over "traditional" statistical techniques under the general linear model. The extent to which prescriptive statements can be made will rely on the appropriate accommodation of key elements of research design,…

  11. Determinants of Rural Industrial Entrepreneurship of Farmers in West Bengal : A Structural Equations Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, Henk; Dutta, Subrata; Oud, Han

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  12. Determinants of rural industrial entrepreneurship of farmers in West Bengal: A structural equations approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Dutta, S.; Oud, J.H.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a structural equations model of rural industrial entrepreneurship (RIE) among farmers in the Bardhaman district, West Bengal, India. It identifies the determinants of RIE but also analyzes impacts of RIE on its endogenous determinants. Age, education, marital status, number of

  13. The Application of Structural Equation Modeling to Maternal Ratings of Twins' Behavior and Emotional Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberg, Judy L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Applied structural equation modeling to twin data to assess impact of genetic and environmental factors on children's behavioral and emotional functioning. Applied models to maternal ratings of behavior of 515 monozygotic and 749 dizygotic twin pairs. Importance of genetic, shared, and specific environmental factors for explaining variation was…

  14. Estimating structural equation models with non-normal variables by using transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, van K.; Mooijaart, A.; Meijerink, F.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss structural equation models for non-normal variables. In this situation the maximum likelihood and the generalized least-squares estimates of the model parameters can give incorrect estimates of the standard errors and the associated goodness-of-fit chi-squared statistics. If the sample

  15. Organizational Cynicism, School Culture, and Academic Achievement: The Study of Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Engin; Kilicoglu, Gökhan; Yilmaz, Derya

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explain constructed theoretical models that organizational cynicism perceptions of primary school teachers affect school culture and academic achievement, by using structural equation modeling. With the assumption that there is a cause-effect relationship between three main variables, the study was constructed with…

  16. The issue of statistical power for overall model fit in evaluating structural equation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard HERMIDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical power is an important concept for psychological research. However, examining the power of a structural equation model (SEM is rare in practice. This article provides an accessible review of the concept of statistical power for the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA index of overall model fit in structural equation modeling. By way of example, we examine the current state of power in the literature by reviewing studies in top Industrial-Organizational (I/O Psychology journals using SEMs. Results indicate that in many studies, power is very low, which implies acceptance of invalid models. Additionally, we examined methodological situations which may have an influence on statistical power of SEMs. Results showed that power varies significantly as a function of model type and whether or not the model is the main model for the study. Finally, results indicated that power is significantly related to model fit statistics used in evaluating SEMs. The results from this quantitative review imply that researchers should be more vigilant with respect to power in structural equation modeling. We therefore conclude by offering methodological best practices to increase confidence in the interpretation of structural equation modeling results with respect to statistical power issues.

  17. A Structural Equation Modelling Approach for Massive Blended Synchronous Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Kalpana; Narayanan, Krishnan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a structural equation modelling (SEM) approach for blended synchronous teacher training workshop. It examines the relationship among various factors that influence the Satisfaction (SAT) of participating teachers. Data were collected with the help of a questionnaire from about 500 engineering college teachers. These teachers…

  18. Testing strong factorial invariance using three-level structural equation modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, Suzanne

    Within structural equation modeling, the most prevalent model to investigate measurement bias is the multigroup model. Equal factor loadings and intercepts across groups in a multigroup model represent strong factorial invariance (absence of measurement bias) across groups. Although this approach is

  19. A Two-Stage Approach to Synthesizing Covariance Matrices in Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mike W. L.; Chan, Wai

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is widely used as a statistical framework to test complex models in behavioral and social sciences. When the number of publications increases, there is a need to systematically synthesize them. Methodology of synthesizing findings in the context of SEM is known as meta-analytic SEM (MASEM). Although correlation…

  20. A Structural Equation Modelling of the Academic Self-Concept Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matovu, Musa

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005) in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and…

  1. Airline Sustainability Modeling: A New Framework with Application of Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem; Babashamsi, Peyman; Khajeheian, Datis

    2016-01-01

    There are many factors which could influence the sustainability of airlines. The main purpose of this study is to introduce a framework for a financial sustainability index and model it based on structural equation modeling (SEM) with maximum likelihood and Bayesian predictors. The introduced...

  2. From Ordinary Differential Equations to Structural Causal Models: the deterministic case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, J.M.; Janzing, D.; Schölkopf, B.; Nicholson, A.; Smyth, P.

    2013-01-01

    We show how, and under which conditions, the equilibrium states of a first-order Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) system can be described with a deterministic Structural Causal Model (SCM). Our exposition sheds more light on the concept of causality as expressed within the framework of

  3. Recent developments in structure-preserving algorithms for oscillatory differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xinyuan

    2018-01-01

    The main theme of this book is recent progress in structure-preserving algorithms for solving initial value problems of oscillatory differential equations arising in a variety of research areas, such as astronomy, theoretical physics, electronics, quantum mechanics and engineering. It systematically describes the latest advances in the development of structure-preserving integrators for oscillatory differential equations, such as structure-preserving exponential integrators, functionally fitted energy-preserving integrators, exponential Fourier collocation methods, trigonometric collocation methods, and symmetric and arbitrarily high-order time-stepping methods. Most of the material presented here is drawn from the recent literature. Theoretical analysis of the newly developed schemes shows their advantages in the context of structure preservation. All the new methods introduced in this book are proven to be highly effective compared with the well-known codes in the scientific literature. This book also addre...

  4. A structural equation model relating impaired sensorimotor function, fear of falling and gait patterns in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Lord, Stephen R; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2007-02-01

    Many falls in older people occur while walking, however the mechanisms responsible for gait instability are poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a plausible model describing the relationships between impaired sensorimotor function, fear of falling and gait patterns in older people. Temporo-spatial gait parameters and acceleration patterns of the head and pelvis were obtained from 100 community-dwelling older people aged between 75 and 93 years while walking on an irregular walkway. A theoretical model was developed to explain the relationships between these variables, assuming that head stability is a primary output of the postural control system when walking. This model was then tested using structural equation modeling, a statistical technique which enables the testing of a set of regression equations simultaneously. The structural equation model indicated that: (i) reduced step length has a significant direct and indirect association with reduced head stability; (ii) impaired sensorimotor function is significantly associated with reduced head stability, but this effect is largely indirect, mediated by reduced step length, and; (iii) fear of falling is significantly associated with reduced step length, but has little direct influence on head stability. These findings provide useful insights into the possible mechanisms underlying gait characteristics and risk of falling in older people. Particularly important is the indication that fear-related step length shortening may be maladaptive.

  5. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah bt; Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM) concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among ...

  6. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate survival in patients with colorectal cancer: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate absolute and conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study.\\ud \\ud Setting: General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database linked to the national cancer registry.\\ud \\ud Participants: 44 145 patients aged 15-99 with colorectal cancer from 947 practices to derive the equations. The equations were validated in 15 214 patients with colorectal cancer ...

  7. The equations of the thermomechanics of electrically conducting nonferromagnetic bodies taking account of structural transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagirnyi, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the coupled processes in electrically conducting nonferromagnetic viscoelastic bodies usually begin with a system of equations that accounts for the influence of rheology on the mechanical and temperature fields. In this context, rheology is understood as the course of certain internal processes in the body that are reflected when the relaxation time and the defects of thermomechanical moduli are specified. In this work, the methods of continuum mechanics are used to state a system of equations for the quantitative description of coupled mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic processes taking account of structural transformations in the context of the model of a rheologically simple electrically conducting nonferromagnetic body

  8. Hamiltonian structures and integrability for a discrete coupled KdV-type equation hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Haiqiong; Zhu Zuonong; Zhang Jingli

    2011-01-01

    Coupled Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) systems have many important physical applications. By considering a 4 × 4 spectral problem, we derive a discrete coupled KdV-type equation hierarchy. Our hierarchy includes the coupled Volterra system proposed by Lou et al. (e-print arXiv: 0711.0420) as the first member which is a discrete version of the coupled KdV equation. We also investigate the integrability in the Liouville sense and the multi-Hamiltonian structures for the obtained hierarchy. (authors)

  9. Constitutive equations for describing high-temperature inelastic behavior of structural alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.N.; Pugh, C.E.; Corum, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper addresses constitutive equations for the description of inelastic behavior of LMFBR structural alloys at elevated temperatures. Both elastic-plastic (time-independent) and creep (time-dependent) deformations are considered for types 304 and 316 stainless steel and 2 1 / 4 Cr--1 Mo steel. The constitutive equations identified for interim use in design analyses are described along with the assumptions and data on which they are based. Areas where improvements are needed are identified, and some alternate theories that are being pursued are outlined

  10. Exact Solutions of the Hierarchical Korteweg-de Vries Equation of Micro structured Granular Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abourabia, A.M.; El-Danaf, T.S.; Morad, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The problem under consideration are related to wave propagation in micro structured materials, characterized by higher-order nonlinear and higher-order dispersive effects; particularly, the wave propagation in dilatant granular materials. In the present paper the model equation is solved analytically by exact method called Jacobi elliptic method. The types of solutions are defined and discussed over a wide range of material parameters (two dispersion parameters and one microstructure parameter). The dispersion properties and the relation between group and phase velocities of the model equation are studied. The diagrams are drawn to illustrate the physical properties of the exact solutions

  11. Nonlinear model of a rotating hub-beams structure: Equations of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warminski, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Dynamics of a rotating structure composed of a rigid hub and flexible beams is presented in the paper. A nonlinear model of a beam takes into account bending, extension and nonlinear curvature. The influence of geometric nonlinearity and nonconstant angular velocity on dynamics of the rotating structure is presented. The exact equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are derived on the basis of the Hamilton's principle. The simplification of the exact nonlinear mathematical model is proposed taking into account the second order approximation. The reduced partial differential equations of motion together with associated boundary conditions can be used to study natural or forced vibrations of a rotating structure considering constant or nonconstant angular speed of a rigid hub and an arbitrary number of flexible blades.

  12. The performance effect of the Lean package – a survey study using a structural equation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Borup; Israelsen, Poul

    Purpose - Our aim is to test and validate a system-wide approach using mediating relationships in a structural equation model in order to understand how the practices of Lean affect performance. Design/methodology/approach – A cross-sectional survey with 200 responding companies indicating...... that they use Lean. This is analyzed in a structural quation model setting. Findings - Previous quantitative research has shown mixed results for the performance of Lean because they have not addressed the system-wide mediating relations between Lean practices. We find that Companies using a system...... practices in creating improved performance. Hence, we develop a new systemwide structural equation model approach with multiple mediations, and we validate this with substantial tests....

  13. Transport equations, Level Set and Eulerian mechanics. Application to fluid-structure coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maitre, E.

    2008-11-01

    My works were devoted to numerical analysis of non-linear elliptic-parabolic equations, to neutron transport equation and to the simulation of fabrics draping. More recently I developed an Eulerian method based on a level set formulation of the immersed boundary method to deal with fluid-structure coupling problems arising in bio-mechanics. Some of the more efficient algorithms to solve the neutron transport equation make use of the splitting of the transport operator taking into account its characteristics. In the present work we introduced a new algorithm based on this splitting and an adaptation of minimal residual methods to infinite dimensional case. We present the case where the velocity space is of dimension 1 (slab geometry) and 2 (plane geometry) because the splitting is simpler in the former

  14. Decoupling of the Leading Order DGLAP Evolution Equation with Spin Dependent Structure Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakht, F. Teimoury; Boroun, G. R.

    2018-02-01

    We propose an analytical solution for DGLAP evolution equations with polarized splitting functions at the Leading Order (LO) approximation based on the Laplace transform method. It is shown that the DGLAP evolution equations can be decoupled completely into two second order differential equations which then are solved analytically by using the initial conditions δ FS(x,Q2)=F[partial δ FS0(x), δ FS0(x)] and {δ G}(x,Q2)=G[partial δ G0(x), δ G0(x)]. We used this method to obtain the polarized structure function of the proton as well as the polarized gluon distribution function inside the proton and compared the numerical results with experimental data of COMPASS, HERMES, and AAC'08 Collaborations. It was found that there is a good agreement between our predictions and the experiments.

  15. Solution of quadratic matrix equations for free vibration analysis of structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1973-01-01

    An efficient digital computer procedure and the related numerical algorithm are presented herein for the solution of quadratic matrix equations associated with free vibration analysis of structures. Such a procedure enables accurate and economical analysis of natural frequencies and associated modes of discretized structures. The numerically stable algorithm is based on the Sturm sequence method, which fully exploits the banded form of associated stiffness and mass matrices. The related computer program written in FORTRAN V for the JPL UNIVAC 1108 computer proves to be substantially more accurate and economical than other existing procedures of such analysis. Numerical examples are presented for two structures - a cantilever beam and a semicircular arch.

  16. ANALISA FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KENYAMANAN BERKENDARA PADA PENUMPANG KERETA API TAWANG JAYA MENGGUNAKAN STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Puspita Sari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Kereta api merupakan salah satu moda transportasi dengan jumlah penumpang yang besar. Pengoperasian kereta api Tawang Jaya merupakan salah satu upaya untuk mengakomodir rute perjalanan Semarang – Jakarta dan sebaliknya. Studi pendahuluan mencatat bahwa telah terjadi ketidaknyamanan pada kereta api Tawang Jaya yang diiringi dengan penurunan jumlah penumpang. Penurunan jumlah penumpang mungkin disebabkan karena ketidaknyamanan, sehingga banyak penumpang yang beraliih menggunakan moda transportasi lain atau kereta jenis lain. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan kenaikan jumlah penumpang kereta kelas bisnis dan eksekutif pada waktu yang bersamaan. Studi ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persepsi kenyamanan pada perjalanan kereta api Tawang Jaya dengan menggunakan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM menggunakan software AMOS versi 21.0. Pendekatan Structural Equation Modelling (SEM digunakan untuk menjelaskan secara sistematis kenyamanan pelanggan kereta api melalui beberapa faktor (suasana kabin, tempat duduk, gejala mabuk perjalanan, faktor terowongan, keletihan dan kenyamanan berkendara serta menghitung pengaruh dari faktor-faktor tersebut terhadap kenyamanan. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor yang secara langsung berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kenyamanan berkendara adalah suasana kabin dengan bobot sebesar 0.60. Sementara itu faktor yang secara tidak langsung berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kenyamanan berkendara melalui mediasi keletihan adalah tempat duduk dengan bobot sebesar 0.5394.   Kata kunci: kenyamanan; kereta api; structural equation modelling (SEM   Abstract   Railway is one of the transportation vehicle with a large number of passenger. The operation of Tawang Jaya Train is one way to accomodate the route of Semarang – Jakarta and reversed. The pilot study notes that discomfort problem has occured in Tawang Jaya Train and caused decreasing the number of passenger. Decrease in the number of passengers may be caused because of

  17. Fatigue of Chinese railway employees and its influential factors: Structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Liuxing; Chang, Jing; Ma, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Fatigue is an identifiable and preventable cause of accidents in transport operations. Regarding the railway sector, incident logs and simulation studies show that employee fatigue leads to lack of alertness, impaired performance, and occurrence of incidents. China has one of the largest rail systems in the world, and Chinese railway employees work under high fatigue risks; therefore, it is important to assess their fatigue level and find the major factors leading to fatigue. We designed a questionnaire that uses Multidimensional Fatigue Instrument (MFI-20), NASA-TLX and subjective rating of work overtime feelings to assess employee fatigue. The contribution of each influential factor of fatigue was analysed using structural equation modelling. In total, 297 employees from the rail maintenance department and 227 employees from the locomotive department returned valid responses. The average scores and standard deviations for the five subscales of MFI-20, namely General Fatigue, Physical Fatigue, Reduced Activity, Reduced Motivation, and Mental Fatigue, were 2.9 (0.8), 2.8 (0.8), 2.5 (0.8), 2.5 (0.7), and 2.4 (0.8) among the rail maintenance employees and 3.5 (0.8), 3.5 (0.7), 3.3 (0.7), 3.0 (0.6), and 3.1 (0.7), respectively, among the locomotive employees. The fatigue of the locomotive employees was influenced by feelings related to working overtime (standardized r = 0.22) and workload (standardized r = 0.27). The work overtime control and physical working environment significantly influenced subjective feelings (standardized r = -0.25 and 0.47, respectively), while improper work/rest rhythms and an adverse physical working environment significantly increased the workload (standardized r = 0.48 and 0.33, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flood Risk Mapping Using Flow Energy Equation and Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    pourya Javan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Flooding and its damages are not only found uplift water level in a region. In other words, the depth and speed parameters together have determining the level of flood risk at each point. This subject is visible in flooded plain with low height and high speed of 2 meters per second, which damages are extensive. According to the criteria of having both velocity and flow depth in the governing equation to the flows energy, this equation seems appropriate to analysis in this study. Various methods have been proposed for increase accuracy in flood zoning with different return periods and risks associated with it in land border of river. For example, some of these methods are considered factors such as analysis of past flooding in the area affected by floods, hydrological factors and consideration of hydraulic elements affecting in flood zoning (such as flow velocity. This paper investigates the effect of flood zoning by the energy flow in the areas affected by floods. Also risk due to flood based on energy flow in each section of the river is compared by the proposed graphs of hazard interval and other done flood zoning in this field. In this study, the FORDO river has been selected as the case study. This river is part of the rivers located in the city of QOM KAHAK. The characteristics of river in upstream and downstream are mountain, young and stable and adult, respectively. Also this river in different seasons is exposed the flood damage. The proposed method in this study can be improving recognition accuracy of flood risk in areas affected by flood. Also, this method facilitate the identify parts of the river bed, that is affected by severe flooding, for decision making to improve rivers organizing.

  19. Dromion-like structures and stability analysis in the variable coefficients complex Ginzburg–Landau equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Pring; Pang, Li-Hui; Huang, Long-Gang; Li, Yan-Qing; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The study of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, which can describe the fiber laser system, is of significance for ultra-fast laser. In this paper, dromion-like structures for the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation are considered due to their abundant nonlinear dynamics. Via the modified Hirota method and simplified assumption, the analytic dromion-like solution is obtained. The partial asymmetry of structure is particularly discussed, which arises from asymmetry of nonlinear and dispersion terms. Furthermore, the stability of dromion-like structures is analyzed. Oscillation structure emerges to exhibit strong interference when the dispersion loss is perturbed. Through the appropriate modulation of modified exponent parameter, the oscillation structure is transformed into two dromion-like structures. It indicates that the dromion-like structure is unstable, and the coherence intensity is affected by the modified exponent parameter. Results in this paper may be useful in accounting for some nonlinear phenomena in fiber laser systems, and understanding the essential role of modified Hirota method

  20. Somatic Expression of Psychological Problems (Somatization: Examination with Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba Seda Çolak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the research is to define which psychological symptoms (somatization, depression, obsessive ‐ compulsive, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, anxiety, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism cause somatic reactions at most. Total effect of these psychological symptoms on somatic symptoms had been investigated. Study was carried out with structural equation model to research the relation between the psychological symptoms and somatization. The main material of the research is formed by the data obtained from 492 people. SCL‐90‐R scale was used in order to obtain the data. As a result of the structural equation analysis, it has been found that 1Psychoticism, phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation do not predict somatic symptoms.2There is a negative relation between interpersonal sensitivity level mand somatic reactions.3Anxiety symptoms had been found as causative to occur the highest level of somatic reactions.

  1. Numerical solution of quadratic matrix equations for free vibration analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K. K.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the efficient and accurate solution of the eigenvalue problem represented by quadratic matrix equations. Such matrix forms are obtained in connection with the free vibration analysis of structures, discretized by finite 'dynamic' elements, resulting in frequency-dependent stiffness and inertia matrices. The paper presents a new numerical solution procedure of the quadratic matrix equations, based on a combined Sturm sequence and inverse iteration technique enabling economical and accurate determination of a few required eigenvalues and associated vectors. An alternative procedure based on a simultaneous iteration procedure is also described when only the first few modes are the usual requirement. The employment of finite dynamic elements in conjunction with the presently developed eigenvalue routines results in a most significant economy in the dynamic analysis of structures.

  2. A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL-II FOR WORK-LIFE BALANCE OF IT PROFESSIONALS IN CHENNAI

    OpenAIRE

    Rashida A. Banu

    2016-01-01

    The study developed and tested a model of work life balance of IT professionals employing structural equation modeling (SEM) to analyze the relationship between work place support (WPS) and work interference with personal life (WIPL), personal life interference with work (PLIW), satisfaction with work-life balance (SWLB) and improved effectiveness at work (IEW). The model fit the data well and hypotheses are generally supported. WPS and SWLB are negatively related to WIPL and P...

  3. A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL: GREECE’S TOURISM DEMAND FOR TOURIST DESTINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Chaitip, Prasert; Chaiboonsri, Chukiat; Kovacs, Sandor; Balogh, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Structural equation model (LISREL 8) was applied to test the causal relationships between tourist travel motivations and tourist destination. A survey containing Likert scale questions was conducted to collect data from 100 tourists who had travelled to Greece’s tourist destination. With the help of factor analysis, four dimensions were identified for scales used in the study: travel cost satisfaction, tourism product, tourism product attributes, and tourism product management. Results indi...

  4. A Structural Equation Model: India’s International Tourism Demand for Tourist Destination

    OpenAIRE

    N. Rangaswamy; Chukiat Chaiboonsri; Prasert Chaitip

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (LISREL 8) was used to test the causal relationships between tourist travel motivations (travel cost satisfaction) and tourist destination (tourism product, tourism product attributes, and tourism product management). A survey containing Likert-type scales was used in collecting data from 100 international tourists who had traveled to India. Using factor analysis, dimensions were identified for scales used in the study: travel cost satisfaction, tourism product, t...

  5. Constructing a Measurement in Service Quality for Indian Banks: Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anil Kumar; Manoj Kumar Dash

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to construct a measure in service quality for Indian banks and establishes a causal relationship of service attributes performance with customer satisfaction. The SERVQUAL model is used. The quantification of service quality led to the attempt to construct an index. The index is constructed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) and American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) as the underlying frameworks. The analysis is based on data of 200 bank customers from the ...

  6. Family Food Security and Children’s Environment: A Comprehensive Analysis with Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Che Wan Jasimah bt Wan Mohamed Radzi; Huang Hui; Nur Anisah Binti Mohamed @ A. Rahman; Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi

    2017-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been used extensively in sustainability studies to model relationships among latent and manifest variables. This paper provides a tutorial exposition of the SEM approach in food security studies and introduces a basic framework based on family food security and children’s environment sustainability. This framework includes family food security and three main concepts representing children’s environment, including children’s BMI, health, and school perfor...

  7. A multilevel cross-lagged structural equation analysis for reciprocal relationship between social capital and health

    OpenAIRE

    Sessions, John; Yu, Ge; Fu, Yu; Wall, Matin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for re...

  8. Analyzing Sport Consumer Behaviour toward Sportswear Store: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hafedh Ibrahim; Faouzi Najjar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to elucidate in sportswear store setting the relationships among psychological traits, loyalty to salesperson and behavioural intentions in three different sport consumers according to their switching behaviour. By means of structural equation modelling, we find a clear difference in the behaviour of the three groups. The results show that loyalty to salesperson is more influenced by need for social affiliation for the stayer customers. Whereas, for the dissatisfied a...

  9. Validation of an employee satisfaction model: A structural equation model approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ophillia Ledimo; Nico Martins

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate an employee satisfaction model and to determine the relationships between the different dimensions of the concept, using the structural equation modelling approach (SEM). A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used to collect data from a random sample of (n=759) permanent employees of a parastatal organisation. Data was collected using the Employee Satisfaction Survey (ESS) to measure employee satisfaction dimensions. Following the steps of ...

  10. Analisis Structural Equation Modeling Pada Pengaruh Kebiasaan Mengakses Facebook Terhadap Kualitas Hidup Dan Prestasi Akademik Mahasiswa

    OpenAIRE

    Nalim, Nalim

    2014-01-01

    This study tried to determine the effect on quality of life Facebook and students' academic achievement. A total of 210 samples were taken from three universities with proportional multistage random sampling method, while data analysis was conducted using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with software lisrel 8.80 (student version). The results showed, although according to the investigators alleged that Facebook had a negative impact on quality of life, but the effect was not...

  11. Hypersingular integral equations, waveguiding effects in Cantorian Universe and genesis of large scale structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.; Giordano, P.

    2005-01-01

    In this work we introduce the hypersingular integral equations and analyze a realistic model of gravitational waveguides on a cantorian space-time. A waveguiding effect is considered with respect to the large scale structure of the Universe, where the structure formation appears as if it were a classically self-similar random process at all astrophysical scales. The result is that it seems we live in an El Naschie's o (∞) Cantorian space-time, where gravitational lensing and waveguiding effects can explain the appearing Universe. In particular, we consider filamentary and planar large scale structures as possible refraction channels for electromagnetic radiation coming from cosmological structures. From this vision the Universe appears like a large self-similar adaptive mirrors set, thanks to three numerical simulations. Consequently, an infinite Universe is just an optical illusion that is produced by mirroring effects connected with the large scale structure of a finite and not a large Universe

  12. Uncovering the influence of social skills and psychosociological factors on pain sensitivity using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoichi; Nishi, Yuki; Nishi, Yuki; Osumi, Michihiro; Morioka, Shu

    2017-01-01

    Pain is a subjective emotional experience that is influenced by psychosociological factors such as social skills, which are defined as problem-solving abilities in social interactions. This study aimed to reveal the relationships among pain, social skills, and other psychosociological factors by using structural equation modeling. A total of 101 healthy volunteers (41 men and 60 women; mean age: 36.6±12.7 years) participated in this study. To evoke participants' sense of inner pain, we showed them images of painful scenes on a PC screen and asked them to evaluate the pain intensity by using the visual analog scale (VAS). We examined the correlation between social skills and VAS, constructed a hypothetical model based on results from previous studies and the current correlational analysis results, and verified the model's fit using structural equation modeling. We found significant positive correlations between VAS and total social skills values, as well as between VAS and the "start of relationships" subscales. Structural equation modeling revealed that the values for "start of relationships" had a direct effect on VAS values (path coefficient =0.32, p social support. The results indicated that extroverted people are more sensitive to inner pain and tend to get more social support and maintain a better psychological condition.

  13. Structural equation modeling of the proximal–distal continuum of adherence drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McHorney CA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Colleen A McHorney,1 Ning Jackie Zhang,2 Timothy Stump,3 Xiaoquan Zhao41US Outcomes Research, Merck, North Wales, PA, 2University of Central Florida, Orlando, 3Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, 4George Mason University, Fairfax, USAObjectives: Nonadherence to prescription medications has been shown to be significantly influenced by three key medication-specific beliefs: patients' perceived need for the prescribed medication, their concerns about the prescribed medication, and perceived medication affordability. Structural equation modeling was used to test the predictors of these three proximal determinants of medication adherence using the proximal–distal continuum of adherence drivers as the organizing conceptual framework.Methods: In Spring 2008, survey participants were selected from the Harris Interactive Chronic Illness Panel, an internet-based panel of hundreds of thousands of adults with chronic disease. Respondents were eligible for the survey if they were aged 40 years and older, resided in the US, and reported having at least one of six chronic diseases: asthma, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoporosis, or other cardiovascular disease. A final sample size of 1072 was achieved. The proximal medication beliefs were measured by three multi-item scales: perceived need for medications, perceived medication concerns, and perceived medication affordability. The intermediate sociomedical beliefs and skills included four multi-item scales: perceived disease severity, knowledge about the prescribed medication, perceived immunity to side effects, and perceived value of nutraceuticals. Generic health beliefs and skills consisted of patient engagement in their care, health information-seeking tendencies, internal health locus of control, a single-item measure of self-rated health, and general mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to model proximal–distal continuum of adherence drivers.Results: The

  14. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software. 

  15. Subdiffusive master equation with space-dependent anomalous exponent and structural instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, Sergei; Falconer, Steven

    2012-03-01

    We derive the fractional master equation with space-dependent anomalous exponent. We analyze the asymptotic behavior of the corresponding lattice model both analytically and by Monte Carlo simulation. We show that the subdiffusive fractional equations with constant anomalous exponent μ in a bounded domain [0,L] are not structurally stable with respect to the nonhomogeneous variations of parameter μ. In particular, the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution is no longer the stationary solution of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation whatever the space variation of the exponent might be. We analyze the random distribution of μ in space and find that in the long-time limit, the probability distribution is highly intermediate in space and the behavior is completely dominated by very unlikely events. We show that subdiffusive fractional equations with the nonuniform random distribution of anomalous exponent is an illustration of a “Black Swan,” the low probability event of the small value of the anomalous exponent that completely dominates the long-time behavior of subdiffusive systems.

  16. The quantum group, Harper equation and structure of Bloch eigenstates on a honeycomb lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliashvili, M; Tsitsishvili, G; Japaridze, G I

    2012-01-01

    The tight-binding model of quantum particles on a honeycomb lattice is investigated in the presence of a homogeneous magnetic field. Provided the magnetic flux per unit hexagon is a rational of the elementary flux, the one-particle Hamiltonian is expressed in terms of the generators of the quantum group U q (sl 2 ). Employing the functional representation of the quantum group U q (sl 2 ), the Harper equation is rewritten as a system of two coupled functional equations in the complex plane. For the special values of quasi-momentum, the entangled system admits solutions in terms of polynomials. The system is shown to exhibit a certain symmetry allowing us to resolve the entanglement, and a basic single equation determining the eigenvalues and eigenstates (polynomials) is obtained. Equations specifying the locations of the roots of polynomials in the complex plane are found. Employing numerical analysis, the roots of polynomials corresponding to different eigenstates are solved and diagrams exhibiting the ordered structure of one-particle eigenstates are depicted. (paper)

  17. Magnetopause boundary structure deduced from the high-time resolution particle experiment on the Equator-S spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Parks

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available An electrostatic analyser (ESA onboard the Equator-S spacecraft operating in coordination with a potential control device (PCD has obtained the first accurate electron energy spectrum with energies ≈7 eV–100 eV in the vicinity of the magnetopause. On 8 January, 1998, a solar wind pressure increase pushed the magnetopause inward, leaving the Equator-S spacecraft in the magnetosheath. On the return into the magnetosphere approximately 80 min later, the magnetopause was observed by the ESA and the solid state telescopes (the SSTs detected electrons and ions with energies ≈20–300 keV. The high time resolution (3 s data from ESA and SST show the boundary region contains of multiple plasma sources that appear to evolve in space and time. We show that electrons with energies ≈7 eV–100 eV permeate the outer regions of the magnetosphere, from the magnetopause to ≈6Re. Pitch-angle distributions of ≈20–300 keV electrons show the electrons travel in both directions along the magnetic field with a peak at 90° indicating a trapped configuration. The IMF during this interval was dominated by Bx and By components with a small Bz.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause · cusp · and boundary layers; magnetospheric configuration and dynamics; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions

  18. Time of Concentration equations: the role of morphometric uncertainties in flood risk analysis and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Luciano; Díez-Herrero, Andrés; Bodoque, Jose M.; Bateira, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The perception of flood risk by the responsible authorities on the flood management disasters and mitigation strategies should be based on an overall evaluation of the uncertainties associated with the procedures for risk assessment and mapping production. This contribution presents the results of the development of mapping evaluation of the time of concentration (tc). This parameter reflects the time-space at which a watershed responds to rainfall events and is the most frequently utilized time parameter, and is of great importance in many hydrologic analysis. Accurate estimates of the tc are very important, for instance, if tc is under-estimated, the result is an over-estimated peak discharge and vice versa, resulting significant variations on the flooded areas, and could have important consequences in terms of the land use and occupation of territory, as management's own flood risk. The methology used evaluate 20 different empirical, semi-empirical and kinematics equations of tc calculation, due to different cartographic scales (1:200000; 1:100000; 1:25000; LIDAR 5x5m &1x1m) in in two hydrographic basins with distinct dimensions and geomorphological characteristics, located in the Gredos Mountain range (Spain). The results suggest that the changes in the cartographic scale, has not influence as significant as one might expect. The most important variations occur in the characteristics of the fequations, use different morphometricparameters in the calculations. Some just are based on geomorphological criteria and other magnify the hydraulic characteristics of the channels, resulting in very different tc values. However, we highlighting the role of cartographic scale particularly in the application of semi-empirical equations that take into account changes in land use and occupation. In this case, the determination of parameters, such as flow coefficient, curve number and roughness coefficient are very sensitive to cartographic scale. Sensitivity analysis

  19. Psychological pathway to suicidal ideation among people living with HIV/AIDS in China: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Chenchang; Yao, Xing; Yang, Yinmei; Yan, Hong; Li, Shiyue

    2017-11-29

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) have higher rates of suicide than does the general population. It is critical to interpret the intricate relationships among various psychological variables that increase the risk of suicidal ideation among PLWHA in China. An institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted from Jul to Aug 2016 in Nanjing, China, using a self-reporting questionnaire. A total of 465 PLWHA participated. Sociodemographic, psychological variables and suicide information about the participants were collected. Structural equation modeling (SEM)-path analysis was used to analyze the cross-sectional data. The final structural equation model had a highly satisfactory fit. Among PLWHA, perceived stigma had the greatest accumulated total effect on suicidal ideation, with both a direct effect and indirect effect through self-esteem and depression. Additionally, self-esteem had the second greatest total effect on suicidal ideation and was influenced by social support. Depression contributed directly to suicidal ideation and partly mediated the association of perceived stigma and self-esteem with suicidal ideation. These findings suggest that self-esteem and depression, particularly perceived stigma, play important roles in suicidal ideation among PLWHA. Enhancing personal self-esteem or social support might also reduce perceived stigma and may be an important target for intervention to decrease suicidal ideation among PLWHA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Physical factors underlying the association between lower walking performance and falls in older people: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tiedemann, Anne; Lord, Stephen R; Suzukawa, Megumi; Makizako, Hyuma; Kobayashi, Kumiko; Suzuki, Takao

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the interrelationships between lower limb muscle performance, balance, gait and falls in older people using structural equation modeling. Study participants were two hundred and thirteen people aged 65 years and older (mean age, 80.0 ± 7.1 years), who used day-care services in Japan. The outcome measures were the history of falls three months retrospectively and physical risk factors for falling, including performance in the chair stand test (CST), one-leg standing test (OLS), tandem walk test, 6m walking time, and the timed up-and-go (TUG) test. Thirty-nine (18.3%) of the 213 participants had fallen at least one or more times during the preceding 3 months. The fall group had significantly slower 6m walking speed and took significantly longer to undertake the TUG test than the non-fall group. In a structural equation model, performance in the CST contributed significantly to gait function, and low gait function was significantly and directly associated with falls in older people. This suggests that task-specific strength exercise as well as general mobility retraining should be important components of exercise programs designed to reduce falls in older people. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Phase structure of hot and/or dense QCD with the Schwinger-Dyson equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Satoshi [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    We investigate the phase structure of the hot and/or dense QCD using the Schwinger-Dyson equation (SDE) with the improved ladder approximation in the Landau gauge. We solve the coupled SDE for the Majorana masses of the quark and antiquark (separately from the SDE for the Dirac mass) in the finite temperature and/or chemical potential region. The resultant phase structure is rather different from those by other analyses. In addition to this analysis we investigate the phase structure with the different two types of the SDE, in one of which the Majorana mass gap of the antiquark is neglected, while in the other of which the Majorana mass gap of the quark and that of the antiquark are set to be equal. The effect of the Debye mass of the gluon on the phase structure is also investigated. (author)

  2. The Hubble law and the spiral structures of galaxies from equations of motion in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, M.

    1975-01-01

    Fully exploiting the Lie group that characterizes the underlying symmetry of general relativity theory, Einstein's tensor formalism factorizes, yielding a generalized (16-component) quaternion field formalism. The associated generalized geodesic equation, taken as the equation of motion of a star, predicts the Hubble law from one approximation for the generally covariant equations of motion, and the spiral structure of galaxies from another approximation. These results depend on the imposition of appropriate boundary conditions. The Hubble law follows when the boundary conditions derive from the oscillating model cosmology, and not from the other cosmological models. The spiral structures of the galaxies follow from the same boundary conditions, but with a different time scale than for the whole universe. The solutions that imply the spiral motion are Fresnel integrals. These predict the star's motion to be along the 'Cornu Spiral'. The part of this spiral in the first quadrant is the imploding phase of the galaxy, corresponding to a motion with continually decreasing radii, approaching the galactic center as time increases. The part of the Cornu Spiral' in the third quadrant is the exploding phase, corresponding to continually increasing radii, as the star moves out from the hub. The spatial origin in the coordinate system of this curve is the inflection point, where the explosion changes to implosion. The two- (or many-) armed spiral galaxies are explained here in terms of two (or many) distinct explosions occurring at displaced times, in the domain of the rotating, planar galaxy. (author)

  3. Energy transfer in structured and unstructured environments: Master equations beyond the Born-Markov approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iles-Smith, Jake, E-mail: Jakeilessmith@gmail.com [Controlled Quantum Dynamics Theory, Imperial College London, London SW7 2PG (United Kingdom); Photon Science Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Photonics Engineering, DTU Fotonik, Ørsteds Plads, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Dijkstra, Arend G. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Lambert, Neill [CEMS, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nazir, Ahsan, E-mail: ahsan.nazir@manchester.ac.uk [Photon Science Institute and School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-28

    We explore excitonic energy transfer dynamics in a molecular dimer system coupled to both structured and unstructured oscillator environments. By extending the reaction coordinate master equation technique developed by Iles-Smith et al. [Phys. Rev. A 90, 032114 (2014)], we go beyond the commonly used Born-Markov approximations to incorporate system-environment correlations and the resultant non-Markovian dynamical effects. We obtain energy transfer dynamics for both underdamped and overdamped oscillator environments that are in perfect agreement with the numerical hierarchical equations of motion over a wide range of parameters. Furthermore, we show that the Zusman equations, which may be obtained in a semiclassical limit of the reaction coordinate model, are often incapable of describing the correct dynamical behaviour. This demonstrates the necessity of properly accounting for quantum correlations generated between the system and its environment when the Born-Markov approximations no longer hold. Finally, we apply the reaction coordinate formalism to the case of a structured environment comprising of both underdamped (i.e., sharply peaked) and overdamped (broad) components simultaneously. We find that though an enhancement of the dimer energy transfer rate can be obtained when compared to an unstructured environment, its magnitude is rather sensitive to both the dimer-peak resonance conditions and the relative strengths of the underdamped and overdamped contributions.

  4. A Coupled System of Integrodifferential Equations Arising in Liquidity Risk Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Huyen; Tankov, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We study the mathematical aspects of the portfolio/consumption choice problem in a market model with liquidity risk introduced in (Pham and Tankov, Math. Finance, 2006, to appear). In this model, the investor can trade and observe stock prices only at exogenous Poisson arrival times. He may also consume continuously from his cash holdings, and his goal is to maximize his expected utility from consumption. This is a mixed discrete/continuous time stochastic control problem, nonstandard in the literature. We show how the dynamic programming principle leads to a coupled system of Integro-Differential Equations (IDE), and we prove an analytic characterization of this control problem by adapting the concept of viscosity solutions. This coupled system of IDE may be numerically solved by a decoupling algorithm, and this is the topic of a companion paper (Pham and Tankov, Math. Finance, 2006, to appear)

  5. How the 2SLS/IV estimator can handle equality constraints in structural equation models: a system-of-equations approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    Parameters in structural equation models are typically estimated using the maximum likelihood (ML) approach. Bollen (1996) proposed an alternative non-iterative, equation-by-equation estimator that uses instrumental variables. Although this two-stage least squares/instrumental variables (2SLS/IV) estimator has good statistical properties, one problem with its application is that parameter equality constraints cannot be imposed. This paper presents a mathematical solution to this problem that is based on an extension of the 2SLS/IV approach to a system of equations. We present an example in which our approach was used to examine strong longitudinal measurement invariance. We also investigated the new approach in a simulation study that compared it with ML in the examination of the equality of two latent regression coefficients and strong measurement invariance. Overall, the results show that the suggested approach is a useful extension of the original 2SLS/IV estimator and allows for the effective handling of equality constraints in structural equation models. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Structural stability and chaotic solutions of perturbed Benjamin-Ono equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnir, B.; Morrison, P.J.

    1986-11-01

    A method for proving chaos in partial differential equations is discussed and applied to the Benjamin-Ono equation subject to perturbations. The perturbations are of two types: one that corresponds to viscous dissipation, the so-called Burger's term, and one that involves the Hilbert transform and has been used to model Landau damping. The method proves chaos in the PDE by proving temporal chaos in its pole solutions. The spatial structure of the pole solutions remains intact, but their positions are chaotic in time. Melnikov's method is invoked to show this temporal chaos. It is discovered that the pole behavior is very sensitive to the Burger's perturbation, but is quite insensitive to the perturbation involving the Hilbert transform

  7. Attractor of Beam Equation with Structural Damping under Nonlinear Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danxia Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously, considering the viscous effect of material, damping of medium, and rotational inertia, we study a kind of more general Kirchhoff-type extensible beam equation utt-uxxtt+uxxxx-σ(∫0l‍(ux2dxuxx-ϕ(∫0l‍(ux2dxuxxt=q(x, in  [0,L]×R+ with the structural damping and the rotational inertia term. Little attention is paid to the longtime behavior of the beam equation under nonlinear boundary conditions. In this paper, under nonlinear boundary conditions, we prove not only the existence and uniqueness of global solutions by prior estimates combined with some inequality skills, but also the existence of a global attractor by the existence of an absorbing set and asymptotic compactness of corresponding solution semigroup. In addition, the same results also can be proved under the other nonlinear boundary conditions.

  8. Covariant solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation and an application to the nucleon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    There is a need for covariant solutions of bound state equations in order to construct realistic QCD based models of mesons and baryons. Furthermore, we ideally need to know the structure of these bound states in all kinematical regimes, which makes a direct solution in Minkowski space (without any 3-dimensional reductions) desirable. The Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) for bound states in scalar theories is reformulated and solved for arbitrary scattering kernels in terms of a generalized spectral representation directly in Minkowski space. This differs from the conventional Euclidean approach, where the BSE can only be solved in ladder approximation after a Wick rotation. An application of covariant Bethe-Salpeter solutions to a quark-diquark model of the nucleon is also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  9. Directional approach to spatial structure of solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations in the plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konieczny, P; Mucha, P B

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a steady flow of incompressible fluid in the plane. The motion is governed by the Navier–Stokes equations with prescribed velocity u ∞ at infinity. The main result shows the existence of unique solutions for arbitrary force, provided sufficient largeness of u ∞ . Furthermore a spatial structure of the solution is obtained in comparison with the Oseen flow. A key element of our new approach is based on a setting which treats the direction of the flow as the time direction. The analysis is done in the framework of the Fourier transform taken in one (perpendicular) direction and a special choice of function spaces which take into account the inhomogeneous character of the symbol of the Oseen system. From that point of view our technique can be used as an effective tool in examining spatial asymptotics of solutions to other systems modelled by elliptic equations

  10. Evaluating Neighborhoods Livability in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Abass Iyanda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about city livability around the world and of particular concern is the aspects of the person-environment relationship which encompasses many characteristics suffice to make a place livable. Extant literature provides livability dimensions such as housing unit characteristics, neighborhood facilities, economic vitality and safety environment. These livability dimensions as well as their attributes found in the extant literature have been reported to have high reliability measurement level. Although, various methods have been applied to examine relationships among the variables however structural equation modeling (SEM has been found more holistic as a modeling technique to understand and explain the relationships that may exist among variable measurements. Structural equation modeling simultaneously performs multivariate analysis including multiple regression, path and factor analysis in the cause-effect relationships between latent constructs. Therefore, this study investigates the key factors of livability of planned residential neighborhoods in Minna, Nigeria with the research objectives of – (a to study the livability level of the selected residential neighborhoods, (b to determine the dimensions and indicators which most influence the level of livability in the selected residential neighborhoods, and (c to reliably test the efficacy of structural equation modeling (SEM in the assessment of livability. The methodology adopted in this study includes- Data collection with the aid of structured questionnaire survey administered to the residents of the study area based on stratified random sampling. The data collected was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 software for structural equation modeling (a second-order factor. The study revealed that livability as a second-order factor is indicated by economic vitality, safety environment, neighborhood facilities

  11. Sibship structure and risk of infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present understanding of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis among children of low birth order or small sibships is mainly based on old and indirect evidence. Societal changes and methodological limitations of previous studies call for new data....... METHODS: We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study incidence rates of inpatient hospitalizations for infectious mononucleosis before the age of 20 years in a cohort of 2,543,225 Danes born between 1971 and 2008, taking individual...... sibship structure into account. RESULTS: A total of 12,872 cases of infectious mononucleosis were observed during 35.3 million person-years of follow-up. Statistical modelling showed that increasing sibship size was associated with a reduced risk of infectious mononucleosis and that younger siblings...

  12. DG-FEM solution for nonlinear wave-structure interaction using Boussinesq-type equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Hesthaven, Jan; Bingham, Harry B.

    2008-01-01

    equations in complex and curvilinear geometries which amends the application range of previous numerical models that have been based on structured Cartesian grids. The Boussinesq method provides the basis for the accurate description of fully nonlinear and dispersive water waves in both shallow and deep...... waters within the breaking limit. To demonstrate the current applicability of the model both linear and mildly nonlinear test cases are considered in two horizontal dimensions where the water waves interact with bottom-mounted fully reflecting structures. It is established that, by simple symmetry...... considerations combined with a mirror principle, it is possible to impose weak slip boundary conditions for both structured and general curvilinear wall boundaries while maintaining the accuracy of the scheme. As is standard for current high-order Boussinesq-type models, arbitrary waves can be generated...

  13. Expert Strategies in Solving Algebraic Structure Sense Problems: The Case of Quadratic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al; Sispiyati, R.

    2017-02-01

    Structure sense, an intuitive ability towards symbolic expressions, including skills to interpret, to manipulate, and to perceive symbols in different roles, is considered as a key success in learning algebra. In this article, we report results of three phases of a case study on solving algebraic structure sense problems aiming at testing the appropriateness of algebraic structure sense tasks and at investigating expert strategies dealing with the tasks. First, we developed three tasks on quadratic equations based on the characteristics of structure sense for high school algebra. Next, we validated the tasks to seven experts. In the validation process, we requested these experts to solve each task using two different strategies. Finally, we analyzing expert solution strategies in the light of structure sense characteristics. We found that even if eventual expert strategies are in line with the characteristics of structure sense; some of their initial solution strategies used standard procedures which might pay less attention to algebraic structures. This finding suggests that experts have reconsidered their procedural work and have provided more efficient solution strategies. For further investigation, we consider to test the tasks to high school algebra students and to see whether they produce similar results as experts.

  14. Electromagnetic scattering of large structures in layered earths using integral equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zonghou; Tripp, Alan C.

    1995-07-01

    An electromagnetic scattering algorithm for large conductivity structures in stratified media has been developed and is based on the method of system iteration and spatial symmetry reduction using volume electric integral equations. The method of system iteration divides a structure into many substructures and solves the resulting matrix equation using a block iterative method. The block submatrices usually need to be stored on disk in order to save computer core memory. However, this requires a large disk for large structures. If the body is discretized into equal-size cells it is possible to use the spatial symmetry relations of the Green's functions to regenerate the scattering impedance matrix in each iteration, thus avoiding expensive disk storage. Numerical tests show that the system iteration converges much faster than the conventional point-wise Gauss-Seidel iterative method. The numbers of cells do not significantly affect the rate of convergency. Thus the algorithm effectively reduces the solution of the scattering problem to an order of O(N2), instead of O(N3) as with direct solvers.

  15. Effective equations for fluid-structure interaction with applications to poroelasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald; Popov, Peter V.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of fluid-solid interactions in porous media is a challenging and computationally demanding task. Due to the multiscale nature of the problem, simulating the flow and mechanics by direct numerical simulation is often not feasible and an effective model is preferred. In this work, we formally derive an effective model for Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI). In earlier work, assuming infinitesimal pore-scale deformations, an effective poroelastic model of Biot was derived. We extend this model to a nonlinear Biot model that includes pore-scale deformation into the effective description. The main challenge is the difference in coordinate systems of the fluid and solid equations. This is circumvented by utilizing the Arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE) formulation of the FSI equations, giving a unified frame in which to apply two-scale asymptotic techniques. In the derived nonlinear Biot model, the local cell problem are coupled to the macroscopic equations via the effective coefficients. These coefficients may be viewed as tabular functions of the macroscopic parameters. After simplifying this dependence, we assume the coefficients depend on macroscopic pressure only. Using a three dimensional pore geometry we calculate, as a proof-of-concept example, the effective permeability and Biot coefficients for various values or pressure. We observe that, for this geometry, a stronger pressure dependence on flow quantities than on mechanically based effective quantities. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  16. A Unified Equation of State on a Microscopic Basis : Implications for Neutron Stars Structure and Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, G. F.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the structure of Neutron Stars by modelling the homogeneous nuclear matter of the core by a suitable microscopic Equation of State, based on the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock many-body theory, and the crust, including the pasta phase, by the BCPM energy density functional which is based on the same Equation of State. This allows for a uni ed description of the Neutron Star matter over a wide density range. A comparison with other uni ed approaches is discussed. With the same Equation of State, which features strong direct Urca processes and using consistent nuclear pairing gaps as well as effective masses, we model neutron star cooling, in particular the current rapid cooldown of the neutron star Cas A. We nd that several scenarios are possible to explain the features of Cas A, but only large and extended proton 1 S 0 gaps and small neutron 3 PF 2 gaps can accommodate also the major part of the complete current cooling data.

  17. Effective equations for fluid-structure interaction with applications to poroelasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Donald

    2012-11-05

    Modeling of fluid-solid interactions in porous media is a challenging and computationally demanding task. Due to the multiscale nature of the problem, simulating the flow and mechanics by direct numerical simulation is often not feasible and an effective model is preferred. In this work, we formally derive an effective model for Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI). In earlier work, assuming infinitesimal pore-scale deformations, an effective poroelastic model of Biot was derived. We extend this model to a nonlinear Biot model that includes pore-scale deformation into the effective description. The main challenge is the difference in coordinate systems of the fluid and solid equations. This is circumvented by utilizing the Arbitrary Lagrange-Eulerian (ALE) formulation of the FSI equations, giving a unified frame in which to apply two-scale asymptotic techniques. In the derived nonlinear Biot model, the local cell problem are coupled to the macroscopic equations via the effective coefficients. These coefficients may be viewed as tabular functions of the macroscopic parameters. After simplifying this dependence, we assume the coefficients depend on macroscopic pressure only. Using a three dimensional pore geometry we calculate, as a proof-of-concept example, the effective permeability and Biot coefficients for various values or pressure. We observe that, for this geometry, a stronger pressure dependence on flow quantities than on mechanically based effective quantities. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  18. Structure of the space of solutions of Einstein's equations II: Several killing fields and the Einstein-Yang-Mills equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arms, J.M.; Marsden, J.E.; Moncrief, V.

    1982-01-01

    The space of solutions of Einstein's vacuum equations is shown to have conical singularities at each spacetime possessing a compact Cauchy surface of constant mean curvature and a nontrivial set of Killing fields. Similar results are shown for the coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills system. Combined with an appropriate slice theorem, the results show that the space of geometrically equivalent solutions is a stratified manifold with each stratum being a symplectic manifold characterized by the symmetry type of its members. Contents: Introduction 1. The Kuranishi map and its properties. 2. The momentum constraints. 3. The Hamiltonian constraints. 4. The Einstein-Yang-Mills system. 5. Discussion and examples

  19. A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL-II FOR WORK-LIFE BALANCE OF IT PROFESSIONALS IN CHENNAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashida A. Banu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study developed and tested a model of work life balance of IT professionals employing structural equation modeling (SEM to analyze the relationship between work place support (WPS and work interference with personal life (WIPL, personal life interference with work (PLIW, satisfaction with work-life balance (SWLB and improved effectiveness at work (IEW. The model fit the data well and hypotheses are generally supported. WPS and SWLB are negatively related to WIPL and PLIW. However, there is a positive relationship between SWLB and IEW.

  20. Critical Factors Analysis for Offshore Software Development Success by Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihisa; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    In order to analyze the success/failure factors in offshore software development service by the structural equation modeling, this paper proposes to follow two approaches together; domain knowledge based heuristic analysis and factor analysis based rational analysis. The former works for generating and verifying of hypothesis to find factors and causalities. The latter works for verifying factors introduced by theory to build the model without heuristics. Following the proposed combined approaches for the responses from skilled project managers of the questionnaire, this paper found that the vendor property has high causality for the success compared to software property and project property.

  1. Unitarity or asymptotic completeness equations and analytic structure of the S matrix and Green functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iagolnitzer, D.

    1983-11-01

    Recent axiomatic results on the (non holonomic) analytic structure of the multiparticle S matrix and Green functions are reviewed and related general conjectures are described: (i) formal expansions of Green functions in terms of (holonomic) Feynman-type integrals in which each vertex represents an irreducible kernel, and (ii) ''graph by graph unitarity'' and other discontinuity formulae of the latter. These conjectures are closely linked with unitarity or asymptotic completeness equations, which they yield in a formal sense. In constructive field theory, a direct proof of the first conjecture (together with an independent proof of the second) would thus imply, as a first step, asymptotic completeness in that sense

  2. Analysis of factors affecting satisfaction level on problem based learning approach using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nur Farahin Mee; Zahid, Zalina

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, in the job market demand, graduates are expected not only to have higher performance in academic but they must also be excellent in soft skill. Problem-Based Learning (PBL) has a number of distinct advantages as a learning method as it can deliver graduates that will be highly prized by industry. This study attempts to determine the satisfaction level of engineering students on the PBL Approach and to evaluate their determinant factors. The Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to investigate how the factors of Good Teaching Scale, Clear Goals, Student Assessment and Levels of Workload affected the student satisfaction towards PBL approach.

  3. Pairing and seniority in an equations-of-motion approach to nuclear structure theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covello, A.; Andreozzi, F.; Gargano, A.; Porrino, A.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, some achievements of an equations-of-motion approach to nuclear structure theory are discussed. As an introduction to the main subject, a brief survey of some early work is given. We then describe a formalism for treating the pairing-force problem and show, by numerical appllications, that at the lowest order of approximation it provides an advantageous alternative to the BCS method. Finally, we discuss how to treat a general shell-model Hamiltonian within the framework of the seniority scheme. This makes it possible to further reduce seniority-truncated shell-model spaces, as is illustrated by examples. (orig.)

  4. Statistical Power Analysis with Missing Data A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Davey, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Statistical power analysis has revolutionized the ways in which we conduct and evaluate research.  Similar developments in the statistical analysis of incomplete (missing) data are gaining more widespread applications. This volume brings statistical power and incomplete data together under a common framework, in a way that is readily accessible to those with only an introductory familiarity with structural equation modeling.  It answers many practical questions such as: How missing data affects the statistical power in a study How much power is likely with different amounts and types

  5. Structural equation modeling in pediatric psychology: overview and review of applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; Aylward, Brandon S; Steele, Ric G

    2008-08-01

    To describe the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) in the Journal of Pediatric Psychology (JPP) and to discuss the usefulness of SEM applications in pediatric psychology research. The use of SEM in JPP between 1997 and 2006 was examined and compared to leading journals in clinical psychology, clinical child psychology, and child development. SEM techniques were used in psychology research, although investigations employing these methods are becoming more prevalent. Despite its infrequent use to date, SEM is a potentially useful tool for advancing pediatric psychology research with a number of advantages over traditional statistical methods.

  6. The Structure of Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge: Model Equivalence and Validity Using a Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Denham, Susanne; Mincic, Melissa; Graling, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: A theory-based 2-factor structure of preschoolers' emotion knowledge (i.e., recognition of emotional expression and understanding of emotion-eliciting situations) was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Compared to 1- and 3-factor models, the 2-factor model showed a better fit to the data. The model was found to be…

  7. Structure of the amplitude equation of the climate; Struktur der Amplitudengleichung des Klimas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauschild, A. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie

    1999-04-01

    The structure of the `amplitude equation`, a new dynamic equation on the seasonal time scale is derived, in which the weather scales may be treated statistically. The elsewhere-introduced climate-specific seasonally smoothed amplitudes and phases of the Fourier spectral representation are used as new prognostic variables. For the vorticity it is shown, that the still unsolved problem of the parameterisation of subscale transports may be solved in the `amplitude equation`. The approach could be successful because of the empirically derived statistical properties of the amplitudes (Poisson distribution and ergodicity) and of the phases (equipartition) of sub-planetary waves could be used. They allow a scale separation of weather and climate and lead to a tremendous reduction of the number of the horizontal degree of freedom of the amplitude equation to be between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 4}. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird die Struktur der `Amplitudengleichung`, einer neuen dynamischen Gleichung auf der saisonalen Zeitskala abgeleitet. Anhand analysierter Daten des EZMW wird gezeigt, dass in der `Amplitudengleichung` die explizite Dynamik des Wetters tatsaechlich statistisch behandelt werden kann. Als prognostische Variablen der Gleichung werden die woanders neu eingefuehrten, klimaspezifischen, saisonal geglaetteten Amplituden und Phasen der Fourier-Spektraldarstellung verwendet. Am Beispiel der Vorticity wird gezeigt, dass das bisher ungeloeste Problem der Behandlung der subskaligen Transporte in der `Amplitudengleichung` grundsaetzlich geloest werden kann. Dies gelingt durch Ausnutzung der ebenfalls empirisch abgeleiteten besonderen statistischen Eigenschaften der Amplituden (Poissonverteilung und Ergodizitaet) und Phasen (Gleichverteilung) der subplanetaren Wellen, die eine Skalentrennung von Wetter und Klima ermoeglichen. Dies fuehrt zur erheblichen Reduktion der Zahl der horizontalen Freiheitsgrade der Amplitudengleichung auf 10{sup 3} bis 10{sup 4}. Die Ableitung

  8. Post-1-Newtonian equations of motion for systems of arbitrarily structured bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racine, Etienne; Flanagan, Eanna E.

    2005-01-01

    We give a surface-integral derivation of post-1-Newtonian translational equations of motion for a system of arbitrarily structured bodies, including the coupling to all the bodies' mass and current multipole moments. The derivation requires only that the post-1-Newtonian vacuum field equations are satisfied in weak field regions between the bodies; the bodies' internal gravity can be arbitrarily strong. In particular, black holes are not excluded. The derivation extends previous results due to Damour, Soffel, and Xu (DSX) for weakly self-gravitating bodies in which the post-1-Newtonian field equations are satisfied everywhere. The derivation consists of a number of steps: (i) The definition of each body's current and mass multipole moments and center-of-mass world line in terms of the behavior of the metric in a weak field region surrounding the body. (ii) The definition for each body of a set of gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic tidal moments that act on that body, again in terms of the behavior of the metric in a weak field region surrounding the body. For the special case of weakly self-gravitating bodies, our definitions of these multipole and tidal moments agree with definitions given previously by DSX. (iii) The derivation of a formula, for any given body, of the second time derivative of its mass dipole moment in terms of its other multipole and tidal moments and their time derivatives. This formula was obtained previously by DSX for weakly self-gravitating bodies. (iv) A derivation of the relation between the tidal moments acting on each body and the multipole moments and center-of-mass world lines of all the other bodies. A formalism to compute this relation was developed by DSX; we simplify their formalism and compute the relation explicitly. (v) The deduction from the previous steps of the explicit translational equations of motion, whose form has not been previously derived

  9. Post-1-Newtonian equations of motion for systems of arbitrarily structured bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Étienne; Flanagan, Éanna É.

    2005-02-01

    We give a surface-integral derivation of post-1-Newtonian translational equations of motion for a system of arbitrarily structured bodies, including the coupling to all the bodies' mass and current multipole moments. The derivation requires only that the post-1-Newtonian vacuum field equations are satisfied in weak field regions between the bodies; the bodies' internal gravity can be arbitrarily strong. In particular, black holes are not excluded. The derivation extends previous results due to Damour, Soffel, and Xu (DSX) for weakly self-gravitating bodies in which the post-1-Newtonian field equations are satisfied everywhere. The derivation consists of a number of steps: (i) The definition of each body’s current and mass multipole moments and center-of-mass world line in terms of the behavior of the metric in a weak field region surrounding the body. (ii) The definition for each body of a set of gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic tidal moments that act on that body, again in terms of the behavior of the metric in a weak field region surrounding the body. For the special case of weakly self-gravitating bodies, our definitions of these multipole and tidal moments agree with definitions given previously by DSX. (iii) The derivation of a formula, for any given body, of the second time derivative of its mass dipole moment in terms of its other multipole and tidal moments and their time derivatives. This formula was obtained previously by DSX for weakly self-gravitating bodies. (iv) A derivation of the relation between the tidal moments acting on each body and the multipole moments and center-of-mass world lines of all the other bodies. A formalism to compute this relation was developed by DSX; we simplify their formalism and compute the relation explicitly. (v) The deduction from the previous steps of the explicit translational equations of motion, whose form has not been previously derived.

  10. Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: A Comparison of the Framingham, PROCAM, and DAD Equations in HIV-Infected Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Weyler Nery

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD and to assess the agreement between the Framingham, Framingham with aggravating factors, PROCAM, and DAD equations in HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an outpatient centre in Brazil. 294 patients older than 19 years were enrolled. Estimates of 10-year cardiovascular risk were calculated. The agreement between the CVD risk equations was assessed using Cohen's kappa coefficient. The participants' mean age was 36.8 years (SD = 10.3, 76.9% were men, and 66.3% were on antiretroviral therapy. 47.8% of the participants had abdominal obesity, 23.1% were current smokers, 20.0% had hypertension, and 2.0% had diabetes. At least one lipid abnormality was detected in 72.8%, and a low HDL-C level was the most common. The majority were classified as having low risk for CV events. The percentage of patients at high risk ranged from 0.4 to 5.7. The PROCAM score placed the lowest proportion of the patients into a high-risk group, and the Framingham equation with aggravating factors placed the highest proportion of patients into the high-risk group. Data concerning the comparability of different tools are informative for estimating the risk of CVD, but accuracy of the outcome predictions should also be considered.

  11. Piecewise-linear and bilinear approaches to nonlinear differential equations approximation problem of computational structural mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Leibov Roman

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a bilinear approach to nonlinear differential equations system approximation problem. Sometimes the nonlinear differential equations right-hand sides linearization is extremely difficult or even impossible. Then piecewise-linear approximation of nonlinear differential equations can be used. The bilinear differential equations allow to improve piecewise-linear differential equations behavior and reduce errors on the border of different linear differential equations systems ...

  12. Investigation of the role of personal factors on work injury in underground mines using structural equation modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.S. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Work injuries in mines are complex and generally characterized by several factors starting from personal to technical and technical to social characteristics. In this paper, investigation was made through the application of structural equation modeling to study the nature of relationships between the influencing/associating personal factors and work injury and their sequential relationships leading towards work injury occurrences in underground coal mines. Six variables namely, rebelliousness, negative affectivity, job boredom, job dissatisfaction and work injury were considered in this study. Instruments were developed to quantify them through a questionnaire survey. Underground mine work-ers were randomly selected for the survey. Responses from 300 participants were used for the analysis. The structural model of LISREL was used to estimate the interrelationships amongst the variables. The case study results show that negative affectivity and job boredom induce more job dissatisfaction to the workers whereas risk taking attitude of the individual is positively influenced by job dissatisfaction as well as by rebelliousness characteristics of the individual. Finally, risk taking and job dissatisfaction are having positive significant direct relationship with work injury. The findings of this study clearly reveal that rebelliousness, negative affectivity and job boredom are the three key personal factors influencing work related injuries in mines that need to be addressed properly through effective safety programs.

  13. A new hierarchy of generalized derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equations, its bi-Hamiltonian structure and finite-dimensional involutive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.; Zhang, H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an isospectral problem and one associated with a new hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations are presented. As a reduction, a representative system of new generalized derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equations in the hierarchy is given. It is shown that the hierarchy possesses bi-Hamiltonian structures by using the trace identity method and is Liouville integrable. The spectral problem is non linearized as a finite-dimensional completely integrable Hamiltonian system under a constraint between the potentials and spectral functions. Finally, the involutive solutions of the hierarchy of equations are obtained. In particular, the involutive solutions of the system of new generalized derivative nonlinear Schroedinger equations are developed

  14. Influence of a patient decision aid on decisional conflict related to PSA testing: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert L; Xu, Ye; Volk, Robert J; Scholl, Lawrence E; Kamin, Stephanie L; Holden, E Wayne; Stroud, Leonardo A

    2008-11-01

    To examine the impact of a decision aid (DA) designed to promote informed decision making for screening with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and to test a theoretical model of factors influencing decisional conflict. Structural equation modeling examined pathways between DA exposure, knowledge, schema, prostate cancer risk perceptions, decisional anxiety, and decisional conflict. Sample participants included 200 men from the general population (exclusive of African Americans) and 200 African American men. Half of the men in each subsample were randomly assigned to receive the DA. Decisional conflict regarding prostate cancer screening. The DA influences level of decisional conflict by increasing patient knowledge. This effect of knowledge on decisional conflict is indirect, however, through an association with greater perceived risk and lower decisional anxiety. Also, positive PSA schema was associated with lower decisional anxiety and decisional conflict. It is important that exposure to the DA had no impact on PSA schema. Schemas about testing must be considered in developing messages about the risks and benefits of testing. If schemas are counter to message content, mechanisms for modifying schemas must be incorporated into interventions.

  15. Guidelines for a graph-theoretic implementation of structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B.; Schoolmaster, Donald R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Little, Amanda M.; Mitchell, Brian R.; Miller, Kathryn M.; Schweiger, E. William

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is increasingly being chosen by researchers as a framework for gaining scientific insights from the quantitative analyses of data. New ideas and methods emerging from the study of causality, influences from the field of graphical modeling, and advances in statistics are expanding the rigor, capability, and even purpose of SEM. Guidelines for implementing the expanded capabilities of SEM are currently lacking. In this paper we describe new developments in SEM that we believe constitute a third-generation of the methodology. Most characteristic of this new approach is the generalization of the structural equation model as a causal graph. In this generalization, analyses are based on graph theoretic principles rather than analyses of matrices. Also, new devices such as metamodels and causal diagrams, as well as an increased emphasis on queries and probabilistic reasoning, are now included. Estimation under a graph theory framework permits the use of Bayesian or likelihood methods. The guidelines presented start from a declaration of the goals of the analysis. We then discuss how theory frames the modeling process, requirements for causal interpretation, model specification choices, selection of estimation method, model evaluation options, and use of queries, both to summarize retrospective results and for prospective analyses. The illustrative example presented involves monitoring data from wetlands on Mount Desert Island, home of Acadia National Park. Our presentation walks through the decision process involved in developing and evaluating models, as well as drawing inferences from the resulting prediction equations. In addition to evaluating hypotheses about the connections between human activities and biotic responses, we illustrate how the structural equation (SE) model can be queried to understand how interventions might take advantage of an environmental threshold to limit Typha invasions. The guidelines presented provide for

  16. Representing general theoretical concepts in structural equation models: The role of composite variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, J.B.; Bollen, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) holds the promise of providing natural scientists the capacity to evaluate complex multivariate hypotheses about ecological systems. Building on its predecessors, path analysis and factor analysis, SEM allows for the incorporation of both observed and unobserved (latent) variables into theoretically-based probabilistic models. In this paper we discuss the interface between theory and data in SEM and the use of an additional variable type, the composite. In simple terms, composite variables specify the influences of collections of other variables and can be helpful in modeling heterogeneous concepts of the sort commonly of interest to ecologists. While long recognized as a potentially important element of SEM, composite variables have received very limited use, in part because of a lack of theoretical consideration, but also because of difficulties that arise in parameter estimation when using conventional solution procedures. In this paper we present a framework for discussing composites and demonstrate how the use of partially-reduced-form models can help to overcome some of the parameter estimation and evaluation problems associated with models containing composites. Diagnostic procedures for evaluating the most appropriate and effective use of composites are illustrated with an example from the ecological literature. It is argued that an ability to incorporate composite variables into structural equation models may be particularly valuable in the study of natural systems, where concepts are frequently multifaceted and the influence of suites of variables are often of interest. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  17. Health Promotion Behavior of Chinese International Students in Korea Including Acculturation Factors: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Jung; Yoo, Il Young

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the health promotion behavior of Chinese international students in Korea using a structural equation model including acculturation factors. A survey using self-administered questionnaires was employed. Data were collected from 272 Chinese students who have resided in Korea for longer than 6 months. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The p value of final model is .31. The fitness parameters of the final model such as goodness of fit index, adjusted goodness of fit index, normed fit index, non-normed fit index, and comparative fit index were more than .95. Root mean square of residual and root mean square error of approximation also met the criteria. Self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturative stress and acculturation level had direct effects on health promotion behavior of the participants and the model explained 30.0% of variance. The Chinese students in Korea with higher self-esteem, perceived health status, acculturation level, and lower acculturative stress reported higher health promotion behavior. The findings can be applied to develop health promotion strategies for this population. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Multilevel structural equation models for assessing moderation within and across levels of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preacher, Kristopher J; Zhang, Zhen; Zyphur, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Social scientists are increasingly interested in multilevel hypotheses, data, and statistical models as well as moderation or interactions among predictors. The result is a focus on hypotheses and tests of multilevel moderation within and across levels of analysis. Unfortunately, existing approaches to multilevel moderation have a variety of shortcomings, including conflated effects across levels of analysis and bias due to using observed cluster averages instead of latent variables (i.e., "random intercepts") to represent higher-level constructs. To overcome these problems and elucidate the nature of multilevel moderation effects, we introduce a multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) logic that clarifies the nature of the problems with existing practices and remedies them with latent variable interactions. This remedy uses random coefficients and/or latent moderated structural equations (LMS) for unbiased tests of multilevel moderation. We describe our approach and provide an example using the publicly available High School and Beyond data with Mplus syntax in Appendix. Our MSEM method eliminates problems of conflated multilevel effects and reduces bias in parameter estimates while offering a coherent framework for conceptualizing and testing multilevel moderation effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Factors influencing adherence to psychopharmacological medications in psychiatric patients: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Las Cuevas, Carlos; de Leon, Jose; Peñate, Wenceslao; Betancort, Moisés

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate pathways through which sociodemographic, clinical, attitudinal, and perceived health control variables impact psychiatric patients' adherence to psychopharmacological medications. A sample of 966 consecutive psychiatric outpatients was studied. The variables were sociodemographic (age, gender, and education), clinical (diagnoses, drug treatment, and treatment duration), attitudinal (attitudes toward psychopharmacological medication and preferences regarding participation in decision-making), perception of control over health (health locus of control, self-efficacy, and psychological reactance), and level of adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the nonstraightforward relationships and the interactive effects among the analyzed variables. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that psychiatric patients' treatment adherence was associated: 1) negatively with cognitive psychological reactance (adherence decreased as cognitive psychological reactance increased), 2) positively with patients' trust in their psychiatrists (doctors' subscale), 3) negatively with patients' belief that they are in control of their mental health and that their mental health depends on their own actions (internal subscale), and 4) positively (although weakly) with age. Self-efficacy indirectly influenced treatment adherence through internal health locus of control. This study provides support for the hypothesis that perceived health control variables play a relevant role in psychiatric patients' adherence to psychopharmacological medications. The findings highlight the importance of considering prospective studies of patients' psychological reactance and health locus of control as they may be clinically relevant factors contributing to adherence to psychopharmacological medications.

  20. A structural equation modeling approach to understanding pathways that connect socioeconomic status and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Sydney A; Beebe, Laura A; Thompson, David M; Wagener, Theodore L; Terrell, Deirdra R; Campbell, Janis E

    2018-01-01

    The inverse association between socioeconomic status and smoking is well established, yet the mechanisms that drive this relationship are unclear. We developed and tested four theoretical models of the pathways that link socioeconomic status to current smoking prevalence using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Using data from the 2013 National Health Interview Survey, we selected four indicator variables (poverty ratio, personal earnings, educational attainment, and employment status) that we hypothesize underlie a latent variable, socioeconomic status. We measured direct, indirect, and total effects of socioeconomic status on smoking on four pathways through four latent variables representing social cohesion, financial strain, sleep disturbance, and psychological distress. Results of the model indicated that the probability of being a smoker decreased by 26% of a standard deviation for every one standard deviation increase in socioeconomic status. The direct effects of socioeconomic status on smoking accounted for the majority of the total effects, but the overall model also included significant indirect effects. Of the four mediators, sleep disturbance and psychological distress had the largest total effects on current smoking. We explored the use of structural equation modeling in epidemiology to quantify effects of socioeconomic status on smoking through four social and psychological factors to identify potential targets for interventions. A better understanding of the complex relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking is critical as we continue to reduce the burden of tobacco and eliminate health disparities related to smoking.

  1. Tourism sector, Travel agencies, and Transport Suppliers: Comparison of Different Estimators in the Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačić Nataša

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the effect of external integration (EI with transport suppliers on the efficiency of travel agencies in the tourism sector supply chains. The main aim is the comparison of different estimation methods used in the structural equation modeling (SEM, applied to discover possible relationships between EIs and efficiencies. The latter are calculated by the means of data envelopment analysis (DEA. While designing the structural equation model, the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are also used as preliminary statistical procedures. For the estimation of parameters of SEM model, three different methods are explained, analyzed and compared: maximum likelihood (ML method, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC method, and unweighted least squares (ULS method. The study reveals that all estimation methods calculate comparable estimated parameters. The results also give an evidence of good model fit performance. Besides, the research confirms that the amplified external integration with transport providers leads to increased efficiency of travel agencies, which might be a very interesting finding for the operational management.

  2. [A Structural Equation Model on Family Strength of Married Working Women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeong Seon; Han, Kuem Sun

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of predictive factors related to family strength and develop a structural equation model that explains family strength among married working women. A hypothesized model was developed based on literature reviews and predictors of family strength by Yoo. This constructed model was built of an eight pathway form. Two exogenous variables included in this model were ego-resilience and family support. Three endogenous variables included in this model were functional couple communication, family stress and family strength. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire from 319 married working women who were 30~40 of age and lived in cities of Chungnam province in Korea. Data were analyzed with PASW/WIN 18.0 and AMOS 18.0 programs. Family support had a positive direct, indirect and total effect on family strength. Family stress had a negative direct, indirect and total effect on family strength. Functional couple communication had a positive direct and total effect on family strength. These predictive variables of family strength explained 61.8% of model. The results of the study show a structural equation model for family strength of married working women and that predicting factors for family strength are family support, family stress, and functional couple communication. To improve family strength of married working women, the results of this study suggest nursing access and mediative programs to improve family support and functional couple communication, and reduce family stress.

  3. On the relationship between modifications to the Raychaudhuri equation and the canonical Hamiltonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parampreet; Soni, S K

    2016-01-01

    The problem of obtaining canonical Hamiltonian structures from the equations of motion, without any knowledge of the action, is studied in the context of the spatially flat Friedmann, ‘Robertson’, and Walker models. Modifications to the Raychaudhuri equation are implemented independently as quadratic and cubic terms of energy density without introducing additional degrees of freedom. Depending on their sign, modifications make gravity repulsive above a curvature scale for matter satisfying strong energy conditions, or more attractive than in the classical theory. The canonical structure of the modified theories is determined by demanding that the total Hamiltonian be a linear combination of gravity and matter Hamiltonians. In the quadratic repulsive case, the modified canonical phase space of gravity is a polymerized phase space with canonical momentum as inverse a trigonometric function of the Hubble rate; the canonical Hamiltonian can be identified with the effective Hamiltonian in loop quantum cosmology. The repulsive cubic modification results in a ‘generalized polymerized’ canonical phase space. Both the repulsive modifications are found to yield singularity avoidance. In contrast, the quadratic and cubic attractive modifications result in a canonical phase space in which canonical momentum is nontrigonometric and singularities persist. Our results hint at connections between the repulsive/attractive nature of modifications to gravity arising from the gravitational sector and polymerized/non polymerized gravitational phase space. (paper)

  4. Social Learning Theory, Gender, and Intimate Partner Violent Victimization: A Structural Equations Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Ráchael A; Cochran, John K; Maskaly, Jon; Sellers, Christine S

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of Akers's Social Learning Theory (SLT) to explain intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization. In doing so, we draw on the Intergenerational Transmission of Violence Theory (IGT) to extend the scope of SLT to the explanation of victimization and for a consideration of uniquely gendered pathways in its causal structure. Using a structural equation modeling approach with self-report data from a sample of college students, the present study tests the extent to which SLT can effectively explain and predict IPV victimization and the degree, if any, to which the social learning model is gender invariant. Although our findings are largely supportive of SLT and, thus, affirm its extension to victimization as well as perpetration, the findings are also somewhat mixed. More significantly, in line with IGT literature, we find that the social learning process is not gender invariant. The implications of the latter are discussed.

  5. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brear, D.J. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO{sub 2} brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  6. Phase change predictions for liquid fuel in contact with steel structure using the heat conduction equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brear, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    When liquid fuel makes contact with steel structure the liquid can freeze as a crust and the structure can melt at the surface. The melting and freezing processes that occur can influence the mode of fuel freezing and hence fuel relocation. Furthermore the temperature gradients established in the fuel and steel phases determine the rate at which heat is transferred from fuel to steel. In this memo the 1-D transient heat conduction equations are applied to the case of initially liquid UO 2 brought into contact with solid steel using up-to-date materials properties. The solutions predict criteria for fuel crust formation and steel melting and provide a simple algorithm to determine the interface temperature when one or both of the materials is undergoing phase change. The predicted steel melting criterion is compared with available experimental results. (author)

  7. Evolution of spin-dependent structure functions from DGLAP equations in leading order and next to leading order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baishya, R.; Jamil, U.; Sarma, J. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the spin-dependent singlet and nonsinglet structure functions have been obtained by solving Dokshitzer, Gribov, Lipatov, Altarelli, Parisi evolution equations in leading order and next to leading order in the small x limit. Here we have used Taylor series expansion and then the method of characteristics to solve the evolution equations. We have also calculated t and x evolutions of deuteron structure functions, and the results are compared with the SLAC E-143 Collaboration data.

  8. Determinants of quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Dong-Jin; Kim, Seong-Ho; Nah, Seong-Su; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Yeon-Ah; Hong, Seung-Jae; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Hye-Soon; Kim, Hyoun Ah; Joung, Chung-Il; Kim, Sang-Hyon; Lee, Shin-Seok

    2017-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with fibromyalgia (FM) is lower than in patients with other chronic diseases and the general population. Although various factors affect HRQOL, no study has examined a structural equation model of HRQOL as an outcome variable in FM patients. The present study assessed relationships among physical function, social factors, psychological factors, and HRQOL, and the effects of these variables on HRQOL in a hypothesized model using structural equation modeling (SEM). HRQOL was measured using SF-36, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) was used to assess physical dysfunction. Social and psychological statuses were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES), and the Social Support Scale. SEM analysis was used to test the structural relationships of the model using the AMOS software. Of the 336 patients, 301 (89.6%) were women with an average age of 47.9±10.9 years. The SEM results supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 2.336, df = 3, p = 0.506). The final model showed that Physical Component Summary (PCS) was directly related to self-efficacy and inversely related to FIQ, and that Mental Component Summary (MCS) was inversely related to FIQ, BDI, and STAI. In our model of FM patients, HRQOL was affected by physical, social, and psychological variables. In these patients, higher levels of physical function and self-efficacy can improve the PCS of HRQOL, while physical function, depression, and anxiety negatively affect the MCS of HRQOL.

  9. Determinants of quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Won Lee

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL in patients with fibromyalgia (FM is lower than in patients with other chronic diseases and the general population. Although various factors affect HRQOL, no study has examined a structural equation model of HRQOL as an outcome variable in FM patients. The present study assessed relationships among physical function, social factors, psychological factors, and HRQOL, and the effects of these variables on HRQOL in a hypothesized model using structural equation modeling (SEM.HRQOL was measured using SF-36, and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ was used to assess physical dysfunction. Social and psychological statuses were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale (ASES, and the Social Support Scale. SEM analysis was used to test the structural relationships of the model using the AMOS software.Of the 336 patients, 301 (89.6% were women with an average age of 47.9±10.9 years. The SEM results supported the hypothesized structural model (χ2 = 2.336, df = 3, p = 0.506. The final model showed that Physical Component Summary (PCS was directly related to self-efficacy and inversely related to FIQ, and that Mental Component Summary (MCS was inversely related to FIQ, BDI, and STAI.In our model of FM patients, HRQOL was affected by physical, social, and psychological variables. In these patients, higher levels of physical function and self-efficacy can improve the PCS of HRQOL, while physical function, depression, and anxiety negatively affect the MCS of HRQOL.

  10. An Immersed Boundary Method for Solving the Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations with Fluid Structure Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Christoph; Barad, Michael F.; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2016-01-01

    An immersed boundary method for the compressible Navier-Stokes equation and the additional infrastructure that is needed to solve moving boundary problems and fully coupled fluid-structure interaction is described. All the methods described in this paper were implemented in NASA's LAVA solver framework. The underlying immersed boundary method is based on the locally stabilized immersed boundary method that was previously introduced by the authors. In the present paper this method is extended to account for all aspects that are involved for fluid structure interaction simulations, such as fast geometry queries and stencil computations, the treatment of freshly cleared cells, and the coupling of the computational fluid dynamics solver with a linear structural finite element method. The current approach is validated for moving boundary problems with prescribed body motion and fully coupled fluid structure interaction problems in 2D and 3D. As part of the validation procedure, results from the second AIAA aeroelastic prediction workshop are also presented. The current paper is regarded as a proof of concept study, while more advanced methods for fluid structure interaction are currently being investigated, such as geometric and material nonlinearities, and advanced coupling approaches.

  11. Different physical structures of solutions for two related Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Shaoyong; Yin Jun; Wu Yonghong

    2008-01-01

    The auxiliary differential equation approach and the symbolic computation system Maple are employed to investigate two types of related Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations with variable coefficients. The exact solutions to the equations are constructed analytically under certain circumstances. It is shown that the variable coefficients of the derivative terms of the equations result in their semi-travelling wave solutions

  12. Stability Results, Almost Global Generalized Beltrami Fields and Applications to Vortex Structures in the Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Alberto; Poyato, David; Soler, Juan

    2018-05-01

    Strong Beltrami fields, that is, vector fields in three dimensions whose curl is the product of the field itself by a constant factor, have long played a key role in fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics. In particular, they are the kind of stationary solutions of the Euler equations where one has been able to show the existence of vortex structures (vortex tubes and vortex lines) of arbitrarily complicated topology. On the contrary, there are very few results about the existence of generalized Beltrami fields, that is, divergence-free fields whose curl is the field times a non-constant function. In fact, generalized Beltrami fields (which are also stationary solutions to the Euler equations) have been recently shown to be rare, in the sense that for "most" proportionality factors there are no nontrivial Beltrami fields of high enough regularity (e.g., of class {C^{6,α}}), not even locally. Our objective in this work is to show that, nevertheless, there are "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor, even realizing arbitrarily complicated vortex structures. This fact is relevant in the study of turbulent configurations. The core results are an "almost global" stability theorem for strong Beltrami fields, which ensures that a global strong Beltrami field with suitable decay at infinity can be perturbed to get "many" Beltrami fields with non-constant factor of arbitrarily high regularity and defined in the exterior of an arbitrarily small ball, and a "local" stability theorem for generalized Beltrami fields, which is an analogous perturbative result which is valid for any kind of Beltrami field (not just with a constant factor) but only applies to small enough domains. The proof relies on an iterative scheme of Grad-Rubin type. For this purpose, we study the Neumann problem for the inhomogeneous Beltrami equation in exterior domains via a boundary integral equation method and we obtain Hölder estimates, a sharp decay at infinity and some compactness

  13. Structural Analysis of Port Brand Equity Using Structural Equation Modeling1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehwee Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Port competition, especially in the Northeast Asia (NEA region, can be described as a price war. In this price competition, it is necessary to build up the brand concept to acquire higher market share. This paper aims to provide structural relationships for port brand equity (PBE and explore the PBE stages statistically. The stages are divided into three steps: port service quality as the precedent of PBE, the PBE dimensions (brand awareness [BA] and brand loyalty [BL], and the antecedent of PBE (overall value of brand equity [OVBE]. From a survey conducted with port users in Korea, the empirical results revealed several significant relationship: between tangibles (TA dimension of port service quality and BL, between the empathy (EMP dimension of port service quality and both BA and BL, and between BA and BL and OVBE. From the empirical analysis, this study suggests both managerial and academic contributions for port managers and scholars for further policy development and research in this important area.

  14. Atomistic modeling of structure II gas hydrate mechanics: Compressibility and equations of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Vlasic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This work uses density functional theory (DFT to investigate the poorly characterized structure II gas hydrates, for various guests (empty, propane, butane, ethane-methane, propane-methane, at the atomistic scale to determine key structure and mechanical properties such as equilibrium lattice volume and bulk modulus. Several equations of state (EOS for solids (Murnaghan, Birch-Murnaghan, Vinet, Liu were fitted to energy-volume curves resulting from structure optimization simulations. These EOS, which can be used to characterize the compressional behaviour of gas hydrates, were evaluated in terms of their robustness. The three-parameter Vinet EOS was found to perform just as well if not better than the four-parameter Liu EOS, over the pressure range in this study. As expected, the Murnaghan EOS proved to be the least robust. Furthermore, the equilibrium lattice volumes were found to increase with guest size, with double-guest hydrates showing a larger increase than single-guest hydrates, which has significant implications for the widely used van der Waals and Platteeuw thermodynamic model for gas hydrates. Also, hydrogen bonds prove to be the most likely factor contributing to the resistance of gas hydrates to compression; bulk modulus was found to increase linearly with hydrogen bond density, resulting in a relationship that could be used predictively to determine the bulk modulus of various structure II gas hydrates. Taken together, these results fill a long existing gap in the material chemical physics of these important clathrates.

  15. Atomistic modeling of structure II gas hydrate mechanics: Compressibility and equations of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasic, Thomas M.; Servio, Phillip; Rey, Alejandro D., E-mail: alejandro.rey@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    This work uses density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the poorly characterized structure II gas hydrates, for various guests (empty, propane, butane, ethane-methane, propane-methane), at the atomistic scale to determine key structure and mechanical properties such as equilibrium lattice volume and bulk modulus. Several equations of state (EOS) for solids (Murnaghan, Birch-Murnaghan, Vinet, Liu) were fitted to energy-volume curves resulting from structure optimization simulations. These EOS, which can be used to characterize the compressional behaviour of gas hydrates, were evaluated in terms of their robustness. The three-parameter Vinet EOS was found to perform just as well if not better than the four-parameter Liu EOS, over the pressure range in this study. As expected, the Murnaghan EOS proved to be the least robust. Furthermore, the equilibrium lattice volumes were found to increase with guest size, with double-guest hydrates showing a larger increase than single-guest hydrates, which has significant implications for the widely used van der Waals and Platteeuw thermodynamic model for gas hydrates. Also, hydrogen bonds prove to be the most likely factor contributing to the resistance of gas hydrates to compression; bulk modulus was found to increase linearly with hydrogen bond density, resulting in a relationship that could be used predictively to determine the bulk modulus of various structure II gas hydrates. Taken together, these results fill a long existing gap in the material chemical physics of these important clathrates.

  16. Atomistic modeling of structure II gas hydrate mechanics: Compressibility and equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasic, Thomas M.; Servio, Phillip; Rey, Alejandro D.

    2016-08-01

    This work uses density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the poorly characterized structure II gas hydrates, for various guests (empty, propane, butane, ethane-methane, propane-methane), at the atomistic scale to determine key structure and mechanical properties such as equilibrium lattice volume and bulk modulus. Several equations of state (EOS) for solids (Murnaghan, Birch-Murnaghan, Vinet, Liu) were fitted to energy-volume curves resulting from structure optimization simulations. These EOS, which can be used to characterize the compressional behaviour of gas hydrates, were evaluated in terms of their robustness. The three-parameter Vinet EOS was found to perform just as well if not better than the four-parameter Liu EOS, over the pressure range in this study. As expected, the Murnaghan EOS proved to be the least robust. Furthermore, the equilibrium lattice volumes were found to increase with guest size, with double-guest hydrates showing a larger increase than single-guest hydrates, which has significant implications for the widely used van der Waals and Platteeuw thermodynamic model for gas hydrates. Also, hydrogen bonds prove to be the most likely factor contributing to the resistance of gas hydrates to compression; bulk modulus was found to increase linearly with hydrogen bond density, resulting in a relationship that could be used predictively to determine the bulk modulus of various structure II gas hydrates. Taken together, these results fill a long existing gap in the material chemical physics of these important clathrates.

  17. Testing the simplex assumption underlying the Sport Motivation Scale: a structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F; Harmer, P

    1996-12-01

    Self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985) suggests that motivational orientation or regulatory styles with respect to various behaviors can be conceptualized along a continuum ranging from low (a motivation) to high (intrinsic motivation) levels of self-determination. This pattern is manifested in the rank order of correlations among these regulatory styles (i.e., adjacent correlations are expected to be higher than those more distant) and is known as a simplex structure. Using responses from the Sport Motivation Scale (Pelletier et al., 1995) obtained from a sample of 857 college students (442 men, 415 women), the present study tested the simplex structure underlying SMS subscales via structural equation modeling. Results confirmed the simplex model structure, indicating that the various motivational constructs are empirically organized from low to high self-determination. The simplex pattern was further found to be invariant across gender. Findings from this study support the construct validity of the SMS and have important implications for studies focusing on the influence of motivational orientation in sport.

  18. Development of uncertainty-based work injury model using Bayesian structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Snehamoy

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a Bayesian method-based structural equation model (SEM) of miners' work injury for an underground coal mine in India. The environmental and behavioural variables for work injury were identified and causal relationships were developed. For Bayesian modelling, prior distributions of SEM parameters are necessary to develop the model. In this paper, two approaches were adopted to obtain prior distribution for factor loading parameters and structural parameters of SEM. In the first approach, the prior distributions were considered as a fixed distribution function with specific parameter values, whereas, in the second approach, prior distributions of the parameters were generated from experts' opinions. The posterior distributions of these parameters were obtained by applying Bayesian rule. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling in the form Gibbs sampling was applied for sampling from the posterior distribution. The results revealed that all coefficients of structural and measurement model parameters are statistically significant in experts' opinion-based priors, whereas, two coefficients are not statistically significant when fixed prior-based distributions are applied. The error statistics reveals that Bayesian structural model provides reasonably good fit of work injury with high coefficient of determination (0.91) and less mean squared error as compared to traditional SEM.

  19. Earthquake risk assessment of building structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    2001-01-01

    During the past two decades, probabilistic risk analysis tools have been applied to assess the performance of new and existing building structural systems. Structural design and evaluation of buildings and other facilities with regard to their ability to withstand the effects of earthquakes requires special considerations that are not normally a part of such evaluations for other occupancy, service and environmental loads. This paper reviews some of these special considerations, specifically as they pertain to probability-based codified design and reliability-based condition assessment of existing buildings. Difficulties experienced in implementing probability-based limit states design criteria for earthquake are summarized. Comparisons of predicted and observed building damage highlight the limitations of using current deterministic approaches for post-earthquake building condition assessment. The importance of inherent randomness and modeling uncertainty in forecasting building performance is examined through a building fragility assessment of a steel frame with welded connections that was damaged during the Northridge Earthquake of 1994. The prospects for future improvements in earthquake-resistant design procedures based on a more rational probability-based treatment of uncertainty are examined

  20. On formal structure of constitutive equations for materials exhibiting shape memory effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobovsek, I.

    2000-01-01

    A derivation of constitutive equations in a general three-dimensional setting is described, based on an additive decomposition of the rate of deformation tensor. The rate of deformation tensor is assumed to consist of an elastic part, a thermoelastic part, a plastic part, a part due to shape memory transformation, and a part due to phase transformation. The thermoelastic part due to thermoelastic coupling accounts for the influence of temperature near phase transformation, while the plastic part is taken in the form of classical J 2 flow theory of plasticity with combined isotropic and kinematic hardening, where the back stress represents a tensor of orientational microstresses. It is assumed that the phase transformation part depends on the first and the second invariant of the tensor of crystallographic distortion, on the deviatoric part of the stress tensor, and on a special evolution parameter describing the rate of forming of a new phase. The elastic part of the rate of deformation tensor is connected with the objective rate of Cauchy stress through the tensor of elastic compliance. As a result, a general form of derived constitutive equations exhibits a similar structure as constitutive relations in finite deformation plasticity. (orig.)

  1. Lyapunov stability and poisson structure of the thermal TDHF and RPA equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Veneroni, M.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal TDHF equation is analyzed in the Liouville representation of quantum mechanics, where the matrix elements of the single-particle (s.p) density ρ behave as classical dynamical variables. By introducing the Lie--Poisson bracket associated with the unitary group of the s.p. Hilbert space, we show that TDHF has a Hamiltonian, but non-canonical, classical form. Within this Poisson structure, either the s.p. energy or the s.p. grand potential Ω(ρ) act as a Hamilton function. The Lyapunov stability of both the TDHF and RPA equations around a HF state then follows, since the HF approximation for thermal equilibrium is determined by minimizing Ω(ρ). The RPA matrix in the Liouville space is expressed as the product of the Poisson tensor with the HF stability matrix, interpreted as a metric tensor generated by the entropy. This factorization displays the roles of the energy and entropy terms arising from Ω(ρ) in the RPA dynamics, and it helps to construct the RPA modes. Several extensions are considered. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  2. Lyapunov stability and Poisson structure of the thermal TDHF and RPA equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneroni, M.; Balian, R.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal TDHF equation is analyzed in the Liouville representation of quantum mechanics, where the matrix elements of the single-particle (s.p.) density ρ behave as classical dynamical variables. By introducing the Lie-Poisson bracket associated with the unitary group of the s.p. Hilbert space, we show that TDHF has a hamiltonian, but non-canonical, classical form. Within this Poisson structure, either the s.p. energy or the s.p. grand potential Ω(ρ) act as a Hamilton function. The Lyapunov stability of both the TDHF and RPA equations around a HF state then follows, since the HF approximation for thermal equilibrium is determined by minimizing Ω(ρ). The RPA matrix in the Liouville space is expressed as the product of the Poisson tensor with the HF stability matrix, interpreted as a metric tensor generated by the entropy. This factorization displays the roles of the energy and entropy terms arising from Ω(ρ) in the RPA dynamics, and it helps to construct the RPA modes. Several extensions are considered

  3. Understanding the complex determinants of height and adiposity in disadvantaged daycare preschoolers in Salvador, NE Brazil through structural equation modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Rebecca L; Williams, Sheila M; Costa-Ribeiro, Hugo; Mattos, Angela P; Barreto, Danile L; Houghton, Lisa A; Bailey, Karl B; Lander, Alastair G; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2015-10-23

    Earlier we reported on growth and adiposity in a cross-sectional study of disadvantaged Brazilian preschoolers. Here we extend the work on these children, using structural equation modelling (SEM) to gather information on the complex relationships between the variables influencing height and adiposity. We hope this information will help improve the design and effectiveness of future interventions for preschoolers. In 376 preschoolers aged 3-6 years attending seven philanthropic daycares in Salvador, we used SEM to examine direct and indirect relationships among biological (sex, ethnicity, birth order, maternal height and weight), socio-economic, micronutrient (haemoglobin, serum selenium and zinc), and environmental (helminths, de-worming) variables on height and adiposity, as reflected by Z-scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index (BMIZ). Of the children, 11 % had HAZ  1. Of their mothers, 8 % had short stature, and 50 % were overweight or obese. Based on standardized regression coefficients, significant direct effects (p growth, helminth infection was a modifiable risk factor directly and indirectly affecting HAZ and BMIZ, respectively. Hence the WHO de-worming recommendation should include preschoolers living in at-risk environments as well as school-aged children.

  4. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate future risk of blindness and lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2015-11-11

    Is it possible to develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate the 10 year risk of blindness and lower limb amputation in patients with diabetes aged 25-84 years? This was a prospective cohort study using routinely collected data from general practices in England contributing to the QResearch and Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) databases during the study period 1998-2014. The equations were developed using 763 QResearch practices (n=454,575 patients with diabetes) and validated in 254 different QResearch practices (n=142,419) and 357 CPRD practices (n=206,050). Cox proportional hazards models were used to derive separate risk equations for blindness and amputation in men and women that could be evaluated at 10 years. Measures of calibration and discrimination were calculated in the two validation cohorts. Risk prediction equations to quantify absolute risk of blindness and amputation in men and women with diabetes have been developed and externally validated. In the QResearch derivation cohort, 4822 new cases of lower limb amputation and 8063 new cases of blindness occurred during follow-up. The risk equations were well calibrated in both validation cohorts. Discrimination was good in men in the external CPRD cohort for amputation (D statistic 1.69, Harrell's C statistic 0.77) and blindness (D statistic 1.40, Harrell's C statistic 0.73), with similar results in women and in the QResearch validation cohort. The algorithms are based on variables that patients are likely to know or that are routinely recorded in general practice computer systems. They can be used to identify patients at high risk for prevention or further assessment. Limitations include lack of formally adjudicated outcomes, information bias, and missing data. Patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of blindness and amputation but generally do not have accurate assessments of the magnitude of their individual risks. The new algorithms calculate

  5. Beyond Cassie equation: Local structure of heterogeneous surfaces determines the contact angles of microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jianjun; Liu, Zhiping; Zhang, Xianren

    2014-01-01

    The application of Cassie equation to microscopic droplets is recently under intense debate because the microdroplet dimension is often of the same order of magnitude as the characteristic size of substrate heterogeneities, and the mechanism to describe the contact angle of microdroplets is not clear. By representing real surfaces statistically as an ensemble of patterned surfaces with randomly or regularly distributed heterogeneities (patches), lattice Boltzmann simulations here show that the contact angle of microdroplets has a wide distribution, either continuous or discrete, depending on the patch size. The origin of multiple contact angles observed is ascribed to the contact line pinning effect induced by substrate heterogeneities. We demonstrate that the local feature of substrate structure near the contact line determines the range of contact angles that can be stabilized, while the certain contact angle observed is closely related to the contact line width. PMID:25059292

  6. Multiple regression and beyond an introduction to multiple regression and structural equation modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Keith, Timothy Z

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Regression and Beyond offers a conceptually oriented introduction to multiple regression (MR) analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), along with analyses that flow naturally from those methods. By focusing on the concepts and purposes of MR and related methods, rather than the derivation and calculation of formulae, this book introduces material to students more clearly, and in a less threatening way. In addition to illuminating content necessary for coursework, the accessibility of this approach means students are more likely to be able to conduct research using MR or SEM--and more likely to use the methods wisely. Covers both MR and SEM, while explaining their relevance to one another Also includes path analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and latent growth modeling Figures and tables throughout provide examples and illustrate key concepts and techniques For additional resources, please visit: http://tzkeith.com/.

  7. Schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome. Studies with functional magnetic resonance imaging and structural equation modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloesser, R.; Wagner, G.; Koehler, S.; Sauer, H.

    2005-01-01

    Aside from characteristic psychopathological symptoms, cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. These deficits can only be addressed within the context of widespread functional interactions among different brain areas. To examine these interactions, structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for the analysis of fMRI datasets. In a series of studies, both in antipsychotic-treated and drug-free schizophrenic patients, a pattern of enhanced thalamocortical functional connectivity could be observed as an indicator for possible disruptions of frontostriatal thalamocortical circuitry. Moreover, drug-free patients and those receiving typical antipsychotic drugs were characterized by reduced interhemispheric corticocortical connectivity. This difference relative to normal controls was less in patients under atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results could be interpreted as a beneficial effect of atypical antipsychotic drugs on information processing in schizophrenic patients. The present findings are consistent with the model of schizophrenia as a disconnection syndrome and earlier concepts of ''cognitive dysmetria'' in schizophrenia. (orig.) [de

  8. Investigating the potential of e-Learning in healthcare postgraduate curricula: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharaki, Maria; Daskalakis, Stelios; Mantas, John

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the future adaptability of e-Learning platforms within postgraduate modules. An ongoing empirical assessment was conducted amongst postgraduate students, based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The current paper presents the outcomes from the second phase of a survey, involving fifty six participants. Data analysis was performed using a structural equation model, based on partial least squares. Results highlighted the very strong effect of perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use to attitude towards using e-Learning platforms. Consequently, attitude towards use proved to be a very strong predictor of behavioral intention. Perceived usefulness, on the contrary, did not prove to have an effect to behavioral intention. Implications on the potential of using e-Learning platforms are discussed along with limitations and future directions of the study.

  9. The advancement of the built environment research through employment of structural equation modeling (SEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilah, S.; Fahmyddin, T.

    2018-03-01

    The employment of structural equation modeling (SEM) in research has taken an increasing attention in among researchers in built environment. There is a gap to understand the attributes, application, and importance of this approach in data analysis in built environment study. This paper intends to provide fundamental comprehension of SEM method in data analysis, unveiling attributes, employment and significance and bestow cases to assess associations amongst variables and constructs. The study uses some main literature to grasp the essence of SEM regarding with built environment research. The better acknowledgment of this analytical tool may assist the researcher in the built environment to analyze data under complex research questions and to test multivariate models in a single study.

  10. Structural equation modeling analysis of factors influencing architects' trust in project design teams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Zhi-kun; NG Fung-fai; WANG Jia-yuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis of factors influencing architects' trust in project design teams. We undertook a survey of architects, during which we distributed 193 questionnaires in 29 A-level architectural We used Amos 6.0 for SEM to identify significant personal construct based factors affecting interpersonal trust. The results show that only social interaction between architects significantly affects their interpersonal trust. The explained variance of trust is not very high in the model. Therefore, future research should add more factors into the current model. The practical implication is that team managers should promote the social interactions between team members such that the interpersonal trust level between team members can be improved.

  11. Perceptions of ambiguously unpleasant interracial interactions: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Teresa L; Negy, Charles; Hammons, Mary E; McKinney, Cliff; Asberg, Kia

    2007-11-01

    Despite a general consensus in the United States that overtly racist acts are unacceptable, many ambiguous situations in everyday life raise questions of whether racism has influenced a person's behavior in an interracial encounter. The authors of the present study sought to (a) examine simultaneously an array of variables thought to be related to perceived racism and (b) investigate how the contribution of these variables may differ with respect to the asymmetry hypothesis, which suggests that acts of discrimination from a dominant person toward a subordinate person will be viewed as more biased than if the situation were reversed. The authors used a dual structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that ethnic identity significantly predicted perceived racism. In addition, the extent to which cognitive interpretation style significantly predicted perceived racism depended on the ethnicity of participants involved in the interaction.

  12. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  13. The impact of information technology on productivity using structural equations technique in Iran Behnoush Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Beig

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Information technology plays an important role on increasing productivity in many organizations. The primary objective of the present survey is to study the impact of information technology on productivity and find a positive and significant relationship between these two factors. Structural equations technique and LISREL software are used for analysis of the questionnaires distributed among managers and some employees of Iran Behnoush Company. Organizations try to improve their performance by investment in information technology. However, many of the previous studies indicate insignificance of the impact of information technology on productivity of the organizations. The present survey studies the impact of information technology on organizations' productivity through the collected data from the above company. Results confirm existence of a positive relationship between information technology and productivity.

  14. Linking empowering leadership to safety participation in nuclear power plants: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Córcoles, Mario; Schöbel, Markus; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2012-07-01

    Safety participation is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. The present study examined the effects of empowering leadership on safety participation. Based on a sample of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants, structural equation modeling showed that empowering leadership has a significant relationship with safety participation, which is mediated by collaborative team learning. In addition, the results revealed that the relationship between empowering leadership and collaborative learning is partially mediated by the promotion of dialogue and open communication. The implications of these findings for safety research and their practical applications are outlined. An empowering leadership style enhances workers' safety performance, particularly safety participation behaviors. Safety participation is recommended to detect possible rule inconsistencies or misunderstood procedures and make workers aware of critical safety information and issues. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis on influencing factors of clinical teachers’ job satisfaction by structural equation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyi Jia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available [Research objective] Analyze the influencing factors of clinical teachers’ job satisfaction. [Research method] The ERG theory was used as the framework to design the questionnaires. Data were analyzed by structural equation model for investigating the influencing factors. [Research result] The modified model shows that factors of existence needs and growth needs have direct influence on the job satisfaction of clinical teachers, the influence coefficients are 0.540 and 0.380. The three influencing factors have positive effects on each other, and the correlation coefficients are 0.620, 0.400 and 0.330 respectively. [Research conclusion] Relevant departments should take active measures to improve job satisfaction of clinical teachers from two aspects: existence needs and growth needs, and to improve their work enthusiasm and teaching quality.

  16. From patterns to causal understanding: Structural equation modeling (SEM) in soil ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhauer, Nico; Powell, Jeff R; Grace, James B.; Bowker, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    In this perspectives paper we highlight a heretofore underused statistical method in soil ecological research, structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM is commonly used in the general ecological literature to develop causal understanding from observational data, but has been more slowly adopted by soil ecologists. We provide some basic information on the many advantages and possibilities associated with using SEM and provide some examples of how SEM can be used by soil ecologists to shift focus from describing patterns to developing causal understanding and inspiring new types of experimental tests. SEM is a promising tool to aid the growth of soil ecology as a discipline, particularly by supporting research that is increasingly hypothesis-driven and interdisciplinary, thus shining light into the black box of interactions belowground.

  17. IT vendor selection model by using structural equation model & analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Sarit; Dominic, P. D. D.

    2012-11-01

    Selecting and evaluating the right vendors is imperative for an organization's global marketplace competitiveness. Improper selection and evaluation of potential vendors can dwarf an organization's supply chain performance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that firms consider multiple criteria when selecting key vendors. This research intends to develop a new hybrid model for vendor selection process with better decision making. The new proposed model provides a suitable tool for assisting decision makers and managers to make the right decisions and select the most suitable vendor. This paper proposes a Hybrid model based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) for long-term strategic vendor selection problems. The five steps framework of the model has been designed after the thorough literature study. The proposed hybrid model will be applied using a real life case study to assess its effectiveness. In addition, What-if analysis technique will be used for model validation purpose.

  18. Violence, stigma and mental health among female sex workers in China: A structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bo; Shen, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yuejiao; Xu, Jinping; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence is prevalent among female sex workers (FSWs) in China, and it is significantly associated with mental health problems among FSWs. However, limited studies have explored the mechanisms/process by which violence affects mental health. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among partner violence, internalized stigma, and mental health problems among FSWs. Data were collected using a self-administered cross-sectional survey administered to 1,022 FSWs in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi), China during 2008-2009. We used structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized relationships. Results indicated that violence perpetrated by either stable sexual partners or clients was directly and positively associated with mental health problems. Violence also had an indirect relation to mental health problems through stigma. Results highlight the need for interventions on counseling and care for FSWs who have experienced violence and for interventions to increase FSWs' coping skills and empowerment strategies.

  19. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping

    OpenAIRE

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. Methods: At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and m...

  20. Equation of state of dense nuclear matter and neutron star structure from nuclear chiral interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombaci, Ignazio; Logoteta, Domenico

    2018-02-01

    Aims: We report a new microscopic equation of state (EOS) of dense symmetric nuclear matter, pure neutron matter, and asymmetric and β-stable nuclear matter at zero temperature using recent realistic two-body and three-body nuclear interactions derived in the framework of chiral perturbation theory (ChPT) and including the Δ(1232) isobar intermediate state. This EOS is provided in tabular form and in parametrized form ready for use in numerical general relativity simulations of binary neutron star merging. Here we use our new EOS for β-stable nuclear matter to compute various structural properties of non-rotating neutron stars. Methods: The EOS is derived using the Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone quantum many-body theory in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. Neutron star properties are next computed solving numerically the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov structure equations. Results: Our EOS models are able to reproduce the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter, the symmetry energy Esym, and its slope parameter L at the empirical saturation density n0. In addition, our EOS models are compatible with experimental data from collisions between heavy nuclei at energies ranging from a few tens of MeV up to several hundreds of MeV per nucleon. These experiments provide a selective test for constraining the nuclear EOS up to 4n0. Our EOS models are consistent with present measured neutron star masses and particularly with the mass M = 2.01 ± 0.04 M⊙ of the neutron stars in PSR J0348+0432.

  1. A structural equation model to integrate changes in functional strategies during old-field succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vile, Denis; Shipley, Bill; Garnier, Eric

    2006-02-01

    From a functional perspective, changes in abundance, and ultimately species replacement, during succession are a consequence of integrated suites of traits conferring different relative ecological advantages as the environment changes over time. Here we use structural equations to model the interspecific relationships between these integrated functional traits using 34 herbaceous species from a Mediterranean old-field succession and thus quantify the notion of a plant strategy. We measured plant traits related to plant vegetative and reproductive size, leaf functioning, reproductive phenology, seed mass, and production on 15 individuals per species monitored during one growing season. The resulting structural equation model successfully accounts for the pattern of trait covariation during the first 45 years post-abandonment using just two forcing variables: time since site abandonment and seed mass; no association between time since field abandonment and seed mass was observed over these herbaceous stages of secondary succession. All other predicted traits values are determined by these two variables and the cause-effect linkage between them. Adding pre-reproductive vegetative mass as a third forcing variable noticeably increased the predictive power of the model. Increasing the time after abandonment favors species with increasing life span and pre-reproductive biomass and decreasing specific leaf area. Allometric coefficients relating vegetative and reproductive components of plant size were in accordance with allometry theory. The model confirmed the trade-off between seed mass and seed number. Maximum plant height and seed mass were major determinants of reproductive phenology. Our results show that beyond verbal conceptualization, plant ecological strategies can be quantified and modeled.

  2. Structural equation modeling identifies markers of damage and function in the aging male Fischer 344 rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunz-Borgmann, Elizabeth A; Nichols, LaNita A; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Spagnoli, Sean; Trzeciakowski, Jerome P; Parrish, Alan R

    2016-06-01

    The male Fischer 344 rat is an established model to study progressive renal dysfunction that is similar, but not identical, to chronic kidney disease (CKD) in humans. These studies were designed to assess age-dependent alterations in renal structure and function at late-life timepoints, 16-24 months. Elevations in BUN and plasma creatinine were not significant until 24 months, however, elevations in the more sensitive markers of function, plasma cystatin C and proteinuria, were detectable at 16 and 18 months, respectively. Interestingly, cystatin C levels were not corrected by caloric restriction. Urinary Kim-1, a marker of CKD, was elevated as early as 16 months. Klotho gene expression was significantly decreased at 24 months, but not at earlier timepoints. Alterations in renal structure, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, were noted at 16 months, with little change from 18 to 24 months. Tubulointerstitial inflammation was increased at 16 months, and remained similar from 18 to 24 months. A SEM (structural equation modeling) model of age-related renal dysfunction suggests that proteinuria is a marker of renal damage, while urinary Kim-1 is a marker of both damage and function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that age-dependent nephropathy begins as early as 16 months and progresses rapidly over the next 8 months. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Structural Equation Modelling in Behavioral Intention to Use Safety Helmet Reminder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosli Naida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motorcycle is one of private transportation which has been widely used in many countries including Malaysia. However, motorcycles are the most dangerous form of motorized transport. Royal Malaysian Police (PDRM statistics recorded that motorcycle is the highest vehicle (45.9% involved in traffic accident compared to other vehicles. The potential cause of the death to the motorcyclist was due to the head injury. One of strategy to mitigate this problem is through proper usage of safety helmet. Therefore, this paper was introduce a new approach on motorcyclist safety by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM with additional determinants that contribute to behavioral intention and to increase the proper usage of safety helmets among Malaysian motorcyclists. The Structural Equation Modelling (SEM was used to test the structural TAM proposed. The evaluation for structural model showed the goodness of fit indices are excellent fit. This study found that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and social norm are significant towards behavioral intention to use Safety Helmet Reminder System (SHR.

  4. Mapping Erosion Risk in California's Rangelands Using the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salls, W. B.; O'Geen, T. T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil loss constitutes a multi-faceted problem for agriculture: in addition to reducing soil fertility and crop yield, it compromises downstream water quality. Sediment itself is a major issue for aquatic ecosystems, but also serves as a vector for transporting nutrients, pesticides, and pathogens. Rangelands are thought to be a contributor to water quality degradation in California, particularly in the northern Coast Range. Though total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) have been imposed in some watersheds, and countless rangeland water quality outreach activities have been conducted, the connection between grazing intensity recommendations and changes in water quality is poorly understood at the state level. This disconnect gives rise to poorly informed regulations and discourages adoption of best management practices by ranchers. By applying the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) at a statewide scale, we highlighted areas most prone to erosion. We also investigated how two different grazing intensity scenarios affect modeled soil loss. Geospatial data layers representing the USLE parameters—rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, slope length and steepness, and cover—were overlaid to model annual soil loss. Monitored suspended sediment data from a small North Coast watershed with grazing as the predominant land use was used to validate the model. Modeled soil loss values were nearly one order of magnitude higher than monitored values; average soil loss feeding the downstream-most site was modeled at 0.329 t ha-1 yr-1, whereas storm-derived sediment passing the site over two years was calculated to be 0.037 t ha-1 yr-1. This discrepancy may stem from the fact that the USLE models detached sediment, whereas stream monitoring reflects sediment detached and subsequently transported to the waterway. Preliminary findings from the statewide map support the concern that the North Coast is particularly at risk given its combination of intense rain, erodible soils, and

  5. Race/Ethnicity and Social Capital among Middle- and Upper-Middle-Class Elementary School Families: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Cornigans, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to conduct a first and second order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a scale developed by McDonald and Moberg (2002) to measure three dimensions of social capital among a diverse group of middle- and upper-middle-class elementary school parents in suburban New York. A structural path model was…

  6. Factors that Affect Mathematics-Science (MS) Scores in the Secondary Education Institutional Exam: An Application of Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    Discovering what determines students' success in the Secondary Education Institutional Exam is very important to parents and it is also critical for students, teachers, directors, and researchers. Research was carried out by studying the related literature and structural equation modeling techniques. A structural model was created that consisted…

  7. Euler-Lagrange equations for holomorphic structures on twistorial generalized Kähler manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Kasap

    2016-02-01

    showing motion modeling partial di¤erential equations have been obtained for movement of objects in space and solutions of these equations have been generated by using the Maple software. Additionally, of the implicit solution of the equations to be drawn the graph.

  8. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yi Wang

    Full Text Available Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients.A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17.Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients.The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety.

  9. Investigating the Relationships among Stressors, Stress Level, and Mental Symptoms for Infertile Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Li, Yi-Shan; Chen, Jen-De; Liang, Wen-Miin; Yang, Tung-Chuan; Lee, Young-Chang; Wang, Chia-Woei

    2015-01-01

    Patients with infertility are a high risk group in depression and anxiety. However, an existing theoretically and empirically validated model of stressors, stress, and mental symptoms specific for infertile patients is still a void. This study aimed to determine the related factors and their relational structures that affect the level of depressive and anxiety symptoms among infertile patients. A cross-sectional sample of 400 infertility outpatients seeking reproduction treatments in three teaching hospitals across Taiwan participated in the structured questionnaire survey in 2011. The hypothesized model comprising 10 latent variables was tested by Structural Equation Modeling using AMOS 17. Goodness-of-fit indexes, including χ2/DF = 1.871, PGFI = 0.746, PNFI = 0.764, and others, confirmed the modified model fit the data well. Marital stressor, importance of children, guilt-and-blame, and social stressor showed a direct effect on perceived stress. Instead of being a factor of stress, social support was directly and positively related to self-esteem. Perceived stress and self-esteem were the two major mediators for the relationships between stressors and mental symptoms. Increase in social support and self-esteem led to decrease in mental symptoms among the infertile patients. The relational structures were identified and named as the Stressors Stress Symptoms Model, clinically applied to predict anxiety and depression from various stressors. Assessing sources and level of infertility-related stress and implementing culturally-sensitive counseling with an emphasis on positive personal value may assist in preventing the severity of depression and anxiety.

  10. Analysis of an Underground Structure Settlement Risk due to Tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Ghodrat, Hadi; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    of the underground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlement risk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification of various types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes...

  11. Full Equations (FEQ) model for the solution of the full, dynamic equations of motion for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Delbert D.; Melching, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    The Full EQuations (FEQ) model is a computer program for solution of the full, dynamic equations of motion for one-dimensional unsteady flow in open channels and through control structures. A stream system that is simulated by application of FEQ is subdivided into stream reaches (branches), parts of the stream system for which complete information on flow and depth are not required (dummy branches), and level-pool reservoirs. These components are connected by special features; that is, hydraulic control structures, including junctions, bridges, culverts, dams, waterfalls, spillways, weirs, side weirs, and pumps. The principles of conservation of mass and conservation of momentum are used to calculate the flow and depth throughout the stream system resulting from known initial and boundary conditions by means of an implicit finite-difference approximation at fixed points (computational nodes). The hydraulic characteristics of (1) branches including top width, area, first moment of area with respect to the water surface, conveyance, and flux coefficients and (2) special features (relations between flow and headwater and (or) tail-water elevations, including the operation of variable-geometry structures) are stored in function tables calculated in the companion program, Full EQuations UTiLities (FEQUTL). Function tables containing other information used in unsteady-flow simulation (boundary conditions, tributary inflows or outflows, gate settings, correction factors, characteristics of dummy branches and level-pool reservoirs, and wind speed and direction) are prepared by the user as detailed in this report. In the iterative solution scheme for flow and depth throughout the stream system, an interpolation of the function tables corresponding to the computational nodes throughout the stream system is done in the model. FEQ can be applied in the simulation of a wide range of stream configurations (including loops), lateral-inflow conditions, and special features. The

  12. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitadpakorn, Sujin; Farris, Karen B; Kittisopee, Tanattha

    2017-01-01

    The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45). Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF)=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI)=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI)=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA)=0.03). The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy engagement It was customer perceptions about pharmacist that influenced

  13. Fatigue risks in the connections of sign support structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This research effort develops a reliability-based approach for prescribing inspection intervals for mast-arm sign support : structures corresponding to user-specified levels of fatigue-induced fracture risk. The resulting level of risk for a : partic...

  14. Structure and properties of Hughston's stochastic extension of the Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L.; Horwitz, Lawrence P.

    2000-01-01

    Hughston has recently proposed a stochastic extension of the Schroedinger equation, expressed as a stochastic differential equation on projective Hilbert space. We derive new projective Hilbert space identities, which we use to give a general proof that Hughston's equation leads to state vector collapse to energy eigenstates, with collapse probabilities given by the quantum mechanical probabilities computed from the initial state. We discuss the relation of Hughston's equation to earlier work on norm-preserving stochastic equations, and show that Hughston's equation can be written as a manifestly unitary stochastic evolution equation for the pure state density matrix. We discuss the behavior of systems constructed as direct products of independent subsystems, and briefly address the question of whether an energy-based approach, such as Hughston's, suffices to give an objective interpretation of the measurement process in quantum mechanics. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. Lie-admissible structure of Hamilton's original equations with external terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    As a necessary additional step in preparation of our operator studies of closed nonhamiltonian systems, in this note we consider the algebraic structure of the original equations proposed by Lagrange and Hamilton, those with external terms representing precisely the contact nonpotential forces of the interior dynamical problem. We show that the brackets of the theory violate the conditions to characterize any algebra. Nevertheless, when properly written, they characterize a covering of the Lie-isotopic algebras called Lie-admissible algebras. It is indicated that a similar occurrence exists for conventional operator treatments, e.g. for nonconservative nuclear cases characterized by nonhermitean Hamiltonians. This occurrence then prevents a rigorous treatment of basic notions, such as that of angular momentum and spin spin, which are centrally dependent on the existence of a consistent algebraic structure. The emergence of the Lie-admissible algebras is therefore expected to be unavoidable for any rigorous operator treatment of open systems with nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian external forces. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  16. Family Environment and Childhood Obesity: A New Framework with Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Huang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the current article is to introduce a framework of the complexity of childhood obesity based on the family environment. A conceptual model that quantifies the relationships and interactions among parental socioeconomic status, family food security level, child’s food intake and certain aspects of parental feeding behaviour is presented using the structural equation modeling (SEM concept. Structural models are analysed in terms of the direct and indirect connections among latent and measurement variables that lead to the child weight indicator. To illustrate the accuracy, fit, reliability and validity of the introduced framework, real data collected from 630 families from Urumqi (Xinjiang, China were considered. The framework includes two categories of data comprising the normal body mass index (BMI range and obesity data. The comparison analysis between two models provides some evidence that in obesity modeling, obesity data must be extracted from the dataset and analysis must be done separately from the normal BMI range. This study may be helpful for researchers interested in childhood obesity modeling based on family environment.

  17. Bus Travel Time Deviation Analysis Using Automatic Vehicle Location Data and Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Gong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influences of causes of unreliability and bus schedule recovery phenomenon on microscopic segment-level travel time variance, this study adopts Structural Equation Modeling (SEM to specify, estimate, and measure the theoretical proposed models. The SEM model establishes and verifies hypotheses for interrelationships among travel time deviations, departure delays, segment lengths, dwell times, and number of traffic signals and access connections. The finally accepted model demonstrates excellent fitness. Most of the hypotheses are supported by the sample dataset from bus Automatic Vehicle Location system. The SEM model confirms the bus schedule recovery phenomenon. The departure delays at bus terminals and upstream travel time deviations indeed have negative impacts on travel time fluctuation of buses en route. Meanwhile, the segment length directly and negatively impacts travel time variability and inversely positively contributes to the schedule recovery process; this exogenous variable also indirectly and positively influences travel times through the existence of signalized intersections and access connections. This study offers a rational approach to analyzing travel time deviation feature. The SEM model structure and estimation results facilitate the understanding of bus service performance characteristics and provide several implications for bus service planning, management, and operation.

  18. The role of neuroticism, perfectionism and depression in chronic fatigue syndrome. A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Sergi; Sáez-Francàs, Naia; Calvo, Natalia; Alegre, José; Casas, Miquel

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have reported consistent associations between Neuroticism, maladaptive perfectionism and depression with severity of fatigue in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Depression has been considered a mediator factor between maladaptive perfectionism and fatigue severity, but no studies have explored the role of neuroticism in a comparable theoretical framework. This study aims to examine for the first time, the role of neuroticism, maladaptive perfectionism and depression on the severity of CFS, analyzing several explanation models. A sample of 229 CFS patients were studied comparing four structural equation models, testing the role of mediation effect of depression severity in the association of Neuroticism and/or Maladaptive perfectionism on fatigue severity. The model considering depression severity as mediator factor between Neuroticism and fatigue severity is the only one of the explored models where all the structural modeling indexes have fitted satisfactorily (Chi square=27.01, p=0.079; RMSE=0.047, CFI=0.994; SRMR=0.033). Neuroticism is associated with CFS by the mediation effect of depression severity. This personality variable constitutes a more consistent factor than maladaptive perfectionism in the conceptualization of CFS severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Post-partum blues among Korean mothers: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Yoo, Il Young; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to propose the post-partum blues (PPB) model and to estimate the effects of self-esteem, social support, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy on PPB. Data were collected from 249 women post-partum during their stay in the maternity units of three hospitals in Korea using a self-administered questionnaire. A structural equation modelling approach using the Analysis of Moments Structure program was used to identify the direct and indirect effects of the variables on PPB. The full model had a good fit and accounted for 70.3% of the variance of PPB. Antenatal depression and stressful events during pregnancy had strong direct effects on PPB. Household income showed indirect effects on PPB via self-esteem and antenatal depression. Social support indirectly affected PPB via self-esteem, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors; International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2012 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  20. Modeling alcohol use disorder severity: an integrative structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathasha R Moallem

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alcohol dependence is a complex psychological disorder whose phenomenology changes as the disorder progresses. Neuroscience has provided a variety of theories and evidence for the development, maintenance, and severity of addiction; however, clinically, it has been difficult to evaluate alcohol use disorder (AUD severity. Objective: This study seeks to evaluate and validate a data-driven approach to capturing alcohol severity in a community sample. Method: Participants were non-treatment seeking problem drinkers (n = 283. A structural equation modeling (SEM approach was used to (a verify the latent factor structure of the indices of AUD severity; and (b test the relationship between the AUD severity factor and measures of alcohol use, affective symptoms, and motivation to change drinking. Results: The model was found to fit well, with all chosen indices of AUD severity loading significantly and positively onto the severity factor. In addition, the paths from the alcohol use, motivation, and affective factors accounted for 68% of the variance in AUD severity. Greater AUD severity was associated with greater alcohol use, increased affective symptoms, and higher motivation to change.Conclusions: Unlike the categorical diagnostic criteria, the AUD severity factor is comprised of multiple quantitative dimensions of impairment observed across the progression of the disorder. The AUD severity factor was validated by testing it in relation to other outcomes such as alcohol use, affective symptoms, and motivation for change. Clinically, this approach to AUD severity can be used to inform treatment planning and ultimately to improve outcomes.

  1. Combining region- and network-level brain-behavior relationships in a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Taylor; Prince, Emily B; Nomi, Jason S; Messinger, Daniel; Llabre, Maria M; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2018-01-15

    Brain-behavior associations in fMRI studies are typically restricted to a single level of analysis: either a circumscribed brain region-of-interest (ROI) or a larger network of brain regions. However, this common practice may not always account for the interdependencies among ROIs of the same network or potentially unique information at the ROI-level, respectively. To account for both sources of information, we combined measurement and structural components of structural equation modeling (SEM) approaches to empirically derive networks from ROI activity, and to assess the association of both individual ROIs and their respective whole-brain activation networks with task performance using three large task-fMRI datasets and two separate brain parcellation schemes. The results for working memory and relational tasks revealed that well-known ROI-performance associations are either non-significant or reversed when accounting for the ROI's common association with its corresponding network, and that the network as a whole is instead robustly associated with task performance. The results for the arithmetic task revealed that in certain cases, an ROI can be robustly associated with task performance, even when accounting for its associated network. The SEM framework described in this study provides researchers additional flexibility in testing brain-behavior relationships, as well as a principled way to combine ROI- and network-levels of analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A structural equation modelling of the academic self-concept scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Matovu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at validating the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005 in measuring academic self-concept among university students. Structural equation modelling was used to validate the scale which was composed of two subscales; academic confidence and academic effort. The study was conducted on university students; males and females from different levels of study and faculties. In this study the influence of academic self-concept on academic achievement was assessed, tested whether the hypothesised model fitted the data, analysed the invariance of the path coefficients among the moderating variables, and also, highlighted whether academic confidence and academic effort measured academic selfconcept. The results from the model revealed that academic self-concept influenced academic achievement and the hypothesised model fitted the data. The results also supported the model as the causal structure was not sensitive to gender, levels of study, and faculties of students; hence, applicable to all the groups taken as moderating variables. It was also noted that academic confidence and academic effort are a measure of academic self-concept. According to the results the academic self-concept scale by Liu and Wang (2005 was deemed adequate in collecting information about academic self-concept among university students.

  3. [A Structural Equation Model of Pressure Ulcer Prevention Action in Clinical Nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook Ja; Park, Ok Kyoung; Park, Mi Yeon

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to construct and test a structural equation model for pressure ulcer prevention action by clinical nurses. The Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behavior were used as the basis for the study. A structured questionnaire was completed by 251 clinical nurses to analyze the relationships between concepts of perceived benefits, perceived barriers, attitude, subjective norm, perceived control, intention to perform action and behavior. SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 programs were used to analyze the efficiency of the hypothesized model and calculate the direct and indirect effects of factors affecting pressure ulcer prevention action among clinical nurses. The model fitness statistics of the hypothetical model fitted to the recommended levels. Attitude, subjective norm and perceived control on pressure ulcer prevention action explained 64.2% for intention to perform prevention action. The major findings of this study indicate that it is essential to recognize improvement in positive attitude for pressure ulcer prevention action and a need for systematic education programs to increase perceived control for prevention action.

  4. The Dirac equation in electronic structure calculations: Accurate evaluation of DFT predictions for actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, John M.; Mattsson, Ann E.

    2012-01-01

    Brooks, Johansson, and Skriver, using the LMTO-ASA method and considerable insight, were able to explain many of the ground state properties of the actinides. In the many years since this work was done, electronic structure calculations of increasing sophistication have been applied to actinide elements and compounds, attempting to quantify the applicability of DFT to actinides and actinide compounds and to try to incorporate other methodologies (i.e. DMFT) into DFT calculations. Through these calculations, the limits of both available density functionals and ad hoc methodologies are starting to become clear. However, it has also become clear that approximations used to incorporate relativity are not adequate to provide rigorous tests of the underlying equations of DFT, not to mention ad hoc additions. In this talk, we describe the result of full-potential LMTO calculations for the elemental actinides, comparing results obtained with a full Dirac basis with those obtained from scalar-relativistic bases, with and without variational spin-orbit. This comparison shows that the scalar relativistic treatment of actinides does not have sufficient accuracy to provide a rigorous test of theory and that variational spin-orbit introduces uncontrolled errors in the results of electronic structure calculations on actinide elements.

  5. Possible pathways between depression, emotional and external eating. A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwens, Machteld A; van Strien, Tatjana; van Leeuwe, Jan F J

    2009-10-01

    Emotional and external eating appear to co-occur and both have been shown to correlate to neuroticism, especially depression. However, there is evidence suggesting that emotional and external eating are independent constructs. In this study we revisited the relation between depression, emotional, and external eating. Using structural equation modelling, we examined whether depression, emotional and external eating are directly related and also indirectly related through the intervening concepts alexithymia and impulsivity. Participants were 549 females concerned about their weight. They filled out instruments on emotional and external eating, depression, alexithymia, and impulse regulation. The relational structure between the model variables was explored for one half of the participants and this solution was checked using the other half. Our data showed a moderate relationship between emotional and external eating. Depression was positively and directly associated with emotional eating, but not with external eating. In addition, depression was indirectly related to emotional eating through both alexithymia and impulsivity. A significant relation was found between impulsivity and external eating. Results suggest potential mediating pathways between depression and emotional eating, while no relation appeared to exist between depression and external eating. Emotional and external eating would appear to be different constructs.

  6. ODEion--a software module for structural identification of ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennemark, Peter; Wedelin, Dag

    2014-02-01

    In the systems biology field, algorithms for structural identification of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) have mainly focused on fixed model spaces like S-systems and/or on methods that require sufficiently good data so that derivatives can be accurately estimated. There is therefore a lack of methods and software that can handle more general models and realistic data. We present ODEion, a software module for structural identification of ODEs. Main characteristic features of the software are: • The model space is defined by arbitrary user-defined functions that can be nonlinear in both variables and parameters, such as for example chemical rate reactions. • ODEion implements computationally efficient algorithms that have been shown to efficiently handle sparse and noisy data. It can run a range of realistic problems that previously required a supercomputer. • ODEion is easy to use and provides SBML output. We describe the mathematical problem, the ODEion system itself, and provide several examples of how the system can be used. Available at: http://www.odeidentification.org.

  7. Algebraic Structure of tt * Equations for Calabi-Yau Sigma Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Murad

    2017-08-01

    The tt * equations define a flat connection on the moduli spaces of {2d, \\mathcal{N}=2} quantum field theories. For conformal theories with c = 3 d, which can be realized as nonlinear sigma models into Calabi-Yau d-folds, this flat connection is equivalent to special geometry for threefolds and to its analogs in other dimensions. We show that the non-holomorphic content of the tt * equations, restricted to the conformal directions, in the cases d = 1, 2, 3 is captured in terms of finitely many generators of special functions, which close under derivatives. The generators are understood as coordinates on a larger moduli space. This space parameterizes a freedom in choosing representatives of the chiral ring while preserving a constant topological metric. Geometrically, the freedom corresponds to a choice of forms on the target space respecting the Hodge filtration and having a constant pairing. Linear combinations of vector fields on that space are identified with the generators of a Lie algebra. This Lie algebra replaces the non-holomorphic derivatives of tt * and provides these with a finer and algebraic meaning. For sigma models into lattice polarized K3 manifolds, the differential ring of special functions on the moduli space is constructed, extending known structures for d = 1 and 3. The generators of the differential rings of special functions are given by quasi-modular forms for d = 1 and their generalizations in d = 2, 3. Some explicit examples are worked out including the case of the mirror of the quartic in {\\mathbbm{P}^3}, where due to further algebraic constraints, the differential ring coincides with quasi modular forms.

  8. [Incentive for Regional Risk Selection in the German Risk Structure Compensation Scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Danny

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of the new law GKV-FQWG strengthens the competition between statutory health insurance. If incentives for risk selection exist, they may force a battle for cheap customers. This study aims to document and discuss incentives for regional risk selection in the German risk structure compensation scheme. Identify regional autocorrelation with Moran's l on financial parameters of the risk structure compensation schema. Incentives for regional risk selection do indeed exist. The risk structure compensation schema reduces 91% of the effect and helps to reduce risk selection. Nevertheless, a connection between regional situation and competition could be shown (correlation: 69.5%). Only the integration of regional control variables into the risk compensation eliminates regional autocorrelation. The actual risk structure compensation is leading to regional inequalities and as a consequence to risk selection and distortion in competition. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Item response theory and structural equation modelling for ordinal data: Describing the relationship between KIDSCREEN and Life-H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titman, Andrew C; Lancaster, Gillian A; Colver, Allan F

    2016-10-01

    Both item response theory and structural equation models are useful in the analysis of ordered categorical responses from health assessment questionnaires. We highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the item response theory and structural equation modelling approaches to modelling ordinal data, from within a community health setting. Using data from the SPARCLE project focussing on children with cerebral palsy, this paper investigates the relationship between two ordinal rating scales, the KIDSCREEN, which measures quality-of-life, and Life-H, which measures participation. Practical issues relating to fitting models, such as non-positive definite observed or fitted correlation matrices, and approaches to assessing model fit are discussed. item response theory models allow properties such as the conditional independence of particular domains of a measurement instrument to be assessed. When, as with the SPARCLE data, the latent traits are multidimensional, structural equation models generally provide a much more convenient modelling framework. © The Author(s) 2013.

  10. Factors influencing adherence to psychopharmacological medications in psychiatric patients: a structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De las Cuevas C

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carlos De las Cuevas,1 Jose de Leon,2–4 Wenceslao Peñate,5 Moisés Betancort5 1Departamento de Medicina Interna, Dermatología y Psiquiatría, Universidad de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain; 2Mental Health Research Center at Eastern State Hospital, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Psychiatry and Neurosciences Research Group (CTS-549, Institute of Neurosciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain; 4Biomedical Research Center in Mental Health Net (CIBERSAM, Santiago Apostol Hospital, University of the Basque Country, Vitoria, Spain; 5Departamento de Psicología Clínica, Psicobiología y Metodología, Universidad de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain Purpose: To evaluate pathways through which sociodemographic, clinical, attitudinal, and perceived health control variables impact psychiatric patients’ adherence to psychopharmacological medications.Method: A sample of 966 consecutive psychiatric outpatients was studied. The variables were sociodemographic (age, gender, and education, clinical (diagnoses, drug treatment, and treatment duration, attitudinal (attitudes toward psychopharmacological medication and preferences regarding participation in decision-making, perception of control over health (health locus of control, self-efficacy, and psychological reactance, and level of adherence to psychopharmacological medications. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the nonstraightforward relationships and the interactive effects among the analyzed variables.Results: Structural equation modeling demonstrated that psychiatric patients’ treatment adherence was associated: 1 negatively with cognitive psychological reactance (adherence decreased as cognitive psychological reactance increased, 2 positively with patients’ trust in their psychiatrists (doctors’ subscale, 3 negatively with patients’ belief that they are in control of their mental health and that their mental health depends on their own actions (internal subscale, and 4

  11. Seismic fatigue life evaluation of mechanical structures using energy balance equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minagawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Satoshi; Kitamura, Seiji; Okamura, Shigeki

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of seismic resistant performance for severe earthquakes is required, because of occurrence of earthquakes which exceed the design criteria. Additionally, quantitative evaluation of cumulative damage by earthquake is also required. In this study, the energy balance equation is applied to the evaluation. The energy balance equation expresses integral information of response, so that the energy balance equation is adequate for the evaluation of the influence of cumulative load such as seismic response. At first, vibration experiment that leads experimental model to fatigue failure by continuous vibration disturbance is conducted. As a result of the experiment, relation between fatigue failure and energy balance equation is confirmed. Then the relation is proved from the viewpoint of hysteresis energy, and consistency between energy balance equation and hysteresis energy is confirmed. Finally, we adopted cumulative damage rule to energy balance equation in order to expect the fatigue life under random waves that have various input acceleration. (author)

  12. On the structure of the master equation for a two-level system coupled to a thermal bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, Inés de

    2015-01-01

    We derive a master equation from the exact stochastic Liouville–von-Neumann (SLN) equation (Stockburger and Grabert 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 170407). The latter depends on two correlated noises and describes exactly the dynamics of an oscillator (which can be either harmonic or present an anharmonicity) coupled to an environment at thermal equilibrium. The newly derived master equation is obtained by performing analytically the average over different noise trajectories. It is found to have a complex hierarchical structure that might be helpful to explain the convergence problems occurring when performing numerically the stochastic average of trajectories given by the SLN equation (Koch et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 230402, Koch 2010 PhD thesis Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften der Technischen Universitat Dresden). (paper)

  13. On the structure of the master equation for a two-level system coupled to a thermal bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vega, Inés

    2015-04-01

    We derive a master equation from the exact stochastic Liouville-von-Neumann (SLN) equation (Stockburger and Grabert 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 170407). The latter depends on two correlated noises and describes exactly the dynamics of an oscillator (which can be either harmonic or present an anharmonicity) coupled to an environment at thermal equilibrium. The newly derived master equation is obtained by performing analytically the average over different noise trajectories. It is found to have a complex hierarchical structure that might be helpful to explain the convergence problems occurring when performing numerically the stochastic average of trajectories given by the SLN equation (Koch et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 230402, Koch 2010 PhD thesis Fakultät Mathematik und Naturwissenschaften der Technischen Universitat Dresden).

  14. Flat structure and potential vector fields related with algebraic solutions to Painlevé VI equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuo Kato

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential vector field is a solution of an extended WDVV equation which is a generalization of a WDVV equation. It is expected that potential vector fields corresponding to algebraic solutions of Painlevé VI equation can be written by using polynomials or algebraic functions explicitly. The purpose of this paper is to construct potential vector fields corresponding to more than thirty non-equivalent algebraic solutions.

  15. On the structure of the commutative Z2 graded algebra valued integrable equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopelchenko, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    Partial differential equations integrable by the linear matrix spectral problem of arbitrary order are considered for the case that the 'potentials' take their values in the commutative infinte-dimensional Z 2 graded algebra (superalgebra). The general form of the integrable equations and their Baecklund transformations are found. The infinite sets of the integrals of the motion are constructed. The hamiltonian character of the integrable equations is proved. (orig.)

  16. Integrability and structural stability of solutions to the Ginzburg-Landau equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Laurence R.

    1986-01-01

    The integrability of the Ginzburg-Landau equation is studied to investigate if the existence of chaotic solutions found numerically could have been predicted a priori. The equation is shown not to possess the Painleveproperty, except for a special case of the coefficients that corresponds to the integrable, nonlinear Schroedinger (NLS) equation. Regarding the Ginzburg-Landau equation as a dissipative perturbation of the NLS, numerical experiments show all but one of a family of two-tori solutions, possessed by the NLS under particular conditions, to disappear under real perturbations to the NLS coefficients of O(10 to the -6th).

  17. The role of social support on emotion dysregulation and Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Phoenix K H; Chan, Virginia W Y; Chan, Samuel W; Lau, Joseph T F

    2018-07-01

    Internet addiction is prevalent among adolescents and is associated with various negative outcomes. Relatively few studies examined the role of emotion dysregulation and social support on Internet addiction in this population. The present examined the association between emotion dysregulation, social support, and Internet addiction among junior secondary school students in Hong Kong. The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and Internet use on the relationship between social support and Internet addiction and the gender difference in such association were also tested. A total of 862 junior secondary school students (grade 7 to 8) from 4 schools completed a cross-sectional survey. 10.9% scored above the cut-off for Internet addiction based on the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Results from structural equation modeling revealed that social support was negatively related to emotion dysregulation and Internet usage, which in turn, were positively related to Internet addiction. Results from multi-group analysis by gender showed that the relationship between social support and emotion dysregulation, Internet usage, and Internet addiction, and those between emotion dysregulation and Internet addiction and between Internet usage and Internet addiction were stronger among female participants. Emotion dysregulation is a potential risk factor while social support is a potential protective factor for Internet addiction. The role of social support on emotion dysregulation and Internet addiction were stronger among female students. Gender-sensitive interventions on Internet Addiction for adolescents are warranted, such interventions should increase social support and improve emotion regulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Psychological pathway to suicidal ideation among men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Cai, Yong; Wang, Ying; Gan, Feng; Shi, Rong

    2016-12-01

    We aimed to explore the relationships and develop an inter-theoretical model among psychological variables in the progression to suicidal ideation among men who have sex with men (MSM). A cross-sectional study was conducted among 547 MSM in four districts in Shanghai from March to May in 2014. Socio-demographic, psychological, and behavioral information of the participants was collected. A structural equation model (SEM)-Path Analysis was constructed to interpret the intricate relationships among various psychological variables. Suicidal ideation among MSM during the past year was 10.6%. The developed model agreed well with existing suicide models and had a good fit to the data (χ 2 /df = 2.497, comparative fit index = 0.983, root mean squared error of approximation = 0.052). Suicidal ideation was predicted by perceived defeat and entrapment (β = 0.21, p perceived social support (β = 0.34, p Perceived social support fully mediated the relationships among mood states, perceived social status, and perceived defeat and entrapment. MSM with certain types of temperament might be predisposed to a higher perception of defeat and entrapment. Perceived social support can effectively alleviate the negative appraisals and emotions and lower the risk for suicidal ideation among MSM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Perturbed Pathways in Two Different Cell Models for Parkinson's Disease with Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Daniele; Do, Jin Hwan

    2015-12-16

    Increasing evidence indicates that different morphological types of cell death coexist in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but the molecular explanation for this is still under investigation. In this study, we identified perturbed pathways in two different cell models for PD through the following procedures: (1) enrichment pathway analysis with differentially expressed genes and the Reactome pathway database, and (2) construction of the shortest path model for the enriched pathway and detection of significant shortest path model with fitting time-course microarray data of each PD cell model to structural equation model. Two PD cell models constructed by the same neurotoxin showed different perturbed pathways. That is, one showed perturbation of three Reactome pathways, including cellular senescence, chromatin modifying enzymes, and chromatin organization, while six modules within metabolism pathway represented perturbation in the other. This suggests that the activation of common upstream cell death pathways in PD may result in various down-stream processes, which might be associated with different morphological types of cell death. In addition, our results might provide molecular clues for coexistence of different morphological types of cell death in PD patients.

  20. Mediation in dyadic data at the level of the dyads: a Structural Equation Modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Thomas; Macho, Siegfried

    2009-10-01

    An extended version of the Common Fate Model (CFM) is presented to estimate and test mediation in dyadic data. The model can be used for distinguishable dyad members (e.g., heterosexual couples) or indistinguishable dyad members (e.g., homosexual couples) if (a) the variables measure characteristics of the dyadic relationship or shared external influences that affect both partners; if (b) the causal associations between the variables should be analyzed at the dyadic level; and if (c) the measured variables are reliable indicators of the latent variables. To assess mediation using Structural Equation Modeling, a general three-step procedure is suggested. The first is a selection of a good fitting model, the second a test of the direct effects, and the third a test of the mediating effect by means of bootstrapping. The application of the model along with the procedure for assessing mediation is illustrated using data from 184 couples on marital problems, communication, and marital quality. Differences with the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model and the analysis of longitudinal mediation by using the CFM are discussed.

  1. The impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity: A structural equation modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Hamid, Mohd Rashid; Mustafa, Zainol; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Idris, Fazli; Abdullah, Mokhtar

    2013-04-01

    Culture and employee-focused criteria are important factors for the success of any organization. These factors have to be aligned with the productivity initiatives in the organization in order to gear ahead for excellence. Therefore, this article investigated the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia using intangible indicators through core values. The hypothesized relationship was tested using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the PLS estimation technique. 429 questionnaires were returned from the target population. The results of the modelling revealed that the PLS estimation confirmed all the hypotheses tested as in the hypothesized model. The results generally support significant relationships between culture values, employee-focused values and productivity-focused values. The study also confirmed the mediating role of employee-focused values for the relationship between culture values and productivity-focused values. In conclusion, the empirically validated results supported the adequacy of the hypothezised model of the impact of culture and employee-focused criteria on productivity in HEI through value-based indicators.

  2. The relationship between occupational culture dimensions and reward preferences: A structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Bussin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Reward has links to employee attraction and retention and as such has a role to play in managing talent. However, despite a range of research, there is still lack of clarity on employee preferences relating to reward. Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to recommend and appraise a theoretical model of the relationship between occupational culture dimensions and reward preferences of specific occupational groups in the South African context. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study was to address the gap that exists with reward preferences and occupational culture with a view to identifying and gaining insight into individual preferences. Research design, approach and method: A structural equation modelling approach was adopted in exploring the proposed relationships. A South African Information, Communication, and Technology (ICT organisation served as the population, and a web-based survey assisted in gathering study data (n = 1362. Main findings: The findings provided support for the relationship between occupational culture dimensions and certain reward preferences. In particular, statistically significant results were obtained with the inclusion of the Environment, Team, and Time occupational culture dimensions as independent variables. Practical implications and value-add: The study provides workable input to organisations and reward professionals in the design of their reward strategies and programmes. Keywords: compensation; employee preferences; occupational culture; remuneration; reward preferences

  3. Physical activity prescription among Mexican physicians: a structural equation analysis of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaviz, K I; Jauregui-Ulloa, E; Fabrigar, L R; Latimer-Cheung, A; Lopez y Taylor, J; Lévesque, L

    2015-03-01

    To describe the physical activity (PA) prescribing behaviour of Mexican primary care physicians and determine if the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) explains this behaviour. 633 physicians (56% male, mean age 38 years) from 305 primary care clinics in Jalisco, Mexico self-reported PA prescription behaviour, PA involvement, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC) and intention related to PA prescription behaviour. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was employed. 48% of physicians reported they always ask patients about their PA, 33% provide verbal prescriptions, 6% provide written prescriptions, 8% refer patients to PA resources and 4% assess patient fitness. SEM analysis showed that the fit of the TPB model was satisfactory (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, SRMR = 0.05). The model explained 79% of the variance on intention (r(2) = 0.79, p behaviour (r(2) = 0.14, p behavioural intention, while PBC (β = 0.38, p behaviour. The TPB provided useful insight into physician prescription behaviour, although not all the theory tenets were supported. More research testing the TPB and other theories is needed to better understand psychosocial predictors of this behaviour. Strategies aimed at improving physicians' perceived ability to prescribe PA and their own PA involvement seem worthwhile. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Testing students' e-learning via Facebook through Bayesian structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarzadeh Jenatabadi, Hashem; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt; Babashamsi, Parastoo; Arashi, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Learning is an intentional activity, with several factors affecting students' intention to use new learning technology. Researchers have investigated technology acceptance in different contexts by developing various theories/models and testing them by a number of means. Although most theories/models developed have been examined through regression or structural equation modeling, Bayesian analysis offers more accurate data analysis results. To address this gap, the unified theory of acceptance and technology use in the context of e-learning via Facebook are re-examined in this study using Bayesian analysis. The data (S1 Data) were collected from 170 students enrolled in a business statistics course at University of Malaya, Malaysia, and tested with the maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The difference between the two methods' results indicates that performance expectancy and hedonic motivation are the strongest factors influencing the intention to use e-learning via Facebook. The Bayesian estimation model exhibited better data fit than the maximum likelihood estimator model. The results of the Bayesian and maximum likelihood estimator approaches are compared and the reasons for the result discrepancy are deliberated.

  5. Thought-action fusion: a comprehensive analysis using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Teresa L; Lunt, Rachael A; Negy, Charles

    2008-07-01

    Thought-action fusion (TAF), the phenomenon whereby one has difficulty separating cognitions from corresponding behaviors, has implications in a wide variety of disturbances, including eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and panic disorder. Numerous constructs believed to contribute to the etiology or maintenance of TAF have been identified in the literature, but to date, no study has empirically integrated these findings into a comprehensive model. In this study, we examined simultaneously an array of variables thought to be related to TAF, and subsequently developed a model that elucidates the role of those variables that seem most involved in this phenomenon using a structural equation modeling approach. Results indicated that religiosity, as predicted by ethnic identity, was a significant predictor of TAF. Additionally, the relation between ethnic identity and TAF was partially mediated by an inflated sense of responsibility. Both TAF and obsessive-compulsive symptoms were found to be significant predictors of engagement in neutralization activities. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed.

  6. Connecting Athletes’ Self-Perceptions and Metaperceptions of Competence: a Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchini Jose A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationships between athletes’ competence self-perceptions and metaperceptions. Two hundred and fifty one student-athletes (14.26 ± 1.89 years, members of twenty different teams (basketball, soccer completed a questionnaire which included the Perception of Success Questionnaire, the Competence subscale of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and modified versions of both questionnaires to assess athletes’ metaperceptions. Structural equation modelling analysis revealed that athletes’ task and ego metaperceptions positively predicted task and ego self-perceptions, respectively. Competence metaperceptions were strong predictors of competence selfperceptions, confirming the atypical metaperception formation in outcome-dependent contexts such as sport. Task and ego metaperceptions positively predicted athletes’ competence metaperceptions. How coaches value their athletes’ competence is more influential on what the athletes think of themselves than their own self-perceptions. Athletes’ ego and task metaperceptions influenced their competence metaperceptions (how coaches rate their competence. Therefore, athletes build their competence metaperceptions using all information available from their coaches. Finally, only taskself perfections positively predicted athletes’ competence self-perceptions.

  7. A STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODEL: THAILAND’S INTERNATIONAL TOURISM DEMAND FOR TOURIST DESTINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUKIAT CHAIBOONSRI

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural equation modelling (LISREL 8 was used to test the causal relationships between tourist travel motivations (travel cost satisfaction and tourist demographics and tourist destination (tourism product, tourism product attributes, and tourism product management. A survey containing Likert-type scales was used in collecting data from 203 international tourists who had travelled to Thailand. Using factor analysis, dimensions were identified for scales used in the study: travel cost satisfaction, tourist demographics, tourism product, tourism product attributes, and tourism product management. Results indicated that the travel cost satisfaction of international tourists had a positive influenced on tourism product attributes at 0.07 (t=1.96 with statistics significant at the level of 0.05. Also the travel cost satisfaction had a positive influence on tourism product management at 0.13 (t=4.02 with statistics significant at the level of 0.05. And the tourist demographics had a positive influenced on tourism product at 0.11(t=3.47 with statistic significant at the level of 0.05. As well as tourist demographics, which had a positive influenced on tourism management at 0.11 (t=3.57 with statistics significant at the level of 0.05. The results of the research suggested that if the tourist destinations in Thailand are improved in quality then not only will international tourist revisit Thailand but also the numbers of tourists travelling to Thailand will increase.

  8. Determinants of phubbing, which is the sum of many virtual addictions: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Engin; Tosuntaş, Şule Betül; Erzen, Evren; Duru, Pinar; Bostan, Nalan; Şahin, Berrak Mizrak; Çulha, İlkay; Babadağ, Burcu

    2015-06-01

    Phubbing can be described as an individual looking at his or her mobile phone during a conversation with other individuals, dealing with the mobile phone and escaping from interpersonal communication. In this research, determinants of phubbing behavior were investigated; in addition, the effects of gender, smart phone ownership and social media membership were tested as moderators. To examine the cause-effect relations among the variables of the theoretical model, the research employs a correlational design. Participants were 409 university students who were selected via random sampling. Phubbing was obtained via the scales featuring mobile phone addiction, SMS addiction, internet addiction, social media addiction and game addiction. The obtained data were analyzed using a correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis and structural equation model. The results showed that the most important determinants of phubbing behavior are mobile phone, SMS, social media and internet addictions. Although the findings show that the highest correlation value explaining phubbing is a mobile phone addiction, the other correlation values reflect a dependency on the phone. There is an increasing tendency towards mobile phone use, and this tendency prepares the basis of phubbing.

  9. Delay Mitigation in the Malaysian Housing Industry: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Saar Chai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The housing industry is one of the major contributors to the economy in Malaysia due to the constantly high housing demand. The housing demand has increased due to the rapid growth in population and urbanisation in the country. One of the major challenges in the housing industry is the late delivery of housing supply, which in some instances leads to sick and abandoned housing projects. Despite being extensively investigated, th in a negative impact, there is a strong need to review the housing delay mitigation measures practised in Malaysia. This paper aims to evaluate the current delay mitigation measures and its main objective is to explore the relationship between the mitigation measures and delay in housing via a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM approach. A questionnaire survey through an online survey tool was conducted across 13 states and three Federal Territories in Malaysia. The target respondents are the local authorities, developers, consultants (principal submitting persons and contractors. The findings show that 17 predictive, preventive, organisational or corrective. This paper demonstrates that preventive measures are the most influential mitigation measures for housing delivery delay.

  10. Corruption and population health outcomes: an analysis of data from 133 countries using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Roni; Kang, Minah

    2015-09-01

    The current study aims to develop a theoretical framework for understanding the antecedents of corruption and the effects of corruption on various health indicators. Using structural equation models, we analyzed a multinational dataset of 133 countries that included three main groups of variables--antecedents of corruption, corruption measures, and health indicators. Controlling for various factors, our results suggest that corruption rises as GDP per capita falls and as the regime becomes more autocratic. Higher corruption is associated with lower levels of health expenditure as a percentage of GDP per capita, and with poorer health outcomes. Countries with higher GDP per capita and better education for women have better health outcomes regardless of health expenditures and regime type. Our results suggest that there is no direct relationship between health expenditures and health outcomes after controlling for the other factors in the model. Our study enhances our understanding of the conceptual and theoretical links between corruption and health outcomes in a population, including factors that may mediate how corruption can affect health outcomes.

  11. Food Insecurity and Common Mental Disorders among Ethiopian Youth: Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, David; Belachew, Tefera; Hadley, Craig; Lachat, Carl; Verstraeten, Roos; De Cock, Nathalie; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the consequences of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status of youth living have been reported, its effect on their mental health remains less investigated in developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the pathways through which food insecurity is associated with poor mental health status among youth living in Ethiopia. Methods We used data from Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth (JLFSY) collected in 2009/10. A total of 1,521 youth were included in the analysis. We measured food insecurity using a 5-items scale and common mental disorders using the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Structural and generalized equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation method was used to analyze the data. Results The prevalence of common mental disorders was 30.8% (95% CI: 28.6, 33.2). Food insecurity was independently associated with common mental disorders (β = 0.323, Pinsecurity on common mental disorders was direct and only 8.2% of their relationship was partially mediated by physical health. In addition, poor self-rated health (β = 0.285, Pinsecurity is directly associated with common mental disorders among youth in Ethiopia. Interventions that aim to improve mental health status of youth should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food. PMID:27846283

  12. Airline Sustainability Modeling: A New Framework with Application of Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors which could influence the sustainability of airlines. The main purpose of this study is to introduce a framework for a financial sustainability index and model it based on structural equation modeling (SEM with maximum likelihood and Bayesian predictors. The introduced framework includes economic performance, operational performance, cost performance, and financial performance. Based on both Bayesian SEM (Bayesian-SEM and Classical SEM (Classical-SEM, it was found that economic performance with both operational performance and cost performance are significantly related to the financial performance index. The four mathematical indices employed are root mean square error, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and mean absolute percentage error to compare the efficiency of Bayesian-SEM and Classical-SEM in predicting the airline financial performance. The outputs confirmed that the framework with Bayesian prediction delivered a good fit with the data, although the framework predicted with a Classical-SEM approach did not prepare a well-fitting model. The reasons for this discrepancy between Classical and Bayesian predictions, as well as the potential advantages and caveats with the application of Bayesian approach in airline sustainability studies, are debated.

  13. Psychological contract breach and outcomes: Combining meta-analysis and structural equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Morales Domínguez, J Francisco; Depolo, Marco

    2008-08-01

    In this study, meta-analytic procedures were used to examine the relationships between psychological contract perceived breach and certain outcome variables, such as organizational commitment, job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB). Our review of the literature generated 41 independent samples in which perceived breach was used as a predictor of these personal and organizational outcomes. A medium effect size (ES) for desirable outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational trust, OCB and performance) was obtained (r=-.35). For undesirable outcomes (neglect in role duties and intention to leave), ES were also medium (r=.31). When comparing attitudinal (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational trust) and behavioural outcomes (OCB, neglect in role duties and performance), a stronger ES was found for attitudinal (r=-.24) than for behavioural outcomes (r=-.11). Potential moderator variables were examined, and it was found that they explained only a percentage of variability of primary studies. Structural equation analysis of the pooled meta-analytical correlation matrix indicated that the relationships of perceived breach with satisfaction, OCB, intention to leave and performance are fully mediated by organizational trust and commitment. Results are discussed in order to suggest theoretical and empirical implications.

  14. A multilevel cross-lagged structural equation analysis for reciprocal relationship between social capital and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ge; Sessions, John G; Fu, Yu; Wall, Martin

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the reciprocal relationship between individual social capital and perceived mental and physical health in the UK. Using data from the British Household Panel Survey from 1991 to 2008, we fitted cross-lagged structural equation models that include three indicators of social capital vis. social participation, social network, and loneliness. Given that multiple measurement points (level 1) are nested within individuals (level 2), we also applied a multilevel model to allow for residual variation in the outcomes at the occasion and individual levels. Controlling for gender, age, employment status, educational attainment, marital status, household wealth, and region, our analyses suggest that social participation predicts subsequent change in perceived mental health, and vice versa. However, whilst loneliness is found to be significantly related to perceived mental and physical health, reciprocal causality is not found for perceived mental health. Furthermore, we find evidence for reverse effects with both perceived mental and physical health appearing to be the dominant causal factor with respect to the prospective level of social network. Our findings thus shed further light on the importance of social participation and social inclusion in health promotion and aid the development of more effective public health policies in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unified field theory from the classical wave equation: Preliminary application to atomic and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Múnera, Héctor A., E-mail: hmunera@hotmail.com [Centro Internacional de Física (CIF), Apartado Aéreo 4948, Bogotá, Colombia, South America (Colombia); Retired professor, Department of Physics, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia, South America (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    It is postulated that there exists a fundamental energy-like fluid, which occupies the flat three-dimensional Euclidean space that contains our universe, and obeys the two basic laws of classical physics: conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of total energy; the fluid is described by the classical wave equation (CWE), which was Schrödinger’s first candidate to develop his quantum theory. Novel solutions for the CWE discovered twenty years ago are nonharmonic, inherently quantized, and universal in the sense of scale invariance, thus leading to quantization at all scales of the universe, from galactic clusters to the sub-quark world, and yielding a unified Lorentz-invariant quantum theory ab initio. Quingal solutions are isomorphic under both neo-Galilean and Lorentz transformations, and exhibit nother remarkable property: intrinsic unstability for large values of ℓ (a quantum number), thus limiting the size of each system at a given scale. Unstability and scale-invariance together lead to nested structures observed in our solar system; unstability may explain the small number of rows in the chemical periodic table, and nuclear unstability of nuclides beyond lead and bismuth. Quingal functions lend mathematical basis for Boscovich’s unified force (which is compatible with many pieces of evidence collected over the past century), and also yield a simple geometrical solution for the classical three-body problem, which is a useful model for electronic orbits in simple diatomic molecules. A testable prediction for the helicoidal-type force is suggested.

  16. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-related Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, and Medication Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo-Jeong, Moka; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; McCoy, Katryna; Ownby, Raymond L

    2016-05-01

    Adherence to combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains critical in management of HIV infection. This study evaluated depression as a potential mechanism by which HIV-related symptoms affect medication adherence and explored if particular clusters of HIV symptoms are susceptible to this mechanism. Baseline data from a multi-visit intervention study were analyzed among 124 persons living with HIV (PLWH). A bifactor model showed two clusters of HIV-related symptom distress: general HIV-related symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that both general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were related to higher levels of depressive symptoms, and higher levels of depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of medication adherence. Although general HIV-related symptoms and GI symptoms were not directly related to adherence, they were indirectly associated with adherence via depression. The findings highlight the importance of early recognition and evaluation of symptoms of depression, as well as the underlying physical symptoms that might cause depression, to improve medication adherence.

  17. Determinants of Phubbing, Which is the Sum of Many Virtual Addictions: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadağ, Engi̇n; Tosuntaş, Şule Betül; Erzen, Evren; Duru, Pinar; Bostan, Nalan; Şahi̇n, Berrak Mizrak; Çulha, İLKAY; Babadağ, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Phubbing can be described as an individual looking at his or her mobile phone during a conversation with other individuals, dealing with the mobile phone and escaping from interpersonal communication. In this research, determinants of phubbing behavior were investigated; in addition, the effects of gender, smart phone ownership and social media membership were tested as moderators. Methods To examine the cause–effect relations among the variables of the theoretical model, the research employs a correlational design. Participants were 409 university students who were selected via random sampling. Phubbing was obtained via the scales featuring mobile phone addiction, SMS addiction, internet addiction, social media addiction and game addiction. The obtained data were analyzed using a correlation analysis, multiple linear regression analysis and structural equation model. Results The results showed that the most important determinants of phubbing behavior are mobile phone, SMS, social media and internet addictions. Discussion Although the findings show that the highest correlation value explaining phubbing is a mobile phone addiction, the other correlation values reflect a dependency on the phone. Conclusions There is an increasing tendency towards mobile phone use, and this tendency prepares the basis of phubbing. PMID:26014669

  18. ANALISA KUALITAS PELAYANAN BIOSKOP TERHADAP KEPUASAN DAN LOYALITAS PELANGGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELING (SEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Edo Herokholiqi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bioskop XYZ adalah salah satu bioskop di wilayah kabupaten Sidoarjo yang mengutamakan kualitas dan kepuasan konsumen dengan terus memberikan layanan terbaik. Target pasar bioskop XYZ adalah masyarakat dengan ekonomi menengah ke bawah. Karena itu, pemilihan lokasi pendirian bioskop ini ialah pada tingkat kabupaten. Berkembangnya teknologi membuat persaingan bioskop semakin ketat baik dari pesaing, pembajakan film, harapan pelanggan meningkat serta bioskop yang masih dibutuhkan sebagai hiburan alternatif. Maka dari itu pengelola bioskop dituntut untuk lebih kreatif menarik pelanggan dengan berbagai cara antara lain dengan meningkatkan pelayanan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruh kualitas layanan terhadap kepuasan dan loyalitas pelanggan, serta pengaruh kepuasan pelanggan terhadap loyalitas pelanggan agar dapat memberikan beberapa usulan kepada bioskop berdasarkan hasil penelitian. Dalam meneliti hubungan variabel seperti permasalahan di atas digunakan metode Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Hasil dari penelitian yang mengacu pada hasil uji hipotesa yang dilakukan menunjukkan bahwa variabel kualitas layanan berpengaruh terhadap kepuasan pelanggan, variabel kepuasan pelanggan berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas pelanggan namun variabel kualitas layanan tidak berpengaruh terhadap loyalitas pelanggan. Adapun indikator paling berpengaruh positif kualitas layananan yakni perhatian karyawan, pada kepuasan pelanggan yakni perasaan senang pelanggan dan pada variabel loyalitas pelanggan yakni merekomendasikan pada orang lain.

  19. Analyzing Factors Influencing Teaching as a Career Choice Using Structural Equation Modeling

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    Budhinath Padhy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to analyze factors influencing students’ perceptions of teaching as a career choice using structural equation modeling with the goal of shaping a teacher education recruitment program. In this study, 458 students from a Midwestern university in the United States responded to an online survey about career-related factors they value, their expectation that teaching would offer those factors, and any social-influence factors that might encourage them to choose a teaching career. The effect of 10 exogenous motivation variables (value-environment, value-intrinsic, value-extrinsic, value-altruistic, expectancy-environment, expectancy-intrinsic, expectancy-extrinsic, social-media-education, social-prior-experience, and social-suggestions on choosing a teaching career was examined. Results of our analysis showed that the factors related to expectancy-environment, expectancy-intrinsic, social-media-education, social-prior-experience, and social-suggestions were found to be significant, whereas value-related factors and expectancy-extrinsic factors were found to be insignificant.

  20. Accounting for measurement error in human life history trade-offs using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, Samuli

    2018-03-01

    Revealing causal effects from correlative data is very challenging and a contemporary problem in human life history research owing to the lack of experimental approach. Problems with causal inference arising from measurement error in independent variables, whether related either to inaccurate measurement technique or validity of measurements, seem not well-known in this field. The aim of this study is to show how structural equation modeling (SEM) with latent variables can be applied to account for measurement error in independent variables when the researcher has recorded several indicators of a hypothesized latent construct. As a simple example of this approach, measurement error in lifetime allocation of resources to reproduction in Finnish preindustrial women is modelled in the context of the survival cost of reproduction. In humans, lifetime energetic resources allocated in reproduction are almost impossible to quantify with precision and, thus, typically used measures of lifetime reproductive effort (e.g., lifetime reproductive success and parity) are likely to be plagued by measurement error. These results are contrasted with those obtained from a traditional regression approach where the single best proxy of lifetime reproductive effort available in the data is used for inference. As expected, the inability to account for measurement error in women's lifetime reproductive effort resulted in the underestimation of its underlying effect size on post-reproductive survival. This article emphasizes the advantages that the SEM framework can provide in handling measurement error via multiple-indicator latent variables in human life history studies. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Factors Influencing Satisfaction with Public City Transport: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

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    Pawlasova Pavlina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction is one of the key factors which influences customer loyalty. We assume that the satisfied customer will be willing to use the ssame service provider again. The overall passengers´ satisfaction with public city transport may be affected by the overall service quality. Frequency, punctuality, cleanliness in the vehicle, proximity, speed, fare, accessibility and safety of transport, information and other factors can influence passengers´ satisfaction. The aim of this paper is to quantify factors and identify the most important factors influencing customer satisfaction with public city transport within conditions of the Czech Republic. Two methods of analysis are applied in order to fulfil the aim. The method of factor analysis and the method Varimax were used in order to categorize variables according to their mutual relations. The method of structural equation modelling was used to evaluate the factors and validate the model. Then, the optimal model was found. The logistic parameters, including service continuity and frequency, and service, including information rate, station proximity and vehicle cleanliness, are the factors influencing passengers´ satisfaction on a large scale.

  2. Validation of an employee satisfaction model: A structural equation model approach

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    Ophillia Ledimo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate an employee satisfaction model and to determine the relationships between the different dimensions of the concept, using the structural equation modelling approach (SEM. A cross-sectional quantitative survey design was used to collect data from a random sample of (n=759 permanent employees of a parastatal organisation. Data was collected using the Employee Satisfaction Survey (ESS to measure employee satisfaction dimensions. Following the steps of SEM analysis, the three domains and latent variables of employee satisfaction were specified as organisational strategy, policies and procedures, and outcomes. Confirmatory factor analysis of the latent variables was conducted, and the path coefficients of the latent variables of the employee satisfaction model indicated a satisfactory fit for all these variables. The goodness-of-fit measure of the model indicated both absolute and incremental goodness-of-fit; confirming the relationships between the latent and manifest variables. It also indicated that the latent variables, organisational strategy, policies and procedures, and outcomes, are the main indicators of employee satisfaction. This study adds to the knowledge base on employee satisfaction and makes recommendations for future research.

  3. Applications of generalizability theory and their relations to classical test theory and structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vispoel, Walter P; Morris, Carrie A; Kilinc, Murat

    2018-03-01

    Although widely recognized as a comprehensive framework for representing score reliability, generalizability theory (G-theory), despite its potential benefits, has been used sparingly in reporting of results for measures of individual differences. In this article, we highlight many valuable ways that G-theory can be used to quantify, evaluate, and improve psychometric properties of scores. Our illustrations encompass assessment of overall reliability, percentages of score variation accounted for by individual sources of measurement error, dependability of cut-scores for decision making, estimation of reliability and dependability for changes made to measurement procedures, disattenuation of validity coefficients for measurement error, and linkages of G-theory with classical test theory and structural equation modeling. We also identify computer packages for performing G-theory analyses, most of which can be obtained free of charge, and describe how they compare with regard to data input requirements, ease of use, complexity of designs supported, and output produced. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Mobility Device Quality Affects Participation Outcomes for People With Disabilities: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magasi, Susan; Wong, Alex; Miskovic, Ana; Tulsky, David; Heinemann, Allen W

    2018-01-01

    To test the effect that indicators of mobility device quality have on participation outcomes in community-dwelling adults with spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke by using structural equation modeling. Survey, cross-sectional study, and model testing. Clinical research space at 2 academic medical centers and 1 free-standing rehabilitation hospital. Community-dwelling adults (N=250; mean age, 48±14.3y) with spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and stroke. Not applicable. The Mobility Device Impact Scale, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Social Function (version 2.0) scale, including Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities, and the 2 Community Participation Indicators' enfranchisement scales. Details about device quality (reparability, reliability, ease of maintenance) and device type were also collected. Respondents used ambulation aids (30%), manual (34%), and power wheelchairs (30%). Indicators of device quality had a moderating effect on participation outcomes, with 3 device quality variables (repairability, ease of maintenance, device reliability) accounting for 20% of the variance in participation. Wheelchair users reported lower participation enfranchisement than did ambulation aid users. Mobility device quality plays an important role in participation outcomes. It is critical that people have access to mobility devices and that these devices be reliable. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emotion dysregulation mediates the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Simone; Holl, Julia; Mai, Hannah; Wolff, Sebastian; Barnow, Sven

    2016-12-01

    The present study investigated the mediating effects of emotion dysregulation on the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology. An adult sample (N=701) from diverse backgrounds of psychopathology completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the negative affect subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) in a cross-sectional online survey. Correlational analyses showed that all types of child maltreatment were uniformly associated with emotion dysregulation, and dimensions of emotion dysregulation were strongly related to psychopathology. Limited access to strategies for emotion regulation emerged as the most powerful predictor. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that emotion dysregulation partially mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and psychopathology, even after controlling for shared variance with negative affect. These findings emphasize the importance of emotion dysregulation as a possible mediating mechanism in the association between child maltreatment and later psychopathology. Additionally, interventions targeting specific emotion regulation strategies may be effective to reduce psychopathology in victims of child maltreatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of Quality of Life in Portuguese Obese Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Application

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    Estela Vilhena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Living with obesity is an experience that may affect multiple aspects of an individual’s life. Obesity is considered a relevant public health problem in modern societies. To determine the comparative efficacy of different treatments and to assess their impact on patients’ everyday life, it is important to identify factors that are relevant to the quality of life of obese patients. The present study aims to evaluate, in Portuguese obese patients, the simultaneous impact of several psychosocial factors on quality of life. This study also explores the mediating role of stigma in the relationship between positive/negative affect and quality of life. A sample of 215 obese patients selected from the main hospitals in Portugal completed self-report questionnaires to assess sociodemographic, clinical, psychosocial, and quality of life variables. Data were analysed using structural equation modeling. The model fitted the data reasonably well, CFI = 0.9, RMSEA = 0.06. More enthusiastic and more active patients had a better quality of life. Those who reflect lower perception of stigma had a better physical and mental health. Partial mediation effects of stigma between positive affect and mental health and between negative affect and physical health were found. The stigma is pervasive and causes consequences for psychological and physical health.

  7. Contextual Factors Affecting the Innovation Performance of Manufacturing SMEs in Korea: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

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    Ye Seul Choi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically explores the relationship between innovation performance and the internal and contextual factors driving technological innovation in manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in metropolitan areas of Korea using structural equation modeling (SEM. Our analysis is based on firm-level data from the Korean Innovation Survey conducted by the Science and Technology Policy Institute in 2012. According to the results, SMEs’ innovation capacity was positively related to technological innovation performance, and SMEs’ skills and technology acquisition is a contextual factor that positively influences their innovation performance. In this process, SMEs’ innovation capacity is a partial mediator between skills and technology acquisition and SMEs’ technological innovation performance. Moreover, the results show that the relationship between government and public policies and SMEs’ innovation performance is mediated by SMEs’ internal innovation capacity. The results imply that both skills and technology acquisition and government and public policies are important contextual factors can increase SMEs’ innovation performance. Based on the results, this study provides implications for policy makers in terms of the policies that provide both direct and support roles in fostering and sustaining innovation, which drives regional economic growth and development.

  8. Multiple Skills Underlie Arithmetic Performance: A Large-Scale Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

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    Sarit Ashkenazi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Current theoretical approaches point to the importance of several cognitive skills not specific to mathematics for the etiology of mathematics disorders (MD. In the current study, we examined the role of many of these skills, specifically: rapid automatized naming, attention, reading, and visual perception, on mathematics performance among a large group of college students (N = 1,322 with a wide range of arithmetic proficiency. Using factor analysis, we discovered that our data clustered to four latent variables 1 mathematics, 2 perception speed, 3 attention and 4 reading. In subsequent structural equation modeling, we found that the latent variable perception speed had a strong and meaningful effect on mathematics performance. Moreover, sustained attention, independent from the effect of the latent variable perception speed, had a meaningful, direct effect on arithmetic fact retrieval and procedural knowledge. The latent variable reading had a modest effect on mathematics performance. Specifically, reading comprehension, independent from the effect of the latent variable reading, had a meaningful direct effect on mathematics, and particularly on number line knowledge. Attention, tested by the attention network test, had no effect on mathematics, reading or perception speed. These results indicate that multiple factors can affect mathematics performance supporting a heterogeneous approach to mathematics. These results have meaningful implications for the diagnosis and intervention of pure and comorbid learning disorders.

  9. Stress and resilience in functional somatic syndromes--a structural equation modeling approach.

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    Susanne Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stress has been suggested to play a role in the development and perpetuation of functional somatic syndromes. The mechanisms of how this might occur are not clear. PURPOSE: We propose a multi-dimensional stress model which posits that childhood trauma increases adult stress reactivity (i.e., an individual's tendency to respond strongly to stressors and reduces resilience (e.g., the belief in one's competence. This in turn facilitates the manifestation of functional somatic syndromes via chronic stress. We tested this model cross-sectionally and prospectively. METHODS: Young adults participated in a web survey at two time points. Structural equation modeling was used to test our model. The final sample consisted of 3'054 participants, and 429 of these participated in the follow-up survey. RESULTS: Our proposed model fit the data in the cross-sectional (χ2(21  = 48.808, p<.001, CFI  = .995, TLI  = .992, RMSEA  = .021, 90% CI [.013.029] and prospective analyses (χ2(21  =  32.675, p<.05, CFI  = .982, TLI  = .969, RMSEA  = .036, 90% CI [.001.059]. DISCUSSION: Our findings have several clinical implications, suggesting a role for stress management training in the prevention and treatment of functional somatic syndromes.

  10. Empirical investigation of e-learning acceptance and assimilation: A structural equation model

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    Said S. Al-Gahtani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E-learning has become progressively more vital for academia and corporate training and has potentially become one of the most significant developments and applications in Information Technologies (ITs. This study used a quantitative approach seeking a causative explanation of the decision behavior of individuals toward the acceptance and assimilation of e-learning in academic settings. A survey of 286 participants (students was conducted to collect the research data. Our study framework was based on the third version of the Technology Acceptance Model (i.e., TAM3 and the data were analyzed using structural equation modeling in order to determine the factors that influence the learners’ intention to use e-learning. Results show the predicting (promoting/inhibiting factors of e-learning technology acceptance, while also examining some related post-implementation interventions expected to contribute to the acceptance and assimilation of e-learning systems. Our results also indicate that TAM3 holds well in the Arabian culture and also outline valuable outcomes such as: managerial interventions and controls for better organizational e-learning management that can lead to greater acceptance and effective utilization. Hopefully, this study provides a roadmap to more understanding of the success factors and post-implementation interventions contributing to the acceptance and assimilation of e-learning systems in developing countries.

  11. Testing students' e-learning via Facebook through Bayesian structural equation modeling.

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    Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi

    Full Text Available Learning is an intentional activity, with several factors affecting students' intention to use new learning technology. Researchers have investigated technology acceptance in different contexts by developing various theories/models and testing them by a number of means. Although most theories/models developed have been examined through regression or structural equation modeling, Bayesian analysis offers more accurate data analysis results. To address this gap, the unified theory of acceptance and technology use in the context of e-learning via Facebook are re-examined in this study using Bayesian analysis. The data (S1 Data were collected from 170 students enrolled in a business statistics course at University of Malaya, Malaysia, and tested with the maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. The difference between the two methods' results indicates that performance expectancy and hedonic motivation are the strongest factors influencing the intention to use e-learning via Facebook. The Bayesian estimation model exhibited better data fit than the maximum likelihood estimator model. The results of the Bayesian and maximum likelihood estimator approaches are compared and the reasons for the result discrepancy are deliberated.

  12. [Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying: a longitudinal analysis with a structural equation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero Domínguez, Noelia; Gil-Monte, Pedro Rafael; Luciano Devis, Juan Vicente

    2011-11-01

    Most studies focusing on the antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying have used a cross-sectional design, which impedes determining the causality of the relationships. In the present work, we analyzed, by means of structural equation models, the relationship between workplace bullying and some variables that are considered antecedents (interpersonal conflicts, role ambiguity, role conflict, and workplace social support) or consequences (health complaints and inclination to absenteeism from work) of this phenomenon. Multicenter study with two phases. The sample consisted of 696 employees from 66 centers. Workplace bullying was assessed by means of the "Mobbing-UNIPSICO" questionnaire, and the other variables with frequency scales. The cross-sectional models indicated a significant association between role conflict, workplace social support, and workplace bullying in both study periods. Concerning the longitudinal relationships, only workplace social support was a significant predictor of workplace bullying, which, in turn, was a cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of workers' health complaints. Our results show the mediating effect of workplace bullying between certain work conditions and health complaints, and it is recommendable to replicate these findings in a multi-occupational sample.

  13. Empirical Correction to the Likelihood Ratio Statistic for Structural Equation Modeling with Many Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Tian, Yubin; Yanagihara, Hirokazu

    2015-06-01

    Survey data typically contain many variables. Structural equation modeling (SEM) is commonly used in analyzing such data. The most widely used statistic for evaluating the adequacy of a SEM model is T ML, a slight modification to the likelihood ratio statistic. Under normality assumption, T ML approximately follows a chi-square distribution when the number of observations (N) is large and the number of items or variables (p) is small. However, in practice, p can be rather large while N is always limited due to not having enough participants. Even with a relatively large N, empirical results show that T ML rejects the correct model too often when p is not too small. Various corrections to T ML have been proposed, but they are mostly heuristic. Following the principle of the Bartlett correction, this paper proposes an empirical approach to correct T ML so that the mean of the resulting statistic approximately equals the degrees of freedom of the nominal chi-square distribution. Results show that empirically corrected statistics follow the nominal chi-square distribution much more closely than previously proposed corrections to T ML, and they control type I errors reasonably well whenever N ≥ max(50,2p). The formulations of the empirically corrected statistics are further used to predict type I errors of T ML as reported in the literature, and they perform well.

  14. An Empirical Investigation of the Universal Effectiveness of Quality Management Practices: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

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    Young Sik Cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Institutional theory argues that the isomorphic nature of quality management (QM practices leads to similar QM implementation and performance among QM-embedded firms. However, contingency theory questions such 'universal effectiveness of QM practices'. Considering these conflicting arguments, this study tests samples from the U.S. and China to examine whether the 'universal effectiveness of QM practices’ across national boundaries actually exists. First, the confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the validity of the survey instruments developed in this study. Then, the hypotheses were tested using the structural equation modeling (SEM analysis. The SEM test results indicated that the positive effect of behavioral QM on firm performance was more significant in the U.S. sample than in the China sample. The test results also presented that the relative effect of behavioral QM versus technical QM on firm performance was noticeably different in service firms, according to national economic maturity. The study’s findings demonstrated that a firm's contingency factors, such as national economic maturity and industry type, could result in the heterogeneous implementation of the firm’s TQM program; consequently, the findings weakened the 'universal effectiveness of QM practices'.

  15. Neurological abnormalities and neurocognitive functions in healthy elder people: A structural equation modeling analysis

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    Chan Raymond CK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aims Neurological abnormalities have been reported in normal aging population. However, most of them were limited to extrapyramidal signs and soft signs such as motor coordination and sensory integration have received much less attention. Very little is known about the relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive function in healthy elder people. The current study aimed to examine the underlying relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognition in a group of healthy elderly. Methods One hundred and eighty healthy elderly participated in the current study. Neurological soft signs were evaluated with the subscales of Cambridge Neurological Inventory. A set of neurocognitive tests was also administered to all the participants. Structural equation modeling was adopted to examine the underlying relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognition. Results No significant differences were found between the male and female elder people in neurocognitive function performances and neurological soft signs. The model fitted well in the elderly and indicated the moderate associations between neurological soft signs and neurocognition, specifically verbal memory, visual memory and working memory. Conclusions The neurological soft signs are more or less statistically equivalent to capture the similar information done by conventional neurocognitive function tests in the elderly. The implication of these findings may serve as a potential neurological marker for the early detection of pathological aging diseases or related mental status such as mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Analysis on the public acceptance of nuclear energy using structural equation model with latent variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Eal

    1996-02-01

    Comparison of the effect of education and public information on the public acceptance of nuclear energy is carried out. For the increase of public acceptance, the correct understanding on the nuclear energy via proper regular school education would be the first basis and the appropriate public information services by utility and unbiased mass media would be the second basis. Subjects that which is more effect in education or information and how much effective quantitatively to improve the public acceptance are derived. Structural Equation Model (SEM) with Latent Variables (LVs) in social science to public attitudes towards nuclear energy is developed. Questionnaire is conducted to respondents who took part in the program of visiting the nuclear power plant opened by OKAEA in 1995. As a result of the analysis, effect of education for correct awareness of nuclear energy is more sensitive to public acceptance than that of information. It is shown that the susceptibility in education factor in influence of radiation on human body and that in information factor persons consider nuclear power plant as an environmental polluter. It is concluded that radiation treatment should be a 'Hand on Experience' and general principle of nuclear power generation should be contained in the educational text book. Education and information should not been independently performed but been carried out simultaneously and mutually aided. It is shown that this modeling approach is useful to make the decision for the long-term nuclear energy policy transparent and successful

  17. Connecting Athletes’ Self-Perceptions and Metaperceptions of Competence: a Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Jose A.; Fernández-Rio, Javier; Méndez-Giménez, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between athletes’ competence self-perceptions and metaperceptions. Two hundred and fifty one student-athletes (14.26 ± 1.89 years), members of twenty different teams (basketball, soccer) completed a questionnaire which included the Perception of Success Questionnaire, the Competence subscale of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory, and modified versions of both questionnaires to assess athletes’ metaperceptions. Structural equation modelling analysis revealed that athletes’ task and ego metaperceptions positively predicted task and ego self-perceptions, respectively. Competence metaperceptions were strong predictors of competence self-perceptions, confirming the atypical metaperception formation in outcome-dependent contexts such as sport. Task and ego metaperceptions positively predicted athletes’ competence metaperceptions. How coaches value their athletes’ competence is more influential on what the athletes think of themselves than their own self-perceptions. Athletes’ ego and task metaperceptions influenced their competence metaperceptions (how coaches rate their competence). Therefore, athletes build their competence metaperceptions using all information available from their coaches. Finally, only task-self perfections positively predicted athletes’ competence self-perceptions. PMID:26240662

  18. Nursing practice environment, job outcomes and safety climate: a structural equation modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Alves, Daniela Fernanda; da Silva, Dirceu; de Brito Guirardello, Edinêis

    2017-01-01

    To assess correlations between the characteristics of the nursing practice environment, job outcomes and safety climate. The nursing practice environment is critical to the well-being of professionals and to patient safety, as highlighted by national and international studies; however, there is a lack of evidence regarding this theme in paediatric units. A cross-sectional study, in two paediatric hospitals in Brazil, was conducted from December 2013 to February 2014. For data collection, we used the Nursing Work Index - Revised, Safety Attitudes Questionnaire - Short Form 2006 and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and for analysis Spearman's correlation coefficient and structural equation modelling were used. Two hundred and sixty-seven professional nurses participated in the study. Autonomy, control over the work environment and the relationship between nursing and medical staff are factors associated with job outcomes and safety climate and can be considered their predictors. Professional nurses with greater autonomy, good working relationships and control over their work environment have lower levels of emotional exhaustion, higher job satisfaction, less intention of leaving the job and the safety climate is positive. Initiatives to improve the professional practice environment can improve the safety of paediatric patients and the well-being of professional nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. PENGGUNAAN METODE STRUCTURAL EQUATION MODELLING UNTUK ANALISIS FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI MOTIVASI BELAJAR MAHASISWA FIP UMJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ririn Widiyasari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan yang ingin dicapai dalam penelitian ini adalah mengetahui faktor apa saja  yang mempengaruhi motivasi belajar mahasiswa, apakah terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan antara cara belajar, fasilitas belajar dan lingkungan belajar terhadap motivasi belajar mahasiswa, serta faktor mana yang paling berpengaruh terhadap motivasi belajar mahasiswa. Jumlah sampel dalam penelitian ini adalah 192 mahasiswa (FIP UMJ angkatan tahun 2013-2015 yang aktif mengikuti perkuliahan. Metode penelitian yang dilakukan adalah metode kuantitatif survey. Metode pengambilan data menggunakan  kuesioner dengan skala likert. Metode analisis data yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif, dan analisis  Structural Equation Modeling (SEM berbantuan program LISREL 8.3. Uji hipotesis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah uji Chi-square dan uji t. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel cara belajar memiliki kontribusi yang paling besar, selanjutnya variabel kedua yang berkontribusi meningkatkan motivasi belajar adalah lingkungan belajar dan terakhir fasilitas belajar memberikan pengaruh yang paling kecil terhadap motivasi belajar. Jadi, variabel laten cara belajar dan lingkungan belajar berpengaruh positif terhadap motivasi belajar dan fasilitas belajar berpengaruh negatif terhadap motivasi belajar.

  20. Pediatric health-related quality of life: a structural equation modeling approach.

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    Ester Villalonga-Olives

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: One of the most referenced theoretical frameworks to measure Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL is the Wilson and Cleary framework. With some adaptions this framework has been validated in the adult population, but has not been tested in pediatric populations. Our goal was to empirically investigate it in children. METHODS: The contributory factors to Health Related Quality of Life that we included were symptom status (presence of chronic disease or hospitalizations, functional status (developmental status, developmental aspects of the individual (social-emotional behavior, and characteristics of the social environment (socioeconomic status and area of education. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the measurement structure of the model in 214 German children (3-5 years old participating in a follow-up study that investigates pediatric health outcomes. RESULTS: Model fit was χ2 = 5.5; df = 6; p = 0.48; SRMR  = 0.01. The variance explained of Health Related Quality of Life was 15%. Health Related Quality of Life was affected by the area education (i.e. where kindergartens were located and development status. Developmental status was affected by the area of education, socioeconomic status and individual behavior. Symptoms did not affect the model. CONCLUSIONS: The goodness of fit and the overall variance explained were good. However, the results between children' and adults' tests differed and denote a conceptual gap between adult and children measures. Indeed, there is a lot of variety in pediatric Health Related Quality of Life measures, which represents a lack of a common definition of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life. We recommend that researchers invest time in the development of pediatric Health Related Quality of Life theory and theory based evaluations.

  1. An Analysis of Technology Acceptance in Turkey using Fuzzy Logic and Structural Equation Modelling

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    Bilgin Şenel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Technology is in a constant progress in the way of satisfying increasing human needs. This fact will hold true for the years to come. However, the level of adaptation to technological advancements varies greatly across countries. The pace of adjustment is directly proportional to the importance attached to and the funds allocated for this purpose. Despite the abundance of technological investments in Turkey in recent years, there are only a few studies analyzing the current level of individual interest in technology. This study therefore aims to determine the technology acceptance of Turkish people by using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM developed by Davis (1989 and to demonstrate the reasons to accept or not accept technology departing from the links between dimensions. While accomplishing this aim, Structural Equation Model (SEM that is a highly strong multivariable analysis technique that makes possible the evaluation of latent structures like psychosocial needs, and the Fuzzy Logic Theorem that provides strong and significant instruments for the measurement of ambiguities and provides the opportunity to meaningfully represent ambiguous concepts expressed in the natural language were used. According to the findings of this study, it was determined that the perceived ease of use is more influential in people’s acceptance of technology than the perceived usefulness is. It was also found that technology acceptance does not differ significantly at the statistical significance level of 0.05 with respect to the participants’ demographic characteristics (age, gender, education level, hometown etc.. In addition, analyses performed to define the relationships between the dimensions of the TAM yielded results that highly supported the TAM. In other words, the dimensions affect technology acceptance to positive and significant degrees

  2. Analysis of Gene Expression Variance in Schizophrenia Using Structural Equation Modeling

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    Anna A. Igolkina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SCZ is a psychiatric disorder of unknown etiology. There is evidence suggesting that aberrations in neurodevelopment are a significant attribute of schizophrenia pathogenesis and progression. To identify biologically relevant molecular abnormalities affecting neurodevelopment in SCZ we used cultured neural progenitor cells derived from olfactory neuroepithelium (CNON cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that variance in gene expression differs between individuals from SCZ and control groups. In CNON cells, variance in gene expression was significantly higher in SCZ samples in comparison with control samples. Variance in gene expression was enriched in five molecular pathways: serine biosynthesis, PI3K-Akt, MAPK, neurotrophin and focal adhesion. More than 14% of variance in disease status was explained within the logistic regression model (C-value = 0.70 by predictors accounting for gene expression in 69 genes from these five pathways. Structural equation modeling (SEM was applied to explore how the structure of these five pathways was altered between SCZ patients and controls. Four out of five pathways showed differences in the estimated relationships among genes: between KRAS and NF1, and KRAS and SOS1 in the MAPK pathway; between PSPH and SHMT2 in serine biosynthesis; between AKT3 and TSC2 in the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway; and between CRK and RAPGEF1 in the focal adhesion pathway. Our analysis provides evidence that variance in gene expression is an important characteristic of SCZ, and SEM is a promising method for uncovering altered relationships between specific genes thus suggesting affected gene regulation associated with the disease. We identified altered gene-gene interactions in pathways enriched for genes with increased variance in expression in SCZ. These pathways and loci were previously implicated in SCZ, providing further support for the hypothesis that gene expression variance plays important role in the etiology

  3. Influencing Factors and Consequences of Workplace Bullying among Nurses: A Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonyoung Yun, PhD, RN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to build and test a model outlining the factors related to workplace bullying among nurses. The hypothesized model included authentic leadership and a relationship-oriented organizational culture as influencing factors, symptom experience and turnover intention as consequences, and positive psychological capital as a mediator of workplace bullying among nurses. Methods: We obtained structured questionnaire data from 301 nurses working at hospitals in South Korea. Based on these data, the developed model was verified via a structural equation modeling analysis using SPSS and AMOS program. Results: The fit indices of the hypothesized model satisfied recommended levels; χ2 = 397.58 (p < .001, normed χ2 (χ2/df = 1.82, RMR = .05, TLI = .93, CFI = .94, RMSEA = .05. A relationship-oriented organizational culture had a direct effect on workplace bullying (β = −.48, p < .001. Furthermore, workplace bullying had a direct effect on symptom experience (β = .36, p < .001, and this relationship was mediated by positive psychological capital (β = .15, p = .003. Workplace bullying also had an indirect effect on turnover intention (β = .20, p = .007. Finally, symptom experience had a direct effect on turnover intention (β = .31, p = .002. Conclusion: These results suggest that workplace bullying among nurses may be prevented by constructing a relationship-oriented organizational culture, as long as employees have sufficient positive psychological capital. In this regard, workplace bullying among nurses should be addressed using a comprehensive strategy that considers both individual and organizational factors. Keywords: bullying, leadership, nurses, organizational culture, personnel turnover

  4. Factors affecting pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in community pharmacy: A structural equation modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitadpakorn S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of customer engagement and devotion has been applied in various service businesses to keep the customers with business However, a limited number of studies were performed to examine the context of customer engagement and devotion in pharmacy business which focus on the impact of customer perceptions about pharmacists, perceived quality of pharmacy structure, medication price strategy on pharmacy engagement and pharmacy customer devotion in a pharmacy providing pharmaceutical care to the customers. Objective: This study aimed to assess a conceptual model depicting the relationships among customer perceptions about pharmacists, pharmacy quality structure, medication price, customer engagement, and customer devotion. And also aimed to assess and measure if there is a direct or indirect relationship between these factors. Methods: A quantitative study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires. Two hundred and fifty three customers who regularly visited the pharmacy were randomly recruited from a purposively selected 30 community pharmacies in Bangkok. The survey was completed during February to April 2016. A structural equation model (SEM was used to assess the direct and indirect relationships between constructs. Results: A total of 253/300 questionnaires were returned for analysis, and the response rate was 84%. Only perceptions about pharmacist in customers receiving professional pharmacy services was statically significant regarding relationship with pharmacy engagement (beta=0.45. Concurrently, the model from empirical data fit with the hypothetical model (p-value = 0.06, adjusted chi-square (CMIN/DF=1.16, Goodness of Fit Index (GFI=0.93, Comparatively Fit Index (CFI=0.99, and Root Mean Square Error Approximation (RMSEA=0.03. Conclusion: The study confirmed the indirect positive influence of customer perceptions about pharmacist on pharmacy customer devotion in providing pharmacy services via pharmacy

  5. Envelope compact and solitary pattern structures for the GNLS(m,n,p,q) equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, to further understand the role of nonlinear dispersion in the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation, we introduce and study the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation with nonlinear dispersion (called GNLS(m,n,p,q) equation): iu t +a(u vertical bar u vertical bar n-1 ) xx +bu vertical bar u vertical bar m-1 +ic(u vertical bar u vertical bar p-1 ) xxx +id(u vertical bar u vertical bar q-1 ) x =0. Some new envelope compacton solutions and solitary pattern solutions of GNLS(m,n,p,q) equation are obtained via the gauge transformation and some direct ansatze. In particular, it is shown that GNLS(m,n,p,q) equation with linear dispersion gives rise to envelope compactons and solitary patterns, which implies that nonlinear dispersion is not necessary condition for GNLS(m,n,p,q) equation to admit envelope compactons and solitary patterns. Moreover, some unusually local conservation laws are presented for GNLS + (n,n,n,n) equation and GNLS - (n,n,n,n) equation, respectively

  6. Multi-matrix loop equations: algebraic and differential structures and an approximation based on deformation quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswami, Govind S.

    2006-01-01

    Large-N multi-matrix loop equations are formulated as quadratic difference equations in concatenation of gluon correlations. Though non-linear, they involve highest rank correlations linearly. They are underdetermined in many cases. Additional linear equations for gluon correlations, associated to symmetries of action and measure are found. Loop equations aren't differential equations as they involve left annihilation, which doesn't satisfy the Leibnitz rule with concatenation. But left annihilation is a derivation of the commutative shuffle product. Moreover shuffle and concatenation combine to define a bialgebra. Motivated by deformation quantization, we expand concatenation around shuffle in powers of q, whose physical value is 1. At zeroth order the loop equations become quadratic PDEs in the shuffle algebra. If the variation of the action is linear in iterated commutators of left annihilations, these quadratic PDEs linearize by passage to shuffle reciprocal of correlations. Remarkably, this is true for regularized versions of the Yang-Mills, Chern-Simons and Gaussian actions. But the linear equations are underdetermined just as the loop equations were. For any particular solution, the shuffle reciprocal is explicitly inverted to get the zeroth order gluon correlations. To go beyond zeroth order, we find a Poisson bracket on the shuffle algebra and associative q-products interpolating between shuffle and concatenation. This method, and a complementary one of deforming annihilation rather than product are shown to give over and underestimates for correlations of a gaussian matrix model

  7. Validation of the IHE Cohort Model of Type 2 Diabetes and the impact of choice of macrovascular risk equations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Lundqvist

    Full Text Available Health-economic models of diabetes are complex since the disease is chronic, progressive and there are many diabetic complications. External validation of these models helps building trust and satisfies demands from decision makers. We evaluated the external validity of the IHE Cohort Model of Type 2 Diabetes; the impact of using alternative macrovascular risk equations; and compared the results to those from microsimulation models.The external validity of the model was analysed from 12 clinical trials and observational studies by comparing 167 predicted microvascular, macrovascular and mortality outcomes to the observed study outcomes. Concordance was examined using visual inspection of scatterplots and regression-based analysis, where an intercept of 0 and a slope of 1 indicate perfect concordance. Additional subgroup analyses were conducted on 'dependent' vs. 'independent' endpoints and microvascular vs. macrovascular vs. mortality endpoints.Visual inspection indicates that the model predicts outcomes well. The UKPDS-OM1 equations showed almost perfect concordance with observed values (slope 0.996, whereas Swedish NDR (0.952 and UKPDS-OM2 (0.899 had a slight tendency to underestimate. The R2 values were uniformly high (>0.96. There were no major differences between 'dependent' and 'independent' outcomes, nor for microvascular and mortality outcomes. Macrovascular outcomes tended to be underestimated, most so for UKPDS-OM2 and least so for NDR risk equations.External validation indicates that the IHE Cohort Model of Type 2 Diabetes has predictive accuracy in line with microsimulation models, indicating that the trade-off in accuracy using cohort simulation might not be that large. While the choice of risk equations was seen to matter, each were associated with generally reasonable results, indicating that the choice must reflect the specifics of the application. The largest variation was observed for macrovascular outcomes. There, NDR

  8. Dynamic loads during failure risk assessment of bridge crane structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynin, A. D.; Antsev, V. Yu; Shaforost, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    The paper presents the method of failure risk assessment associated with a bridge crane metal structure at the design stage. It also justifies the necessity of taking into account dynamic loads with regard to the operational cycle of a bridge crane during failure risk assessment of its metal structure.

  9. On the prolongation structure and Backlund transformation for new non-linear Klein-Gordon equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Chowdhury, A.; Mukherjee, J.

    1986-07-01

    We have considered the complete integrability of two nonlinear equations which are some kind of extensions of usual Sine-Gordon and Sinh-Gordon equations. The first one is of non-autonomous version of Sinh-Gordon system and the second is closely related to the usual Sine-Gordon theory. The first problem indicates how (x,t) dependent non-linear equations can be treated in the prolongation theory and how a Backlund map can be constructed. The second one is a variation of the usual Sine-Gordon equation and suggests that there may be other equations (similar to Sine-Gordon) which are completely integrable. In both cases we have been able to construct the Lax pair. We then construct an auto-Backlund map by following the idea of Konno and Wadati, for the generation of multisolution states. (author)

  10. Heuristics structure and pervade formal risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Brian H

    2014-04-01

    Lay perceptions of risk appear rooted more in heuristics than in reason. A major concern of the risk regulation literature is that such "error-strewn" perceptions may be replicated in policy, as governments respond to the (mis)fears of the citizenry. This has led many to advocate a relatively technocratic approach to regulating risk, characterized by high reliance on formal risk and cost-benefit analysis. However, through two studies of chemicals regulation, we show that the formal assessment of risk is pervaded by its own set of heuristics. These include rules to categorize potential threats, define what constitutes valid data, guide causal inference, and to select and apply formal models. Some of these heuristics lay claim to theoretical or empirical justifications, others are more back-of-the-envelope calculations, while still more purport not to reflect some truth but simply to constrain discretion or perform a desk-clearing function. These heuristics can be understood as a way of authenticating or formalizing risk assessment as a scientific practice, representing a series of rules for bounding problems, collecting data, and interpreting evidence (a methodology). Heuristics are indispensable elements of induction. And so they are not problematic per se, but they can become so when treated as laws rather than as contingent and provisional rules. Pitfalls include the potential for systematic error, masking uncertainties, strategic manipulation, and entrenchment. Our central claim is that by studying the rules of risk assessment qua rules, we develop a novel representation of the methods, conventions, and biases of the prior art. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) for Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Ratings; Multiple Group Invariance Analysis across Scales with Different Response Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Mehrdad; Theuns, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluates three hypothesized models on subjective well-being, comprising life domain ratings (LDR), overall satisfaction with life (OSWL), and overall dissatisfaction with life (ODWL), using structural equation modeling (SEM). A sample of 1,310 volunteering students, randomly assigned to six conditions, rated their overall life…

  12. Regression Levels of Selected Affective Factors on Science Achievement: A Structural Equation Model with TIMSS 2011 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akilli, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate the science success regression levels of chosen emotional features of 8th grade students using Structural Equation Model. The study was conducted by the analysis of students' questionnaires and science success in TIMSS 2011 data using SEM. Initially, the factors that are thought to have an effect on science…

  13. Structural Equation Model of Smartphone Addiction Based on Adult Attachment Theory: Mediating Effects of Loneliness and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    EunYoung Kim, PhD; Inhyo Cho, PhD; Eun Joo Kim, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the mediating effects of loneliness and depression on the relationship between adult attachment and smartphone addiction in university students. Methods: A total of 200 university students participated in this study. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling. Results: There were significant positive relationships between attachment anxiety, loneliness, depression, and smartphone addiction. ...

  14. Study of Factors Preventing Children from Enrolment in Primary School in the Republic of Honduras: Analysis Using Structural Equation Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Studies have investigated factors that impede enrolment in Honduras. However, they have not analysed individual factors as a whole or identified the relationships among them. This study used longitudinal data for 1971 children who entered primary schools from 1986 to 2000, and employed structural equation modelling to examine the factors…

  15. Do Test Design and Uses Influence Test Preparation? Testing a Model of Washback with Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qin; Andrews, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This study introduces Expectancy-value motivation theory to explain the paths of influences from perceptions of test design and uses to test preparation as a special case of washback on learning. Based on this theory, two conceptual models were proposed and tested via Structural Equation Modeling. Data collection involved over 870 test takers of…

  16. Patient Safety and Satisfaction Drivers in Emergency Departments Re-visited - An Empirical Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Christian Michel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    are entitled safety and satisfaction, waiting time, information delivery, and infrastructure accordingly. As an empirical foundation, a recently published comprehensive survey in 11 Danish EDs is analysed in depth using structural equation modeling (SEM). Consulting the proposed framework, ED decision makers...

  17. Perceived Social Relationships and Science Learning Outcomes for Taiwanese Eighth Graders: Structural Equation Modeling with a Complex Sampling Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Tsung-Hau; Lee, Che-Di; Chien, Chin-Lung; Hsu, Ying-Shao; Chen, Kuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study 2007 study and a follow-up national survey, data for 3,901 Taiwanese grade 8 students were analyzed using structural equation modeling to confirm a social-relation-based affection-driven model (SRAM). SRAM hypothesized relationships among students' perceived social relationships in…

  18. Toward a muon-specific electronic structure theory: effective electronic Hartree-Fock equations for muonic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayka, Milad; Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant

    2018-02-07

    An effective set of Hartree-Fock (HF) equations are derived for electrons of muonic systems, i.e., molecules containing a positively charged muon, conceiving the muon as a quantum oscillator, which are completely equivalent to the usual two-component HF equations used to derive stationary states of the muonic molecules. In these effective equations, a non-Coulombic potential is added to the orthodox coulomb and exchange potential energy terms, which describes the interaction of the muon and the electrons effectively and is optimized during the self-consistent field cycles. While in the two-component HF equations a muon is treated as a quantum particle, in the effective HF equations it is absorbed into the effective potential and practically transformed into an effective potential field experienced by electrons. The explicit form of the effective potential depends on the nature of muon's vibrations and is derivable from the basis set used to expand the muonic spatial orbital. The resulting effective Hartree-Fock equations are implemented computationally and used successfully, as a proof of concept, in a series of muonic molecules containing all atoms from the second and third rows of the Periodic Table. To solve the algebraic version of the equations muon-specific Gaussian basis sets are designed for both muon and surrounding electrons and it is demonstrated that the optimized exponents are quite distinct from those derived for the hydrogen isotopes. The developed effective HF theory is quite general and in principle can be used for any muonic system while it is the starting point for a general effective electronic structure theory that incorporates various types of quantum correlations into the muonic systems beyond the HF equations.

  19. Financing Structure and Liquidity Risk: Lesson from Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul-Rahman Aisyah

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between financing structure and bank liquidity risk. We compare the findings between Islamic and conventional banks for the case of Malaysia. We adopt four measures to represent financing structure; namely 1 real estate financing, 2 financing concentration, 3 stability of short-term financing structure and 4 stability of medium-term financing structure. Two BASEL III liquidity risk measures are tested; namely, liquidity coverage ratio (LCR and the net stable funding ratio (NSFR to measure short- and long-term liquidity risk, respectively. Based on panel data regression comprising 27 conventional and 17 Islamic banks from 1994 to 2014, our findings show that real estate financing and stability of short-term financing structure for Islamic banks are positively related to both liquidity risk measures. This implies that an increasing number of real estate financing and a stable short-term financing structure may increase Islamic banks’ short- and long-term liquidity risks. However, although real estate financing does not affect conventional banks’ liquidity risks, a stable short-term financing structure and increasing financing concentration can positively influence bank long-term liquidity risk. Our findings shed light crucial policy implications for regulatory bodies and market players in the context of liquidity risk management framework as well as the need to develop a separate framework between conventional and Islamic banking institutions.

  20. Soliton-like structures and the connection between the Bq and KP equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, J.; Agueero, Maximo A.; Flores-Romero, Erick

    2003-01-01

    We study the (2+1)-dimensional model proposed by Kadomtsev and Petviashvili (KP) to describe slowly varying nonlinear waves in a dispersive medium. Applying an appropriate Lie transformation and following the method introduced by Tajiri et al., the KP equation is reduced to a one-dimensional equation, that is, to a certain version of the Boussinesq equation (BqE). Then, we solve the BqE by the Hirota method, and finally we use the inverse transformation in order to obtain de KP solutions. We analyze some remarkable properties of the solutions found in this work

  1. Soliton-like structures and the connection between the Bq and KP equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bernal, J; Flores-Romero, E

    2003-01-01

    We study the (2+1)-dimensional model proposed by Kadomtsev and Petviashvili (KP) to describe slowly varying nonlinear waves in a dispersive medium. Applying an appropriate Lie transformation and following the method introduced by Tajiri et al., the KP equation is reduced to a one-dimensional equation, that is, to a certain version of the Boussinesq equation (BqE). Then, we solve the BqE by the Hirota method, and finally we use the inverse transformation in order to obtain de KP solutions. We analyze some remarkable properties of the solutions found in this work.

  2. Relationship between Temperament, Depression, Anxiety, and Hopelessness in Adolescents: A Structural Equation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Iliceto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the validity of affective temperaments for predicting psychiatric morbidity and suicide risk, using a two-factor model to explain the relationships between temperament, anxiety, depression, and hopelessness. We investigated 210 high school students, 103 males and 107 females, 18-19 years old, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess temperament (TEMPS-A, depression (BDI-II, anxiety (STAI and hopelessness (BHS. The final structural model had a good fit with the data, with two factors significantly correlated, the first labeled unstable cyclothymic temperament including Dysthymic/Cyclothymic/Anxious temperament, Irritable temperament and Depression, and the second labeled Demoralization including Anxiety (State/Trait and Hopelessness. Depression, anxiety and hopelessness are in a complex relationship partly mediated by temperament.

  3. Role of transformational leadership on employee productivity of teaching hospitals: using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Soudabeh; Alirezaei, Samira; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mirbahaeddin, Seyyed Elmira; Alikhani, Mahtab; Alipanah, Mobarakeh

    2017-01-01

    Background In today’s transforming world, increased productivity and efficient use of existing facilities are practically beyond a choice and become a necessity. In this line, attention to change and transformation is one of the affecting factors on the growth of productivity in organizations, especially in hospitals. Aim To examine the effect of transformational leadership on the productivity of employees in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 participants from educational and medical centers affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) in 2016. The standard questionnaires of Bass & Avolio and of Hersi & Goldsmith were used to respectively assess transformational leadership and level of productivity. The research assumptions were tested in a significance level of 0.05 by applying descriptive statistics and structural equations modeling (SEM) using SPSS 19 and Amos 24. Results Results of the fitting indicators of the assessing model after amending includes Chi-square two to degrees of freedom of 2.756, CFI indicator 0.95, IFI indicator 0.92, Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) indicator 0.10. These results indicate that the assessing model is well fitting after the amendment. Also, analysis of the model’s assumptions and the final model of the research reveals the effect of transformational leadership on employees’ productivity with a significance level of 0.83 (p=0.001). Conclusion This research indicates that the more the leadership and decision-making style in hospitals lean towards transformational mode, the more positive outcomes it brings among employees and the organization due to increased productivity. Therefore, it is essential to pay focused attention to training/educational programs in organizations to create and encourage transformational leadership behaviors which hopefully lead to more productive employees. PMID:28979731

  4. Role of transformational leadership on employee productivity of teaching hospitals: using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Soudabeh; Alirezaei, Samira; Khosravizadeh, Omid; Mirbahaeddin, Seyyed Elmira; Alikhani, Mahtab; Alipanah, Mobarakeh

    2017-08-01

    In today's transforming world, increased productivity and efficient use of existing facilities are practically beyond a choice and become a necessity. In this line, attention to change and transformation is one of the affecting factors on the growth of productivity in organizations, especially in hospitals. To examine the effect of transformational leadership on the productivity of employees in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 254 participants from educational and medical centers affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences (Tehran, Iran) in 2016. The standard questionnaires of Bass & Avolio and of Hersi & Goldsmith were used to respectively assess transformational leadership and level of productivity. The research assumptions were tested in a significance level of 0.05 by applying descriptive statistics and structural equations modeling (SEM) using SPSS 19 and Amos 24. Results of the fitting indicators of the assessing model after amending includes Chi-square two to degrees of freedom of 2.756, CFI indicator 0.95, IFI indicator 0.92, Root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) indicator 0.10. These results indicate that the assessing model is well fitting after the amendment. Also, analysis of the model's assumptions and the final model of the research reveals the effect of transformational leadership on employees' productivity with a significance level of 0.83 (p=0.001). This research indicates that the more the leadership and decision-making style in hospitals lean towards transformational mode, the more positive outcomes it brings among employees and the organization due to increased productivity. Therefore, it is essential to pay focused attention to training/educational programs in organizations to create and encourage transformational leadership behaviors which hopefully lead to more productive employees.

  5. Clinical and microperimetric predictors of reading speed in low vision patients: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Giovanni; Virgili, Gianni; Giansanti, Fabrizio; Sato, Giovanni; Cappello, Ezio; Cruciani, Filippo; Varano, Monica; Menchini, Ugo

    2013-06-27

    To investigate the simultaneous association of several psychophysical measures with reading ability in patients with mild and moderate low vision attending rehabilitation services. Standard measurements of reading ability (Minnesota Reading [MNREAD] charts), visual acuity (Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] charts), contrast sensitivity (Pelli-Robson charts), reading contrast threshold (Reading Explorer [REX] charts), retinal sensitivity, and fixation stability and localization (Micro Perimeter 1 [MP1] fundus perimetry) were obtained in 160 low vision patients with better eye visual acuity ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution and affected by either age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. All variables were moderately associated with reading performance measures (MNREAD reading speed and reading acuity and REX reading contrast threshold), as well as among each other. In a structural equation model, REX reading contrast threshold was highly associated with MNREAD reading speed (standardized coefficient, 0.63) and moderately associated with reading acuity (standardized coefficient, -0.30). REX test also mediated the effects of Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (standardized coefficient, 0.44), MP1 fixation eccentricity (standardized coefficient, -0.19), and the mean retinal sensitivity (standardized coefficient, 0.23) on reading performance. The MP1 fixation stability was associated with both MNREAD reading acuity (standardized coefficient, -0.24) and MNREAD reading speed (standardized coefficient, 0.23), while ETDRS visual acuity only affected reading acuity (standardized coefficient, 0.44). Fixation instability and contrast sensitivity loss are key factors limiting reading performance of patients with mild or moderate low vision. REX charts directly assess the impact of text contrast on letter recognition and text navigation and may be a useful aid in reading rehabilitation.

  6. Examining the Link between Patient Satisfaction and Adherence to HIV Care: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bich N.; Westbrook, Robert A.; Black, William C.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Analogous to the business model of customer satisfaction and retention, patient satisfaction could serve as an innovative, patient-centered focus for increasing retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, and ultimately HIV suppression. Objective To test, through structural equation modeling (SEM), a model of HIV suppression in which patient satisfaction influences HIV suppression indirectly through retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults receiving HIV care at two clinics in Texas. Patient satisfaction was based on two validated items, one adapted from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey (“Would you recommend this clinic to other patients with HIV?) and one adapted from the Delighted-Terrible Scale, (“Overall, how do you feel about the care you got at this clinic in the last 12 months?”). A validated, single-item question measured adherence to HAART over the past 4 weeks. Retention in HIV care was based on visit constancy in the year prior to the survey. HIV suppression was defined as plasma HIV RNA patient satisfaction score had a mean of 8.5 (median 9.2) on a 0- to 10- point scale. A total of 46% reported “excellent” adherence, 76% had adequate retention, and 70% had HIV suppression. In SEM analyses, patient satisfaction with care influences retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, which in turn serve as key determinants of HIV suppression (all pPatient satisfaction may have direct effects on retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. Interventions to improve the care experience, without necessarily targeting objective clinical performance measures, could serve as an innovative method for optimizing HIV outcomes. PMID:23382948

  7. Forest owner representation of forest management and perception of resource efficiency: a structural equation modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ficko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Underuse of nonindustrial private forests in developed countries has been interpreted mostly as a consequence of the prevailing noncommodity objectives of their owners. Recent empirical studies have indicated a correlation between the harvesting behavior of forest owners and the specific conceptualization of appropriate forest management described as "nonintervention" or "hands-off" management. We aimed to fill the huge gap in knowledge of social representations of forest management in Europe and are the first to be so rigorous in eliciting forest owner representations in Europe. We conducted 3099 telephone interviews with randomly selected forest owners in Slovenia, asking them whether they thought they managed their forest efficiently, what the possible reasons for underuse were, and what they understood by forest management. Building on social representations theory and applying a series of structural equation models, we tested the existence of three latent constructs of forest management and estimated whether and how much these constructs correlated to the perception of resource efficiency. Forest owners conceptualized forest management as a mixture of maintenance and ecosystem-centered and economics-centered management. None of the representations had a strong association with the perception of resource efficiency, nor could it be considered a factor preventing forest owners from cutting more. The underuse of wood resources was mostly because of biophysical constraints in the environment and not a deep-seated philosophical objection to harvesting. The difference between our findings and other empirical studies is primarily explained by historical differences in forestland ownership in different parts of Europe and the United States, the rising number of nonresidential owners, alternative lifestyle, and environmental protectionism, but also as a consequence of our high methodological rigor in testing the relationships between the constructs

  8. Inference of gene regulatory networks with sparse structural equation models exploiting genetic perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Cai

    Full Text Available Integrating genetic perturbations with gene expression data not only improves accuracy of regulatory network topology inference, but also enables learning of causal regulatory relations between genes. Although a number of methods have been developed to integrate both types of data, the desiderata of efficient and powerful algorithms still remains. In this paper, sparse structural equation models (SEMs are employed to integrate both gene expression data and cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL, for modeling gene regulatory networks in accordance with biological evidence about genes regulating or being regulated by a small number of genes. A systematic inference method named sparsity-aware maximum likelihood (SML is developed for SEM estimation. Using simulated directed acyclic or cyclic networks, the SML performance is compared with that of two state-of-the-art algorithms: the adaptive Lasso (AL based scheme, and the QTL-directed dependency graph (QDG method. Computer simulations demonstrate that the novel SML algorithm offers significantly better performance than the AL-based and QDG algorithms across all sample sizes from 100 to 1,000, in terms of detection power and false discovery rate, in all the cases tested that include acyclic or cyclic networks of 10, 30 and 300 genes. The SML method is further applied to infer a network of 39 human genes that are related to the immune function and are chosen to have a reliable eQTL per gene. The resulting network consists of 9 genes and 13 edges. Most of the edges represent interactions reasonably expected from experimental evidence, while the remaining may just indicate the emergence of new interactions. The sparse SEM and efficient SML algorithm provide an effective means of exploiting both gene expression and perturbation data to infer gene regulatory networks. An open-source computer program implementing the SML algorithm is freely available upon request.

  9. Smart phone Acceptance among physicians: Application of structural equation modeling in Iranian largest university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollahi M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to determine attitudes and effective factors in the acceptance of smart phones by physicians of the largest University of Medical Sciences in the south of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM in 2014. Study participants included 200 physicians working in the hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through two-stage stratified sampling, but 185 participants completed the study. The study data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire completed through a 5-point Likert scale. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a panel of experts, its construct validity by confirmatory factor analysis, and its reliability by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.802. All data analyses were performed using SPSS (version 22 and LISREL (version 8.8. Results: Results showed that most physicians had a desirable attitude towards using smart phones. Besides, the results of SEM indicated a significant relationship between attitude and compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness. Moreover, some important fitness indices revealed appropriate fitness of the study model (p=0.26, X2 /df=1.35, RMR=0.070, GFI=0.77, AGFI=0.71, NNFI=0.93, CFI=0.94. Conclusion: The results revealed that compatibility, observability, personal experience, voluntariness of use and perceived usefulness were effective in the physicians’ attitude towards using smart phones. Thus, by preparation of the required infrastructures, policymakers in the field of health technology can enhance the utilization of smart phones in hospitals.

  10. Equation of state for sub-stoichiometric urania using significant structures theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Significant Structures Theory (SST) by Eyring was successfully used to predict the equation of state in the liquid range for a variety of materials, including UO 2 . However, all these applications assumed that the liquid evaporates congruently i.e. the composition of the vapor phase is identical to that of the condensed phase. In this paper, an attempt is made to apply SST to non-congruently evaporating materials, using hypo-stoichiometric urania as an example. To this end, additional hypotheses to those of the original SST must be made. In the SST, it is assumed that the partition function of the liquid can be expressed by suitably combining that of 'solidlike molecules', and of 'gaslike molecules'. In the present work, starting from the fact that non-stoichiometry of solid urania is connected with lattice defects (e.g. oxygen interstitials or oxygen vacancies), it is assumed that a simple oxygen defect model can be extrapolated into the liquid state. Thus, the solidlike partition function includes a defect term, which determines the O/U; the defect concentration depends on the absolute activity of oxygen. The gaslike partition function allows for UO(g) and UO 2 (g), the ratio depending also on the oxygen activity. The parameters of the theory are selected such as to obtain agreement with experimental data at the melting point. The physical requirement that the difference between liquid and gas disappears at the critical temperature necessitates an adjustment of the solidlike partition function at high temperatures. (orig.) [de

  11. Relationships between hormones and aggressive behavior in green anole lizards: an analysis using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Wilczynski, Walter

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between aggressive behavior and circulating androgens in the context of agonistic social interaction and examined the effect of this interaction on the androgen-aggression relationship in response to a subsequent social challenge in male Anolis carolinensis lizards. Individuals comprising an aggressive encounter group were exposed to an aggressive conspecific male for 10 min per day during a 5-day encounter period, while controls were exposed to a neutral stimulus for the same period. On the sixth day, their responses to an intruder test were observed. At intervals, individuals were sacrificed to monitor plasma androgen levels. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test three a priori interaction models of the relationship between social stimulus, aggressive behavior, and androgen. Model 1 posits that exposure to a social stimulus influences androgen and aggressive behavior independently. In Model 2, a social stimulus triggers aggressive behavior, which in turn increases circulating levels of androgen. In Model 3, exposure to a social stimulus influences circulating androgen levels, which in turn triggers aggressive behavior. During the 5 days of the encounter period, circulating testosterone (T) levels of the aggressive encounter group followed the same pattern as their aggressive behavioral responses, while the control group did not show significant changes in their aggressive behavior or T level. Our SEM results supported Model 2. A means analysis showed that during the intruder test, animals with 5 days of aggressive encounters showed more aggressive responses than did control animals, while their circulating androgen levels did not differ. This further supports Model 2, suggesting that an animal's own aggressive behavior may trigger increases in levels of plasma androgen. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA)

  12. Structural Equation Model for Evaluating Factors Affecting Quality of Social Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Hussain

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the constructed social infrastructure project has been considered a necessary measure for the sustainability of projects. Studies on factors affecting project quality have used various techniques and methods to explain the relationships between particular variables. Unexpectedly, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM has acquired very little concern in factors affecting project quality studies. To address this limitation in the body of knowledge, the objective of this study was to apply the SEM approach and build a model that explained and identified the critical factors affecting quality in social infrastructure projects. The authors developed a quantitative approach using smart-PLS version 3.2.7. This study shed light on the views of different experts based on their experience in public construction projects in Pakistan. Particularly, the authors aimed to find out the relationships between construction, stakeholders, materials, design, and external factors, and how these relate to project quality. The findings of this study revealed that the R2 value of the model was scored at 0.749, which meant that the five exogenous latent constructs collectively explained 74.9% of the variance in project quality. The Goodness-of-Fit of the model was 0.458. The construction related factor was the most important out of the five constructs. This study determined that better planning and monitoring and evaluation should be developed to better address and control the quality defects by decision-makers, project managers as well as contractors. These findings might support practitioners and decision makers to focus on quality related problems that might occur in their current or future projects.

  13. Assessing overall patient satisfaction in inflammatory bowel disease using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, João-Bruno; Marinho, Ana S; Fernandes, Dália; Moreira Gonçalves, Bruno; Camila-Dias, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Raquel; Magro, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a very popular data-analytic technique for the evaluation of customer satisfaction. We aimed to measure the overall satisfaction of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients with healthcare in Portugal and to define its main determinants using SEM. The study included three steps: (i) specification of a patient satisfaction model that included the following dimensions: Image, Expectations, Facilities, Admission process, Assistant staff, Nursing staff, Medical staff, Treatment, Inpatient care, Outpatient care, Overall quality, Overall satisfaction, and Loyalty; (ii) sample survey from 2000 patients, members of the Portuguese Association of the IBD; and (iii) estimation of the satisfaction model using partial least squares (XLSTAT-PLSPM). We received 498 (25%) valid questionnaires from 324 (66%) patients with Crohn's disease and 162 (33%) patients with ulcerative colitis. Our model provided a substantial explanation for Overall satisfaction (R=0.82). The mean index of overall satisfaction was 74.4 (0-100 scale). The main determinants of Overall satisfaction were the Image (β=0.26), Outpatient care (β=0.23), and Overall quality (β=0.21), whose mean indices were 83, 75, and 81, respectively. Facilities and Inpatient care were the variables with a significant impact on Overall satisfaction and the worst mean indices. SEM is useful for the evaluation of IBD patient satisfaction. The Overall satisfaction of IBD patients with healthcare in Portugal is good, but to increase it, IBD services need to focus on the improvement of Outpatient care, Facilities, and Inpatient care. Our model could be a matrix for a global model of IBD patient satisfaction.

  14. The interplay between diabetes, depression and affective temperaments: A structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvederi Murri, Martino; Mamberto, Sara; Briatore, Lucia; Mazzucchelli, Chiara; Amore, Mario; Cordera, Renzo

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes and depression are reciprocally linked, but few studies modeled their interplay considering the influence of affective temperaments (AT) and demographic factors. Participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes (T1DM and T2DM, n=279) recruited from Diabetes Units were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego-autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A), Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS), Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) and Cumulative Illness Rating Scales (CIRS). Glycosylated hemoglobin levels (HBA1C) was used as index of glycemic control. The bi-directional association between glycemic control, depression and candidate mediators was examined with Structural Equation Modeling, testing the impact of moderator variables (AT, diabetes type, age and gender) with multigroup comparison. The association between HBA1C and depressive symptoms was mediated by diabetes-related distress,, while there was no definite evidence of depression influencing HBA1C through changes of adherence, tiredness, appetite, alcohol intake or smoking. Among individuals with AT, distress was unrelated to HBA1C and had a higher impact on depression; adherence was inversely association with HBA1C. Moreover, physical comorbidities impacted on depression. While diabetes type had a moderation role, age and gender did not affect the model. Cross sectional design, lack of objective measures of diet and physical activity. Glycemic control seem to influence the severity of depressive symptoms, but the reciprocal association seems non-significant. AT and diabetes type may shape this relationship influencing distress and adherence to medications. Findings may aid interventions aimed at improving patients' care and quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurocognition, insight and medication nonadherence in schizophrenia: a structural equation modeling approach.

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    Laurent Boyer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the complex relationships among neurocognition, insight and nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Diagnosis of schizophrenia according to the DSM-IV-TR criteria. DATA COLLECTION: Neurocognition was assessed using a global approach that addressed memory, attention, and executive functions; insight was analyzed using the multidimensional 'Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder;' and nonadherence was measured using the multidimensional 'Medication Adherence Rating Scale.' ANALYSIS: Structural equation modeling (SEM was applied to examine the non-straightforward relationships among the following latent variables: neurocognition, 'awareness of positive symptoms' and 'negative symptoms', 'awareness of mental disorder' and nonadherence. RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-nine patients were enrolled. The final testing model showed good fit, with normed χ(2 = 1.67, RMSEA = 0.063, CFI = 0.94, and SRMR = 0.092. The SEM revealed significant associations between (1 neurocognition and 'awareness of symptoms,' (2 'awareness of symptoms' and 'awareness of mental disorder' and (3 'awareness of mental disorder' and nonadherence, mainly in the 'attitude toward taking medication' dimension. In contrast, there were no significant links between neurocognition and nonadherence, neurocognition and 'awareness of mental disorder,' and 'awareness of symptoms' and nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the hypothesis that neurocognition influences 'awareness of symptoms,' which must be integrated into a higher level of insight (i.e., the 'awareness of mental disorder' to have an impact on nonadherence. These findings have important implications for the development of effective strategies to enhance medication adherence.

  16. Cognitive indicators of social anxiety in youth: a structural equation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, Brittany M; Davis, Thompson E; Matthews, Russell A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated significant relationships among various cognitive variables such as negative cognition, self-efficacy, and social anxiety. Unfortunately, few studies focus on the role of cognition among youth, and researchers often fail to use domain-specific measures when examining cognitive variables. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to examine domain-specific cognitive variables (i.e., socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social self-efficacy) and their relationships to social anxiety in children and adolescents using structural equation modeling techniques. A community sample of children and adolescents (n=245; 55.9% female; 83.3% Caucasian, 9.4% African American, 2% Asian, 2% Hispanic, 2% "other," and 1.2% not reported) completed questionnaires assessing social cognition and social anxiety symptomology. Three latent variables were created to examine the constructs of socially oriented negative self-referent cognition (as measured by the SONAS scale), social self-efficacy (as measured by the SEQSS-C), and social anxiety (as measured by the SPAI-C and the Brief SA). The resulting measurement model of latent variables fit the data well. Additionally, consistent with the study hypothesis, results indicated that social self-efficacy likely mediates the relationship between socially oriented negative self-referent cognition and social anxiety, and socially oriented negative self-referent cognition yields significant direct and indirect effects on social anxiety. These findings indicate that socially oriented negative cognitions are associated with youth's beliefs about social abilities and the experience of social anxiety. Future directions for research and study limitations, including use of cross-sectional data, are discussed. © 2013.

  17. Does the interpersonal model apply across eating disorder diagnostic groups? A structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Iryna V; Tasca, Giorgio A; Proulx, Geneviève; Bissada, Hany

    2015-11-01

    Interpersonal model has been validated with binge-eating disorder (BED), but it is not yet known if the model applies across a range of eating disorders (ED). The goal of this study was to investigate the validity of the interpersonal model in anorexia nervosa (restricting type; ANR and binge-eating/purge type; ANBP), bulimia nervosa (BN), BED, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS). Data from a cross-sectional sample of 1459 treatment-seeking women diagnosed with ANR, ANBP, BN, BED and EDNOS were examined for indirect effects of interpersonal problems on ED psychopathology mediated through negative affect. Findings from structural equation modeling demonstrated the mediating role of negative affect in four of the five diagnostic groups. There were significant, medium to large (.239, .558), indirect effects in the ANR, BN, BED and EDNOS groups but not in the ANBP group. The results of the first reverse model of interpersonal problems as a mediator between negative affect and ED psychopathology were nonsignificant, suggesting the specificity of these hypothesized paths. However, in the second reverse model ED psychopathology was related to interpersonal problems indirectly through negative affect. This is the first study to find support for the interpersonal model of ED in a clinical sample of women with diverse ED diagnoses, though there may be a reciprocal relationship between ED psychopathology and relationship problems through negative affect. Negative affect partially explains the relationship between interpersonal problems and ED psychopathology in women diagnosed with ANR, BN, BED and EDNOS. Interpersonal psychotherapies for ED may be addressing the underlying interpersonal-affective difficulties, thereby reducing ED psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Modeling of Structural Equation Teachers’ Job satisfaction in Agricultural High School, Mazandaran Province, Iran

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    M. Alikhani Dadoukolaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a positive or pleasant emotional state resulting from a person’s appreciation of his/her own job or experience. The study purpose was to model job satisfaction for teachers working in Agricultural institutes within Mazandaran province of Iran. The study used a descriptive-correlative design . The statistical population (including all instructors working for agricultural Institutes within Mazandaran Province of Iran was es 127 teachers. Using Cochran’s formula, the sample size was estimated at 85 teachers. To increase the viability of the study, the planned sample size was determined att 110 teachers from which 108 teachers completed the questionnaires. The study was conducted using questionnaire. The content validity of the questionnaire was assessed by a group of extension specialists. In order to measure the reliability of research questionnaires, 29 teachers who were randomly selected. completed some questionnaires. Cronbach's alpha, ordinal theta and combination reliability were calculated by 0.95, 0.92 and 0.87 respectively. The results indicate that the magnitude of job satisfaction for %85.2 of instructors working in Agricultural institutes within Mazandaran province was moderate and relatively high. Based on the estimated Structural equation model, the highest effect on the job satisfaction was related to the environmental factor with the path coefficient of 0.64. Motivational factor with the path coefficient of 0.26 had a significant effect on job satisfaction. In addition, the environmental factor with the path coefficient of 0.55 had a significant effect on the Motivational factor.

  19. Factors contributing to academic achievement: a Bayesian structure equation modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh Najafabadi, Amir T.; Omidi Najafabadi, Maryam; Farid-Rohani, Mohammad Reza

    2013-06-01

    In Iran, high school graduates enter university after taking a very difficult entrance exam called the Konkoor. Therefore, only the top-performing students are admitted by universities to continue their bachelor's education in statistics. Surprisingly, statistically, most of such students fall into the following categories: (1) do not succeed in their education despite their excellent performance on the Konkoor and in high school; (2) graduate with a grade point average (GPA) that is considerably lower than their high school GPA; (3) continue their master's education in majors other than statistics and (4) try to find jobs unrelated to statistics. This article employs the well-known and powerful statistical technique, the Bayesian structural equation modelling (SEM), to study the academic success of recent graduates who have studied statistics at Shahid Beheshti University in Iran. This research: (i) considered academic success as a latent variable, which was measured by GPA and other academic success (see below) of students in the target population; (ii) employed the Bayesian SEM, which works properly for small sample sizes and ordinal variables; (iii), which is taken from the literature, developed five main factors that affected academic success and (iv) considered several standard psychological tests and measured characteristics such as 'self-esteem' and 'anxiety'. We then study the impact of such factors on the academic success of the target population. Six factors that positively impact student academic success were identified in the following order of relative impact (from greatest to least): 'Teaching-Evaluation', 'Learner', 'Environment', 'Family', 'Curriculum' and 'Teaching Knowledge'. Particularly, influential variables within each factor have also been noted.

  20. Inferring transcriptional compensation interactions in yeast via stepwise structure equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Woei-Fuh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the abundant information produced by microarray technology, various approaches have been proposed to infer transcriptional regulatory networks. However, few approaches have studied subtle and indirect interaction such as genetic compensation, the existence of which is widely recognized although its mechanism has yet to be clarified. Furthermore, when inferring gene networks most models include only observed variables whereas latent factors, such as proteins and mRNA degradation that are not measured by microarrays, do participate in networks in reality. Results Motivated by inferring transcriptional compensation (TC interactions in yeast, a stepwise structural equation modeling algorithm (SSEM is developed. In addition to observed variables, SSEM also incorporates hidden variables to capture interactions (or regulations from latent factors. Simulated gene networks are used to determine with which of six possible model selection criteria (MSC SSEM works best. SSEM with Bayesian information criterion (BIC results in the highest true positive rates, the largest percentage of correctly predicted interactions from all existing interactions, and the highest true negative (non-existing interactions rates. Next, we apply SSEM using real microarray data to infer TC interactions among (1 small groups of genes that are synthetic sick or lethal (SSL to SGS1, and (2 a group of SSL pairs of 51 yeast genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair that are of interest. For (1, SSEM with BIC is shown to outperform three Bayesian network algorithms and a multivariate autoregressive model, checked against the results of qRT-PCR experiments. The predictions for (2 are shown to coincide with several known pathways of Sgs1 and its partners that are involved in DNA replication, recombination and repair. In addition, experimentally testable interactions of Rad27 are predicted. Conclusion SSEM is a useful tool for inferring genetic networks, and the

  1. A structural equation model of the relationship between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Scott

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence points to relationships between insomnia, negative affect, and paranoid thinking. However, studies are needed to examine (i whether negative affect mediates the relation between insomnia and paranoid thinking, (ii whether different types of insomnia exert different effects on paranoia, and (iii to compare the impact of objective and self-reported sleeping difficulties.Structural equation modelling was therefore used to test competing models of the relationships between self-reported insomnia, negative affect, and paranoia. n = 348 participants completed measures of insomnia, negative affect and paranoia. A subset of these participants (n = 91 went on to monitor their sleep objectively (using a portable sleep monitor made by Zeo for seven consecutive nights. Associations between objectively recorded sleep, negative affect, and paranoia were explored using linear regression.The findings supported a fully mediated model where self-reported delayed sleep onset, but not self-reported problems with sleep maintenance or objective measures of sleep, was directly associated with negative affect that, in turn, was associated with paranoia. There was no evidence of a direct association between delayed sleep onset or sleep maintenance problems and paranoia.Taken together, the findings point to an association between perceived (but not objective difficulties initially falling asleep (but not maintaining sleep and paranoid thinking; a relationship that is fully mediated by negative affect. Future research should seek to disentangle the causal relationships between sleep, negative affect, and paranoia (e.g., by examining the effect of an intervention using prospective designs that incorporate experience sampling. Indeed, interventions might profitably target (i perceived sleep quality, (ii sleep onset, and / or (iii emotion regulation as a route to reducing negative affect and, thus, paranoid thinking.

  2. Food Insecurity and Common Mental Disorders among Ethiopian Youth: Structural Equation Modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulusew G Jebena

    Full Text Available Although the consequences of food insecurity on physical health and nutritional status of youth living have been reported, its effect on their mental health remains less investigated in developing countries. The aim of this study was to examine the pathways through which food insecurity is associated with poor mental health status among youth living in Ethiopia.We used data from Jimma Longitudinal Family Survey of Youth (JLFSY collected in 2009/10. A total of 1,521 youth were included in the analysis. We measured food insecurity using a 5-items scale and common mental disorders using the 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20. Structural and generalized equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation method was used to analyze the data.The prevalence of common mental disorders was 30.8% (95% CI: 28.6, 33.2. Food insecurity was independently associated with common mental disorders (β = 0.323, P<0.05. Most (91.8% of the effect of food insecurity on common mental disorders was direct and only 8.2% of their relationship was partially mediated by physical health. In addition, poor self-rated health (β = 0.285, P<0.05, high socioeconomic status (β = -0.076, P<0.05, parental education (β = 0.183, P<0.05, living in urban area (β = 0.139, P<0.05, and female-headed household (β = 0.192, P<0.05 were associated with common mental disorders.Food insecurity is directly associated with common mental disorders among youth in Ethiopia. Interventions that aim to improve mental health status of youth should consider strategies to improve access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food.

  3. Species richness and soil properties in Pinus ponderosa forests: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, D.C.; Abella, S.R.; Covington, W.W.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Question: How are the effects of mineral soil properties on understory plant species richness propagated through a network of processes involving the forest overstory, soil organic matter, soil nitrogen, and understory plant abundance? Location: North-central Arizona, USA. Methods: We sampled 75 0.05-ha plots across a broad soil gradient in a Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) forest ecosystem. We evaluated multivariate models of plant species richness using structural equation modeling. Results: Richness was highest at intermediate levels of understory plant cover, suggesting that both colonization success and competitive exclusion can limit richness in this system. We did not detect a reciprocal positive effect of richness on plant cover. Richness was strongly related to soil nitrogen in the model, with evidence for both a direct negative effect and an indirect non-linear relationship mediated through understory plant cover. Soil organic matter appeared to have a positive influence on understory richness that was independent of soil nitrogen. Richness was lowest where the forest overstory was densest, which can be explained through indirect effects on soil organic matter, soil nitrogen and understory cover. Finally, model results suggest a variety of direct and indirect processes whereby mineral soil properties can influence richness. Conclusions: Understory plant species richness and plant cover in P. ponderosa forests appear to be significantly influenced by soil organic matter and nitrogen, which are, in turn, related to overstory density and composition and mineral soil properties. Thus, soil properties can impose direct and indirect constraints on local species diversity in ponderosa pine forests. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  4. The relationship between quality management practices and organisational performance: A structural equation modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Z.; Razali, A. M.; Mustafa, Z.

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the quality management practices (QMPs) and organisational performance for the manufacturing industry in Malaysia. In this study, a QMPs and organisational performance framework is developed according to a comprehensive literature review which cover aspects of hard and soft quality factors in manufacturing process environment. A total of 11 hypotheses have been put forward to test the relationship amongst the six constructs, which are management commitment, training, process management, quality tools, continuous improvement and organisational performance. The model is analysed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with AMOS software version 18.0 using Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation. A total of 480 questionnaires were distributed, and 210 questionnaires were valid for analysis. The results of the modeling analysis using ML estimation indicate that the fits statistics of QMPs and organisational performance model for manufacturing industry is admissible. From the results, it found that the management commitment have significant impact on the training and process management. Similarly, the training had significant effect to the quality tools, process management and continuous improvement. Furthermore, the quality tools have significant influence on the process management and continuous improvement. Likewise, the process management also has a significant impact to the continuous improvement. In addition the continuous improvement has significant influence the organisational performance. However, the results of the study also found that there is no significant relationship between management commitment and quality tools, and between the management commitment and continuous improvement. The results of the study can be used by managers to prioritize the implementation of QMPs. For instances, those practices that are found to have positive impact on organisational performance can be recommended to

  5. Waste-efficient materials procurement for construction projects: A structural equation modelling of critical success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Saheed O; Oyedele, Lukumon O

    2018-05-01

    Albeit the understanding that construction waste is caused by activities ranging from all stages of project delivery process, research efforts have been concentrated on design and construction stages, while the possibility of reducing waste through materials procurement process is widely neglected. This study aims at exploring and confirming strategies for achieving waste-efficient materials procurement in construction activities. The study employs sequential exploratory mixed method approach as its methodological framework, using focus group discussion, statistical analysis and structural equation modelling. The study suggests that for materials procurement to enhance waste minimisation in construction projects, the procurement process would be characterised by four features. These include suppliers' commitment to low waste measures, low waste purchase management, effective materials delivery management and waste-efficient Bill of Quantity, all of which have significant impacts on waste minimisation. This implies that commitment of materials suppliers to such measures as take back scheme and flexibility in supplying small materials quantity, among others, are expected of materials procurement. While low waste purchase management stipulates the need for such measures as reduced packaging and consideration of pre-assembled/pre-cut materials, efficient delivery management entails effective delivery and storage system as well as adequate protection of materials during the delivery process, among others. Waste-efficient specification and bill of quantity, on the other hand, requires accurate materials take-off and ordering of materials based on accurately prepared design documents and bill of quantity. Findings of this study could assist in understanding a set of measures that should be taken during materials procurement process, thereby corroborating waste management practices at other stages of project delivery process. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Examining the link between patient satisfaction and adherence to HIV care: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bich N; Westbrook, Robert A; Black, William C; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Giordano, Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Analogous to the business model of customer satisfaction and retention, patient satisfaction could serve as an innovative, patient-centered focus for increasing retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, and ultimately HIV suppression. To test, through structural equation modeling (SEM), a model of HIV suppression in which patient satisfaction influences HIV suppression indirectly through retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults receiving HIV care at two clinics in Texas. Patient satisfaction was based on two validated items, one adapted from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey ("Would you recommend this clinic to other patients with HIV?) and one adapted from the Delighted-Terrible Scale, ("Overall, how do you feel about the care you got at this clinic in the last 12 months?"). A validated, single-item question measured adherence to HAART over the past 4 weeks. Retention in HIV care was based on visit constancy in the year prior to the survey. HIV suppression was defined as plasma HIV RNA satisfaction score had a mean of 8.5 (median 9.2) on a 0- to 10- point scale. A total of 46% reported "excellent" adherence, 76% had adequate retention, and 70% had HIV suppression. In SEM analyses, patient satisfaction with care influences retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, which in turn serve as key determinants of HIV suppression (all psatisfaction may have direct effects on retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. Interventions to improve the care experience, without necessarily targeting objective clinical performance measures, could serve as an innovative method for optimizing HIV outcomes.

  7. Environmental and Individual Determinants of Female Entrepreneurship in Algeria: Applying the Structural Equation Modeling

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    Abderrezzak BENHABIB

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the seminal work of Fishbein and Ajzen (1975, we try  to clarify  how  individual  and  environment  factors  influence  the students’  attitudes towards Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Intention. After a short review of literature, we present the results of an empirical study conducted among a sample of 290 final year students by using a structural  equation  modeling  validated  through  the  use  of  a  two-stage  analysis  of Anderson  and  Gerbing  (1988  and  a  factorial  confirmatory  analysis  and  a measurement adjustment (Hair et al.1998. Attitude driven from individual variables is negative while that derived from environmental  variables  is  positive.  Our  results  show  furthermore,  that  the  role  of media and institutions is still Limited and needs redeployment. Woman is now recognized as one of the  sources of  economic  growth  (Arasti  2008.  Although  female  entrepreneurship  is  attracting more and more researchers, it is still considered as an understudied field of research (De Bruin et al.2006, 2007; Brush, De Bruin, & Welter, 2009. Research  on  female  entrepreneurship  has  intensified since  the  early  80s,  but  few  have  explored  the  influence  of  environmental  and individual factors related to female entrepreneurship.

  8. Examining the link between patient satisfaction and adherence to HIV care: a structural equation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich N Dang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Analogous to the business model of customer satisfaction and retention, patient satisfaction could serve as an innovative, patient-centered focus for increasing retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, and ultimately HIV suppression. OBJECTIVE: To test, through structural equation modeling (SEM, a model of HIV suppression in which patient satisfaction influences HIV suppression indirectly through retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults receiving HIV care at two clinics in Texas. Patient satisfaction was based on two validated items, one adapted from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey ("Would you recommend this clinic to other patients with HIV? and one adapted from the Delighted-Terrible Scale, ("Overall, how do you feel about the care you got at this clinic in the last 12 months?". A validated, single-item question measured adherence to HAART over the past 4 weeks. Retention in HIV care was based on visit constancy in the year prior to the survey. HIV suppression was defined as plasma HIV RNA <48 copies/mL at the time of the survey. We used SEM to test hypothesized relationships. RESULTS: The analyses included 489 patients (94% of eligible patients. The patient satisfaction score had a mean of 8.5 (median 9.2 on a 0- to 10- point scale. A total of 46% reported "excellent" adherence, 76% had adequate retention, and 70% had HIV suppression. In SEM analyses, patient satisfaction with care influences retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART, which in turn serve as key determinants of HIV suppression (all p<.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patient satisfaction may have direct effects on retention in HIV care and adherence to HAART. Interventions to improve the care experience, without necessarily targeting objective clinical performance measures, could serve as an innovative method for optimizing HIV outcomes.

  9. Are Systemic Manifestations Ascribable to COPD in Smokers? A Structural Equation Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Laurent; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Chouaid, Christos; Housset, Bruno; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Boczkowski, Jorge; Maitre, Bernard; Adnot, Serge; Audureau, Etienne

    2018-06-05

    Whether the systemic manifestations observed in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) are ascribable to lung dysfunction or direct effects of smoking is in debate. Structural Equations Modeling (SEM), a causal-oriented statistical approach, could help unraveling the pathways involved, by enabling estimation of direct and indirect associations between variables. The objectives of the study was to investigate the relative impact of smoking and COPD on systemic manifestations, inflammation and telomere length. In 292 individuals (103 women; 97 smokers with COPD, 96 smokers without COPD, 99 non-smokers), we used SEM to explore the pathways between smoking (pack-years), lung disease (FEV 1 , K CO ), and the following parameters: arterial stiffness (aortic pulse wave velocity, PWV), bone mineral density (BMD), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM), grip strength, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), creatinine clearance (eGFR), blood leukocyte telomere length and inflammatory markers (Luminex assay). All models were adjusted on age and gender. Latent variables were created for systemic inflammation (inflammatory markers) and musculoskeletal parameters (ASMM, grip strength, BMD). SEM showed that most effects of smoking were indirectly mediated by lung dysfunction: e.g. via FEV 1 on musculoskeletal factor, eGFR, HOMA-IR, PWV, telomere length, CRP, white blood cells count (WBC) and inflammation factor, and via K CO on musculoskeletal factor, eGFR and PWV. Direct effects of smoking were limited to CRP and WBC. Models had excellent fit. In conclusion, SEM highlighted the major role of COPD in the occurrence of systemic manifestations while smoking effects were mostly mediated by lung function.

  10. Perturbation Solutions for Random Linear Structural Systems subject to Random Excitation using Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    perturbation method using stochastic differential equations. The joint statistical moments entering the perturbation solution are determined by considering an augmented dynamic system with state variables made up of the displacement and velocity vector and their first and second derivatives with respect......The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order...... to the random parameters of the problem. Equations for partial derivatives are obtained from the partial differentiation of the equations of motion. The zero time-lag joint statistical moment equations for the augmented state vector are derived from the Itô differential formula. General formulation is given...

  11. Nuclear structure information studied through Dirac equation with deformed mean fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Relativistic mean-field theory provides a formal expression for the Dirac equation for the nucleonic motion in an atomic nucleus. The 'potentials' within such a formalism are given in terms of the meson fields, the latter obtained through a coupled system of equations of the Klein-Grodon type. Usually the whole system is being solved by using a Hartree approximation by employing an iterative selfonsistent algorithms. On a more phenomenological level one can parametrize the potentials that enter into a Dirac equation rather than obtain the selfconsistently; such a simplification was suggested some time ago by the Munich group. We introduce a Woods-Saxon type parametrisation and verify by a non-linear search routine what are the 'best fit potential parameters' that reproduce the single particle excitations in the double-magic spherical nuclei as well as the band-head properties in some hundreds of deformed nuclei. Next, by introducing a low-energy reduction of the Dirac equation, one may obtain in a natural way a Pauli Schrodinger type equation with a position dependent effective mass. The role of the corresponding term in a description of single particle energies of the nucleons is illustrated and the implications for the cranking equation are discussed in some detail. (author)

  12. Empirical Analysis of Farm Credit Risk under the Structure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The study measures farm credit risk by using farm records collected by Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) during the period 1995-2004. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether farm's financial position is fully described by the structure model, (2) what are the determinants of farm capital structure under the structure model, (3)…

  13. Phase stability, electronic structure and equation of state of cubic TcN from first-principles calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T.; Ma, Q.; Sun, X.W.; Liu, Z.J.; Fu, Z.J.; Wei, X.P.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The phase transition, electronic band structure, and equation of state (EOS) of cubic TcN are investigated by first-principles pseudopotential method based on density-functional theory. The calculated enthalpies show that TcN has a transformation between zincblende and rocksalt phases and the pressure determined by the relative enthalpy is 32 GPa. The calculated band structure indicates the metallic feature and it might make cubic TcN a better candidate for hard materials. Particular attention is paid to the predictions of volume, bulk modulus and its pressure derivative which play a central role in the formulation of approximate EOSs using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. - Highlights: • The phase transition pressure and electronic band structure for cubic TcN are determined. • Particular attention is paid to investigate the equation of state parameters for cubic TcN. • The thermodynamic properties up to 80 GPa and 3000 K are successfully predicted.

  14. Risk Management of Large RC Structures within Spatial Information System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jianjun; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The present article addresses the development of a spatial information system (SIS), which aims to facilitate risk management of large‐scale concrete structures. The formulation of the SIS is based on ideas developed in the context of indicator‐based risk modeling for concrete structures...... subject to corrosion and geographical information system based risk modeling concerning large‐scale risk management. The term “risk management” here refers in particular to the process of condition assessment and optimization of the inspection and repair activities. The SIS facilitates the storage...... and handling of all relevant information to the risk management. The probabilistic modeling utilized in the condition assessment takes basis in a Bayesian hierarchical modeling philosophy. It facilitates the updating of risks as well as optimizing inspection plans whenever new information about the condition...

  15. Validation of the kidney failure risk equation in European CKD patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.J.; Zuilen, A.D. van; Brand, A. van den; Bots, M.L.; Blankestijn, P.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Vervoort, G.M.M.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk for progression to kidney failure. Using data of Canadian CKD patients, Tangri et al. recently developed models to predict the progression of CKD stages 3-5 to kidney failure within 5 years. We validated this kidney failure risk

  16. The coordinate system transformation of a serial kinematic structures and use in the derivation of systems motion equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zátopek Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the use of transformation matrices to determine the motion equations of the complex mechanical structure. Use of the transformation matrix does not apply only to motion equations but has the general use in relative positions determine of objects in the 3D space. Analysed model is divided into seven physical objects, the transformation matrix and the corresponding inertia/pseudo-inertia matrix is included in each of them. This matrices are strictly necessary to the system dynamic description using the matrix form of Lagrange Equations of the Second Type. Another possibility to use the transformation matrix is shown in the camera system measurement. Model was designed in 3D CAD system SolidWorks, MATLAB was used for the mathematical calculations.

  17. Group theoretical and Hamiltonian structures of integrable evolution equations in 1x1 and 2x1 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopel'chenko, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    New results in investigation of the group-theoretical and hamiltonian structure of the integrable evolution equations in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions are briefly reviewed. Main general results, such as the form of integrable equations, Baecklund transfomations, symmetry groups, are turned out to have the same form for different spectral problems. The used generalized AKNS-method (the Ablowitz Kaup, Newell and Segur method) permits to prove that all nonlinear evolution equations considered are hamiltonians. The general condition of effective application of the ACNS mehtod to the concrete spectral problem is the possibility to calculate a recursion operator explicitly. The embedded representation is shown to be a fundamental object connected with different aspects of the inverse scattering problem

  18. Sibship structure and risk of infectious mononucleosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Nielsen, Trine Rasmussen; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Present understanding of increased risk of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-related infectious mononucleosis among children of low birth order or small sibships is mainly based on old and indirect evidence. Societal changes and methodological limitations of previous studies call for new data....... METHODS: We used data from the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Hospital Discharge Register to study incidence rates of inpatient hospitalizations for infectious mononucleosis before the age of 20 years in a cohort of 2,543,225 Danes born between 1971 and 2008, taking individual...... of blood donors followed up retrospectively for self-reported infectious mononucleosis. CONCLUSIONS: Younger siblings, and to a lesser degree older siblings, seem to be important in the transmission of EBV within families. Apparently the dogma of low birth order in a sibship as being at the highest risk...

  19. Structural reliability analysis and seismic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Shinozuka, M.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability analysis method for safety evaluation of nuclear structures. By utilizing this method, it is possible to estimate the limit state probability in the lifetime of structures and to generate analytically the fragility curves for PRA studies. The earthquake ground acceleration, in this approach, is represented by a segment of stationary Gaussian process with a zero mean and a Kanai-Tajimi Spectrum. All possible seismic hazard at a site represented by a hazard curve is also taken into consideration. Furthermore, the limit state of a structure is analytically defined and the corresponding limit state surface is then established. Finally, the fragility curve is generated and the limit state probability is evaluated. In this paper, using a realistic reinforced concrete containment as an example, results of the reliability analysis of the containment subjected to dead load, live load and ground earthquake acceleration are presented and a fragility curve for PRA studies is also constructed

  20. Risk Based Inspection Planning of Ageing Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Ersdal, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    . Different approaches for updating inspection plans for older installations are considered in order to achieve decreased inspection intervals as the structure are ageing. The most promising method consists in increasing the rate of defects / crack initiation at the end of the expected lifetime. Different...

  1. An extension of the theory of planned behavior to predict pedestrians' violating crossing behavior using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hongmei; Romero, Stephanie Ballon; Qin, Xiao

    2016-10-01

    This paper aimed to examine pedestrians' self-reported violating crossing behavior intentions by applying the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We studied the behavior intentions regarding instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, the three basic components of TPB, and extended the theory by adding new factors including descriptive norm, perceived risk and conformity tendency to evaluate their respective impacts on pedestrians' behavior intentions. A questionnaire presented with a scenario that pedestrians crossed the road violating the pedestrian lights at an intersection was designed, and the survey was conducted in Dalian, China. Based on the 260 complete and valid responses, reliability and validity of the data for each question was evaluated. The data were then analyzed by using the structural equation modeling (SEM). The results showed that people had a negative attitude toward the behavior of violating road-crossing rules; they perceived social influences from their family and friends; and they believed that this kind of risky behavior would potentially harm them in a traffic accident. The results also showed that instrumental attitude and subjective norm were significant in the basic TPB model. After adding descriptive norm, subjective norm was no more significant. Other models showed that conformity tendency was a strong predictor, indicating that the presence of other pedestrians would influence behavioral intention. The findings could help to design more effective interventions and safety campaigns, such as changing people's attitude toward this violation behavior, correcting the social norms, increasing their safety awareness, etc. in order to reduce pedestrians' road crossing violations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative Affectivity Predicts Lower Quality of Life and Metabolic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Conti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is essential to consider the clinical assessment of psychological aspects in patients with Diabetes Mellitus (DM, in order to prevent potentially adverse self-management care behaviors leading to diabetes-related complications, including declining levels of Quality of Life (QoL and negative metabolic control.Purpose: In the framework of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, the specific aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of distressed personality factors as Negative Affectivity (NA and Social Inhibition (SI on diabetes-related clinical variables (i.e., QoL and glycemic control.Methods: The total sample consists of a clinical sample, including 159 outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, and a control group composed of 102 healthy respondents. All participants completed the following self- rating scales: The Type D Scale (DS14 and the World Health Organization QoL Scale (WHOQOLBREF. Furthermore, the participants of the clinical group were assessed for HbA1c, disease duration, and BMI. The observed covariates were BMI, gender, and disease duration, while HbA1c was considered an observed variable.Results: SEM analysis revealed significant differences between groups in regards to the latent construct of NA and the Environmental dimension of QoL. For the clinical sample, SEM showed that NA had a negative impact on both QoL dimensions and metabolic control.Conclusions: Clinical interventions aiming to improve medication adherence in patients with T2DM should include the psychological evaluation of Type D Personality traits, by focusing especially on its component of NA as a significant risk factor leading to negative health outcomes.

  3. An Illustration of the Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) Framework on the Passion Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Király, István; Bõthe, Beáta; Rigó, Adrien; Orosz, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    While exploratory factor analysis (EFA) provides a more realistic presentation of the data with the allowance of item cross-loadings, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) includes many methodological advances that the former does not. To create a synergy of the two, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was proposed as an alternative solution, incorporating the advantages of EFA and CFA. The present investigation is thus an illustrative demonstration of the applicability and flexibility of ESEM. To achieve this goal, we compared CFA and ESEM models, then thoroughly tested measurement invariance and differential item functioning through multiple-indicators-multiple-causes (MIMIC) models on the Passion Scale, the only measure of the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP) which differentiates between harmonious and obsessive forms of passion. Moreover, a hybrid model was also created to overcome the drawbacks of the two methods. Analyses of the first large community sample ( N = 7,466; 67.7% females; M age = 26.01) revealed the superiority of the ESEM model relative to CFA in terms of improved goodness-of-fit and less correlated factors, while at the same time retaining the high definition of the factors. However, this fit was only achieved with the inclusion of three correlated uniquenesses, two of which appeared in previous studies and one of which was specific to the current investigation. These findings were replicated on a second, comprehensive sample ( N = 504; 51.8% females; M age = 39.59). After combining the two samples, complete measurement invariance (factor loadings, item intercepts, item uniquenesses, factor variances-covariances, and latent means) was achieved across gender and partial invariance across age groups and their combination. Only one item intercept was non-invariant across both multigroup and MIMIC approaches, an observation that was further corroborated by the hybrid model. While obsessive passion showed a slight decline in the hybrid

  4. Testing women's propensities to leave their abusive husbands using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myunghan; Belyea, Michael; Phillips, Linda R; Insel, Kathleen; Min, Sung-Kil

    2009-01-01

    Many Korean women are just beginning to recognize that what they considered to be normal treatment is actually domestic violence. Many are becoming more intolerant of the abuse and more likely to desire to leave an abusive relationship. The aim of this study was to test, using the framework of sociostructural and psychological-relational power (PRP), a model of Korean women's propensities to leave their abusive husbands. Multigroup structural equation modeling was used to test relationships between variables chosen from the sociostructural power and PRP to explain intolerance to abuse. Married Korean women (n = 184) who self-identified as being abused physically, psychologically, sexually, or financially participated in the study. The multigroup analysis revealed that the relationship of abuse and Hwa-Byung (a culture-bound syndrome that denotes Korean women's anger) with intolerance was supported for women with low education (defined as having an education of high school or less: power was related to high levels of reported abuse and abuse intolerance. For women in the high-education group (education beyond high school: > or =13 years), high power was related to abuse, Hwa-Byung, and abuse intolerance; age did not influence power. Overall, the multigroup model adequately fitted the sample data (chi2 = 92.057, degree of freedom = 50, p = .000; normal fit index = .926, comparative fix index = .964, root mean square error of approximation = .068, Hoelter's critical number = 152), demonstrating that education is a crucial moderator of Korean women's attitude toward the unacceptability of abuse and propensity to terminate the marriage. This study found support for a model of abuse intolerance using the framework of sociostructural power and PRP, primarily for the low-education group. Hwa-Byung was a mediating factor that contributed to intolerance to abuse in women with low education. This study highlights the importance of understanding the cultural assumptions that

  5. A structural equation model of turnover for a longitudinal survey among early career registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Carol S; Chao, Ying-Yu; Colder, Craig R; Kovner, Christine T; Chacko, Thomas P

    2015-11-01

    Key predictors of early career nurses' turnover are job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job search, intent to stay, and shock (back injuries) based on the literature review and our previous research. Existing research has often omitted one of these key predictors. The purpose of this study in a sample of early career nurses was to compare predictors of turnover to nurses' actual turnover at two time points in their careers. A multi-state longitudinal panel survey of early career nurses was used to compare a turnover model across two time periods. The sample has been surveyed five times. The sample was selected using a two-stage sample of registered nurses nested in 51 metropolitan areas and nine non-metropolitan, rural areas in 34 states and the District of Columbia. The associations between key predictors of turnover were tested using structural equation modeling and data from the earliest and latest panels in our study. We used predictors from the respondents who replied to the Wave-1 survey in 2006 and their turnover status from Wave 2 in 2007 (N=2386). We compared these results to the remaining respondents' predictors from Wave 4 in 2011 and their turnover status in Wave 5 in 2013 (N=1073). We tested and found no effect for missingness from Wave 1-5 and little evidence of attrition bias. Strong support was found for the relationships hypothesized among job satisfaction, organizational commitment, intent to stay, and turnover, with some support for shock and search in the Wave 1-2 sample. However, for Wave 4-5 sample (n=1073), none of the paths through search were significant, nor was the path from shock to turnover. Nurses in the second analysis who had matured longer in their career did not have a significant response to search or shock (back injuries), which may indicate how easily experienced registered nurses find new jobs and/or accommodation to jobs requiring significant physicality. Nurse turnover is a major concern for healthcare organizations

  6. An Illustration of the Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM Framework on the Passion Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Tóth-Király

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available While exploratory factor analysis (EFA provides a more realistic presentation of the data with the allowance of item cross-loadings, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA includes many methodological advances that the former does not. To create a synergy of the two, exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM was proposed as an alternative solution, incorporating the advantages of EFA and CFA. The present investigation is thus an illustrative demonstration of the applicability and flexibility of ESEM. To achieve this goal, we compared CFA and ESEM models, then thoroughly tested measurement invariance and differential item functioning through multiple-indicators-multiple-causes (MIMIC models on the Passion Scale, the only measure of the Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP which differentiates between harmonious and obsessive forms of passion. Moreover, a hybrid model was also created to overcome the drawbacks of the two methods. Analyses of the first large community sample (N = 7,466; 67.7% females; Mage = 26.01 revealed the superiority of the ESEM model relative to CFA in terms of improved goodness-of-fit and less correlated factors, while at the same time retaining the high definition of the factors. However, this fit was only achieved with the inclusion of three correlated uniquenesses, two of which appeared in previous studies and one of which was specific to the current investigation. These findings were replicated on a second, comprehensive sample (N = 504; 51.8% females; Mage = 39.59. After combining the two samples, complete measurement invariance (factor loadings, item intercepts, item uniquenesses, factor variances-covariances, and latent means was achieved across gender and partial invariance across age groups and their combination. Only one item intercept was non-invariant across both multigroup and MIMIC approaches, an observation that was further corroborated by the hybrid model. While obsessive passion showed a slight decline in the

  7. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2010-08-05

    An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status), psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social variables (social support), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking and

  8. Environmental, psychological, and social influences on physical activity among Japanese adults: structural equation modeling analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishii Kaori

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on

  9. Insight, self-stigma and psychosocial outcomes in Schizophrenia: a structural equation modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Y-J; Chang, H-A; Kao, Y-C; Tzeng, N-S; Lu, C-W; Loh, C-H

    2018-04-01

    Poor insight is prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and has been associated with acute illness severity, medication non-adherence and poor treatment outcomes. Paradoxically, high insight has been associated with various undesirable outcomes, including low self-esteem, depression and low subjective quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia. Despite the growing body of studies conducted in Western countries supporting the pernicious effects of improved insight in psychosis, which bases on the level of self-stigma, the effects are unclear in non-Western societies. The current study examined the role of self-stigma in the relationship between insight and psychosocial outcomes in a Chinese population. A total of 170 outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders were recruited from two general university hospitals. Sociodemographic data and clinical variables were recorded and self-report scales were employed to measure self-stigma, depression, insight, self-esteem and subjective QoL. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to analyse the cross-sectional data. High levels of self-stigma were reported by 39% of the participants (n = 67). The influences of insight, self-stigma, self-esteem and depression on subjective QoL were confirmed by the SEM results. Our model with the closest fit to the data (χ 2 = 33.28; df = 20; p = 0.03; χ 2/df = 1.66; CFI = 0.98; TLI = 0.97; RMSEA = 0.06) demonstrated that self-stigma might fully mediate the association of insight with low self-esteem, depression and poor subjective QoL. High insight into illness contributed to self-stigma, which caused low self-esteem and depression and, consequently, low QoL. Notably, insight did not directly affect self-esteem, depression or QoL. Furthermore, the association of insight with poor psychosocial outcomes was not moderated by self-stigma. Our findings support the mediating model of insight relevant to the poor psychosocial outcomes of individuals diagnosed with

  10. Structural-equation models of migration: an example from the Upper Midwest USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadwallader, M

    1985-01-01

    "To date, most migration models have been specified in terms of a single equation, whereby a set of regional characteristics are used to predict migration rates for various kinds of spatial units. These models are inadequate in at least two respects. First, they omit any causal links between the explanatory variables, thus ignoring indirect effects between these variables and migration. Second, they ignore the possibility of reciprocal causation, or feedback effects, between migration and the explanatory variables...." The author uses data for State Economic Areas to construct a path model and simultaneous-equation model to identify both indirect and feedback effects on migration in the Upper Midwestern United States. "On the basis of the path model, it is suggested that the direct effects of many variables on migration are at least partially offset by the indirect effects, whereas the simultaneous-equation model emphasizes the reciprocal relationship between income and migration." excerpt

  11. Do Family Structure and Poverty Affect Sexual Risk Behaviors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Family Structure, Poverty and Sexual Risk Behaviors ... Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Demography and Social Statistics Department, .... to high rate of adolescent sexual promiscuity as a ..... birth control and consequences of premarital sex.

  12. Hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Mitra, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants. The structure provides a unified framework to systematically analyze the implications of different types of criteria, each focusing on a particular aspect of nuclear power plant risks. The framework allows investigation of the specific coverage of a particular criterion and comparison of different criteria with regard to areas to which they apply. 5 refs., 2 figs

  13. Franchise value, ownership structure, and risk at savings institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Elijah Brewer, III; Marc R. Saidenberg

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between asset risk and franchise values and between asset risk and ownership structure. Stock price data from publicly traded S&L is used to measure portfolio risk and franchise or charter values. The empirical results provide support for the moral hazard hypothesis. The standard deviation of equity returns is negatively related to S&L franchise values, as measured by the market-to-book asset ratio. This research also finds empirical support for models of ...

  14. Project Structuring and Risk Allocation for NPP Construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This presentation treats of the project risks and how to mitigate major risks and structure a new project. It also talks about the contract implications to handle the specificities of a new project: design complexities, interface between the engineering, procurement and constructing contractors, and finally discusses the necessity of a stable regulatory environment and the role of government

  15. Equation-of-motion O(N) electronic structure studies of very large systems (N ∼ 107)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalewicz, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    Extremely fast parallel implementation of the equation-of-motion method for electronic structure computations is presented. The method can be applied to non-periodic, disordered nanocrystalline samples, transition metal oxides and other systems. The equation-of-motion method exhibits linear scaling, O(N), runs with a speed of up to 43 GFLOPS on a NEC SX-4 vector-parallel supercomputer with 32 processors and computes electronic densities of states (DOS) for multi-million atom samples in mere minutes. The largest test computation performed was for the electronic DOS for a TiO 2 sample consisting of 7,623,000 atoms. Mathematically, this is equivalent to obtaining the spectrum of an n x n Hermitian operator (Hamiltonian) where n = 38, 115, 000. We briefly discuss the practical implications of being able to perform electronic structure computations of this great speed and scale. Copyright (1999) CSIRO Australia

  16. 3H and 3He nucleus structure by Faddeev equations in the configuration space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverne, A.

    1973-06-01

    To solve the triton problem, Faddeev equations are solved in configuration space. The method is described (algorithm) together with some results with nucleon-nucleon potentials such as Reid potential and Tourreil and Sprung potential. A comparative study with helium 3 is given [fr

  17. Small-χ singlet structure functions from the nonlinear GLR equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, V.T.; Ryskin, M.G.

    1991-06-01

    The effect of absorptive corrections in the nonlinear GLR evolution equation is considered. A simple method how to estimate the corrections numerically is described. In the case of the parametrization based on semihard hadron phenomenology developed earlier a visible difference between linear and nonlinear evolution is expected at HERA energies. (orig.)

  18. Shock-wave structure based on the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, F. J.; Velasco, R. M.

    2018-04-01

    We use the Navier-Stokes-Fourier constitutive equations to study plane shock waves in dilute gases. It is shown that the experimental information on the normalized density profiles can be fit by using the so-called soft sphere model, in which the viscosity and thermal conductivity are proportional to a power of the temperature.

  19. Analisis Niat Penggunaan E-filing Di PT “X” Dan Pt”y” Surabaya Dengan Structural Equation Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Jimantoro, Christina; Tjondro, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh persepsi kegunaan, persepsi kemudahan, sikap penggunaan, norma subjektif dan persepsi kemampuan mengontrol terhadap niat penggunaan e-filing oleh wajib pajak orang pribadi. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 64 karyawan PT “X” dan PT “Y” di Surabaya. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah Structural Equation Modelling berbasis Variance (Partial Least Square).Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan adanya pengaruh persepsi kegunaan dan kemudahan terhad...

  20. Partial and Total Annoyance Due to Road Traffic Noise Combined with Aircraft or Railway Noise: Structural Equation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gille, Laure-Anne; Marquis-Favre, Catherine; Lam, Kin-Che

    2017-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to analyze partial and total in situ annoyance in combined transportation noise situations. A psychophysical total annoyance model and a perceptual total annoyance model were proposed. Results show a high contribution of Noise exposure and Noise sensitivity to Noise annoyance, as well as a causal relationship between noise annoyance and lower Dwelling satisfaction. Moreover, the Visibility of noise source may increase noise annoyance, even when the visibl...