Ahmed Fouad Kotb
Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
In South Africa, new HIV infections are concentrated among persons aged 15–24 years. The university population falls within this age group and are prone to higher-risk behaviours that place them at risk of acquiring HIV. In a study to assess this risk among sexually active students, we classified higher-risk sexual ...
Trenholm, Christopher; Devaney, Barbara; Fortson, Kenneth; Clark, Melissa; Bridgespan, Lisa Quay; Wheeler, Justin
This paper examines the impacts of four abstinence-only education programs on adolescent sexual activity and risks of pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Based on an experimental design, the impact analysis uses survey data collected in 2005 and early 2006 from more than 2,000 teens who had been randomly assigned to either a…
Lee, Maria; Kim, Yun Hwan; Jeon, Myung Jae
We aim to examine changes in sexual activity and function among younger breast cancer survivors who were sexually active before diagnosis and to investigate risk factors for negative impacts on them. An observational cohort study enrolled 304 premenopausal and sexually active women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer. Questionnaires were completed, and sexual activity was measured at two time points: after surgery, to assess sexual activity and function before diagnosis, and then at least 12 months after the completion of chemotherapy or endocrine therapy. For each domain of the Female Sexual Function Index, a score below 3 was classified as indicative of a sexual problem. Each sexual problem was considered to be dysfunctional if it was associated with distress. The median age at the last survey was 46.0 years (range: 23-57). Of the participants, 35 (11.5%) became sexually inactive after treatment. Among the 269 women who remained sexually active, 31.6% were currently experiencing sexual dysfunction, which was significantly higher compared with the frequency before diagnosis. In the multivariate logistic regression model, chemo-related menopause, thyroid dysfunction, and depression were independent risk factors for sexual inactivity. Chemo-related menopause was a significant risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Chemo-related menopause was significantly associated with both sexual inactivity and dysfunction after treatment. Thyroid dysfunction and depression were risk factors for sexual inactivity in younger breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hopkins, Christopher D; Tanner, John F; Raymond, Mary Anne
The teen birthrate in the United States is twice that of other industrialized nations. Adolescents in the U.S. are among high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. As a result, the Department of Health and Human Services changed its policy on the promotion of abstinence to teenagers from a focus on a risk reduction strategy to a focus on a risk avoidance strategy. In order to create more effective risk avoidance as well as risk reduction campaigns, this study proposes a framework to illustrate the distinction that teens make between spontaneous sexual activity and planned sexual activity, as well as those teens that make a commitment to abstinence versus abstinence by default. Furthermore, this study classifies teens into three behavior segments (abstemious, promiscuous and monogamous) and then assesses specific differences that exist within these groups relative to their attitudes and perceptions concerning abstinence, sexual activity, contraception, fear and norms. This change in focus from a risk reduction to a risk avoidance strategy has important implications for social marketing, public policy and marketing theory.
Ramirez-Valles, J; Zimmerman, M A; Newcomb, M D
Sexual activity among high-school-aged youths has steadily increased since the 1970s, emerging as a significant public health concern. Yet, patterns of youth sexual risk behavior are shaped by social class, race, and gender. Based on sociological theories of financial deprivation and collective socialization, we develop and test a model of the relationships among neighborhood poverty; family structure and social class position; parental involvement; prosocial activities; race; and gender as they predict youth sexual risk behavior. We employ structural equation modeling to test this model on a cross-sectional sample of 370 sexually active high-school students from a midwestern city; 57 percent (n = 209) are males and 86 percent are African American. We find that family structure indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty, parental involvement, and prosocial activities. In addition, family class position indirectly predicts sexual risk behavior through neighborhood poverty and prosocial activities. We address implications for theory and health promotion.
Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.
Diane Santa Maria
Full Text Available While HIV disproportionately impacts homeless individuals, little is known about the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors in the southwest and how age factors and HIV risk perceptions influence sexual risk behaviors. We conducted a secondary data analysis (n = 460 on sexually active homeless adults from a cross-sectional study of participants (n = 610 recruited from homeless service locations, such as shelters and drop-in centers, in an understudied region of the southwest. Covariate-adjusted logistic regressions were used to assess the impact of age at homelessness onset, current age, age at first sex, and HIV risk perceptions on having condomless sex, new sexual partner(s, and multiple sexual partners (≥4 sexual partners in the past 12 months. Individuals who first experienced homelessness by age 24 were significantly more likely to report condomless sex and multiple sexual partners in the past year than those who had a later onset of their first episode of homelessness. Individuals who were currently 24 years or younger were more likely to have had condomless sex, new sexual partners, and multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months than those who were 25 years or older. Those who had low perceived HIV risk had lower odds of all three sexual risk behaviors. Social service and healthcare providers should consider a younger age at homelessness onset when targeting HIV prevention services to youth experiencing homelessness.
Wetherill, Reagan R; Fromme, Kim
The current study examined one's sense of personal invincibility as a contributing factor to high school athletes' more frequent behavioral risks compared to those of non-athletes. Perceived risk was assessed as a mediator of sports participation and alcohol use, and sports participation and sexual activity among high school athletes. Prior to leaving home, college-bound high school graduates (n = 2,247) completed web-based surveys assessing alcohol use, sexual activity, sports participation, and perceived risk. The mediational models were analyzed using generalized linear modeling and the procedures of Baron and Kenny (1986). Relative to non-athletes, athletes reported greater alcohol use, more sexual partners, and lower perceived risk. Perceived risk mediated the association between sports participation and alcohol use for both young men and women. Perceived risk also mediated the association between sports participation and number of sexual partners for women and partially mediated this association for men. Perceived risk partially mediated the association between sports participation and episodes of unsafe sexual activity in both men and women. These findings suggest a potential cognitive mechanism which may account for differences in alcohol use and sexual activity between athletes and non-athletes during late adolescence.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To explore any association between the timing of the initiation of sexual activity and sexual behaviors and risks among university students in China. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study on sexual behavior among university students conducted in Ningbo municipality, China, at the end of 2003. Students completed a self-administered, structured questionnaire. Of 1981 sexually active male students, 1908 (96.3% completed the item for timing of the initiation of sexual activity and were included in bivariate trend analyses and multiple logistic regression analyses to compare the association between this timing and sexual behavior and risks. Results Male early sexual initiators had a significantly higher risk profile, including a significantly higher proportion reporting non-regular partners (i.e., casual or commercial partners, multiple partners, diagnosis with a sexually transmitted disease (STD, partner history of pregnancy, partner history of induced abortion, and less condom and oral contraceptive use, compared with late initiators. Multivariate analyses confirmed the increased likelihood of these risks in early initiators versus late initiators, other than partner type during the last year. Conclusion Our results showed that, compared to late initiators, people who initiated sexual activity early engaged in more risky behaviors that could lead to elevated risks of unwanted pregnancies and STDs or human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sex-education strategies should be focused on an earlier age, should include advice on delaying the age of first sexual activity, and should target young people who continue to take sexual risks.
Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne
Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…
Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Moody, Raymond L.; Grov, Christian
Emerging research supports the notion that sexual compulsivity (SC) and hypersexual disorder (HD) among gay and bisexual men (GBM) might be conceptualized as comprising three groups—Neither SC nor HD; SC only, and Both SC and HD—that capture distinct levels of severity across the SC/HD continuum. We examined data from 370 highly sexually active GBM to assess how the three groups compare across a range of risk factors for HIV infection. Comparisons focused on psychosexual measures—temptation for condomless anal sex (CAS), self-efficacy for avoiding CAS, sexual excitation and inhibition—as well as reports of actual sexual behavior. Nearly half (48.9 %) of this highly sexually active sample was classified as Neither SC nor HD, 30 % as SC Only, and 21.1 % as Both SC and HD. While we found no significant differences between the three groups on reported number of male partners, anal sex acts, or anal sex acts with serodiscordant partners, the Both SC and HD group reported higher numbers of CAS acts and CAS acts with serodiscordant partners and also had a higher proportion of their anal sex acts without condoms compared to the SC Only group. Our findings support the validity of a three-group classification system of SC/HD severity in differentiating psychosexual and HIV-related sexual risk behavior outcomes in a sample of GBM who report similarly high levels of sexual activity. Notwithstanding the need for sex positive HIV prevention programs, interventions that attempt to help Both SC and HD men deal with distress and address their psychosexual needs specifically may derive HIV prevention benefits. PMID:25750052
Weinbender, Miriam L. M.; Rossignol, Annette MacKay
Evaluated Adventist lifestyle as a modification of popular American culture which reduces the risk of early sexual activity in adolescents and thus also reduces the risk for both STDs and teen pregnancy. Data analysis demonstrated a wide variety of behaviors were associated with premature sexual activity, including previously reported high-risk…
Ybarra, Michele L.; Mitchell, Kimberly J.
Objective To examine the relation between “sexting,” (sending and sharing sexual photos online via text messaging and in-person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Methods Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Results Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, where they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in-person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined—particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Conclusions While the media has portrayed “sexting” as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. PMID:25266148
Ybarra, Michele L; Mitchell, Kimberly J
To examine the relation between "sexting" (sending and sharing sexual photos online, via text messaging, and in person) with sexual risk behaviors and psychosocial challenge in adolescence. Data were collected online between 2010 and 2011 with 3,715 randomly selected 13- to 18-year-old youth across the United States. Seven percent of youth reported sending or showing someone sexual pictures of themselves, in which they were nude or nearly nude, online, via text messaging, or in person, during the past year. Although females and older youth were more likely to share sexual photos than males and younger youth, the profile of psychosocial challenge and sexual behavior was similar for all youth. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, sharing sexual photos was associated with all types of sexual behaviors assessed (e.g., oral sex, vaginal sex) as well as some of the risky sexual behaviors examined-particularly having concurrent sexual partners and having more past-year sexual partners. Adolescents who shared sexual photos also were more likely to use substances and less likely to have high self-esteem than their demographically similar peers. Although the media has portrayed sexting as a problem caused by new technology, health professionals may be more effective by approaching it as an aspect of adolescent sexual development and exploration and, in some cases, risk-taking and psychosocial challenge. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... with 191 cases and 353 age-matched controls from the same school or neighbourhood. ... sex (risk ratio (RR) 30.81) without reliable contraceptive protection (RR 24.35), ... and broader social development and promotion of gender equality.
Risk assessment can be an effective pedagogical strategy for sexuality education. Objectives: After learning about the modes of transmission and prevention strategies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), students engaged in this teaching technique will define sexual intercourse and sexual activity, assess the level of STI risk associated…
Thoma, Brian C
Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are at disproportionate risk for HIV infection. Parental monitoring is protective against adolescent sexual risk behavior among heterosexual adolescents, yet it is unclear whether these findings generalize to YMSM. YMSM experience unique family dynamics during adolescence, including coming out to parents and parental rejection of sexual orientation. The present study examined how theoretically derived parental monitoring constructs were associated with sexual activity and sexual risk behaviors among YMSM. YMSM aged 14-18 years completed a cross-sectional online survey (n = 646). Factor analysis was completed to determine factor structure of monitoring measure. Sexual behaviors were predicted from monitoring constructs and covariates within regression models. Parental knowledge and adolescent disclosure, parental solicitation, parental control, and adolescent secret-keeping emerged as four distinct monitoring constructs among YMSM. Higher knowledge and disclosure (b = -.32, p = .022), higher control (b = -.28, p = .006), lower solicitation (b = .31, p = .008), and lower secret-keeping (b = .25, p = .015) were associated with lower odds of sexual activity with males in the past 6 months. Higher knowledge and disclosure (b = -.12, p = .016), higher control (b = -.08, p = .039), and lower secret-keeping (b = .11, p = .005) were associated with having fewer recent sexual partners. Monitoring constructs were unassociated with condomless anal intercourse instances among sexually active YMSM. YMSM disclosure is closely tied with parental knowledge, and parents should foster relationships and home environments where YMSM are comfortable disclosing information freely. Effective parental monitoring could limit YMSM's opportunities for sexual activity, but monitoring is not sufficient to protect against HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among sexually active YMSM. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and
Alex Guibovich Mesinas
Full Text Available Objective: to know the characteristics of sexual activity in pregnant women without obstetric risk who attend public hospitals in Lima. Material and Methods: exploratory, multicenter, descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted during the first half of 2014 in 9 public hospitals in Lima. The sample was made up of pregnant women without obstetric risk who attended the outpatient clinic of obstetric departments. A non-probabilistic model is used for convenience. An expert validated survey was conducted on patients who voluntarily agreed to participate and signed the informed consent. The information was analyzed using STATA 21 software. Results: 1991 pregnant women answered the survey, 924 (46.4% were between 15 and 25 years, most were married, and Catholic (81.8% and 1380 (69.3% were born in Lima. Most had several previous pregnancies (46.3%, with term pregnancy and 86.3% informed they had no pre-term infants. 1347 (67.6% had vaginal delivery. The frequency of sexual acts, sexual desire, the response pattern and the fear of exercising sexual intercourse decreased at higher gestational age. Fear of sex acts increased from 12.6% to 76.2% in the third quarter. Most informed of a lack of orgasm during intercourse (42.8%. The position for intercourse went from "him on her" in the first quarter to "sideways" during the third quarter, with statistical significance. Conclusion: sexual activity in pregnant women of Metropolitan Lima tend to decrease in frequency, desire, and response cycle. The "sideways" position was the most often used in the third trimester.
Sansosti, Alexandra A.; Bowman, Hilary C.; Hariri, Ahmad R.
Although the initiation of sexual behavior is common among adolescents and young adults, some individuals express this behavior in a manner that significantly increases their risk for negative outcomes including sexually transmitted infections. Based on accumulating evidence, we have hypothesized that increased sexual risk behavior reflects, in part, an imbalance between neural circuits mediating approach and avoidance in particular as manifest by relatively increased ventral striatum (VS) activity and relatively decreased amygdala activity. Here, we test our hypothesis using data from seventy 18- to 22-year-old university students participating in the Duke Neurogenetics Study. We found a significant three-way interaction between amygdala activation, VS activation, and gender predicting changes in the number of sexual partners over time. Although relatively increased VS activation predicted greater increases in sexual partners for both men and women, the effect in men was contingent on the presence of relatively decreased amygdala activation and the effect in women was contingent on the presence of relatively increased amygdala activation. These findings suggest unique gender differences in how complex interactions between neural circuit function contributing to approach and avoidance may be expressed as sexual risk behavior in young adults. As such, our findings have the potential to inform the development of novel, gender-specific strategies that may be more effective at curtailing sexual risk behavior. PMID:26063921
Ahmad, NoorAni; Awaluddin, S Maria; Ismail, Hasimah; Samad, Rahama; NikAbdRashid, NikRubiah
This study aimed to identify risk and protective factors associated with sexual activity among Malaysian adolescents. Data from the World Health Organization Global School-based Student Health Survey 2012 were analyzed. A total of 23 645 students aged 12 to 17 years responded using self-administered validated questionnaire. The overall prevalence of reported ever-had sex was 8.3%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that ever-had sex was positively significantly associated with ever-used drugs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.51-9.13), and to a lesser extent, ever-smoked (aOR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.62-2.07) and ever-consumed alcohol (aOR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.15-2.53). Protective factors against ever-had sex were having a close friend (aOR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.50-0.81), parental bonding (aOR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.65-0.81), supportive peers (aOR = 0.77; 95% CI = 0.69-0.86), and parental connectedness (aOR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.78-0.99). Although the prevalence of sexual activity among school-going adolescents in Malaysia is relatively low, identifying the risk and protective factors is crucial toward developing an integrated multiple approach to preventing sexual-related problems. © 2014 APJPH.
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle
We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.
Hiršl-Hećej, V.; Štulhofer, A.
The paper analyzes socio-cultural and psychosocial factors affecting sexual activities and related risk-taking behaviors in Croatian high-school students. It attempts to determine the correlates of sexual activity, early sexual initiation, the number of sexual partners, and the use of contraceptives and condoms. Due to the gender-specific trajectories of sexual socialization and initiation, all the analyses were carried out separately for female and male students. The results p...
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.
This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…
Golden, Rachel Lynn; Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene
The sex-positive framework of sexual development hypothesizes that healthy sexual experiences can be developmentally appropriate and rewarding for adolescents despite the risks involved. Research has not examined whether risky behaviors and rewarding cognitions actually change with sexual debut at a normative or late age. This study measured the longitudinal impact of sexual debut using 7 waves of data from 88 male and 86 female adolescents from a Western U.S. city who were in the 10th grade at the study’s onset. We used piecewise growth curve analyses to compare behavior and cognitions before and after first sexual intercourse for those whose debut was at a normative or late age. These analyses revealed that sexual debut was related to rewards including increases in romantic appeal, and sexual satisfaction. In addition, internalizing symptoms declined over time after sexual debut, and substance use grew at a slower rate after sexual debut. We also examined whether differences existed among those whose debut was at an early, normative, or late age. Linear growth curve analyses revealed early sexual debut was related to risks, such as greater substance use, more internalizing and externalizing symptoms and lower global self-worth. Rewards associated with an early debut included greater romantic appeal, dating satisfaction (males only), and sexual satisfaction (males only). Although there are some inherent risks with sexual activity, the results suggest that sexual debut at a normative or late age is also associated with a decrease in some risks and increase in rewards. PMID:27709996
Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne
Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene
Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…
Buttmann, Nina; Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian
Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven by ch...... by changes in sexual behaviour patterns. The purpose of our study is to assess the occurrence of risky behaviour in men aged 18-45 years from the general population. Furthermore, we aim to examine factors associated with risky sexual behaviour.......Sexual habits and risky sexual behaviour strongly affect public health. Available data indicate that sexually transmitted infections are increasing in many EU countries. Changes in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases across Europe are among other factors suggested to be driven...
Staruch, Monika; Kucharczyk, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Szymusik, Iwona
Pregnancy is usually associated with significant regression in genito-genital intercourse frequency, sexual desire and satisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine women's sexual habits during the third trimester of gestation and to compare their sexual activity before the current pregnancy and during previous pregnancies in case of multiparas. The study material consisted of women in the third trimester of pregnancy, recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw between January 2013 and February 2014, who filled out a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: demographic data, sexual activity prior to current pregnancy and during gestation, including sexual positions and sources of knowledge regarding the subject. The survey involved 25 questions and was distributed among 220 patients, out of which 165 were returned and 149 properly filled out and analyzed. The average age of the respondents was 29.6 ± 4.85 years; the majority (78.8%) were in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The decrease in sexual activity was evident in all age groups--the majority usually had sex 1 to 3 times a month in contrast to 1-2 times a week prior to conceiving. Sexual activity decreased significantly with increasing age. The main reasons for abandoning sexual activity included: decreased libido (35.5%), the doctor's suggestion (29%) and fears concerning child's health (29%). During pregnancy the frequency of vaginal intercourse significantly decreased (100% prior to vs. 86.6% during pregnancy; p < 0.001); as did oral sex (44.3% vs. 29.5%; p = 0.043) and anal sex (12% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02). 54% of the respondents declared reduced satisfaction with sexual life during pregnancy in comparison with the previous period; almost half (43.5%) felt less attractive while pregnant. The same claim was related to libido--it decreased in 58.8% of respondents. Multiparas tended to have sexual
Wilson, Kelly L; Cowart, Clayton J; Rosen, Brittany L; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Solari, Kayce D; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee
Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as the leading cause of cervical cancer. While HPV risk factors have been well studied, less is known about those with HPV and their perceptions about health ramifications. The purposes of this study were to examine unmarried college student women's (1) HPV diagnosis status and (2) perceived risk of getting cervical cancer in the next 5 years. Data were analyzed from 1106 unmarried, sexually active college women aged 18 to 26. Binary logistic regression compared HPV-related knowledge, vaccination-related perceptions, mandate support, healthcare utilization, sexual behaviors, and personal characteristics. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to assess the degree to which these factors were associated with perceived risk of cervical cancer diagnosis. Relative to those not diagnosed with HPV, participants who had more lifetime sex partners (P HPV. Those with HPV were more likely to support HPV vaccination mandates (P = 0.036) and have fewer friends vaccinated (P = 0.002). Participants who were uninsured (P = 0.011), diagnosed with HPV (P HPV, despite engaging in risky sexual behaviors, acknowledge their cervical cancer risk and may be strong advocates for HPV vaccination mandates to protect youth against this preventable virus.
O'Hare, E A; O'Donohue, W
A new model of the etiology of sexual harassment, the four-factor model, is presented and compared with several models of sexual harassment including the biological model, the organizational model, the sociocultural model, and the sex role spillover model. A number of risk factors associated with sexually harassing behavior are examined within the framework of the four-factor model of sexual harassment. These include characteristics of the work environment (e.g., sexist attitudes among co-workers, unprofessional work environment, skewed sex ratios in the workplace, knowledge of grievance procedures for sexual harassment incidents) as well as personal characteristics of the subject (e.g., physical attractiveness, job status, sex-role). Subjects were 266 university female faculty, staff, and students who completed the Sexual Experience Questionnaire to assess the experience of sexual harassment and a questionnaire designed to assess the risk factors stated above. Results indicated that the four-factor model is a better predictor of sexual harassment than the alternative models. The risk factors most strongly associated with sexual harassment were an unprofessional environment in the workplace, sexist atmosphere, and lack of knowledge about the organization's formal grievance procedures.
Baumgartner, S.E.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Peter, J.; Yan, Z.
In recent years, there have been growing concerns about online sexual solicitations and online sexual risk behaviors. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of adolescents is confronted with online sexual solicitations or engages in online sexual risk behavior. Whereas more girls encounter
Ndziessi, Gilbert; Cohen, Julien; Kouanfack, Charles; Boyer, Sylvie; Moatti, Jean-Paul; Marcellin, Fabienne; Laurent, Christian; Spire, Bruno; Delaporte, Eric; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia
The continued scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa provides an opportunity to further study its impact on sexual behaviors among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We explored time trend and correlates of sexual activity among PLWHA initiating ART in Cameroon and compared sexual risk behaviors between patients sexually active before and after initiating ART and those resuming sexual activity after ART initiation. Analyses were based on longitudinal data collected within the randomized trial (n=459) conducted in nine rural district hospitals in Cameroon. Sexual activity was defined as reporting at least one sexual partner during the previous 3 months. Inconsistent condom use (ICU) was defined as reporting to have "never," "sometimes," or "nearly always" used condoms at least once with a partner(s) either HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status during the same period. Mc Nemar tests were used to assess time trend, while mixed-effect logistic regressions were conducted to analyze the effect of time since ART initiation on sexual activity. The proportion of sexually active patients significantly increased over time: from 31.8% at baseline to 40.2 and 47.1% after 6 and 12 months of ART, respectively (p=0.001), to 55.9% after 24 months (p=0.02). After adjustment for behavioral and psychosocial factors, time since ART initiation was independently associated with reporting sexual activity (AOR [95% CI]=1.30 [1.17-1.46] per 6-month increase, p=0.001). ICU was more frequent among patients sexually active both before and after ART initiation than among those who resumed sexual activity after ART initiation (82 vs. 59%, pART initiation fosters resumption of sexual activity in patients who are inactive before starting treatment; unsafe sexual behaviors remain less frequent in this population than in patients who are already sexually active before starting ART. Risk reduction programs should be reinforced among PLWHA in the context of ART scaling-up.
Ullman, Sarah E.; Vasquez, Amanda L.
This study examined sexual risk behaviors and sexual refusal assertiveness in relationship to child sexual abuse (CSA), emotion dysregulation, and adult sexual revictimization. Path analyses of 1,094 survivors who had sex in the past year were done to examine sexual risk behavior, and sexual refusal assertiveness mediational pathways by which CSA severity and emotion dysregulation may affect revictimization over one year in adult female sexual assault survivors. Exchanging sex for money and sexual refusal assertiveness were significantly associated with emotion dysregulation, whereas exchanging sex for money, and not sexual refusal assertiveness, was only significantly related to CSA severity. Both exchanging sex for money and sex refusal assertiveness mediated the relationship between emotion dysregulation and adult sexual revictimization. Exchanging sex for money mediated the CSA severity-revictimization relationship. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering both risky and protective sexual behaviors in research and prevention programming that address sexual revictimization in women. PMID:25942287
Hallfors, Denise; Vevea, Jack L; Iritani, Bonita; Cho, HyunSan; Khatapoush, Shereen; Saxe, Leonard
Society increasingly holds schools responsible for the effectiveness of health promotion activities, such as drug abuse prevention efforts funded through the federal Safe and Drug-Free Schools program. Consequently, school districts use student surveys as a method for assessing trends and evaluating effects of programs on behavior. Because cost and practical concerns often preclude consistent population-based school survey sampling, risk indicators can provide an essential tool in analyzing needs assessment and program evaluation data. In this paper, three risk measures associated with substance use were selected from among commonly used school surveys. These measures--truancy, grade point average, and recent sexual intercourse--were compared, using meta-analysis techniques, to assess the reliability of risk measures across different survey instruments, different communities, and different points in time. Truancy was judged superior, because of its strong predictive value, particularly among younger students, and because rates can be compared to school records to assess sampling validity over time.
Martyn, Kristy K.; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L.; Felicetti, Irene L.; Saftner, Melissa A.
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately…
Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research was to explore the subject of sexual activity in the Polish population, with special focus on age and gender differences, and sexual infidelity. Sexual activity is one of the basic factors in initiating and maintaining relationships. On the one hand, sexual activity enables us to meet natural needs and maintain an intimate relationship with another human being; on the other, it may allow us to overcome loneliness and social isolation by providing the opportunity to express feelings of closeness and unity. Material and method. The research was conducted on a representative group of 3,200 Poles aged between 15–49, with the support of a well-known Polish research company – TNS OBOP. Face-to-face and Pencil and Paper (PAPI interviews were carried out. Results. The results focus on two main issues: the age and motives of sexual initiation among teenagers (with a significant percentage starting their sexual activity at the age of 15, and the quality of the sexual lives of adults (average number of sexual partners, sexual infidelity and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion. There is dependence between the type of relationship and the performance or non-performance of sexual activity, as well as the quality of the relationship. Among both adolescents and adults, remaining in a stable relationship (partnership or marriage promotes loyalty. The performance of sexual goals turns out to be an important mechanism regulating the interpersonal aspects of a relationship, influencing their perception and evaluation.
Walker, Dave P; Messman-Moore, Terri L; Ward, Rose Marie
In previous studies, number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness were examined as independent risk factors for sexual victimization among college women. Using a sample of 335 college women, this study examined the interaction of number of sexual partners and sexual assertiveness on verbal sexual coercion and rape. Approximately 32% of the sample reported unwanted sexual intercourse, 6.9% (n = 23) experienced verbal sexual coercion, 17.9% (n = 60) experienced rape, and 7.2% (n = 24) experienced both. As number of sexual partners increased, instances of verbal sexual coercion increased for women low in relational sexual assertiveness but not for women high in relational sexual assertiveness. A similar relationship was not found for rape. Among women who experienced both verbal sexual coercion and rape, increases in number of partners in the context of low refusal and relational assertiveness were associated with increases in verbal sexual coercion and rape. Findings suggest sexual assertiveness is related to fewer experiences of sexual coercion.
Klein, William; Geaghan, Thomas; MacDonald, Tara
Objective: The authors' goal was to show how risk perceptions regarding unplanned sexual activity following alcohol use are prospectively related to subsequent alcohol consumption. Participants: Undergraduate students (N = 380) completed questionnaires at 2 time points during their freshman year. Methods: In the middle of the academic year (T1),…
Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.
This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…
McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.
Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. PMID:27771523
Quinn, Katherine; Ertl, Allison
This study explores the characteristics and risk behaviors of sexual minority high school students using the 2011 Wisconsin Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Among 3,043 students surveyed, 8% of students identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or unsure, and 7% reported having contact with same-sex partners. Findings indicate sexual minority students…
Li, Li; Ding, Ying Ying; Wu, Zunyou; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Guo, Sam
We examined normative beliefs about multiple sexual partners and social status in China and their association with risky sexual behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Self-reported and biological markers of sexual risk were examined among 3,716 market vendors from a city in eastern China. Men who were older or with less education believed having multiple sexual partners was linked to higher social status. Adjusting for demographic characteristics, normative beliefs were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners, while having multiple sexual partners was significantly associated with STIs. Normative beliefs regarding sexual behaviors may play an important role in individual risk behaviors. Future HIV/STI interventions must address community beliefs about the positive meaning of sexual risks, particularly among men with traditional beliefs about gender roles.
Evans, Jennifer L; Hahn, Judith A; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Lum, Paula J; Stein, Ellen S; Davidson, Peter J; Moss, Andrew R
Female injection drug users (IDUs) represent a large proportion of persons infected with HIV in the United States, and women who inject drugs have a high incidence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Therefore, it is important to understand the role of gender in injection risk behavior and the transmission of blood-borne virus. In 2000-2002, 844 young (<30 years old) IDUs were surveyed in San Francisco. We compared self-reported risk behavior between 584 males and 260 female participants from cross-sectional baseline data. We used logistic regression to determine whether demographic, structural, and relationship variables explained increased needle borrowing, drug preparation equipment sharing, and being injected by another IDU among females compared to males. Females were significantly younger than males and were more likely to engage in needle borrowing, ancillary equipment sharing, and being injected by someone else. Females were more likely than males to report recent sexual intercourse and to have IDU sex partners. Females and males were not different with respect to education, race/ethnicity, or housing status. In logistic regression models for borrowing a used needle and sharing drug preparation equipment, increased risk in females was explained by having an injection partner who was also a sexual partner. Injecting risk was greater in the young female compared to male IDUs despite equivalent frequency of injecting. Overlapping sexual and injection partnerships were a key factor in explaining increased injection risk in females. Females were more likely to be injected by another IDU even after adjusting for years injecting, being in a relationship with another IDU, and other potential confounders. Interventions to reduce sexual and injection practices that put women at risk of contracting hepatitis and HIV are needed.
Can psychosocial and socio-demographic questions help identify sexual risk among heterosexually-active women of reproductive age? Evidence from Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3
Full Text Available Abstract Background Contraceptive advice and supply (CAS and sexually transmitted infection (STI testing are increasingly provided in primary care. Most risk assessment tools are based on sexual risk behaviours and socio-demographics, for use online or in specialist services. Combining socio-demographic and psychosocial questions (e.g. religious belief and formative experience may generate an acceptable tool for targeting women in primary care who would benefit from intervention. We aimed to identify psychosocial and socio-demographic factors associated with reporting key sexual risk behaviours among women in the British general population. Methods We undertook complex survey analysis of data from 4911 hetero-sexually active women aged 16–44 years, who participated in Britain’s third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, a national probability sample survey undertaken 2010–2012. We used multivariable regression to examine associations between the available psychosocial and socio-demographic variables in Natsal-3 and reports of three key sexual behaviours: a 2+ partners in the last year (2PP; b non-use of condoms with 2+ partners in the last year (2PPNC; c non-use of condoms at first sex with most recent sexual partner (FSNC. We adjusted for key socio-demographic factors: age, ethnicity and socio-economic status (measured by housing tenure. Results Weekly binge drinking (6+ units on one occasion, and first sex before age 16 were each positively associated with all three sexual behaviours after adjustment. Current relationship status, reporting drug use (ever, younger age and living in rented accommodation were also associated with 2+ partners and 2 + partners without condoms after adjustment. Currently being a smoker, older age and respondent ethnicity were associated with FSNC after adjustment for all other variables. Current smoking status, treatment for depression (last year, and living at home with both
McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A.
Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) i...
Full Text Available Background. Several authors have examined the risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI, but no study has yet analyzed it solely in relation with sexual behaviour in women. We analyzed the association of sexual behaviour with STI risk in female university students of healthcare sciences. Methods. We designed a cross-sectional study assessing over three months vaginal intercourse with a man. The study involved 175 female university students, without a stable partner, studying healthcare sciences in Spain. Main outcome variable: STI risk (not always using male condoms. Secondary variables: sexual behaviour, method of orgasm, desire to increase the frequency of sexual relations, desire to have more variety in sexual relations, frequency of sexual intercourse with the partner, and age. The information was collected with an original questionnaire. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs in order to analyze the association between the STI risk and the study variables. Results. Of the 175 women, 52 were positive for STI risk (29.7%, 95% CI [22.9–36.5%]. Factors significantly associated with STI risk (p < 0.05 included: orgasm (not having orgasms →OR = 7.01, 95% CI [1.49–33.00]; several methods →OR = 0.77, 95% CI [0.31–1.90]; one single method →OR = 1; p = 0.008 and desiring an increased frequency of sexual activities (OR = 0.27, 95% CI [0.13–0.59], p < 0.001. Conclusions. Women’s desire for sexual activities and their sexual function were significant predictors of their risk for STI. Information about sexual function is an intrinsic aspect of sexual behaviour and should be taken into consideration when seeking approaches to reduce risks for STI.
Štulhofer, Aleksandar; Bergeron, Sophie; Jurin, Tanja
Historically, women's sexual desire has been deemed socially problematic. The growing popularity of the concept of hypersexuality-which lists high sexual desire among its core components-poses a risk of re-pathologizing female sexual desire. Data from a 2014 online survey of 2,599 Croatian women aged 18-60 years was used to examine whether high sexual desire is detrimental to women's relationship and sexual well-being. Based on the highest scores on an indicator of sexual desire, 178 women were classified in the high sexual desire (HSD) group; women who scored higher than one standard deviation above the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory mean were categorized in the hypersexuality (HYP) group (n = 239). Fifty-seven women met the classification criteria for both groups (HYP&HSD). Compared to other groups, the HSD was the most sexually active group. Compared to controls, the HYP and HYP&HSD groups-but not the HSD group-reported significantly more negative consequences associated with their sexuality. Compared to the HYP group, women with HSD reported better sexual function, higher sexual satisfaction, and lower odds of negative behavioral consequences. The findings suggest that, at least among women, hypersexuality should not be conflated with high sexual desire and frequent sexual activity.
Chernyshkova Е. V.
Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the principal factors influencing sexual activity of elderly persons. Data of foreign study and sociologic research carried out in Saratov region (2010 were used as the base for the analysis. It was revealed that the primary determinants of sexual activity in old age are the following: state of health, presence or absence of a partner, active lifestyle
Sadler, Anne G; Mengeling, Michelle A; Booth, Brenda M; O'Shea, Amy M J; Torner, James C
To determine if military leader behaviors are associated with active component and Reserve-National Guard servicewomen's risk of sexual assault in the military (SAIM) for nondeployed locations. A community sample of 1337 Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom-era Army and Air Force servicewomen completed telephone interviews (March 2010-December 2011) querying sociodemographic and military characteristics, sexual assault histories, and leader behaviors. We created 2 factor scores (commissioned and noncommissioned) to summarize behaviors by officer rank. A total of 177 servicewomen (13%) experienced SAIM in nondeployed locations. Negative leader behaviors were associated with increased assault risk, at least doubling servicewomen's odds of SAIM (e.g., noncommissioned officers allowed others in unit to make sexually demeaning comments; odds ratio = 2.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.8, 4.1). Leader behavior frequencies were similar, regardless of service type. Negative leadership behavior risk factors remained significantly associated with SAIM risk even after adjustment for competing risk. Noncommissioned and commissioned officer factor scores were highly correlated (r = 0.849). The association between leader behaviors and SAIM indicates that US military leaders have a critical role in influencing servicewomen's risk of and safety from SAIM.
Rutter, Philip A.; Soucar, Emil
Study examines the relationship between sexual orientation and youth suicide risk. The suicide risk demonstrated by sexual minorities in this study was no greater than that of their heterosexual peers. Youth who reported more external support demonstrated lower overall suicide risk and, specifically, lower levels of hostility, hopelessness, and…
Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62-29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01-10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86-4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07-2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.89). Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to "real world" sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula.
Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
OBJECTIVES: Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. METHODS: A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. RESULTS: Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62–29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01–10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86–4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07–2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17–2.89). CONCLUSIONS: Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to “real world” sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula. PMID:22987882
The issue of homosexuality attracts global debate, given that this constitutes risk factor for sexually transmitted diseases. An exploration of socio-cultural, religious and sexual activities of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex sector would inform future Human Immunodeficiency Virus programming.
Houck, Christopher D; Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K
This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ(2) = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ(2) = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents.
Barker, David; Rizzo, Christie; Hancock, Evan; Norton, Alicia; Brown, Larry K.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the prevalence of sexting behaviors (sexually explicit messages and/or pictures) among an at-risk sample of early adolescents as well as the associations between sexting behaviors and sexual behaviors, risk-related cognitions, and emotional regulation skills. It also aimed to determine whether differences in risk were associated with text-based versus photo-based sexts. METHODS: Seventh-grade adolescents participating in a sexual risk prevention trial for at-risk early adolescents completed a computer-based survey at baseline regarding sexting behavior (having sent sexually explicit messages and/or pictures), sexual activities, intentions to have sex, perceived approval of sexual activity, and emotional regulation skills. RESULTS: Twenty-two percent of the sample reported having sexted in the past 6 months; sexual messages were endorsed by 17% (n = 71), sexual messages and photos by 5% (n = 21). Pictures were endorsed significantly more often by females (χ2 = 7.33, P = .03) and Latinos (χ2 = 7.27, P = .03). Sexting of any kind was associated with higher rates of engaging in a variety of sexual behaviors, and sending photos was associated with higher rates of sexual activity than sending text messages only. This was true for a range of behaviors from touching genitals over clothes (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98, P = .03) to oral sex (OR = 2.66, P Sexting behavior (both photo and text messages) was not uncommon among middle school youth and co-occurred with sexual behavior. These data suggest that phone behaviors, even flirtatious messages, may be an indicator of risk. Clinicians, parents, and health programs should discuss sexting with early adolescents. PMID:24394678
Socio‑demographic and obstetric features, menstrual and breastfeeding ... looseness and discharge, loss of sexual desire and bleeding or ..... Abnormal vaginal discharge. 12 .... Borda MR, Winfrey W, McKaig C. Return to sexual activity and ...
Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Chen, Sheng-Hwang; Li, Ren-Hau; Yu, Hsing-Yi
The purpose of this study was to test a model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition affecting sexual communication in Taiwanese adolescents. Parent-adolescent sexual communication has been shown to influence adolescent sexual behaviour. Self-concept is an important predictor of human behaviour, especially sexual behaviour. Few researchers have assessed sexual self-concept in adolescents, despite its clear relevance to understanding adolescent sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional survey with convenience sampling was used in this study. In 2009, data were collected by questionnaire from 748 adolescent students at a junior college in Taiwan. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data from this study well. Sexual self-concept significantly predicts sexual risk cognition and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition significantly predicts sexual communication and has an intervening effect on the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual communication. Sexual risk cognition is important in explaining sexuality in adolescents. Sexual self-concept has both direct and indirect effects on sexual communication. Our findings provide concrete directions for school educators in developing sexual health programmes to increase adolescent sexual self-concept and sexual communication with their parents. Future sexual health programmes about sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition must add for increasing adolescent's sexual communication with their parents. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Wallwiener, Stephanie; Müller, Mitho; Doster, Anne; Kuon, Ruben Jeremias; Plewniok, Katharina; Feller, Sandra; Wallwiener, Markus; Reck, Corinna; Matthies, Lina Maria; Wallwiener, Christian
Reduced sexual activity and dysfunctional problems are highly prevalent in the perinatal period, and there is a lack of data regarding the degree of normality during pregnancy. Several risk factors have been independently associated with a greater extent of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of sexual inactivity and sexual dysfunctions in German women during the perinatal period and the verification of potential risk factors. Questionnaires were administered to 315 women prenatally (TI 3rd trimester) and postpartum (TII 1 week, TIII 4 months), including the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and the Questionnaire of Partnership (PFB). The frequency of sexual inactivity was 24% (TI), 40.5% (TII), and 19.9% (TIII). Overall, 26.5-34.8% of women were at risk of sexual dysfunction (FSFI score Sexual desire disorder was the most prevalent form of Female sexual dysfunction. Furthermore, especially breastfeeding and low partnership quality were revealed as significant risk factors for sexual dysfunctional problems postpartum. Depressive symptoms having a cesarean section and high maternal education were correlated with dysfunctional problems in several subdomains. Findings indicated that women at risk of FSD differed significantly in aspects of partnership quality, breastfeeding, mode of delivery, maternal education, and depressive symptoms. Aspects of perinatal sexuality should be routinely implemented in the counseling of couples in prenatal classes.
Mirzaei, Mojtaba; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Seyed-Hassan; Ramezani, Mohammad Arash
Sexual behavior is a complex activity affecting all aspects of human's life. Risky sexual behaviors impose negative outcomes on family, relationships and health. Unsafe sex is the second most leading cause of disability adjusted life years worldwide. Valid and reliable tools for assessment of risky sexual behaviors are necessary for implementing preventive measures. we searched Medline and the Cochrane Library of Systematic Reviews, with the keywords of "risky sexual behavior assessment", "sexual risk assessment", "high risk sexual behavior", "sexual risk taking". By reviewing references of the articles, some complementary studies were added. Assessment can be performed by questionnaire or non-questionnaire instruments. Questionnaires vary depending on their target population, evaluation of risky sexual behavior as a whole or focusing on an associated risk factor. In order to avoid usual biases in self reports, objective biomarker assessment of unprotected sex are employed. These markers include prostate specific antigen, chromosome Y DNA and Seminogelin. Risky sexual behavior can be assessed by various subjective and objective methods. While self-reports are more feasible, objective methods offer a higher degree of reliability. Further studies for finding more feasible methods of using biomarkers are recommended.
Krantz, Megan; Goldstein, Tina; Rooks, Brian; Merranko, John; Liao, Fangzi; Gill, Mary Kay; Diler, Rasim; Hafeman, Danella; Ryan, Neal; Goldstein, Benjamin; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey; Keller, Martin; Strober, Michael; Axelson, David; Birmaher, Boris
This study aims to document rates of sexual activity among youth with bipolar spectrum disorder (BD) and to examine demographic and clinical factors associated with first sexual activity and sexual risk behavior during follow-up. The sample was drawn from the Course and Outcome of Bipolar Youth (COBY) study of 413 youth 7 to 17 years at baseline who met criteria for bipolar spectrum disorder according to the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children. Psychiatric symptoms during follow-up were assessed using the Adolescent Longitudinal Interview Follow-Up Evaluation (ALIFE). Sexual behavior and level of sexual risk (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, and/or partners with known sexually transmitted infections) were assessed by trained evaluators using the ALIFE Psychosocial Functioning Scale. Analyses were conducted in relation to first sexual behavior during follow-up and then to subsequent sexual behaviors (mean 9.7 years, standard deviation 3.2). Sexually active COBY youth (n = 292 of 413; 71%) were more likely females, using substances, and not living with both parents. Consistent with findings among healthy youth, earlier first sexual activity in the sample was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status, female sex, comorbid disruptive behavior disorder, and substance use. As with healthy youth, sexual risk behavior during follow-up was significantly associated with non-Caucasian race, low socioeconomic status, substance use, and history of sexual abuse. Of those COBY youth who were sexually active, 11% reported sexual assault or abuse, 36% reported becoming pregnant (or the significant other becoming pregnant), and 15% reported having at least 1 abortion (or the significant other having an abortion) during follow-up. Hypomanic symptoms during follow-up were temporally associated with the greatest risk for sexual risk behavior. Demographic and clinical factors could help identify youth with bipolar spectrum
Orlando, Giovanna; Fasolo, Michela; Mazza, Francesca; Ricci, Elena; Esposito, Susanna; Frati, Elena; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo; Cetin, Irene; Gramegna, Maria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Tanzi, Elisabetta
HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. The greatest and the earliest health gains will be ensured by high vaccine coverage among all susceptible people. The high costs and the risk of a reduced cost/effectiveness ratio in sexually active girls still represent the main obstacles for a more widespread use of HPV vaccination in many countries. Data on the rate, risk factors, and HPV types in sexually active women could provide information for the evaluation of vaccination policies extended to broader age cohorts. Sexually active women aged 13-26 years enrolled in an Italian cohort study were screened for cervical HPV infections; HPV-DNA positive samples were genotyped by InnoLipa HPV Genotyping Extra or by RFLP genotype analysis.: Among the 796 women meeting the inclusion criteria, 10.80% (95% CI 8.65-12.96) were HPV-DNA infected. Age>18 years, lifetime sexual partners>1, and history of STIs were associated to higher risk of HPV infection in the multivariable models adjusted for age, lifetime sexual partners, and time of sexual exposure. The global prevalence of the four HPV vaccine-types was 3.02% (95% CI 1.83-4.20) and the cumulative probability of infection from at least one vaccine-type was 12.82% in 26-years-old women and 0.78% in 18-years-old women.: Our data confirm most of the previously reported findings on the risk factors for HPV infections. The low prevalence of the HPV vaccine-types found may be useful for the evaluation of the cost/efficacy and the cost/effectiveness of broader immunization programs beyond the 12-years-old cohort.
Bonfils, Kelsey A; Firmin, Ruth L; Salyers, Michelle P; Wright, Eric R
Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N = 401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with 0 partners, 1 partner, or multiple partners over the past 3 months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions on the basis of consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
McGinley, Meredith; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Liu, Li; Richman, Judith A
Collegiate extracurricular activities, despite their benefits, may place students at an increased risk for experiencing harassment. This study utilizes multiple waves of data from an online longitudinal survey to examine how participation in college activities (intramural sports, fraternities/sororities, school clubs) relates to experiences of sexual and generalized harassment and outcomes (psychological distress, heavy alcohol use) among undergraduates (N = 1852, 58.6% female, 57.4% White) in the Midwestern United States. Activity participation was related to harassment, but the pattern depended on the activity, harassment type, and sex. Fraternity/sorority involvement was associated with generalized harassment, whereas school club involvement was linked to both generalized and sexual harassment. Female intramural athletes were at an increased risk to experience both harassment types. In addition to direct relations, activity participation was indirectly linked to future psychological distress (depression, anxiety) and heavy alcohol use via harassment. Implications for intervention with this college student population are discussed. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Lijun; Su, Yanchen
This study examined patterns of asexuality in Chinese asexual people in terms of sexual activities, sexual/romantic attraction, and sexual desire. The sample included 227 (64 men and 163 women) asexual participants and 57 (26 men and 31 women) uncertain asexual participants recruited from social networks for asexual people. The control group included 217 (115 men and 102 women) heterosexual participants recruited from general social networks. Participants scoring 40 or higher on the Asexuality Identification Scale were classified as asexual. Asexual participants reported having less frequent masturbation, sexual intercourse experience, and sexual and romantic attraction compared to heterosexual participants. Lower sexual attraction among asexuals indicated that "people who experience little or no sexual attraction" would be a more appropriate definition of asexuality. The pattern of uncertain asexual participants' sexual/romantic attraction and sexual desire was intermediate between heterosexual and asexual participants. Asexual participants scored significantly lower on dyadic sexual desire and slightly lower on solitary sexual desire than heterosexual participants. There were significant differences in sexual activities and solitary sexual desire among romantic orientation categories. Homoromantic participants showed higher dyadic sexual desire and were more likely to engage in masturbation, indicating the heterogeneity among asexual people. The findings indicated that Chinese asexual people showed similar patterns of asexuality as in Western nations. Specifically, asexual people have little or no sexual attraction, non-partner-orientated sexual desire, and are heterogeneous in sexual activities and sexual desire. This implies similar mechanisms underlying the etiology of asexuality across cultures.
Shehadeh, Nancy; Virginia McCoy, H; Rubens, Muni; Batra, Anamica; Renfrew, Roderick; Winter, Kelly
Among migrant workers (MWs) in the US, HIV/AIDS prevalence may be as high as 13.5%. This serial cross-sectional study examines associations between Ethnic Identity (EI) in African American and Hispanic MWs and short-term changes in high-risk sexual behaviors. Baseline and 3-month follow-up data was collected from a larger HIV intervention study among MWs in Immokalee, Florida (n = 119) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess EI. A high EI score indicates less acculturation to one's new surroundings. Females had higher levels of positive behavior change. Lower EI was associated with higher levels of positive change in relation to HIV/AIDS risk behavior. Among Hispanics, education was negatively correlated with EI. Education was a predictor of behavior change. Future interventions should focus on reducing acculturation stress, which may prompt harmful coping behaviors, such as high-risk sex and substance abuse.
Behavioural risk factors for sexually transmitted infections and health ... sharing of personal effects, malnourishment and sexual harassment. ... Development of risk reduction and appropriate sexual health interventions targeted at prevention ...
Quinn, Chris; Happell, Brenda
Patients utilising forensic mental health inpatient services experience a range of sexual risks, including vulnerability to sexual exploitation and exposure to sexually transmissible infections. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the issue of sexual risks from the standpoint of patients and the nurses who work closely with them in inpatient secure settings. This article presents findings from a qualitative exploratory study, which investigated the views of patients and nurses about sexual relationships in forensic mental health settings. Risk was a major theme arising from the data and is the focus of this article. Subthemes from nurse participants included sexual safety, sexual vulnerability, unplanned pregnancies, and male sexuality issues. Subthemes from patients included risks associated with sexual activity, access to information and sexual health care, unplanned pregnancies, vulnerability, and male sexuality issues. Knowledge about these sexual risks by patients and nurses were well articulated, however information and assistance were considered by patients to be less than satisfactory in improving their knowledge or in providing the support they considered important to reduce sexual risks. The issue of risk needs to be addressed, and nurses would be well placed to contribute; however they require education to improve their ability to provide sexual health education to patients along with strategies to ensure patients receive the support and services they require to reduce their exposure to sexual risks.
Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy
Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.
Charlton, Brittany M; Roberts, Andrea L; Rosario, Margaret; Katz-Wise, Sabra L; Calzo, Jerel P; Spiegelman, Donna; Austin, S Bryn
Young women who are sexual minorities (eg, bisexual and lesbian) are approximately twice as likely as those who are heterosexual to have a teen pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesized that risk factors for teen pregnancy would vary across sexual orientation groups and that other potential risk factors exist that are unique to sexual minorities. We used multivariable log-binomial models gathered from 7120 young women in the longitudinal cohort known as the Growing Up Today Study to examine the following potential teen pregnancy risk factors: childhood maltreatment, bullying victimization and perpetration, and gender nonconformity. Among sexual minorities, we also examined the following: sexual minority developmental milestones, sexual orientation-related stress, sexual minority outness, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual social activity involvement. Childhood maltreatment and bullying were significant teen pregnancy risk factors among all participants. After adjusting for childhood maltreatment and bullying, the sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparities were attenuated; these risk factors explained 45% of the disparity. Among sexual minorities, reaching sexual minority developmental milestones earlier was also associated with an increased teen pregnancy risk. The higher teen pregnancy prevalence among sexual minorities compared with heterosexuals in this cohort was partially explained by childhood maltreatment and bullying, which may, in part, stem from sexual orientation-related discrimination. Teen pregnancy prevention efforts that are focused on risk factors more common among young women who are sexual minorities (eg, childhood maltreatment, bullying) can help to reduce the existing sexual orientation-related teen pregnancy disparity. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Sümer, Zeynep Hatipoğlu
The purpose of this study is to examine the role of gender, religiosity, sexual activity, and sexual knowledge in predicting attitudes toward controversial aspects of sexuality among Turkish university students. Participants were 162 female and 135 male undergraduate students who were recruited on a volunteer basis from an urban state university in Turkey. The SKAT-A Attitude Scale along with background information form, sexual activities inventory, and sexual knowledge scale were administered to the participants. Simultaneous multiple regression analyses revealed that religiosity, particularly attendance to religious services was the most significant predictor in explaining university students' attitudes toward masturbation, abortion, homosexuality, pornography, and sexual coercion.
... to ascertain their socio.demographic and obstetric features, sexual activity, time to coital resumption, reasons for resumption and non.resumption of intercourse, sexual problems encountered and contraceptive usage. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 16 for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).
Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Euton, Stephanie J; Jones, Jamie N; Schmidt, Norman B
There has been interest in the relationship between homosexuality, gender role and suicide risk. Though homosexuals are more likely to identify as cross-gender, research has not simultaneously examined sexual orientation and gender role in assessing suicide risk. In the current study, the unique and interactive effects of sexual orientation and gender role were assessed in regard to suicidal ideation, related psychopathology and measures of coping. 77 participants were recruited from an undergraduate psychology subject pool (n=47) or from gay, lesbian and transgender student organizations (n=30) and assessed on measures of gender role, homosexuality, and psychopathology. Consistent with expectations, cross-gender role (i.e., personality traits associated with the opposite sex) is a unique predictor of suicidal symptoms. Moreover, gender role accounted for more of the overall variance in suicidal symptoms, positive problem orientation, peer acceptance and support, than sexual orientation. After accounting for gender role, sexual orientation contributed little to the variance in suicidal symptoms, associated pathology and problem-solving deficits. There was no support for gender role by sexual orientation interaction effects. The cross-sectional nature of the data limits statements regarding causality. Cross-gendered individuals, regardless of sexual orientation, appear to have higher risk for suicidal symptoms. Researchers and clinicians should assess gender role in evaluations of youth samples.
Henrich, Christopher C; Brookmeyer, Kathryn A; Shrier, Lydia A; Shahar, Golan
To examine the longitudinal associations between supportive relationships with friends and parents and sexual risk behavior in adolescence based on an ecological-transactional perspective. Analyses were conducted on 2,652 sexually active adolescents from the first two waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). African-American adolescents had lower risk for sexual risk behavior. Supportive friendships and parent connectedness interacted in predicting decreased likelihood of sexual risk behavior. Mother-child communication about sex contributed to decreased likelihood of sexual risk only for girls. There were also small reciprocal effects of sexual risk behavior on decreased relationship quality over time. To better understand the parents' role in adolescent sexual risk behavior, multiple facets of parenting, the social contexts of parenting and adolescents' peers, and the effects of adolescents' behavior on these relationships should be taken into consideration.
Risk from the frontlines of a hidden epidemic sexuality, masculinities and social pressures ... It frames risk in the context of the dynamics governing sexuality, underlined ... MSM risk and practice, in these contexts, are consequently shaped by ...
Whitaker, D J; Miller, K S; May, D C; Levin, M L
Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.
Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.
The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…
An assessment of high risk sexual behaviour and HIV transmission among migrant oil workers in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. ... questionnaires to evaluate key high – risk sexual behavioral parameters such as multiplicity of sexual partners, bisexuality (closet homosexuality), high grade sexual behaviour and lesbianism.
Peterson, Zoё D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Hensel, Devon J; Heiman, Julia R
Previous research has suggested that sexually aggressive behavior and sexual HIV risk behavior are associated. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a well-established risk factor for both types of problematic sexual behavior. Negative affect (i.e., anxiety, depression, and anger) is a less well-studied risk factor, but it has been theorized to relate to both sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior. Thus, this study sought to (1) confirm the relationship between sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, (2) establish CSA and negative affect as shared risk factors for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior, and (3) evaluate whether negative affect mediates the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and HIV sexual risk in a sample of heterosexual men. We recruited 18- to 30-year-old heterosexual men (N = 377) from urban sexually transmitted infection clinics. Men completed measures of sexual HIV risk history (number of partners and condom use), sexual aggression history, CSA history, and trait negative affect (anger, anxiety, and depression). Structural equation modeling was used to examine hypothesized direct and indirect relationships. In the final SEM model, sexual aggression history and sexual HIV risk behavior were correlated. CSA was associated with both types of problematic sexual behavior. Anxiety significantly mediated the relationship between CSA and sexual aggression and between CSA and sexual HIV risk behavior (χ 2  = 2121.79, p Sexual aggression appears to be part of a constellation of sexual risk behaviors; thus, it may be possible to develop prevention programs that target both sexual HIV risk and sexual aggression. CSA is a shared risk factor for sexual aggression and HIV risk behavior through the pathway of anxiety. Thus, anxiety might be one promising target for intervention.
Victor, Elizabeth C; Chung, Richard; Thompson, Robert J
This study examined the association between survey responses to health behaviors, personality/psychosocial factors, and self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to create a brief survey to identify youth at risk for contracting STIs. Participants included 200 racially diverse 14- to 18-year-old patients from a pediatric primary care clinic. Two sexual behavior variables and one peer norm variable were used to differentiate subgroups of individuals at risk of contracting a STI based on reported history of STIs using probability (decision tree) analyses. These items, as well as sexual orientation and having ever had oral sex, were used to create a brief sexual health screening (BSHS) survey. Each point increase in total BSHS score was associated with exponential growth in the percentage of sexually active adolescents reporting STIs. Findings suggest that the BSHS could serve as a useful tool for clinicians to quickly and accurately detect sexual risk among adolescent patients. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ancheta, Rosedelia; Hynes, Colin; Shrier, Lydia A
The objective of this study was to explore the associations of sources, content, and timing of reproductive health education with cognitive and behavioral sexual risk in a sample of high-risk female adolescents and young adults. Female adolescents and young adults (n=113, median age 17 years) receiving treatment for a sexually transmitted disease (STD) reported sources of reproductive health education, topics covered, and when first formal education occurred. Dependent variables included sexual risk knowledge; condom attitudes, negotiation skills, and use (consistent and at last sex); and number of sexual partners. Most participants reported receiving reproductive health education from both parental (80%) and formal sources (92%). Parents discussed the menstrual cycle (94%) more frequently than other sex education topics, while formal sources focused most on teaching about STDs (91%). Although median age of first formal instruction was 12 years, 26% of girls received their first formal education during or after the year they initiated coitus. Girls with a parental source of education and those receiving formal instruction on pregnancy reported greater ability to negotiate condom use. Girls who received education later in relation to the onset of sexual activity and those with a parental source of education reported more sexual partners. Early reproductive health education and education from both parental and formal sources is associated with reduced sexual risk among high-risk adolescent girls. Interestingly, receiving parental education is also associated with more sexual partners, suggesting that parental educational efforts may be reactive to their daughters' increasing sexual risk behavior. Future research should examine multiple sources of reproductive health education and the timing of education from these sources to enhance understanding the dynamic interactions between reproductive health education and adolescent sexual risk.
Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Montazeri, Ali
Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth's health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: 'acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, 'sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship', 'premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right', 'having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships', 'virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon', 'love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors', 'goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors', and 'experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection'. Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities.
Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Vieira, Sandra
No ficheiro onde se lê: "PSICOLOGIA: TEORIA, INVESTIGAÇÃO E PRÁTICA, 2004, 2, 065-080" deverá ler-se: "Psicologia : teoria, investigação e prática". ISSN 0873-4976. 10:1 (2005) 65-80". Tendo em conta a importância de que se reveste a avaliação do risco de violência em geral e o risco de violência sexual em particular, na prevenção da criminalidade, apresentam-se as características, o modo de utilização, as aplicações e as limitações de uma checklist (o SVR-20), concebida para identificar o...
Martyn, Kristy K; Darling-Fisher, Cynthia; Pardee, Michelle; Ronis, David L; Felicetti, Irene L; Saftner, Melissa A
This study was conducted to explore the effects of an event history calendar (EHC) approach on adolescent sexual risk communication and sexual activity. Adolescent school-linked health clinic patients (n = 30) who reported sexual activity self-administered the EHC that was used by nurse practitioners (NPs; n = 2) during a clinic visit. Immediately pre- and post-visit, and at 1 and 3 months, adolescents reported sexual risk behaviors and perceptions about EHC communication on questionnaires and by interview. NPs reported their perceptions of EHCs by questionnaire after the visit and poststudy interview. The EHC approach facilitated communication and adolescent awareness of their risk behaviors. Scores increased on Amount of Communication, t(29) = 8.174, p Communication, t(29) = 3.112, p = .004; Client Involvement in Decision Making, t(29) = 3.901, p = .001, and Client Satisfaction with Interpersonal Style, t(29) = 3.763, p = .001. Adolescents reported decreased sexual intercourse at 1 month, p = .031. School nurses could use the EHC approach to facilitate adolescent communication and tailoring of interventions.
Santos, Carlos E; VanDaalen, Rachel A
In this brief report, we present results from a study exploring the associations of high-risk activism (HRA) orientation in lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) issues; HRA orientation in racial/ethnic issues; conflicts in allegiances (CIA) between one's ethnic-racial and sexual minority identities; and anxiety among LGB racial/ethnic minority adults. A racially and ethnically diverse sample of 208 LGB racial/ethnic minority adults (age: M = 27.52, SD = 8.76) completed an online survey. Bivariate correlations showed that HRA orientation in LGB and in racial/ethnic issues, as well as CIA, were each positively associated with anxiety. However, regression analyses indicated that CIA moderated the association between anxiety and HRA orientation in LGB issues (but not racial/ethnic minority issues) such that this association was significant and positive at low levels of CIA and nonsignificant at high levels of CIA. These findings can be used to not only inform psychological practice with this population (e.g., by encouraging practitioners to be more attentive to these issues as potential sources of stress), but also more broadly, as knowledge that can inform the burgeoning psychological literature on collective action. We highlight, for example, the importance of distinguishing between types of activism (i.e., high- vs. low-risk types) in relation to mental health outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Ramdurg, Santosh; Ambekar, Atul; Lal, Rakesh
People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30) and naltrexone (n = 30) maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.
Caballero-Hoyos, Ramiro; Villaseñor-Sierra, Alberto; Millán-Guerrero, Rebeca; Trujillo-Hernández, Benjamín; Monárrez-Espino, Joel
Indigenous migrant workers (IMWs) have a high vulnerability to HIV and STDs due to poverty and marginalization. This study examined factors associated with sexual risk behavior (SRB) according to type of partner in transnational young male IMWs at a sugar cane agro-industrial complex in western Mexico. A total of 192 sexually active IMWs were recruited from four laborer shelters to participate in a sexual partner survey. The IMWs were interviewed about their sexual partners and practices over the last 12 months during which it emerged that they had had a total of 360 sexual partners. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to SRB in 222 main (spouse, mistress and girlfriend) and 138 casual partners (colleague, friend, casual encounter and sex worker). Results showed a significantly higher SRB score with casual partners. For the main partner regression model, prior exposure to HIV- and STD-preventive information and sexual intercourse with higher employment status partners (formal workers vs. self-employed in informal activities and unemployed) were associated with lower SRB scores, but if the sexual relations occurred in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), the SRB scores increased. For the casual partner model, the practice of survival sex (sex in exchange for basic needs), sexual relations in Mexico (vs. the U.S.), and being a circular migrant (person traveling for temporary work to return home when the contract is over) were related to higher SRB scores. Findings support the implementation of preventive interventions using different messages depending on the type of partners, main or casual, within the labor migrant context.
Tolver, Mette A; Rosenberg, Jacob
during sexual activity was a risk factor for postoperative pain during sexual activity. METHODS: A prospective questionnaire study before and 6 months after hernia repair was conducted. Men (age 18-85 years) undergoing laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair were included. RESULTS: In total, 160 men were......BACKGROUND: Sexual life may be impaired by pain during sexual activity in patients with inguinal hernia. On the other hand, inguinal hernia repair has also been reported to cause sexual dysfunction in terms of pain during sexual activity and ejaculation. The primary aim of this study...... was to estimate the prevalence of pain during sexual activity before and after laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair, and the secondary, to describe pain location, frequency of pain during sexual activity, and to which degree sexual life was affected by the pain. Furthermore, to examine whether preoperative pain...
Sexually active young people are at high risk of unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Consistent condom use is critically important for preventing both. This study examined sexual activity and pattern of condom use among in-school youths in Sagamu. Multi-staged sampling method was used to choose ...
Although many studies examine purported risks associated with sexual activities, few examine potential physical and mental health benefits, and even fewer incorporate the scientifically essential differentiation of specific sexual behaviors. This review provides an overview of studies examining potential health benefits of various sexual activities, with a focus on the effects of different sexual activities. Review of peer-reviewed literature. Findings on the associations between distinct sexual activities and various indices of psychological and physical function. A wide range of better psychological and physiological health indices are associated specifically with penile-vaginal intercourse. Other sexual activities have weaker, no, or (in the cases of masturbation and anal intercourse) inverse associations with health indices. Condom use appears to impair some benefits of penile-vaginal intercourse. Only a few of the research designs allow for causal inferences. The health benefits associated with specifically penile-vaginal intercourse should inform a new evidence-based approach to sexual medicine, sex education, and a broad range of medical and psychological consultations.
Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R
To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sexual coercion affects the individual through multiple short- and long-term medical, emotional, psychological and social consequences, and adolescents are particularly at high risk. Sexual coercion is hypothesised to negatively affect adolescents' decision-making around their sexual behaviours and other risk behaviours.
Sagrestano, Lynda M.; Paikoff, Roberta L.
Adolescent sexual activity and the resulting pregnancy and transmission of sexually transmitted diseases have been on the rise during the past several decades. This chapter addresses each of the three objectives regarding sexual behavior outlined in the Healthy People 2000 initiative. Background data and trends in adolescent sexual behavior are…
Risk-taking behaviours such as smoking, alcohol and drug use were shown to increase the likelihood of being sexually active when entering university, as did indicators of depression and suicidal ideation. The results indicate that religion plays an important role in influencing sexual behaviour, highlighting the important ...
Eckstrand, Kristen L.; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Mohanty, Arpita; Cross, Marissa; Allen, Nicholas B.; Silk, Jennifer S.; Jones, Neil P.; Forbes, Erika E.
Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N=47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4 years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior. PMID:28755632
Kristen L. Eckstrand
Full Text Available Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N = 47; 18M, 29F; 16.3 ± 1.4 years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS. Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior.
Eckstrand, Kristen L; Choukas-Bradley, Sophia; Mohanty, Arpita; Cross, Marissa; Allen, Nicholas B; Silk, Jennifer S; Jones, Neil P; Forbes, Erika E
Adolescent sexual risk behavior can lead to serious health consequences, yet few investigations have addressed its neurodevelopmental mechanisms. Social neurocircuitry is postulated to underlie the development of risky sexual behavior, and response to social reward may be especially relevant. Typically developing adolescents (N=47; 18M, 29F; 16.3±1.4years; 42.5% sexual intercourse experience) completed a social reward fMRI task and reported their sexual risk behaviors (e.g., lifetime sexual partners) on the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). Neural response and functional connectivity to social reward were compared for adolescents with higher- and lower-risk sexual behavior. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors demonstrated increased activation in the right precuneus and the right temporoparietal junction during receipt of social reward. Adolescents with higher-risk sexual behaviors also demonstrated greater functional connectivity between the precuneus and the temporoparietal junction bilaterally, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex, and left anterior insula/ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. The greater activation and functional connectivity in self-referential, social reward, and affective processing regions among higher sexual risk adolescents underscores the importance of social influence underlying sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, results suggest an orientation towards and sensitivity to social rewards among youth engaging in higher-risk sexual behavior, perhaps as a consequence of or vulnerability to such behavior. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
AJRH Managing Editor
Family Structure, Poverty and Sexual Risk Behaviors ... Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Demography and Social Statistics Department, .... to high rate of adolescent sexual promiscuity as a ..... birth control and consequences of premarital sex.
positive status potentially place their partners at risk for HIV transmission and other sexually transmitted infections. The study findings highlight the need to promote safe sexual behaviors and a positive social environment for people living with ...
Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A
The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nov 8, 2010 ... This work ... The objectives of this study were (1) to identify sexual risk behaviour, (2) to establish the prevalence of substance use before sexual intercourse, .... translated into Xitsonga and back into English to ensure that the.
Breakwell, Glynis M.; Millward, Lynne J.
Presents data from a survey of randomly selected adolescents (N=474) which examined differences between male and female sexual identities. Results indicate two main dimensions in male sexual self-concept: socioemotional and the relational. Female sexual self-concept revolved around concerns with assertiveness, such as controlling when sex occurs.…
Using a questionnaire instrument, information was obtained on sexual behaviours of interest such as sexual initiation, multi-partnered sexual activity and condom use. Findings showed a noticeable variation in the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviour. Contrary to expectations, students from ...
Kaestle, Christine E.; Evans, Larissa M.
Objective: We examine how sexual activity relates to sexual well-being within the context of sexual attitudes, sexual agency, and sexual desire. Participants/Methods: We surveyed 471 college women in 2012-2014 who had ever had sex. Results: Sexual agency and sexual desire consistently predicted well-being, regardless of recent sexual activity.…
Rita Elizabeth Moreira Mascarenhas
Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6±1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28 and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30. Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P=0.02 and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P=0.01. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide.
Moreira Mascarenhas, Rita Elizabeth; Sacramento Cunha Machado, Márcia; Borges da Costa e Silva, Bruno Fernando; Fernandes Weyll Pimentel, Rodrigo; Teixeira Ferreira, Tatiana; Silva Leoni, Fernanda Maria; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios
Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and genital candidiasis are considered the main etiologies of vulvovaginitis. Few studies estimate the prevalence of vulvovaginitis among adolescents, especially in Brazil. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and main risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis and genital infection by C. albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis among a group of adolescents from Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. One hundred sexually active adolescents followed at an adolescent gynecology clinic were included. Endocervical and vaginal samples were obtained during gynecological examination. Nugent criteria were applied for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. For Candida albicans and Trichomonas vaginalis detection, culture in Sabouraud agar plates and Papanicolaou cytology were used, respectively. The mean age of participants was 16.6 ± 1.6 years. The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis was 20% (95% CI 12–28) and of genital infection by Candida was 22% (95% CI 14–30). Vaginal cytology detected Trichomonas vaginalis in one patient. Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use (P = 0.02) and multiple lifetime partners were statistically related to bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.01). The prevalence of bacterial vaginosis and genital candidiasis was similar to other studies carried out among adolescents worldwide. PMID:23133306
Shaw, Stacey A; El-Bassel, Nabila
This systematic review examines the relationship between religion and sexual HIV risk behavior. It focuses primarily on how studies have conceptualized and defined religion, methodologies, and sexual risk outcomes. We also describe regions where studies were conducted and mechanisms by which religion may be associated with sexual risk. We included 137 studies in this review, classifying them as measuring: (1) only religious affiliation (n = 57), (2) only religiosity (n = 48), and (3) both religious affiliation and religiosity (n = 32). A number of studies identified lower levels of sexual HIV risk among Muslims, although many of these examined HIV prevalence rather than specific behavioral risk outcomes. Most studies identified increased religiosity to be associated with lower levels of sexual HIV risk. This finding persists but is weaker when the outcome considered is condom use. The paper reviews ways in which religion may contribute to increase and reduction in sexual HIV risk, gaps in research, and implications for future research on religion and HIV.
Prerost, Frank J.
Assessed male (N=60) and female (N=60) responses to pictorial humorous sexual material in relationship to degree of sexual expression and personal satisfaction with sexual behavior. Results showed persons with active and satisfying sexual expression enjoyed sexually explicit cartoons and showed less preference for aggressive themes. (LLL)
Miller, Kathleen E.; Farrell, Michael P.; Barnes, Grace M.; Melnick, Merrill J.; Sabo, Don
Despite recent declines in overall sexual activity, sexual risk-taking remains a substantial danger to US youth. Existing research points to athletic participation as a promising venue for reducing these risks. Linear regressions and multiple analyses of covariance were performed on a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 Western New York adolescents in order to examine gender- and race-specific relationships between “jock” identity and adolescent sexual risk-taking, including age of sexual onset, past-year and lifetime frequency of sexual intercourse, and number of sexual partners. After controlling for age, race, socioeconomic status, and family cohesion, male jocks reported more frequent dating than nonjocks but female jocks did not. For both genders, athletic activity was associated with lower levels of sexual risk-taking; however, jock identity was associated with higher levels of sexual risk-taking, particularly among African American adolescents. Future research should distinguish between subjective and objective dimensions of athletic involvement as factors in adolescent sexual risk. PMID:16429602
Raj, Anita; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael; Samet, Jeffrey H
The purpose of this study was to assess associations between substance use (alcohol to intoxication, heroin, and cocaine) and sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors, and STD among detoxification inpatients (n = 470). Participants were surveyed on past 30 day substance use, past 6 month sexual behaviors, and STD in the past 6 months and/or over 24 months of follow-up. Logistic regression models adjusted for demographics found that cocaine use was significantly associated with being sexually active (OR(adj) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.8) and selling sex (OR(adj) = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.3-5.3). Alcohol and heroin were not significantly associated with sexual activity, high risk sexual behaviors or STD in this sample.
Aim The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between mental disorder and risk of sexual HIV transmission in a low-income country with a generalized HIV epidemic. Specific objectives were to investigate in Uganda, (1) the association between common mental disorder and sexual risk behaviour, (2) how severe mental disorder could influence sexual risk behaviour, (3) the prevalence of HIV in persons with severe mental disorder, and (4) the association of severe mental d...
Schry, Amie R.; White, Susan W.
Sexual victimization is prevalent among college women and is associated with adverse psychological consequences. Social anxiety, particularly related to interpersonal interaction, may increase risk of sexual victimization among college women by decreasing sexual assertiveness and decreasing the likelihood of using assertive resistance techniques.…
Gras, M. J.; Weide, J. F.; Langendam, M. W.; Coutinho, R. A.; van den Hoek, A.
To study (1) HIV prevalence; (2) sexual risk behaviour; (3) sexual mixing patterns; (4) determinants of disassortative (between-group) mixing among migrant groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands and to gain insight into the potential for heterosexual spread of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases.
Lalor, Kevin; McElvaney, Rosaleen
This paper reviews the literature on the nature and incidence of child sexual abuse, explores the link between child sexual abuse and later sexual exploitation, and reviews the literature on prevention strategies and effective interventions in child sexual abuse services. Our understanding of the international epidemiology of child sexual abuse is considerably greater than it was just 10 years ago, and studies from around the world are examined. Childhood sexual abuse can involve a wide number of psychological sequelae, including low self-esteem, anxiety, and depression. Numerous studies have noted that child sexual abuse victims are vulnerable to later sexual revictimization, as well as the link between child sexual abuse and later engagement in high-risk sexual behaviour. Survivors of child sexual abuse are more likely to have multiple sex partners, become pregnant as teenagers, and experience sexual assault as adults. Various models which attempt to account for this inter-relationship are presented; most invoke mediating variables such as low self-esteem, drug/alcohol use, PTSD and distorted sexual development. Prevention strategies for child sexual abuse are examined including media campaigns, school-based prevention programmes, and therapy with abusers. The results of a number of meta-analyses are examined. However, researchers have identified significant methodological limitations in the extant research literature that impede the making of recommendations for implementing existing therapeutic programmes unreservedly.
Nelson, Deborah B; Lepore, Stephen J; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S
Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.
Deborah B. Nelson
Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy (UP is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Adebajo, Sylvia; Adeyemi, Adedayo; Ogungbemi, Kayode Micheal
We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria. We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day), sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers), sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner), and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms) were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined. More than half (53.5%) of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001) and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04). Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02), and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007). More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005). More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04) and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001) areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04) and urban
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
Full Text Available We aimed to determine differences in sexual practices, HIV sexual risk behaviors, and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons' in rural and urban Nigeria.We recruited 772 participants 15 to 24 years old from urban and rural townships in Nigeria through a household survey. Information on participants' socio-demographic profile (age sex, residential area, number of meals taken per day, sexual practices (vagina, oral and anal sex; heterosexual and homosexual sex; sex with spouse, casual acquaintances, boy/girlfriend and commercial sex workers, sexual behavior (age of sexual debut, use of condom, multiple sex partners, transactional sex and age of sexual partner, and other HIV risk factors (use of alcohol and psychoactive substances, reason for sexual debut, knowledge of HIV prevention and HIV transmission, report of STI symptoms were collected through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Differences in sexual behavior and sexual practices of adolescents and HIV risk profile of adolescents and young persons resident in urban and rural areas were determined.More than half (53.5% of the respondents were sexually active, with more residing in the rural than urban areas (64.9% vs 44.1%; p<0.001 and more resident in the rural area reporting having more than one sexual partner (29.5% vs 20.4%; p = 0.04. Also, 97.3% of sexually active respondents reported having vaginal sex, 8.7% reported oral sex and 1.9% reported anal sex. More male than female respondents in the urban area used condoms during the last vaginal sexual intercourse (69.1% vs 51.9%; p = 0.02, and reported sex with casual partners (7.0% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007. More female than male respondents residing in the rural area engaged in transactional sex (1.0% vs 6.7%; p = 0.005. More females than males in both rural (3.6% vs 10.2%; p = 0.04 and urban (4.7% vs 26.6%; p<0.001 areas self-reported a history of discharge. More females than males in both rural (1.4% vs 17.0%; p = 0.04 and
Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghaddam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Montazeri, Ali
Background: Premarital sexual relationships could harm youth’s health in terms of sexually transmitted infections or increased risk of unprotected sexual behaviors. Sexual abstinence has been recommended to prevent young adolescents from adverse outcomes of premarital sexual relationships. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the viewpoints of sexually active single women about premarital sexual relationships in the Iranian context. Patients and Methods: In this qualitative study, we recruited 41 young women aged 18 to 35 years. Data were collected using focus group discussions and individual interviews. We employed conventional content analysis to analyze the data. Multiple data collection methods, maximum variation sampling, and peer checks were applied to enhance the reliability of the findings. Results: Eight themes emerged from the data analysis: ‘acceptance of sexual contact in the context of opposite-sex relationships, ‘sexual activity as a guarantee for keeping the boyfriend in the relationship’, ‘premarital sexual relationship as an undeniable personal right’, ‘having successful marriage in spite of premarital sexual relationships’, ‘virginity as an old fashioned phenomenon’, ‘love as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, ‘goal-oriented relationship as a license for premarital sexual behaviors’, and ‘experiencing premarital sexual relationships in order to gain perfection’. Conclusions: Results of this study could be applied to designing interventions, such as promotion of preventive beliefs or educational programs regarding premarital sexual relationships in conservative societies. These interventions could start within families and continue at schools and universities. PMID:27162757
Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick
We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.
Duong, Cong Thanh; Nguyen, Tran Hien; Hoang, Thi Thanh Ha; Nguyen, Van Vi; Do, Thi Minh Nguyet; Pham, Van Han; Detels, Roger
The risk of the HIV epidemic spreading from high-risk groups to the general population in Vietnam depends on sexual risk and bridging behaviors between high- and low-risk individuals. A cross-sectional study was used to describe sexual activities of youth aged 18-29 years. Nearly half (41.4%) were sexually active. Premarital sex was reported by 43.3% of them; 78.3% of sexually active males and 13.5% of sexually active females. Multiple sex partners were reported by 31.0%; 56.7% of males and 9.2% of females. Almost 27% of males and 5% of females engaged in sexual bridging behaviors. Being unmarried was significantly associated with having sex with non-regular partners. Being unmarried and early age at first intercourse were associated with having sex with a sex worker. Consistent condom use was high with commercial sex workers but low with regular partners. Education to delay early sexual debut, increased employment, and strategies to inform young sexually active people to adopt safer behaviors are urgently needed.
Hsu, Hsiu-Yueh; Yu, Hsing-Yi; Lou, Jiunn-Horng; Eng, Cheng-Joo
Sexual self-efficacy plays an important role in adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this study was to test a cause-and-effect model of sexual self-concept and sexual risk cognition toward sexual self-efficacy in adolescents. The study was a cross-sectional survey. Using a random sampling method, a total of 713 junior nursing students were invited to participate in the study, and 465 valid surveys were returned, resulting in a return rate of 65.2%. The data was collected using an anonymous mailed questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among sexual self-concept, sexual risk cognition, and sexual self-efficacy, as well as the mediating role of sexual risk cognition. The results revealed that the postulated model fits the data well. Sexual self-concept significantly predicted sexual risk cognition and sexual self-efficacy. Sexual risk cognition significantly predicted sexual self-efficacy and had a mediating effect on the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual self-efficacy. Based on social cognitive theory and a structural equation model technique, this study confirmed the mediating role of sexual risk cognition in the relationship between sexual self-concept and sexual self-efficacy. Also, sexual self-concept's direct and indirect effects explaining adolescents' sexual self-efficacy were found in this study. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Castellsagué, Xavier; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Wheeler, Cosette M; Skinner, S Rachel; Lehtinen, Matti; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena; Teixeira, Julio C; Palmroth, Johanna; de Carvalho, Newton S; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Peters, Klaus; Garland, Suzanne M; Szarewski, Anne; Poppe, Willy A J; Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Bosch, F Xavier; Bozonnat, Marie-Cecile; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence
More information is needed about time between sexual initiation and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and development of cervical precancer. The objectives were to investigate the time between first sexual activity and detection of first cervical HPV infection or development of first cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and associated factors in women from the double-blind, multinational, 4-year PATRICIA trial. PATRICIA enroled women aged 15-25 years with no more than 6 lifetime sexual partners. Women were randomized 1:1 to the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine or to control, but only women from the control arm who began sexual intercourse during the study or within 6 months before enrolment, and had no HPV infection detected before the recorded date of their first sexual intercourse, were included in the present analysis. The time between onset of sexual activity and detection of the first cervical HPV infection or development of the first CIN lesion was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and univariate and multivariable Cox proportional-hazards models. A total of 9337 women were enroled in the control arm of PATRICIA of whom 982 fulfilled the required inclusion criteria for analysis. A cumulative total of 28%, 44%, and 62% of the subjects had HPV infection within 12, 24, and 48 months, respectively. The overall incidence rate was 27.08 per 100 person-years. The most common oncogenic types associated with 6-month persistent infection were HPV-16 (incidence rate: 2.74 per 100 person-years), HPV-51 (2.70), HPV-52 (1.66), HPV-66 (1.14), and HPV-18 (1.09). Increased infection risk was associated with more lifetime sexual partners, being single, Chlamydia trachomatis history, and duration of hormone use. CIN1+ and CIN2+ lesions were most commonly associated with HPV-16, with an overall incidence rate of 1.87 and 1.07 per 100 person-years, respectively. Previous cervical HPV infection was most strongly associated with CIN development. More than 25% of women were
Olver, Mark E; Mundt, James C; Thornton, David; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Kingston, Drew A; Sowden, Justina N; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Wong, Stephen C P
The present study sought to develop updated risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), a sexual offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The overarching purpose was to increase the clarity and accuracy of communicating risk assessment information that includes a systematic incorporation of new information (i.e., change) to modify risk estimates. Four treated samples of sexual offenders with VRS-SO pretreatment, posttreatment, and Static-99R ratings were combined with a minimum follow-up period of 10-years postrelease (N = 913). Logistic regression was used to model 5- and 10-year sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism estimates across 6 different regression models employing specific risk and change score information from the VRS-SO and/or Static-99R. A rationale is presented for clinical applications of select models and the necessity of controlling for baseline risk when utilizing change information across repeated assessments. Information concerning relative risk (percentiles) and absolute risk (recidivism estimates) is integrated with common risk assessment language guidelines to generate new risk categories for the VRS-SO. Guidelines for model selection and forensic clinical application of the risk estimates are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Fisher, Colleen M.
Young sexual minority males are among those at highest risk for HIV infection, yet we know relatively little about the impact of sexual identity development on HIV risk. This study used cross-sectional data to investigate factors associated with HIV-related sexual risk among a sample of sexual minority males (n = 156), ages 14 to 21 years, using…
Although delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity are established to be highly intercorrelated, the extant research provides minimal evidence in support of one particular sequence of risk behavior or on the cascade effects from maltreatment. The present study tested a longitudinal model incorporating maltreatment, deviant peers, sexual behavior, delinquency, and substance use to elucidate the sequential pathway(s) from maltreatment to each specific risk behavior throughout adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal study on the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development (N = 454) with four study assessments from early (Time 1 M age = 10.98) to late adolescence (Time 4 M age = 18.22). Results from the cross-lagged model showed a sequence from maltreatment to sexual behavior (Time 1), to delinquency (Time 2), to sexual behavior (Time 3), to substance use and delinquency (Time 4). These findings support sexual behavior as the initial risk behavior that is the catalyst for engagement in more advanced risk behaviors across adolescence.
Brinkley, Dawn Y; Ackerman, Robert A; Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Underwood, Marion K
This research examined adolescents' written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10 th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12 th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly.
Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Ackerman, Robert A.; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Underwood, Marion K.
This research examined adolescents’ written text messages with sexual content to investigate how sexting relates to sexual activity and borderline personality features. Participants (N = 181, 85 girls) completed a measure of borderline personality features prior to 10th grade and were subsequently given smartphones configured to capture the content of their text messages. Four days of text messaging were micro-coded for content related to sex. Following 12th grade, participants reported on their sexual activity and again completed a measure of borderline personality features. Results showed that engaging in sexting at age 16 was associated with reporting an early sexual debut, having sexual intercourse experience, having multiple sex partners, and engaging in drug use in combination with sexual activity two years later. Girls engaging in sex talk were more likely to have had sexual intercourse by age 18. Text messaging about hypothetical sex in grade 10 also predicted borderline personality features at age 18. These findings suggest that sending text messages with sexual content poses risks for adolescents. Programs to prevent risky sexual activity and to promote psychological health could be enhanced by teaching adolescents to use digital communication responsibly. PMID:28824224
Pandor, Abdullah; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Higgins, Agnes; Lorimer, Karen; Smith, Shubulade; Wylie, Kevan; Wong, Ruth
Despite variability in sexual activity among people with severe mental illness, high-risk sexual behavior (e.g. unprotected intercourse, multiple partners, sex trade and illicit drug use) is common. Sexual health risk reduction interventions (such as educational and behavioral interventions, motivational exercises, counselling and service delivery), developed and implemented for people with severe mental illness, may improve participants' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs behaviors or practices (including assertiveness skills) and could lead to a reduction in risky sexual behavior. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Thirteen electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO) were searched to August 2014, and supplemented by hand-searching relevant articles and contacting experts. All controlled trials (randomized or non-randomized) comparing the effectiveness of sexual health risk reduction interventions with usual care for individuals living in the community with severe mental illness were included. Outcomes included a range of biological, behavioral and proxy endpoints. Narrative synthesis was used to combine the evidence. Thirteen controlled trials (all from the USA) were included. Although there was no clear and consistent evidence that interventions reduce the total number of sex partners or improved behavioral intentions in sexual risk behavior, positive effects were generally observed in condom use, condom protected intercourse and on measures of HIV knowledge, attitudes to condom use and sexual behaviors and practices. However, the robustness of these findings is low due to the large between study variability, small sample sizes and low-to-moderate quality of included studies. There is insufficient evidence at present to fully support or reject the identified sexual health risk reduction interventions for people with severe mental illness. Given the
Khajehei, Marjan; Doherty, Maryanne; Tilley, P J Matt; Sauer, Kay
Female sexual dysfunction is highly prevalent and reportedly has adverse impacts on quality of life. Although it is prevalent after childbirth, women rarely seek advice or treatment from health care professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the sexual functioning of Australian women during the first year after childbirth. Postpartum women who had given birth during the previous 12 months were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. A multidimensional online questionnaire was designed for this study. This questionnaire included a background section, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8), and the Relationship Assessment Scale. Responses from 325 women were analyzed. Almost two-thirds of women (64.3%) reported that they had experienced sexual dysfunction during the first year after childbirth, and almost three-quarters reported they experienced sexual dissatisfaction (70.5 %). The most prevalent types of sexual dysfunction reported by the affected women were sexual desire disorder (81.2%), orgasmic problems (53.5%), and sexual arousal disorder (52.3%). The following were significant risk factors for sexual dysfunction: fortnightly or less frequent sexual activity, not being the initiator of sexual activity with a partner, late resumption of postnatal sexual activity (at 9 or more weeks), the first 5 months after childbirth, primiparity, depression, and relationship dissatisfaction. Sexual satisfaction is important for maintaining quality of life for postpartum women. Health care providers and postpartum women need to be encouraged to include sexual problems in their discussions. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Remien, Robert H; Halkitis, Perry N; O'Leary, Ann; Wolitski, Richard J; Gómez, Cynthia A
There are reports of increased sexual risk behavior among people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to beliefs about risk of HIV transmission when on HAART. In a cross-sectional study (Seropositive Urban Men's Study), we examined the relationship between risk perception and sexual risk behavior among sexually active, culturally diverse HIV positive men who have sex with men (N = 456). Less than twenty-five percent engaged in unprotected anal sex (either with an HIV negative, or unknown-status partner, or an HIV positive partner) within the past 3 months. Most men believed there was significant health risk (to partner or self) associated with unprotected sex when on HAART. There was no increased risk behavior associated with being on HAART, although the perception of negative health consequences, including HIV transmission, when on HAART was significantly lower for the relatively small subset of men who reported unprotected sex. Prevention strategies need to be tailored to address risk perception associated with HAART.
It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...
Lopez, Vera; Kopak, Albert; Robillard, Alyssa; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Holliday, Rhonda C.; Braithwaite, Ronald L.
Sexual risk taking among female delinquents represents a significant public health problem. Research is needed to understand the pathways leading to sexual risk taking among this population. This study sought to address this issue by identifying and testing two pathways from child maltreatment to non-condom use among 329 White and 484 African…
Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1 027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of ...
May 27, 2013 ... surge and the sexual exposures put adolescent at risk of. HIV, other STI and unwanted pregnancy. This study was ... spector of Education, Jos North Local Government. Area, and the various schools' Principals gave approval ..... Knowledge, Risk Perception of AIDS and reported sexual be- haviour among ...
... A-Glance Project Connect Sexual Health STD Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... their risk for HIV , other STDs , and unintended pregnancy . The National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for all Americans to be ...
Poppen, Paul J.
Determined the role gender plays in influencing the prevalence and patterns of sexual risk taking. Responses from 245 undergraduate students show gender differences in risk-taking patterns. For females, potentially risky behavior in the partner domain was negatively related to risky behavior in the sexual practice domain, whereas for males, the…
Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Kanouse, D E
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether high school-aged virgins engage in sexual practices that can transmit sexually transmitted diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 urban students in 9th through 12th grades. RESULTS: Forty-seven percent of adolescents were virgins (42% of male adolescents and 53% of female adolescents). Of those who were virgins, 29% and 31% reported that, during the prior year, they had engaged in heterosexual masturbation of a partner and masturbation by a partner, respectively. The corresponding rates for heterosexual fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse were 9%, 10%, and 1%. Homosexual sexual activities were rare. Condom use for fellatio was also rare. Level of risk of virgins' sexual activities was associated with illicit substance use and other non-sexual risk behaviors, even after demographic variables had been controlled. CONCLUSIONS: Few high school-aged virgins engaged in anal intercourse, but many engaged in other genital sexual activities. Some of these activities can transmit disease, and all can indicate a need for counseling about sexual decision making, risk, and prevention. PMID:8916522
Schuster, M A; Bell, R M; Kanouse, D E
The purpose of this study was to determine whether high school-aged virgins engage in sexual practices that can transmit sexually transmitted diseases, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Data were collected from an anonymous self-administered survey of 2026 urban students in 9th through 12th grades. Forty-seven percent of adolescents were virgins (42% of male adolescents and 53% of female adolescents). Of those who were virgins, 29% and 31% reported that, during the prior year, they had engaged in heterosexual masturbation of a partner and masturbation by a partner, respectively. The corresponding rates for heterosexual fellatio with ejaculation, cunnilingus, and anal intercourse were 9%, 10%, and 1%. Homosexual sexual activities were rare. Condom use for fellatio was also rare. Level of risk of virgins' sexual activities was associated with illicit substance use and other non-sexual risk behaviors, even after demographic variables had been controlled. Few high school-aged virgins engaged in anal intercourse, but many engaged in other genital sexual activities. Some of these activities can transmit disease, and all can indicate a need for counseling about sexual decision making, risk, and prevention.
Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Sulaiman, Zaharah; Amin, Rahmah Mohd; Omar, Khairani
One of the popular approaches of preventing youth sexual activity in Malaysia is using religion to promote premarital sexual abstinence. Despite this intervention, youth continue to practise premarital sex. Thus, the purpose of this exploratory mixed methods study was to understand the role of religion on sexual activity among college students in Klang Valley, Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire survey to determine the relationship between religiosity and youth sexual activity was carried out on 1026 students recruited from 12 randomly selected colleges. Concurrently, face-to-face interviews were conducted on 15 students to explore how religiosity had influenced their decision on sexual activity. The survey data were analysed using logistic regression, while the qualitative data from the interviews were examined using thematic analysis with separate analysis for each gender. Both quantitative and qualitative results were then compared and integrated. Religious activity significantly reduced the risk of continuing sexual activity among female students (AOR = 0.67, CI = 0.47, 0.95, p = 0.02) but not male students. There was no significant relationship of religious affiliation and intrinsic religiosity (inner faith) to sexual activity by gender. Having faith in religion and strong sexual desire were the main themes that explained participants' sexual behaviour. Engaging in religious activity might be effective at preventing female students from being sexually active. However, when sexual urges and desires are beyond control, religiosity might not be effective.
... Sexual Minority Youth Communication Resources Protective Factors for LGBT Youth Survey of Today’s Adolescent Relationships and Transitions ( ... as a result of challenges such as stigma, discrimination, family disapproval, social rejection, and violence. Sexual minority ...
Carreiro, Andrea V; Micelli, Ligia P; Sousa, Maria H; Bahamondes, Luis; Fernandes, Arlete
To assess scores for sexual dysfunction risk and quality of life in a cohort of women in Brazil who had a history of sexual abuse. The present study was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study conducted between February 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. Women aged 18-49years attending a family planning clinic at the University of Campinas, Brazil, who were in a heterosexual relationship and reported engaging in sexual intercourse in the 4weeks prior to the study were enrolled. Participants were asked to complete the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire, Abbreviated Version, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. Data were grouped based on a history of sexual abuse. An FSFI score of no higher than 26.55 was considered the cut off for sexual dysfunction. The prevalence of FSFI-defined sexual dysfunction was higher in participants with a history of sexual abuse (Phistory of sexual abuse had significantly lower scores across all quality of life domains. Increased risk of sexual dysfunction among women with a history of sexual abuse suggests potential problems in the sex lives of individuals in this population. Healthcare professionals should be alert to this diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gebresllasie, Fanna; Tsadik, Mache; Berhane, Eyoel
Risk sexual practice among students from public universities/colleges is common in Ethiopia. However, little has been known about risk sexual behavior of students in private colleges where more students are potentially enrolled. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of risky sexual behaviors and predictors among students of Private Colleges in Mekelle City. A mixed design of both quantitative and qualitative methods was used among 627 randomly selected students of private colleges from February to march 2013. Self administered questionnaire and focus group discussion was used to collect data. A thematic content analysis was used for the qualitative part. For the quantitative study, Univariate, Bivariate and multivariable analysis was made using SPSS version 16 statistical package and p value less than 0.05 was used as cut off point for a statistical significance. Among the total 590 respondents, 151 (29.1%) have ever had sex. Among the sexually active students, 30.5% reported having had multiple sexual partners and consistent condom use was nearly 39%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables such as sex, age group, sex last twelve months and condom use last twelve months was found significantly associated with risky sexual behavior. The findings of qualitative and quantitative study showed consistency in presence of risk factors. Finding of this study showed sexual risk behaviors is high among private colleges such as multiple sexual partners and substance use. So that colleges should emphasis on promoting healthy sexual and reproductive health programs.
Full Text Available Introduction: People suffering from substance dependence suffer from various sexual dysfunctions and are at risk for indulging in various high-risk sexual behaviors and thus are vulnerable to acquire various infections such as HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections. AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between sexual dysfunction and high-risk sexual behavior in opioid-dependent men receiving buprenorphine and naltrexone maintenance therapy. Materials and Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire, brief male sexual functioning inventory and HIV-risk taking behavior scale was administered to a sample of 60 sexually active men, receiving buprenorphine (n = 30 and naltrexone (n = 30 maintenance therapy for opioid dependence. Results: The main outcomes are correlation between severity of sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior. The study results showed 83% of the men on buprenorphine and 90% on naltrexone reported at least one of the sexual dysfunction symptoms. There was a negative correlation between sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior that suggest severe the dysfunction, higher the risk taking behavior. Significant correlation was present with overall sexual dysfunction and HIV-risk taking behavior (P = 0.028 and in naltrexone receiving group premature ejaculation versus HIV-risk taking behavior however, (P = 0.022, P < 0.05 there were no significant differences among both the groups except above findings. Conclusion: Conclusion was treatment is associated with sexual dysfunctions and HIV-risk taking behavior, which has clinical implication. Future research should explore this further using biochemical analyses.
Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela
To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.
Jones, Deborah; Bagga, Rashmi; Nehra, Ritu; Deepika; Sethi, Sunil; Walia, Kamini; Kumar, Mahendra; Villar-Loubet, Olga; Lopez, Maria; Weiss, Stephen M
With a population of 1.1 billion, India is considered to be a country in which effective prevention interventions could contain the development of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Heterosexual transmission accounts for 85 % of the extant HIV infections. This study sought to assess the feasibility of conducting a group, culturally tailored behavioral intervention and its impact on sexual barrier use, self-efficacy, knowledge, conflict resolution, and coping among high-risk heterosexual couples in Northern India. This pilot study was conducted at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India from February 2008 to January 2009. Thirty sexually active high-risk couples were drawn from a convenience sample of PGIMER patients attending infectious disease and family planning clinics. Couples participated in 1 month of three weekly gender-concordant behavioral intervention groups and were individually administered assessments preintervention and post-intervention. The intervention was tailored to the Northern Indian context and addressed sexual barrier use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection transmission, and cognitive behavioral skill building focusing on sexual negotiation and communication. The participants had a mean age of 32 years (men) and 29 years (women), and the majority had at least 10 years of education. At baseline, the majority reported inconsistent condom use (knowledge, and women increased their use of positive coping tactics. The results highlight the potential to successfully utilize a group intervention to discuss sensitive issues such as sexual risk behavior among both men and women. Strategies to improve condom use and communication without increasing intimate partner violence in high-risk couples may be an important adjunct to preventing the development of a generalized epidemic in India.
Tsui, Emma K; Leonard, Lori; Lenoir, Chavonne; Ellen, Jonathan M
This paper is about sexual concurrency, or maintaining multiple sexual partnerships that overlap in time. Sexual concurrency is a concept that is used in the field of public health to explain the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Sexual concurrency has also been proposed as a site of intervention to reduce sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates, particularly among those populations who carry the heaviest STI burden: adolescents and African Americans. In this paper, we use ethnographic data collected from a group of African American adolescents living in Baltimore to examine the socially produced configurations of risks and relationships that are obscured by the term sexual concurrency. The data we present show the limits of this concept, and suggest that structural reforms, including improvements to education, drug treatment, and work opportunities, are necessary to reduce racial disparities in STI rates.
Tarkang, Elvis Enowbeyang
Since female learners in high schools in Cameroon fall within the age group hardest hit by HIV/AIDS, it is assumed that these learners might be exposed to sexual risk behaviours. However, little has been explored on the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Cameroon. This study aimed at examining the sexual risk behaviours of high school female learners in Mbonge subdivision of rural Cameroon. A cross sectional design was adopted, using a self-administered questionnaire for data collection. Respondents were selected through disproportional stratified simple random sampling resulting in 210 female grade 10 to grade 12 learners from three participating high schools in Mbonge subdivision, Cameroon. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated using SPSS version 20 software program. Majority of the respondents, 54.0% reported being sexually active, of whom only 39.8% used condoms during first sex; 49.5% used condoms during last sex and 29.6% used condoms consistently. Up to 32% of the sexually active respondents had multiple sexual partners in the past one year before the study, while 9.3% had multiple sexual partners during the study period. The mean age of first sex was 15.6 years. Lack of parental control, religion, academic profile, poverty, place of residence and perception of risk of HIV infection were the main factors significantly associated with sexual risk behaviours. The findings indicate that sexual risk behaviours exist among high school female learners in Mbonge, Cameroon. There is need for campaigns and interventions to bring about sexual behaviour change.
Background: Menopause represents the end of women reproductive career and it is at this time they begin to manifest morbidities such as urinary incontinence. Aim: To document proximate determinants of sexual activity and urological morbidities of menopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a community survey ...
factors, quality of information at their disposal as well as economic factors. Studies have shown a wide range of opinion of women on the interpretation of menopause, associated morbidities and possible intervention to cope with the state.[4,5] Sexual activity during menopause has been reported with conflicting results.
Gow, Neil A R
The genome sequence of the 'asexual' human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus suggests it has the capability to undergo mating and meiosis. That this organism engages in clandestine sexual activity is also suggested by observations of two equally distributed complementary mating types in nature, the expression of mating type genes and evidence of recent genome recombination events.
Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV.
Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015
Stolte, Ineke G.; de Wit, John B. F.; van Eeden, Arne; Coutinho, Roel A.; Dukers, Nicole H. T. M.
BACKGROUND: Increases in sexual risk behaviour and sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected homosexual men after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) confirm the need for innovative prevention activities. The present study focused on time trends in sexual risk
Secor-Turner, Molly; Sieving, Renee E.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Skay, Carol
The objective of this study was to describe prevalent informal sources of information about sex and examine associations between informal sources of information about sex and sexual risk outcomes among sexually experienced adolescents. Work involved the secondary analysis of data from the Minnesota Student Survey, a statewide survey to monitor…
Træen, B.; Hald, Gert Martin; Noor, S. W.
-related sexual risk behavior is mediated by men's sexual self-esteem, and 3) the relationship between SEM consumption and sexual risk behavior is mediated by condom use self-efficacy. A cross-sectional, Internet-based survey on exposure to SEM and sexual behavior of 1,391 MSM in the USA was conducted in 2011...... was mediated by condom use self-efficacy in an indirect path. However, SEM did not influence sexual risk behavior via sexual self-esteem. To promote STI prevention, the actors in SEM may be used as role models in managing condom use in sexual contexts....
Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul
In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-administered questionnaires, adolescents were asked to assess their self-esteem and to complete questions on pubertal onset, substance use, family structure, family connectedness, parental monitoring, and peer pressure. SRB was measured through scoring of five items: sexual initiation, age of sexual debut, number of sexual partners, condom use, and sex with high-risk partners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the various predictors of sexual risk behaviour. The study showed that 55.1% (95%CI = 52.0-58.2) of the total sample was observed to practice sexual risk behaviours. Smoking was the strongest predictor of SRB among male adolescents (OR = 10.3, 95%CI = 1.25-83.9). Among females, high family connectedness (OR = 3.13, 95%CI = 1.64-5.95) seemed to predict the behaviour. There were clear gender differences in predicting SRB. Thus, a gender-specific sexual and reproductive health intervention for institutionalised adolescents is recommended.
Gaydos, C A; Hsieh, Y-H; Galbraith, J S; Barnes, M; Waterfield, G; Stanton, B
A community-based intervention, Focus-on-Kids (FOK) has demonstrated risk-behaviour reduction of urban youth. We modified FOK to Focus-on-Teens (FOT) for high schools. High school adolescents (n=1190) were enrolled over successive school semesters. The small-group sessions were presented during the school-lunch hours. Confidential surveys were conducted at baseline, immediate, six-, and 12-month postintervention for demographics, parental communication/monitoring, sexual risk behaviours and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV/condom-usage knowledge. Sexually active participants were encouraged to volunteer for urine-based STDs testing at the School-Based Health Centres. Many (47.4%) students reported having had sexual intercourse at baseline. Overall behaviours changed towards 'safer' sex behaviours (intent-to-use and using condoms, communicating with partner/parents about sex/condoms/STDs) with time (Pcorrect knowledge of STDs/HIV increased to 88% at time 4 from 80% at baseline after adjusting for age, gender and sexual activity (Pcondom usage, decreases in sexual risk behaviours supported the effectiveness of this intervention.
Lang, Michelle A.
HIV risk behaviors were examined with 457 adolescents, ages 12 to 19, from four environments (community, high school, and two youth conferences). Over half reported being sexually experienced, with an average age of 13.6 for willingly engaging in first sexual intercourse. Boys reported engaging in intercourse at a significantly younger age than…
There was a significant association between alcohol-related problems and risky sexual behavior. Alcohol-related problems are fairly common in people already infected with HIV/AIDS and are associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Thus, screening and treatment should be part of an effective HIV intervention program.
Hsieh, Ning; Ruther, Matt
Although population studies have documented the poorer health outcomes of sexual minorities, few have taken an intersectionality approach to examine how sexual orientation, gender, and race jointly affect these outcomes. Moreover, little is known about how behavioral risks and healthcare access contribute to health disparities by sexual, gender, and racial identities. Using ordered and binary logistic regression models in 2015, data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Surveys (n=62,302) were analyzed to study disparities in self-rated health and functional limitation. This study examined how gender and race interact with sexual identity to create health disparities, and how these disparities are attributable to differential exposure to behavioral risks and access to care. Conditional on sociodemographic factors, all sexual, gender, and racial minority groups, except straight white women, gay white men, and bisexual non-white men, reported worse self-rated health than straight white men (pnon-white men, were more likely to report a functional limitation than straight white men (pgender, and racial minority groups. Sexual, gender, and racial identities interact with one another in a complex way to affect health experiences. Efforts to improve sexual minority health should consider heterogeneity in health risks and health outcomes among sexual minorities. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if body mass index (BMI is associated with behaviors that may increase risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs among US high school students. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005–2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS to examine associations of BMI categories with sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use among sexually active high school students, using sex-stratified logistic regression models. Controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, among female and male students, both underweight (BMI < 5th percentile and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile were associated with decreased odds of being currently sexually active (i.e., having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months. However, among sexually active female students, obese females were more likely than normal weight females to have had 4 or more sex partners (odds ratio, OR = 1.59, not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.30, and injected illegal drugs (OR = 1.98. Among sexually active male students, overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI < 95th percentile was associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.19 and obesity was associated with injection drug use (OR = 1.42. Among sexually active students, overweight and obesity may be indicators of increased risk for HIV and other STDs.
Silvia Susana Robles Montijo
Full Text Available The present study proposed a descriptive analysis of sociodemographic and family variables, as well as risky sexual behaviors and sexual abuse in a sample of young Mexicans with hearing or visual impairments, examining differences based on gender and type of disability of the participants. 128 young persons (64 hearing impaired and 64 visually impaired of whom, 53.2% were male and 86.6% were single, were included in the study. The instruments used were adapted linguistically to be answered by young people with hearing disabilities, and translated into Braille for visually impaired young people. The results show that participants maintain an active sex life with a risk profile that is characterized by the early onset of sexual intercourse, lack of planning their first sexual encounter, underuse of condoms and victimization of some form of sexual abuse. The risk was higher in women and among those with visual disabilities.
Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Todhunter-Reid, Abigail; Brawner, Bridgette; Stewart, Jennifer
Sexual health is an important area of study-particularly for minority youth and youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The purpose of the research was to examine the sources of sexual health information associated with youth adopting sexual risk reduction behaviors. Data collection took place in a small city in the Northeastern United States using cross-sectional behavioral surveys and modified venue-based sampling. Participants included 249 African American and Latino youth aged 13-24. Participants reported their sources of information about contraception and human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease, such as TV/movies, parents, social media; their intentions to have sex; and condom and contraception use during their last sexual activity. Social media use, past pregnancy experience, past sexual history, age, and gender were also measured. Standard tests of bivariate association (chi-square and F tests) were used to examine initial associations between sexual risk reduction behavior and exposure to sexual risk reduction information on social media. Logistic regression models were used to test multivariate relationships between information sources and sexual risk reduction behavior. Youth who were exposed to sexual health messages on social media were 2.69 times (p < .05) and 2.49 times (p < .08) more likely to have used contraception or a condom at last intercourse, respectively. Parents, schools, or traditional media as information sources were not significantly associated with contractive use or condom use at last intercourse. Youth sexual behavior is increasingly informed by social media messages. Health practitioners should utilize social media as an important health promotion tool.
Effect of sex education programme on at-risk sexual behaviour of ... that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). ... The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health ...
Lyons, Anthony; Heywood, Wendy; Fileborn, Bianca; Minichiello, Victor; Barrett, Catherine; Brown, Graham; Hinchliff, Sharron; Malta, Sue; Crameri, Pauline
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are rising among older Australians. We conducted a large survey of older people's knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. A total of 2,137 Australians aged 60 years and older completed the survey, which included 15 questions assessing knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. We examined both levels of knowledge and factors associated with an overall knowledge score. In total, 1,652 respondents reported having sex in the past five years and answered all knowledge questions. This group had good general knowledge but poorer knowledge in areas such as the protection offered by condoms and potential transmission modes for specific STIs. Women had better knowledge than men. Men in their 60s, men with higher education levels, and men who thought they were at risk of STIs reported better knowledge than other men. Knowledge was also better among men and women who had been tested for STIs or reported 'other' sources of knowledge on STIs. Many older Australians lack knowledge of STIs and safer sexual practices. Implications for public health: To reverse current trends toward increasing STI diagnoses in this population, policies and education campaigns aimed at improving knowledge levels may need to be considered. © 2017 The Authors.
Klein, H; Chao, B S
This study explores the relationship of sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors during adulthood among female sexual partners of injection drug users. It analyzed data that was gathered between 1990 and 1993, which included a sample of 2794 women from the US, Mexico, and Puerto Rico. 6 HIV-related sexual risk behaviors that occurred during the month prior to interview were examined; namely, number of sexual partners, number of drug-injecting sexual partners, number of sexual intercourse while high on alcohol and/or other drugs, number of times trading sex for drugs and/or money, proportion of all sexual acts involving protection, and overall HIV-related sexual risk. The results showed that more than one-third of the women (36.3%) experienced some form of sexual abuse during childhood, whereas 34.4% reported that they had been abused sexually during adolescence; 1 in 5 women (18.4%) stated being abused during both periods. The results further indicate that there is a strong link between sexual abuse victimization early in life and involvement later in life in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. It was found out that certain forms of sexual abuse, such as forced exposure and touching of one's sexual parts were more strongly related than other forms of sexual abuse to subsequent involvement in HIV-related sexual behaviors.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This longitudinal study examined psychosocial factors associated with risky sexual behavior in early adolescence. Methods Data were collected through a self-report survey, the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA, which was administered in three waves between 2001 and 2003 to a cohort of incoming sixth grade students in the public school system (149 classes at 17 middle and high schools, N = 1,175 of a small northeastern city in the United States. We first examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of sexual initiation two years later, when most of the sample was in eighth grade. We then assessed whether internalizing and externalizing problems in sixth grade, and the rate of change in these factors during middle school, were predictive of engaging in high risk sexual behavior over the subsequent two years. Results Externalizing factors are more predictive of sexual risk in early adolescence than are internalizing factors. Specifically, substance use and violent delinquency over the course of middle school were associated with higher, while anxiety with lower, sexual initiation rates during middle school. Additionally, increased substance use over the course of middle school was associated with greater likelihood of engaging in high risk sexual behavior. Conclusion By identifying particular psychosocial risk factors among young adolescents, the findings of this study have implications for designing multi-dimensional programs aimed at preventing health-compromising sexual behavior among young teens.
Remien, R H; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Wagner, G
Several studies have demonstrated individual-level determinants of HIV sexual risk behaviour. Very little research has been conducted to identify couple-level factors associated with unsafe sexual behaviour. As part of a three-year study of more than 100 serodiscordant male couples, we conducted an in-depth qualitative study of 15 Latino and non-Latino male couples via focus groups and a follow-up telephone survey. We identified the sexual risk behaviour that occurs in these male couples, their perceptions of susceptibility for HIV transmission, and numerous couple-level and intrapsychic factors associated with their risk behaviour. We also describe the challenges confronted by these couples and barriers to emotional intimacy and couple satisfaction. Finally, we provide suggestions for ways of intervening to facilitate improved couple functioning, pleasure, satisfaction, and communication, and ways of reducing sexual risk behaviour without loss of emotional intimacy.
Dec 1, 2006 ... After ethics approval was sought from the Human Research and Ethics Committee of ... It is essential to assess the effects on sexual risk behaviour. Design and setting. .... infectious, which is the correct scientific response. One.
Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students. ... Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate ... positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 22% reported hazardous or ...
Perceived risk of reinfection among individuals treated for sexually transmitted infections in Northern Ethiopia: implication for use in clinical practice. Mache Tsadik, Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku, Wondwossen Terefe ...
Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan
Full Text Available Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status.We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10-19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman's conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies.Eighty-one adolescents (18.6% reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14-11.87, and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56-4.95. Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96-1.11 and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73-2.65, but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34-1.18. They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62-3.50 than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49-1.64 to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03 and loss and grief (p = 0.009. Adolescents reporting forced sexual initiation and HIV
Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin
Objectives Some individuals experience their first sexual intercourse through physically forced sex, which affects the way they experience and cope with stress. We examined differences in sexual risk behavior, experience of stressors, and use of stress-coping strategies among adolescents in Nigeria based on their history of forced sexual initiation and HIV status. Methods We analyzed data from 436 sexually active 10–19-year-old adolescents recruited through a population-based survey from 12 Nigerian states. Using Lazarus and Folkman’s conceptual framework of stress and coping, we assessed if adolescents who reported forced sexual initiation were more likely to report HIV sexual risk practices, to report as stressors events related to social expectations, medical care and body images, and loss and grief, and to use more avoidance than adaptive coping strategies to manage stress. We also assessed if HIV status affected experience of stressors and use of coping strategies. Results Eighty-one adolescents (18.6%) reported a history of forced sexual initiation; these participants were significantly more likely to report anal sex practices (OR: 5.04; 95% CI: 2.14–11.87), and transactional sex (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.56–4.95). Adolescents with no history of forced sexual initiation were more likely to identify as stressors, life events related to social expectations (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.96–1.11) and loss and grief (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 0.73–2.65), but not those related to medical care and body images (OR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.34–1.18). They were also more likely to use adaptive responses (OR: 1.48; 95% CI: 0.62–3.50) than avoidance responses (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.49–1.64) to cope with stress, though these differences were not significant. More adolescents with a history of forced sexual initiation who were HIV positive identified as stressors, life events related to medical care and body images (p = 0.03) and loss and grief (p = 0.009). Adolescents reporting forced
Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Lesser, Janna; Uman, Gwen; Nyamathi, Adeline
The sexual behaviors and attitudes toward condom use of adolescent mothers (N = 572) from ethnic minority groups were examined. Constructs from social cognitive theory (SCT), the theory of reasoned action (TRA), and the theory of planned behavior (TPB; e.g., intentions to use condoms, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies) were measured with questionnaires. Measures of AIDS and condom-use knowledge and selected psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic variables were included. Many adolescents reported early onset of sexual activity, multiple lifetime sexual partners, substance use, and childhood sexual or physical abuse. Only 18% stated a condom was used at last intercourse. Using hierarchical regression analysis, 13% of the variance for factors associated with unprotected sex was accounted for by TRA constructs. Other variables contributed an additional 17% of the variance. Unprotected sex was associated with behavioral intentions to use condoms, pregnancy, having a steady partner, more frequent church service attendance, and ever having anal sex. Findings support the urgent need for broad-based HIV prevention efforts for adolescent mothers that build on theoretical concepts and address the realities of their lives. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Messman-Moore, Terri L; Coates, Aubrey A; Gaffey, Kathryn J; Johnson, Carrie F
An 8-month prospective study examined behavioral, personality, and psychological variables thought to increase vulnerability for college women's experience of rape and verbal sexual coercion. Participants were 276 college women who completed self-report surveys. During 1 academic year, 9.5% of women were raped and 11.7% reported verbal sexual coercion. Elevated levels of sexual concerns, dysfunctional sexual behavior, and impaired self-reference were associated with both verbal sexual coercion and rape. Alcohol and marijuana use increased risk only for rape, whereas self-criticism and depression increased risk only for verbal coercion. Findings suggest that multiple aspects of sexuality, such as shame regarding sexuality and using sex to meet nonsexual needs, may increase risk for both types of sexual victimization. Results support conclusions that rape and verbal sexual coercion have both shared and unique risk factors. Implications for future research and intervention programs are discussed.
To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university ... analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and ..... risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents.
Benotsch, Eric G; Snipes, Daniel J; Martin, Aaron M; Bull, Sheana S
Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most previous research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Young adults (N = 763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared with their nonsexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior, after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks after sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benotsch, Eric G.; Snipes, Daniel J.; Martin, Aaron M.; Bull, Sheana S.
Purpose Cell phone use has become more widespread over the past decade. Young adults are frequently early adopters of new technologies, including cell phones. Most prior research examining sexting, the act of sending sexually explicit or suggestive images via text message, has focused on the legal or social consequences of this behavior. The current study focused on the public health implications of sexting by examining associations between sexting, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in youth. Methods Young adults (N=763) completed online questionnaires assessing demographics, cell phone use (e.g., texting, sexting), substance use, and sexual risk behaviors. Results Sexting was reported by a substantial minority of participants (44%). Compared to their non-sexting counterparts, participants who engaged in sexting were more likely to report recent substance use and high-risk sexual behaviors, including unprotected sex and sex with multiple partners. Of those who engaged in sexting, a considerable percentage (31.8%) reported having sex with a new partner for the first time after sexting with that person. In multivariate analyses, sexting was associated with high-risk sexual behavior after accounting for demographic factors, total texting behaviors, and substance use. Conclusions Results suggest that sexting is robustly associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Many individuals exchange explicit or provocative photos with long-term sexual partners, but at least some participants in this study were incurring new sexual risks subsequent to sexting. Additional research is needed to understand the contexts in which sexting occurs, motivations for sexting, and relationship of sexting to risk behavior. PMID:23299017
Sorbring, Emma; Hallberg, Jonas; Bohlin, Margareta; Skoog, Therése
Parental attitudes towards young people's sexuality in traditional (i.e. non-online media) settings have been associated with young people's sexual activities. In this study, we explored the association between key parent and youth characteristics and parental attitudes towards young people's online sexual activities. We also examined the…
Junguo Zhang, PhD candidate
Full Text Available Background: Sexual frequency is associated with the quality of life. China’s internal migrants that are sexually active are more likely to participate in sexual behavior. However, less work has been undertaken to assess the sexual frequency and its predictors in migrants. Aim: This study seeks to explore which factors were related to sexual frequency in migrants and how the association varies with different levels of sexual frequency. Methods: A total of 10,834 men and 4,928 women aged 20–49 years from 5 cities in China were enrolled by multi-stage sampling during August 2013–August 2015. Outcomes: Sexual frequency among migrants was determined by asking: How many times have you had sexual intercourse with a man/woman in the past 30 days? Results: In this study, sexual frequency with an average age of 38.28 years was 5.06 (95% CI 5.01–5.11 time per month. Negative binomial showed that male gender, younger age, earlier age of sexual debut, masturbation, more knowledge of sexual and reproductive health, longer time together with a spouse, and higher school education and incomes were predictors of increased sexual frequency in migrants. Communicating with sexual partners frequently had the largest effect on sexual frequency compared with occasional communicating (β = 0.2419, incidence rate ratio = 1.27, 95% CI 1.23–1.31. In the quantile regression, months of cohabitation (β = 0.0999, 95% CI 0.08–0.12, frequent sexual communication (β = 0.4534, 95% CI 0.39–0.52, and masturbation (β = 0.2168, 95% CI 0.14–0.30 were positively related to lower levels of sexual frequency. Interestingly, migrants who had low and high sexual frequency would be affected in opposite directions by the knowledge of sexual and reproductive health. Clinical Translation: Clinicians can more understand the relationship between sexual frequency and its factors that can as the symptom basis of sexually-related diseases. Conclusions: The present findings
Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C; Hoover, Donald R; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A
Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner ("HIV transmission risk"). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner ("HIV acquisition risk"). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts.
Full Text Available Persons with severe mental illness (SMI engage in risky sexual behaviours and have high prevalence of HIV in high-income countries. Little is known about sexual behaviours and HIV risk among persons with SMI in sub-Saharan Africa. In this qualitative study we explored how SMI may influence sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks in Uganda. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 7 male and 13 female psychiatric patients aged 18-49 years. Participants were interviewed in hospital when clinically stable and capable of giving informed consent. Interview transcripts were analysed using manifest content analysis, generating the categories: (1 casual sex during illness episodes, (2 rape by non-partners, (3 exploitation by partners, (4 non-monogamous partners, and (5 sexual inactivity. Our findings suggest that SMI exacerbated sexual vulnerability in the women interviewed, by contributing to casual sex, to exploitative and non-monogamous sexual relationships, and to sexual assault by non-partners. No link could be established between SMI and increased sexual risk behaviours in the men interviewed, due to a small sample of men, and given that men's accounts showed little variability. Our findings also suggest that SMI caused sexual inactivity due to decreased sexual desire, and in men, due to difficulties forming an intimate relationship. Overall, our study highlights how SMI and gender inequality can contribute to the shaping of sexual risk behaviours and sexual health risks, including HIV risk, among persons with SMI in this Ugandan setting.
The purpose of this phenomenological exploration was to shed light on the constellation of factors anteceding young women's sexual risk taking during their tourist experiences. A total of 15 in-depth interviews (1.5 to 2.5 hours each) with 13 women were conducted and analyzed through the lens of transcendental phenomenology. An analysis of antecedent factors revealed a confluence of sociopersonal characteristics (e.g., sexual definitions, attitudes, double standards, and age) and touristic attributes (e.g., the sense of temporariness/ephemerality, anonymity, and fun-oriented mentality depending on length, destination, and type of tourist experience) that underlie women's proclivity for and perceptions of sexual risk taking in certain travel scenarios. These result in myriad effects on physical, sexual health, sociocultural, mental, and emotional aspects of women's health and well-being. While the sociopersonal antecedents highlight the cross-pollination between sex-related perceptions in everyday life and touristic environments, the touristic antecedents emphasize the uniqueness of tourist experiences as the contexts for sexual risk taking. The findings address an underresearched topic in sex and tourism scholarship and offer implications for health education and intervention programs, pointing to the value of constructing the context-specific and gender-sensitive sexual health messages underpinned by the ideas of women's empowerment and sexual agency.
Langille, Donald B; Hughes, Jean; Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Rigby, Janet A
Little is known about associations of adolescents' socio-economic status (SES) and their sexual activity and risk behaviours. This study examined these associations in Nova Scotia adolescents aged 15-19. Students at four high schools in northern Nova Scotia completed surveys examining relationships of family SES factors and: 1) sexual activity (having had vaginal or anal intercourse, intercourse before age 15 (early intercourse)); and 2) risk behaviours (use of contraception/condoms, number of partners and unplanned intercourse after substance use). Of students present when the survey was administered, 2,135 (91%) responded. Almost half (49%) had had vaginal intercourse, and 7% anal intercourse. In univariate analysis for young women, non-intact family structure and lower parental education were associated with having vaginal, anal and early intercourse. Female risk behaviours showed no significant univariate associations with SES. Young men had univariate associations of family structure, lower maternal education and paternal unemployment with early intercourse, and lower paternal education with anal intercourse. Condom use was higher for young men with employed fathers; those living with both parents less often had >1 sexual partner. In multivariate analysis, most SES associations with females' sexual activities held, while most for males did not, and few associations of SES and risk behaviours were seen for females. Indicators of lower SES are associated with sexual activity in young women. Sexual risk behaviours are not often associated with SES in females, though they are more so in males. These findings have implications for sexual health promotion and health services.
Anthonio Alisancharles Batista de Almeida
Full Text Available Objective: to identify complaints of sexual function related to climacteric symptoms among women in climacteric age. Methods: this is an descritive study. A sample of 330 women aged from 35 to 65 years old, with three previous Pap tests. We used a semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed having the central tendency of proportion and measure the average as a parameter. Results: it was evidenced that 50.0% were between 35-45 years, 73.0% were sexually active, 59.4% had decreased libido, and 58.5% reported dyspareunia. Conclusion: it is necessary that the health services and professionals are aware of the influence of climacteric on women’s health to develop strategies aimed at quality of life.
Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D
Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies.
Nobre, Pedro J; Pinto-Gouveia, José
The present study investigated the differences in emotional response to automatic thoughts presented during sexual activity between sexually functional and dysfunctional men and women. A total of 376 participants (160 women and 120 men without sexual problems and 47 women and 49 men with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ male and female versions; P. J. Nobre & J. Pinto-Gouveia, 2000) and measures of sexual functioning: The International Index of Sexual Function (IIEF; R. C. Rosen et al., 1997), and The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; R. C. Rosen et al., 2000). The SMQ is a combined measure constituted by three interdependent subscales: Automatic Thought subscale (AT), Emotional Response subscale (ER), and Sexual Response subscale (SR). Emotions were assessed by the ER subscale, where participants endorsed emotional reactions (worry, sadness, disillusion, fear, guilt, shame, anger, hurt, pleasure, satisfaction) to a list of automatic thoughts (AT subscale) that may occur during sexual activity. Results showed that both men and women with sexual dysfunction had significantly less positive emotional reactions to automatic thoughts during sexual activity. Sexually dysfunctional men had significantly more emotions of sadness, disillusion, and fear, and less pleasure and satisfaction, compared to men without sexual problems. Women with sexual dysfunction had significantly less pleasure and satisfaction, and more sadness, disillusion, guilt, and anger. Findings were congruent with recent studies indicating that emotions related to depressed affect (sadness, disillusion, lack of pleasure) as opposed to negative emotions (mostly related to anxiety) were stronger correlates of sexual dysfunction.
Farid, Nik Daliana Nik; Rus, Sulaiman Che'; Dahlui, Maznah; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul
Background In welfare institutions, it is essential to address the health-related needs of adolescent populations who often engage in sexual activities. This study examines the association between individual and interpersonal factors concerning sexual risk behaviour (SRB) among adolescents in welfare institutions in Malaysia. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional study of 1082 adolescents in 22 welfare institutions located across Peninsular Malaysia in 2009. Using supervised self-a...
Seidman, S N; Sterk-Elifson, C; Aral, S O
Drug-using men are at high risk for acquisition and transmission of STD, presumably due to the risky behaviors practiced in environments of drug use. To study behaviors associated with STD transmission among drug-using men. Drug outreach workers distributed vouchers to self-identified drug-using men in urban Atlanta. Vouchers could be redeemed for cash at a storefront clinic where subjects provided urine for a urethritis screening test (leukocyte esterase test) and a drug screen, and were interviewed. Of 382 voucher recipients, 252 (66%) came to the clinic. Subjects were predominantly black (92%), homeless (70%), and aged 20 to 40 (88%). All used illicit drugs; none were currently receiving drug abuse treatment. Urine drug screen confirmed recent cocaine use in 63%, and recent opiate use in 4%. Three-fourths reported a history of STD, mostly gonorrhea. In the preceding 3 months, 14% had not had sex, 80% had sex exclusively with women, 4% had sex with both men and women, and 2% had sex exclusively with men. Of the heterosexually active men, 29% had 5 or more recent partners. Compared to other heterosexually active men, these men were more likely to always use alcohol or crack before having sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-2.5) and to drink alcohol every day (PR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.3). Daily crack use was associated with choosing partners at elevated STD risk; daily alcohol use with having more partners. Positive drug screen for cocaine was associated with self-reported crack use. Urethritis, detected in 16%, was not correlated with behavior. A substantial number of drug-using men practice high-risk sexual behavior and should be targeted for intervention. Monetary and other incentives should be considered for recruitment. Further study is needed to clarify the relationship between sexual behavior, cocaine use, and STD.
Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Lunn, Sonja
Considerable research has examined reciprocal relationships between parenting, peers and adolescent problem behavior; however, such studies have largely considered the influence of peers and parents separately. It is important to examine simultaneously the relationships between parental monitoring, peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior, and whether increases in peer risk involvement and changes in parental monitoring longitudinally predict adolescent sexual risk behavior. Four waves of sexual behavior data were collected between 2008/2009 and 2011 from high school students aged 13-17 in the Bahamas. Structural equation and latent growth curve modeling were used to examine reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, perceived peer risk involvement and adolescent sexual risk behavior. For both male and female youth, greater perceived peer risk involvement predicted higher sexual risk behavior index scores, and greater parental monitoring predicted lower scores. Reciprocal relationships were found between parental monitoring and sexual risk behavior for males and between perceived peer risk involvement and sexual risk behavior for females. For males, greater sexual risk behavior predicted lower parental monitoring; for females, greater sexual risk behavior predicted higher perceived peer risk involvement. According to latent growth curve models, a higher initial level of parental monitoring predicted decreases in sexual risk behavior, whereas both a higher initial level and a higher growth rate of peer risk involvement predicted increases in sexual risk behavior. Results highlight the important influence of peer risk involvement on youths' sexual behavior and gender differences in reciprocal relationships between parental monitoring, peer influence and adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Taylor, Tonya N.; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L.; Karpiak, Stephen E.; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E.
There is limited research examining the sexual health and wellbeing of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n=50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n=2,052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50–69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women’s sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression and habitual condomless sex with long term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women. PMID:27220311
Taylor, Tonya N; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Levine, Alexandra M; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E
There is limited research examining the sexual health and well-being of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n = 50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n = 2052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50-69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women's sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression, and habitual condomless sex with long-term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women.
Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Szlachta, Alaina
The HIV testing, disclosure, and sexual practices of ethnic minority men suggest that addressing sexual risk behavior and the underlying reasons for not receiving HIV testing or disclosing HIV-infection status-unique to differing populations-would improve public health interventions. Descriptive behaviors and underlying perspectives reported in our study suggest that public health interventions for HIV-infected Latino men who self-identify as heterosexual should explicitly identify substance use, needle sharing, and unprotected sex to current partners as behaviors placing both oneself and one's partners at high risk for contracting HIV. However, diversity of sexual behavior among gay, straight, and bisexual HIV-infected Latino men in our study ultimately suggested that clinicians should not rely on simplistic conceptions of sexuality in assessment of self-care needs. Care in presentation and discussion of self-identified sexual preference and sexual behavior is indicated, as these do not determine actual sexual orientation or behavior and vice versa. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The aim of this paper is to identify the social and economic variables associated with MSP among ... rate of AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa, ... which address the spread of HIV through ... sexual networks observed in the southern African.
Fasula, Amy M; Miller, Kim S; Wiener, Jeffrey
This study explored the sexual double standard (SDS) (in which males are afforded more freedom and power than females in heterosexual interactions) in African American mothers' sexual messages to sons and daughters. We used a convenience sample of 129 African American adolescents, aged 14 to 17 years, and their mothers who reported SDS attitudes. Qualitative analyses revealed gender differences based on an SDS in mothers' sexual risk reduction socialization. Mothers typically took a proactive approach with sons and a neutral or prohibitive approach with daughters. Findings provide directions for socially relevant programs for African American parents, schools, and communities.
Mullings, J L; Marquart, J W; Brewer, V E
There were two aims in this research. First, to examine the relationships between childhood sexual abuse and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors among female prisoners, and second, to examine the relationship between a marginal adult living context and HIV drug and sexual risk taking behavior among female prisoners. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 500 women at admission to prison in 1994. Differences between women who were sexually abused while growing up (n = 130) were compared to women who reported no sexual abuse (n = 370) along various demographic, and HIV drug and sexual risk taking dimensions. A history of sexual abuse while growing up was associated with increased sexual risk taking behaviors in adulthood. A marginal adult living situation also emerged as an important factor increasing the risk for HIV infection. Examining the co-occurrence of both childhood sexual abuse and adult marginal living context revealed a strong relationship between these two factors and HIV risk taking activities. The findings indicate that childhood sexual abuse may be a predictor for HIV sexual risk taking behaviors among incarcerated women. The marginal and chaotic adult living style of these women was also associated the extent of their HIV drug and sexual risk taking behaviors. Our research suggests that the co-occurrence of sexual victimization and marginality is a stronger predictor of HIV risk than each variable alone.
Frye, Victoria; Nandi, Vijay; Egan, James; Cerda, Magdalena; Greene, Emily; Van Tieu, Hong; Ompad, Danielle C.; Hoover, Donald R.; Lucy, Debbie; Baez, Eduardo; Koblin, Beryl A.
Understanding what social factors are associated with risk of HIV acquisition and transmission among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) is a critical public health goal. Experiencing discrimination may increase risk of HIV infection among MSM. This analysis assessed relations between experiences of sexual orientation- and race-based discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior among MSM in New York City. 1,369 MSM completed a self-administered computerized assessment of past 3-month sexual behavior, experience of social discrimination and other covariates. Regression models assessed relations between recent experience of discrimination and sexual HIV risk behavior. Mean age was 32 years; 32 % were white; 32 % Latino/Hispanic; 25 % African American/Black. Of MSM who self-reported HIV-positive or unknown status (377), 7 % (N = 27) reported having unprotected insertive anal intercourse with an HIV-negative or unknown status partner (“HIV transmission risk”). Of MSM who self-reported HIV-negative status (992), 11 % (110) reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with an HIV-positive or unknown status partner (“HIV acquisition risk”). HIV acquisition risk was positively associated with sexual orientation-based discrimination in home or social neighborhoods, but not race-based discrimination. We observed that sexual orientation-based discrimination was associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among urban-dwelling MSM. Addressing environmental sources of this form of discrimination, as well as the psychological distress that may result, should be prioritized in HIV prevention efforts. PMID:25381561
Self-Brown, Shannon; Culbreth, Rachel; Wilson, Rebecca; Armistead, Lisa; Kasirye, Rogers; Swahn, Monica H
This study examined risk factors to determine associations with commercial sexual exploitation of children and youth (CSEC) in a convenience sample of adolescents living in the slums in Kampala, Uganda. Individual-level factors included demographic, adverse experiences (ever living on the streets; victim of dating violence, parental abuse, or rape), and behavioral risk (social media, alcohol use, age at first intercourse). Parental-risk factors included parent alcohol use and approval attitudes toward youth sex. Analyses included those who self-reported sexually active adolescents ( n = 593) of whom 39% reported CSEC history. CSEC was significantly associated with being female (odds ratio [ OR] = 6.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) = [4.22, 11.12]), living on the streets ( OR = 2.68; 95% CI = [1.65, 4.36]), using social media ( OR = 1.48; 95% CI = [0.94, 2.35]), being a victim of physical dating violence ( OR = 1.74; 95% CI = [1.08, 2.80]), and ever being raped ( OR = 4.03; 95% CI = [2.51, 6.47]). Further analyses suggested differential risk associates among females and males. This study contributes to our knowledge of risk factors for CSEC among adolescents living in high-risk circumstances in low-resource countries and suggests that preventive efforts should prioritize adolescents with a history of living on the streets who engage in social media, use alcohol, and have a history of trauma.
Maseroli, Elisa; Scavello, Irene; Vignozzi, Linda
Erectile dysfunction is recognized as an opportunity for preventing cardiovascular (CV) events, and assessing the impairment of penile vascular flow by Doppler ultrasound is an important tool to ascertain CV risk. Conversely, the role of genital vascular impairment in the pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) remains contentious. To focus on the current scientific support for an association between CV risk factors and female sexual health in the 1st part of a 2-part review. A thorough literature search of peer-reviewed publications on the associations between CV risk factors and FSD and their underlying mechanisms was performed using the PubMed database. We present a summary of the evidence from clinical studies and discuss the possible mechanisms providing the pathophysiologic bases of vasculogenic FSD syndromes. The peripheral sexual response in women is a vascular-dependent event, and evidence suggests that cardiometabolic-related perturbations in endothelial function can determine vascular insufficiency in female genital tissues. Although epidemiologic and observational studies demonstrate that the prevalence of FSD is higher in women with diabetes mellitus, a cause-effect relation between these clinical conditions cannot be assumed. Evidence on the effect of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome on sexual function in women is controversial. Data on the associations of dyslipidemia and hypertension with FSD are limited. Common cardiometabolic alterations could affect vascular function in the female genital tract. Based on limited data, there is an association between CV risk factors and female sexual health in women; however, this association appears milder than in men. Maseroli E, Scavello I, Vignozzi L. Cardiometabolic Risk and Female Sexuality-Part I. Risk Factors and Potential Pathophysiological Underpinnings for Female Vasculogenic Sexual Dysfunction Syndromes. Sex Med Rev 2018;X:XXX-XXX. Copyright © 2018 International
Huebner, David M.; Mandic, Carmen Gómez; Mackaronis, Julia E.; Beougher, Sean C.; Hoff, Colleen C.
Parenthood changes couples' relationships across multiple domains, generally decreasing relationship quality, sexual satisfaction, and sexual frequency. Emerging research suggests that gay couples who are parenting might experience similar challenges. However, such changes might have even more profound implications for gay couples' health, and in particular their HIV risk, given the somewhat different ways in which they negotiate and tolerate sexual behaviors with outside partners. We aimed to examine these issues in a qualitative analysis of interviews from 48 gay male couples who were actively parenting children. Findings suggest that parenthood increases men's commitment to their primary relationship while simultaneously decreasing time and energy for relationship maintenance, and generally decreasing sexual satisfaction. These challenges alone did not generally result in greater infidelity or HIV risk, as most men reported successfully coping with such changes through a combination of acceptance and revaluing what is important in their relationships. Additionally, couples reported negotiating agreements regarding sex with outside partners that closely resemble those documented in studies of gay couples who are not parents. Men reported that parenthood typically decreased their opportunities to engage in sex with outside partners, but also posed barriers to talking about these behaviors with their partners and healthcare providers. HIV-related sexual risk behavior was relatively rare, but nevertheless present in some men. Providers should assess sexual function as a regular part of their work with gay couples who parent, and facilitate opportunities for men to discuss their sexual agreements both with their primary partners and with relevant healthcare providers. PMID:25674355
This article argues that institutions need to take more risks to improve sexuality education. Understanding how risk structures sexuality may help make sexuality education more attuned to the needs of diverse students. Situating sexuality in the context of human rights can help to demonstrate the kinds of social and institutional risks that are…
Simnikiwe H Mayaphi
Full Text Available To assess the prevalence of HIV risk behaviour among sexually active HIV sero-negative individuals in the Tshwane district of South Africa (SA.Demographic and HIV risk behaviour data were collected on a questionnaire from participants of a cross-sectional study that screened for early HIV infection using pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT. The study enrolled individuals who tested negative on rapid HIV tests performed at five HIV counseling and testing (HCT clinics, which included four antenatal clinics and one general HCT clinic.The study enrolled 9547 predominantly black participants (96.6% with a median age of 27 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 23-31. There were 1661 non-pregnant and 7886 pregnant participants largely enrolled from the general and antenatal HCT clinics, respectively. NAAT detected HIV infection in 61 participants (0.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-0.8 in the whole study. A high proportion of study participants, 62.8% and 63.0%, were unaware of their partner's HIV status; and also had high prevalence, 88.5% and 99.5%, of recent unprotected sex in the general and pregnant population, respectively. Consistent use of condoms was associated with protection against HIV infection in the general population. Trends of higher odds for HIV infection were observed with most demographic and HIV risk factors at univariate analysis, however, multivariate analysis did not show statistical significance for almost all these factors. A significantly lower risk of HIV infection was observed in circumcised men (p <0.001.These data show that a large segment of sexually active people in the Tshwane district of SA have high risk exposure to HIV. The detection of newly diagnosed HIV infections in all study clinics reflects a wide distribution of individuals who are capable of sustaining HIV transmission in the setting where HIV risk behaviour is highly prevalent. A questionnaire that captures HIV risk behaviour would be useful
Nagoski, Emily; Janssen, Erick; Lohrmann, David; Nichols, Eric
Risky sexual behaviors, including the decision to have unprotected sex, result from interactions between individuals and their environment. The current study explored the use of Agent-Based Modeling (ABM)-a methodological approach in which computer-generated artificial societies simulate human sexual networks-to assess the influence of heterogeneity of sexual motivation on the risk of contracting HIV. The models successfully simulated some characteristics of human sexual systems, such as the relationship between individual differences in sexual motivation (sexual excitation and inhibition) and sexual risk, but failed to reproduce the scale-free distribution of number of partners observed in the real world. ABM has the potential to inform intervention strategies that target the interaction between an individual and his or her social environment.
Sexual activity among 534 Nigerian female secondary school students was studied using self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of sexual intercourse was 25.7%. There was no significant difference between the junior (48.2%) and senior (51.8%) students (p > 0.05). Seventeen (12.4%) students had initiated sexual ...
Cervix cancer is the cancer that causes most female deaths in South Africa. Little is known about the sexual and menstrual practices in high-risk communities in South Africa. Knowledge of the risks inherent in these practices might lead to changed behaviour. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there are inherent ...
Embregts, P.; van den Bogaard, K.; Hendriks, L.; Heestermans, M.; Schuitemaker, M.; van Wouwe, H.
Given that sexually offensive behavior on the part of people with intellectual disabilities has been identified as a significant problem, we developed a risk assessment questionnaire, that takes not only various static and dynamic factors into account but also environmental risk variables. Psychologists and staff members completed this Risk…
The study seeks to examine the prevalence of date fighting and its role in sexual risk behaviours among 1079 boys and 1211 girls in 22 public secondary schools in Ibadan Nigeria. About 60% (1367) reported to have ever experienced at least a form of date fighting. Risk factors for date fighting in boys include, non use of ...
Purpose: Several studies have documented the high sexual activities ... Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was done among 521 ... sex workers before, 33 (6.3%) had been raped previously while 25 ... transmission of the HIV virus.
Khalid Al Rubaie
Full Text Available A 54-year-old healthy male presented complaining of sudden loss of vision in the right eye. Initial visual acuity was counting fingers. The patient’s acute vision loss developed after sexual activity. Color fundus photos and fluorescein angiography were performed showing a large subinternal limiting membrane hemorrhage in the macular area. A 23-gauge sutureless pars plana vitrectomy with brilliant blue assisted internal limiting membrane peeling was performed with best-corrected visual acuity recovery to 20/50 at 6 months of followup.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The vulnerability of young people to HIV and the recent emergence of the HIV epidemic in China have made it urgent to assess and update the HIV/STD risk profile of Chinese young people. Methods A self-administered questionnaire survey with cross-sectional design was conducted among 22,493 undergraduate students in two universities in Ningbo, China. Bivariate trend analysis and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to compare sexual behaviors and awareness between grades. Results Of respondents, 17.6% of males and 8.6% of females reported being sexually active. Condom was reported never/rarely used by 35% of sexually active students in both genders in the previous year. Pregnancy and induced abortion had each been experienced by about 10% of sexually active female students and the female partners of male students, and about 1.5% of sexually active students of both genders reported being diagnosed with an STD. Multivariate analysis revealed that students in lower grades, compared to those in higher grades, were more likely to have become sexually active before university, to have become aware of sex before high school, and to have been exposed to pornographic media before the age of 17 years, and for sexually active respondents of both genders, to have engaged in sex without using a condom. Conclusion Sexual behaviors of Chinese university students are poorly protected and sexual behaviors and awareness may have been undergoing rapid change, becoming active earlier and more risky. If this trend continues, vulnerable sexual network will grow among them that allow more expansion of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV.
Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A
Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection.
Dodd, Julia; Littleton, Heather
Sexual victimization is associated with risky sexual behaviors. Limited research has examined mechanisms via which victimization affects risk behaviors, particularly following different types of sexual victimization. This study examined self-worth as a mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization history: contact childhood sexual abuse (CSA), completed rape in adolescence/adulthood (adolescent/adulthood sexual assault [ASA]), and combined CSA/ASA, and two sexual risk behaviors: past year partners and one-time encounters. Participants were diverse (57.9% African American), low-income women recruited from an OB-GYN waiting room (n = 646). Women with a history of sexual victimization, 29.8% (n = 186) reported lower self-worth, t(586) = 5.26, p < .001, and more partners, t(612) = 2.45, p < .01, than nonvictims. Self-worth was a significant mediator only among women with combined CSA/ASA histories in both risk behavior models.
Chirinos Jesús L.
Full Text Available To document knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality and sexual practices of male adolescent high school students in Lima, Peru, a self-administered, anonymous survey was completed by 991 male adolescents aged 12-19 as part of a School-Based Sex Education Intervention model. Questions concerned sociodemographic information; family characteristics; personal activities; knowledge and attitudes regarding sexuality; sexual experience; and contraceptive use. Knowledge related to sexuality was limited. Males tended to mainly discuss sexuality with their male peers (49.8%. Attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use were largely positive, although some males expressed ambivalent feelings towards the latter. Of the sample, 43% had ever had sex; age at first sexual intercourse was 13 years. While 88% of the sample would use condoms, 74% also gave reasons for not using them. Sexual activity was related to age, ever having repeated a grade, living with only one parent or in a mixed family, activities such as going to parties, use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and viewing pornographic videos or magazines. Many male adolescents were at risk of causing an unintended pregnancy or acquiring an STD.
De Santis, Joseph P; Hauglum, Shayne D; Deleon, Diego A; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Rodriguez, Allan E
Transgender women experience a variety of factors that may contribute to HIV risk. The purpose of this study was to explore links among HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors of transgender women. A descriptive, correlational study design was used. Fifty transgender women from the South Florida area were enrolled in the study. Transgender women completed a demographic questionnaire and standardized instruments measuring HIV risk perception, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviors. Transgender women reported low levels of HIV risk perception, and had knowledge deficits regarding HIV risk/transmission. Some participants engaged in high-risk sexual behaviors. Predictors of sexual risk behaviors among transgender women were identified. More research is needed with a larger sample size to continue studying factors that contribute to sexual risk behaviors in the understudied population of transgender women. Evidence-based guidelines are available to assist public health nurses in providing care for transgender women. Nurses must assess HIV perception risk and HIV knowledge and provide relevant education to transgender women on ways to minimize sexual risk. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. © The Author(s) 2014.
Huang, Wen; Dong, Yanyan; Chen, Lin; Song, Dandan; Wang, Jun; Tao, Haidong; Zaller, Nickolas; Zhang, Hongbo; Operario, Don
Sexual behavior is the dominant mode of HIV transmission in China, and young female migrants are among the populations at highest risk. This article examines how HIV-related risk behaviors among female migrants might vary according to workplace settings. Participants were young female migrants recruited from three workplace settings-factories, restaurants and entertainment venues. In a cross-sectional survey, we assessed 457 participants' sociodemographic characteristics, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, condom use knowledge, sexual behaviors, condom use behavior and reproductive health factors. Participants working in entertainment venues were significantly more likely than those working in factories and restaurants to report sexual behavior, unprotected sex, multiple pregnancy terminations and sexually transmitted infections (STI). However, participants working in factories and restaurants reported significantly lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, condom use knowledge, condom use self-efficacy and history of HIV/AIDS counseling and testing. Independent correlates of unprotected sex included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history and sexual self-efficacy. Independent correlates of STI or genitourinary tract infection included employment in an entertainment venue, abortion history, recent migration and recent unprotected sex. These findings indicate a need for sexual and reproductive health interventions prioritizing young female migrants, and call for programs that can be incorporated into different workplace settings. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.
This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…
Benotsch, Eric G; Sawyer, Ashlee N; Martin, Aaron M; Allen, Elizabeth S; Nettles, Christopher D; Richardson, Doug; Rietmeijer, Cornelis A
In prior research, having traits consistent with a personality disorder has been shown to be related to substance use and high-risk sexual activity; however, few studies have examined relationships between dependency traits and health-jeopardizing behaviors. Individuals with traits consistent with dependent personality disorder may be more likely to be in a primary relationship characterized by unhealthy conditions, including physical abuse from a partner, low assertiveness in sexual situations, and partner infidelity. In addition, dependency traits may be associated with unhealthy coping (e.g., through substance use). To examine associations between dependent personality traits and these types of health-related behaviors, 198 women seeking sexually transmitted infection clinic services completed a computer-assisted assessment of dependent personality traits, substance use, unhealthy conditions in primary relationships, perceived sexual and relationship power, and sexual risk related to condom use. Dependency trait scores were correlated with the use of cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine. Participants high in dependency traits reported low perceived power within their relationships and less say in sexual behaviors, including condom use. In a series of multivariate analyses, dependency traits significantly predicted having been hit by a partner, staying with a partner after he cheated, having sex because of threats, and fear of asking a partner to use a condom. Dependency traits were also associated with lower past condom use and lower future condom use intentions. Results suggest that dependent personality traits may place women at higher risk for physical abuse and harmful health behaviors.
Shulman, Shmuel; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge; Walsh, Sophie D
Past research has consistently shown that romantic experiences during adolescence affect the nature and quality of romantic relationships during emerging adulthood. However, less is known about the role of adolescent sexual experiences in future sexual and romantic relationships. The current study examined the impact of different forms of sexual activity at age 16 (within a romantic relationship or casual encounters) on the nature and quality of sexual experiences in romantic relationships at age 23. One hundred and forty four (59.7% females) 16 year olds reported on their sexual activity within a romantic relationship or sexual encounters. In addition they reported on the quality of relationships they were involved in and their tendency to suppress emotions (included as an aspect of personality). At age 23 they reported on their romantic and sexual experiences during the past 2 years (number of short lived relationships, numbers of friends with benefits, casual sex encounters) and the quality of their romantic relationships (the duration of their longest relationship, partner support and feelings of certainty in the relationships). Findings showed that the tendency to suppress emotions was associated with lower likelihood to engage in casual sex at age 23. However, greater sexual experience in casual encounters during adolescence was consistently longitudinally associated with different forms of casual sexual encounters and short romantic involvements above and beyond the contribution of personality. In contrast, sexual activity within a romantic relationship predicted only a few indices of the quality of romantic involvement at age 23. The distinctive role of casual sexual activity and sexual activity within a romantic relationship for future sexual and romantic activities is discussed.
Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong
Increasingly more men who have sex with men (MSM) are engaging in sexual risk taking in China in recent years. Given the high rates of HIV infection among MSM in China, it is urgent that we understand the factors that influence MSM's practice of sexual risk taking. Disgust sensitivity, which elicits a behavioral avoidance response, has the potential to influence risky sexual behavior. The present study examined the relationship between disgust sensitivity and sexual risk behavior among MSM in China. Men (n = 584) who reported having anal intercourse in the previous 6 months were recruited from the Internet. Two indicators of sexual risk behaviors were measured: condom use and the number of sex partners. The results indicated that moral disgust was positively associated with condom use, with MSM who had higher moral disgust being more likely to use condoms than others did. Sexual disgust was positively associated with the number of sex partners, with MSM who had higher sexual disgust having fewer male sex partners than others did. Sexual and moral disgust sensitivity significantly predicted HIV testing. Our study verified that sexual and moral disgust suppressed sexual risk behaviors and promoted HIV testing. Moral and sexual education should be incorporated in future strategies for HIV prevention and encouragement of safe sex behaviors among MSM in China. PMID:28119646
Semple, Shirley J; Grant, Igor; Patterson, Thomas L
The primary objective of this research was to expand our knowledge regarding the personal and social characteristics of female methamphetamine (meth) users, their motivations for using meth, patterns of meth use, medical and social problems associated with meth use, and the relationship between meth use and sexual risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 98 HIV-negative, heterosexually-identified, meth-using females residing in San Diego, California. Female meth users were characterized by personal and social disadvantage, high rates of psychiatric symptomatology, and high levels of sexual risk behavior, including multiple partners, risky partner types (e.g., anonymous sex partners), and high rates of unprotected vaginal and oral sex. Meth use was also associated with the subjective positive experience of sex. These finding suggest that behavioral interventions should be tailored to the social characteristics of female meth users, and program content should reflect the intertwining of women's sexual experience and meth use.
Lemieux, AF; Nehl, EJ; Lin, L; Tran, A; Yu, F; Wong, FY
In the present paper, we present a preliminary examination of the association of depression level, internet use, meeting sexual partners online, and unprotected sexual activity among Asian men who have sex with men (MSM). Because depression level has been previously linked to increased levels of sexual risk behavior, and heightened levels of Internet use has been linked to greater depressive symptoms, the present pilot research jointly examines these factors. We found that those with higher levels of depression, measured using the CES-D, spent more time online, met significantly more sexual partners online, and reported a significantly higher number of unprotected sexual acts. Based on this initial evidence, we conclude that incorporating CES-D to screen for depression can serve as an important tool for addressing underlying dynamics of sexual risk behaviors. PMID:24074630
Samek, Diana R; Iacono, William G; Keyes, Margaret A; Epstein, Marina; Bornovalova, Marina A; McGue, Matt
Research has demonstrated a consistent relationship between early sexual experience and subsequent sexual risk-taking behaviors. We hypothesized that this relationship is due to a general predisposition toward behavioral disinhibition (BD), and that relationships among BD, early sex, and subsequent risky sexual behavior may be influenced by common genetic influences for males and common environmental influences for females. A prospective sample of 1,512 same-sex adolescent twins (50.2% female) was used. Adolescent BD was measured by clinical symptom counts of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and self-reported delinquent behavior (age 14). Age of sexual initiation was defined as first age of consensual oral or penetrative sex (mean age ~17). Adult risky sexual behavior was defined by sexual behaviors under the influence of drugs and alcohol and number of casual sexual partners in the past year (age 24). Multivariate analyses showed evidence for substantial common genetic variance among age 14 BD, age at sexual initiation, and adult risky sexual behavior for males, but not females. There was no significant difference in the degree of common environmental influence on these variables for females compared to males. Notably, age of sexual initiation was not significantly correlated with age 24 risky sexual behavior for females. The relationship between early sex and later risky sex can be better understood through a general liability toward BD, which is influenced primarily by genetic factors for males. The association between age 14 BD and age of sexual initiation was influenced through a combination of genetic and environmental factors for females; however, age of sexual initiation does not appear to be a salient predictor of adult women’s sexual risk-taking behavior. Findings suggest that prevention programs aimed at reducing sexual risk behavior might target youth exhibiting BD by age 14, particularly males. More research is needed on what predicts
Chinekwu A. Obidoa
Full Text Available The growing rate of sexual risk-taking among young people contributes significantly to the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Nigeria. This study, explores the influence of socio-demographic, HIV/AIDS awareness and female empowerment on the sexual risk behaviors of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24. The data presented in this paper was drawn from the 2003 Nigeria National Demographic and Health Survey. The sample consisted of unmarried women aged 15-24 in the dataset. Data was collected through a structured and interviewer administered questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the most important predictors of sexual risk behaviors. Sexual risk-taking is relatively high among unmarried young women. Among those who are sexually active, 80% indicated that they did not use a condom during their first sexual encounter. Regression analysis revealed that younger age, lower HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission knowledge, lower knowledge of where to obtain condoms, lower material standard of living and greater intimate partner violence were significantly associated with sexual risk-taking in this population. Findings revealed that the sexual behavior of unmarried Nigerian women aged 15-24 is influenced by a complex matrix of factors. Identifying specific processes and contexts that promote the concentration of risk among sub-sections of young unmarried women aged 15-24 years in Nigeria should be a research and intervention priority.
Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
Coerced or forced sexual initiation and sexual intimate partner violence (sexual IPV) contribute significantly to a woman’s risk for HIV infection. This review systematically examines global research (n=21 studies) published since 2000 on the role of coerced/forced sexual initiation and sexual IPV on HIV risk in women. In predominantly low- and middle-income countries, coerced/forced sexual initiation was associated with HIV/STIs, multiple and high-risk sex partners, and no condom use. Most studies using behaviorally specific terms for sexual IPV found strong associations between sexual IPV and HIV risk behaviors. In contrast, studies using less specific definitions often failed to find these significant associations. To develop more comprehensive HIV prevention programs, future efforts should integrate behaviorally specific terms into assessing prevalence of sexual IPV and its association with HIV risk, consider cultural differences, and identify causal pathways between coerced or forced sexual initiation, HIV risk behaviors and HIV/STI infection. PMID:23143750
Keith, Judith B.; And Others
Examined sexual activity and contraception among urban, low-income African-American adolescent female clients who were not sexually active (n=50), sexually active/noncontracepting (n=20), or sexually active/contracepting (n=72). Not sexually active group was younger, more career motivated, had father at home, was more influenced by family values,…
Robinson, Sally; Robinson, Carol
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a resource designed to support practitioners, who are not sexual health specialists, but who work with young people who may be at risk of teenage pregnancy or parenthood. Its aim was to enable practitioners to carry out an assessment using a screening tool, and to use educational…
HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...
The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...
A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings ...
If health awareness campaigns have an effect on behavioural change, one would expect the youth to abstain from sex and be involved in stable sexual relationships. This quantitative survey, conducted among a sample of 226 Johannesburg youths, was aimed at ascertaining their exposure to sex risks and their stability in ...
Molatelo Elisa Shikwane
Jan 3, 2014 ... To cite this article: Molatelo Elisa Shikwane, Olga M. Villar-Loubet, Stephen M. Weiss, Karl Peltzer & Deborah L. Jones. (2013) HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa, SAHARA-. J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open Access ...
Grimm, Donata; Eulenburg, Christine; Brummer, Oliver; Schliedermann, Anna-Katharina; Trillsch, Fabian; Prieske, Katharina; Gieseking, Friederike; Selka, Enzia; Mahner, Sven; Woelber, Linn
Sexual activity (SA) and sexual function (SF) are central outcome measures in women affected by preinvasive (vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia, VIN) and invasive (vulvar cancer, VC) vulvar lesions. Data on sexuality after treatment are scarce. Validated questionnaires including the female sexual
Rafael Alves Guimarães
Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: to investigate the prevalence and risk behaviors by means of reporting of sexually transmitted diseases among crack users.Method: cross-sectional study carried out with 588 crack users in a referral care unit for the treatment of chemical dependency. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interview and analyzed using Stata statistical software, version 8.0.Results: of the total participants, 154 (26.2%; 95% CI: 22.8-29.9 reported antecedents of sexually transmitted diseases. Ages between 25 and 30 years (RP: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.0 and over 30 years (RP: 3.8; 95% CI: 2.1-6.8, alcohol consumption (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.1-3.3, antecedents of prostitution (RP: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.3-2.9 and sexual intercourse with person living with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS (RP: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2 were independently associated with reporting of sexually transmitted diseases.Conclusion: the results of this study suggest high risk and vulnerability of crack users for sexually transmitted diseases.
Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven
Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.
Patel Ankur S.
Full Text Available PURPOSE: We assessed the relationships between bladder symptoms, demographic, and medical history variables and sexual dysfunction in women with overactive bladder (OAB disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-eight women diagnosed with OAB completed self-administered questionnaires related to overall heath status, bladder function, and sexual function. Data were compiled for questionnaire responses, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors of sexual dysfunction. RESULTS: Bothersome bladder symptoms were reported by superscript three 60% of the sample. Sixty-percent of the sample was sexually active in the past month. Difficulty with sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment were reported by about 25% of the women. Sexual partner status was the best predictor of sexual arousal, orgasm, and sexual enjoyment. Menopausal status emerged as an important predictor of arousal and sexual enjoyment. CONCLUSION: The majority of women with symptoms of OAB viewed these symptoms as bothersome. However, the extent of symptom bother did not predict aspects of female sexual dysfunction (FSD. Instead, menopausal and partner status emerged as the best predictors of FSD in our sample.
Western discourses about young people and sexuality centre around the concept of risk. Anxieties have been fuelled by the increasing popularity of social media and practices such as 'sexting' and watching 'sexually explicit' materials online. Research has shown however that such risk discourses mainly serve to moralise about, pathologise and police particular behaviours and children. In order to counter such paternalism, researchers advocated a reconceptualisation of youth not as passive victims, but as active agents who actively negotiate sexual experiences and discourses. In this paper, which is based on ethnographic fieldwork among young people in The Netherlands, I argue that we need a reconceptualisation not only of youth, but also of their sexual practices, especially their online sexual practices. Mobilising an interdisciplinary interaction between critical socio-cultural studies of risk, feminist theory and adventure studies, I propose to reconceptualise these practices as 'adventures' rather than 'risky behaviour'. This opens up possibilities for a more reasoned analysis that acknowledges: (1) the distinction between risks and outcomes of an activity; (2) the constructive potential of risk; and (3) the subjective, dynamic character of risk and pleasure.
Tenkorang, Eric Y; Rajulton, Fernando; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor
The 'Health Belief Model' (HBM) identifies perception of HIV/AIDS risks, recognition of its seriousness, and knowledge about prevention as predictors of safer sexual activity. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Survey (CAPS) and hazard models, this study examines the impact of risk perception, considered the first step in HIV prevention, set within the context of the HBM and socio-economic, familial and school factors, on the timing of first sexual intercourse among youth aged 14-22 in Cape Town, South Africa. Of the HBM components, female youth who perceive their risk as 'very small' and males with higher knowledge, experience their sexual debut later than comparison groups, net of other influences. For both males and females socio-economic and familial factors also influence timing of sexual debut, confirming the need to consider the social embeddedness of this sexual behavior as well as the rational components of decision making when designing prevention programs.
Bjerggaard, Mette; Charles, Morten; Kristensen, Ellids
sexual distress. Around half of men and women were excluded from the SD analysis, mainly because of reporting lack of sexual intercourse during the last 4 weeks. Among those included, 54% of men and 12% of women were found to have SD. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual inactivity is highly prevalent among middle-aged......INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes negatively impacts sexual health. Only limited information is available regarding sexual health among sexually inactive patients with type 2 diabetes. AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexual concerns among sexually active and sexually...... inactive men and women with type 2 diabetes and of sexual dysfunction (SD) among sexually active. METHODS: Data from the Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen-Detected Diabetes in Primary Care-Denmark study was used. A total of 1,170 Danish patients with screen-detected type...
Fernández-Feito, Ana; Antón-Fernández, Raquel; Paz-Zulueta, María
To estimate the association between the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine and sexual risk behaviour, as well as the participation in the Cervical Cancer Screening Program (CCSP). Cross-sectional study. School of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Law, and School of Economics and Business (University of Oviedo). Female university students. Information was collected about contraceptive methods, sexual behaviours, HPV knowledge, and participation in the CCSP. Furthermore, proportions and odds ratio (OR) were estimated with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Approximately two-thirds (67.7%) of the sample was vaccinated against HPV, and 216 women (65.3%) were sexually active. Barrier contraceptive methods were used by 67.6% during their current intimate relationships, being less frequent in non-vaccinated women (54.9% vs. 75.4% in vaccinated female students) (P=.002). The risk of having at least one sexual risk behaviour was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.29 (95%CI: 1.29-4.07). In addition, the probability of having a PAP test within the CCSP was higher in non-vaccinated women: OR2.18 (95%CI: 1.07-4.47). The prevalence of sexual risk behaviours in non-vaccinated women is elevated, and it is related to the lack of use of barrier contraceptive methods. The vaccination against HPV could affect sexual behaviours and the participation in the CCSP. Therefore, the information received by young people about contraceptive methods, sexually transmitted diseases, and cancer prevention should be reinforced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Chiang, Laura F; Chen, Jieru; Gladden, Matthew R; Mercy, James A; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mrisho, Fatma; Dahlberg, Linda L; Nyunt, Myo Zin; Brookmeyer, Kate A; Vagi, Kevin
Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As a result, individuals who have experienced such trauma may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior and could benefit from targeted interventions. In 2009, nationally representative data were collected on violence against children in Tanzania from 13-24 year old respondents (n=3,739). Analyses show that females aged 19-24 (n=579) who experienced childhood sexual violence, were more likely to report no/infrequent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=3.0, CI [1.5, 6.1], p=0.0017) and multiple sex partners in the past 12 months (AOR=2.3, CI [1.0, 5.1], p=0.0491), but no more likely to know where to get HIV testing or to have ever been tested. Victims of childhood sexual violence could benefit from targeted interventions to mitigate impacts of violence and prevent HIV.
Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the 1994 genocide and AIDS, Rwanda has a crisis of orphans. In 2005, the Ministry of Local Governance and Social Affairs of Rwanda has reported one million vulnerable children. Many of these are not only orphans but also youth heads of households (YHH. The purpose of this study was to: (a identify risk behaviors that expose YHH to HIV infection, (b determine gender-specific high risk profiles and, (c determine predictors of sexual onset. Methods A household survey was conducted among 692 YHH, aged 12-24, all beneficiaries of a World Vision basic needs program in Gikongoro, Rwanda, from January to March 2004. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge and sexual risk behaviors. Bivariate analyses of the study variables were performed to examine differences between males and females. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with the debut of having sex. Results Forty-one percent of respondents reported sexual onset before age 15. Males were more likely to start earlier than females (50.4% versus 26.7% but females reported more sexual onset with an older partner. Fifty-eight percent of females had their first intercourse with a partner who was four or more years older than themselves. While sexual activity was low (1.75 mean lifetime sexual partner, 0.45 mean sexual partner last twelve months, sexual experience was related to less social connectedness and use of drugs. Having a close friend also appeared to be protective for sexual debut. The analysis also found that although YHH were aware of some prevention measures against HIV/AIDS, there was low (19.8% knowledge of the "ABC" prevention program promoted by the government. In addition, despite 85% of respondents knowing someone who had died of AIDS, only 31% perceived themselves at risk of HIV infection
Full Text Available Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted among primary and secondary school teachers in Kampala and Kalangala districts, in Uganda. A total of 183 teachers were interviewed. HIV risk behavior, in this study was measured as having multiple sexual partners and/or sex with a partner of unknown status without using a condom. We also considered transactional/sex for favors and alcohol use as exposures to HIV risk behavior. Odds ratios (OR and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 17.0 and EPI Info Version 3.5.1. Forty five per cent of teachers reported having multiple concurrent sexual partners in the last three months, of these, only 24% acknowledged having used a condom at their last sexual encounter yet only 9.8% knew their partners’ HIV status. Teachers below 30years of age were more likely to have two or more concurrent sexual partners (OR 2.6, CI 1.31-5.34 compared to those above 30 years. Primary school teachers were less likely to involve with partners of unknown HIV status compared to secondary school teachers (OR 0.43, CI 0.19-0.97. Teachers aged below 30 years were also more likely to engage with partners of unknown HIV status compared to those above 30 years (OR 2.47, CI 1.10-5.59. Primary teachers were also less likely to have given or received gifts, money or other favors in exchange for sex (OR 0.24, CI 0.09-0.58. Teachers engage in risky sexual behaviors, which lead to HIV infection. There is need to promote
Santos, Ana Cristina
This article analyzes how both the Portuguese state and civil society have addressed the AIDS issue, focusing on participation by the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual community (LGBT) in the struggle against AIDS. The article begins by describing the situation of LGBT individuals in Portugal during the 1990s, when the Portuguese LGBT movement emerged and grew, and then characterizes the evolution of HIV/AIDS in Portugal, analyzing the relationship between civil society and sexuality in general and the situation of the epidemic in the country in particular, considering key facts, nongovernmental organizations, and state initiatives. Special attention is given to the role played by LGBT organizations in the struggle against HIV. Finally, the article reflects on the future of the struggle against both AIDS and discrimination in the 21st century, considering recent events in the country and the guidelines recommended by international policies.
Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Gomes, Romeu; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira
To analyze the relationships between sexual behavior and risk factors to physical and mental health in adolescents. Study of 3,195 pupils aged 15 to 19 in secondary education, in public and private schools in 10 state capitals in Brazil between 2007 and 2008. Multi-stage (schools and pupils) cluster sampling was used in each city and public and private educational network. All of the students selected completed a questionnaire on the following items: socioeconomic and demographic data; sexual behavior; having sex with those of the same sex, the opposite sex, or both; alcohol and cannabis use; using condoms; traumatic sexual experiences as a child or adolescent; suicidal thoughts. The analysis included describing frequencies, Chi-square test, analysis of multiple and cluster correspondence. Responses to an open ended question in which the adolescent expressed general comments about themselves and their lives were qualitatively analyzed using content analysis. Around 3.0% of adolescents reported homosexual or bisexual behavior, with no difference according to sex, age, skin color, social status family structure or educational network. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior, compared to their heterosexual peers, reported: (p sexual violence (11.7% and 1.5%; respectively). Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior reported that they used condoms less frequently (74.2%) than their heterosexual peers (48.6%, p sexual violence, never using a condom, suicidal thoughts, frequent cannabis use; another composed of occasional cannabis and condom users, who got drunk frequently, and adolescents with heterosexual behavior and none of the risk factors investigated. More of the risk factors were found in adolescents with homosexual/bisexual behavior compared with those with heterosexual behavior. Adolescents with homosexual/bisexual sexual behavior were more likely to talk about their positive personal experiences and negative relationship experiences that
Sureerut, Rongruang; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Duangmala, Padoongyot
To determine the prevalence of sexual orientation, identify predictors of being homosexual or bisexual (HB), and assess the association of sexual orientation with sexual risk behaviors among university male students in southern Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted on third year male university students between June 2008 and February 2009 using anonymous self-administered questionnaires. Among 1,101 eligible students, 1,013 (92%) responded The prevalence of heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality among respondents were 90.2%, 6.7%, and 3.1%, respectively giving a prevalence of HB of 9.8%. Significant factors predicting HB included having separated parents. Overall lifetime prevalence of men having sex with men (MSM) was 6.3% (2% in heterosexual males and 46.5% among HB males). HB males were more likely to have multiple sex partners and engage in group sex, and less likely to use condoms than were heterosexual males. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors among these male students, especially HB, was high.
Whitbeck, Les B.; Yoder, Kevin A.; Hoyt, Dan R.; Conger, Rand D.
Examines predictors of early sexual intercourse for a sample of 457 adolescents in grades 8 through 10, from two-parent and single-mother families. Significant decreases were noted in the effect of mother monitoring by 10th grade. The primary predictors of early intercourse were age, opportunity (steady relationship), sexually permissive attitude,…
Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda J; Shen, Shannon; Wang, Donna H
Working from a social relationship and life course perspective, we provide generalizable population-based evidence on partnered sexuality linked to cardiovascular risk in later life using national longitudinal data from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP) (N = 2,204). We consider characteristics of partnered sexuality of older men and women, particularly sexual activity and sexual quality, as they affect cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular risk is defined as hypertension, rapid heart rate, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), and general cardiovascular events. We find that older men are more likely to report being sexually active, having sex more often, and more enjoyably than are older women. Results from cross-lagged models suggest that high frequency of sex is positively related to later risk of cardiovascular events for men but not women, whereas good sexual quality seems to protect women but not men from cardiovascular risk in later life. We find no evidence that poor cardiovascular health interferes with later sexuality for either gender. © American Sociological Association 2016.
Randolph, Mary E.; Gamble, Heather L.; Buscemi, Joanna
A community sample of Latinas completed surveys that included measures of sexual abuse and intimate partner violence history, relationship power, negotiating power regarding condom use, perceived HIV/STI risk of sexual partner, and sexual behavior. Over half of the women reported a history of intimate partner violence in the past year and/or sexual abuse in their lifetime. Intimate partner violence was correlated with lower overall sexual relationship power scores, while sexual abuse was correlated with lower condom use negotiating power. More extensive intimate partner violence had the strongest association with higher HIV/STI risk, controlling for relationship status, sexual abuse, and relationship power. PMID:25067990
Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Frasca, Timothy; Dolezal, Curtis; Balan, Ivan
The Food and Drug Administration may license OraQuick™, a rapid HIV test, for over-the-counter (OTC) sale. This study investigated whether HIV-uninfected, non-monogamous, gay and bisexual men who never or rarely use condoms would use the test with partners as a harm-reduction approach. Sixty participants responded to two computer-assisted self-interviews, underwent an in-depth interview, and chose whether to test themselves with OraQuick. Over 80% of the men said they would use the kit to test sexual partners or themselves if it became available OTC. Most participants understood that antibody tests have a window period in which the virus is undetectable, yet saw advantages to using the test to screen partners; 74% tested themselves in our offices. Participants offered several possible strategies to introduce the home-test idea to partners, frequently endorsed mutual testing, and highlighted that home testing could stimulate greater honesty in serostatus disclosure. Participants drew distinctions between testing regular versus occasional partners. Non-monogamous men who have sex with men, who never or rarely use condoms, may nevertheless seek to avoid HIV. Technologies that do not interfere with sexual pleasure are likely to be used when available. Studies are needed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using OTC rapid HIV tests as one additional harm-reduction tool.
Esere, Mary Ogechi
Adolescents display sexual behaviours and developmental characteristics that place them at risk for Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Because young people experiment sexually and because of the consequences of indiscriminate sexual activities on the youth, there is the need to mount sex education programmes that are geared towards enlightenment and appropriate education about sex and sexuality. To determine whether Sex Education Intervention Programme would reduce at-risk sexual behaviours of school-going adolescents. Pre-test, post-test control group quasi-experimental design. A randomly selected co-educational school in Ilorin Metropolis, Nigeria. 24 school-going adolescents aged 13-19 years. Sex Education Programme (treatment group) versus Control programme (placebo). Self-reported exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, multiple sex partners, anal sex, oral sex, non use of condom. When the treatment (intervention) group was compared with the control group in an intention to treat analysis, there were significant differences in at-risk sexual behaviours of the two groups. Those in the intervention group reported less at-risk sexual behaviours than their counterparts in the control group. The treatment group evaluated the intervention programme positively and their knowledge of sexual health improved. Lack of behavioural effect on the control group could be linked to differential quality of delivery of intervention. Compared with the control group, this specially designed intervention sex education programme reduced at-risk sexual behaviour in adolescents. Based on this finding, it was recommended that sex education be introduced into the curriculum of secondary school education in Nigeria.
Lacefield, Katharine; Negy, Charles
The present study examined 100 lesbian and gay college students and 100 heterosexual students to determine whether group differences exist in frequency of a range of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity. Non-erotic cognitive distraction is a descriptive term for both self-evaluative cognitions related to physical performance and body image concerns, as well as additional cognitive distractions (e.g., contracting an STI or emotional concerns) during sexual activity. Participants were matched on gender (96 males and 104 females), age, and ethnicity, and completed questionnaires assessing frequency of non-erotic cognitive distractions during sexual activity, as well as measures of additional variables (trait and body image anxiety, attitudes toward sexual minorities, self-esteem, and religiosity). Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced significantly more cognitive distractions related to body image, physical performance, and STIs during sexual activity than heterosexuals. Regarding gender, men reported more distractions related to STIs than women. Interaction effects were observed between sexual orientation and gender for body image-, disease-, and external/emotional-based distractions. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Möller, J; Ahlbom, A; Hulting, J
.9). CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of myocardial infarction after sexual activity and the further increase in risk among the less physically fit support the hypothesis of causal triggering by sexual activity. However, the absolute risk per hour is very low, and exposure is relatively infrequent. Thus having sex......OBJECTIVE: To investigate sexual activity as a trigger of myocardial infarction and the potential effect modification of physical fitness. DESIGN: A case-crossover study nested in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP). SETTING: Stockholm County from April 1993 to December 1994...... once a week only increases the annual risk of myocardial infarction slightly. Counselling should focus on encouraging patients to live a physically active life and not on abstaining from sexual activity....
Davis, Mark; Hart, Graham; Bolding, Graham; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan
This paper addresses how London gay men use the internet to meet sexual partners, or for e-dating. Based on qualitative interviews conducted face-to-face or via the internet, this research develops an account of how information technologies mediate the negotiation of identity and risk in connection with sexual practice. E-dating itself is a bricolage, or heterogeneous DIY practice of internet-based-communication (IBC). A central aspect of IBC is "filtering" in and out prospective e-dates based on the images and texts used to depict sexual identities. Interpretations and depictions of personal HIV risk management approaches in IBC are framed by the meanings of different identities, such as the stigma associated with being HIV positive. This paper argues for a sexualities perspective in a theory of network society. Further, HIV prevention in e-dating can potentially be addressed by considering the interplay of the HIV prevention imperatives associated with different HIV serostatus identities. There is a case for encouraging more explicit IBC about risk in e-dating and incorporating the expertise of e-daters in prevention activity. There is also a need to rethink traditional conceptions of risk management in HIV prevention to make space for the risk management bricolage of network society.
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A
We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.
Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding antiretroviral management, reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual risk behavior among perinatally HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
Lolekha, Rangsima; Boon-Yasidhi, Vitharon; Leowsrisook, Pimsiri; Naiwatanakul, Thananda; Durier, Yuitiang; Nuchanard, Wipada; Tarugsa, Jariya; Punpanich, Warunee; Pattanasin, Sarika; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya
More than 30% of perinatally HIV-infected children in Thailand are 12 years and older. As these youth become sexually active, there is a risk that they will transmit HIV to their partners. Data on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of HIV-infected youth in Thailand are limited. Therefore, we assessed the KAP of perinatally HIV-infected youth and youth reporting sexual risk behaviors receiving care at two tertiary care hospitals in Bangkok, Thailand and living in an orphanage in Lopburi, Thailand. From October 2010 to July 2011, 197 HIV-infected youth completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview to assess their KAP regarding antiretroviral (ARV) management, reproductive health, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). A majority of youth in this study correctly answered questions about HIV transmission and prevention and the importance of taking ARVs regularly. More than half of the youth in this study demonstrated a lack of family planning, reproductive health, and STI knowledge. Girls had more appropriate attitudes toward safe sex and risk behaviors than boys. Although only 5% of the youth reported that they had engaged in sexual intercourse, about a third reported sexual risk behaviors (e.g., having or kissing boy/girlfriend or consuming an alcoholic beverage). We found low condom use and other family planning practices, increasing the risk of HIV and/or STI transmission to sexual partners. Additional resources are needed to improve reproductive health knowledge and reduce risk behavior among HIV-infected youth in Thailand.
Tumaini M. Nyamhanga
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania
De Coster, Stacy; Estes, Sarah Beth; Mueller, Charles W.
In criminology, routine activities of potential victims can be used to predict victimization. Application to organizational sexual harassment data shows that organizational features (proximity in job location, supervisor or work group guardianship) and individual characteristics (target attractiveness) can predict sexual harassment victimization,…
Contraceptive use was predicted by educational status, sexual activity, baby's age and menstruation. Most women attending maternal and child health clinics resumed sexual intercourse within 2 months of delivery, but only two-thirds used modern contraceptive methods. Contraceptive counseling should commence early, ...
The vaginal microbe equilibrium could be impaired by different agents. Many of the risk factors can change the preventive mechanisms of the vagina and can lead to inflammation and disease. We even do not suppose about the role of most of them in impairing of vaginal microbe equilibrium. The exact understanding of those risk factors and mechanisms by which they disturb the vaginal microbe balance could reduce female morbidity of vaginal disbacteriosis and vaginal inflammations. The aim of this literature synopsis is to review some of the most frequent risk factors for vaginal disbacteriosis and about how they change vaginal micro-flora with dominant lactobacillus within it. The most informative and detailed articles on the theme which were found in the resent literature as well as in Medline for the period between 1990 and 2012 were selected. The risk agents for vaginal disbacteriosis are: endogenetic, social, sexual, infectious and iatrogenic. The social and sexual factors are the most frequent in our daily round. The intensity and the kind of sexual life, smoking, homosexual connections, vaginal douching and contraception methods are included in them. All these factors depend on us. Thus we hope that through their popularization and discussion will help to prevent the females' health.
Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis
Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.
Van Rossem, Ronan; Berten, Hans; Van Tuyckom, Charlotte
The behavior of adolescents puts them at an increased risk for HIV and other STIs, and their knowledge about HIV/AIDS is often inadequate. An understanding of how AIDS knowledge and sexual activity co-vary among Flemish secondary school students and of how education type, specifically, affects these students is limited. This study addresses the question of whether the effects of education type on HIV/AIDS knowledge and sexual activity are independent of the socio-demographic characteristics of the students. Data from the Flemish Educational Assessment survey, which collected data from a large representative sample of third- and fifth-grade high school students (N = 11,872), were used. Data were analyzed using multilevel logistic and Poisson regression techniques. There is an indication that type of education affects both an adolescent's sexual activity and his/her AIDS knowledge; these effects prove robust for differences in socio-economic backgrounds. Students in lower status education types are more likely to be sexually active and to have poorer AIDS knowledge. The relationship between AIDS knowledge and sexual activity is, however, more complex. Although students in education types with poorer AIDS knowledge are more sexually active, within each of these groups the sexually active have better AIDS knowledge than the non-sexually active. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge. These findings are consistent with the literature on the role of the educational system in the reproduction of social inequalities. Students from lower status education types are at increased sexual risk compared to those from higher status types. There is also evidence of active information seeking by sexually active students, which leads to improved AIDS knowledge.
Scheidell, Joy D; Kumar, Pritika C; Campion, Taylor; Quinn, Kelly; Beharie, Nisha; McGorray, Susan P; Khan, Maria R
Child sexual abuse is associated with substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence and adulthood, but no known studies have documented associations across the life course in a nationally representative U.S. We used the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health to measure associations between child sexual abuse and substance use and sexual risk behaviors during adolescence, young adulthood, and adulthood among males and females (n = 11,820). Approximately 10% of females and 7% of males reported child sexual abuse. Associations with substance use were strongest during adolescence and lessened over time. Increased odds of sexual risk among those with a history of child sexual abuse remained consistent through the life course. Significant gender differences existed for some associations (e.g., adulthood multiple partners: males adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.73, 95%CI:1.18, 2.53; females AOR = 1.11, 95%CI:0.79, 1.56). Trauma-informed prevention interventions should address child sexual abuse among both males and females to prevent substance use and sexual risk behavior throughout the life course.
Eastham, Jane; Seymour, Robin
New evidence suggests that the extent and severity of periodontal disease may be a significant risk factor for erectile dysfunction, sperm motility and time to conception. This paper reviews the evidence and informs members of the dental team when dealing with this sensitive issue. As more research is forthcoming the topic of oral and sexual health is likely to be part of regular routine medical screening. Any issue concerning oral health as a risk factor for sexual health is likely to be a sensitive subject, rarely discussed in the dental setting. However, as new evidence emerges, this topic is likely to get into the public domain. All members of the dental team should be aware of such an association. Clinical Relevance: Furthermore, the information in this paper may provide further incentive for certain patients to improve their oral health.
Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos
Sexual revictimization is frequent among victims of child sexual abuse. Several variables, such as sexual experience, substance abuse, and sexual assertiveness, have been proposed to explain the link between child sexual abuse and adolescent and adult sexual victimization, although they have typically been tested separately. The main objective of…
Joseph A. Camilleri
Full Text Available Evolutionary theory has informed the investigation of male sexual coercion but has seldom been applied to the analysis of sexual coercion within established couples. The cuckoldry risk hypothesis, that sexual coercion is a male tactic used to reduce the risk of extrapair paternity, was tested in two studies. In a community sample, indirect cues of infidelity predicted male propensity for sexual coaxing in the relationship, and direct cues predicted propensity for sexual coercion. In the forensic sample, we found that most partner rapists experienced cuckoldry risk prior to committing their offence and experienced more types of cuckoldry risk events than non-sexual partner assaulters. These findings suggest that cuckoldry risk influences male sexual coercion in established sexual relationships.
Sales, Jessica McDermott; Salazar, Laura F; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve; Crosby, Richard A
To examine the prevalence of sexual violence among young African American females and to explore the mediating role that partner communication plays on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease-associated risk behaviors among youth with a history of sexual violence relative to those without. Only data from baseline, before randomization, were used for this analysis. A clinic-based sample of young females enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention program in Atlanta, Georgia, from March 2002 to August 2004. African American females aged 15 to 21 years who reported sexual activity in the previous 60 days. Of 1558 screened, 874 females were eligible and 82% (n = 715) participated at baseline. History of sexual violence as well as (1) sexual partner communication skills, (2) current sexual behaviors, and (3) psychological well-being. Lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 26%. Communication skills partially mediated the relationship between sexual violence and psychological well-being and sexual behavior outcomes. Given the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence and its adverse sexual, psychological, and relational sequelae, it is paramount that effective interventions are developed. Based on our findings, improving partner communications skills is one particularly important area for HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction interventions for youths with a history of sexual violence.
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B
Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women's HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms-psychological distress and difficult sexual situations-that link social discrimination to women's sexual risk for HIV.
Choi, Kyung-Hee; Bowleg, Lisa; Neilands, Torsten B.
Women represent almost half of the people living with HIV worldwide. Although social discrimination has been recognized as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, few empirical studies have examined the effects of sexism on women’s HIV sexual risk behaviors. We analyzed data collected from an ethnically diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning clinics in the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of respondents reported lifetime experiences of sexism (e.g., 94% reported sexual harassment). Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that experiences of sexism and reports of recent unprotected sex with a primary or a secondary sexual partner were linked through psychological distress and difficult sexual situations. Our results suggest the need to develop HIV prevention strategies for women that address two mechanisms ---psychological distress and difficult sexual situations --- that link social discrimination to women’s sexual risk for HIV. PMID:22010804
KHAN, MARIA R.; RASOLOFOMANANA, JUSTIN R.; McCLAMROCH, KRISTI J.; RALISIMALALA, ANDRIAMAMPIANINA; ZAFIMANJAKA, MAURICE G.; BEHETS, FRIEDA; WEIR, SHARON S.
Background Persistent high levels of sexually transmitted infection (STI) in Madagascar indicate current prevention strategies are inadequate. STI/HIV prevention based in social venues may play an important role in reaching individuals at risk of infection. We identified venues where people meet sexual partners and measured the need and potential for venue-based prevention. Methods Interviews were conducted in 7 Madagascar towns with 1) community informants to identify social venues, 2) individuals socializing at a sample of venues to assess sexual behavior among venue patrons, and 3) venue representatives to assess the potential for venue-based intervention. Results Community informants identified numerous venues (range: 67–211 venues, depending on the town); streets, bars, and hotels were most commonly reported. Among 2982 individuals socializing at venues, 78% of men and 74% of women reported new sexual partnership or sex trade for money, goods, or services in the past 4 weeks and 19% of men and 18% of women reported symptoms suggestive of STI in the past 4 weeks. STI symptom levels were disproportionately high among respondents reporting either sex trade or new sexual partnership in the past 4 weeks. Twenty-eight percent of men and 41% of women reported condom use during the last sex act with a new partner. Although 24% to 45% of venues had hosted STI/HIV interventions, interventions were deemed possible at 73% to 90% venues according to 644 interviews with venue representatives. Conclusions Venue-based intervention is possible and would reach a spectrum of populations vulnerable to STI/HIV including sex workers, their clients, and other high-risk populations. PMID:18496471
Wang, Ke-Wei; Wu, Jun-Qing; Zhao, Hong-Xin; Li, Yu-Yan; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Ji, Hong Lei
In China, there is increasing concern because of the rapid increase in HIV infection recorded over recent years. Migrant workers are recognized as one of the groups most affected. In this study, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and behavior among unmarried migrant workers in Shanghai are investigated, with the aim of providing critical information for policy makers and sex educators to reinforce sexual health services and sex health education targeting the behavior and sexual health of unmarried male migrants. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among unmarried male migrant workers in Shanghai, China's largest city and housing the most migrants. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was used to collect information on knowledge, attitudes, and behavior associated with increased risk of HIV/AIDS. A total of 2254 subjects were questioned, with a response rate of 91.3%. Among those interviewed, 63.5% reported sexual activities. Misconceptions regarding HIV transmission, poor perception of HIV infection, and low use of condoms were not uncommon. Among those who had sexual intercourse, 73.7% had not used condoms in their last sexual intercourse, and 28.6% reported having engaged in sexual risk behavior (defined as having at least one non-regular partner). Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified several indicators of sexual risk behavior, including younger age at first sexual intercourse (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.31-0.91 for older age at first sexual intercourse), more cities of migration (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 2.17-3.81 for high level; OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.06-1.29 for medium level), poor perception of acquiring HIV/AIDS (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.33-1.96 for unlikely; OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.61-3.70 for impossible), frequent exposure to pornography (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.11-0.43 for never; OR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.60-1.81 for less frequently), not knowing someone who had or had died of HIV/AIDS and related diseases (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.70-2.53 for no), and having peers
Wright, Chrysalis L.; Rubin, Mark
This study examined the relationship between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and risk among emerging adults in the USA and Australia. Music content was examined via lyrics, videos and social media. It was hypothesised that there would be a positive association between sexual content in music and sexual cognitions and risk. Sexual…
Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha
We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.
Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark
Every year thousands of Western men travel to Thailand as sex tourists to participate in paid-for sex. Although many of these men will use condoms to protect themselves against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), others will not, despite the risks. By applying Steven Lyng's (1990) concept of edgework to data collected from 14 face-to-face interviews with male sex tourists in Pattaya, Thailand, and 1,237 online discussion board posts, this article explores the ways in which these men understood and sought to rationalize the sexual risks they took. We argue that notions of likelihood of infection and significance of consequence underpin these behaviors, and we identify the existence of understandings of sexual risk that reject mainstream safer-sex messages and frame condomless sex as a broadly safe activity for heterosexual men. The article concludes by summarizing the difficulties inherent in driving behavior change among this group of men, for whom sexual risks appear to be easily rationalized away as either inconsequential or irrelevant.
Espuña Pons, Montserrat
The integration of sexual health into the health care services is important. In women attending urogynecological clinics, the urinary function, anorectal function, and anatomical defects are more often evaluated than those related to sexual activity and function. A group of experts in urogynecology, sexuality, and patient reported outcome development, met in a roundtable with the final objective of reviewing what is currently available and what is needed to accurately evaluate sexual function in women with pelvic floor dysfunction. An article was prepared for each of the issued presented during the roundtable and combined into this supplement. This article is a summary of all articles included in this supplement. The pathophysiology of sexual dysfunction as related to pelvic floor disorders has not been well established. Sexuality questionnaires and scales play an integral role in the diagnosis and treatment of female sexual dysfunction. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ) is the only validated female sexual function questionnaire specifically developed to assess sexual function in women with urinary incontinence and/or pelvic organ prolapse; however, the PISQ does not screen for sexual activity. The effects of treatments for pelvic floor problems on sexual function have received little attention. There is a need for a validated sexual function measure that evaluates not only the impact of pelvic floor dysfunction on sexual function but also the impact on sexual activity.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Empirical research suggests that emotional response during sexual activity discriminates between sexually functional and dysfunctional heterosexual men and women, with clinics presenting lower positive and higher negative affect. However, there is no evidence about the role of emotions in gay men and lesbian women with sexual problems. The present study analyzed affective states during sexual activity in homosexual and heterosexual men and women, with and without sexual problems. Participants in this study were 156 men and 168 women. A 2 (group) × 2 (sexual orientation) multivariate analysis of variance was performed. Participants completed a web-survey assessing sexual functioning and the Positive Affect-Negative Affect Scale. Findings indicated a main effect of group, with groups with sexual problems reporting significantly more negative and lower positive affect compared with men and women without sexual problems, regardless of sexual orientation. However, findings have also shown an interaction effect in the male sample with gay men, contrary to heterosexual men, reporting similar affective responses regardless of having a sexual dysfunction or not. Overall, findings emphasize the role of affective responses during sexual activity in men and women with sexual problems, suggesting the importance of addressing emotional responses in assessment and treatment of sexual problems in individuals with different sexual orientations.
Bakare Muideen O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent onset bipolar disorder often presents with co-morbid disorders of which psychoactive substance use disorders are notable. Mania symptoms and co-morbid psychoactive substance use disorders prone adolescents with bipolar disorder to impulsivity, impaired judgment, and risk taking behavior which often includes sexual risk behavior. There are dearth of information on pattern of co-morbid disorders and sexual risk behavior in adolescent onset bipolar disorder in Nigeria. This study assessed the prevalence and pattern of co-morbid disorders and determined associated factors of sexual risk behavior among adolescents with bipolar disorder. Methods Socio-demographic information was obtained from the adolescents using socio-demographic questionnaire. Clinical interview, physical examination and laboratory investigations were employed to establish co-morbid disorders in these adolescents during the outpatient follow up visits over a one year period. Results A total of forty six (46 adolescents with bipolar disorder were followed up over a one year period. Twenty two (47.8% of the adolescents had co-morbid disorders with cannabis use disorders, alcohol use disorders, conduct disorder with or without other psychoactive substance use accounting for 23.9%, 8.7%, 13.0% respectively and HIV infection, though a chance finding accounting for 2.2%. Twenty one (45.7% of the adolescents had positive history of sexual risk behavior, which was significantly associated with presence of co-morbid disorders (p = 0.003, level of religion activities in the adolescents (p = 0.000, and marital status of the parents (p = 0.021. Conclusion When planning interventions for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, special attention may need to be focused on group of adolescents with co-morbid disorders and propensity towards impulsivity and sexual risk behavior. This may help in improving long term outcome in this group of adolescents.
Massad, Salwa G; Karam, Rita; Brown, Ryan; Glick, Peter; Shaheen, Mohammed; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Khammash, Umaiyeh
Young people in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are profoundly affected by violence, high unemployment, and economic hardship. Experiences of community-level violence and personal trauma increase the likelihood that young people will engage in risky behaviors that include smoking, drug use, and unsafe sex. Little is known about the sexual behavior of young people in the region, particularly in the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt). Our aim in this study was to gain an insight into the perceived prevalence and patterns of sexual behavior among Palestinian youth. The study was based on ten focus groups and 17 in-depth interviews with young people aged 16-24 years as part of the formative phase of a cross-sectional representative study of risk behaviors in the West Bank, including Jerusalem, in 2012. The sample was selected using a combination of purposive and convenience sampling. Qualitative analysis was used to code detailed notes of focus groups and interviews. Based on participants' reports, different types of sexual activity outside marriage were not uncommon, even in conservative communities. The most reported sexual activity was non-penetrative sex: oral and anal intercourse, and virtual sex. Some young people had sexual intercourse with sex workers; they went to brothels in Israel and to brothels operating clandestinely in the West Bank, including East Jerusalem. Most respondents were of the opinion that young people did not usually use protection during sexual intercourse. Many reported that youth engage in different types of sexual activity outside marriage for several reasons: to challenge the culture, financial constraints and inability to marry, basic human need, personal pleasure, suppression, to kill boredom, and to prove manhood. In contrast with the conservative social context of the occupied Palestinian territory (oPt), the findings suggest that sexual activities outside marriage may be more common than is currently assumed. Sexual
Annang, Lucy; Lian, Brad; Fletcher, Faith E.; Jackson, Dawnyéa
African-American youth suffer disproportionately from sexual risk consequences including unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Parents educating young people about sex may be one approach to reduce sexual risk behaviour among this population. The purpose of this study was to determine young people's perceptions of parents'…
Background: Sexual risk taking during adolescence such as failure to use contraception or condoms is associated with premature parenthood and high rates of sexually transmitted infection. The relation of childhood personality to sexual risk taking during adolescence has been largely unexplored. Methods: Using data collected from participants in…
Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto
There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.
Norbu, Kunzang; Mukhia, Sontosh; Tshokey
The incidence of STI is high and increasing in Bhutan. Poor understanding of risky sexual behavior could be a cause. Comprehensive community surveys have not been previously done. This study was conducted to assess local knowledge on STIs and sexual risk behaviour in two rural districts of Bhutan: Gasa and Zhemgang. The study population included residents aged 15-49 years in the two districts. Health Assistants (HAs) visited all households to distribute questionnaires assessing understanding of knowledge on STIs and risk behaviour. Questionnaires were scored and analyzed. The average score was 61.6%. Respondents had highest knowledge about prevention and lowest about disease and complications. There was a positive correlation between level of education and knowledge on STI (P sexual behavior with 31.2% having sexual relationships with non-regular partners and 10.9% had extramarital sexual contacts. Regular use of condoms with non-regular partners was 49.1%. The most common reason for not using condom was unavailability during the sexual encounter. The study showed that despite increasing knowledge there was no reduction in risky sexual behaviour (p > 0.05). The study population had variable understanding of STIs and their complications. One in three persons practiced risky sexual behaviour, higher in men. Condom use was low. There was no reduction of risky sexual behaviour with increasing level of knowledge indicating that increasing level of knowledge does not necessarily reduce risky sexual behaviour.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in a group of adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, and the most frequent risk factors for acquiring them. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study, between 2010 and 2013, in 569 students who had started sexual intercourse. A questionnaire was applied, and screening was done for the following infections: hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, HPV, gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, bacterial vaginosis, candidiasis, and nongonococcal urethritis in men. Results: Women had the following frequencies of infections: HPV 28.1 %; Chlamydia trachomatis 11.4 %; bacterial vaginosis 42.7 %; candidiasis 14.1 %. Nongonococcal urethritis was found in 6.2 % of men. Hepatitis B, syphilis, HIV, and gonococcal infections were not found. The most frequent risk factors were as follows: to have started sexual relations before the age of 15 (59.9 %; not to use condom (58.2 %; not to have utilized condom in the last sexual intercourse (41.7 %; to lack adequate knowledge on sexual health (39.1 %; to have had three or more sexual partners (30.6 %; to have had sexual partners 10 or more years older than themselves (20.4 %, and to have sexual relations with persons different from the formal partner (18.8 %. Conclusions: The high prevalence of STIs in teenagers that are just starting sexual life must be an alert to implement high impact sexual health programs.
Do, Vinh Thi; Ho, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Tri Manh; Do, Huynh Khac
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.
Lennon, Carter A; Kenny, David A
The rate of casual sexual encounters is increasing on college campuses. To decrease sexual risk behavior, information used to judge sexual risk in others needs to be identified. Women rated male targets on willingness to have unprotected sex with the target and likelihood that the target has a sexually transmitted infection. Physical attractiveness was the strongest predictor of ratings, accounting for all the target variance in willingness to have unprotected sex. However, risk factors reported by the target were inconsistent predictors of perceived sexual risk. Findings are discussed within the context of safer sex interventions for college students.
Wong, Samuel Yeung Shan; Leung, Jason Chi Shun; Woo, Jean
Few studies on sexuality and its correlates in adults have been conducted in Asia; most studies in Asia have focused instead on erectile dysfunction in men rather than sexuality or sexual activities. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with sexual activity and erectile dysfunction in elderly Chinese men aged 65 years and above. Sexual activity and sexual functions were assessed using the International Index of Erectile Function-5. Depressive symptoms were measured by the Chinese version of the Geriatric Depression Scale. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were measured by the International Prostatic Symptom Score. Cross-sectional data from a large prospective cohort study of Chinese elderly men were used in this study. A questionnaire that included demographic, lifestyle, and medical risk factors and physical examination were administered to 1566 Chinese men aged between 65 to 92 years in Hong Kong. Only 30.7% of men were sexually active in the previous 6 months in this sample and among those who were sexually active, 88% had some form of erectile dysfunction. Being sexually inactive in the previous 6 months was associated with being older (odds ratio [OR] = 1.80; confidence interval [CI]: 1.56-2.09), single (OR = 1.87; CI = 1.19-2.94) and the presence of peripheral arterial disease (OR = 2.43; CI: 1.25-4.71). In multiple multinomial logistic regression, having clinically relevant depressive symptoms (OR = 3.37; CI: 1.31-8.70) and having moderate to severe LUTS (OR = 1.63; CI: 1.01-2.64) were independently associated with increased risk of having erectile dysfunction. We showed that a large proportion of elderly men were not sexually active in Hong Kong. For those who were sexually active, most suffered from some degree of erectile dysfunction. Having clinically relevant depressive symptoms and LUTS were independently associated with increased risk of erectile dysfunction.
Ryman, Sephira G.; Gillman, Arielle S.; Weiland, Barbara J.; Thayer, Rachel E.; Bryan, Angela D.
Human adolescents engage in very high rates of unprotected sex. This behavior has a high potential for unintended, serious, and sustained health consequences including HIV/AIDS. Despite these serious health consequences, we know little about the neural and cognitive factors that influence adolescents’ decision-making around sex, and their potential overlap with behaviorally co-occurring risk behaviors, including alcohol use. Thus, in this review, we evaluate the developmental neuroscience of sexual risk and alcohol use for human adolescents with an eye to relevant prevention and intervention implications. PMID:26290051
Kjellgren, Cecilia; Priebe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran; Mossige, Svein; Långström, Niklas
Sexual coercion is recognized as a serious societal problem. Correlates and risk factors of sexually abusive behavior in females are not well known. Etiological theory and empirical study of female perpetrators of sexual coercion are usually based on small or highly selected samples. Specifically, population-based data are needed to elucidate risk/protective factors. Main outcome measures include a self-report questionnaire containing 65 items tapping socio-demographic and health conditions, social relations, sexual victimization, conduct problems and a set of normative and deviant sexual cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. We used a 2003-2004 survey of sexual attitudes and experiences among high school students in Norway and Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates to sexually coercive behavior (response rate 80%); 4,363 females participated (Mean = 18.1 years). Thirty-seven women (0.8%) reported sexual coercion (ever talked someone into, used pressure, or forced somebody to have sex). Sexually coercive compared with non-coercive women were similar on socio-demographic variables, but reported less parental care and more parental overprotection, aggression, depressive symptoms, and substance misuse. Also, sexually coercive females reported more sexual lust, sex partners, penetrative sexual victimization, rape myths, use of violent porn, and friends more likely to use porn. When using the Swedish subsample to differentiate risk factors specific for sexual coercion from those for antisocial behavior in general, we found less cannabis use, but more sexual preoccupation, pro-rape attitudes, and friends using violent porn in sexually coercive compared with non-sex conduct problem females. Sexually coercive behavior in high school women was associated with general risk/needs factors for antisocial behavior, but also with specific sexuality-related risk factors. This differential effect has previously been overlooked, agrees with similar findings in men, and
A case is presented in which the staff of a long-term care facility discovers that the husband of a resident with dementia is engaged in sexual activity with her. The case illustrates a dilemma for long-term care facilities that create a home-like environment with a goal of maximizing residents' autonomy while ensuring their safety. An approach to assessing capacity to consent to intimate sexual activity is described, followed by guidelines that nursing homes can implement to support residents who wish to engage in sexual activity. Recommendations are also offered for supporting long-term care staff and family members of residents who are interested in intimate sexual activity. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Patrícia Uchôa Leitão Cabral
Full Text Available Objective To investigate the relationship between physical activity level and sexual function in middle-aged women. Methods A cross-sectional study with a sample of 370 middle-aged women (40-65 years old, treated at public health care facilities in a Brazilian city. A questionnaire was used containing enquiries on sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics: the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, short form, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI. Results The average age of the women studied was 49.8 years (± 8.1, 67% of whom exhibited sexual dysfunction (FSFI ≤ 26.55. Sedentary women had a higher prevalence (78.9% of sexual dysfunction when compared to active (57.6% and moderately active (66.7% females (p = 0.002. Physically active women obtained higher score in all FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain and total FSFI score (20.9, indicating better sexual function than their moderately active (18.8 and sedentary (15.6 counterparts (p <0.05. Conclusion Physical activity appears to influence sexual function positively in middle-aged women.
ter Beek, E.
Juveniles with harmful sexual behavior constitute a heterogeneous group regarding treatment needs and reoffending patterns. In general, intensive mandated treatment aims at reducing recidivism risk and, therefore, criminogenic treatment needs. Sexual recidivism by juveniles, however, is scarce and
Etzler, Sonja; Eher, Reinhard; Rettenberger, Martin
In this study, the predictive and incremental validity of the Stable-2007 beyond the Static-99 was evaluated in an updated sample of N = 638 adult male sexual offenders followed-up for an average of M = 8.2 years. Data were collected at the Federal Evaluation Center for Violent and Sexual Offenders (FECVSO) in Austria within a prospective-longitudinal research design. Scores and risk categories of the Static-99 (AUC = .721; p risk categories contributed incrementally to the prediction of sexual recidivism beyond the Static-99. Analyzing the dimensional structure of the Stable-2007 yielded three factors, named Antisociality, Sexual Deviance, and Hypersexuality. Antisociality and Sexual Deviance were significant predictors for sexual recidivism. Sexual Deviance was negatively associated with non-sexual violent recidivism. Comparisons with latent dimensions of other risk assessment instruments are made and implications for applied risk assessment are discussed.
Jun 12, 2014 ... with primary sources of information. ... Keywords: university students, HIV risk perceptions, sexual ... Psychosocial theories of behaviour change, such as the Health ..... multiple sexual partnerships among university students.
Rodger, Alison J.; Cambiano, Valentina; Bruun, Tina; Vernazza, Pietro; Collins, Simon; van Lunzen, Jan; Corbelli, Giulio Maria; Estrada, Vicente; Geretti, Anna Maria; Beloukas, Apostolos; Asboe, David; Viciana, Pompeyo; Gutiérrez, Félix; Clotet, Bonaventura; Pradier, Christian; Gerstoft, Jan; Weber, Rainer; Westling, Katarina; Wandeler, Gilles; Prins, Jan M.; Rieger, Armin; Stoeckle, Marcel; Kümmerle, Tim; Bini, Teresa; Ammassari, Adriana; Gilson, Richard; Krznaric, Ivanka; Ristola, Matti; Zangerle, Robert; Handberg, Pia; Antela, Antonio; Allan, Sris; Phillips, Andrew N.; Lundgren, Jens; Pompeyo, V.; Trastoy, M.; Palacio, R.; Gutiérrez, F.; Masiá, M.; Padilla, S.; Robledano, C.; Clotet, B.; Coll, P.; Peña, J.; Estrada, V.; Rodrigo, M.; Santiago, E.; Rivero, A.; Antela, A.; Losada, E.
IMPORTANCE A key factor in assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a prevention strategy is the absolute risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex with suppressed HIV-1 RNA viral load for both anal and vaginal sex. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the rate of
Rodger, Alison J; Cambiano, Valentina; Bruun, Tina
IMPORTANCE: A key factor in assessing the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART) as a prevention strategy is the absolute risk of HIV transmission through condomless sex with suppressed HIV-1 RNA viral load for both anal and vaginal sex. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ra...
Stefani, Laura; Galanti, Giorgio; Padulo, Johnny; Bragazzi, Nicola L.; Maffulli, Nicola
Sexual activity before competition has been considered as a possible cause for reduced performance since ancient Greece and Rome. Recently, the hypothesis that optimal sport performance could be influenced by a variety of factors including sexual activity before competition has been investigated. However, few scientific data are available, with the exception of anecdotal reports of individual experiences. The present systematic review focused on the current scientific evidence on the effects of sexual activity on sport performance regardless of sport type. Data were obtained following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, Cochrane Library, Evidence Database (PEDro), Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Search review, National Guidelines, ProQuest, and Scopus, all searched from inception further, to broaden the search, no time filter nor language restriction have been applied. Also, the gray literature was mined using Google Scholar. Only relevant scientific articles reporting outcomes of athletic performance after sexual activity were considered. The impact of sexual activity before a sport competition is still unclear, but most studies generally seem to exclude a direct impact of sexual activity on athletic aerobic and strength performance. The most important aspect seems to be the interval from the time of the sports competition that affects negatively the performance if it is shorter than 2 h. There are possible negative effects from some possible concurrent wrong behaviors such as smoking or alcohol abuse. There are no investigations about the effect of masturbation in this context. There is a need to clarify the effects of sexual activity on competition performance. The present evidence suggests that sexual activity the day before competition does not exert any negative impact on performance, even though high-quality, randomized
Syme, Maggie L; Cohn, Tracy J; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica
Sexual risk among older adults (OAs) is prevalent, though little is known about the accuracy of sexual risk perceptions. Thus, the aim was to determine the accuracy of sexual risk perceptions among OAs by examining concordance between self-reported sexual risk behaviors and perceived risk. Data on OAs aged 50 to 92 were collected via Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk. Frequency of sexual risk behaviors (past six months) were reported along with perceived risk, namely, sexually transmitted infection (STI) susceptibility. Accuracy categories (accurate, underestimated, overestimated) were established based on dis/concordance between risk levels (low, moderate, high) and perceived risk (not susceptible, somewhat susceptible, very susceptible). Approximately half of the sample reported engaging in vaginal (49%) and/or oral sex (43%) without a condom in the past six months. However, approximately two-thirds of the sample indicated they were "not susceptible" to STIs. No relationship was found between risk behaviors and risk perceptions, and approximately half (48.1%) of OAs in the sample underestimated their risk. Accuracy was found to decrease as sexual risk level increased, with 93.1% of high-risk OAs underestimating their risk. Several sexual risk behaviors are prevalent among OAs, particularly men. However, perception of risk is often inaccurate and warrants attention.
Caruntu Genu Alexandru
Full Text Available In economic and financial activity, risk is an inherent financial decisions, encountered in daily agenda of managers of companies. Unexpected changes in the price of a product development not only affect the financial results of a company, but can cause even bankruptcy. In fact, the nature of financial decisions involve uncertainty. Financial decisions are made based on cash flows under future contracts, which are par excellence incerte.Activitatea an enterprise that holds any weight in the industry is subject to risks, since it can not predict with certainty different components of its outcome (cost, quantity, price and operating cycle (purchase, processing, sales.
Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.
BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762
Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P
Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador
De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien
Background It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador.
De Meyer, Sara; Jaruseviciene, Lina; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Decat, Peter; Vega, Bernardo; Cordova, Kathya; Temmerman, Marleen; Degomme, Olivier; Michielsen, Kristien
It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14-18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual
A cross-sectional study on attitudes toward gender equality, sexual behavior, positive sexual experiences, and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in Bolivia and Ecuador
Sara De Meyer
Full Text Available Background: It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents’ sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14–18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador. Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents’ sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health (SRH and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender
Morokoff, Patricia J.; Redding, Colleen A.; Harlow, Lisa L.; Cho, Sookhyun; Rossi, Joseph S.; Meier, Kathryn S.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Koblin, Beryl; Brown-Peterside, Pamela
This study examined whether the Multifaceted Model of HIV Risk (MMOHR) would predict unprotected sex based on predictors including gender, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), sexual victimization (SV), depression, and sexual assertiveness for condom use. A community-based sample of 473 heterosexually active men and women, aged 18–46 years completed survey measures of model variables. Gender predicted several variables significantly. A separate model for women demonstrated excellent fit, while the model for men demonstrated reasonable fit. Multiple sample model testing supported the use of MMOHR in both men and women, while simultaneously highlighting areas of gender difference. Prevention interventions should focus on sexual assertiveness, especially for CSA and SV survivors, as well as targeting depression, especially among men. PMID:25018617
Grappasonni, I; Paci, P; Mazzucchi, F; Amenta, F
Because the nature of their work seafarers spend long periods of time away from their families and therefore represent a group at risk for sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection. This paper reports the results of a survey to evaluate awareness and knowledge of the risk of HIV infection among seafarers. Risky behaviours for HIV transmission were also assessed. The survey was conducted using anonymous questionnaires on 197 workers of 9 vessels and 26 office employees of an Italian shipping company (FINAVAL S.p.A., Rome). The respondents considered HIV/AIDS as one of the diseases with a high risk of transmission. Most respondents had a good general knowledge of HIV/AIDS and on the ways of its transmission. However, there is still lack of knowledge on the basics of this disease. On the other hand, in spite of knowledge and awareness about the risks of the disease, only 56.35% of the interviewed crewmembers used protection in sexual intercourse with occasional partners. Compared to data available in literature, the percentage of self-protecting people is increasing, but the number of seafarers exposing themselves to risky behaviours is still high. As expected, condoms are used with regular partners with lower frequency compared to occasional intercourse. The results of this survey indicate that adequate prevention campaigns and major attention paid to seafarers health is useful for stimulating responsible conduct for the prevention of infectious diseases, including HIV infection. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to increase information about the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and how to reduce it.
Austin, S. Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L.; Corliss, Heather L.; Molnar, Beth E.
Objectives. We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of “mostly heterosexual” and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Methods. In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Results. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported “mostly heterosexual” women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Conclusions. Our findings add to the evidence that “mostly heterosexual” women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, “mostly heterosexual” women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse. PMID:17901440
Austin, S Bryn; Roberts, Andrea L; Corliss, Heather L; Molnar, Beth E
We sought to examine sexual violence victimization in childhood and sexual risk indicators in young adulthood in a primarily Latina and Black cohort of "mostly heterosexual" and heterosexual women in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). In 2000, a comprehensive survey that assessed sexual orientation, sexual risk indicators, and sexual abuse victimization was completed by 391 young women (aged 18 to 24 years) who had participated in PHDCN. We used multivariable regression methods to examine sexual orientation group differences in sexual risk indicators and to assess whether childhood sexual abuse may mediate relationships. Compared with self-reported heterosexual women, self-reported "mostly heterosexual" women were more likely to report having been the victim of childhood sexual abuse, to have had a sexually transmitted infection, to report an earlier age of first sexual intercourse, and to have had more sexual partners. Childhood sexual abuse did not mediate relationships between sexual orientation and sexual risk indicators. Our findings add to the evidence that "mostly heterosexual" women experience greater health risk than do heterosexual women. In addition, "mostly heterosexual" women are at high risk for having experienced childhood sexual abuse.
Shashi Kumar, R; Das, R C; Prabhu, H R A; Bhat, P S; Prakash, Jyoti; Seema, P; Basannar, D R
Adolescence is a period when the individual is vulnerable and exposure to sexually implicit/explicit programs on television and internet can influence their sexual behaviour and make them more permissive towards premarital sex, which is known to influence their academic performance. This can be modified by parental discussion on these matters with their children. There have been only few studies from India that have explored such issues therefore this study aimed to explore the impact of television, internet and parental discussion on sexual activity and academic performance. This study was conducted in two co-education schools using a self reporting questionnaire administered to students of class IX-XII. This study evaluated the relation of academic performance, exposure to media such as television & internet to sexual activity & academic performance of the students and the role of parental discussion on these. The study sample size was 586. There is no significant association between the number of hours of watching television per day and academic performance as measured by marks in examinations. Significant positive association was found among boys between sexual contact and average score in academics & unsupervised use of internet. In both genders a significant positive association was found between those watching English serials, movies and increased chances of indulging in sexual activity while a negative relation with those watching Cartoons. There is no significant difference in occurrence of sexual contact in those who discussed sexual matters with parents and those who did not. This being first of it's kind of study from India and a cross sectional study, further prospective and detailed studies are warranted to delineate the interaction of media, parental discussion, academic performance and sexual activity.
Rahman, Azriani Abdul; Rahman, Razlina Abdul; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Ibrahim, Mohd Ismail; Ali, Siti Hawa; Salleh, Halim; Wan Muda, Wan Abdul Manan
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the factors associated with the attitudes toward premarital sexual activities among school-going adolescents in Kelantan, Malaysia. It was conducted among 1032 secondary school students using a self-administered validated questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the risk factors for having permissive attitudes toward practice of premarital sexual activities were male students (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.34-2.48), being less religious (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.49-2.73), and younger age group of students (13 to 14 years old; OR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.05-1.92). Having good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health was a protective factor against permissive sexual attitude (OR = 0.27; 95% CI = 0.20-0.36). In conclusion, male and young adolescents were at risk of having permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviors, but good knowledge on sexual and reproductive health and being more religious may protect them from it. © 2012 APJPH.
White, Jaclyn M; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Mayer, Kenneth H
Using the Internet to meet sexual partners is associated with increased HIV risk behavior, including substance use, sex with multiple or anonymous partners, and unprotected anal sex (UAS), among diverse samples of MSM, yet little is known about Internet use and HIV risk among Black MSM specifically. In 2008, a sample of 197 Black MSM completed an interviewer-administered assessment and voluntary HIV counseling and testing. One fifth of the sample (20 %) reported meeting a sexual partner via the Internet in the past 12 months. Men who met sexual partners over the Internet had significantly more male sex partners (M = 13.44, SD = 20.01) than men who did not meet partners in this manner (M = 4.11, SD = 4.14, p Internet, identifying as gay, and lower knowledge about HIV transmission. These findings highlight the unique HIV risk behaviors among Black MSM meeting sexual partners via the Internet and warrant tailoring of prevention activities to address the specific behaviors and social influences that may contribute to increased HIV spread among this population.
Robinson, R B; Frank, D I
This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.
Baumeister, Roy F; Mendoza, Juan Pablo
Sexual economics theory assumes that heterosexual communities can be analyzed as marketplaces in which men offer women resources such as love, respect, money, and commitment in exchange for sex. In response to economic, political, and other disadvantages, women collectively restrict their sexuality to maintain a low supply relative to male demand, thereby ensuring a high price. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that sexual norms and practices would be more restrictive in countries marked by gender inequality than in countries where the genders were more equal. An international online sex survey (N>317,000) yielded four measures of sexual activity, and 37 nations' means on all four measures were correlated with independent (World Economic Forum) ratings of gender equality. Consistent with predictions, relatively high gender equality was associated with more casual sex, more sex partners per capita, younger ages for first sex, and greater tolerance/approval of premarital sex.
Rosen, L N; Martin, L
Four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined as predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and acknowledged sexual harassment among male and female active duty soldiers in the United States Army. Predictor variables included childhood sexual abuse, physical-emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Three types of unwanted sexual experiences in the workplace were examined as outcome variables: gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and coercion. Both sexual and physical-emotional abuse during childhood were found to be predictors of unwanted sexual experiences and of acknowledged sexual harassment in the workplace. Among female soldiers, the most severe type of unwanted experience-coercion-was predicted only by childhood physical-emotional abuse. Among male soldiers childhood sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of coercion. A greater variety of types of childhood maltreatment predicted sexual harassment outcomes for male soldiers. Childhood maltreatment and adult sexual harassment were predictors of psychological well-being for soldiers of both genders.
Choi, Edmond P H; Wong, Janet Y H; Lo, Herman H M; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine H M; Fong, Daniel Y T
The association between using smartphone dating applications (apps) and substance use in conjunction with sexual activities was only examined in homosexual men. This association was poorly understood in heterosexual samples. To explore the association between using dating apps and alcohol, and use of recreational drug in conjunction with sexual activities in college students. 666 students from four universities in Hong Kong were recruited in this cross-sectional study in the year 2015. Outcome measures included the use of dating apps, sexual history, and drug and alcohol use. Multivariable logistic regressions were employed. The use of dating apps for more than 1 year was found to be associated with recreational drug use in conjunction with sexual activities (adjusted odds ratio: 7.23). Other risk factors of recreational drug use in conjunction with sexual activities included being bisexual/homosexual male, a smoker, and having one's first sexual intercourse at the age of less than 16 years. The use of dating apps was not a risk factor for alcohol consumption in conjunction with sexual activities. Risk factors for alcohol consumption in conjunction with sexual activities included being older, having monthly income more than HKD5,000, and a smoker. Furthermore, risk factors for alcohol consumption in conjunction with the last sexual activity included currently being in a dating relationship, a smoker, and having sex with a casual partner. Using dating apps is an emerging risk factor of drug misuse. Interventions for practising safe sex and preventing drug use should be targeted at dating app users.
Zhao, Ye; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Li, Feng; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi
The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between non-disclosure of sexual orientation to parents and sexual risk behaviors among gay and bisexual men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A total of 295 eligible participants (gay n = 179, bisexual n = 116) were recruited from MSM venues and MSM organizations in Anhui Province, China. Overall, 16.6 % of participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation to parents. Fewer bisexual participants chose to disclose their sexual orientation than gay participants (9.5 vs. 21.2 %, p sexual orientation to parents was positively associated with the number of female sex partners (AOR = 3.40) and with engagement in unprotected anal intercourse with men (AOR = 2.49) among gay MSM, in the past 6 months. Our findings indicated that HIV/AIDS intervention programs should promote the disclosure of sexual orientation and should design interventions specific to gay and bisexual MSM separately.
Teitelman, Anne M; Bohinski, Julia M; Boente, Alyssa
Sexually transmitted infections including HIV and teenage pregnancy have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality among girls in the United States. There is a need to further strengthen prevention efforts against these persistent epidemics. In order to promote girls' sexual health and most effectively reduce sexual risk, it is important to understand the social factors that influence the development of a girl's sexuality. The purpose of this study was to begin to fill a void in the literature by exploring girls' perspectives about the social context in which they learn about sex, sexuality, and relationships. Coding and content analysis was used to identify patterns and themes in 33 individual interviews with African American and Euro-American girls. Participants identified family, friends/peers, partners, school, and the media as the most common sources for learning about sexual health. Girls sought out different types of information from each source. Many girls experienced conflicting messages about their sexual health and struggled to integrate the disparate cultural references to sex, sexuality, and relationships that emerged from these different spheres of social life. Girls often had to navigate the journey of their sexual development with little room for reflection about their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and decisions. Health care providers, especially those in mental health, are in an optimal position to promote girls' physical, developmental, and emotional sexual health.
Of the total sexually active respondents, 67.1% had begun sexual activity while still in secondary school. For the previous 12-month period, 42.1% said they did not use condoms during the last sexual encounter, 46.1% of the males claimed having had sex with 'bar ladies,' and 39% said they had an active symptom of a ...
sexual assault had negative impacts on the career, reputation, and overall welfare of the victims (Bergman, Palmiere, Cortina, & Fitzgerald, 2002, p...women sexually, non-sexually, or both. The team evaluated subjects based on home environment, delinquency , sexual promiscuity, attitudes supporting...The findings suggest that “hostile childhood experiences affect involvement in delinquency and lead to aggression through two paths: hostile
Carver, Jasmine W; Dévieux, Jessy G; Gaston, Stéphanie C; Altice, Frederick L; Niccolai, Linda M
Engagement in sexual activity among Haitian youth is increasing. The present cross-sectional study examined the independent correlates of sexual risk behaviors among 200 (108 male/92 female) 13-18 year-old adolescents in Port-au-Prince, Haiti using face-to-face interviews. The majority (60.0 %) had engaged in sexual intercourse. Multivariate modeling found males to be 3.52 times more likely to have had sex, 5.42 times more likely to report sexual debut before age 14, 9.75 times more likely to have >1 sexual partner, and 3.33 times more likely to not have used a condom during last sex. Adolescents living with parents, grandparents, aunts or uncles were less likely to report having unprotected sex compared with those without adult family members in the home (AOR range 0.26-0.51). The high prevalence of risky sex among males and the protective influence of stable family cohesiveness have important implications for HIV prevention efforts.
Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica
Sexual risk among older adults (OAs) is prevalent, though little is known about the accuracy of sexual risk perceptions. Thus, the aim was to determine the accuracy of sexual risk perceptions among OAs by examining concordance between self-reported sexual risk behaviors and perceived risk. Data on OAs aged 50 to 92 were collected via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Frequency of sexual risk behaviors (past 6 months) were reported along with perceived risk (i.e., STI susceptibility). Accuracy categories (accurate, underestimated, overestimated) were established based on dis/concordance between risk levels (low, moderate, high) and perceived risk (not susceptible, somewhat susceptible, very susceptible). Approximately half of the sample reported engaging in vaginal (49%) and/or oral sex (43%) without a condom in the past 6 months. However, approximately two-thirds of the sample indicated they were “not susceptible” to STIs. No relationship was found between risk behaviors and risk perceptions, and approximately half (48.1%) of OAs in the sample underestimated their risk. Accuracy was found to decrease as sexual risk level increased, with 93.1% of high risk OAs underestimating their risk. Several sexual risk behaviors are prevalent among OAs, particularly men. However, perception of risk is often inaccurate and warrants attention. PMID:26813853
Benavides, Raquel A.; Montero, Carolina Valdez; González, Víctor M.; Rodríguez, Dora Julia Onofre
Use of sexual material online (USMO) by young people has been connected with at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Media Richness and Social Cognitive theories propose that rich media offer more information with interactive and audible visual content, which could have a significant impact on people’s thinking and behavior. The objective was to determine whether USMO presented by rich media has an influence on at-risk sexual behavior for HIV/AIDS. Two hundred young people participated in the s...
Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Vanable, Peter A; Coury-Doniger, Patricia
To investigate the relation between partner dependence and sexual risk behavior in the context of the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model. STI clinic patients (n = 1432) completed a computerized interview assessing partner dependence, condom use, and IMB variables. Men had higher partner-dependence scores than women did. Patients reporting greater dependence reported less condom use. Gender did not moderate the partner dependence-condom-use relationship. Partner dependence did not moderate the relation between IMB constructs and condom use. Further research is needed to determine how partner dependence can be incorporated into conceptual models of safer sex behaviors.
Zhao, Jessie; Lau, May; Vermette, David; Liang, David; Flores, Glenn
Asian American adolescents have been reported to have the lowest amount of communication with health care providers regarding sexual health topics (sexual activity, contraception, sexually transmitted infections, and pregnancy prevention). This study identified Asian American adolescents' attitudes/beliefs regarding how health care providers can…
Mokma, Taylor R; Eshelman, Lee R; Messman-Moore, Terri L
Child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault have been linked to increased self-blame, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol use. The current study aims to examine (a) whether these constructs explain women's risk for later adult sexual assault and revictimization, (b) whether such factors differentially confer risk for specific types of adult sexual assault (i.e., substance-facilitated and forcible), and (c) if self-blame confers risk indirectly through other risk factors. Multiple types of self-blame, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use were examined among 929 female college students as serial mediators of the relationship between child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault and as risk factors for sexual revictimization among child sexual abuse survivors. In the model predicting risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse indirectly predicted greater risk for substance-facilitated adult sexual assault mediated through two separate paths: global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress and global blame-to-alcohol use. In the model predicting risk for forcible adult sexual assault, child sexual abuse directly predicted greater risk for forcible adult sexual assault, and this relation was mediated by the global blame-to-posttraumatic-stress path. Among child sexual abuse survivors, child sexual abuse specific characterological and behavioral self-blame directly predicted greater risk for forcible and substance-facilitated revictimization, but the pathways were not mediated by posttraumatic stress or alcohol use. Results emphasize the importance of assessing different types of self-blame in predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms as well as examining risk for sexual victimization and revictimization. Findings did not support hypotheses that increased posttraumatic stress would predict increased alcohol use but did indicate that heightened self-blame is consistently associated with heightened posttraumatic stress and that heightened global self
Han, In Young; Lee, Yongwoo; Yoo, Seo Koo; Hong, Jun Sung
This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for sexual abuse of boys in South Korea by asking a national sample of 1,043 adult males whether they had experienced sexual abuse during childhood. The results indicate that 13.5% experienced at least one of the nine types of child sexual abuse assessed. In addition, the majority of the…
Kamila B. Czajkowska
Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the aging of the population, there is limited data available about sexual life and behaviours among of postmenopausal and late postmenopausal women. Aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of sexual dysfunction, behaviours, and preferences in the Polish population in 2015. Material and methods: This observational survey study involved 538 women, of whom 220 were over 50 years old. The main focus was on the differences and changes between older age groups, mainly 50-59 years and over 60 years. Results : For 80.9% of the women above 50 years old, sex played at least a moderately important role in life. Sex was definitely important and very important for 40.45% of them. Most women over 50 years old (65.5% were sexually active. Regardless of age, the respondents were more likely to have sexual intercourse several times a month. Less than half of the women over 50 years old (42.7% realised their sexual fantasies. Women in the group of 50-59 years old statistically less often than younger women declared that the frequency of intercourse they had was too small. There was a statistical tendency showing that women up to 49 years old declared more sexual problems than older women. Women over 50 years old reported fewer problems in comparison to younger women, e.g. less often they claimed that sex is not pleasurable (p = 0.064. Conclusions : The prevalence of sexual activity declines with age, yet a substantial number of woman engage in vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and masturbation even past the seventh decade of life.
Habel, Melissa A; Dittus, Patricia J; De Rosa, Christine J; Chung, Emily Q; Kerndt, Peter R
Previous studies suggest that student athletes may be less likely than nonathletes to engage in sexual behavior. However, few have explored sexual risk behavior among athletes in early adolescence. In 2005, a sample of 10,487 students in 26 Los Angeles public middle and high schools completed a self-administered survey that asked about their demographic characteristics, sports participation, sexual behaviors and expectations, and parental relationships. Chi-square analyses compared reported levels of daily participation in sports, experience with intercourse, experience with oral sex and condom use at last intercourse by selected characteristics. Predictors of sexual experience and condom use were assessed in multivariate logistic regression analyses. One-third of students reported daily participation in sports. This group had higher odds of ever having had intercourse and ever having had oral sex than their peers who did not play a sport daily (odds ratios, 1.2 and 1.1, respectively). The increases in risk were greater for middle school sports participants than for their high school counterparts (1.5 and 1.6, respectively). Among sexually experienced students, daily sports participants also had elevated odds of reporting condom use at last intercourse (1.4). Students as young as middle school age who participate in sports daily may have an elevated risk for STDs and pregnancy. Health professionals should counsel middle school athletes about sexual risk reduction, given that young students may find it particularly difficult to obtain contraceptives, STD testing and prevention counseling. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Barrett, Kimberly; Ungaro, Rocio; Winters, Ken C.; Belenko, Steven; Karas, Lora M.; Gulledge, Laura; Wareham, Jennifer
Substance use and sexual risk behaviors are common among adolescents, but research has focused attention on alcohol use. Much less is known about the relationship of marijuana use and sexual risk behavior among high-risk, especially truant, youths. We report interim findings from a NIDA-funded experimental, brief intervention (BI) study involving…
Basten, Maartje; Heijne, Janneke Cornelia Maria; Geskus, Ronald; Daas, Chantal Den; Kretzschmar, Mirjam; Matser, Amy
Sexual risk behaviour changes during a person's life course. Insights in sexual risk behaviour trajectories of MSM may provide starting points for the timing of HIV prevention methods. We aimed to study longitudinal trajectories of sexual risk behaviour predictive of HIV acquisition from sexual
Full Text Available Background: Cyproterone acetate (CPA is a steroidal anti-androgenic medication used in the field of psychiatry for the treatment of paraphilic disorders, hypersexuality, and inappropriate sexual behaviour which may be present in patients with disorders such as mild and major neurocognitive disorders. In the forensic psychiatric population, it is prescribed for these indications especially for patients with a history of committing a sexual offence or who are at moderate to high risk of recidivism. Objectives: To investigate the use of CPA in a forensic psychiatric cohort of male sex offenders and its associations with sexual activity and sexual functioning. Methods: Seventy-six forensic psychiatric patients from Weskoppies Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa, participated in the study which measured their sexual functioning. A specifically designed questionnaire was used to capture relevant background information. The use of CPA was studied. The Changes in Sexual Functioning Questionnaire, Male Clinical Version (CSFQ-M-C was used to measure sexual functioning of participants. The CSFQ-M-C scores, and those of all its subscales, of participants on CPA were compared to those not on the drug. Relevant statistical analyses were performed. Results: Thirteen out of the 76 participants were being treated with CPA (17.11%. In total, 53.85% of the participants on CPA and 65.08% not on CPA had scores indicating the presence of sexual dysfunction. The total CSFQ-M-C scores for participants on CPA (mean = 40.54; median = 42 were not statistically significantly lower than those not on the drug (mean = 41.22; median = 41. More notable is that the use of CPA in this population was associated with lower levels of desire, frequency of and pleasure from sexual activity. There was an association between having intellectual disability and being treated with CPA. Conclusion: That all the participants were being treated with psychotropic medication could account for
ADEDIMEJI, Adebola A.; HOOVER, Donald R.; SHI, Qiuhu; GARD, Tracy; MUTIMURA, Eugene; SINAYOBYE, Jean d’Amour; COHEN, Mardge H.; ANASTOS, Kathryn
It is not well understood how infection with HIV and prior experience of sexual violence affects sexual behavior in African women. We describe factors influencing current sexual practices of Rwandan women living with or without HIV/AIDS. By design, 75% of participants were HIV positive and ~50% reported having experienced genocidal rape. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to describe demographic and clinical characteristics that influenced sexual behavior in the previous 6 months, condom use, history of transactional sex, and prior infection with a non-HIV sexually transmitted disease. Respondents’ age, where they lived, whether or not they lived with a husband or partner, experience of sexual trauma, CD4 count, CES-D and PTSD scores were strongly associated with risky sexual behavior and infection with non-HIV STI. HIV positive women with a history of sexual violence in the contexts of war and conflict may be susceptible to some high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25488169
Shilo, Guy; Mor, Zohar
In Israel, as in other industrialized countries, the age of sexual debut among adolescents has declined, and the rate of sexually transmitted infections (STI) has risen, but the motivations and attitudes of Israeli adolescents toward carrying condoms have yet to be studied. The aims of this study were to establish the associations (if any) between demographic characteristics and the knowledge held by Jewish Israeli adolescents about HIV transmission, their attitudes toward condom use and sexual experience, and to explore their recommendations to increase condom use. The method used was an analysis of sexual experience and practices, attitudes toward condom carrying and condom use among a national representative sample of Jewish adolescents aged 15-18. Two dichotomized measures were assessed: (i) sexual experience (defined as having had previous consensual oral/vaginal/anal sex); and (ii) the practice of carrying a condom on a regular basis. Of all 410 participants, 14.6% carried condoms, 18.3% had sexual experience, and 70.7% of those used condoms. Those who thought condoms to be protective against HIV, and those who thought they are difficult to wear, were more likely to have sexual experience. The perception of condom use as important, and the perception that condoms are difficult to wear, were predictors of condom carrying. The participants' knowledge of the risk of HIV in vaginal intercourse was deficient. Participants did not consider school sex education to be effective in promoting condom use, and recommended the use of graphic, deterrent personal accounts told by youths to encourage wider use of condoms. Health educators should consider the barriers cited by adolescents and the deterrent techniques they recommend when planning interventions to encourage condom use. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Heck, Ted; McNulty, Shawn; Pierce, Juan; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of the internet to meet sexual partners among transgender individuals and examine correlates of this use, including sexual risk behavior, discrimination experiences, and mental health. A sample of 166 transgender adults (112 male-to-female transgender women and 54 female-to-male transgender men) were recruited in community venues and anonymously completed measures assessing these variables. Most participants (64.5 %) were HIV-negative, 25.2 % were HIV-positive, and 10.3 % did not know their HIV status. Overall, 33.7 % of participants reported having met a sexual partner over the internet, which did not differ significantly between transgender women and men. Among these individuals, transgender women reported significantly more lifetime internet sexual partners (median = 3) than transgender men (median = 1). Use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with lower self-esteem but not with depression, anxiety, somatic distress or discrimination experiences. Among transgender women, use of the internet to meet sexual partners was associated with each of the 11 sexual risk behaviors examined, including having multiple partners, sex under the influence of drugs, number of unprotected anal or vaginal sex acts, and history of commercial sex work. The use of the internet to meet partners was not associated with sexual risk behavior among transgender men (0/11 variables assessed). Although the internet is a common mode of meeting sexual partners among some transgender adults, it may also be a potential venue for prevention interventions targeting transgender individuals at particularly high risk for HIV acquisition.
Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...
Giusto, Ali M; Green, Eric P; Puffer, Eve S
Despite high rates of HIV in areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and men's role in driving the epidemic, little is known about whether or how sexual risk-both behaviors and beliefs-may be passed down through generations of males. This study examined associations between sexual risk behaviors and sex-related beliefs of adolescent males and those of their male caregivers in Kenya, as well as the potential moderating effects of parenting characteristics and father-son relationship quality. Cross-sectional linear regression analysis was applied to baseline data from a trial of a family- and church-based intervention for families in rural Kenya that followed a stepped-wedge cluster randomized design. Our subsample consisted of 79 male caregiver and son (aged 10-16 years) dyads. Results demonstrated a direct relationship between fathers' and sons' sex-related beliefs that was not moderated by parenting or quality of father-son relationship. Parenting/relationship characteristics did moderate the relationship between fathers' and sons' sexual behavior; if fathers did not engage in high-risk sex and exhibited more positive parenting/higher relationship quality, their sons were less likely to be sexually active. Among fathers having high-risk sex, parenting was unrelated to sons' behavior except at very high levels of positive parenting/relationship quality; at these levels, sons were actually more likely to have had sex. Findings support recommendations to include male caregivers in youth HIV prevention efforts, potentially by targeting fathers' parenting strategies and their individual risk. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Between 1994 and 2006, the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Ireland has increased by over 300%. Recent literature would suggest that this figure is an underestimation of the true scale of infection. Our objective was to determine the risk factors associated with STI diagnosis in a population with a rapidly increasing STI incidence.
Elizabeth F Closson
Full Text Available The success of global treatment as prevention (TasP efforts for individuals living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA is dependent on successful implementation, and therefore the appropriate contribution of social and behavioral science to these efforts. Understanding the psychosocial context of condomless sex among PLWHA could shed light on effective points of intervention. HPTN 063 was an observational mixed-methods study of sexually active, in-care PLWHA in Thailand, Zambia, and Brazil as a foundation for integrating secondary HIV prevention into HIV treatment. From 2010-2012, 80 qualitative interviews were conducted with PLWHA receiving HIV care and reported recent sexual risk. Thirty men who have sex with women (MSW and 30 women who have sex with men (WSM participated in equal numbers across the sites. Thailand and Brazil also enrolled 20 biologically-born men who have sex with men (MSM. Part of the interview focused on the impact of HIV on sexual practices and relationships. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated into English and examined using qualitative descriptive analysis. The mean age was 25 (SD = 3.2. There were numerous similarities in experiences and attitudes between MSM, MSW and WSM across the three settings. Participants had a high degree of HIV transmission risk awareness and practiced some protective sexual behaviors such as reduced sexual activity, increased use of condoms, and external ejaculation. Themes related to risk behavior can be categorized according to struggles for intimacy and fears of isolation, including: fear of infecting a sex partner, guilt about sex, sexual communication difficulty, HIV-stigma, and worry about sexual partnerships. Emphasizing sexual health, intimacy and protective practices as components of nonjudgmental sex-positive secondary HIV prevention interventions is recommended. For in-care PLWHA, this approach has the potential to support TasP. The overlap of themes across groups and countries
Bamidele, James Olusegun; Abodunrin, Olugbemiga Lanre; Adebimpe, Wasiu Olalekan
Young people are particularly vulnerable to unplanned sexual activities. This study sought to identify the sexual behaviors and risk of HIV among public secondary schools students in Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 521 students in eight randomly selected public secondary schools. Respondents were selected by a multistage sampling technique from amongst the study population. Using a self-administered, semi-structured, pre-tested questionnaire, data were obtained concerning their sexual behaviors and influencing factors. Most respondents (n = 387, 74.3%) were in late adolescence. Many knew the consequences of premarital sex as unplanned pregnancy, STI/HIV/AIDS, incomplete schooling, and guilt feelings. About 40% of the respondents had been involved in sexual activities with partners who were classmates, neighbors, 'sugar daddies', teachers, or strangers (party-mates or prostitutes). Heterosexual, oral, and anal forms of sex were practiced respectively by 78.1%, 13.3%, and 12.4% of those who were sexually active. Sexual debut was 15.2 +/- 1.62 years. About 36% of those sexually active had more than one partner, and about 14.8% were aware that their partners had other partners. Only 8.6% used a condom on a consistent basis, whereas 41.9% had never used a condom at all. More than half the sexual activities were not pre-planned. The reasons given for engaging in such practices were peer influence, financial reward, drug influence, fun, or experimentation. Despite their 'above average' level of knowledge of the consequences, the students were still involved in risky sexual behaviors. Behavioral change communications should be intensified among these adolescents.
Maria José Carvalho Sant'Anna
Full Text Available Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at first intercourse was 14.2 years and the average period between first intercourse and pregnancy was 1.4 years. Most pregnancies (75% were neither planned nor wanted, however, most teen mothers (64.3% did not use any contraceptive method. Of the pregnant teenagers, 68.1% came from unstructured families where in 71% of the teen pregnancy cases, there was a role model (mother, sister, or cousin who already experienced teen pregnancy. The average number of school years attended by the analyzed pregnant teenagers was 8.1 years, however, there was a high dropout rate of 40.1%. The age at first intercourse was low and concurs with the high incidence of unstructured families. The average number of school years attended was high, which would theoretically reflect a greater knowledge with regard to human reproduction, pointing to the multicausality of teen pregnancy and the role played by the family. Conclusions: We confirmed that teen pregnancy presents multicausal etiology; sexual initiation of pregnant teenagers was quite early with high dropout rates, which indicated that prevention methodology should be based on early detection of risk factors for elaboration of appropriate prevention proposals.
Du, Juan; Ruan, Xiangyan; Gu, Muqing; Bitzer, Johannes; Mueck, Alfred O
Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a very common sexual health problem worldwide. The prevalence of FSD in Chinese women is, however, unknown. This is the first study to investigate a large number of young women throughout China via the internet, to determine the prevalence and types of FSD and to identify the risk factors for FSD. The primary endpoint was the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) score, with additional questions on contraception, sexual activity, relationship stability, pregnancy and other factors which may influence sexual function. The online questionnaire was completed by women from 31 of the 34 Chinese provinces. A total of 1618 completed questionnaires were received, and 1010 were included in the analyses after screening (62.4%). The mean age of the respondents was 25.1 ± 4.5 years. The mean total FSFI score was 24.99 ± 4.60. According to FSFI definitions (cut-off score 26.55), 60.2% of women were at risk of FSD. Based on domain scores, 52 were considered at high risk of dysfunction for pain (5.1%), 35 for orgasm (3.5%), 33 for desire (3.3%), 20 for arousal (2.0%), 6 for satisfaction (0.6%) and 2 for lubrication (0.2%). The prevalence of FSFI scores indicating risk of sexual dysfunction was about 60% in Chinese women. An unstable relationship, pressure to become pregnant, non-use of contraception, negative self-evaluation of appearance and increasing age were significantly associated with FSD in young Chinese women.
C. A. Bousman
Full Text Available Catechol-O-methyltransferease (COMT metabolizes prefrontal cortex dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter involved in executive behavior; the Val158Met genotype has been linked to executive dysfunction, which might increase sexual risk behaviors favoring HIV transmission. Main and interaction effects of COMT genotype and executive functioning on sexual risk behavior were examined. 192 sexually active nonmonogamous men completed a sexual behavior questionnaire, executive functioning tests, and were genotyped using blood-derived DNA. Main effects for executive dysfunction but not COMT on number of sexual partners were observed. A COMT x executive dysfunction interaction was found for number of sexual partners and insertive anal sex, significant for carriers of the Met/Met and to a lesser extent Val/Met genotypes but not Val/Val carriers. In the context of HIV and methamphetamine dependence, dopaminergic overactivity in prefrontal cortex conferred by the Met/Met genotype appears to result in a liability for executive dysfunction and potentially associated risky sexual behavior.
Souder, William C., III
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Using the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study, this thesis studies the effects of demographics, prior victimization, deployment status, and workplace characteristics—specifically, command climate, leadership and training quality—on both incidence and reporting of sexual assault and sexual harassment. Sexual assault consists of a nonconsensual sexual act coupled with a use of force or threat thereof that is likely to cause physical harm ...
Parkes, Alison; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Nixon, Catherine
Extensive research has explored the relationship between parenting and teenagers' sexual risk-taking. Whether parenting is associated with wider aspects of teenagers' capacity to form satisfying sexual relationships is unknown. Self-reported data were collected in 2007 from 1,854 students, whose average age was 15.5 years, in central Scotland. Multivariate analyses examined associations between parenting processes and sexual outcomes (delayed first intercourse, condom use and several measures reflecting the context or anticipated context of first sex). Parental supportiveness was positively associated with all outcomes (betas, 0.1-0.4), and parental values restricting intercourse were positively associated with all outcomes except condom use (0.1-0.5). Parental monitoring was associated only with delayed intercourse (0.2) and condom use (0.2); parental rules about TV content were associated with delayed intercourse (0.7) and expecting sex in a relationship, rather than casually (0.8). Frequency of parental communication about sex and parental values endorsing contraceptive use were negatively associated with teenagers' delayed intercourse (-0.5 and -0.3, respectively), and parents' contraceptive values were negatively associated with teenagers' expecting sex in a relationship (-0.5). Associations were partly mediated by teenagers' attitudes, including value placed on having sex in a relationship. Parents may develop teenagers' capacity for positive and safe early sex by promoting skills and values that build autonomy and encourage sex only within a relationship. Interventions should promote supportive parenting and transmission of values, avoid mixed messages about abstinence and contraception, and acknowledge that teenagers may learn more indirectly than directly from parents about sex. Copyright © 2011 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Maswanya, E S; Moji, K; Horiguchi, I; Nagata, K; Aoyagi, K; Honda, S; Takemoto, T
A questionnaire survey was carried out among 1041 students in secondary schools and colleges in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania to evaluate the relationship between HIV-risky sexual behaviour and anti-condom bias, as well as with AIDS-related information, knowledge, perceptions and attitudes. Self-reportedly, 54% of students (75% of the boys and 40% of the girls) were sexually active, 39% had a regular sexual partner and 13% had multiple partners in the previous year. The condom use rate was higher than previous reports. However, 30% of sexually active respondents did not always use condoms (Risk-1 behaviour) and 35% of those with multiple partners in the previous year did not always use condoms (Risk-2 behaviour). Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that 'sex partner hates condom' had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.58-3.85) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.10-5.48). 'Use of condom prevents HIV infection' also had association with both Risk-1 behaviour (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.19-3.67) and Risk-2 behaviour (OR 3.73; 95% CI 1.28-11.03). Students engaging in risky behaviour were aware of the risk, even though they failed to change their behaviour. Reasons for the AIDS epidemic among Tanzanian students and the importance of more effective AIDS education are also discussed.
Kalichman, Seth C.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Benotsch, Eric; Cage, Marjorie; Rompa, David
Childhood sexual abuse is associated with high-risk sexual behavior in men who have sex with men. This study examined psychological and behavioral correlates of HIV risk behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse in a sample of men who have sex with men. Men attending a large gay pride event (N = 647) completed anonymous surveys that assessed…
Schick, Vanessa R; Calabrese, Sarah K; Rima, Brandi N; Zucker, Alyssa N
Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many of body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate). The current study refined existing methods of evaluating women's body image in the context of sexuality by focusing upon two highly specified dimensions: satisfaction with the visual appearance of the genitalia and self-consciousness about the genitalia during a sexual encounter. Genital appearance dissatisfaction, genital image self-consciousness, and multiple facets of sexuality were examined with a sample of 217 undergraduate women using an online survey. Path analysis revealed that greater dissatisfaction with genital appearance was associated with higher genital image self-consciousness during physical intimacy, which, in turn, was associated with lower sexual esteem, sexual satisfaction, and motivation to avoid risky sexual behavior. These findings underscore the detrimental impact of negative genital perceptions on young women's sexual wellbeing, which is of particular concern given their vulnerability at this stage of sexual development as well as the high rates of sexually transmitted infections within this age group. Interventions that enhance satisfaction with the natural appearance of their genitalia could facilitate the development of a healthy sexual self-concept and provide long-term benefits in terms of sexual safety and satisfaction.
de Santisteban, Patricia; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel
The research on online child sexual victimization has mainly focused on the sexual solicitation of minors (i.e., sexual requests by an adult), with scarce information available on sexual interactions (e.g., cybersex or meeting in person) in which a minor is exploited by an adult. In the present study, we analyzed the prevalence and risk factors associated with both sexual solicitations and interactions of minors with adults. The sample included 2,731 minors between 12 and 15 years old (50.6% female). The minors completed several self-report questionnaires about sexual solicitations and interactions with adults, including possible risk factors (e.g., sociodemographic variables, Internet use, and psychological adjustment). Of the participants, 15.6% of girls and 9.3% of boys reported sexual solicitations, and 8.2% of girls and 7.4% of boys reported sexualized interactions with adults. Among the variables studied, several appeared related to both sexual solicitations and interactions: older age, having been involved in sexting, being a victim of cyberbullying, having unknown people in friends list, using chat, time spent online on a weekday, and depression symptoms. Gender (being female), using video chat, and instant messaging by computer were significant variables for sexual solicitation but not for sexual interaction; participation in online games was significant only for sexual interactions. Finally, minors reporting sexual interactions presented a higher risk profile than those reporting only sexual solicitations. These findings highlight the relevance of distinguishing between sexual solicitations and sexual interactions and suggest important avenues for prevention programs.
Yoon, Susan; Voith, Laura A; Kobulsky, Julia M
This study investigated gender differences in the roles of internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use as pathways linking child physical and sexual abuse to risky sexual behavior among youth at risk of maltreatment. Path analysis was performed with 862 adolescents drawn from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect. Four waves of data collected in the United States were used: childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences (from ages 0-12) were assessed by Child Protective Services reports, internalizing and externalizing symptoms were measured at age 14, substance use was measured at age 16, and risky sexual behavior was measured at age 18. Physical abuse was directly associated with risky sexual behavior in boys but not girls. For girls, physical abuse had a significant indirect effect on risky sexual behavior via externalizing symptoms. Gender-focused preventive intervention strategies may be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among at-risk adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Matthews, Derrick D.; Blosnich, John R.; Farmer, Grant W.; Adams, Brian J.
Purpose Increasing attention to the health of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations comes with requisite circumspection about measuring sexual orientation in surveys. However, operationalizing these variables also requires considerable thought. This research sought to document the consequences of different operational definitions of sexual orientation by examining variation in health risk behaviors. Methods Using Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, we examined how operational definitions of sexual behavior and sexual identity influenced differences among three health behaviors known to disparately affect LGB populations: smoking, suicide risk, and methamphetamine use. Sexual behavior and sexual identity were also examined together to explore if they captured unique sources of variability in behavior. Results Estimates of health disparities changed as a result of using either sexual behavior or sexual identity. Youth who reported their sexual identity as “not sure” also had increased odds of health risk behavior. Disaggregating bisexual identity and behavior from same-sex identity and behavior frequently resulted in the attenuation or elimination of health disparities that would have otherwise been attributable to exclusively same-sex sexual minorities. Finally, sexual behavior and sexual identity explained unique and significant sources of variability in all three health behaviors. Conclusion Researchers using different operational definitions of sexual orientation could draw different conclusions, even when analyzing the same data, depending upon how they chose to represent sexual orientation in analyses. We discuss implications that these manipulations have on data interpretation and provide specific recommendations for best-practices when analyzing sexual orientation data collected from adolescent populations. PMID:25110718
Miskulin, Maja; Puntaric, Dinko; Bozikov, Jadranka; Miskulin, Ivan; Ruzman, Natasa
The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of blood donors positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), to identify the patterns of sexual risk behavior responsible for HSV-2 positivity and to assess the reliability of HSV-2 positivity as a marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population. This cross-sectional study included 423 blood donors of both sexes from eastern Croatia. Their blood samples were tested by ELISA IgG test kit for HSV-2 IgG and Western blot. Data on sexual risk behavior were collected by use of an anonymous questionnaire. Western blot testing showed HSV-2 IgG antibodies in 14 of 423 (3.3%) donor blood samples. The most common patterns of sexual risk behavior potentially associated with test positivity were irregular condom use during sexual intercourse with new partners (294/423; 69.5%) and > or = 5 sexual partners during lifetime (213/423; 50.4%). The population of blood donors from eastern Croatia included subgroups of subjects characterized by sexual risk behavior. Study results pointed to a relationship between various forms of sexual risk behavior and HSV-2 positivity, which could therefore serve as a reliable marker of sexual risk behavior in the study population.
Brady, Sonya S; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L
We examined the social and emotional consequences among adolescents of refraining from sexual activity (oral or vaginal sex) and whether these consequences differed over time and by gender and sexual experience. Adolescents (N=612; 58% female) recruited from 2 schools were assessed at 4 time points separated by 6-month intervals, beginning in fall of ninth grade. The percentage of adolescents who reported only positive consequences (e.g., they felt responsible, friends were proud) dramatically decreased over time, whereas the percentage that reported negative consequences (e.g., they felt left out, partners became angry) steadily increased. Adolescent girls and sexually experienced adolescents were more likely to report both positive and negative consequences than were adolescent boys and sexually inexperienced adolescents. Adolescents who began the study with sexual experience were more likely to report positive consequences of refraining from sexual activity by the end of the study than those who initiated sexual activity later. Sexual education programs should address how adolescents can cope with or prevent negative consequences of refraining from sexual activity, so that decisions to abstain are rewarding and decisions to engage in sexual activity are motivated by maturity and readiness.
Thrane, Lisa E; Yoder, Kevin A; Chen, Xiaojin
This study explores the sexual risk trajectories of female youths and sheds light on the long-term effects of running away. It evaluates whether running away increases the risk of sexual assault in the following year, which is after runaways return home. The sample consists of 5,387 heterosexual females between the ages of 11 and 18 years from the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Nearly one quarter (23%) of runaways report a previous sexual assault in contrast to 5% of nonrunaways. In a logistic regression model, childhood neglect increases the risk of sexual assault between Waves 1 and 2 by nearly two times. Poor mental health is statistically significant. Alcohol use doubles the odds of sexual assault. The risk of sexual assault is approximately three-fold for girls with a history of sexual onset and sexual touching in a romantic relationship. Running away increases the risk by nearly two and a half times. There is evidence that alcohol use and sexual onset partially mediates the relationship between running away and sexual assault.
Vivancos, R; Abubakar, I; Hunter, P R
We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess sexual behaviour of students at a British University during the summer break, to explore the role of foreign travel as a risk factor of sexually transmitted infections acquisition and to determine characteristics associated with casual sex. We found that those who travelled abroad were more likely to use alcohol (RR 1.59, 95% CI 1.17-2.16) and cannabis (RR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13-1.62) and to have casual sex during holidays. They also reported more sexual relationships after holidays (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.53). New partnerships during holidays were associated with being single, foreign travel, drinking alcohol and having previously had large number of sexual partners. The adjusted relative risk of developing new sexual partnerships with foreign travel was 2.70 (95% CI 1.11-6.61). People who travel abroad during holidays are more likely to engage in risk taking behaviour and have casual sex. They are also more sexually active after holidays.
Babchishin, K M; Seto, M C; Sariaslan, A; Lichtenstein, P; Fazel, S; Långström, N
Prior studies suggest parental and perinatal risk factors are associated with later offending. It remains uncertain, however, if such risk factors are similarly related to sexual offending. We linked socio-demographic, family relations, and perinatal (obtained at birth) data from the nationwide Swedish registers from 1973 to 2009 with information on criminal convictions of cases and control subjects. Male sex offenders (n = 13 773) were matched 1:5 on birth year and county of birth in Sweden to male controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. To examine risk-factor specificity for sexual offending, we also compared male violent, non-sexual offenders (n = 135 953) to controls without sexual or non-sexual violent convictions. Predictors included parental (young maternal or paternal age at son's birth, educational attainment, violent crime, psychiatric disorder, substance misuse, suicide attempt) and perinatal (number of older brothers, low Apgar score, low birth weight, being small for gestational age, congenital malformations, small head size) variables. Conditional logistic regression models found consistent patterns of statistically significant, small to moderate independent associations of parental risk factors with sons' sexual offending and non-sexual violent offending. For perinatal risk factors, patterns varied more; small for gestational age and small head size exhibited similar risk effects for both offence types whereas a higher number of older biological brothers and any congenital malformation were small, independent risk factors only for non-sexual violence. This nationwide study suggests substantial commonalities in parental and perinatal risk factors for the onset of sexual and non-sexual violent offending.
Danielson, Carla Kmett; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J
Latent class analysis (LCA) is a useful statistical tool that can be used to enhance understanding of how various patterns of combined sexual behavior risk factors may confer differential levels of HIV infection risk and to identify subtypes among African American adolescent girls. Data for this analysis is derived from baseline assessments completed prior to randomization in an HIV prevention trial. Participants were African American girls (n=701) aged 14-20 years presenting to sexual health clinics. Girls completed an audio computer-assisted self-interview, which assessed a range of variables regarding sexual history and current and past sexual behavior. Two latent classes were identified with the probability statistics for the two groups in this model being 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. In the final multivariate model, class 1 (the "higher risk" group; n=331) was distinguished by a higher likelihood of >5 lifetime sexual partners, having sex while high on alcohol/drugs, less frequent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), when compared with class 2 (the "lower risk" group; n=370). The derived model correctly classified 85.3% of participants into the two groups and accounted for 71% of the variance in the latent HIV-related sexual behavior risk variable. The higher risk class also had worse scores on all hypothesized correlates (e.g., self-esteem, history of sexual assault or physical abuse) relative to the lower risk class. Sexual health clinics represent a unique point of access for HIV-related sexual risk behavior intervention delivery by capitalizing on contact with adolescent girls when they present for services. Four empirically supported risk factors differentiated higher versus lower HIV risk. Replication of these findings is warranted and may offer an empirical basis for parsimonious screening recommendations for girls presenting for sexual healthcare services.
Cheney, Ann M; Ostrach, Bayla; Marcus, Ruthanne; Frank, Cynthia; Ball, Cassandra; Erickson, Pamela I
In this study we examined how social processes, specifically the acquisition of postsecondary education and capital, shaped perceptions of sexual risk and impacted sexual practices and sexual health among young adults. Using qualitative research methods we collected and analyzed data among students attending a 4-year university in the northeastern region of the United States over a 1-year period. By analyzing participants' narratives, we found that the reproduction of shared norms and values encouraged educated young adults to focus on educational and professional success, pressing many of them to be concerned about preventing pregnancy rather than preventing disease transmission, and increasing their risk for sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. Sexual-health educators need to address how social processes shape sexual practices, encourage educated young adults to challenge unequal gender expectations, and consider how sexually transmitted infections might also interfere with life plans. © The Author(s) 2014.
Goesling, Brian; Colman, Silvie; Trenholm, Christopher; Terzian, Mary; Moore, Kristin
This systematic review provides a comprehensive, updated assessment of programs with evidence of effectiveness in reducing teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), or associated sexual risk behaviors. The review was conducted in four steps. First, multiple literature search strategies were used to identify relevant studies released from 1989 through January 2011. Second, identified studies were screened against prespecified eligibility criteria. Third, studies were assessed by teams of two trained reviewers for the quality and execution of their research designs. Fourth, for studies that passed the quality assessment, the review team extracted and analyzed information on the research design, study sample, evaluation setting, and program impacts. A total of 88 studies met the review criteria for study quality and were included in the data extraction and analysis. The studies examined a range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Most studies had mixed-gender and predominately African-American research samples (70% and 51%, respectively). Randomized controlled trials accounted for the large majority (87%) of included studies. Most studies (76%) included multiple follow-ups, with sample sizes ranging from 62 to 5,244. Analysis of the study impact findings identified 31 programs with evidence of effectiveness. Research conducted since the late 1980s has identified more than two dozen teen pregnancy and STI prevention programs with evidence of effectiveness. Key strengths of this research are the large number of randomized controlled trials, the common use of multiple follow-up periods, and attention to a broad range of programs delivered in diverse settings. Two main gaps are a lack of replication studies and the need for more research on Latino youth and other high-risk populations. In addressing these gaps, researchers must overcome common limitations in study design, analysis, and reporting that have negatively affected prior research. Copyright
Downing, Martin J.; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Antebi, Nadav; Siegel, Karolynn
Recent research suggests that viewing sexually explicit media (SEM), i.e., adult videos, may influence sexual risk taking among men who have sex with men (MSM). Despite this evidence, very little is known about the content of gay male SEM on the Internet, including the prevalence of sexual risk behaviors and their relation to video- and performer-characteristics, viewing frequency, and favorability. The current study content analyzed 302 sexually explicit videos featuring male same-sex perfor...
Conde-Glez Carlos J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the fact that adolescents are more likely to participate in high-risk behaviors, this sector of the population is particularly vulnerable to contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs and resultant health problems. Methods A survey was carried out among adolescents from poor homes in 204 small-urban areas of Mexico. Information was collected in relation to risk behaviors and socio-economic environment. A sub-group of the participants also provided blood and urine samples which were analyzed to detect sexually transmitted infections. Results The presence of Chlamydia was detected in nearly 8% of participants who had stated that they were sexually active (18% and approximately 12% were positive for herpes type 2-specific antibodies. For both, a greater proportion of girls resulted positive compared to boys. The presence of these biological outcomes of sexual risk behavior was associated with other risk behaviors (smoking, but not with self-reported indicators of protected sex (reported use of condom during most recent sexual activity. Conclusion The results presented in this study show a startlingly high prevalence of HSV-2 among sexually active Mexican adolescents in poor urban areas, suggesting that this group has participated to a great extent in risky sexual practices. The relationships between socioeconomic environment and adolescent risk behavior need to be better understood if we are to design preventive interventions that modify the determinants of risk behaviors.
Charles, Vignetta Eugenia; Blum, Robert Wm.
Adolescent sexual risk-taking behavior has numerous individual, family, community, and societal consequences. In an effort to contribute to the research and propose new directions, this chapter applies the core competencies framework to the prevention of high-risk sexual behavior. It describes the magnitude of the problem, summarizes explanatory…
Snyder, Jamie A.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Fisher, Bonnie S.
Researchers have shown that college students are at an increased risk of experiencing interpersonal violence (IV). One factor that appears to play a role in shaping their likelihood of IV is sexual orientation. However, little is known about this relationship and how IV risk varies across categories of sexual orientation. Utilizing a sample of…
Tavares, Inês M.; Laan, Ellen T. M.; Nobre, Pedro J.
Cognitive-affective factors contribute to female sexual dysfunctions, defined as clinically significant difficulties in the ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure. Automatic thoughts and affect presented during sexual activity are acknowledged as maintenance factors for these
As internet penetration surges in different parts of the world, access to a wide range of subjects rises also. Matters of sexuality are no exceptions. While there is ample empirical evidence that youths seek knowledge about sexuality, and get involved in sexually stimulating and/or gratifying activities on the internet, the ...
Full Text Available Abstract Health Issue Much attention is devoted to women's reproductive health, but the formative and mature stages of women's sexual lives are often overlooked. We have analyzed cross-sectional data from the Sexual Behaviour module of the 2000/2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS, and reviewed the literature and available indicators of the sexual health of Canadian women. Key Findings Contemporary Canadian adolescents are becoming sexually active at younger ages than in previous generations. The gender gap between young males and females in age at first intercourse has virtually disappeared. The mean age at first intercourse for CCHS respondents aged 15–24 years was between 16 and 17. Canadian-born respondents are significantly younger at first intercourse than those who were born outside of Canada. Few adolescents recognize important risks to their sexual health. Older Canadians are sexually active, and continue to find emotional and physical satisfaction in their sexual relationships. Data Gaps and Recommendations Both health surveys and targeted research must employ a broader understanding of sexuality to measure changes in and determinants of the sexual health of Canadians. There is reluctance to direct questions about sexual issues to younger Canadians, even though increased knowledge of sexual health topics is associated with delayed onset of sexual intercourse. Among adults, sex-positive resources are needed to address aspects of aging, rather than medicalizing age-related sexual dysfunction. Age and gender-appropriate sexual health care, education, and knowledge are important not only for women of reproductive age, but for Canadians at all stages of life.
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between health-risk behaviors and a history of sexual coercion among urban Chinese high school students. Design: A cross-sectional study was performed among 109,754 high school students who participated in the 2005 Chinese Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Data were analyzed for 5,215 students who had experienced sexual intercourse (1,483 girls, 3,732 boys. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between sexual coercion and the related covariates, and data were stratified by gender. Results: Of those students who had had sexual intercourse, 40.9% of the females and 29.6% of the males experienced sexual coercion (p<0.01. When analyses controlled for demographic characteristics, in the study sample, that is, students who had sexual intercourse, drug use (odds ratios [OR], 2.44, attempted suicide (OR, 2.30, physical abuse (OR, 1.74, binge drinking (OR, 1.62, verbal abuse (OR, 1.29, experience of being drunk (OR, 0.68, and smoking of cigarettes (OR, 0.52 were related to a history of sexual coercion. Patterns of health-risk behaviors also differed among female and male students who had experienced sexual coercion. Conclusions: Sexual coercion is associated with health-risk behaviors. Initiatives to reduce the harm associated with sexual coercion among high school students are needed.
Owoaje, E T; Adebiyi, A O; Adebayo, M A
Migration has been associated with a higher risk of STI/HIV but few studies have assessed the sexual risk behaviour of migrant farm workers in Nigeria. An exploratory survey was conducted to assess the knowledge of HIV/AIDS and sexual risk behaviours of migrant farmers in Saki West Local Government Area, Oyo State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on socio-demographic and occupational characteristics, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, sexual behaviours and history of STI symptoms. Overall 518 respondents were interviewed, slightly over half were aware of HIV/AIDS; awareness was significantly lower among the females, those aged 15-24 years and those with no formal education. Majority (80.7%) were sexually experienced, the mean age at sexual debut was 19.4 +/- 5.2 years and 18.4 +/- 4.2 years for males and females respectively. Sexual intercourse with multiple sexual partners in the past year was reported by 24.6% (males, 35.7%, versus females, 10.4%, p casual partner was reported by 9.1% (12.8% males versus 4.4% females). Only 18.2% used a condom during the last casual sexual contact. Level of awareness of HIV is unacceptably low and sexual risk behaviours are prevalent among these workers. Appropriate sexual health and HIV prevention interventions should be instituted.
Webb, Edward M.
Discusses risk management for colleges' cocurricular activities. Discusses tort liability, contributory negligence, and assumption of risk. Provides six concrete steps for managing risks responsibly and professionally: adopting an educational mission statement, assigning risk to others, establishing safety standards, training club advisors,…
Garcia Luis I
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin
Wang, Tze-Fang; Lu, Chwen-Hwa; Chen, I-Ju; Yu, Shu
We examined sexual activity and predictive factors among older people in Taipei, Taiwan. We aimed to characterize the older population engaged in sexual activity and determine influencing factors, exploring aspects of sexuality that may influence elders' health and quality of life (QOL). Studies of sexual attitudes and behaviour have found that sexual difficulties are common among mature adults worldwide, influenced in men and women by physical health, ageing, psychosocial and cultural factors. We conducted a community-based retrospective study involving a random sample of 412 men and 204 women over age 65. A questionnaire on demographics and social situations was administered, along with a Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale; 34 questions evaluated sexual knowledge and 18 evaluated sexual attitudes. Two-hundred and twenty participants were sexually active (35.7%), 185 mainly with spouses (84.1%); frequency was 21.4 (SD 16.9) times per year (range: 1-120). Multiple logistic regressions identified five significant predictors of sexual activity: gender, age, being with spouse, sexual knowledge and sexual attitudes. Sexual activity was significantly associated with higher education levels, lower stress and more self-reported daily activities. Our results agreed with Western studies linking sexual activity with better health and higher QOL in older adults. Older peoples' stress and daily activity levels are recognized quality-of-life measures; lower stress and more daily activities among sexually active older people suggests a connection between sexual activity and higher QOL. Increasing knowledge and improving attitudes about sexuality may help older people build healthier relationships and enhance health and QOL. Relevance to clinical practice. If healthcare professionals possess greater understanding of older peoples' sexuality, healthcare systems may find ways to increase sexual knowledge and foster healthier attitudes and relationships to improve older peoples
Chambers, Rachel; Tingey, Lauren; Mullany, Britta; Parker, Sean; Lee, Angelita; Barlow, Allison
This paper examines decision-making around sexual behavior among reservation-based American Indian youth. Focus group discussions were conducted with youth ages 13-19 years old. Through these discussions, we explored youth's knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to sexual risk taking through the lens of the protection motivation theory to inform the adaptation of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention. Findings suggest that condom use self-efficacy and HIV prevention knowledge is low, vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections is lacking and alcohol plays a significant role in sexual risk taking in this population. In addition, parental monitoring and peer influence may contribute to or protect against sexual risk taking. Results suggest that future HIV prevention interventions should be delivered to gender-specific peer groups, include a parental component, teach sexual health education and communication skills, integrate substance-use prevention, and work to remove stigma around obtaining and using condoms.
Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic and disabling disease resulting in disabilities in young and middle-aged persons. In this study, researchers explored the effect of yoga techniques on physical activities and sexual function among some Iranian women with MS. Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 Iranian ...
Contraceptive use was predicted by educational status, sexual activity, baby's age and .... request', ‗initiation by self', ‗cultural demand' and. ‗feeling it was ..... 2009;19(2):81-7. 14. Lwanga SK and Lemeshow S. Sample size determination.
Ciairano, S; Bonino, S; Kliewer, W; Miceli, R; Jackson, S
Associations among dating, sexual activity, gender and adjustment were investigated in 2,2 73 Italian adolescents (54% female, ages 14 to 19 years) attending public high schools. After controlling for age and type of school attended, both being in a dating relationship and being male were associated
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine energy expenditure in kilocalories (kcal during sexual activity in young healthy couples in their natural environment and compare it to a session of endurance exercise. METHODS: The study population consisted of twenty one heterosexual couples (age: 22.6 ± 2.8 years old from the Montreal region. Free living energy expenditure during sexual activity and the endurance exercise was measured using the portable mini SenseWear armband. Perceived energy expenditure, perception of effort, fatigue and pleasure were also assessed after sexual activity. All participants completed a 30 min endurance exercise session on a treadmill at a moderate intensity. RESULTS: Mean energy expenditure during sexual activity was 101 kCal or 4.2 kCal/min in men and 69.1 kCal or 3.1 kCal/min in women. In addition, mean intensity was 6.0 METS in men and 5.6 METS in women, which represents a moderate intensity. Moreover, the energy expenditure and intensity during the 30 min exercise session in men was 276 kCal or 9.2 kCal/min and 8.5 METS, respectively and in women 213 kCal or 7.1 kCal/min and 8.4 METS, respectively. Interestingly, the highest range value achieved by men for absolute energy expenditure can potentially be higher than that of the mean energy expenditure of the 30 min exercise session (i.e. 306.1 vs. 276 kCal, respectively whereas this was not observed in women. Finally, perceived energy expenditure during sexual activity was similar in men (100 kCal and in women (76.2 kCal when compared to measured energy expenditure. CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that energy expenditure during sexual activity appears to be approximately 85 kCal or 3.6 kCal/min and seems to be performed at a moderate intensity (5.8 METS in young healthy men and women. These results suggest that sexual activity may potentially be considered, at times, as a significant exercise.
Jansen Lucres MC
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy in the histories of detained adolescent females and to examine the relationship between teenage pregnancy on the one hand and mental health and sexuality related characteristics on the other. Methods Of 256 admitted detained adolescent females aged 12–18 years, a representative sample (N = 212, 83% was examined in the first month of detention. Instruments included a semi-structured interview, standardized questionnaires and file information on pregnancy, sexuality related characteristics (sexual risk behavior, multiple sex partners, sexual trauma, lack of assertiveness in sexual issues and early maturity and mental health characteristics (conduct disorder, alcohol and drug use disorder and suicidality. Results Approximately 20% of the participants reported having been pregnant (before detention, although none had actually given birth. Sexuality related characteristics were more prevalent in the pregnancy group, while this was not so for the mental health characteristics. Age at assessment, early maturity, sexual risk behavior, and suicidality turned out to be the best predictors for pregnancy. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of pregnancy in detained adolescent females is high and is associated with both sexuality related risk factors and mental health related risk factors. Therefore, prevention and intervention programs targeting sexual risk behavior and mental health are warranted during detention.
Caccamo, Alexandra; Kachur, Rachel; Williams, Samantha P
Homelessness affects an estimated 1.6 million US youth annually. Compared with housed youth, homeless youth are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sex partners, survival sex, and alcohol/drug use, putting them at increased sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk. However, there is no national estimate of STD prevalence among this population. We identified 10 peer-reviewed articles (9 unique studies) reporting STD prevalence among homeless US youth (2000-2015). Descriptive and qualitative analyses identified STD prevalence ranges and risk factors among youth. Eight studies reported specific STD prevalence estimates, mainly chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Overall STD prevalence among homeless youth ranged from 6% to 32%. STD rates for girls varied from 16.7% to 46%, and from 9% to 13.1% in boys. Most studies were conducted in the Western United States, with no studies from the Southeast or Northeast. Youths who experienced longer periods of homelessness were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Girls had lower rates of condom use and higher rates of STDs; boys were more likely to engage in anal and anonymous sex. Additionally, peer social networks contributed to protective effects on individual sexual risk behavior. Sexually transmitted disease prevalence estimates among homeless youth fluctuated greatly by study. Sexually transmitted disease risk behaviors are associated with unmet survival needs, length of homelessness, and influence of social networks. To promote sexual health and reduce STD rates, we need better estimates of STD prevalence, more geographic diversity of studies, and interventions addressing the behavioral associations identified in our review.
Dupéré, Véronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J Douglas; Leventhal, Tama; Tremblay, Richard E
This study examined how the link between neighborhood poverty and the timing of sexual initiation varies as a function of age, gender, and background characteristics. A sample of N = 2,596 predominately White Canadian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth was used. Sexual initiations occurring between 12 and 15 years old were considered. Results showed that younger adolescent females who lived in poor neighborhoods and who had a history of conduct problems were more likely to report early sexual activity. Peer characteristics partly accounted for this susceptibility. Among adolescent males, no direct neighborhood effects were found, but those who had combined risks at multiple levels appeared more vulnerable. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Olver, Mark E; Sowden, Justina N; Kingston, Drew A; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Wong, Stephen C P
The present study examined the predictive properties of Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offender version (VRS-SO) risk and change scores among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal sexual offenders in a combined sample of 1,063 Canadian federally incarcerated men. All men participated in sexual offender treatment programming through the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) at sites across its five regions. The Static-99R was also examined for comparison purposes. In total, 393 of the men were identified as Aboriginal (i.e., First Nations, Métis, Circumpolar) while 670 were non-Aboriginal and primarily White. Aboriginal men scored significantly higher on the Static-99R and VRS-SO and had higher rates of sexual and violent recidivism; however, there were no significant differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal groups on treatment change with both groups demonstrating close to a half-standard deviation of change pre and post treatment. VRS-SO risk and change scores significantly predicted sexual and violent recidivism over fixed 5- and 10-year follow-ups for both racial/ancestral groups. Cox regression survival analyses also demonstrated positive treatment changes to be significantly associated with reductions in sexual and violent recidivism among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men after controlling baseline risk. A series of follow-up Cox regression analyses demonstrated that risk and change score information accounted for much of the observed differences between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal men in rates of sexual recidivism; however, marked group differences persisted in rates of general violent recidivism even after controlling for these covariates. The results support the predictive properties of VRS-SO risk and change scores with treated Canadian Aboriginal sexual offenders.
Lundberg, Patric; Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Thorson, Anna Ekéus; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Allebeck, Peter
We investigated prevalence of past-year sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) in Uganda, and compared results to general population estimates. We also investigated whether persons with SMI reporting sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure were more likely to be HIV-infected. We included 602 persons consecutively discharged from Butabika Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, February to April 2010. We asked about past-year number of sexual partners and condom use. We assessed sexual violence with the World Health Organization Violence Against Women Instrument. We performed HIV testing. We used data from 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey for comparison. Women with SMI had more sexual risk behavior and more sexual violence exposure than women in the general population. We found no difference in sexual risk behavior in men. Sexual risk behavior was associated with HIV infection in men, but not women. Sexual violence exposure was not associated with HIV infection in women. Findings suggest that SMI exacerbates Ugandan women's sexual vulnerability. Public health practitioners, policymakers, and legislators should act to protect health and rights of women with SMI in resource-poor settings.
Kaljee, Linda M.; Green, Mackenzie; Riel, Rosemary; Lerdboon, Porntip; Tho, Le Huu; Thoa, Le Thi Kim; Minh, Truong Tan
As rates of HIV increase in Viet Nam, there is a need for data on social relations and sexual risk and protective behaviors among Vietnamese adolescents in a context of rapid social and economic changes. We report findings from our qualitative interviews with 159 Vietnamese adolescents living in Ha Noi, Nha Trang City and Ninh Hoa District and survey of 886 adolescents in these same three sites. In the qualitative interviews, youth report a strong adherence to ideals and values regarding abstinence outside of marriage. Youth reported low rates of engagement in vaginal, anal, and/or oral sex with a significant difference in reported behaviors between males (29/469, 6.2%) and females (7/416, 1.7%) [p=.000]. 15/32 (46.9%) sexually active youth reported “rarely” or “never” using condoms. Females had significantly higher scores for perceived sexual stigma than males [t=−10.22 (95% CI −3.72 to −2.52), p=.000] while males scored significantly lower than females on a scale of perceived self-efficacy for abstinence [t=5.31 (95% CI 0.27 to 0.59), p=.000]. The stigmatization of sexual relations outside of marriage particularly for young women reinforces abstinence, however these same values decrease adolescents’ abilities to obtain accurate information about sexuality and HIV/STIs, and engage in safer sex. PMID:17403496
Hartzler, Bryan; Beadnell, Blair; Calsyn, Donald A
Sexual risk is an important, oft-neglected area in addiction treatment. This report examines computerized sexual risk assessment and client feedback at intake as means of enhancing counselor awareness of client risk behavior during early treatment, as well as any clinical impact of that counselor awareness. In 2009-2011, new clients at both opiate treatment and drug-free treatment programs endorsed in a computer-assisted assessment at intake 90-day retrospective indices for: being sexually active, having multiple partners, having sex under drug influence, and inconsistently using condoms. Clients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive or not receive a personal feedback report, and those receiving a report chose if a counselor copy was also distributed. Ninety days later, retained clients (N = 79) repeated the assessment and their counselors concurrently reported perceptions of recent client risk behavior. Based on client reports, pretreatment risk behaviors were prevalent among men and women and remained so during treatment. A general linear model revealed greater counselor awareness of subsequent client risk behavior with mutual distribution of intake feedback reports to client and counselor, and at the opiate treatment program. A repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that counselor awareness did not predict change in temporally stable patterns of sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Findings document that computerized intake assessment of sexual risk and mutually distributed feedback reports prompt greater counselor awareness of clients' subsequent risk behavior. Future research is needed to determine how best to prepare counselors to use such awareness to effectively prompt risk reduction in routine care.
Negriff, Sonya; Valente, Thomas W
Maltreated youth are at risk for exposure to online sexual content and high-risk sexual behavior, yet characteristics of their online social networks have not been examined as a potential source of vulnerability. The aims of the current study were: 1) to test indicators of size (number of friends) and fragmentation (number of connections between friends) of maltreated young adults' online networks as predictors of intentional and unintentional exposure to sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior and 2) to test maltreatment as a moderator of these associations. Participants were selected from a longitudinal study on the effects of child maltreatment (n = 152; Mean age 21.84 years). Data downloaded from Facebook were used to calculate network variables of size (number of friends), density (connections between friends), average degree (average number of connections for each friend), and percent isolates (those not connected to others in the network). Self-reports of intentional and unintentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior were the outcome variables. Multiple-group path modeling showed that only for the maltreated group having a higher percent of isolates in the network predicted intentional exposure to online sexual content and offline high-risk sexual behavior. An implication of this finding is that the composition of the Facebook network may be used as a risk indicator for individuals with child-welfare documented maltreatment experiences. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Restrepo Martínez, Miguel; Trujillo Numa, Laura; Restrepo Bernal, Diana; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Sierra, Gloria
In Colombia, one out of five women between the ages of 15 and 19 years have been pregnant. Almost two-thirds (64%) of these pregnancies were unplanned. To examine the socio-demographic, psychosocial and clinical risk factors associated with adolescent pregnancy. An analytical prevalence study was performed using secondary data from the First Demographic Study of Mental Health in Medellin, Colombia. Female adolescents between 13 and 19 years of age were included in the study. The population was evaluated using the Composite International Diagnosis Interview, a structured interview developed by the World Health Organization, which establishes diagnoses according to the DSM-IV and ICD-10 criteria. A sample of 499 female adolescents was obtained, in which 135 adolescent pregnancies were identified, representing a prevalence of 21.5%. The large majority (84.4%) were between 16 and 19 years old. The median age was 17 years, with an interquartile range of 2 years. Almost two-thirds (61.2%) of female adolescents had initiated sexual activity at the age of 15 or later. Almost one-third (31.9%) reported being physically abused during childhood, and 6.7% sexually abused. Of those who were pregnant, 66.7% reported previous sexual abuse. A bivariate analysis showed that sexual abuse (OR=7.68), childhood negligence (OR=4.33), and having a partner (OR=6.31) were factors associated with an adolescent pregnancy. Negligence and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence can be prevented, and adolescent pregnancies can be decreased. This finding has important implications for clinical management and prognosis, and requires public preventive policies. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Dangerfield, Derek T; Ober, Allison J; Smith, Laramie R; Shoptaw, Steven; Bluthenthal, Ricky N
Estimates show a 50% lifetime human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) in the United States(U.S.). Studying the dynamics of sexual positioning practices among BMSM could provide insights into the disparities observed among U.S. groups of men who have sex with men (MSM). This study explored sexual positioning dynamics among HIV-negative BMSM and how they aligned with a theoretical model of sexual positioning and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among MSM. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 29 HIV-negative BMSM between ages 25 and 35 in Los Angeles. Comments related to sexual behaviors were reviewed for relevance regarding oral or anal sexual positioning practices. Data presented represent the range of themes related to decision making regarding sexual positioning. Personal preference, partner attraction, HIV avoidance, and feeling obligated to practice partner preferences influenced sexual positioning. Drug use also affected decision making and was sometimes preferred in order to practice receptive anal intercourse. These variables build on the conceptual model of sexual positioning practices and sexual risk, and add understanding to the relationship between preferences, practices, and risk management. Future research on risk among HIV-negative BMSM should quantify the relative impact of personal preferences, partner attraction, partner type, compromise, and substance use on sexual positioning practices and risk.
This study examined the impact of hate crimes upon gay and lesbian victims, reviewing 1538 hate crimes committed in Los Angeles County. Differences between sexual orientation and other hate crime categories were considered for offense severity, reportage to law enforcement, and victim impact. The type of offense varied between crimes classified for sexual orientation (n=551) and other bias-motivated crimes (n=987). Assault, sexual assault, sexual harassment, and stalking were predictive of sexual orientation hate crimes. Sexual orientation bias crimes evidenced greater severity of violence to the person and impact upon victim level of functioning. More violent forms of aggression were predictive of gay and lesbian victim's underreportage to law enforcement. For sexual orientation offenses, victim gender and race/ethnicity differences were predictive of the base rates of crime reportage as well. These findings are considered in terms of a group-risk hypothesis, encountered by multiple outgroup persons, that influences help-seeking behavior and ingroup identity.
Sexual Identity, Sex of Sexual Contacts, and Health-Risk Behaviors among Students in Grades 9-12--Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance, Selected Sites, United States, 2001-2009. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Early Release. Volume 60
Kann, Laura; O'Malley Olsen, Emily; McManus, Tim; Kinchen, Steve; Chyen, David; Harris, William A.; Wechsler, Howell
Problem: Sexual minority youths are youths who identify themselves as gay or lesbian, bisexual, or unsure of their sexual identity or youths who have only had sexual contact with persons of the same sex or with both sexes. Population-based data on the health-risk behaviors practiced by sexual minority youths are needed at the state and local…
Martin Rettenberger; Reinhard Eher
This study is part of a prospective, longitudinal research project to evaluate the reliability and validity of different recidivism risk assessment methods for sexual offenders under community supervision for scientific and practical use in the German-speaking part of Europe. In this paper we present the German adaptation of the Sexual Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG), a specific risk assessment tool for sexual offenders that was developed and published in 1998 in Canada. We examined int...
Cale, Jesse; Smallbone, Stephen; Rayment-McHugh, Sue; Dowling, Chris
The current study examines offending trajectories of adolescent sexual offenders (ASOs). Until recently, classification frameworks have not been designed to account for the heterogeneity of offending patterns in adolescence, how these are associated with the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity, and whether and to what extent they are related to the characteristics of sex offenses in adolescence. The current study takes a longitudinal view of offending in adolescence by examining retrospective longitudinal data of 217 ASOs referred for treatment to a clinical service between 2001 and 2009 in Australia. General offending trajectories in adolescence were examined using semi-parametric group-based modeling, and compared according to non-violent non-sexual, violent-non-sexual, and sex offending criminal activity parameters (e.g., participation, onset, frequency, specialization/versatility) and the characteristics of the referral sexual offense. The results show distinct differences in the unfolding of sexual and non-sexual criminal activity along different offending trajectories of ASOs, and further, that these trajectories were differentially associated with the characteristics of the sexual offenses they committed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Izugbara, Chimaraoke Otutubikey; Nwabuawele Modo, Felicia
Drawing on interview data from rural Nigeria, the article explores male youth perceptions of the risks and benefits of multiple sexual partnerships. Participants associated having multiple sexual partners with several harmful health and nonhealth outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections, and frequently confirmed that the practice also bolsters their sense of maleness and boosts their acceptance and ranking among peers. Young males' involvement in multiple sexual partnerships should not be seen as always consequent on their ignorance of and/or indifference to the risks inherent in the behavior. It could also result from the integrality of the behavior to the social processes through which male youths validate their masculinity, mark their transition from boyhood to malehood, and configure their identities to gain acceptance into a local male peer community. Sexuality education curricula that ignore adolescents' understandings of the benefits of their sexual practices may not deliver expected objectives.
Jones, Sande Gracia; Patsdaughter, Carol A.; Martinez Cardenas, Vicente Manuel
Although all sexually active persons may be at potential risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), there is a common misperception that older heterosexual adults are not at risk (Smith & Christakis, 2009). HIV is a continuing concern in persons ages 50 and older (Goodroad, 2003; Savasta, 2004). Therefore, research with this population is warranted. However, little literature addresses the recruitment of middle aged and older heterosexual men, particularly minority men, into...
Broughman, James R; Basak, Ramsankar; Nielsen, Matthew E; Reeve, Bryce B; Usinger, Deborah S; Spearman, Kiayni C; Godley, Paul A; Chen, Ronald C
Men with early-stage prostate cancer have multiple options that have similar oncologic efficacy but vary in terms of their impact on quality of life. In low-risk cancer, active surveillance is the option that best preserves patients' sexual function, but it is unknown if patient preference affects treatment selection. Our objectives were to identify patient characteristics associated with a strong preference to preserve sexual function and to determine whether patient preference and baseline sexual function level are associated with receipt of active surveillance in low-risk cancer. In this population-based cohort of men with localized prostate cancer, baseline patient-reported sexual function was assessed using a validated instrument. Patients were also asked whether preservation of sexual function was very, somewhat, or not important. Prostate cancer disease characteristics and treatments received were abstracted from medical records. A modified Poisson regression model with robust standard errors was used to compute adjusted risk ratio (aRR) estimates. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among 1194 men, 52.6% indicated a strong preference for preserving sexual function. Older men were less likely to have a strong preference (aRR = 0.98 per year, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97 to 0.99), while men with normal sexual function were more likely (vs poor function, aRR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.39 to 1.82). Among 568 men with low-risk cancer, there was no clear association between baseline sexual function or strong preference to preserve function with receipt of active surveillance. However, strong preference may differnetially impact those with intermediate baseline function vs poor function (Pinteraction = .02). Treatment choice may not always align with patients' preferences. These findings demonstrate opportunities to improve delivery of patient-centered care in early prostate cancer.
Majer, John M; Rodriguez, Jaclyn; Bloomer, Craig; Jason, Leonard A
Lifetime histories of sexual and physical abuse have been associated with increased HIV-risk sexual behavior, and some studies have identified other variables associated with these relationships. However, there is a dearth of literature that has critically examined abuse histories and HIV-risk sexual behavior in relation to these other variables. Predictors of HIV-risk sexual behavior were analyzed among a sample of ex-offenders who were completing inpatient substance dependence treatment to identify factors related to increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond that of abuse histories. Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine sociodemographic characteristics, recent substance use, and current psychiatric problem severity in addition to lifetime histories of sexual/physical abuse in a cross-sectional design. Gender, substance use, and psychiatric problem severity predicted increases in HIV-risk sexual behavior beyond what was predicted by abuse histories. Proportionately more women than men reported abuse histories. In addition, significantly more unprotected sexual than safer sexual practices were observed, but differences in these practices based on lifetime abuse histories and gender were not significant. Findings suggest recent substance use and current psychiatric problem severity are greater risk factors for HIV-risk sexual behavior than lifetime abuse histories among persons who have substance use disorders.
Comfort, Megan; Reznick, Olga Grinstead; Dilworth, Samantha E; Binson, Diane; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B
The massively disproportionate impact of America's prison boom on communities of color has raised questions about how incarceration may affect health disparities, including disparities in HIV. Primary partners are an important source of influence on sexual health. In this paper, we investigate sexual HIV risk among male-female couples following a man's release from prison. We draw upon data from the Relate Project, a novel cross-sectional survey of recently released men and their female partners in Oakland and San Francisco, California (N=344). Inferential analyses use the actor-partner model to explore actor and partner effects on sexual HIV risk outcomes. Dyadic analyses of sexual HIV risk among male parolees and their female partners paint a complex portrait of couples affected by incarceration and of partners' influences on each other. Findings indicate that demographic factors such as education level and employment status, individual psycho-social factors such as perception of risk, and relationship factors such as commitment and power affect sexual HIV risk outcomes. The Relate Project provides a novel dataset for the dyadic analysis of sexual risk among male parolees and their female partners, and results highlight the importance of focusing on the couple as a unit when assessing HIV risk and protective behaviors. Results also indicate potentially fruitful avenues for population-specific interventions that may help to reduce sexual health disparities among couples affected by incarceration.
Cox, Mary Foster; Fasolino, Tracy K; Tavakoli, Abbas S
Sexual risk behavior is a public health problem among adolescents living at or below poverty level. Approximately 1 million pregnancies and 3 million cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are reported yearly. Parenting plays a significant role in adolescent behavior, with mother-adolescent sexual communication correlated with absent or delayed sexual behavior. This study developed an instrument examining constructs of mother-adolescent communication, the Mother-Adolescent Sexual Communication (MASC) instrument. A convenience sample of 99 mothers of middle school children completed the self-administered questionnaires. The original 34-item MASC was reduced to 18 items. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on the 18-item scale, which resulted in four factors explaining 84.63% of the total variance. Internal consistency analysis produced Cronbach alpha coefficients of .87, .90, .82, and .71 for the four factors, respectively. Convergent validity via hypothesis testing was supported by significant correlations with several subscales of the Parent-Child Relationship Questionnaire (PCRQ) with MASC factors, that is, content and style factors with warmth, personal relationships and disciplinary warmth subscales of the PCRQ, the context factor with personal relationships, and the timing factor with warmth. In light of these findings, the psychometric characteristics and multidimensional perspective of the MASC instrument show evidence of usefulness for measuring and advancing knowledge of mother and adolescent sexual communication techniques.
Laios, K; Tsoucalas, G; Kontaxaki, Μ-Ι; Karamanou, Μ; Sgantzos, Μ; Androutsos, G
The ancient Greek physicians have not failed in their studies to indicate the beneficial role of sexual activity in human health. They acknowledged that sex helps to maintain mental balance. Very interesting is their observation that sex may help mental patients to recover. Nevertheless they stressed emphatically that sex is beneficial only when there is a measure in it, so they believed that sexual abstinence or excessive sexual activity affect negatively the mental and physical health of man. Ancient Greek physicians reached this conclusion by empirical observation. They tried to justify the mental imbalance, as the potential physical problems, which probably will be listed today in the psychosomatic manifestations, of people with long-term sexual abstinence or hyperactivity, based on the theory of humors which was the main methodological tool of ancient Greek medicine. Their fundamental idea was that the four humors of the body (blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile) should be in balance. Therefore they believed that the loss and the exchange of bodily fluids during sex help body's humors to maintain their equilibrium which in turn will form the basis for the physical and mental health. Although in ancient medical texts the irrationality presented by people in the aforementioned conditions was not attributed in any of the major mental illnesses recognized in antiquity, as mania, melancholy and phrenitis, our belief is that their behavior is more suited to the characteristics of melancholy, while according to modern medicine it should be classified in the depressive disorders. We have come to this conclusion, because common characteristics of people who either did not have sexual life or was overactive, was sadness, lack of interest and hope, as well as paranoid thinking that can reach up to suicide. Regarding the psychosomatic problems, which could occur in these people, they were determined by the ancient Greek physicians in the following; continuous headaches
Hill, Danielle C; Stein, L A R; Rossi, Joseph S; Magill, Molly; Clarke, Jennifer G
Rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents are on the rise. The majority of adolescents who contract STIs do so through risky sexual behavior. Previous literature has identified multiple correlates of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents, including physical and sexual victimization, mental health concerns, and substance use. Few studies, however, have examined these relationships together in a comprehensive model. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether relationship violence was related to risky sexual behavior, and whether mental health symptoms and substance use mediated this relationship. A cross-sectional design was used, and adolescent females (N = 179), recruited from social service agencies, were 18.9 years old on average and were 37.2% White, 19.3% Black, 37.9% multiracial, and 5.6% other. Regression results revealed that females who were physically assaulted and sexually victimized by their intimate partners did engage in more sex without condoms. Mediational analyses indicated that PTSD symptoms significantly influenced the relationship between (1) physical assault and risky sexual behavior and (2) sexual victimization and risky sexual behavior. Contrary to expectations, PTSD may act to reduce risk perhaps by reducing interest in sex. It is important to address victimization, PTSD, and sexual risk in young women. More work is needed to understand these complex relationships using longitudinal designs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Romo, Dina L; Garnett, Chelsea; Younger, Alayna P; Stockwell, Melissa S; Soren, Karen; Catallozzi, Marina; Neu, Natalie
In this study we assessed the association between social media (SM) use with sexual risk, and with parental monitoring among Hispanic adolescents. Self-administered anonymous survey. Urban primary care clinics. Primarily Hispanic adolescents ages 13-21 years old. Chi-square and regression analyses controlling for age and gender were used to assess associations between SM use or sexting and sexual behaviors (kissing, touching genitals, vaginal oral, and anal sex), sexual risk (≥4 lifetime partners, >1 recent partner, inconsistent condom use, and history of sexually transmitted infection diagnosis) and contraceptive use. Similar analyses were used to assess relationships between adolescent-reported parental monitoring and SM use, and sexting. Participants with frequent SM use (social networking sites or apps) had greater odds of all sexual activity. Ever sexters had greater odds of penetrative sex only (oral, vaginal, and anal sex) as well as use of hormonal contraception (except long-acting reversible contraception). Approximately half of the participants reported parental access to profiles on SM. Female participants had higher odds of parental access to online profiles and having a parental discussion of privacy settings. Those having privacy discussions had greater odds of "private" profiles on SM and lower odds of ever sexting. Frequent SM use and sexting was associated with an increase in all types of sexual behaviors; sexting alone was associated with more lifetime and recent sexual partners. Parental discussion of privacy settings was found to be protective. Providers and parents should be aware of the effect of SM use on sexual behaviors. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hevesi, Krisztina; Mészáros, Veronika; Kövi, Zsuzsanna; Márki, Gabriella; Szabó, Marianna
The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is a widely used measurement tool to assess female sexual function along the six dimensions of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. However, the structure of the questionnaire is not clear, and several studies have found high correlations among the dimensions, indicating that a common underlying "sexual function" factor might be present. To investigate whether female sexual function is best understood as a multidimensional construct or, alternatively, whether a common underlying factor explains most of the variance in FSFI scores, and to investigate the possible effect of the common practice of including sexually inactive women in studies using the FSFI. The sample consisted of 508 women: 202 university students, 177 patients with endometriosis, and 129 patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. Participants completed the FSFI, and confirmatory factor analyses were used to test the underlying structure of this instrument in the total sample and in samples including sexually active women only. The FSFI is a multidimensional self-report questionnaire composed of 19 items. Strong positive correlations were found among five of the six original factors on the FSFI. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that in the total sample items loaded mainly on the general sexual function factor and very little variance was explained by the specific factors. However, when only sexually active women were included in the analyses, a clear factor structure emerged, with items loading on their six specific factors, and most of the variance in FSFI scores was explained by the specific factors, rather than the general factor. University students reported higher scores, indicating better functioning compared with the patient samples. The reliable and valid assessment of female sexual function can contribute to better understanding, prevention, and treatment of different sexual difficulties and dysfunctions. This study provides a
Dir, Allyson L; Riley, Elizabeth N; Cyders, Melissa A; Smith, Gregory T
Sexual assault is a major public health concern and college women are four times more likely to experience sexual assault than any other group. We investigated whether sexting is a mechanism by which alcohol use increases risk for college women to be targeted for sexual assault. We hypothesized that sexting would mediate the relationship between problem drinking and sexual assault, such that drinking (T1 = beginning fall semester) would contribute to increased sexting (T2 = end fall semester), and in turn increase the risk of being targeted for sexual assault (T3 = end spring semester). Among 332 undergraduate women (M(SD)age = 19.15(1.69), 76.9% Caucasian), sexting (T2) predicted sexual assault (T3; b = 3.98, p = .05), controlling for baseline sexual assault (b = 0.82, p sexting (T2) mediated the relationship between problem drinking (T1) and sexual assault (T3) (b = 0.04, CI[.004,.12]). Findings suggest that sexting is one mechanism through which drinking increases the risk of college women being targeted for sexual assault.
Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication. PMID:27710089
Broaddus, Michelle; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Qualitative and quantitative research was used to create the Uses of Texting in Sexual Relationships scale. At-risk, predominantly African American emerging adults participated in qualitative interviews (N = 20) and quantitative surveys (N = 110) about their uses of text messaging within romantic and sexual relationships. Exploratory factor analysis of items generated from interviews resulted in four subscales: Sexting, Relationship Maintenance, Relationship Development, and Texting for Sexual Safety. Exploratory analyses indicated associations of Sexting with more instances of condomless sex, and Texting for Sexual Safety with fewer instances of condomless sex, which was moderated by relationship power. Further research on the connections between text messaging in relationships and sexual behavior among high-risk and minority young adults is warranted, and intervention efforts to decrease sexual risks need to incorporate these avenues of sexual communication.
McFarland, Willi; Wilson, Erin C; Raymond, Henry F
We surveyed 122 trans men using a hybrid sampling method that included randomly selected physical and online venues and peer referral to measure HIV prevalence and risk behaviors. HIV prevalence was 0% (one-sided 97.5% confidence interval 0-3.3%). Of 366 partnerships described, 44.8% were with cisgender women, 23.8% with cisgender men, 20.8% with trans men, and 10.7% with trans women. Condomless receptive anal and front hole/vaginal sex averaged one to three episodes per six months. HIV prevalence in trans men is likely closer to heterosexual cisgender men and women in San Francisco than trans women or MSM. Prevention prioritizing trans women and MSM, coupled with individualized and relevant sexual health education for trans men with partners from these populations, may best address the HIV prevention needs of trans men. Systematic collection of transgender status in Census and health data is needed to understand other health disparities among trans men.
Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S.
Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters’ abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter’s HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks. PMID:22677973
Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S
Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.
Ehrhardt, Britt L.; Krumboltz, John D.; Koopman, Cheryl
Peer sexual health education programs are widespread on college campuses, but little research has assessed the effect of these programs on the peer educators. This study employed a repeated measures design to examine changes over the academic quarter in the knowledge, counseling self-efficacy, and sexual behavior of 70 college students enrolled in…
Dembo, Richard; Briones-Robinson, Rhissa; Wareham, Jennifer; Winters, Ken C.; Ungaro, Rocío; Karas, Lora
Truant youths are likely to engage in a number of problem behaviors, including sexual risky behaviors. As part of a National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-funded, prospective intervention project, a sample of truant youths' sexual risk behavior was tracked over five time points. Analyses of the data was informed by four objectives: (a) determine…
Walsh, Kate; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
The present study examined whether and which facets of emotion dysregulation serve an intervening role in the association between prior victimization and risk perception in an analogue sexual assault vignette. Participants were 714 university women who completed self-report measures of sexual victimization, emotion dysregulation, and a…
Baumgartner, S.; Sumter, S.; Valkenburg, P.; Peter, J.
The aim of this study was to investigate developmental pathways of online sexual risk behavior from early to late adolescence. Moreover, this study examined how these trajectories are related to negative online experiences, such as online sexual solicitation, online harassment, and online
A cross-sectional study design was used to assess sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices among students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia, in 2009. Among 1 220 students eligible for the study, approximately 29% reported experience of sex (36.3% of the males and 9.3% of the females). Of the total sexually ...
Hill, Andreas; Rettenberger, Martin; Habermann, Niels; Berner, Wolfgang; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer
To examine the predictive accuracy of four well established risk assessment instruments (PCL-R, HCR-20, SVR-20, and Static-99) in an important subgroup of sexual offenders, these instruments were assessed retrospectively based on information from forensic psychiatric court reports in a sample of 90 released male sexual homicide offenders (out of…
Claude A Mellins
Full Text Available Sexual assault on college campuses is a public health issue. However varying research methodologies (e.g., different sexual assault definitions, measures, assessment timeframes and low response rates hamper efforts to define the scope of the problem. To illuminate the complexity of campus sexual assault, we collected survey data from a large population-based random sample of undergraduate students from Columbia University and Barnard College in New York City, using evidence based methods to maximize response rates and sample representativeness, and behaviorally specific measures of sexual assault to accurately capture victimization rates. This paper focuses on student experiences of different types of sexual assault victimization, as well as sociodemographic, social, and risk environment correlates. Descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to estimate prevalences and test associations. Since college entry, 22% of students reported experiencing at least one incident of sexual assault (defined as sexualized touching, attempted penetration [oral, anal, vaginal, other], or completed penetration. Women and gender nonconforming students reported the highest rates (28% and 38%, respectively, although men also reported sexual assault (12.5%. Across types of assault and gender groups, incapacitation due to alcohol and drug use and/or other factors was the perpetration method reported most frequently (> 50%; physical force (particularly for completed penetration in women and verbal coercion were also commonly reported. Factors associated with increased risk for sexual assault included non-heterosexual identity, difficulty paying for basic necessities, fraternity/sorority membership, participation in more casual sexual encounters ("hook ups" vs. exclusive/monogamous or no sexual relationships, binge drinking, and experiencing sexual assault before college. High rates of re-victimization during college were reported across
Thomas, Holly N; Hess, Rachel; Thurston, Rebecca C
Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life for women across their lifespan. Prior studies show a decline in sexual activity with age, but these studies often fail to consider the role of sexual satisfaction. The aim of this study is to give updated prevalence estimates of sexual activity among women and to elucidate factors associated with sexual activity and sexual satisfaction. We report a cross-sectional analysis of the second wave of a nationally representative sample of US adults aged 28 to 84 years, the Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. The survey used self-administered questionnaires to assess demographic data, self-rated physical and mental health, medical problems and medication use, relationship factors, and sexual activity and satisfaction. Of 2,116 women who answered the questions regarding sexuality, 1,345 (61.8%) women were sexually active in the previous 6 months. The proportion of women who were sexually active decreased with advancing age. Women who were married or cohabitating had approximately 8 times higher odds of being sexually active (odds ratio = 7.91, 95% CI, 4.16-15.04; P aged 60 years and older who were married or cohabitating, most (59.0%) were sexually active. Among women who were sexually active, higher relationship satisfaction (P sexual satisfaction, but age was not (P = .79). A considerable proportion of midlife and older women remain sexually active if they have a partner available. Psychosocial factors (relationship satisfaction, communication with romantic partner, and importance of sex) matter more to sexual satisfaction than aging among midlife and older women. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Xue, Feng; Droutman, Vita; Barkley-Levenson, Emily E; Smith, Benjamin J; Xue, Gui; Miller, Lynn C; Bechara, Antoine; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Read, Stephen J
The insula plays an important role in response inhibition. Most relevant here, it has been proposed that the dorsal anterior insular cortex (dAIC) plays a central role in a salience network that is responsible for switching between the default mode network and the executive control network. However, the insula's role in sexually motivated response inhibition has not yet been studied. In this study, eighty-five 18- to 30-year-old sexually active men who have sex with men (MSM) performed an erotic Go/NoGo task while in an MRI scanner. Participants' real-world sexual risk-taking (frequency of condomless anal intercourse over the past 90 days) was then correlated with their neural activity during the task. We found greater activity in bilateral anterior insular cortex (both dorsal and ventral) on contrasts with stronger motivational information (attractive naked male pictures versus pictures of clothed, middle-aged females) and on contrasts requiring greater response inhibition (NoGo versus Go). We also found that activity in the right dAIC was negatively correlated with participants' real-world sexual risk-taking. Our results confirmed the involvement of the insular cortex in motivated response inhibition. Especially, the decreased right dAIC activity may reduce the likelihood that the executive control network will come online when individuals are faced with situations requiring inhibitory control and thus lead them to make more risky choices. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: Low contraceptive use amongst unmarried sexually active young men and women presents an ethical dilemma in Indonesia, particularly in realising reproductive rights as a fundamental human right. This study aims to address the difficulties in extending access to family planning for unmarried sexually active youths. Methods: A review of the laws relating to the provision of family planning was combined with a secondary data analysis of the 2012 Indonesian Demographic Health Survey throughout 6 provinces on the island of Java. The sample population included 5,150 unmarried adolescents, aged 15 to 24 years. The 2012 Indonesian Demographic Health Survey was the first and only survey that included unmarried young women in Indonesia. The association between subjects who had 'ever had sex' and three groups of predictors (demographic characteristics, peer influences, and knowledge of contraceptive methods were examined using multivariate logistic regressions. Results:Results of the study found that subjects who were unmarried but had engaged in sexual activity were more likely to be those aged 19 to 21 years (OR = 2.36 and 22 to 24 years (OR = 6.81, of low education status (OR = 2.1, with a boyfriend or girlfriend (OR = 2.38, and those who approved of pre-marital sex (OR = 8.5. Conclusions: Results from this research suggest that new interpretations of the Law 52/2009 regarding family planning and Law 36/2009 that prohibits health services to unmarried sexually active youths are required in order to address the issues faced by Indonesia's youth
Sant'Anna, Maria José Carvalho; Catunda, Júlia Kerr; Carvalho, Kepler Alencar Mendes; Coates, Veronica; Omar, Hatim A.
Pregnancy during adolescence represents a challenge to society as a whole. Its incidence is increasing and brings about social and medical consequences to both the teen mothers and their children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnant teenager involvement in sexual activity and the social context. The group studied comprised 152 pregnant teenagers attending the Department of Pediatrics, Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (SCSP) General Hospital. All information was analyzed. The age at firs...
Kimura, Masaki; Shimura, Satoru; Tai, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Baba, Shiro; Kano, Munehide; Nagao, Koichi
Erection hardness is an elemental component of men's sexual quality of life that can be easily measured by the Erection Hardness Score (EHS). However, there are few published data regarding EHS, and there is little understanding of its relationships to aging, men's sexual behavior, sexual confidence, and risk factors in Japan. To assess EHS and how it correlates to aging, sexual behaviors, sexual self-confidence, and risk factors in a Japanese population database. A web-based cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between March and May 2009 in Japan. EHS, lifestyle factors, comorbidities, general health, sexual confidence, frequency of sexual behaviors, and attitudes toward treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED). A total of 7,710 men with a mean age of 39.3 ± 13.0 years participated in this survey. In 6,528 participants who were not using phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, 3,540 (54.2%) had EHS ≤ 3 and 1,196 (18.3%) had EHS ≤ 2. We found a significant age-dependent decrease in EHS, sexual confidence, and frequency of sexual activities. Sexual confidence was strongly associated with higher EHS but was also associated with older age groups, presence of offspring, awareness of better general health, and greater frequency of sexual activity. In age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression, risk factors for a lower EHS (defined as EHS ≤ 2) were heavy smoking, which was defined as more than two packs per day (odds ratio [OR], 1.7) or a history of metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.4), hypertension (OR, 1.2), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.4). EHS correlates to various elements, such as aging, sexual behaviors, sexual confidence, and ED-related risk factors, and can be a valuable tool in clinical practice for monitoring and treating ED and thereby improving the quality of life for men and their sexual partners. Kimura M, Shimura S, Tai T, Kobayashi H, Baba S, Kano M, and Nagao K. A web-based survey of Erection Hardness Score and its relationship to aging, sexual
Folch, C; Munoz, R; Zaragoza, K; Casabona, J
To evaluate the prevalence of sexual risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Catalonia and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual partners a convenience sample of 850 MSM was recruited in 2006. An anonymous questionnaire was used to explore risk behaviours during the previous 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to examine the variables associated with UAI. Mean age was 41 years and 20.4% were immigrants. Among those with casual partners (91.7% of all respondents), 31.4% had UAI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the likelihood of UAI was higher in men who were HIV-positive (OR: 1.77), used more than four drugs before sex (OR: 4.90 for +6), were not from Spain (OR: 2.10 for Latin American; OR: 1.86 for other immigrants), had more than 20 sexual partners (OR: 1.56), met casual sex partners on the Internet (OR:1.45) and presented a high level of internalised homophobia (OR: 2.40). HIV/STI prevention programmes for MSM in Catalonia should incorporate activities that strengthen self-esteem, take into account the impact of internalised homophobia, and adapt to the sociocultural reality of immigrants. Furthermore, these programmes should also address substance abuse and alert HIV-positive men about the risk of HIV re-infection and transmission of other STI.
Donoghue, Christopher; Bonillas, Consuelo; Moreno, Jeniffer; Cardoza, Omara; Cheung, Melissa
Sexual and reproductive health indicators for young people in the USA have improved in recent decades, but teenage pregnancies remain high, and large differences between Whites and non-Whites persist in teenage births, abortions, and the acquisition of sexually transmitted infections. Prior research shows that young people are receptive to…
AJRH Managing Editor
1Demography and Population Studies Programme, Schools of Public Health and Social Sciences, ... This study examined sexual practices in a Nigerian University community with a view to .... sexual relationships with men in exchange for ... In the case of sampling process, the number of .... sponsored by their parents.
Alcohol and marijuana ('dagga') were most commonly used amongst those respondents taking substances before sexual intercourse, and these were used predominantly in coerced and forced sexual intercourse. Opsomming. Die studie was 'n kwantitatiewe, deursnee-opname wat onder jongmense in vier dorpies in die ...
Social Desirability Bias and Prevalence of Sexual HIV Risk Behaviors Among People Who Use Drugs in Baltimore, Maryland: Implications for Identifying Individuals Prone to Underreporting Sexual Risk Behaviors.
Rao, Amrita; Tobin, Karin; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa; Latkin, Carl A
The role of social desirability bias (SDB) in self-reported HIV risk behaviors continues to be problematic. This study examined whether SDB was associated with self-reported, via audio computer assisted self-interviewing, sexual risk behaviors among people who use drugs. The present study was conducted among 559 participants who reported having a recent sexual partner at their 6-month visit of a longitudinal study. Robust Poisson regression was used to model the association between SDB and five risk behaviors. Analyses were stratified by gender and partner type. Higher scores of SDB were associated with decreased reporting of selling sex and having more than one sexual partner. Higher SDB scores were associated with increased reporting of always using condoms during oral, vaginal, and anal sex. Gender-specific differences were observed. The inclusion of a measure of SDB in data collection, along with other strategies, can be used to both identify and reduce self-report biases.
Killinger, Kim A; Boura, Judith A; Diokno, Ananias C
Sexuality is an important, yet often overlooked, aspect of successful aging. The current article explores potential relationships between sexual activity in older adults and marital status, health, mobility, urinary incontinence, and caffeine and alcohol use, as well as sexual desire and erectile function in women and men, respectively. A survey was mailed to community-dwelling older adults 60 and older. Of 242 respondents (79% ages 60 to 74, 53% male), 159 (65.7%) were sexually active. A higher proportion of sexually active adults were married (p = 0.0005), had better health (p = 0.0003), and drank alcohol (p = 0.007). A lower proportion of sexually active adults had urinary incontinence (p = 0.006). Similar proportions of men and women were sexually active (62.8% and 68.2%, respectively; p = 0.38). Sexually active women had better sexual desire scores (p Sexually active men had better mobility (p = 0.012) and erectile function (p sexually active men had incontinence (p sexual health in older adults. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Demoulin, Baptiste; Capitant, Catherine; Lorente, Nicolas; Préau, Marie; Mora, Marion; Rojas Castro, Daniela; Chidiac, Christian; Chas, Julie; Meyer, Laurence; Molina, Jean-Michel; Spire, Bruno
The double-blind phase of the randomized ANRS IPERGAY trial, evaluating sexual activity-based oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), was conducted among high-risk men who have sex with men (MSM). Results showed an 86% (95% CI: 40-98) relative reduction in HIV incidence among participants with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine vs. placebo. The present pooled analysis aimed to analyze (i) participants' adherence to the prescribed treatment and/or condom use during sexual intercourse and (ii) sexual behavior during the double-blind phase of the study. Four hundred MSM were enrolled in the trial. Every 2 months they completed online questionnaires collecting sexual behavior and PrEP adherence data regarding their most recent sexual intercourse. A total of 2232 questionnaires (M0-M24) were analyzed. Changes over time were evaluated using a mixed model accounting for multiple measures. Irrespective of sexual partner and practice type, on average, 42.6% (min: 32.1-max: 45.8%) reported PrEP use only during their most recent episode of sexual intercourse; 29% (22.9-35.6%) reported both PrEP and condom use; 11.7% (7.2-18.9%) reported condom-use only, and 16.7% (10.8-29.6%) reported no PrEP or condom use with no significant change during the study. Scheduled (i.e., correct) PrEP use was reported on average by 59.0% (47.2-68.5%) of those reporting PrEP use during their most recent sexual intercourse. Overall, 70.3% (65.3-79.4%) and 69.3% (58.3-75.4%) of participants reported, respectively, condomless anal and condomless receptive anal intercourse during their most recent sexual encounter without significant change during follow-up. Overall, on average 83.3% (min: 70.4-max: 89.2%) of participants protected themselves by PrEP intake or condom use or both during the trial, and no increase in at-risk sexual practices was observed. None of these indicators showed significant trend during the follow-up, although we found a tendency toward decrease (p = .19) of the
Millheiser, Leah S; Helmer, Amy E; Quintero, Rodolfo B; Westphal, Lynn M; Milki, Amin A; Lathi, Ruth B
To determine the impact of infertility on female sexual function. A case-control study. Academic infertility and gynecology practices. One hundred nineteen women with infertility and 99 healthy female controls without infertility between the ages of 18 and 45 years were included in this study. Anonymous survey and Female Sexual Function Index. Female Sexual Function Index scores, frequency of sexual intercourse and masturbation, and sex-life satisfaction. Twenty-five percent of our control group had Female Sexual Function Index scores that put them at risk for sexual dysfunction (masturbation. The patients with infertility retrospectively reported a sex-life satisfaction score that was similar to that of the controls before their diagnosis, whereas their current sex-life satisfaction scores were significantly lower than those of the controls. Women with a diagnosis of infertility were found to be at higher risk for sexual dysfunction on the basis of their Female Sexual Function Index scores compared with women without infertility. The interaction of sexual function and infertility is complex and deserves further study. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Dino Roberto Soares De Lorenzi
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores relacionados à freqüência da atividade sexual entre mulheres pós-menopáusicas. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de 206 mulheres pós-menopáusicas entre 45 e 60 anos atendidas em um serviço universitário da região Sul do Brasil entre junho e outubro de 2002. A atividade sexual foi avaliada pelo número de relações sexuais no último mês e a sintomatologia climatérica pelo Índice de Kupperman. Na análise estatística, fez-se regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Das mulheres pesquisadas, 176 (85% eram sexualmente ativas. Cerca de 60,6% relataram diminuição da atividade sexual após a menopausa, o que atribuíram principalmente à impotência sexual do parceiro (41,7%. Aproximadamente 25,7% negaram satisfação com o intercurso sexual. Na análise por regressão linear múltipla, associaram-se à atividade sexual a idade (pOBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to the frequency of sexual activity of postmenopausal women METHODS: A cross-section study of 206 postmenopausal women between 45 and 60 years of age was made at a university health care service in the South of Brazil between June and October 2002. Evaluations were made of sexual activity according to the number of sexual intercourses in the previous month and the climacteric symptoms using the Kupperman index. Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression analysis. RESULTS: Of those surveyed 176 (85% women were sexually active. Although 60.6% reported a decrease in sexual activity after menopause, mostly attributing it to the husband's sexual impotence (41.7%. Approximately 25.7% stated they had no satisfaction with sexual intercourse. By means of multiple linear regression analysis the following aspects were associated to sexual activity: age (p<0.1, degree of sexual satisfaction (p=0.01, and climacteric symptomatology (p=0.02. As age increased the climacteric symptoms were more intense and sexual activity was less
Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia
To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior.
Gartrell, Nanette K; Bos, Henny M W; Goldberg, Naomi G
This study assessed Kinsey self-ratings and lifetime sexual experiences of 17-year-olds whose lesbian mothers enrolled before these offspring were born in the longest-running, prospective study of same-sex parented families, with a 93% retention rate to date. Data for the current report were gathered through online questionnaires completed by 78 adolescent offspring (39 girls and 39 boys). The adolescents were asked if they had ever been abused and, if so, to specify by whom and the type of abuse (verbal, emotional, physical, or sexual). They were also asked to specify their sexual identity on the Kinsey scale, between exclusively heterosexual and exclusively homosexual. Lifetime sexual behavior was assessed through questions about heterosexual and same-sex contact, age of first sexual experience, contraception use, and pregnancy. The results revealed that there were no reports of physical or sexual victimization by a parent or other caregiver. Regarding sexual orientation, 18.9% of the adolescent girls and 2.7% of the adolescent boys self-rated in the bisexual spectrum, and 0% of girls and 5.4% of boys self-rated as predominantly-to-exclusively homosexual. When compared with age- and gender-matched adolescents of the National Survey of Family Growth, the study offspring were significantly older at the time of their first heterosexual contact, and the daughters of lesbian mothers were significantly more likely to have had same-sex contact. These findings suggest that adolescents reared in lesbian families are less likely than their peers to be victimized by a parent or other caregiver, and that daughters of lesbian mothers are more likely to engage in same-sex behavior and to identify as bisexual.
Young, Sean D; Nianogo, Roch A; Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Lucho; Galea, Jerome
Peru is experiencing a concentrated HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Substance use (alcohol and drug use) has been found to be associated with HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A recent surge in the number of social media users in Peru has enabled these technologies to be potential tools for reaching HIV at-risk individuals. This study sought to assess the relationship between substance use and sexual risk behaviors among Peruvian MSM who use social media. A total of 556 Peruvian MSM Facebook users (ages 18-59) were recruited to complete a 92-item survey on demographics, sexual risk behaviors, and substance use. We performed a logistic regression of various sexual risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, casual sex) on substance abuse, including alcohol, adjusting for potential covariates. Drinking more than five alcoholic drinks a day in the past three months was associated with an increased odds of having unprotected sex (vaginal and anal) (aOR: 1.52; 95% CL: 1.01, 2.28), casual sex (1.75; 1.17, 2.62), and sex with unknown persons (1.82; 1.23, 2.71). Drug use was not significantly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Among Peruvian MSM social media users, findings suggest that alcohol use was associated with increased HIV-related sexual risk behaviors.
Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Austin, S. Bryn
Objectives. We examined whether lifetime risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was elevated in sexual minority versus heterosexual youths, whether childhood abuse accounted for disparities in PTSD, and whether childhood gender nonconformity explained sexual-orientation disparities in abuse and subsequent PTSD. Methods. We used data from a population-based study (n = 9369, mean age = 22.7 years) to estimate risk ratios for PTSD. We calculated the percentage of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by childhood abuse and gender nonconformity, and the percentage of abuse disparities by sexual orientation accounted for by gender nonconformity. Results. Sexual minorities had between 1.6 and 3.9 times greater risk of probable PTSD than heterosexuals. Child abuse victimization disparities accounted for one third to one half of PTSD disparities by sexual orientation. Higher prevalence of gender nonconformity before age 11 years partly accounted for higher prevalence of abuse exposure before age 11 years and PTSD by early adulthood in sexual minorities (range = 5.2%–33.2%). Conclusions. Clinicians, teachers, and others who work with youths should consider abuse prevention and treatment measures for gender-nonconforming children and sexual minority youths. PMID:22698034
Chamberlain, Nicholas; Mena, Leandro A; Geter, Angelica; Crosby, Richard A
Participants at a sexual health clinic completed a survey with questions regarding sexual risk behavior and partner characteristics. Of 585 participants eligible for analysis, 124 reported generally having older male partners. These participants were significantly more likely to be HIV-infected (p < 0.001), have four or more sex partners as a "bottom" (p = 0.04), have concurrent partners (p = 0.01), and have partners suspected of having an sexually transmitted infection (p = 0.05) than participants without older partners. With analysis restricted to HIV- individuals, risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the groups. HIV- individuals with older partners may be at increased risk of HIV infection due to increased HIV prevalence among older sexual partners and not due to increased risk behaviors with these partners.
Collado, Anahí; Johnson, Patrick S; Loya, Jennifer M; Johnson, Matthew W; Yi, Richard
The study examined sexual delay discounting, or the devaluation of condom-protected sex in the face of delay, as a risk factor for sexually transmitted infection (STI) among college students. Participants (143 females, 117 males) completed the sexual delay discounting task (Johnson & Bruner, 2012) and questionnaires of risky sexual behavior, risk perception, and knowledge. Participants exhibited steeper sexual delay discounting (above and beyond general likelihood of having unprotected sex) when partners were viewed as more desirable or less likely to have a STI, with males demonstrating greater sexual delay discounting than females across most conditions. Importantly, greater self-reported risky sexual behaviors were associated with higher rates of sexual delay discounting, but not with likelihood of using a condom in the absence of delay. These results provide support for considering sexual delay discounting, with particular emphasis on potential delays to condom use, as a risk factor for STI among college students.
Khan, Omer; Ferriter, Michael; Huband, Nick; Powney, Melanie J; Dennis, Jane A; Duggan, Conor
Sexual offending is a serious social problem, a public health issue, and a major challenge for social policy. Victim surveys indicate high incidence and prevalence levels and it is accepted that there is a high proportion of hidden sexual victimisation. Surveys report high levels of psychiatric morbidity in survivors of sexual offences.Biological treatments of sex offenders include antilibidinal medication, comprising hormonal drugs that have a testosterone-suppressing effect, and non-hormonal drugs that affect libido through other mechanisms. The three main classes of testosterone-suppressing drugs in current use are progestogens, antiandrogens, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues. Medications that affect libido through other means include antipsychotics and serotonergic antidepressants (SSRIs). To evaluate the effects of pharmacological interventions on target sexual behaviour for people who have been convicted or are at risk of sexual offending. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7), Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and 15 other databases in July 2014. We also searched two trials registers and requested details of unidentified, unpublished, or ongoing studies from investigators and other experts. Prospective controlled trials of antilibidinal medications taken by individuals for the purpose of preventing sexual offences, where the comparator group received a placebo, no treatment, or 'standard care', including psychological treatment. Pairs of authors, working independently, selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information, including details of methods and outcome data. We included seven studies with a total of 138 participants, with data available for 123. Sample sizes ranged from 9 to 37. Judgements for categories of risk of bias varied: concerns were greatest regarding allocation concealment, blinding of outcome assessors, and incomplete outcome data (dropout rates in
Sun, Christina J.; Reboussin, Beth; Mann, Lilli; Garcia, Manuel; Rhodes, Scott D.
The use of websites and GPS-based mobile applications ("apps") designed for social and sexual networking has been associated with increased HIV risk; however, little is known about Latino sexual minorities' and transgender persons' use of these websites and apps and the risk profiles of those who use them compared with those who do not.…
Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J
Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner...
Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley
Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.
Kibombo, Richard; Neema, Stella; Ahmed, Fatima H
Uganda has been hailed as a success story in the fight against HIV that has seen a reversal in prevalence from a peak of 15% in 1991 to about 6.5% currently Since 1992, the largest and most consistent declines in HIV have occurred among the 15-19-year-olds. While many studies have examined how key behavior changes (Abstinence, Be faithful and Condom use) have contributed to the decline in HIV prevalence, few have studied the relationship between sexual behaviors and risk perception. Using data from the 2004 National Survey of Adolescents, multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to examine the strength of the association between risky sexual behavior and perceived risk among 12-19-year-old adolescents in Uganda. After controlling for other correlates of sexual behavior such as age, education, residence, region and marital status, the findings indicate highly significant positive association between perceived risk and risky sexual behavior among males but not females. The findings reveal that, regardless of their current sexual behavior, most female adolescents in Uganda feel at great risk of HIV infection. The findings also show that adolescents with broken marriages are much more vulnerable to high risk sexual behaviors than other categories of adolescents. These results further emphasize the need for a holistic approach in addressing the social, economic and contextual factors that continue to put many adolescents at risk of HIV infection.
4Department of Psychiatry & Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa. Abstract. Objective: ... Keywords: Methamphetamine; Sexual behaviour; HIV; South Africa ... to high school students who had used drugs other than MA in their.
Rohde, Rebecca L; Adjei Boakye, Eric; Christopher, Kara M; Geneus, Christian J; Walker, Ronald J; Varvares, Mark A; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba
There exists a significant gap in vaccine coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) among college-aged students. This study assessed sexual risk-taking behavior among university students and analyzed predictors of HPV vaccine initiation and completion in this population. Data (n = 746) were from an anonymous online, cross-sectional survey distributed to university students, between the ages of 19-26 years, at a private Midwestern university. Both chi-square and multivariable logistics regression models estimated the association between sociodemographic characteristics and sexual risk factors (including number of vaginal sexual partners, number of oral sexual partners, initiation of oral sex, and initiation of vaginal sex), with HPV vaccine initiation and completion. A significant number of participants (40%) had not received a single dose of the HPV vaccine series. Of those who initiated the series, more than half (51%) did not achieve completion. Additionally, a greater number of participants have had multiple (4 or more) oral sexual partners than vaginal sexual partners (25.7% vs. 20.3%). After adjusting for covariates, it was found that sexual risk factors were not significantly associated with HPV vaccine initiation or completion. HPV vaccine initiation and completion rates are suboptimal among university students. High levels of sexual-risk taking behaviors associated with HPV infection persist, yet are not significant predictors of HPV vaccine behaviors in this age group. To increase uptake among 18-26-year-old students, future public health interventions should focus on HPV vaccine education and uptake across the entire population, irrespective of sexual risk profile. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In a demographic sense, adolescents are a population group which is yet to take part in birth giving. Therefore, their sexual behavior and especially sexual activity at early ages which is not only unfavorable from the aspect of the individual, meaning risk for psycho-physical health, but from the aspect of society as well, as regards population fertility, deserves special attention. This paper shows the results of in-depth research carried out in Belgrade from September 2001 to October 2002 with an aim to establish which factors determine a young person, of sixteen years old or younger, to become sexually active. It was carried out on a sample of 111 adolescent girls between 14 and 20 years old which turned to the Republic Family Planning Center Youth Counseling Clinic of the Institute for Mother and Child Health Care of Serbia. The research showed that sexual experience, realized at an early age was an integral part of development and maturing for the largest number of surveyed girls. In the largest number of cases it was a positive experience, induced by love and experienced with a partner, mainly of the same age, with which they were in a longer, stable relationship. Nevertheless, it could be concluded from the results obtained by the research that the surveyed girls could have more easily and efficiently solved their problems and dilemmas regarding sexuality had they had the possibility to obtain a better insight into their personal feelings and feelings of others at the right time, as well as developed social experience and experience in mastering control of their impulses. With a certain number of surveyed girls that would have meant a delay in their sexual activities to a later age. This also refers to the prevention of other risky behavior such as use of alcohol and drugs, which also have an influence on changing sexual behavior, making it more risky. It is important to stress that the surveyed adolescent girls themselves recognized the
Chan, Heng Choon Oliver; Heide, Kathleen M; Beauregard, Eric
Despite the great interest in the study of sexual homicide, little is known about the processes involved in an individual's becoming motivated to sexually kill, deciding to sexually kill, and acting on that desire, intention, and opportunity. To date, no comprehensive model of sexual murdering from the offending perspective has been proposed in the criminological literature. This article incorporates the works of Akers and Cohen and Felson regarding their social learning theory and routine activities theory, respectively, to construct an integrated conceptual offending framework in sexual homicide. This integrated model produces a stronger and more comprehensive explanation of sexual murder than any single theory currently available.
Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Saavedra, Lissette M; Csizmadia, Annamaria
This study evaluated relations between sexual sensation seeking, co-occurring sex and alcohol use, and sexual risk behaviors (eg, unprotected intercourse and multiple sex partners) among adolescents receiving treatment for substance abuse problems. The ethnically diverse sample included 394 adolescents recruited from outpatient treatment (280 males; Mage = 16.33 years, SDage = 1.15). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test direct and indirect paths between sexual sensation seeking and sexual risk behaviors via the frequency of co-occurring sex and alcohol use. Conditional indirect effects by gender were also tested. Analyses identified significant effects of sexual sensation seeking on co-occurring sex and alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors. The path from co-occurring sex and alcohol use to unprotected intercourse was significantly stronger among adolescent girls, suggesting a mediation effect moderated by gender. No gender difference was found for the indirect path from sexual sensation seeking and number of past year sexual partners via co-occurring sex and alcohol use. Selected prevention efforts are needed to promote HIV risk reduction among adolescents in substance abuse treatment. The documented conditional indirect effect for unprotected intercourse suggests that HIV prevention programs should pay special attention to gender-specific patterns of alcohol use and sexual risk behavior when tailoring program content. (Am J Addict 2013; 22:197-205). Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
McNair, Ruth; Power, Jennifer; Carr, Susan
The study compared levels of awareness of human papilloma virus (HPV) as a sexually transmissible infection (STI) between women of different sexual orientations. It also examined self-reported risk factors for HPV infection, perceived level of personal risk, and willingness to have the HPV vaccine. Recruitment occurred through community sampling and data was collected using a self-completion questionnaire. A convenience sample of 349 women completed the questionnaire in early 2007, 309 were sexually active; 47.6% had lifetime sexual partners of both genders, 26.9% had only male partners, and 25.5% had only female partners. Women with partners of both genders were more likely to have ever had a pap test but were also more likely to report an abnormal result (OR 3.19) than women with only male partners. Only 68% of the sample had heard of HPV and women with partners of both genders were significantly more likely to be aware than women with only male partners (OR 2.56). Forty-four per cent did not know how HPV was transmitted and less than half correctly identified HPV-associated clinical problems, with no differences according to gender of partners. The majority of women had risk factors for HPV, however, few felt personally at risk. The very low personal risk perception for HPV, particularly among women who have female and male sexual partners, suggests the need for targeted education for this group regarding HPV transmission and prevention. Health promotion regarding HPV should be broadened to specifically include information about HPV as an STI between women.
Black, Anne C.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Potenza, Marc N.; Fiellin, Lynn E.; Rosen, Marc I.
Adults who abuse substances are at increased risk for contracting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Within this population, sexual risk behaviors have been associated with increased impulsivity. Studies in non-clinical populations showing gender-related differences in sexual decision-making and casual sexual partnering suggest impulsivity has a greater influence on men than women, but these differences have not been documented in substance-using patients. In a sample of 89 adult...
Justman, J.; Befus, M.; Hughes, J.; Wang, J.; Golin, C. E.; Adimora, A.A.; Kuo, I.; Haley, D. F.; del Rio, C.; El-Sadr, W. M.; Rompalo, A.; Mannheimer, S.; Soto-Torres, L.; Hodder, S.
We describe the sexual behaviors of women at elevated risk of HIV acquisition who reside in areas of high HIV prevalence and poverty in the US. Participants in HPTN 064, a prospective HIV incidence study, provided information about participants’ sexual behaviors and male sexual partners in the past 6 months at baseline, 6- and 12-months. Independent predictors of consistent or increased temporal patterns for three high-risk sexual behaviors were assessed separately: exchange sex, unprotected ...
McCabe, Marita P; Sharlip, Ira D; Lewis, Ron; Atalla, Elham; Balon, Richard; Fisher, Alessandra D; Laumann, Edward; Lee, Sun Won; Segraves, Robert T
This article presents a review of previous research concerning risk factors for sexual dysfunction in women and men. The aim is to evaluate past research studies to determine the contribution of all risk factors to the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction among women and men. Studies were organized under a biopsychosocial framework, with the bulk of studies of women and men having investigated the role of biological factors. The outcome measures were the data on factors for sexual dysfunction. Many more studies investigated risk factors for sexual dysfunction in men than in women. For women and men, diabetes, heart disease, urinary tract disorders, and chronic illness were significant risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Depression and anxiety and the medications used to treat these disorders also were risk factors for sexual dysfunction in women and men. In addition, substance abuse was associated with sexual dysfunction. Many other social and cultural factors were related to sexual dysfunction in women and men. Psychosocial factors are clearly risk factors for sexual dysfunction. Women and men with sexual dysfunction should be offered psychosocial evaluation and treatment, if available, in addition to medical evaluation and treatment. The impact of social and cultural factors on sexual function requires substantially more research. The evidence that erectile dysfunction is a harbinger of other forms of cardiovascular disease is strong enough to recommend that clinical evaluation for occult cardiovascular disease should be undertaken in men who do not have known cardiovascular disease but who develop organic erectile dysfunction, especially in men younger than 70 years. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro
Despite the existence of conceptual models of sexual dysfunction based on cognitive theory, few studies have tested the role of vulnerability factors such as sexual beliefs as moderators of the activation of cognitive schemas in response to negative sexual events. To test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of negative sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Five-hundred seventy-five men (287 gay, 288 heterosexual) who completed an online survey on cognitive-affective dimensions and sexual functioning were selected from a larger database. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis that dysfunctional sexual beliefs moderate the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas. Participants completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire and the Questionnaire of Cognitive Schemas Activated in Sexual Context. Findings indicated that men's ability for always being ready for sex, to satisfy the partner, and to maintain an erection until ending sexual activity constitute "macho" beliefs that moderate the activation of incompetence schemas when unsuccessful sexual events occur in gay and heterosexual men. In addition, activation of incompetence schemas in response to negative sexual events in gay men was moderated by the endorsement of conservative attitudes toward moderate sexuality. The main findings suggested that psychological interventions targeting dysfunctional sexual beliefs could help de-catastrophize the consequences of negative sexual events and facilitate sexual functioning. Despite being a web-based study, it represents the first attempt to test the moderator role of dysfunctional sexual beliefs in the association between the frequency of unsuccessful sexual episodes and the activation of incompetence schemas in gay and heterosexual men. Overall, findings
Ma, Mindy; Malcolm, Lydia R; Diaz-Albertini, Kristine; Klinoff, Vera A; Leeder, Elisa; Barrientos, Sohani; Kibler, Jeffrey L
The study objective was to examine the associations between cultural values and sexual risk factors among Latino youth. A sample of 226 Latino adolescents ages 13-16 completed a survey on cultural and sexual variables. Results indicate higher levels of Latino cultural orientation were related to greater sexual self-efficacy and fewer sexual partners for female adolescents and greater condom use self-efficacy for both males and females. Greater endorsement of simpatia (belief in interpersonal relationship harmony) was associated with sexual abstinence and greater sexual self-efficacy for all adolescents, and with being older at sexual debut for females. Stronger endorsement of respeto (respect towards parents and other authority figures) was correlated with a lower intention to have sex during secondary school and greater condom use self-efficacy. American cultural orientation was associated with less condom use. Our findings indicate Latino cultural values may serve as protective factors against sexual risk behaviors among Latino youth. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schick, Vanessa R.; Calabrese, Sarah K.; Rima, Brandi N.; Zucker, Alyssa N.
Findings regarding the link between body image and sexuality have been equivocal, possibly because of the insensitivity of many body image measures to potential variability across sensory aspects of the body (e.g., appearance versus odor), individual body parts (e.g., genitalia versus thighs), and social settings (e.g., public versus intimate).…
Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; McLaughlin, Katie A; Xuan, Ziming
The aim of the study was to examine the social networks of sexual minority youths and to determine the associations between social networks and depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), a nationally representative cohort study of American adolescents (N = 14,212). Wave 1 (1994-1995) collected extensive information about the social networks of participants through peer nomination inventories, as well as measures of sexual minority status and depressive symptoms. Using social network data, we examined three characteristics of adolescents' social relationships: (1) social isolation; (2) degree of connectedness; and (3) social status. Sexual minority youths, particularly females, were more isolated, less connected, and had lower social status in peer networks than opposite-sex attracted youths. Among sexual minority male (but not female) youths, greater isolation as well as lower connectedness and status within a network were associated with greater depressive symptoms. Moreover, greater isolation in social networks partially explained the association between sexual minority status and depressive symptoms among males. Finally, a significant 3-way interaction indicated that the association between social isolation and depression was stronger for sexual minority male youths than non-minority youths and sexual minority females. These results suggest that the social networks in which sexual minority male youths are embedded may confer risk for depressive symptoms, underscoring the importance of considering peer networks in both research and interventions targeting sexual minority male adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mairs, Katie; Bullock, Sandra L
Rates of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) and sexual-risk behaviour for those aged 50 and over in the United States are highest and increasing in Florida, where many Canadian "snowbirds" winter. This pilot study examined the sexual-risk behaviour and predictors of HIV testing in a convenience sample of Canadian snowbirds who winter in Florida (n = 265). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the odds of testing were increased for the unmarried, those aged 50-64, those who had talked to a doctor about sexual-risk behaviour since age 50, and those who agreed that sex was important in their lives. Dating males were more likely to test than non-dating males. Dating females were not more likely to test than non-dating females; and males who dated were 13.6 times more likely to test than females who dated. Further research will improve understanding of Canadian snowbirds' sexual interactions and HIV-testing behaviour.
Holloway, Ian W; Dunlap, Shannon; Del Pino, Homero E; Hermanstyne, Keith; Pulsipher, Craig; Landovitz, Raphael J
Online social networking refers to the use of internet-based technologies that facilitate connection and communication between users. These platforms may be accessed via computer or mobile device (e.g., tablet, smartphone); communication between users may include linking of profiles, posting of text, photo and video content, instant messaging and email. This review provides an overview of recent research on the relationship between online social networking and sexual risk and protective behaviors with a focus on use of social networking sites (SNS) among young people and populations at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). While findings are mixed, the widespread use of SNS for sexual communication and partner seeking presents opportunities for the delivery and evaluation of public health interventions. Results of SNS-based interventions to reduce sexual risk are synthesized in order to offer hands-on advice for clinicians and researchers interested in engaging patients and study participants via online social networking.
Christensen, Birgitte Schütt; Grønbaek, Morten; Osler, Merete
Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems.......Studies have shown a high prevalence of sexual dysfunctions among individuals with a variety of health problems....
Magnani, Robert; Riono, Pandu; Nurhayati; Saputro, Eko; Mustikawati, Dyah; Anartati, Atiek; Prabawanti, Ciptasari; Majid, Nurholis; Morineau, Guy
To assess the HIV/AIDS epidemic situation among female sex workers (FSW) in Indonesia using data from the 2007 Integrated Biological-Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS). Behavioural data were collected from time-location samples of 5947 FSW in 10 cities in late 2007. HIV, syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia test results were obtained for 4396, 4324, 3291 and 3316 FSW, respectively. Trends in HIV prevalence were assessed via linkage with sentinel surveillance data. Factors associated with HIV, gonorrhoea and chlamydia infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. HIV prevalence averaged 10.5% among direct and 4.9% among indirect FSW, and had increased steadily among direct FSW from 2002 to 2007. Prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and active syphilis averaged 35.6%, 31.8% and 7.3%, respectively, among direct FSW, and 28.7%, 14.3% and 3.5% among indirect FSW. Being a direct FSW, younger age and having current infection with syphilis and gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia were associated with a higher likelihood of HIV infection. Number of clients in the past week and consumption of alcohol before having sex were associated with a higher likelihood of gonorrhoea and/or chlamydia infection, while having received a STI clinic check-up in the previous 3 months and/or periodic presumptive treatment for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the past 6 months were associated with reduced likelihood of infection. The HIV/AIDS epidemic among FSW in Indonesia appears to be expanding, albeit unevenly across provinces and types of FSW. High STI prevalence is conducive to further expansion, but recent efforts to strengthen STI control appear promising.
O'Mullan, Cathy; Debattista, Joseph; Browne, Matthew
Issue addressed The fly-in, fly-out (FIFO) and drive-in, drive-out (DIDO) models of mining in Australia have led to concerns about adverse health and psychosocial impacts. Despite speculation that increased levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Australia, including HIV, are associated with FIFO/DIDO work, we know little about sexual risk-taking behaviours in mining populations. This study explores differences in sexual risk taking and perceptions of risk between FIFO/DIDO miners and residential miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to a sample (n=444) of male miners working in Queensland, Australia. The self-completed survey contained 49 questions relating to knowledge, attitudes and behaviour and included demographic information and specific items related to sex and relationships. Results FIFO/DIDO status was not associated with any differential sexual risk-taking behaviours, except for an increased probability of reporting 'ever being diagnosed with an STI'; 10.8% of FIFO/DIDO respondents versus 3.6% of others (x(2) (1)=4.43, P=0.35). Conclusions Our results appear to counter anecdotal evidence that FIFO/DIDO miners engage in higher sexual risk behaviours when compared with residential miners. So what? Anecdotal evidence linking the rise of sexually transmitted infections with the FIFO/DIDO mining workforce could drive costly and unnecessary approaches to prevention. Further research, surveillance and monitoring are required to inform health promotion interventions.
VICTOR, ELIZABETH C.; HARIRI, AHMAD R.
Late adolescence and emerging adulthood (specifically ages 15–24) represent a period of heightened sexual risk taking resulting in the greatest annual rates of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancies in the US population. Ongoing efforts to prevent such negative consequences are likely to benefit from a deepening of our understanding of biological mechanisms through which sexual risk taking emerges and biases decision making during this critical window. Here we present a neuroscience framework from which a mechanistic examination of sexual risk taking can be advanced. Specifically, we adapt the neurodevelopmental triadic model, which outlines how motivated behavior is governed by three systems: approach, avoidance, and regulation, to sexual decision making and subsequent risk behavior. We further propose a testable hypothesis of the triadic model, wherein relatively decreased threat-related amygdala reactivity and increased reward-related ventral striatum reactivity leads to sexual risk taking, which is particularly exaggerated during adolescence and young adulthood when there is an overexpression of dopaminergic neurons coupled with immature top-down prefrontal cortex regulation. We conclude by discussing how future research based on our adapted triadic model can inform ongoing efforts to improve intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:26611719
Goodrum, Nada M; Armistead, Lisa P; Tully, Erin C; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald
Black South African youth are disproportionately affected by HIV, and risky sexual behaviors increase youths' vulnerability to infection. U.S.-based research has highlighted several contextual influences on sexual risk, but these processes have not been examined in a South African context. In a convenience sample of Black South African caregivers and their 10-14-year-old youth (M age = 11.7, SD = 1.4; 52.5% female), we examined the relation between parenting and youth sexual risk within the context of community-level processes, including neighborhood quality and maternal social support. Hypotheses were evaluated using structural equation modeling. Results revealed that better neighborhood quality and more social support predicted positive parenting, which in turn predicted less youth sexual risk. There was a significant indirect effect from neighborhood quality to youth sexual risk via parenting. Results highlight the importance of the community context in parenting and youth sexual risk in this understudied sample. HIV prevention-interventions should be informed by these contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ren, Yi; Swank, Paul; Sanchez, Mariana; De La Rosa, Mario
Retrospective pre-immigration data on sexual risk and alcohol use behaviours was collected from 527 recent Latino immigrants to the USA, aged 18-34. Two follow-up assessments (12 months apart) reported on post-immigration behaviours. Using a mixed model growth curve analysis, a six-level sexual risk change variable was constructed combining measures of sexual partners and condom use. The mixed model growth curve was also used to examine associations between changes in sexual risk behaviour and changes in alcohol use and for testing interaction effects of gender and documentation status. Results suggest that individuals with high sexual risk behaviour at pre-immigration converge to low/moderate risk post-immigration, and that those who were sexually inactive or had low sexual risk at pre-immigration increased their risk post-immigration. Individuals with moderately higher initial but decreasing sexual risk behaviour showed the steepest decline in alcohol use, but their drinking at Time 3 was still higher than individuals reporting low sexual risk at Time 1. On average, men drank more than women, except women in one of the highest sexual risk categories at Time 1 - who seemed to drink as much, if not more, than men. Undocumented men reported more frequent drinking than documented men. In contrast, undocumented women reported lower alcohol use than documented women.
Letourneau, Elizabeth J; McCart, Michael R; Sheidow, Ashli J; Mauro, Pia M
There is a need for interventions that comprehensively address youth substance use disorders (SUD) and sexual risk behaviors. Risk Reduction Therapy for Adolescents (RRTA) adapts a validated family-focused intervention for youth SUD to include sexual risk reduction components in a single intervention. In this first evaluation of RRTA, drug court involved youth were randomly assigned to RRTA (N=45) or usual services (US; N=60) and followed through 12-months post-baseline. RRTA included weekly cognitive behavior therapy and behavior management training and contingency-contracting with a point earning system managed by caregivers targeting drug use and sexual risk antecedents. Longitudinal models estimated within-group change and between-group differences through 6- and 12-month follow-up on outcomes for substance use, sexual risk behaviors, and protective HIV behaviors. Robust effects of the intervention were not detected under conditions of the study that included potent background interventions by the juvenile drug court. Considerations about future development and testing of sexual risk reduction therapy for youth are discussed, including the potential role of contingency management in future interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Juliato, Cássia Raquel Teatin; Melotti, Iane Glauce Ribeiro; Junior, Luiz Carlos Santos; Britto, Luiz Gustavo Oliveira; Riccetto, Cássio Luiz Zanettini
Several studies have associated overactive bladder (OAB) with female sexual dysfunction (FSD); however, there are no reports using a quantitative approach to measure OAB severity and to relate OAB to the risk of FSD. To evaluate women with OAB and to correlate the severity of their urinary symptoms with their sexual function. This cross-sectional study included 267 women older than 18 years with untreated OAB. All subjects completed the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder (ICIQ-OAB) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Linear regression was used to analyze the association between variables and the numeric FSFI score, and categorical FSFI scores were analyzed using logistic regression. Spearman rank correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between ICIQ-OAB results and the different FSFI domains. The significance level was 5%. Subjects' mean age was 50.2 ± 11.9 years. Most women were married, had at least three children, and were postmenopausal (54.3%). Mean FSFI total score was 19.2 ± 9.8. For menopausal status, 65.6% of premenopausal women had a risk for FSD vs 86.2% of postmenopausal women. Mean ICIQ-OAB score was 10 ± 3.17. Postmenopausal women had the following risk factors statistically associated with sexual dysfunction: age, ICIQ score, and marital status. For these women, greater OAB severity, especially those with urgency and/or urge incontinence, was associated with worse scores in the arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual pain domains. However, there was no statistically significant association for premenopausal women. Health professionals have to pay attention to OAB in women because of the greater risk for FSD in these patients. The strength was using a quantitative approach to measure OAB severity in a larger population. Limitations include a convenience sample with no power calculation; exclusion of women who did not have sexual intercourse in the past month; unmeasured distress
Spears, Russell; Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Abrams, Dominic
Two age cohorts of male and female students (n = 311) were investigated concerning their perceptions of the HIV-related risks of various sex-related practices (unprotected vaginal, oral, and anal sex, and mutual masturbation and kissing). Participants judged the risk of these activities for either a male or a female acquiring either a new male sexual partner or a new female one. The greater risks of unprotected sex compared to other practices and the enhanced risks of these practices within g...
Dewitte, Marieke; Mayer, Axel
Current models of sexual responding emphasize the role of contextual and relational factors in shaping sexual behavior. The present study used a prospective diary design to examine the temporal sequence and variability of the link between sexual and relationship variables in a sample of couples.
Boccalini, S; Tiscione, E; Bechini, A; Levi, M; Mencacci, M; Petrucci, F; Bani Assad, G; Santini, M G; Bonanni, P
The most frequent risk factors related to the infection/persistence of HPV in the population are an early start of sexual activity, the number of sexual partners, smoking, and the utilization of some contraceptive methods. In Italy, HPV vaccine is offered free of charge to all 12-year-old female adolescents, with a possible extension to other age groups according to Regional policies. In order to value the suitability of the current HPV vaccination strategies in Italy, an epidemiological study on sexual habits in adolescents and young adults was organized. An anonymous questionnaire on sexual behavior and risk factors for HPV infection was administered to 2300 students aged 13-24 years attending secondary schools and universities in Tuscany during 2008-09. About 12% of the sample declared to be foreign citizen. The results highlight the early start of sexual activity among young students. Particularly, more than half of the interviewed students declared to be already sexually active. The mean and the median age of the first sexual intercourse was 15.4 +/- 1.4 years and 15 years (25th and 75th percentiles = 14-16), respectively. More than 77% of students at age 16 years declared they already had the first sexual intercourse, compared with 0.3% of those sexually active, had sexual contacts with a single partner. Most students declared to know common contraceptive methods (male condom and contraceptive pill). However, only half of them declared a regular use of male condom. These data confirm the importance of vaccination against HPV for young females before their sexual debut. In addition, the current multi-cohort strategy of HPV vaccination in Tuscany (free of charge in the age range 12-16 years) allows also to catch up those girls that have not yet had their first sexual experiences before 16 years (21.5% according to our study) but also to those girls already sexually active, who very rarely are already infected by all vaccine types at 16 years. Our results also
Stephen Tully; Monica Cojocaru; Chris T. Bauch
There has been growing use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) for HIV and significant progress in developing prophylactic HIV vaccines. The simplest theories of counterproductive behavioral responses to such interventions tend to focus on single feedback mechanisms: for instance, HAART optimism makes infection less scary and thus promotes risky sexual behavior. Here, we develop an agent based, age-structured model of HIV transmission, risk perception, and partner selection in a...
Hom, Melanie A; Matheny, Natalie L; Stanley, Ian H; Rogers, Megan L; Cougle, Jesse R; Joiner, Thomas E
Research indicates that physical and sexual abuse are associated with increased suicide risk; however, these associations have not been investigated among firefighters-an occupational group that has been shown to be at elevated suicide risk. This study examined whether physical and sexual abuse histories are associated with (a) career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; and (b) current suicide risk (controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms) in this occupational group. A sample of 929 U.S. firefighters completed self-report surveys that assessed lifetime history of physical and sexual abuse; career suicide ideation, plans, and attempts; current suicide risk; and theoretically relevant symptoms. Logistic regression analyses revealed that individuals who reported a history of physical abuse were significantly more likely to report career suicide ideation, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 6.12, plans, AOR = 13.05, and attempts, AOR = 23.81, than those who did not. A similar pattern of findings emerged for individuals who reported a sexual abuse history, AORs = 7.83, 18.35, and 29.58 respectively. Linear regression analyses revealed that physical and sexual abuse histories each significantly predicted current suicide risk, even after controlling for theoretically relevant symptoms and demographics, pr 2 = .07 and .06, respectively. Firefighters with a history of physical and/or sexual abuse may be at increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. A history of physical and sexual abuse were each significantly correlated with current suicide risk in this population, even after accounting for the effects of theoretically relevant symptoms. Thus, when conceptualizing suicide risk among firefighters, factors not necessarily related to one's firefighter career should be considered. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Ghandour, Lilian A; Mouhanna, Farah; Yasmine, Rola; El Kak, Faysal
Sexual activity accompanied by substance use can impair youth decision-making and enhance risk-taking behaviors. Less is known, however, about the sexual values, perceptions and subsequent sexual practices of youth whose sexual debut occurs while using alcohol/drugs. A cross-sectional anonymous online survey was conducted in April-August 2012 among undergraduate and graduate university students (aged 18 to 30) attending the 4th largest private university in Beirut. Pearson's Chi-square and regression models were run using Stata/IC 10.0. 940 university students had engaged in oral, anal and/or vaginal sex, of whom 10% admitted to having had consumed alcohol or taken drugs at sexual debut, a behavior that was more common in the males, less religious, non-Arabs, students living alone or who had lived abroad. Students who used alcohol/drugs at sexual debut were twice as likely to have: their first oral and vaginal sex with an unfamiliar partner [odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): (1.6, 4.2) and OR = 2.1 (1.2, 3.5), respectively], controlling for sex, nationality, current relationship status, living abroad after the age of 12, and spirituality. Students who had sex the first time while using alcohol/drugs were three times as likely to report having had 11 or more subsequent sexual partners versus one or two [OR = 3.0 (1.5-6.0)]; and almost twice as likely to ever engage in something sexual they did not want to do [OR = 1.7 (1.1, 2.8)]. Perceived peer pressure to have sex by a certain age [OR = 1.8 (1.1, 2.9)], and perceived peer norms to consume alcohol/drugs before sex [OR = 4.8 (2.3, 9.9)] were also strong correlates of having sex for the first time while using alcohol and/or drugs. Findings stress the importance of sexuality education for youth, and the need to begin understanding the true interplay--beyond association--between youth sexual practices and substance use behaviors from a broader public health perspective.
Ruiz-Sternberg, Angela M; Pinzón-Rondón, Ángela M
To compare sexual behaviors and risk perception between young women vaccinated for HPV and unvaccinated Colombian women. In a cross-sectional design study, 1436 women (231 adolescents, Sexual risk behaviors were not associated with vaccination after adjustment for risk perception, age, educational level, and HPV knowledge. By contrast, vaccination was associated with higher routine Pap smear screening (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-3.28), use of modern contraceptives (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.22), and consistent use of condoms (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-2.01). Vaccinated young women were more likely to have had sex (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.56-2.78), but sexual debut among adolescents was not associated with vaccination. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, vaccination status was negatively associated with perceived risk of HPV infection, warts, and cervical cancer. There was no association between vaccination and perceived risk of sexually transmitted infections in any model. No association was found between changes in risk perception after HPV vaccination and sexual risk behaviors. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.
While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that althou...
Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine Hin-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak
Dating applications (apps) on smartphones have become increasingly popular. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of dating apps and risky sexual behaviours. Data were collected in four university campuses in Hong Kong. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire asking about the use of dating apps, sexual behaviours, and sociodemographics. Multiple linear and logistics regressions were used to explore factors associated with sexual risk behaviours. Six hundred sixty-six subjects were included in the data analysis. Factors associated with having unprotected sexual intercourse with more lifetime sexual partners included use of dating apps (β = 0.93, pdating apps (adjust