WorldWideScience

Sample records for risk pesticide chemicals

  1. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2006-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  2. Improving Blood Monitoring of Enzymes as Biomarkers of Risk from Anticholinergic Pesticides and Chemical Warfare Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilson, Barry W

    2005-01-01

    Blood biomarkers are an important way to monitor exposure to anticholinergic pesticides and chemical warfare agents and to establish whether some personnel are at greater risk than others from exposure...

  3. Pesticides: chemicals for survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests such as insects, weeds, plant diseases, nematodes, and rodents. The increased use of pesticides since 1945 has greatly aided the increase in crop production, protected livestock from diseases such as trypanosomiasis, protected man from diseases such as malaria and filarisis, decreased losses of stored grain, and has generally improved man's welfare. Despite the enormous benefits derived from pesticides these chemicals are not problem-free. Many pesticides are toxic to living organisms and interfere with specific biochemical systems. To measure the very small quantities of a pesticide radiolabelled chemicals are frequently essential, particularly to measure changes in the chemical structure of the pesticide, movement of the pesticide in soil, plants, or animals, amounts of pesticide going through various steps in food processing, etc. The use of radiolabelled pesticides is shortly shown for metabolism of the pesticide in crop species, metabolism in ruminant, in chickens and eggs, in soil, and possibly leaching and sorption in soil, hydrolysis, bio-concentration, microbial and photodegradation, and toxicity studies

  4. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823-1829; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP186.

  5. Prioritizing Chemicals for Risk Assessment Using Chemoinformatics: Examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Neela; Guyton, Kathryn Z.; Loomis, Dana; Barupal, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Identifying cancer hazards is the first step towards cancer prevention. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs Programme, which has evaluated nearly 1,000 agents for their carcinogenic potential since 1971, typically selects agents for hazard identification on the basis of public nominations, expert advice, published data on carcinogenicity, and public health importance. Objectives: Here, we present a novel and complementary strategy for identifying agents for hazard evaluation using chemoinformatics, database integration, and automated text mining. Discussion: To inform selection among a broad range of pesticides nominated for evaluation, we identified and screened nearly 6,000 relevant chemical structures, after which we systematically compiled information on 980 pesticides, creating network maps that allowed cluster visualization by chemical similarity, pesticide class, and publicly available information concerning cancer epidemiology, cancer bioassays, and carcinogenic mechanisms. For the IARC Monograph meetings that took place in March and June 2015, this approach supported high-priority evaluation of glyphosate, malathion, parathion, tetrachlorvinphos, diazinon, p,p′-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), lindane, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Conclusions: This systematic approach, accounting for chemical similarity and overlaying multiple data sources, can be used by risk assessors as well as by researchers to systematize, inform, and increase efficiency in selecting and prioritizing agents for hazard identification, risk assessment, regulation, or further investigation. This approach could be extended to an array of outcomes and agents, including occupational carcinogens, drugs, and foods. Citation: Guha N, Guyton KZ, Loomis D, Barupal DK. 2016. Prioritizing chemicals for risk assessment using chemoinformatics: examples from the IARC Monographs on Pesticides. Environ Health Perspect 124:1823–1829;

  6. Hygienic assessment of professional risk for worker, involved in application of pesticides and tank mixtures in chemical protection of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinchenko T.I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available When using tank mixtures and pesticides in chemical crop protection systems there exists danger of simultaneous or sequential action of ingredients. It was established that the combined potential risk of the harmful effects of Torero SC preparation on workers is 0.11-0.30 arb.units, Switch 62.5 WG – 0.054-0,065 arb.units, tank mixture 1 – 0.26-0.51 arb.units, tank mixture 2 – 0.26-0.49 arb.units correspondently and does not exceed the allowable value of risk (<1. The combined risk in sequential application of components of chemical protection system of strawberry exceeds allowable values of risk and is 0.954-2.02 arb.units. Ways of occupational risk decrease were proposed and regulations of safe application of tank mixtures and pesticides in chemical protection of strawberry were substantiated.

  7. Models for Pesticide Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA considers the toxicity of the pesticide as well as the amount of pesticide to which a person or the environments may be exposed in risk assessment. Scientists use mathematical models to predict pesticide concentrations in exposure assessment.

  8. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  9. Quantum chemistry in environmental pesticide risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Juan J; López-Goti, Carmen; Alcamí, Manuel; Lamsabhi, Al Mokhtar; Alonso-Prados, José L; Sandín-España, Pilar

    2017-11-01

    The scientific community and regulatory bodies worldwide, currently promote the development of non-experimental tests that produce reliable data for pesticide risk assessment. The use of standard quantum chemistry methods could allow the development of tools to perform a first screening of compounds to be considered for the experimental studies, improving the risk assessment. This fact results in a better distribution of resources and in better planning, allowing a more exhaustive study of the pesticides and their metabolic products. The current paper explores the potential of quantum chemistry in modelling toxicity and environmental behaviour of pesticides and their by-products by using electronic descriptors obtained computationally. Quantum chemistry has potential to estimate the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, including certain chemical reaction mechanisms and their degradation pathways, allowing modelling of the environmental behaviour of both pesticides and their by-products. In this sense, theoretical methods can contribute to performing a more focused risk assessment of pesticides used in the market, and may lead to higher quality and safer agricultural products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard N [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  11. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  12. The implications of agro-chemical compounds (fertilizers, pesticides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality is also an important issue in the Lake Chad especially where the rainfall being the natural input into the system is small, greater risk of fertilizer, pesticides, and other agro-chemicals/inputs, runoff from the soil to the lake water and also salt accumulation threat are imminent. The assessment of the Lake Chad ...

  13. Sittig's handbook of pesticides and agricultural chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Stanley A; Pohanish, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    ... Card Number: 2005005935 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sittig's handbook of pesticides and agricultural chemicals / edited by Stanley A. Greene and Richard P. Pohanish. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-8155-1516-2 (alk. paper) 1. Fertilizers--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Fertilizers--Environmental aspects--Ha...

  14. Pesticide Risk Communication, Risk Perception, and Self-Protective Behaviors among Farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Leckie, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide use is the highest of any industry, yet there is little research evaluating farmworkers' understandings of the health risks chemical exposure poses. This study examines pesticide education, risk perception, and self-protective behaviors among farmworkers in California's Salinas Valley. Fifty current and former farmworkers…

  15. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments.

  16. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to

  17. Choosing organic pesticides over synthetic pesticides may not effectively mitigate environmental risk in soybeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Bahlai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selection of pesticides with small ecological footprints is a key factor in developing sustainable agricultural systems. Policy guiding the selection of pesticides often emphasizes natural products and organic-certified pesticides to increase sustainability, because of the prevailing public opinion that natural products are uniformly safer, and thus more environmentally friendly, than synthetic chemicals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the results of a study examining the environmental impact of several new synthetic and certified organic insecticides under consideration as reduced-risk insecticides for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines control, using established and novel methodologies to directly quantify pesticide impact in terms of biocontrol services. We found that in addition to reduced efficacy against aphids compared to novel synthetic insecticides, organic approved insecticides had a similar or even greater negative impact on several natural enemy species in lab studies, were more detrimental to biological control organisms in field experiments, and had higher Environmental Impact Quotients at field use rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data bring into caution the widely held assumption that organic pesticides are more environmentally benign than synthetic ones. All pesticides must be evaluated using an empirically-based risk assessment, because generalizations based on chemical origin do not hold true in all cases.

  18. Modeling pesticide risk to California gnatcatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are used widely in US agriculture and may affect non-target organisms, including birds. Recently, USEPA has worked with other federal agencies, including USFWS and NMFS, to revise and strengthen methods for conducting pesticide risk assessments under section 7 of the U...

  19. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory: A Quantitative Instrument for the Assessment of Beliefs about Pesticide Risks

    OpenAIRE

    LePrevost, Catherine E.; Blanchard, Margaret R.; Cope, W. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Recent media attention has focused on the risks that agricultural pesticides pose to the environment and human health; thus, these topics provide focal areas for scientists and science educators to enhance public understanding of basic toxicology concepts. This study details the development of a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs. The goal of the inventory was to characterize misconceptions and knowledge gaps, as well as expert-like beliefs, concerning pesticide risk. This...

  20. COMPARISON OF THE RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS FOR PESTICIDES AND BIOPESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the risk assessment process for pesticides, a number of variables are used, including the results obtained from the studies that support registration. Some of these variables are physical and chemical properties of the organisms (crops, growing cycles) and their environments ...

  1. Fear and loathing in the benthos: Responses of aquatic insect larvae to the pesticide imidacloprid in the presence of chemical signals of predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, João L T; Loureiro, Susana; Baird, Donald J; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2009-06-28

    The influence of interactions between pesticide exposure and perceived predation risk on the lethal and sub-lethal responses of two aquatic insects was investigated using the pesticide imidacloprid, and a combination of predator-release kairomones from trout and alarm substances from conspecifics. Laboratory experiments examined feeding and respiration rates of the caddisfly Sericostoma vittatum as well as the growth, emergence and respiration rates of the midge Chironomus riparius, exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of imidacloprid. The effects of the two stressors on burrowing behaviour of both species were also assessed. The results show significant effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of imidacloprid on all endpoints studied. Perceived predation risk also elicited sub-lethal effects in C. riparius and S. vittatum, the latter species being less responsive to predation cues. The effects of simultaneous exposure to both types of stressors were assessed using two different approaches: analysis of variance and conceptual models [concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA)] normally used for the evaluation of contaminant mixture exposure. Both statistical approaches showed no significant interactions on responses in simultaneous exposures in the majority of parameters assessed with only a signification deviation from the reference CA and IA models being found for C. riparius respiration data contrary to the ANOVA results. Exposure to imidacloprid also compromised antipredator behavioural responses of both insect species, with potential negative consequences in terms of mortality from predation in the field. The results obtained demonstrate that natural and anthropogenic stressors can be treated within the same framework providing compatible data for modelling. For an improved interpretation of ecological effects it will be important to expand the mechanistic study of effects of combined exposure to pesticides and perceived predation risk

  2. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as

  3. Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.

  4. Exposure to pesticides or solvents and risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Gianni; Cereda, Emanuele

    2013-05-28

    To investigate the risk of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with exposure to pesticides and solvents using meta-analyses of data from cohort and case-control studies. Prospective cohort and case-control studies providing risk and precision estimates relating PD to exposure to pesticides or solvents or to proxies of exposure were considered eligible. The heterogeneity in risk estimates associated with objective study quality was also investigated. A total of 104 studies/3,087 citations fulfilled inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. In prospective studies, study quality was not a source of heterogeneity. PD was associated with farming and the association with pesticides was highly significant in the studies in which PD diagnosis was self-reported. In case-control studies, study quality appeared to be a source of heterogeneity in risk estimates for some exposures. Higher study quality was frequently associated with a reduction in heterogeneity. In high-quality case-control studies, PD risk was increased by exposure to any-type pesticides, herbicides, and solvents. Exposure to paraquat or maneb/mancozeb was associated with about a 2-fold increase in risk. In high-quality case-control studies including an appreciable number of cases (>200), heterogeneity remained significantly high (>40%) only for insecticides, organochlorines, organophosphates, and farming; also, the risk associated with rural living was found to be significant. The literature supports the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides or solvents is a risk factor for PD. Further prospective and high-quality case-control studies are required to substantiate a cause-effect relationship. The studies should also focus on specific chemical agents.

  5. Ecological models and pesticide risk assessment: current modeling practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; Chapman, Peter; Grimm, Volker

    2010-04-01

    Ecological risk assessments of pesticides usually focus on risk at the level of individuals, and are carried out by comparing exposure and toxicological endpoints. However, in most cases the protection goal is populations rather than individuals. On the population level, effects of pesticides depend not only on exposure and toxicity, but also on factors such as life history characteristics, population structure, timing of application, presence of refuges in time and space, and landscape structure. Ecological models can integrate such factors and have the potential to become important tools for the prediction of population-level effects of exposure to pesticides, thus allowing extrapolations, for example, from laboratory to field. Indeed, a broad range of ecological models have been applied to chemical risk assessment in the scientific literature, but so far such models have only rarely been used to support regulatory risk assessments of pesticides. To better understand the reasons for this situation, the current modeling practice in this field was assessed in the present study. The scientific literature was searched for relevant models and assessed according to nine characteristics: model type, model complexity, toxicity measure, exposure pattern, other factors, taxonomic group, risk assessment endpoint, parameterization, and model evaluation. The present study found that, although most models were of a high scientific standard, many of them would need modification before they are suitable for regulatory risk assessments. The main shortcomings of currently available models in the context of regulatory pesticide risk assessments were identified. When ecological models are applied to regulatory risk assessments, we recommend reviewing these models according to the nine characteristics evaluated here. (c) 2010 SETAC.

  6. An industry approach to the risk assessment of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The regulatory control of pesticides has developed over the last 40 years during which time major changes have occurred, not only in the scientific basis of risk assessment but also in the socio-political perception of pesticides and of the agricultural and chemical industries. Traditionally, and logically, the registration of pesticides has been based on a pre-marketing risk-benefit assessment by but changes have occurred in the relative importance associated with the two elements of this assessment. These potential risks have assumed a greater importance as has the acceptability of such risks. By contrast the benefits of using plant protection products to increase agricultural productivity and production has assumed less importance in the light of perceived agricultural surpluses, at least in the Developed Countries. This paper will consider current and future regulatory requirements for pesticides and identify some of the key areas which are of importance to the Plant Protection Industry. It will also discuss initiatives, by both the Industry and Government, aimed at ensuring the safe use of plant protection products, how such initiatives are likely to impact on new product developments and the consequential effects on global food supplies

  7. An industry approach to the risk assessment of pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Barry [Schering Agrochemicals Ltd., Chesterford Park Research Station, Saffron Walder, Essex (United Kingdom)

    1992-07-01

    The regulatory control of pesticides has developed over the last 40 years during which time major changes have occurred, not only in the scientific basis of risk assessment but also in the socio-political perception of pesticides and of the agricultural and chemical industries. Traditionally, and logically, the registration of pesticides has been based on a pre-marketing risk-benefit assessment by but changes have occurred in the relative importance associated with the two elements of this assessment. These potential risks have assumed a greater importance as has the acceptability of such risks. By contrast the benefits of using plant protection products to increase agricultural productivity and production has assumed less importance in the light of perceived agricultural surpluses, at least in the Developed Countries. This paper will consider current and future regulatory requirements for pesticides and identify some of the key areas which are of importance to the Plant Protection Industry. It will also discuss initiatives, by both the Industry and Government, aimed at ensuring the safe use of plant protection products, how such initiatives are likely to impact on new product developments and the consequential effects on global food supplies.

  8. Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risks of Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gary M; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Stevenson, David K; Carmichael, Suzan L; English, Paul B

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides exposures are aspects of the human exposome that have not been sufficiently studied for their contribution to risk for preterm birth. We investigated risks of spontaneous preterm birth from potential residential exposures to 543 individual chemicals and 69 physicochemical groupings that were applied in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the study period, 1998-2011. The study population was derived from birth certificate data linked with Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maternal and infant hospital discharge data. After exclusions, the analytic study base included 197,461 term control births and 27,913 preterm case births. Preterm cases were more narrowly defined as 20-23 weeks (n = 515), 24-27 weeks (n = 1,792), 28-31 weeks (n = 3,098), or 32-36 weeks (n = 22,508). The frequency of any (versus none) pesticide exposure was uniformly lower in each preterm case group relative to the frequency in term controls, irrespective of gestational month of exposure. All odds ratios were below 1.0 for these any versus no exposure comparisons. The majority of odds ratios were below 1.0, many of them statistically precise, for preterm birth and exposures to specific chemical groups or chemicals. This study showed a general lack of increased risk of preterm birth associated with a range of agriculture pesticide exposures near women's residences.

  9. South African farm workers' interpretation of risk assessment data expressed as pictograms on pesticide labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2008-01-01

    chemical labels under the new Globally Harmonized System for the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS). Particularly as the GHS pictograms were not piloted prior to adoption of the system and represent complex risk assessment data such as chronic hazards. Public health and pesticide policy, backed by relevant research, need to address developing applicable and effective pesticide risk communication tools, particularly for developing country populations. Merely providing risk assessment derived information in a pictogram does not ensure that an end-user will interpret the message as intended and be able to make risk decisions which mitigate risks from exposures to pesticides or chemicals in general

  10. Risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Lian, Xin-Ying; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; He, Xiao-Song

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural regions are a significant source of groundwater pesticide pollution. To ensure that agricultural regions with a significantly high risk of groundwater pesticide contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater pesticide contamination is needed. In the present paper, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions was established. The method encompasses 3 phases, including indicator selection, characterization, and classification. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 17 indicators involving the physicochemical properties, environmental behavior characteristics, pesticide application methods, and inherent vulnerability of groundwater in the agricultural region were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined using K-means cluster analysis based on a survey of a typical agricultural region and the physical and chemical properties of 300 typical pesticides. The total risk characterization was calculated by multiplying the risk value of each indicator, which could effectively avoid the subjectivity of index weight calculation and identify the main factors associated with the risk. The results indicated that the risk for groundwater pesticide contamination from agriculture in a region could be ranked into 4 classes from low to high risk. This method was applied to an agricultural region in Jiangsu Province, China, and it showed that this region had a relatively high risk for groundwater contamination from pesticides, and that the pesticide application method was the primary factor contributing to the relatively high risk. The risk ranking method was determined to be feasible, valid, and able to provide reference data related to the risk management of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1052-1059. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Risk from environmental chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somers, E [Environmental Health Directorate, Health Protection Branch, Health and Welfare Canada, Ontario

    1982-01-01

    The elements of risk assessment, namely risk identification, risk estimation, risk evaluation and risk management, are described with respect to the control of environmental chemicals. The methodology of risk estimation is outlined and examples given of its application to regulatory decision-making for a number of chemicals in Canada. Finally, the extent and limitations of the process of risk evaluation are considered together with the need to recognize the importance of the public's perception of the level of risk.

  12. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  13. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  14. Preliminary risk assessment of common-use pesticides using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of PESTicides) models to predict pesticide exposure and effects on aquatic ecosystems due to spray drift. Vaalharts Irrigation. Scheme is ... to note that PRIMET only accounts for risk due to spray drift and therefore the risk might be ...... Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent. Ecological Division, Duluth ...

  15. Environmental problems and risk for the use of pesticides in Sinaloa

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Durga Rodríguez Meza; Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    In Sinaloa the production of grains and vegetables is one of the most important in Mexico; however, farming activities is support on the use of high volume of chemical pesticides, which has been negative environment impact. This paper present a review of the main causes and effects of the excessive application of pesticides in major field crops, which result in the possibility of increase the risk of environment pollution in the soil, groundwater, and lagoons system. Also are present alternat...

  16. Occurrence of pesticide non extractable residues in physical and chemical fractions from two natural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, K.; Jones, K.; Semple, K.

    2009-04-01

    Distribution of pesticide non extractable residues resulted from the incubation of two natural soils with each of the isoproturon, diazinon and cypermethrin pesticide was assessed in this study. Pesticide non extractable residues distribution in soil physical and chemical fractions is known to ultimately affect their fate. This study aimed to address the fate and behaviour of the non extractable residues in the context of their association with soil physical and chemical fractions with varying properties and characteristics. Non extractable residues were formed from incubation of each pesticide in the two natural soils over a period of 24 months. Soils containing the non extractable residues were fractionated into three solid phase fractions using a physical fractionation procedure as follows: Sediment (SED, >20 μm), (II) Microaggregate (MA, 20-2 μm) and (III) Colloid phase (COL, 2-0.05 μm). Each soil fraction was then fractionated into organic carbon chemical fractionations as follows: Fulvic acid (FA), Humic acid (HA) and Humin (HM). Significant amount of the pesticides was lost during the incubation period. Enrichment factors for the organic carbon and the 14C-pesticide residues were higher in the MA and COL fraction rather than the SED fraction. Greater association and enrichment of the fulvic acid fraction of the organic carbon in the soil was observed. Non extractable residues at the FA fraction showed to diminish while in the HA fraction were increased with decreasing the fraction size. An appreciable amount of non extractable residues were located in the HM fraction but this was less than the amount recovered in the humic substances. Long term fate of pesticide non extractable residues in the soil structural components is important in order to assess any risk associated with them.

  17. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  18. Evaluation of methodologies for risk assessment of combined toxic actions of chemical substances and establishment of PBTK/TD models for pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reffstrup, Trine Klein

    for pragmatic reasons, it is often more appropriate to consider the individual compounds as possible candidates for one (or more) cumulative assessment group(s). The cumulative risk assessment of this group will then be performed assuming simple similar action using one of the single compound approaches...... will consists of sets of identical equations, one set for each chemical as well as equations that specifically accounts for the interactions (e.g. competitive inhibition of metabolism in liver or induction of hepatic metabolism). The development of PBTK models is complex and should only be used when...

  19. Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide use and off-site risk assessment: a case study of glyphosate fate in Chinese Loess soil

    Xiaomei Yang

    Abstract: Repeated applications of pesticide may contaminate the soil and water, threatening their quality within the

  20. Integration of transport concepts for risk assessment of pesticide erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Xiaomei; Zee, van der Sjoerd E.A.T.M.; Gai, Lingtong; Wesseling, Jan G.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2016-01-01

    Environmental contamination by agrochemicals has been a large problem for decades. Pesticides are transported in runoff and remain attached to eroded soil particles, posing a risk to water and soil quality and human health. We have developed a parsimonious integrative model of pesticide

  1. Chemical Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course is aimed at providing an overview of the fundamental guiding principles and general methods used in chemical risk assessment. Chemical risk assessment is a complex and ever-evolving process. These principles and methods have been organized by the National Research Cou...

  2. Risk, Environment and Pesticides in Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Emília de Sousa Viegas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effects associated with pesticides are well attuned to the typical risks of the late modernity: they are unlimited in time and space and have catastrophic potential. Because those are severe consequences risks, the contribution of social risk theory can be applied in the analysis of the way in wich brazilian law deal with pesticides. The paper proposes to discuss the prohibitive instruments foreseen or not in the federal law on pesticides, as well as in the law of the State of Maranhão that disposes on the matter.

  3. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jing; Zhao Meirong; Liu Jing; Liu Weiping

    2010-01-01

    Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article. - Chiral pesticides could pose unpredictable enantioselective toxicity on non-target organisms.

  5. Integration of transport concepts for risk assessment of pesticide erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaomei; Van Der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Gai, Lingtong; Wesseling, Jan G; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2016-05-01

    Environmental contamination by agrochemicals has been a large problem for decades. Pesticides are transported in runoff and remain attached to eroded soil particles, posing a risk to water and soil quality and human health. We have developed a parsimonious integrative model of pesticide displacement by runoff and erosion that explicitly accounts for water infiltration, erosion, runoff, and pesticide transport and degradation in soil. The conceptual framework was based on broadly accepted assumptions such as the convection-dispersion equation and lognormal distributions of soil properties associated with transport, sorption, degradation, and erosion. To illustrate the concept, a few assumptions are made with regard to runoff in relatively flat agricultural fields: dispersion is ignored and erosion is modelled by a functional relationship. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the total mass of pesticide associated with soil eroded by water scouring increased with slope, rain intensity, and water field capacity of the soil. The mass of transported pesticide decreased as the micro-topography of the soil surface became more distinct. The timing of pesticide spraying and rate of degradation before erosion negatively affected the total amount of transported pesticide. The mechanisms involved in pesticide displacement, such as runoff, infiltration, soil erosion, and pesticide transport and decay in the topsoil, were all explicitly accounted for, so the mathematical complexity of their description can be high, depending on the situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pesticide Cumulative Risk Assessment: Framework for Screening Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on how to screen groups of pesticides for cumulative evaluation using a two-step approach: begin with evaluation of available toxicological information and, if necessary, follow up with a risk-based screening approach.

  7. 77 FR 76979 - Pesticides; Revisions to Minimum Risk Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... industries such as animal feed (NAICS code 311119), cosmetics (NAICS code 325620), and soap and detergents... reporting of production to EPA. To meet the criteria for the minimum risk exemption, a pesticide must...

  8. Use-exposure relationships of pesticides for aquatic risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhou Luo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM. The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides from aerobic soil metabolism half-life (AERO, organic carbon-normalized soil sorption coefficient (KOC, and application rate (RATE. In a case study of California crop scenarios, the relationships explained 90-95% of the variances in the peak concentrations of dissolved pesticides as predicted by PRZM simulations for a 30-year period. KOC was identified as the governing parameter in determining the relative magnitudes of pesticide exposures in a given crop scenario. The results of model application also indicated that the effects of chemical fate processes such as partitioning and degradation on pesticide exposure were similar among crop scenarios, while the cross-scenario variations were mainly associated with the landscape characteristics, such as organic carbon contents and curve numbers. With a minimum set of input data, the use-exposure relationships proposed in this study could be used in screening procedures for potential water quality impacts from the off-site movement of pesticides.

  9. Pesticides in the Ebro River basin: Occurrence and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ccanccapa, Alexander; Masiá, Ana; Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 50 pesticides were analyzed in the Ebro River basin in 2010 and 2011 to assess their impact in water, sediment and biota. A special emphasis was placed on the potential effects of both, individual pesticides and their mixtures, in three trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish) using Risk Quotients (RQs) and Toxic Units (TUs) for water and sediments. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and carbendazim were the most frequent in water (95, 95 and 70% of the samples, respectively). Imazalil (409.73 ng/L) and diuron (150 ng/L) were at the highest concentrations. Sediment and biota were less contaminated. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon and diclofenthion were the most frequent in sediments (82, 45 and 21% of the samples, respectively). The only pesticide detected in biota was chlorpyrifos (up to 840.2 ng g"−"1). Ecotoxicological risk assessment through RQs showed that organophosphorus and azol presented high risk for algae; organophosphorus, benzimidazoles, carbamates, juvenile hormone mimic and other pesticides for daphnia, and organophosphorus, azol and juvenile hormone mimics for fish. The sum TU_s_i_t_e for water and sediments showed values < 1 for the three bioassays. In both matrices, daphnia and fish were more sensitive to the mixture of pesticide residues present. - Highlights: • Wide occurrence of pesticides in water and in lesser extent in sediment and biota. • Ecotoxicological pesticide risk assessment in the Ebro river and its tributaries. • Sum TU_s_i_t_e pointed out daphnia as more sensitive to the pesticide residue mixture. • Chronic toxicity test (RQ) showed risk in three trophic level (algae, daphnia and fish). - Evidence of water, sediment and biota contamination by a cocktail of pesticide residues especially hazardous for Daphnia.

  10. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides: state of the art and prospective improvement from science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Arnaud; Poulsen, Véronique

    2017-03-01

    Pesticide risk assessment in the European regulatory framework is mandatory performed for active substances (pesticides) and the plant protection products they are constituents of. The aim is to guarantee that safe use can be achieved for the intended use of the product. This paper provides a feedback on the regulatory environmental risk assessment performed for pesticide registration at the EU and member state levels. The different steps of pesticide registration are addressed considering both exposure and hazard. In this paper, we focus on the environmental fate and behaviour in surface water together with the aquatic ecotoxicity of the substances to illustrate pesticide regulatory risk assessment performed for aquatic organisms. Current methodologies are presented along with highlights on potential improvements. For instance, as regards exposure aspects, moving from field based to landscape risk assessments is promising. Regarding ecotoxicology, ecological models may be valuable tools when applied to chemical risk assessment. In addition, interest and further developments to better take into account mitigation measures in risk assessment and management are also presented.

  11. Current Chemical Risk Management Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's existing chemicals programs address pollution prevention, risk assessment, hazard and exposure assessment and/or characterization, and risk management for chemicals substances in commercial use.

  12. Combining polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) with toxicity testing to evaluate pesticide mixture effects on natural phototrophic biofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesce, Stephane; Morin, Soizic; Lissalde, Sophie; Montuelle, Bernard; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) are valuable tools in passive sampling methods for monitoring polar organic pesticides in freshwaters. Pesticides extracted from the environment using such methods can be used to toxicity tests. This study evaluated the acute effects of POCIS extracts on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. Our results demonstrate an effect of POCIS pesticide mixtures on chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. Nevertheless, the range of biofilm responses differs according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing spatial variations in the sensitivity of natural communities in the studied stream. Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Research highlights: → Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were used for monitoring polar organic pesticides in a contaminated river. → The acute effects of POCIS extracts were tested on natural phototrophic biofilm communities. → POCIS pesticide mixtures affected chlorophyll a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure. → Biofilm responses differed according to origin of the biofilms tested, revealing variations in the sensitivity of natural communities. → Combining passive sampler extracts with community-level toxicity tests offers promising perspectives for ecological risk assessment. - Pesticide mixtures extracted from POCIS can affect chl a fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and community structure of natural biofilms.

  13. [Chemical risk in farming].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The most important chemical risks in agriculture are plant protection products. Exposure evaluation in agriculture is not an easy task and cannot be carried out with the tools and methodologies of industrial exposures. However, toxicological studies on plant protection products, that are compulsory, provide a lot of useful information for actual risk assessment. Exposure evaluation can be carried out on the basis of exposure models and on semiquantitative measures based on the observation of the activity as it is carried our by the farmer. It is therefore possible to develop risk profiles that can guide exposure evaluation and health surveillance. Concentrated animal feeding operations are associated with several chemical risks including disinfectants, antibiotics, and gases such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, in addition to organic dusts and endotoxins.

  14. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  15. Amphibians at risk? Susceptibility of terrestrial amphibian life stages to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Carsten A; Pieper, Silvia; Weber, Brigitte

    2011-11-01

    Current pesticide risk assessment does not specifically consider amphibians. Amphibians in the aquatic environment (aquatic life stages or postmetamorphic aquatic amphibians) and terrestrial living juvenile or adult amphibians are assumed to be covered by the risk assessment for aquatic invertebrates and fish, or mammals and birds, respectively. This procedure has been evaluated as being sufficiently protective regarding the acute risk posed by a number of pesticides to aquatic amphibian life stages (eggs, larvae). However, it is unknown whether the exposure and sensitivity of terrestrial living amphibians are comparable to mammalian and avian exposure and sensitivity. We reviewed the literature on dermal pesticide absorption and toxicity studies for terrestrial life stages of amphibians, focusing on the dermal exposure pathway, that is, through treated soil or direct overspray. In vitro studies demonstrated that cutaneous absorption of chemicals is significant and that chemical percutaneous passage, P (cm/h), is higher in amphibians than in mammals. In vivo, the rapid and substantial uptake of the herbicide atrazine from treated soil by toads (Bufo americanus) has been described. Severe toxic effects on various amphibian species have been reported for field-relevant application rates of different pesticides. In general, exposure and toxicity studies for terrestrial amphibian life stages are scarce, and the reported data indicate the need for further research, especially in light of the global amphibian decline. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  16. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2015-11-01

    Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N=31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993-1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure-response pattern for husband's cumulative use of these pesticides. ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N = 31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. Methods AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993–1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. Results We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure–response pattern for husband’s cumulative use of these pesticides. Conclusions ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. PMID:26505650

  18. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stores. Exposure to pesticides can happen in the workplace, through foods that are eaten, and in the ... or place bait in areas where children or pets have access. DO NOT stock up on pesticides, ...

  19. Evaluation of FOCUS surface water pesticide concentration predictions and risk assessment of field-measured pesticide mixtures-a crop-based approach under Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana Santos; Daam, Michiel A; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2017-07-01

    FOCUS models are used in the European regulatory risk assessment (RA) to predict individual pesticide concentrations in edge-of-field surface waters. The scenarios used in higher tier FOCUS simulations were mainly based on Central/North European, and work is needed to underpin the validity of simulated exposure profiles for Mediterranean agroecosystems. In addition, the RA of chemicals are traditionally evaluated on the basis of single substances although freshwater life is generally exposed to a multitude of pesticides. In the present study, we monitored 19 pesticides in surface waters of five locations in the Portuguese 'Lezíria do Tejo' agricultural area. FOCUS step 3 simulations were performed for the South European scenarios to estimate predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). We verified that 44% of the PECs underestimated the measured environmental concentrations (MEC) of the pesticides, showing a non-compliance with the field data. Risk was assessed by comparing the environmental quality standards (EQS) and regulatory acceptable concentrations with their respective MECs. Risk of mixtures was demonstrated in 100% of the samples with insecticides accounting for 60% of the total risk identified. The overall link between the RA and the actual situation in the field must be considerably strengthened, and field studies on pesticide exposure and effects should be carried out to assist the improvement of predictive approaches used for regulatory purposes.

  20. CMP [Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides] Pits: Environmental information document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.C.; Kolb, N.L.; Price, V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    This document provides environmental information on postulated closure options for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits at the Savannah River Plant and was developed as background technical documentation for the Department of Energy's proposed Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on waste management activities for groundwater protection at the plant. The results of groundwater and atmospheric pathway analyses, accident analysis, and other environmental assessments discussed in this document are based upon a conservative analysis of all foreseeable scenarios as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (40 CFR 1500-1508). The scenarios do not necessarily represent actual environmental conditions. This document is not meant to be used as a regulatory closure plan or other regulatory document to comply with required federal or state environmental regulations

  1. A moni-modelling approach to manage groundwater risk to pesticide leaching at regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, Andrea; Finizio, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Historically, the approach used to manage risk of chemical contamination of water bodies is based on the use of monitoring programmes, which provide a snapshot of the presence/absence of chemicals in water bodies. Monitoring is required in the current EU regulations, such as the Water Framework Directive (WFD), as a tool to record temporal variation in the chemical status of water bodies. More recently, a number of models have been developed and used to forecast chemical contamination of water bodies. These models combine information of chemical properties, their use, and environmental scenarios. Both approaches are useful for risk assessors in decision processes. However, in our opinion, both show flaws and strengths when taken alone. This paper proposes an integrated approach (moni-modelling approach) where monitoring data and modelling simulations work together in order to provide a common decision framework for the risk assessor. This approach would be very useful, particularly for the risk management of pesticides at a territorial level. It fulfils the requirement of the recent Sustainable Use of Pesticides Directive. In fact, the moni-modelling approach could be used to identify sensible areas where implement mitigation measures or limitation of use of pesticides, but even to effectively re-design future monitoring networks or to better calibrate the pedo-climatic input data for the environmental fate models. A case study is presented, where the moni-modelling approach is applied in Lombardy region (North of Italy) to identify groundwater vulnerable areas to pesticides. The approach has been applied to six active substances with different leaching behaviour, in order to highlight the advantages in using the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of risk quotient and probabilistic approaches to assess risks of pesticides to birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    When conducting ecological risk assessments for pesticides, the United States Environmental Protection Agency typically relies upon the risk quotient (RQ). This approach is intended to be conservative in nature, making assumptions related to exposure and effects that are intended...

  3. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 39 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Via linkage to the US Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrolment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55 580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided information on use of pesticides via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: (1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 39 pesticides, (2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures and (3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalisation. Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide permethrin. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR=2.13; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.89) and hospitalisation due to pesticide use (HR=3.05; 95% CI 1.67 to 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides, and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00352924. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Environmental problems and risk for the use of pesticides in Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Durga Rodríguez Meza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the production of grains and vegetables is one of the most important in Mexico; however, farming activities is support on the use of high volume of chemical pesticides, which has been negative environment impact. This paper present a review of the main causes and effects of the excessive application of pesticides in major field crops, which result in the possibility of increase the risk of environment pollution in the soil, groundwater, and lagoons system. Also are present alternatives and regulation issues for the application, management and waste of chemical pesticides, as well asthe implementation of organic agriculture and use of biopesticides for the control of pests and diseases. The information reflected a high quantity of toxic substances from agriculture activities to the environment, so that the risk of pesticide residues to cause contamination in ground, systems lagoons and ground water is too high, for this reason is a just moment to conduct research, actions and implementation of more stringent regulatory issues in order to low the intake of these substances to the environment.

  5. Data on application frequency of pesticide for risk assessment purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drooge, H.L. van; Groeneveld, C.N.; Schipper, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In risk assessment, information from toxicity studies is combined with information on worker exposure. In general, agricultural practice implies long-term intermittent exposure to various pesticides. This issue can only be addressed when sufficient information exist, on exposure regimes. Patterns of

  6. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of EndometriosisGermaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza51Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  8. Governmental management of chemical risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.

    1990-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: risk management in the government context; legal and regulatory decrees and directives for managing chemical risk; incentive-based approaches for regulating risk; risk management in the federal system; and traditional approaches and new initiatives for managing chemical risk

  9. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  10. Pollution level and human health risk assessment of some pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Nantong of Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Wang; Li Yi; Lili Shi; Deyang Kong; Daoji Cai; Donghua Wang; Zhengjun Shan

    2012-01-01

    Food consumption is one of the key exposure routes of humans to contaminants.This article evaluated the residue levels of 51 pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in selected fish and food items which were commonly consumed in the Nantong area of Jiangsu Province,Southeast China.The 51 pesticides and 16 PCBs were analyzed by highly sensitive gas chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS).The results showed that organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs),hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs),hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex and other pesticides including chlorpyrifos,pyrethroid pesticides,metolachlor,pyridaben and trifluralin were frequently detected in the samples,which was consistent with the accumulation level and characteristics of these toxic chemicals in human adipose tissue of people living in Nantong.Meanwhile,correlation of the residue level of toxic chemicals with their physical chemical properties and historic use pattern in Nantong area was observed.Combined with dietary survey results at the same sampling locations,human health risk assessment of ingestion through the dietary route was performed.The results suggested that the non-cancer risks of the chemicals investigated can be considered negligible in the Nantong area,however,the cancer risks from lifetime dietary exposure to DDTs and HCB have exceeded the acceptable levels.

  11. PRN 97-3: Guidelines for Expedited Review of Conventional Pesticides under the Reduced-Risk Initiative and for Biological Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA encourages the development, registration and use of lower-risk pesticide products which would result in reduced risks to human health and the environment. This Pesticide Registration notice and the related web page explain the process and criteria.

  12. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk of Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R.; Shalat, Stuart L.; Buckley, Brian; Winnik, Bozena; O’Suilleabhain, Padraig; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Reisch, Joan; German, Dwight C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to pesticides has been reported to increase the risk of Parkinson disease (PD), but identification of the specific pesticides is lacking. Three studies have found elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides in postmortem PD brains. Objective To determine whether elevated levels of organochlorine pesticides are present in the serum of patients with PD. Design Case-control study. Setting An academic medical center. Participants Fifty patients with PD, 43 controls, and 20 patients with Alzheimer disease. Main Outcome Measures Levels of 16 organochlorine pesticides in serum samples. Results β-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was more often detectable in patients with PD (76%) compared with controls (40%) and patients with Alzheimer disease (30%). The median level of β-HCH was higher in patients with PD compared with controls and patients with Alzheimer disease. There were no marked differences in detection between controls and patients with PD concerning any of the other 15 organochlorine pesticides. Finally, we observed a significant odds ratio for the presence of β-HCH in serum to predict a diagnosis of PD vs control (odds ratio, 4.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.67–11.6) and PD vs Alzheimer disease (odds ratio, 5.20), which provides further evidence for the apparent association between serum β-HCH and PD. Conclusions These data suggest that β-HCH is associated with a diagnosis of PD. Further research is warranted regarding the potential role of β-HCH as a etiologic agent for some cases of PD. PMID:19597089

  13. Factors Influencing the Spatial Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides in Soils surrounding Chemical Industrial Parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, G.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Zhang, X.; Han, J.Y.; Luo, W.; Shi, Y.J.; Li, J.; Jiao, W.T.

    2009-01-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 105) were collected to Study the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) residues in the vicinity of chemical industrial parks in Tianjin, China. The occurrence and distribution of target organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were mapped

  14. Kinetics of heterogeneous chemical reactions: a theoretical model for the accumulation of pesticides in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S H; Sahai, R; Eyring, H

    1971-04-01

    A theoretical model for the accumulation of pesticides in soil has been proposed and discussed from the viewpoint of heterogeneous reaction kinetics with a basic aim to understand the complex nature of soil processes relating to the environmental pollution. In the bulk of soil, the pesticide disappears by diffusion and a chemical reaction; the rate processes considered on the surface of soil are diffusion, chemical reaction, vaporization, and regular pesticide application. The differential equations involved have been solved analytically by the Laplace-transform method.

  15. Health and occupational risks due to pesticide handling among agricultural workers in marinilla, antioquia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Tabares L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has played a key role in the development of Colombia’s economy and rural communities. The Marinilla municipality, located in the eastern area of the department of Antioquia, bases its economy in agriculture and livestock activities. This requires the use of a wide variety of chemical products that pose health risks. Objective: to describe the occupational and health risks of the farmers who use pesticides in Marinilla. Methodology: a descriptive study with multistage sampling and a sample of 157 farmers. Results: 64.9% of the farmers combine more than two chemicals. 83% of them have received no training on safe handling of agricultural chemical products. Approximately 80% of these individuals do not use the appropriate protective equipment to perform this task. Only 2.5 % of the farmers have occupational risks insurance. The most common disease was acute respiratory infection (78%. 22.3% have suffered from acute intoxication, and 14% (11 of the female farmers who have ever been intoxicated had abortions, premature births, or bore children with some kind of disability. A statistically significant difference was found between the age of farmers and pesticide usage time. No statistical difference was found between low schooling level and knowledge of the risks posed by chemical products. Conclusion: most agricultural workers have not been trained in safety standards; therefore, they disregard all kinds of safety measures during their work, and act without safety in mind and without personal hygiene habits.

  16. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel discrete pest population growth models with both impulsive chemical control and the evolution of pesticide resistance. Strong and weak threshold conditions which guarantee the extinction of the pest population, based on the threshold values of the analytical formula for the optimal switching time, were derived. Further, we addressed switching strategies in the light of chosen economic injury levels. Moreover, the effects of the complex dynamical behaviour of the pest population on the pesticide switching times were also studied. The pesticide application period, the evolution of pesticide resistance and the dynamic complexity of the pest population may result in complex outbreak patterns, with consequent effects on the pesticide switching strategies.

  17. Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-12-01

    In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems.

  18. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  19. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. PMID:24718419

  20. Integrated modeling of pesticide risks to breeding birds in North American agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide usage in the United States is ubiquitous in urban, suburban, and rural environments. Scientists at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) assess the fate of pesticides and the risk those pesticides pose to the environment and non-target wildlife. We p...

  1. Risk factors for acute pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hoek, Wim; Konradsen, Flemming

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of patients with acute pesticide poisoning in a rural area of Sri Lanka and, for intentional self-poisoning cases, explores the relative importance of the different determinants. Data were collected for 239 acute pesticide-poisoning cases, which were...... admitted to two rural hospitals in Sri Lanka. Sociodemographic characteristics, negative life events and agricultural practices of the intentional self-poisoning cases were compared with a control group. Most cases occurred among young adults and the large majority (84%) was because of intentional self-poisoning....... Case fatality was 18% with extremely high case fatality for poisoning with the insecticide endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat. Cases were generally younger than controls, of lower educational status and were more often unemployed. No agricultural risk factors were found but a family history...

  2. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J; Scholtz, M Trevor

    2011-01-01

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  3. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Scholtz, M Trevor, E-mail: sloanj@connect.uwaterloo.ca [ORTECH Environmental, 2395 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON L5K 1B3 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  4. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: I. Model development and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Scholtz, M. Trevor; Yang, Fuquan; Sloan, James J.

    2011-07-01

    We have combined the US EPA MM5/MCIP/SMOKE/CMAQ modeling system with a dynamic soil model, the pesticide emission model (PEM), to create a multimedia chemical transport model capable of describing the important physical and chemical processes involving pesticides in the soil, in the atmosphere, and on the surface of vegetation. These processes include: agricultural practices (e.g. soil tilling and pesticide application mode); advection and diffusion of pesticides, moisture, and heat in the soil; partitioning of pesticides between soil organic carbon and interstitial water and air; emissions from the soil to the atmosphere; gas-particle partitioning and transport in the atmosphere; and atmospheric chemistry and dry and wet deposition of pesticides to terrestrial and water surfaces. The modeling system was tested by simulating toxaphene in a domain that covers most of North America for the period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2000. The results show obvious transport of the pesticide from the heavily contaminated soils in the southern United States and Mexico to water bodies including the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Great Lakes, leading to significant dry and wet deposition into these ecosystems. The spatial distributions of dry and wet depositions differ because of their different physical mechanisms; the former follows the distribution of air concentrations whereas the latter is more biased to the North East due to the effect of precipitation.

  5. Individual Pesticides in Registration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    You can used the Chemical Search database to search pesticides by chemical name and find their registration review dockets, along with Work Plans, risk assessments, interim and final decisions, tolerance rules, and cancellation actions.

  6. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  7. Chemical pesticides and human health: The urgent need for a new concept in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  8. Risk factors associated with purchasing pesticide from shops for self-poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael

    2015-01-01

    of individuals who purchase pesticides directly from shops and how they differ from individuals who access pesticides from other sources such as home, home garden or farmland. This information will help inform possible vendor/shop-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing access to pesticides used for self-harm......INTRODUCTION: Pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most frequently used methods of suicide worldwide, killing over 300,000 people annually. Around 15-20% of pesticide self-poisonings occur soon after the person has bought the pesticide from a shop. We aim to determine the characteristics....... METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will investigate risk factors associated with purchasing pesticides for acts of self-poisoning from pesticide shops, including cases identified over a 9-month period using a population-based case-control group approach. Four interviewer-administered data collection tools...

  9. Assessing the risk of pesticide environmental impact in several Argentinian cropping systems with a fuzzy expert indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregui, María C; Sánchez, Daniel; Althaus, Rafael; Scotta, Roberto R; Bertolaccini, Isabel

    2010-07-01

    The introduction of transgenic soybean (Glycine max, L.) varieties resistant to glyphosate (GR soybeans) has rapidly expanded in Argentina, increasing pesticide use where only grasslands were previously cultivated. The authors compared an estimate of environmental risk for different crops and active ingredients using the IPEST index, which is based on a fuzzy-logic expert system. For IPEST calculations, four modules are defined, one reflecting the rate of application, the other three reflecting the risk for groundwater, surface water and air. The input variables are pesticide properties, site-specific conditions and characteristics of the pesticide application. The expert system calculates the value of modules according to the degree of membership of the input variables to the fuzzy subsets F (favourable) and U (unfavourable), and they can be aggregated following sets of decision rules. IPEST integrated values of >or= 7 reflect low environmental risk, and values of environmental contamination, and they are mainly used in maize. Groundwater was the most affected compartment. Fuzzy logic provided an easy tool combining different environmental components with pesticide properties to give a simple and accessible risk assessment. These findings provide information about active ingredients that should be replaced in order to protect water and air from pesticide contamination. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Worldwide Regulations of Standard Values of Pesticides for Human Health Risk Control: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs) have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs) for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs), eight (Lindane soil RGVs), or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs) orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total) that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total) exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total) that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major human exposure

  11. Worldwide Regulations of Standard Values of Pesticides for Human Health Risk Control: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijian; Jennings, Aaron

    2017-07-22

    Abstract : The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs) have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs) for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs), eight (Lindane soil RGVs), or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs) orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total) that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total) exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total) that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major human

  12. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in irrigation systems in Debra Zeit, Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, Berhan M.; Adriaanse, Pauline; Brink, Van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Since Ethiopia is going through a rapid transformation of its agricultural sector, we assessed the human health and environmental risks due to the past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as the risks of the current pesticide use by farmers. A monitoring programme and risk assessment

  13. A globally applicable location-specific screening model for assessing the relative risk of pesticide leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, M.J.; Davenport, E.J.; Smith, B.G.

    2007-01-01

    A screening model of pesticide leaching loss is described which forms part of a multi-criteria risk-based indicator system called PRoMPT (Pesticide Risk Management and Profiling Tool). The leaching model evaluates pesticide fate in soil for any application rate and time of application (including multiple applications), for any land-based location in the world. It considers a generic evaluative environment with fixed dimensions and soil properties. The soil profile is conceptualised as a number of discrete layers. Equilibrium partitioning between adsorbed and dissolved chemical (based on the organic carbon-water partition coefficient [K OC ]) is assumed in each time step, in each layer. Non-leaching losses are described using first order kinetics. Drainage is assumed to be uniform throughout the soil profile but varies temporally. The drainage rate, which can be augmented by evapotranspiration-adjusted irrigation, is derived from long-term mean monthly water balance model calculations performed for 30 arc-minute grid cells across the entire ice-free land surface of the earth. Although, such predictions are approximate, they do capture the seasonality and relative magnitude of drainage and allow the model to be applied anywhere, without the need for extensive data compilation. PRoMPT predictions are shown to be consistent with those made by more sophisticated models (PRZM, PELMO and PEARL) for the FOCUS groundwater scenarios

  14. A globally applicable location-specific screening model for assessing the relative risk of pesticide leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, M.J. [Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mick.whelan@unilever.com; Davenport, E.J. [Unilever Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Smith, B.G. [Unilever Sustainable Agriculture Team, Colworth House, Sharnbrook, Bedfordshire, MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    A screening model of pesticide leaching loss is described which forms part of a multi-criteria risk-based indicator system called PRoMPT (Pesticide Risk Management and Profiling Tool). The leaching model evaluates pesticide fate in soil for any application rate and time of application (including multiple applications), for any land-based location in the world. It considers a generic evaluative environment with fixed dimensions and soil properties. The soil profile is conceptualised as a number of discrete layers. Equilibrium partitioning between adsorbed and dissolved chemical (based on the organic carbon-water partition coefficient [K {sub OC}]) is assumed in each time step, in each layer. Non-leaching losses are described using first order kinetics. Drainage is assumed to be uniform throughout the soil profile but varies temporally. The drainage rate, which can be augmented by evapotranspiration-adjusted irrigation, is derived from long-term mean monthly water balance model calculations performed for 30 arc-minute grid cells across the entire ice-free land surface of the earth. Although, such predictions are approximate, they do capture the seasonality and relative magnitude of drainage and allow the model to be applied anywhere, without the need for extensive data compilation. PRoMPT predictions are shown to be consistent with those made by more sophisticated models (PRZM, PELMO and PEARL) for the FOCUS groundwater scenarios.

  15. Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases in Vietnam: A Focus on Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang V. Dang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Agent Orange, which was used in southern Vietnam, is confirmed the main source of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Since early 1990s, agriculture of Vietnam has attained advances under intensive cultivation. Both production and yields per crop have increased significantly at the farm level, but the quantity of pesticides used in agriculture also increased in the absence of regulations and good practices. Illegal business of pesticides with false labels, as well as marketing of expired or poor quality products in stores without license are popular in Vietnam. Misuse and improper use in agriculture in Vietnam has led to a variety of problems, such as environmental pollution (including food producing animals and adverse health impact on animals and humans. Open dumpsites worsen the general scenario. Similar to the environmental exposure, human exposure to DDT in Vietnam was ranked among the highest worldwide, with recognized effects. Exposed communities have to face birth defects, health disorders and non-communicable diseases (NCDs, from metabolic syndrome, asthma, infertility and other reproductive disorders through to diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. A common feature of many chronic disorders and NCDs is metabolic disruption: environmental chemical factors disturb cellular homeostasis, thus affecting the ability of the body to restore a functional internal environment. Among these, endocrine disrupting pesticides can interfere with the action of hormones including metabolic hormones, and are likely to represent the main concern for developmentally-induced NCDs. Since pesticides are often persistent and bio-accumulate in the food chain through the living environment of food-producing organisms, this paper discusses relevant aspects of risk assessment, risk communication and risk management.

  16. An Examination of Farmworker Pesticide Educators in a Southeastern State: Informal Science Educators and Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePrevost, Catherine E.

    2011-12-01

    Because pesticide exposure is a significant hazard to farmworkers in their working and living environments, basic pesticide toxicology is a topic for farmworker science education that has implications beyond scientific literacy to encompass farmworkers' safety and health. Migrant and seasonal farmworkers have been identified as an at-risk population because of the cultural and linguistic barriers they face, their temporary employment and tenuous documentation status, and their low literacy levels and limited formal education. Despite the key role of pesticide educators in promoting farmworker scientific literacy, safety, and health, data regarding pesticide educators are absent in the literature. This dissertation investigated the nature of pesticide educators in a southeastern state. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative methods, the three studies contained within this body of work characterize the personal beliefs---including pesticide risk, self-efficacy, and teaching beliefs---of pesticide educators, as well as educators' personal goals and their beliefs about the environments in which they pursue those goals. The research allowed for the creation of a profile of the organizations that and individuals who provide pesticide education to farmworkers in a highly agricultural state. The first study details the development and field testing of the Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory, a quantitative inventory to gauge pesticide risk beliefs, with a sample of pesticide educators (n=43) in a southeastern state. The 19-item, Likert-type inventory was found to be psychometrically sound with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.780 and a valuable tool in capturing pesticide educators' beliefs about pesticide risk, assessing beliefs in four key categories. The Pesticide Risk Beliefs Inventory could be useful in exploring beliefs about pesticide risks and guiding efforts to address misconceptions held by a variety of formal and informal science learners, educators, practitioners, the

  17. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. Our aim was to investigate the association between lifetime environmental exposure to individual pesticides and the risk of PD, in a national case-control study. Environmental exposure to pesticides was estimated using a spatio-temporal model, based on agricultural crops around the residential address. Distance up to 100m from the residence was considered most relevant, considering pesticide drift potential of application methods used in the Netherlands. Exposure estimates were generated for 157 pesticides, used during the study period, of which four (i.e. paraquat, maneb, lindane, benomyl) were considered a priori relevant for PD. A total of 352 PD cases and 607 hospital-based controls were included. No significant associations with PD were found for the a priori pesticides. In a hypothesis generating analysis, including 153 pesticides, increased risk of PD was found for 21 pesticides, mainly used on cereals and potatoes. Results were suggestive for an association between bulb cultivation and PD. For paraquat, risk estimates for the highest cumulative exposure tertile were in line with previously reported elevated risks. Increased risk of PD was observed for exposure to (a cluster of) pesticides used on rotating crops. High correlations limited our ability to identify individual pesticides responsible for this association. This study provides some evidence for an association between environmental exposure to specific pesticides and the risk of PD, and generates new leads for further epidemiological and mechanistic research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. In Silico Prediction for Intestinal Absorption and Brain Penetration of Chemical Pesticides in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chedik, Lisa; Mias-Lucquin, Dominique; Bruyere, Arnaud; Fardel, Olivier

    2017-06-30

    Intestinal absorption and brain permeation constitute key parameters of toxicokinetics for pesticides, conditioning their toxicity, including neurotoxicity. However, they remain poorly characterized in humans. The present study was therefore designed to evaluate human intestine and brain permeation for a large set of pesticides ( n = 338) belonging to various chemical classes, using an in silico graphical BOILED-Egg/SwissADME online method based on lipophilicity and polarity that was initially developed for drugs. A high percentage of the pesticides (81.4%) was predicted to exhibit high intestinal absorption, with a high accuracy (96%), whereas a lower, but substantial, percentage (38.5%) displayed brain permeation. Among the pesticide classes, organochlorines ( n = 30) constitute the class with the lowest percentage of intestine-permeant members (40%), whereas that of the organophosphorus compounds ( n = 99) has the lowest percentage of brain-permeant chemicals (9%). The predictions of the permeations for the pesticides were additionally shown to be significantly associated with various molecular descriptors well-known to discriminate between permeant and non-permeant drugs. Overall, our in silico data suggest that human exposure to pesticides through the oral way is likely to result in an intake of these dietary contaminants for most of them and brain permeation for some of them, thus supporting the idea that they have toxic effects on human health, including neurotoxic effects.

  19. Integration of sand and membrane filtration systems for iron and pesticide removal without chemical addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    the content of key foulants, the techniques can be used as a pre-treatment for nanofiltration and low pressure reverse osmosis that has proved to be capable of removing pesticides. It was found that a lower fouling potential could be obtained by using the membranes, but that sand filter was better at removing......Pilot plant investigations of sand and membrane filtration (MF/UF/NF/LPRO) have been performed to treat groundwater polluted with pesticides. The results show that simple treatment, with use of aeration and sand filtration or MF/UF membranes, does not remove pesticides. However, by reducing...... manganese and dissolved organic matter. The results indicate that combining aeration; sand filtration and membrane techniques might be a good option for pesticide removal without any addition of chemicals and minimized membrane maintenance....

  20. Managing Chemical & Material Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Certification Program Acquisition, Technology and Logistics 9 DoD Hexavalent Chromium Risk Reduction Non- Chrome Primer II EXAVAJ ENT CHROM lrUMI...Royal Demolition eXplosive (RDX) • Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine  Hexavalent Chromium (Cr6+) Naphthalene …pending downgrade to watch list Beryllium...T1me (secondo) 700 Acquisition, Technology and Logistics 10 Hexavalent Chromium Risk Management Actions • DoD minimization policy signed April

  1. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Patrick [Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XI, Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection (Belgium)

    1992-07-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  2. General approaches to the risk assessment of chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    In the context of the UNCED 92 'Earth Summit' in Rio, the following definition of chemical risk assessment has been developed: 'Chemical risk assessment is a scientific process that identifies and quantifies the potential adverse effects on human health or ecosystems of defined exposures to chemical substances, to mixtures that include chemicals, or to chemically hazardous processes or situations. Risk itself is the probability of the occurrence of a defined adverse effect in a defined group and in defined circumstances'. I would not be so impertinent as to try and improve upon a definition that has the tacit endorsement of the majority of world-leaders. Furthermore, I consider that too many man-years have been spent discussing this topic. Thankfully the UNCED definition recognises chemical risk assessment as being a process and not some immutable physical law. In this presentation I will attempt to explain some of the details and mechanisms of that process but first of all it is worthwhile to spend a few moments putting chemical risk assessment in its proper context and asking the simple question: why do we want/need to assess the potential risk of chemicals?. In general terms, chemicals risk assessment is carried out in order to ensure that neither man (consumer/worker/general public) nor the environment are exposed to unacceptable risks arising from the production, use and disposal of chemicals. At a national and/or international level, risk assessments are performed by the regulatory authorities before they accept notification dossiers (e.g. new industrial chemicals) or grant authorizations (e.g. pharmaceuticals, pesticides, cosmetics, food additives). At the local level, plant-operators must carry out risk assessments to ensure that in the particular circumstances of their factory the workers are adequately protected and that satisfactory accident prevention and contingency plans are prepared. Similarly, local authorities must carry out risk assessments before

  3. Pesticide-related safety risks among vegetable farmers: A Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common was organophosphate (45.2%). Twelve of the identified pesticide brands were insecticides while the remaining two were fungicides. Twenty-three practiced cocktailing of pesticides (60.5%), mostly to save time. The most common PPE used while spraying pesticides were gas masks, gloves and boots.

  4. Adjustments of the Pesticide Risk Index Used in Environmental Policy in Flanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevery, Davina; Peeters, Bob; Lenders, Sonia; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    Indicators are used to quantify the pressure of pesticides on the environment. Pesticide risk indicators typically require weighting environmental exposure by a no effect concentration. An indicator based on spread equivalents (ΣSeq) is used in environmental policy in Flanders (Belgium). The pesticide risk for aquatic life is estimated by weighting active ingredient usage by the ratio of their maximum allowable concentration and their soil halflife. Accurate estimates of total pesticide usage in the region are essential in such calculations. Up to 2012, the environmental impact of pesticides was estimated on sales figures provided by the Federal Government. Since 2013, pesticide use is calculated based on results from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN). The estimation of pesticide use was supplemented with data for non-agricultural use based on sales figures of amateur use provided by industry and data obtained from public services. The Seq-indicator was modified to better reflect reality. This method was applied for the period 2009-2012 and showed differences between estimated use and sales figures of pesticides. The estimated use of pesticides based on accountancy data is more accurate compared to sales figures. This approach resulted in a better view on pesticide use and its respective environmental impact in Flanders.

  5. Adjustments of the Pesticide Risk Index Used in Environmental Policy in Flanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davina Fevery

    Full Text Available Indicators are used to quantify the pressure of pesticides on the environment. Pesticide risk indicators typically require weighting environmental exposure by a no effect concentration. An indicator based on spread equivalents (ΣSeq is used in environmental policy in Flanders (Belgium. The pesticide risk for aquatic life is estimated by weighting active ingredient usage by the ratio of their maximum allowable concentration and their soil halflife. Accurate estimates of total pesticide usage in the region are essential in such calculations. Up to 2012, the environmental impact of pesticides was estimated on sales figures provided by the Federal Government. Since 2013, pesticide use is calculated based on results from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN. The estimation of pesticide use was supplemented with data for non-agricultural use based on sales figures of amateur use provided by industry and data obtained from public services. The Seq-indicator was modified to better reflect reality. This method was applied for the period 2009-2012 and showed differences between estimated use and sales figures of pesticides. The estimated use of pesticides based on accountancy data is more accurate compared to sales figures. This approach resulted in a better view on pesticide use and its respective environmental impact in Flanders.

  6. 9 CFR 318.16 - Pesticide chemicals and other residues in products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... ingredients. Residues of pesticide chemicals, food additives and color additives or other substances in or on ingredients (other than meat, meat byproducts, and meat food products) used in the formulation of products...

  7. Concern with the rural environment: urban views on the use of agricultural pesticides and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Jacob; A. E. Luloff

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the dimensions of agricultural chemical and pesticide concern, and its correlates. Concern was found to be broad, and not limited to food safety, environmentalism, or altruism. Social bases were found to be the best predictors of concern, followed by rural beliefs and attitudes, and rural visitation behavior.

  8. Interim Action Proposed Plan for the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this Interim Action Proposed Plan (IAPP) is to describe the preferred interim remedial action for addressing the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits Operable Unit and to provide an opportunity for public input into the remedial action selection process

  9. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture.

  10. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Board Review Course ACMT at NACCT Seminars in Forensic Toxicology Annual Scientific Meeting Past ACMT Courses Chemical Agents ... Training Research Webinar Other Enduring Education Seminar in Forensic Toxicology Webinar PEHSU National Classroom Toxicology Visual Pearls Chemical ...

  11. Elevated serum pesticide levels and risk for Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L; von Stein, Richard T; Hossain, Muhammad M; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I; German, Dwight C

    2014-03-01

    The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School's Alzheimer's Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54-5.82; P risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of DDE. Both DDT and DDE increase amyloid precursor protein levels, providing mechanistic plausibility for the association of DDE exposure with AD. Identifying people who have elevated levels of DDE and carry an APOE ε4 allele may lead to early identification of some cases of AD.

  12. Elevated Serum Pesticide Levels and Risk for Alzheimer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jason R.; Roy, Ananya; Shalat, Stuart L.; von Stein, Richard T.; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Buckley, Brian; Gearing, Marla; Levey, Allan I.; German, Dwight C.

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The causes of late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) are not yet understood but likely include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Limited epidemiological studies suggest that occupational pesticide exposures are associated with AD. Previously, we reported that serum levels of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the metabolite of the pesticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), were elevated in a small number of patients with AD (n=20). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between serum levels of DDE and AD and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modifies the association. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A case-control study consisting of existing samples from patients with AD and control participants from the Emory University Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School’s Alzheimer’s Disease Center. Serum levels of DDE were measured in 79 control and 86 AD cases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serum DDE levels, AD diagnosis, severity of AD measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination score, and interaction with APOE4 status. RESULTS Levels of DDE were 3.8-fold higher in the serum of those with AD (mean [SEM], 2.64 [0.35] ng/mg cholesterol) when compared with control participants (mean [SEM], 0.69 [0.1] ng/mg cholesterol; P risk for AD (95% CI, 2.54–5.82; P risk for AD and carriers of an APOE4 ε4 allele may be more susceptible to the effects of DDE. Both DDT and DDE increase amyloid precursor protein levels, providing mechanistic plausibility for the association of DDE exposure with AD. Identifying people who have elevated levels of DDE and carry an APOE ε4 allele may lead to early identification of some cases of AD. PMID:24473795

  13. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides With Occupational Sun Exposure Increases the Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Segatto M, Marjorie; Hohmann, Clarissa; Miligi, Lucia; Bakos, Lucio; Bonamigo, Renan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and cutaneous melanoma, controlling for all possible confounders. A pooled analysis of two case-control studies was conducted in two different geographic areas (Italy and Brazil). Detailed pesticides exposure histories were obtained. Ever use of any pesticide was associated with a high risk of cutaneous melanoma (odds ratio 2.58; 95% confidence interval 1.18-5.65) in particular exposure to herbicides (glyphosate) and fungicides (mancozeb, maneb), after controlling for confounding factors. When subjects were exposed to both pesticides and occupational sun exposure, the risk increased even more (odds ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 1.29-17.0). The study suggests an augmented risk of cutaneous melanoma among subjects with exposure to pesticides, in particular among those exposed to occupational sun exposure.

  14. Risk assessment of mixtures of pesticides. Current approaches and future strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Larsen, John Christian; Meyer, Otto A.

    2010-01-01

    The risk assessment of pesticide residues in food is based on toxicological evaluation of the single compounds and no internationally accepted procedure exists for evaluation of cumulative exposure to multiple residues of pesticides in crops, except for a few groups of pesticides sharing a group...... several approaches are available for the risk assessment of mixtures of pesticides. However, no single simple approach is available to judge upon potential interactions at the low doses that humans are exposed to from pesticide residues in food. In these cases, PBTK models could be useful as tools...... to assess combined tissue doses and to help predict potential interactions including thresholds for such effects. This would improve the quality of the risk assessment....

  15. Toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.K.; Davis, J.; Lee, L.; Lein, P.; Omberg, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents recommendations of a subcommittee of the Westinghouse M ampersand 0 Nuclear Facility Safety Committee concerning toxic chemical risk acceptance criteria. Two sets of criteria have been developed, one for use in the hazard classification of facilities, and the second for use in comparing risks in DOE non-reactor nuclear facility Safety Analysis Reports. The Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) values are intended to provide estimates of concentration ranges for specific chemicals above which exposure would be expected to lead to adverse heath effects of increasing severity for ERPG-1, -2, and -3s. The subcommittee recommends that criteria for hazard class or risk range be based on ERPGs for all chemicals. Probability-based Incremental Cancer Risk (ICR) criteria are recommended for additional analyses of risks from all known or suspected human carcinogens. Criteria are given for both on-site and off-site exposure. The subcommittee also recommends that the 5-minute peak concentration be compared with the relevant criterion with no adjustment for exposure time. Since ERPGs are available for only a limited number of chemicals, the subcommittee has developed a proposed hierarchy of concentration limit parameters for the different criteria

  16. Business Conflict and Risk Regulation: Understanding the Influence of the Pesticide Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Despite the criticism, frequent in the literature, of business influence on the formulation of pesticide risk regulation, there has been remarkably little systematic study of this practice. This article discusses Costa Rica pesticide producers’ business influence on global and national efforts to

  17. Implementing atmospheric fate in regulatory risk assessment of pesticides: (How) can it be done?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.J.; Gilbert, A.J.; Gottschild, D.; Kuchnicki, T.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; Linders, J.B.H.J.; Meent, D. van de; Montforts, M.H.M.M.; Pino, J.; Pol, J.W.; Straalen, N.M. van

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric fate of pesticides and their possible effects in ecosystems beyond the immediate surrounding of the application site are not actively considered in currently used regulatory, risk assessment schemes. Concern with respect to atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition of pesticides in

  18. Implementing atmospheric fate in regulatory risk assessment of pesticides: (how) can it be done?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.J.; Gilbert, A.J.; Gottschild, D.; Kuchnicki, T.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; Linders, J.B.H.J.; van de Meent, D.; Montforts, M.H.M.M.; Pino, J.; Pol, J.W.; van Straalen, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric fate of pesticides and their possible effects in ecosystems beyond the immediate surrounding of the application site are not actively considered in currently used regulatory, risk assessment schemes. Concern with respect to atmospheric transport and subsequent deposition of pesticides in

  19. Occupational risks and health effects of pesticides in three commercial farming systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negatu, B.

    2017-01-01

    Occupational pesticide exposure is one of the most important occupational risks among farmers and farm workers in Africa. In Ethiopia agriculture contributes 47% of the total Gross domestic product (GDP) and employs 80% of the work force. The main objective of this study was to assess pesticide

  20. Occurrence of non extractable pesticide residues in physical and chemical fractions of two soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Soils are considered to be a significant sink for organic contaminants, including pesticides, in the environment. Understanding the distribution and localisation of aged pesticide residues in soil is of great importance for assessing the mobility and availability of these chemicals in the environment. This study aimed to characterise the distribution of radiolabeled herbicide isoproturon and the radiolabeled insecticides diazinon and cypermethrin in two organically managed soils. The soils were spiked and aged under laboratory conditions for 17 months. The labile fraction of the pesticides residues was recovered in CaCl2 (0.01M) and then subjected to physical size fractionation using sedimentation and centrifugation steps, with >20μm, 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm soil factions collected. Further, the distribution of the pesticide residues in the organic matter of the fractionated soil was investigated using a sequential alkaline extraction (0.1N NaOH) into humic and fulvic acid and humin. Soil fractions of 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm had the largest burden of the 14C-residues. Different soil constituents have different capacities to form non-extractable residues. Soil solid fractions of 20-2 µm and 20 µm). Fulvic acid showed to play a vital role in the formation and stabilisation of non-extractable 14C-pesticide residues in most cases.Assessment of the likelihood of the pesticide residues to become available to soil biota requires an understanding of the structure of the SOM matrix and the definition of the kinetics of the pesticide residues in different SOM pools as a function of the time.

  1. Principles of Single-Laboratory Validation of Analytical Methods for Testing the Chemical Composition of Pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrus, A. [Hungarian Food Safety Office, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    Underlying theoretical and practical approaches towards pesticide formulation analysis are discussed, i.e. general principles, performance characteristics, applicability of validation data, verification of method performance, and adaptation of validated methods by other laboratories. The principles of single laboratory validation of analytical methods for testing the chemical composition of pesticides are outlined. Also the theoretical background is described for performing pesticide formulation analysis as outlined in ISO, CIPAC/AOAC and IUPAC guidelines, including methodological characteristics such as specificity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy, trueness, precision and bias. Appendices I–III hereof give practical and elaborated examples on how to use the Horwitz approach and formulae for estimating the target standard deviation towards acceptable analytical repeatability. The estimation of trueness and the establishment of typical within-laboratory reproducibility are treated in greater detail by means of worked-out examples. (author)

  2. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi, E-mail: shilpi@dbeb.iitd.ac.in

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture.

  3. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-target effects of pesticides employing qualitative and quantitative approaches. • Qualitative shifts in resident and active bacterial community structure. • Abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts were reduced significantly. • Effects of biological pesticide similar to chemical pesticides on rhizospheric bacteria. - Abstract: With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture

  4. Spray Toxicity and Risk Potential of 42 Commonly Used Formulations of Row Crop Pesticides to Adult Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Adamczyk, John; Rinderer, Thomas; Yao, Jianxiu; Danka, Robert; Luttrell, Randall; Gore, Jeff

    2015-12-01

    To combat an increasing abundance of sucking insect pests, >40 pesticides are currently recommended and frequently used as foliar sprays on row crops, especially cotton. Foraging honey bees may be killed when they are directly exposed to foliar sprays, or they may take contaminated pollen back to hives that maybe toxic to other adult bees and larvae. To assess acute toxicity against the honey bee, we used a modified spray tower to simulate field spray conditions to include direct whole-body exposure, inhalation, and continuing tarsal contact and oral licking after a field spray. A total of 42 formulated pesticides, including one herbicide and one fungicide, were assayed for acute spray toxicity to 4-6-d-old workers. Results showed significantly variable toxicities among pesticides, with LC50s ranging from 25 to thousands of mg/liter. Further risk assessment using the field application concentration to LC1 or LC99 ratios revealed the risk potential of the 42 pesticides. Three pesticides killed less than 1% of the worker bees, including the herbicide, a miticide, and a neonicotinoid. Twenty-six insecticides killed more than 99% of the bees, including commonly used organophosphates and neonicotinoids. The remainder of the 13 chemicals killed from 1-99% of the bees at field application rates. This study reveals a realistic acute toxicity of 42 commonly used foliar pesticides. The information is valuable for guiding insecticide selection to minimize direct killing of foraging honey bees, while maintaining effective control of field crop pests. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of Entomological Society of America] 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. An evaluation of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of carbamate pesticides and organophorus pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Joo; So, Hun Young

    2000-01-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (LC/APCI/MS) is evaluated for the simultaneous determination of carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides in a single chromatographic analysis. APCI mass spectra of those compounds were obtained to study their ionization characteristics. APCI provided abundant ions such as protonated molecules and characteristic fragment ions for carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides. To evaluate the feasibility of the LC/APCI/MS for a routine quantitative analysis, the linearity and repeatability of LC/APCI/MS were examined by measuring standard solution mixtures of five carbamate pesticides and four organophosphorus pesticides over the range of 1 to 100 μg/mL. The peak areas in chromatograms of characteristic ions for those compounds showed less than 3% of variation from run to tun. The standard calibration curves for the nine pesticides show good linearity in the concentration range. The detection limits of the LC/APCI/MS system for those compounds range from 0.006 to 0.2 ng

  6. An evaluation of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of carbamate pesticides and organophorus pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byung Joo; So, Hun Young [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Sceince, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface (LC/APCI/MS) is evaluated for the simultaneous determination of carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides in a single chromatographic analysis. APCI mass spectra of those compounds were obtained to study their ionization characteristics. APCI provided abundant ions such as protonated molecules and characteristic fragment ions for carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides. To evaluate the feasibility of the LC/APCI/MS for a routine quantitative analysis, the linearity and repeatability of LC/APCI/MS were examined by measuring standard solution mixtures of five carbamate pesticides and four organophosphorus pesticides over the range of 1 to 100 {mu}g/mL. The peak areas in chromatograms of characteristic ions for those compounds showed less than 3% of variation from run to tun. The standard calibration curves for the nine pesticides show good linearity in the concentration range. The detection limits of the LC/APCI/MS system for those compounds range from 0.006 to 0.2 ng.

  7. Effects of pesticide chemicals on the activity of metabolic enzymes: focus on thiocarbamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Cécile; Duval, Romain; Xu, Ximing; Rodrigues-Lima, Fernando; Dupret, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Thiocarbamates are chemicals widely used as pesticides. Occupational exposure is associated with acute intoxication. Populations can be exposed through food and water. Moreover, certain thiocarbamates are used clinically. The widespread use of thiocarbamates raises many issues regarding their toxicological and pharmacological impact. Thiocarbamates and their metabolites can modify biological macromolecules functions, in particular enzymes, through modification of cysteine residues, chelation of metal ions or modulation of the oxidative stress. Loss of enzyme activity can lead to the disruption of metabolic pathways, and explain, at least in part, the effects of these pesticides. Additionally, their reactivity and ability to easily cross biological barrier confer them a great interest for development of clinical applications. Many advances in the study of thiocarbamates metabolism and reactivity have led to a better knowledge of biological effects of these compounds. However, more data are needed on the determination of targets and specificity. Only few data concerning the exposure to a cocktail of pesticides/chemicals are available, raising the need to evaluate the toxic side effects of representative pesticides mixtures. Moreover, the dithiocarbamate Disulfiram has shown great potential in therapeutic applications and leads to the development of pharmacological thiocarbamates derivatives, highly specific to their target and easily distributed.

  8. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  9. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Horst, ter M.M.S.; Deneer, J.W.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small

  10. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the

  11. Hair 2010 Documentation: Calculating risk indicators related to agricultural use of pesticides within the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijne, R.; Deneer, J.W.; Lahr, J.; Vlaming, J.

    2011-01-01

    The HAIR instrument calculates risk indicators related to the agricultural use of pesticides in EU Member States. HAIR combines databases and models for calculating potential environmental environmental effects expressed by the exposure toxicity ratio.

  12. In-hive Pesticide Exposome: Assessing risks to migratory honey bees from in-hive pesticide contamination in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Kirsten S.; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Tarpy, David R.; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, James L.; Frazier, Maryann; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

    2016-09-01

    This study measured part of the in-hive pesticide exposome by analyzing residues from live in-hive bees, stored pollen, and wax in migratory colonies over time and compared exposure to colony health. We summarized the pesticide burden using three different additive methods: (1) the hazard quotient (HQ), an estimate of pesticide exposure risk, (2) the total number of pesticide residues, and (3) the number of relevant residues. Despite being simplistic, these models attempt to summarize potential risk from multiple contaminations in real-world contexts. Colonies performing pollination services were subject to increased pesticide exposure compared to honey-production and holding yards. We found clear links between an increase in the total number of products in wax and colony mortality. In particular, we found that fungicides with particular modes of action increased disproportionally in wax within colonies that died. The occurrence of queen events, a significant risk factor for colony health and productivity, was positively associated with all three proxies of pesticide exposure. While our exposome summation models do not fully capture the complexities of pesticide exposure, they nonetheless help elucidate their risks to colony health. Implementing and improving such models can help identify potential pesticide risks, permitting preventative actions to improve pollinator health.

  13. Evaluation of regulatory variation and theoretical health risk for pesticide maximum residue limits in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijian

    2018-08-01

    To evaluate whether pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) can protect public health, a deterministic dietary risk assessment of maximum pesticide legal exposure was conducted to convert global MRLs to theoretical maximum dose intake (TMDI) values by estimating the average food intake rate and human body weight for each country. A total of 114 nations (58% of the total nations in the world) and two international organizations, including the European Union (EU) and Codex (WHO) have regulated at least one of the most currently used pesticides in at least one of the most consumed agricultural commodities. In this study, 14 of the most commonly used pesticides and 12 of the most commonly consumed agricultural commodities were identified and selected for analysis. A health risk analysis indicated that nearly 30% of the computed pesticide TMDI values were greater than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values; however, many nations lack common pesticide MRLs in many commonly consumed foods and other human exposure pathways, such as soil, water, and air were not considered. Normality tests of the TMDI values set indicated that all distributions had a right skewness due to large TMDI clusters at the low end of the distribution, which were caused by some strict pesticide MRLs regulated by the EU (normally a default MRL of 0.01 mg/kg when essential data are missing). The Box-Cox transformation and optimal lambda (λ) were applied to these TMDI distributions, and normality tests of the transformed data set indicated that the power transformed TMDI values of at least eight pesticides presented a normal distribution. It was concluded that unifying strict pesticide MRLs by nations worldwide could significantly skew the distribution of TMDI values to the right, lower the legal exposure to pesticide, and effectively control human health risks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Suitability of pesticide risk indicators for less developed countries: a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Feola, Giuseppe; Rahn, E.; Binder, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide risk indicators provide simple support in the assessment of environmental and health risks\\ud from pesticide use, and can therefore inform policies to foster a sustainable interaction of agriculture\\ud with the environment. For their relative simplicity, indicators may be particularly useful under conditions\\ud of limited data availability and resources, such as in Less Developed Countries (LDCs). However,\\ud indicator complexity can vary significantly, in particular between those t...

  15. Interaction of chemical cues from fish tissues and organophosphorous pesticides on Ceriodaphnia dubia survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, Jonathan D.; Farris, Jerry L.; Lydy, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Cladocera are frequently used as test organisms for assessing chemical and effluent toxicity and have been shown to respond to stimuli and cues from potential predators. In this study, the interactive effects of visual and chemical cues of fish and two organophosphorous pesticides on survival of Ceriodaphnia dubia were examined. A significant chemical cue (homogenized Pimephales promelas) and malathion interaction was observed on C. dubia survival (P = 0.006). Chemical cue and 2.82 μg/L malathion resulted in a 76.0% reduction in survival compared to malathion alone (P < 0.01). Furthermore, potentiation of malathion toxicity varied based on the source of chemical cues (i.e., epithelial or whole body). It is unclear in this study whether these chemical cues elicited a predation-related stress in C. dubia. Future research should examine the mechanism of this interaction and determine what role, if any, stress responses by C. dubia might play in the interaction. - Potentiation of organophosphorous pesticide toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia by fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) chemical cues was observed

  16. [Risk assessment and countermeasure of BTEX in pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bo; Wang, Tie-Yu; Du, Li-Yu; Tan, Bing; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Lu, Yong-Long

    2013-07-01

    BTEX are important environmental pollutants, harmful to human through respiratory inhalation, digestive tract and skin contact, and also have teratogenic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. BTEX were detected in multi-media to identify their distributions and assess their human health risk in a pesticide factory in Hebei province. Purge and trap GC-MS, adsorption/thermal desorption GC chromatography and the health risk assessment model were applied, and corresponding management measures were proposed. The results showed that BTEX existed in soil, dust, air, groundwater and wastewater. The concentration of BTEX in dust of the production area was 7.33 mg x kg(-1), in particular the concentration of toluene was 5.64 mg x kg(-1), exceeding the Canadian industrial land standard. Building three scenarios for working more than 10 years, 20 years and 30 years, the total non-carcinogens index was 4.19 x10(-3), 8.25 x 10(-3) and 1.22 x 10(-2), respectively, all lower than 1; the carcinogens index of benzene was 1.70 x 10(-7), 3.34 x 10(-7) and 4.92 x 10(-7), respectively, all lower than 10(-6). It indicated that there was no significant non-carcinogens and carcinogens hazard to workers inside the factory, but they might be exposed to more health risks if their work experience increase. Finally, recommendations for improving the environmental quality and personnel security in the factory were proposed based on the research results.

  17. Acute toxicity of chemical pesticides and plant-derived essential oil on the behavior and development of earthworms, Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and Eisenia fetida (Savigny).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2018-04-01

    Comparative toxicity of two chemical pesticides (temephos and monocrotophos) versus a plant-derived betel leaf oil Piper betle (L.) to earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) and redworm Eisenia fetida Savigny, historically: Eisenia foetida (Savigny 1826), was evaluated. Mortality rate was more prominent in temephos at 100 μg concentration to both the earthworms in filter paper test (FPT) as well as 10 mg concentration in artificial soil test (AST). In contrast, P. betle does not display much mortality rate to both the earthworms even at 1000 mg of treatment concentrations. The lethal concentration (LC 50 ) value was observed at 3.89 and 5.26 mg/kg for temephos and monocrotophos against E. eugeniae and 3.81 and 5.25 mg/kg to E. fetida, respectively. Whereas, LC 50 value of betel leaf oil was only observed at 3149 and 4081 mg/kg to E. eugeniae and E. fetida, respectively. Correspondingly, the avoidance or attraction assay also displayed that earthworms were more sensitive to the soil containing chemical pesticides. Whereas, the avoidance percentage was decreased in the P. betle oil. Similarly, sublethal concentration of chemical pesticides (5 and 6.5 mg) significantly reduced the earthworm weight and growth rate. However, P. betle oil did not change the developmental rate in the duration of the assay (2, 7 and 14 days) even at 4000 mg treatment concentration. The enzyme ratio of CAT and SOD was also affected significantly after exposure to the chemical pesticides (6.5 mg/kg). Hence, our study implied the risk assessment associated with the chemical pesticides and also recommends plant-derived harmless P. betle oil against beneficial species as an alternative pest control agent.

  18. [Risk Assessment and Risk Management of Chemicals in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-yu; Zhou, Yun-qiao; Li, Qi-feng; Lü, Yong-long

    2016-02-15

    Risk assessment and risk management have been increasingly approved as an effective approach for appropriate disposal and scientific management of chemicals. This study systematically analyzed the risk assessment methods of chemicals from three aspects including health risk, ecological risk and regional risk. Based on the current situation of classification and management towards chemicals in China, a specific framework of risk management on chemicals was proposed by selecting target chemicals, predominant industries and related stakeholders as the objects. The results of the present study will provide scientific support for improving risk assessment and reasonable management of chemicals in China.

  19. Passive sampling of selected pesticides in aquatic environment using polar organic chemical integrative samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomatou, Alphanna-Akrivi; Zacharias, Ierotheos; Hela, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2011-08-01

    Polar chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were examined for their sampling efficiency of 12 pesticides and one metabolite commonly detected in surface waters. Laboratory-based calibration experiments of POCISs were conducted. The determined passive sampling rates were applied for the monitoring of pesticides levels in Lake Amvrakia, Western Greece. Spot sampling was also performed for comparison purposes. Calibration experiments were performed on the basis of static renewal exposure of POCIS under stirred conditions for different time periods of up to 28 days. The analytical procedures were based on the coupling of POCIS and solid phase extraction by Oasis HLB cartridges with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The recovery of the target pesticides from the POCIS was generally >79% with relative standard deviation (RSD) monitoring campaign using both passive and spot sampling whereas higher concentrations were measured by spot sampling in most cases. Passive sampling by POCIS provides a useful tool for the monitoring of pesticides in aquatic systems since integrative sampling at rates sufficient for analytical quantitation of ambient levels was observed. Calibration data are in demand for a greater number of compounds in order to extend the use in environmental monitoring.

  20. Evaluation of the environmental impact of apple pest control strategies using pesticide risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioriatti, Claudio; Agnello, Arthur M; Martini, Fabrizio; Kovach, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Various pesticide risk indicators have been developed for estimating pesticide impact on human health and the environment. The present work applied a pesticide risk indicator to estimate change in pesticide risk in apple production between 2001 and 2009. The "Environmental Impact Quotient" was used, which evaluates potential impacts of pesticide active ingredients on farm workers, consumers, and nontarget organisms. A modified Environmental Impact Quotient was also tested, which accounts for all ingredients in the formulation presenting a health or environmental hazard, as identified in the Security Data Sheet. Irrespective of the rating system applied, an overall average improvement in environmental impact of apple protection strategies was indicated ranging from 23 to 24%. Hazard reduction was more significant when estimated per treatment, and was higher for acaricides and insecticides than for fungicides. Improvement appeared to be a consequence of using more selective and more effective active ingredients, applying alternative pest control techniques, compulsory periodic sprayer calibration, and wider use of dwarfing orchards. The modified Environmental Impact Quotient does not overcome all limitations regarding accuracy of pesticide risk indicators, but its ease of use in relying on official, easily accessible data, and the consistency of its results, makes it a good candidate for monitoring the success of reduced risk policies. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  1. Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies. We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors - (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history - a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups. By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of spot and passive sampling for monitoring, flux estimation and risk assessment of pesticides within the constraints of a typical regulatory monitoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zulin; Troldborg, Mads; Yates, Kyari; Osprey, Mark; Kerr, Christine; Hallett, Paul D; Baggaley, Nikki; Rhind, Stewart M; Dawson, Julian J C; Hough, Rupert L

    2016-11-01

    In many agricultural catchments of Europe and North America, pesticides occur at generally low concentrations with significant temporal variation. This poses several challenges for both monitoring and understanding ecological risks/impacts of these chemicals. This study aimed to compare the performance of passive and spot sampling strategies given the constraints of typical regulatory monitoring. Nine pesticides were investigated in a river currently undergoing regulatory monitoring (River Ugie, Scotland). Within this regulatory framework, spot and passive sampling were undertaken to understand spatiotemporal occurrence, mass loads and ecological risks. All the target pesticides were detected in water by both sampling strategies. Chlorotoluron was observed to be the dominant pesticide by both spot (maximum: 111.8ng/l, mean: 9.35ng/l) and passive sampling (maximum: 39.24ng/l, mean: 4.76ng/l). The annual pesticide loads were estimated to be 2735g and 1837g based on the spot and passive sampling data, respectively. The spatiotemporal trend suggested that agricultural activities were the primary source of the compounds with variability in loads explained in large by timing of pesticide applications and rainfall. The risk assessment showed chlorotoluron and chlorpyrifos posed the highest ecological risks with 23% of the chlorotoluron spot samples and 36% of the chlorpyrifos passive samples resulting in a Risk Quotient greater than 0.1. This suggests that mitigation measures might need to be taken to reduce the input of pesticides into the river. The overall comparison of the two sampling strategies supported the hypothesis that passive sampling tends to integrate the contaminants over a period of exposure and allows quantification of contamination at low concentration. The results suggested that within a regulatory monitoring context passive sampling was more suitable for flux estimation and risk assessment of trace contaminants which cannot be diagnosed by spot

  3. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Virginia C.; Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L.; Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K.; Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E.; McMahen, Rebecca L.; Strynar, Mark J.; Herr, David W.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  4. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K. [Analytical Chemistry Research Core/Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McMahen, Rebecca L. [ORISE fellow, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Strynar, Mark J. [Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Herr, David W. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  5. Efficiency of modified chemical remediation techniques for soil contaminated by organochlorine pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Torres, S. N.; Kopytko, M.; Avila, S.

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the optimization of innovation chemical techniques in order to improve the remediation of soils contaminated with organochloride pesticides. The techniques used for remediation were dehalogenation and chemical oxidation in soil contaminated by pesticides. These techniques were applied sequentially and combined to evaluate the design optimize the concentration and contact time variables. The soil of this study was collect in cotton crop zone in Agustin Codazzi municipality, Colombia, and its physical properties was measure. The modified dehalogenation technique of EPA was applied on the contaminated soil by adding Sodium Bicarbonate solution at different concentrations and rates during 4, 7 and 14 days, subsequently oxidation technique was implemented by applying a solution of KMnO4 at different concentration and reaction times. Organochlorine were detected by Gas Chromatography analysis coupled Mass Spectrometry and its removals were between 85.4- 90.0% of compounds such as 4, 4’-DDT, 4,4’-DDD, 4,4-DDE, trans-Clordane y Endrin. These results demonstrate that the technique of dehalogenation with oxidation chemistry can be used for remediation soils contaminated by organochloride pesticides.

  6. In Situ Chemical Reduction (ISCR) for Removal of Persistent Pesticides; focus on kepone in tropical soils

    OpenAIRE

    Mouvet , Christophe; Bristeau , Sébastien; Amalric , Laurence; Dictor , Marie Christine; Mercier , Anne; Thannberger , Laurent; Mueller , Jim; Valkenburg , John; Seech , Alan; Przepiora , Andrezej; Molin , Josephine; Bucci , Edson Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives. The global use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) such as Lindane, DDT, Dieldrin, Kepone, Chlordane and Toxaphene has resulted in long-term soil impacts at many sites. Given the potential risks to human health and the environment, some OCP-impacted sites require treatment. In certain cases, the "dig-and-dump" approach is not practical due to magnitude of the problem, access issues, and/or resource constraints. Here "bioremediation" can be used to treat the soil on site...

  7. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Long NE

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nicole E De Long, Alison C Holloway Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Abstract: The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate and processing (acrylamide, in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants and drinking water (heavy metals and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. Keywords: obesity, pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, heavy metals, acrylamide, endocrine-disrupting chemicals

  8. How subchronic and chronic health effects can be neglected for GMOs, pesticides or chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; de Vendômois, Joël Spiroux; Cellier, Dominique; Sultan, Charles; Buiatti, Marcello; Gallagher, Lou; Antoniou, Michael; Dronamraju, Krishna R

    2009-06-17

    Chronic health effects are increasing in the world such as cancers, hormonal, reproductive, nervous, or immune diseases, even in young people. During regulatory toxicological subchronic tests to prevent these on mammalian health, prior commercialization of chemicals, including pesticides and drugs, or GMOs, some statistically significant findings may be revealed. This discussion is about the need to investigate the relevant criteria to consider those as biologically significant. The sex differences and the non linear dose or time related effects should be considered in contrast to the claims of a Monsanto-supported expert panel about a GMO, the MON 863 Bt maize, but also for pesticides or drugs, in particular to reveal hormone-dependent diseases and first signs of toxicities.

  9. Inventário de agrotóxicos e risco de contaminação química dos recursos hídricos no semiárido cearense Inventory of pesticides and risk of chemical contamination of hydric resources in the semiarid cearense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyne F. Gama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first diagnosis of risk of environmental contamination was conducted for an area of intense agricultural activity in the semiarid cearense (Baixo Jaguaribe and Litoral de Aracati area. We verified the use of 201 rural products (pesticides in the region, comprising 151 active ingredients. Regarding the active ingredients evaluated, 15.9% were associated with sediment and 29.8% were dissolved in surface water. The study showed that 13.2% to 36.4% of the active ingredients evaluated were classified as potential contaminants of groundwater resources. The study also revealed the most abundant pesticides and which environmental compartment must be evaluated.

  10. 75 FR 13277 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are not limited to: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... compound, in or on onion, bulb, subgroup 3-07A at 0.2 ppm; onion, green, subgroup 3-07B at 9.0 ppm...

  11. Lawn Care Pesticides. Risks Remain Uncertain While Prohibited Safety Claims Continue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-23

    health effects, such as cancer and birth defects, and adverse ecological effects. Currently these pesticides are being applied in large amounts without...Reregi stration such as cancer and birth defects, and that reassessing the health risks of using these pesticides as part of the reregistration process may...Endothall Herbicide NO Glyphosate Herbicide YES Isoxaben Herbicide a MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) Herbicide YES MCPP (potassium salt

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion, two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal. Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01 to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL. Hazard risk index (HRI for ethion (10.12 and carbaryl (1.09 was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.

  13. Human exposure and risk assessment to airborne pesticides in a rural French community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; López, Antonio; Yahyaoui, Abderrazak; Colin, Patrice; Robin, Corine; Poinsignon, Quentin; Yusà, Vicent

    2017-04-15

    Outdoor air samples collected during the pesticide agricultural application period (spring and summer) from a rural community in the Centre Region (France) were analyzed to investigate temporal variation of atmospheric pesticide levels (2006-2013) and human inhalation exposure in adults, children and infants. The most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (trifluralin, pendimethalin), fungicides (chlorothalonil) and insecticides (lindane and α-endosulfan). The three currently-used pesticides most frequently detected presented concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1128.38ngm -3 ; 0.13 to 117.32ngm -3 and 0.16 to 25.80ngm -3 for chlorothalonil, pendimethalin and trifluralin, respectively. The estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ), for adults, children and infants, was exposure for detected organophosphorus and chloroacetamide pesticides, was estimated using the Relative Potency Factor (RPF) and Hazard Index (HI) as metrics, which was indicated that no risk was observed. The cancer risk classified as likely or possibly carcinogen was estimated to be <8.93 E-05 in infants, for the detected pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were used to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the milk of cattle using their known physicochemical properties such as molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w as well as the milk characteristics such as pH, % fat, and specific gravity (SG in this species. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.91 for cattle QSAR model. The coefficient for Ko/w for the studied pesticides was higher in cattle milk. Risk analysis was conducted based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes. The daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study were 3, 11, 2.5 times higher, respectively in cattle milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  15. Pesticides in South African fresh waters | Ansara-Ross | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary risk assessment models should be used to detect pesticides posing possible or definite risks, whereafter more detailed chemical, toxicological and biological monitoring assessments should be performed if risks are predicted. Keywords: aquatic ecosystems, pesticide monitoring, review, risk assessment. African ...

  16. [Risk for congenital malformations in pregnant women exposed to pesticides in the state od Nayarit, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Carrilo, L; Rivas-Solis, F; Fernández-Argüelles, R

    2002-11-01

    To measure the association between the use of pesticides and congenital malformations. We studied 279 newborn from mothers living in rural area of Nayarit, a state in the northwest region of México. Cases (n = 93) were defined as newborn with central nervous, face, genital, hip, foot or finger congenital malformations. Controls (n = 186) were newborns without any malformation. We considered as exposure any type of contact with any of the agrochemicals used as pesticides. We evaluated other risk factors such as medical drugs, fever, exposure to radiation, obstetric and family factors, as confoundings. We registered 22 genital malformations, 20 from hip, 19 from the central nervous system, 18 from extremities and 14 cleft-lip or palate. Exposed mothers had high risk of having a malformed child (OR = 3.5, CI95% 2.05-6.34, p pesticides (OR = 6.33, CI95% 2.95-13.7, p pesticides treatment (OR = 3.47, CI95% 1.91-6.33, p pesticides and congenital malformation. This is a public health problem in Nayarit state and in other rural areas with similar exposure to pesticides.

  17. Assessing Risks of Pesticides to Bees: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides have been identified as one of multiple factors associated with declines in pollinator health in both North America and Europe. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been working with its international regulatory counterparts to identify and implement tests for...

  18. Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartrell, M.J.; Craun, J.C.; Podrebarac, D.S.; Gunderson, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated into a number of food groups, each of which is analyzed as a composite. This report summarizes the results for adult Total Diet samples collected in 20 cities between October 1979 and September 1980. The average concentration, range of concentrations, and calculated average daily intake of each chemical found are presented by food group. The average daily intakes of the chemicals are similar to those found in the several preceding years and are within acceptable limits. The results for samples collected during the same period that represent the diets of infants and toddlers are reported separately

  19. Application of isotope-labelled compounds in the study of the chemical stability of pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesseler, M.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.; Koch, H.

    1980-01-01

    The user of pesticides requires specific biological modes of action from the corresponding commercial products. Impurities and degradation products may cause uncontrollable toxicological reactions. Profound knowledge of the chemical stability of the effective substance in question and its formulations under storage conditions as well as under those of analytical sample preparation and detection is required. Radioisotope labelled effective substances dimethoate and 1-butyl-amino-cyclohexane-phosphonic acid dibutyl ester are used to study storage stability of the pure effective substance and its formulations; effects of selected impurities, such as technical by-products, moisture or water content, binding or carrier materials, organic solvents, chemical stabilizers and other formulation components on storage properties; temperature dependence of storage stability; selection of suitable analytical techniques for quantitative determination of the effective substance without interference effects from any by-product; reduction of the necessary analytical expense; disclosure of sources of error in the application of usual analytical techniques; improvement of possibilities of an immediate and clearer discrimination between types and amounts of compounds in a chemical system consisting of one pesticide and its degradation or reaction products at the beginning and at the end of an experimental or reaction period. Radiochemical analytical techniques, such as radio thin-layer chromatography (also combined with liquid scintillation counting), radio gas chromatography, autoradiography and isotope dilution analysis were used. Results are discussed, especially of experiments on dimethoate and its technical by-products

  20. 75 FR 60452 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... pesticide petition summary. You may also reach each contact person by mail at Biopesticides and Pollution.... Dated: September 23, 2010. W. Michael McDavit, Acting Director, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention...

  1. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  2. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Nielsen, Elsa

    2008-01-01

    A cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz in combination has been carried out using an Integrated Probabilistic Risk Assessment (IPRA) model. In the model, variability in both exposure and sensitivity between individuals were combined...

  3. Ecological models for regulatory risk assessments of pesticides: Developing a strategy for the future.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorbek, P.; Forbes, V.; Heimbach, F.; Hommen, U.; Thulke, H.H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological Models for Regulatory Risk Assessments of Pesticides: Developing a Strategy for the Future provides a coherent, science-based view on ecological modeling for regulatory risk assessments. It discusses the benefits of modeling in the context of registrations, identifies the obstacles that

  4. Priorities to improve the ecological risk assessment and management for pesticides in surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with prospective and retrospective ecological risk assessment (ERA) procedures for pesticides in surface waters as carried out under European legislation (Regulation 1107/2009/EC; Directive 2009/128/EC; Directive 2000/60/EC). Priorities to improve the aquatic risk assessment and

  5. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; van der Voet, H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three

  6. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, A.K.; Bosgra, S.; Boon, P.E.; Voet, van der H.; Nielsen, E.; Ladefoged, O.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three

  7. Risk assessment for pesticide contamination of groundwater with sparse available data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardowicks, K.; Heredia, O.; Billib, M.; Fernández Cirelli, A.; Boochs, P.

    2009-04-01

    The contamination of the water resources by agrochemicals is recognized in industrial countries as a very important environmental problem, nevertheless in most of developing and threshold countries the risks for health and environmental problems are not considered. In these countries agrochemicals, which are forbidden since several years in Europe (e.g. atrazine), are still in use. In some threshold countries monitoring systems are already installed for nutrients (N, P) and also a few for heavy metals, but so far the contamination by pesticides is hardly ever controlled, thus there is no data available about pesticide concentrations in soil and water. The aim of this research is to develop a methodology to show farmers and other water users (water agencies, drinking water supply companies) in basins of developing or threshold countries with sparse available data the risk of contamination of the groundwater resources by pesticides. A few data like pesticide application, precipitation, irrigation, potential evaporation and soil types are available in some regions. If these data is reliable it can be used together with some justified estimated parameters to perform simulations of the fate of pesticides to the groundwater. Therefore in two study cases in Argentina and Chile pesticide models (e.g. PESTAN, IPTM-CS) were used to evaluate the risk of contamination of the groundwater. The results were compared with contamination indicators, like one developed by O. Heredia, for checking their plausibility. Afterwards the results of the models were used as input data for simulations at the catchment scale, for instance for a groundwater simulation model (VISUAL MODFLOW). The results show a great risk for the contamination of the groundwater resources in the selected study areas, especially by atrazine. On this account the findings will be used by local researchers to improve the knowledge and the awareness of farmers and other stakeholders about the contamination of the

  8. Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program (PESP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PESP is an EPA partnership program that works with the nation's pesticide-user community to promote IPM practices. Pesticide users can reduce the risks from pests and pesticides. Members include organizations and companies in the pesticide-user community.

  9. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andrade, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations. - Highlights: • Historical applications of organochlorine pesticides are a risk to local ecosystems. • Low cost and sustainable mitigation measures are needed to reduce risks. • Organic matter rich amendments were added to contaminated soil. • Earthworms microcosms were used to measure bioaccumulation factors. • Aged composts were most effective at mitigating risks to ecosystems. - Incorporation of aged dairy manure and biosolids compost amendments is an effective, low cost approach to mitigate risks to terrestrial wildlife from organochlorine pesticides in soils.

  10. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship.

  11. Pesticide Exposure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; Karr, Catherine J.

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children’s exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  12. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending, Gary D.; Lincoln, Suzanne D.; Edmondson, Rodney N.

    2006-01-01

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160x60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated. - Spatial variation determines risk assessment for pesticides in soil

  13. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bending, Gary D. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: gary.bending@warwick.ac.uk; Lincoln, Suzanne D. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom); Edmondson, Rodney N. [Warwick HRI, University of Warwick, Wellesbourne, Warwick CV35 9EF (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-15

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160x60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated. - Spatial variation determines risk assessment for pesticides in soil.

  14. Effects of chemical and biological pesticides on plant growth parameters and rhizospheric bacterial community structure in Vigna radiata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-06-30

    With increasing application of pesticides in agriculture, their non-target effects on soil microbial communities are critical to soil health maintenance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and a biological pesticide (azadirachtin) on growth parameters and the rhizospheric bacterial community of Vigna radiata. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and q-PCR, respectively, of the 16S rRNA gene and transcript were performed to study the impact of these pesticides on the resident and active rhizospheric bacterial community. While plant parameters were not affected significantly by the pesticides, a shift in the bacterial community structure was observed with an adverse effect on the abundance of 16S rRNA gene and transcripts. Chlorpyrifos showed almost complete degradation toward the end of the experiment. These non-target impacts on soil ecosystems and the fact that the effects of the biopesticide mimic those of chemical pesticides raise serious concerns regarding their application in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Faqir; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2013-01-04

    The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  16. Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship and Risk Analysis of Some Pesticides in the Goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW, melting point (MP, and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985 for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.

  17. Dietary risk assessment of pesticides from vegetables and drinking water in gardening areas in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Edouard; Turrero, Nuria; Kolia, Marius; Konaté, Yacouba; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2017-12-01

    Vegetables and water samples have been collected around the lake of Loumbila in Burkina Faso. Pesticides residues in food commodities were analyzed using a modified QuEChERS extraction method prior analysis on GC-MS and UPLC-MS/MS of 31 pesticides. Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) were exceeded in 36% of the samples for seven pesticides: acetamiprid, carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, lambda-cyhalothrin, dieldrin, imidacloprid and profenofos. Exceedance of MRLs suggests a risk for the consumers and limits the opportunities of exportation. In order to define estimated daily intake, dietary surveys were conducted on 126 gardeners using a 24hours recall method. Single pesticide and cumulative exposure risks were assessed for children and adults. Risk was identified for: chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin in acute and chronic exposure scenarios. Hazardous chronic exposure to the endocrine disruptor and probable carcinogen dieldrin was also detected. In the studied population, cumulative dietary exposure presented a risk (acute and chronic) for children and adults in respectively >17% and 4% of the cases when considering the worst case scenarios. Processing factor largely influenced the risk of occurrence suggesting that simple washing of vegetables with water considerably reduced the risk of hazardous exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing human health risks from pesticide use in conventional and innovative cropping systems with the BROWSE model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammoglia, Sabine-Karen; Kennedy, Marc C; Barriuso, Enrique; Alletto, Lionel; Justes, Eric; Munier-Jolain, Nicolas; Mamy, Laure

    2017-08-01

    Reducing the risks and impacts of pesticide use on human health and on the environment is one of the objectives of the European Commission Directive 2009/128/EC in the quest for a sustainable use of pesticides. This Directive, developed through European national plans such as Ecophyto plan in France, promotes the introduction of innovative cropping systems relying, for example, on integrated pest management. Risk assessment for human health of the overall pesticide use in these innovative systems is required before the introduction of those systems to avoid that an innovation becomes a new problem. The objectives of this work were to assess and to compare (1) the human exposure to pesticides used in conventional and innovative cropping systems designed to reduce pesticide needs, and (2) the corresponding risks for human health. Humans (operator and residents) exposure to pesticides and risks for human health were assessed for each pesticide with the BROWSE model. Then, a method was proposed to represent the overall risk due to all pesticides used in one system. This study considers 3 conventional and 9 associated innovative cropping systems, and 116 plant protection products containing 89 different active substances (i.e. pesticides). The modelling results obtained with BROWSE showed that innovative cropping systems such as low input or no herbicide systems would reduce the risk for human health in comparison to the corresponding conventional cropping systems. On the contrary, BROWSE showed that conservation tillage system would lead to unacceptable risks in the conditions of our study, because of a high number of pesticide applications, and especially of some herbicides. For residents, the dermal absorption was the main exposure route while ingestion was found to be negligible. For operators, inhalation was also a predominant route of exposure. In general, human exposure to pesticides and human health risks were found to be correlated to the treatment frequency

  19. Valuing health risk in agriculture: a choice experiment approach to pesticide use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Wenyu; He, Rui; Gong, Haozhou

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a choice experiment approach to investigate farmers' valuations for health risk changes associated with pesticide use in Anqiu County, China. An empirical comparison on the disparity between farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a health risk reduction and willingness to accept (WTA) for the same risk increase is also conducted. Respondents were randomly assigned into the WTP group or the WTA group. Four attributes (health consequence, baseline risk, risk change size, and price) were identified and included. The results show that cancer consequence due to pesticide use decreases the utility of the farmer. A higher baseline risk has a higher WTP to reduce the risk and a higher probability of receiving compensation. If the health risk change size is bigger, it will result in a higher WTP and higher compensation. Household income, education, and age have significant and positive impacts on farmers' WTP. Farmers who are more educated or female are more likely to accept the compensation scheme if health risks increase. The marginal WTA for the same risk change is about two times higher than the marginal WTP. The findings of this study can contribute to the literature comparing people's WTP and WTA in a discrete choice experiment on valuing health risk changes associated with pesticide use.

  20. Exposure to Multiple Pesticides and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Men from Six Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenadel, Karin; Harris, Shelley A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Spinelli, John J.; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A.; Demers, Paul A.; Blair, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been linked to several agricultural exposures, including some commonly used pesticides. Although there is a significant body of literature examining the effects of exposure to individual pesticides on NHL, the impact of exposure to multiple pesticides or specific pesticide combinations has not been explored in depth. Data from a six-province Canadian case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1994 were analyzed to investigate the relationship between NHL, the total number of pesticides used and some common pesticide combinations. Cases (n = 513) were identified through hospital records and provincial cancer registries and controls (n = 1,506), frequency matched to cases by age and province of residence, were obtained through provincial health records, telephone listings, or voter lists. In multiple logistic regression analyses, risk of NHL increased with the number of pesticides used. Similar results were obtained in analyses restricted to herbicides, insecticides and several pesticide classes. Odds ratios increased further when only ‘potentially carcinogenic’ pesticides were considered (OR[one pesticide] = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.90–1.88; OR[two to four] = 1.54, CI = 1.11–2.12; OR[five or more] = 1.94, CI = 1.17–3.23). Elevated risks were also found among those reporting use of malathion in combination with several other pesticides. These analyses support and extend previous findings that the risk of NHL increases with the number of pesticides used and some pesticide combinations. PMID:21776232

  1. Residue levels and risk assessment of pesticides in nuts of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Shen, Danyu; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Ding, Ming; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-02-01

    The pesticide residue levels of three nuts (chestnut, walnut, pinenut) collected from seven main producing areas of China were investigated. Twenty-nine pesticides, including organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and two fungicides (triadimefon and buprofezin) were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Four OPs (acephate, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and parathion-methyl) were found in 11.4% samples, with the concentrations of 19.0 µg kg(-1) to 74.0 µg kg(-1). Six OCs (DDT, HCH, endosulfan, quintozene, aldrin and dieldrin) were found in 18.2% samples, with the concentrations of 2.0 µg kg(-1) to 65.7 µg kg(-1). Among OCs, p,p-DDE and α-HCH were the dominant isomer for DDT and HCH. Five PYs (fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, cypermethrin, bifenthrin and cyhalothrin) were found in 15.9% samples, with the concentrations of 2.5 µg kg(-1) to 433.0 µg kg(-1). Fenpropathrin was the most frequently detected pesticide. In addition, triadimefon and buprofezin were detected only in two samples. For the tested nuts, 25.0% samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 9.1% samples with five pesticide residues. The residue of 15.9% samples was higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. The short-term risks for the tested nuts were below 1.2%, and the highest long-term risk was 12.58%. The cumulative risk (cHI) for the tested pesticides were 8.43% (OPs), 0.42% (OCs), 12.82% (PYs) and 0.15% (fungicides), respectively. The total cHI was 21.82%. There was no significant health risk for consumers via nuts consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrative assessment of multiple pesticides as risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, A J; Zahm, S H; Cantor, K P; Weisenburger, D D; Holmes, F F; Burmeister, L F; Blair, A

    2003-09-01

    An increased rate of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been repeatedly observed among farmers, but identification of specific exposures that explain this observation has proven difficult. During the 1980s, the National Cancer Institute conducted three case-control studies of NHL in the midwestern United States. These pooled data were used to examine pesticide exposures in farming as risk factors for NHL in men. The large sample size (n = 3417) allowed analysis of 47 pesticides simultaneously, controlling for potential confounding by other pesticides in the model, and adjusting the estimates based on a prespecified variance to make them more stable. Reported use of several individual pesticides was associated with increased NHL incidence, including organophosphate insecticides coumaphos, diazinon, and fonofos, insecticides chlordane, dieldrin, and copper acetoarsenite, and herbicides atrazine, glyphosate, and sodium chlorate. A subanalysis of these "potentially carcinogenic" pesticides suggested a positive trend of risk with exposure to increasing numbers. Consideration of multiple exposures is important in accurately estimating specific effects and in evaluating realistic exposure scenarios.

  3. Health risk assessment of pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls contaminations in dairy products from selected farms in Greater Accra Region - Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako, D.

    2013-07-01

    The residual concentrations of synthetic chemicals such as organochlorines pesticides (OCPs), pyrethroids and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy products (milk, yoghurt, cheese) from selected farms in Greater Accra were analyzed using Gas Chromatography (GC). A total of 50 samples of dairy products (9 cheese, 25 cow milk and 16 yogourt) were analyzed for OCPs, prethroids and PCBs. Of the numerious pesticides evaluated, detectable levels of OCPs (β-HCH, endrin, heptachlor, endosulfan, p ' p-DDT and methoxchlor); synthetic prethroids (permathrin, allethrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin) and PCBs (18, 28, 52, 101, 153, 138, and 180) were found in all the dairy product samples analysed. Milk samples were found to be the most contaminated with respect to the OCPs and the levels ranged between 0.0001µg/ml and 0.0407µg/ml. ß-HCH was the highest OCP with concentration of 0.0407µg/ml while cyfluthrin was the highest synthetic prethroids recorded in yoghurt sample (0.0318µg/ml). The highest PCB 18 (2,2,5-Trichlorobiphenyl) recorded (0.2668µg/ml) in yoghurt samples. (Data obtained from the field survey regarding safe use of pesticides, toxicity awareness and symptoms among farmers indicated that a very high proportion of animal farmers were at a high risk of pesticide poisoning from occupational exposure. More than 70% of farm workers did not practise safety precaution during pesticide mixing and application leading to considerable prevalence of pesticide related illness including nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, abdominal cramps, dizziness, diarrhoea and headaches in this agricultural community. The presence of pesticide residues in dairy products was of further concern because milk is the main protein diet for infants. The estimated dose for γ-chlordane(8.5x10 5 µ/ml), endrin(0.0114 µg/ml) p ' p ' -DDT(8.5x10 5 µg/ml), DDE(8.5x10 5 µg/ml),heptachlor(2.5x10 5 µg/ml), dieldrin(6.8x10 5 µg/ml) do not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present

  4. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  5. Novel two-tiered approach of ecological risk assessment for pesticide mixtures based on joint effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Mao, Haichen; Lv, Huichao; Zheng, Yong; Peng, Conghu; Hou, Shaogang

    2018-02-01

    Ecological risk assessments for mixtures have attracted considerable attention. In this study, 38 pesticides in the real environment were taken as objects and their toxicities to different organisms from three trophic levels were employed to assess the ecological risk of the mixture. The first tier assessment was based on the CA effect and the obtained sum of risk quotients (SRQ species-CA ) were 3.06-9.22. The second tier assessment was based on non-CA effects and the calculated SRQ species-TU are 5.37-9.29 using joint effects (TU sum ) as modified coefficients, which is higher than SRQ species-CA and indicates that ignoring joint effects might run the risk of underestimating the actual impact of pesticide mixtures. Due to the influences of synergistic and antagonistic effects, risk contribution of components to mixture risks based on non-CA effects are different from those based on the CA effect. Moreover, it was found that the top 8 dominating components explained 95.5%-99.8% of mixture risks in this study. The dominating components are similar in the two tiers for a given species. Accordingly, a novel two-tiered approach was proposed to assess the ecological risks of mixtures based on joint effects. This study provides new insights for ecological risk assessments with the consideration of joint effects of components in the pesticide mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in irrigation systems in Debra Zeit, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Since Ethiopia is going through a rapid transformation of its agricultural sector, we assessed the human health and environmental risks due to the past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as the risks of the current pesticide use by farmers. A monitoring programme and risk assessment was carried out for the Wedecha-Belbela irrigation system in the Debra Zeit area. The Wedecha and Belbela rivers and adjacent temporary ponds were sampled and examined for the presence of OCPs between August and October 2014, while data on the current pesticide use by small- and large-scale farmers was collected by interviews. The usage patterns were evaluated for risks of using the river or temporary ponds as source of drinking water and for risks for the aquatic ecosystems in the river and ponds with the aid of the PRIMET_Registration_Ethiopa_1.1 model. The samples were collected in five sampling periods, and results indicate that most of the 18 target OCPs were not detected above the detection limit, while g-chlordane may pose chronic risks when surface water is used as drinking water. Endosulfan and heptachlor pose risks to aquatic organisms at second-tier level, while for heptachlor-epoxide B, g-chlordane and b-BHC only risks could be determined at the first tier due to a lack of data. For all nine pesticides used by small-scale farmers the calculated acute risks to humans were low. Second tier risk assessment for the aquatic ecosystem indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin, endosulfan, profenofos, and diazinon may pose high risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 75 FR 57942 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide..., Cheshire CH65 4EY, United Kingdom, proposes to establish an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance... residues harmful to plants and animals is highly unlikely to occur when it is applied as part of the...

  8. 76 FR 6465 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ...-HQ-OPP-2010-0805). Pasteuria Bioscience, Inc., 12085 Research Drive, Suite 185, Alachua, FL 32615... pesticide Pasteuria reniformis--Pr3 [SD-5834], in or on all raw agricultural crops. The petitioner believes...), e-mail address: [email protected] . 4. PP 0F7749. (EPA-HQ-OPP-2010-0807). Pasteuria Bioscience...

  9. 76 FR 53372 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... at 0.2 ppm; poultry, fat at 0.2 ppm; poultry, meat at 0.06 ppm; and poultry, meat byproducts at 0.06... all appropriate agricultural commodities and respective processing fractions. The LOQ of flumioxazin..., Feed additives, Food additives, Pesticides and pests, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated...

  10. 78 FR 6274 - Withdrawal of Pesticide Petitions for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various Commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... announced the filing of pesticide petition (PP 4F4281) by Bayer CropScience, Research Triangle Park, North...-imidazolidinecarboxamide in or on the food commodity rapeseed (canola) at 1.0 ppm. On March 7, 2012, Bayer Crop Science... or on cucurbits (crop group 9) at 0.05 parts per million (ppm) and fruiting vegetables (crop group 8...

  11. The MCRA model for probabilistic single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; de Boer, Waldo J; Kruisselbrink, Johannes W; Goedhart, Paul W; van der Heijden, Gerie W A M; Kennedy, Marc C; Boon, Polly E; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    Pesticide risk assessment is hampered by worst-case assumptions leading to overly pessimistic assessments. On the other hand, cumulative health effects of similar pesticides are often not taken into account. This paper describes models and a web-based software system developed in the European research project ACROPOLIS. The models are appropriate for both acute and chronic exposure assessments of single compounds and of multiple compounds in cumulative assessment groups. The software system MCRA (Monte Carlo Risk Assessment) is available for stakeholders in pesticide risk assessment at mcra.rivm.nl. We describe the MCRA implementation of the methods as advised in the 2012 EFSA Guidance on probabilistic modelling, as well as more refined methods developed in the ACROPOLIS project. The emphasis is on cumulative assessments. Two approaches, sample-based and compound-based, are contrasted. It is shown that additional data on agricultural use of pesticides may give more realistic risk assessments. Examples are given of model and software validation of acute and chronic assessments, using both simulated data and comparisons against the previous release of MCRA and against the standard software DEEM-FCID used by the Environmental Protection Agency in the USA. It is shown that the EFSA Guidance pessimistic model may not always give an appropriate modelling of exposure. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Terrestrial Investigation Model: A probabilistic risk assessment model for birds exposed to pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major recommendations of the National Academy of Science to the USEPA, NMFS and USFWS was to utilize probabilistic methods when assessing the risks of pesticides to federally listed endangered and threatened species. The Terrestrial Investigation Model (TIM, version 3....

  13. Optimization of the cumulative risk assessment of pesticides and biocides using computational techniques: Pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Reffstrup, Trine Klein; Petersen, Annette

    This pilot project is intended as the first step in developing a computational strategy to assist in refining methods for higher tier cumulative and aggregate risk assessment of exposure to mixture of pesticides and biocides. For this purpose, physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models were...

  14. Savannah River Site chemical, metal, and pesticide (CMP) waste vitrification treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Numerous Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, as well as Department of Defense (DOD) and commercial facilities, have used earthen pits for disposal of chemicals, organic contaminants, and other waste materials. Although this was an acceptable means of disposal in the past, direct disposal into earthen pits without liners or barriers is no longer a standard practice. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), approximately three million pounds of such material was removed from seven chemical, metal, and pesticide disposal pits. This material is known as the Chemical, Metal, and Pesticide (CMP) Pit waste and carries several different listed waste codes depending on the contaminants in the respective storage container. The waste is not classified as a mixed waste because it is believed to be non-radioactive; however, in order to treat the material in a non-radioactive facility, the waste would first have to be screened for radioactivity. The Defense Waste Processing Technology (DWPT) Section of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) was requested by the DOE-Savannah River (SR) office to determine the viability of vitrification of the CMP Pit wastes. Radioactive vitrification facilities exist which would be able to process this waste, so the material would not have to be analyzed for radioactive content. Bench-scale treatability studies were performed by the DWPT to determine whether a homogeneous and durable glass could be produced from the CMP Pit wastes. Homogeneous and durable glasses were produced from the six pits sampled. The optimum composition was determined to be 68.5 wt% CMP waste, 7.2 wt% Na 2 O, 9 wt% CaO, 7.2 wt% Li 2 O and 8.1 wt% Fe 2 O 3 . This glass melted at 1,150 C and represented a two fold volume reduction

  15. Design of risk communication strategies based on risk perception among farmers exposed to pesticides in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Frederico; Rodrigues, Karla Meneses; da Silva Peixoto Belo, Mariana Soares; Moreira, Josino Costa; Claudio, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess pesticide exposure risk perception among farmers from three rural areas of Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 66 adults and participatory workshops with 27 teenagers and analyzed through content analysis techniques. Systematized results were discussed at local meetings, and two risk communication initiatives were devised. Study results demonstrated the use of defensive strategies by men and a diminished risk perception among women. Teenagers relied on parents to develop their own work practices. These findings supported the importance of cultural and social determinants of farmers' understandings of risk and of the relevance of different pesticide exposure pathways. Risk perceptions and work practices are strongly influenced by local cultural patterns and, therefore, must be taken into account when developing effective intervention strategies, including risk communication initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Simultaneous analysis of pesticides from different chemical classes by using a derivatisation step and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Caroline; Nief, Marie; Fabritius, Marie; Racault, Lucie; Appenzeller, Brice M; Millet, Maurice

    2011-11-04

    This work presents a new method to analyse simultaneously by GC-MS 31 pesticides from different chemical classes (2,4 D, 2,4 MCPA, alphacypermethrin, bifenthrin, bromoxynil, buprofezin, carbaryl, carbofuran, clopyralid, cyprodinil, deltamethrin dicamba, dichlobenil, dichlorprop, diflufenican, diuron, fenoxaprop, flazasulfuron, fluroxypyr, ioxynil, isoxaben, mecoprop-P, myclobutanil, oryzalin, oxadiazon, picloram, tau-fluvalinate tebuconazole, triclopyr, trifluralin and trinexapac-p-ethyl). This GC-MS method will be applied to the analysis of passive samplers (Tenax(®) tubes and SPME fiber) used for the evaluation of the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by non-agricultural pesticides. The method involves a derivatisation step for thermo-labile or polar pesticides. Different agents were tested and MtBSTFA (N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide), a sylilation agent producing very specific fragments [M-57], was retained. However, diuron could not be derivatised and the isocyanate product was used for identification and quantification. Pesticides which did not need a derivatisation step were not affected by the presence of the derivatisation agent and they could easily be analysed in mixture with derivatised pesticides. The method can be coupled to a thermal-desorption unit or to SPME extraction for a multiresidue analysis of various pesticides in atmospheric samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Epidemiology and risk factors of voluntary pesticide poisoning in Morocco (2008-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine the epidemiological profile and risk factors of voluntary poisoning by pesticides. METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted of all cases of voluntary poisoning by pesticides registered at the AntiPoison and Pharmacovigilance Center of Morocco between January 2008 and December 2014. RESULTS During the study period, 2,690 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were registered. The region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer accounted for the largest proportion, with 598 cases. The average age of the patients was 24.63±10.29 years. The sex ratio (female-to-male) was 0.45. Adults and teenagers were most affected by this type of poisoning, with 1,667 cases (62.0%) and 806 cases (30.0%), respectively. Suicide attempts accounted for 98.4% of the cases (2,469 cases). Pesticide poisoning occurred more often in urban zones (64.8%). Insecticides were incriminated in 14.0% of cases, with a mortality rate of 4.2%. Among the 1,635 patients for whom the outcomes were known, 154 died, corresponding to a mortality rate of 5.7%. CONCLUSIONS Voluntary intoxication by pesticides presents a real scourge that affects public health, and in this study, we developed an epidemiological profile of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, this study has limitations in that it did not evaluate the impact of the socioeconomic and psychological factors that are important contributors to this type of poisoning. PMID:28882026

  18. Epidemiology and risk factors of voluntary pesticide poisoning in Morocco (2008-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabih, Zineb; Amiar, Latifa; Abidli, Zakaria; Windy, Maria; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani-Bencheikh, Rachida

    2017-01-01

    To determine the epidemiological profile and risk factors of voluntary poisoning by pesticides. A retrospective analysis was conducted of all cases of voluntary poisoning by pesticides registered at the AntiPoison and Pharmacovigilance Center of Morocco between January 2008 and December 2014. During the study period, 2,690 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were registered. The region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer accounted for the largest proportion, with 598 cases. The average age of the patients was 24.63±10.29 years. The sex ratio (female-to-male) was 0.45. Adults and teenagers were most affected by this type of poisoning, with 1,667 cases (62.0%) and 806 cases (30.0%), respectively. Suicide attempts accounted for 98.4% of the cases (2,469 cases). Pesticide poisoning occurred more often in urban zones (64.8%). Insecticides were incriminated in 14.0% of cases, with a mortality rate of 4.2%. Among the 1,635 patients for whom the outcomes were known, 154 died, corresponding to a mortality rate of 5.7%. Voluntary intoxication by pesticides presents a real scourge that affects public health, and in this study, we developed an epidemiological profile of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, this study has limitations in that it did not evaluate the impact of the socioeconomic and psychological factors that are important contributors to this type of poisoning.

  19. Epidemiology and risk factors of voluntary pesticide poisoning in Morocco (2008-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Nabih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES To determine the epidemiological profile and risk factors of voluntary poisoning by pesticides. METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted of all cases of voluntary poisoning by pesticides registered at the AntiPoison and Pharmacovigilance Center of Morocco between January 2008 and December 2014. RESULTS During the study period, 2,690 cases of acute pesticide poisoning were registered. The region of Rabat-Salé-Zemmour-Zaer accounted for the largest proportion, with 598 cases. The average age of the patients was 24.63±10.29 years. The sex ratio (female-to-male was 0.45. Adults and teenagers were most affected by this type of poisoning, with 1,667 cases (62.0% and 806 cases (30.0%, respectively. Suicide attempts accounted for 98.4% of the cases (2,469 cases. Pesticide poisoning occurred more often in urban zones (64.8%. Insecticides were incriminated in 14.0% of cases, with a mortality rate of 4.2%. Among the 1,635 patients for whom the outcomes were known, 154 died, corresponding to a mortality rate of 5.7%. CONCLUSIONS Voluntary intoxication by pesticides presents a real scourge that affects public health, and in this study, we developed an epidemiological profile of this phenomenon. Nevertheless, this study has limitations in that it did not evaluate the impact of the socioeconomic and psychological factors that are important contributors to this type of poisoning.

  20. Predicting the aquatic risk of realistic pesticide mixtures to species assemblages in Portuguese river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Emília; Daam, Michiel A; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-05-01

    Although pesticide regulatory tools are mainly based on individual substances, aquatic ecosystems are usually exposed to multiple pesticides from their use on the variety of crops within the catchment of a river. This study estimated the impact of measured pesticide mixtures in surface waters from 2002 and 2008 within three important Portuguese river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo') on primary producers, arthropods and fish by toxic pressure calculation. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs), in combination with mixture toxicity models, were applied. Considering the differences in the responses of the taxonomic groups as well as in the pesticide exposures that these organisms experience, variable acute multi-substance potentially affected fractions (msPAFs) were obtained. The median msPAF for primary producers and arthropods in surface waters of all river basins exceeded 5%, the cut-off value used in the prospective SSD approach for deriving individual environmental quality standards. A ranking procedure identified various photosystem II inhibiting herbicides, with oxadiazon having the relatively largest toxic effects on primary producers, while the organophosphorus insecticides, chlorfenvinphos and chlorpyrifos, and the organochloride endosulfan had the largest effects on arthropods and fish, respectively. These results ensure compliance with European legislation with regard to ecological risk assessment and management of pesticides in surface waters. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in fresh omija (Schizandra chinensis Baillon) fruit and juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye Ran; Lim, Sung Jin; Cho, Jae Young

    2012-02-01

    Schizandra chinensis Baillon, or omija, is a fruit native to northeast Asia that is cultivated in South Korea and China. Fresh omija fruit has been used in beverages, traditional East Asian medicine and cosmetics because of its complex flavor and pharmacological effectiveness. The objective of this study was to analyze residue levels of 33 kinds of pesticides on fresh omija fruits and in omija juices produced in South Korea. A risk assessment of the pesticides in omija juice was conducted by calculating EDI and ADI. Most of the pesticide levels were below the LOD in fresh omija fruits. Among the detected compounds, the most frequently detected pesticide was ethoprophos. The EDIs of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole were 5.89E-03, 7.08E-04 and 4.73E-05, respectively. The percent of EDI to ADI of ethoprophos, pendimethalin and hexaconazole was 28.0%, 13.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The results of this research concluded that the detected pesticides are not harmful to human beings. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risk of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts Among Offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Padula, Amy M.; English, Paul B.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997–2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and α-(para-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

  3. Stakeholder consultations and opportunities for integrating socio-behavioural factors into the pesticide risk analysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calliera, Maura; Marchis, Alex; Sacchettini, Gabriele; Capri, Ettore

    2016-02-01

    The pesticide risk analysis process is well regulated in the EU, especially in relation to placing on the market authorisation procedures, but in order to avoid risks for human health and environment in the use phase, information on how these substances are employed and on socio-behavioural factors that can influence the exposure have to be taken into account. To better explore reasons about the gap between risk assessment and risk management, within the EU FP7 Health and Environmental Risks: Organisation, Integration and Cross-fertilisation of Scientific Knowledge (HEROIC) project, a stepwise stakeholder's consultation process was developed using a mixed approach in two different phases (survey and roundtable). We elicited stakeholder views regarding factors that could limit the pesticide risk assessment phase linked on how the knowledge is produced and the way the data are used in risk management and in risk communication, also taking into account qualitative factors such as responsibility, trust and behaviours, which could have impact on risk assessment policies. Activities deployed indicate that some changes and interaction are needed to better define the problems at the formulation stage, and the type of information risk assessor has to provide, to better inform risk manager in addressing different societal needs, to strengthen the credibility of the process of risk assessment and improve the effectiveness of policies. Integrations between disciplines may initially increase the complexity but in turn will provide a better and more useful estimation of the risk, reinforce transparency and drive a more efficient use of risk management resources.

  4. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennana, M.; Sacchettini, G.; Panzone, L.; Butler-Ellis, M.C.; Capri, E.; Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E.; Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Machera, K.; Spanoghe, P; Glass, R.; Marchis, A.; Doanngoc, K.; Hart, A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with

  5. Probabilistic cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic pesticides in food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anne Kirstine; Bosgra, Sieto; Boon, Polly E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cumulative risk assessment of three anti-androgenic pesticides (vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz) using the relative potency factor (RPF) approach and an integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model. RPFs for each substance were estimated for three......) and the fraction of individuals with IMoEs vinclozolin, procymidone and prochloraz is not likely to be of concern for the reproductive development of their male foetuses. However...

  6. Pesticides in the surface waters of Lake Vistonis Basin, Greece: Occurrence and environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil-Nikolaos; Tsaboula, Aggeliki; Kotopoulou, Athina; Kintzikoglou, Katerina; Vryzas, Zisis; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia

    2015-12-01

    A study was undertaken for the evaluation of the pesticide pollution caused by the agricultural activities in the basin of Lake Vistonis, Greece during the years 2010-2012. Water samples were collected from Lake Vistonis, four major rivers and various small streams and agriculture drainage canals. The concentration of 302 compounds was determined after solid-phase extraction of the water samples and subsequent LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS analysis of the extracts. Overall, herbicides were the most frequently detected pesticides (57%), followed by insecticides (28%) and fungicides (14%). In Lake Vistonis 11 pesticides were detected. Specifically, fluometuron was detected in the 75% of the samples (maximum concentration 0.088 μg/L) whereas lambda-cyhalothrin was detected in all the samples of spring 2011 and alphamethrin in all the samples of spring 2012 (maximum concentration 0.041 and 0.168 μg/L, respectively). In the rivers and drainage canals 68 pesticides were detected. Specifically, fluometuron was detected in the 53% of the samples (maximum concentration 317.6 μg/L) followed by chlorpyrifos and prometryn (16 and 13% of the samples respectively). An environmental risk assessment was performed by employing the Risk Quotient (RQ) method. The risk assessment revealed that at least one pesticide concentration led to a RQ>1 in 20% of the samples. In Lake Vistonis, alphamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin concentrations resulted in RQ>1, whereas in the other water bodies this was mainly the result of chlorpyrifos-methyl and alphamethrin exposure. In contrast, herbicide and fungicide concentrations contributed substantially less to environmental risks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving reptile ecological risk assessment: oral and dermal toxicity of pesticides to a common lizard species (Sceloporus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Scott M; Yu, Shuangying; Talent, Larry G; Maul, Jonathan D; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2015-08-01

    Reptiles have been understudied in ecotoxicology, which limits consideration in ecological risk assessments. The goals of the present study were 3-fold: to improve oral and dermal dosing methodologies for reptiles, to generate reptile toxicity data for pesticides, and to correlate reptile and avian toxicity. The authors first assessed the toxicity of different dosing vehicles: 100 μL of water, propylene glycol, and acetone were not toxic. The authors then assessed the oral and dermal toxicity of 4 pesticides following the up-and-down procedure. Neither brodifacoum nor chlorothalonil caused mortality at doses ≤ 1750 μg/g. Under the "neat pesticide" oral exposure, endosulfan (median lethal dose [LD50] = 9.8 μg/g) was more toxic than λ-cyhalothrin (LD50 = 916.5 μg/g). Neither chemical was toxic via dermal exposure. An acetone dosing vehicle increased λ-cyhalothrin toxicity (oral LD50 = 9.8 μg/g; dermal LD50 = 17.5 μg/g), but not endosulfan. Finally, changes in dosing method and husbandry significantly increased dermal λ-cyhalothrin LD50s, which highlights the importance of standardized methods. The authors combined data from the present study with other reptile LD50s to correlate with available avian data. When only definitive LD50s were used in the analysis, a strong correlation was found between avian and reptile toxicity. The results suggest it is possible to build predictive relationships between avian and reptile LD50s. More research is needed, however, to understand trends associated with chemical classes and modes of action. © 2015 SETAC.

  8. Risk assessment of pesticides and other stressors in bees: Principles, data gaps and perspectives from the European Food Safety Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rortais, Agnès; Arnold, Gérard; Dorne, Jean-Lou; More, Simon J; Sperandio, Giorgio; Streissl, Franz; Szentes, Csaba; Verdonck, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Current approaches to risk assessment in bees do not take into account co-exposures from multiple stressors. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is deploying resources and efforts to move towards a holistic risk assessment approach of multiple stressors in bees. This paper describes the general principles of pesticide risk assessment in bees, including recent developments at EFSA dealing with risk assessment of single and multiple pesticide residues and biological hazards. The EFSA Guidance Document on the risk assessment of plant protection products in bees highlights the need for the inclusion of an uncertainty analysis, other routes of exposures and multiple stressors such as chemical mixtures and biological agents. The EFSA risk assessment on the survival, spread and establishment of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, an invasive alien species, is provided with potential insights for other bee pests such as the Asian hornet, Vespa velutina. Furthermore, data gaps are identified at each step of the risk assessment, and recommendations are made for future research that could be supported under the framework of Horizon 2020. Finally, the recent work conducted at EFSA is presented, under the overarching MUST-B project ("EU efforts towards the development of a holistic approach for the risk assessment on MUltiple STressors in Bees") comprising a toolbox for harmonised data collection under field conditions and a mechanistic model to assess effects from pesticides and other stressors such as biological agents and beekeeping management practices, at the colony level and in a spatially complex landscape. Future perspectives at EFSA include the development of a data model to collate high quality data to calibrate and validate the model to be used as a regulatory tool. Finally, the evidence collected within the framework of MUST-B will support EFSA's activities on the development of a holistic approach to the risk assessment of multiple stressors in bees. In

  9. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric; Kegley, Susan E; Brown, Timothy J; English, Paul B; Lammer, Edward J; Shaw, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    We examined associations of birth defects with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications in California. Subjects included 367 cases representing five types of birth defects and 785 nonmalformed controls born 1997 to 2006. Associations with any versus no exposure to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Overall, 46% of cases and 38% of controls were classified as exposed to pesticides within a 500 m radius of mother's address during a 3-month periconceptional window. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for 85 groups and 95 chemicals with five or more exposed cases and control mothers. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) excluded 1.0 for 11 ORs for groups and 22 ORs for chemicals, ranging from 1.9 to 3.1 for groups and 1.8 to 4.9 for chemicals except for two that were <1 (noted below). For groups, these ORs were for anotia/microtia (n = 95 cases) and dichlorophenoxy acids/esters and neonicotinoids; anorectal atresia/stenosis (n = 77) and alcohol/ethers and organophosphates (these ORs were < 1.0); transverse limb deficiencies (n = 59) and dichlorophenoxy acids/esters, petroleum derivatives, and triazines; and craniosynostosis (n = 79) and alcohol/ethers, avermectins, neonicotinoids, and organophosphates. For chemicals, ORs were: anotia/microtia and five pesticides from the groups dichlorophenoxy acids/esters, copper-containing compounds, neonicotinoids, organophosphates, and triazines; transverse limb deficiency and six pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups copper-containing compounds, 2,6-dinitroanilines, neonicotinoids, petroleum derivatives and polyalkyloxy compounds; craniosynostosis and 10 pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups alcohol/ethers, avermectins, n-methyl-carbamates, neonicotinoids, ogranophosphates (two chemicals), polyalkyloxy compounds (two chemicals), and pyrethroids; and

  10. Chemical Risk Assessment: Traditional vs Public Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. When done efficiently and properly, chemical risk assessment enables risk management actions that minimize the incidence and impacts of environmentally-induced diseases related to chemical exposure. However, traditional chemical risk assessment is faced with multiple challenges with respect to predicting and preventing disease in human populations, and epidemiological studies increasingly report observations of adverse health effects at exposure levels predicted from animal studies to be safe for humans. This discordance reinforces concerns about the adequacy of contemporary risk assessment practices (Birnbaum, Burke, & Jones, 2016) for protecting public health. It is becoming clear that to protect public health more effectively, future risk assessments will need to use the full range of available data, draw on innovative methods to integrate diverse data streams, and consider health endpoints that also reflect the range of subtle effects and morbidities observed in human populations. Given these factors, there is a need to reframe chemical risk assessment to be more clearly aligned with the public health goal of minimizing environmental exposures associated with disease. Preventing adverse health impacts from exposures to environmental chemicals is fundamental to protecting individual and public health. Chemical risk assessments

  11. Organic amendments for risk mitigation of organochlorine pesticide residues in old orchard soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; McConnell, Laura L.; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; Andradea, Natasha A.; Hapeman, Cathleen J.; Torrents, Alba; Nguyen, Anh; Anderson, Marya O.; Novak, J. M.; Jackson, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Performance of compost and biochar amendments for in situ risk mitigation of aged DDT, DDE and dieldrin residues in an old orchard soil was examined. The change in bioavailability of pesticide residues to Lumbricus terrestris L. relative to the unamended control soil was assessed using 4-L soil microcosms with and without plant cover in a 48-day experiment. The use of aged dairy manure compost and biosolids compost was found to be effective, especially in the planted treatments, at lowering the bioavailability factor (BAF) by 18–39%; however, BAF results for DDT in the unplanted soil treatments were unaffected or increased. The pine chip biochar utilized in this experiment was ineffective at lower the BAF of pesticides in the soil. The US EPA Soil Screening Level approach was used with our measured values. Addition of 10% of the aged dairy manure compost reduced the average hazard quotient values to below 1.0 for DDT + DDE and dieldrin. Results indicate this sustainable approach is appropriate to minimize risks to wildlife in areas of marginal organochlorine pesticide contamination. Application of this remediation approach has potential for use internationally in areas where historical pesticide contamination of soils remains a threat to wildlife populations.

  12. Multi-Drug Resistance Transporters and a Mechanism-Based Strategy for Assessing Risks of Pesticide Combinations to Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseman, Alex J; Miller, Kaliah; Kunkle, Grace; Dively, Galen P; Pettis, Jeffrey S; Evans, Jay D; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Hawthorne, David J

    2016-01-01

    Annual losses of honey bee colonies remain high and pesticide exposure is one possible cause. Dangerous combinations of pesticides, plant-produced compounds and antibiotics added to hives may cause or contribute to losses, but it is very difficult to test the many combinations of those compounds that bees encounter. We propose a mechanism-based strategy for simplifying the assessment of combinations of compounds, focusing here on compounds that interact with xenobiotic handling ABC transporters. We evaluate the use of ivermectin as a model substrate for these transporters. Compounds that increase sensitivity of bees to ivermectin may be inhibiting key transporters. We show that several compounds commonly encountered by honey bees (fumagillin, Pristine, quercetin) significantly increased honey bee mortality due to ivermectin and significantly reduced the LC50 of ivermectin suggesting that they may interfere with transporter function. These inhibitors also significantly increased honey bees sensitivity to the neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid. This mechanism-based strategy may dramatically reduce the number of tests needed to assess the possibility of adverse combinations among pesticides. We also demonstrate an in vivo transporter assay that provides physical evidence of transporter inhibition by tracking the dynamics of a fluorescent substrate of these transporters (Rhodamine B) in bee tissues. Significantly more Rhodamine B remains in the head and hemolymph of bees pretreated with higher concentrations of the transporter inhibitor verapamil. Mechanism-based strategies for simplifying the assessment of adverse chemical interactions such as described here could improve our ability to identify those combinations that pose significantly greater risk to bees and perhaps improve the risk assessment protocols for honey bees and similar sensitive species.

  13. Pesticide exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: A case-control study using a geographic information system (GIS) to link SEER-Medicare and California pesticide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VoPham, Trang; Brooks, Maria M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O; Ruddell, Darren; Hart, Jaime E; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer, is associated with low survival. U.S. studies examining self-reported pesticide exposure in relation to HCC have demonstrated inconclusive results. We aimed to clarify the association between pesticide exposure and HCC by implementing a novel data linkage between Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare and California Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data using a geographic information system (GIS). Controls were frequency-matched to HCC cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 in California by year, age, race, sex, and duration of residence in California. Potential confounders were extracted from Medicare claims. From 1974 to 2008, pounds (1 pound represents 0.45 kg) of applied organophosphate, organochlorine, and carbamate pesticides provided in PURs were aggregated to the ZIP Code level using area weighting in a GIS. ZIP Code exposure estimates were linked to subjects using Medicare-provided ZIP Codes to calculate pesticide exposure. Agricultural residents were defined as living in ZIP Codes with a majority area intersecting agricultural land cover according to the 1992, 2001, and 2006 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) rasters. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between pesticide exposure and HCC. Among California residents of agriculturally intensive areas, previous annual ZIP Code-level exposure to over 14.53 kg/km(2) of organochlorine pesticides (75(th) percentile among controls) was associated with an increased risk of HCC after adjusting for liver disease and diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17, 2.99; p=0.0085). ZIP Code-level organochlorines were significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC among males (adjusted OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.58, 4.82; p=0.0004), but not associated with HCC among females (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.35, 1.93; p=0.6600) (interaction p=0.0075). This is

  14. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij; Christophe Rochin; Nathalie Berne; Alessandro Sassi; Antoine Leplay

    2018-01-01

    Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES), developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL) or occupational exposure band (OEB). The inhalation exposure i...

  15. Probabilistic risk analysis in chemical engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalz, F.

    1991-01-01

    In risk analysis in the chemical industry, recognising potential risks is considered more important than assessing their quantitative extent. Even in assessing risks, emphasis is not on the probability involved but on the possible extent. Qualitative assessment has proved valuable here. Probabilistic methods are used in individual cases where the wide implications make it essential to be able to assess the reliability of safety precautions. In this case, assessment therefore centres on the reliability of technical systems and not on the extent of a chemical risk. 7 figs

  16. A multimedia fate and chemical transport modeling system for pesticides: II. Model evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rong; Yang Fuquan; Sloan, James J; Trevor Scholtz, M

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides have adverse health effects and can be transported over long distances to contaminate sensitive ecosystems. To address problems caused by environmental pesticides we developed a multimedia multi-pollutant modeling system, and here we present an evaluation of the model by comparing modeled results against measurements. The modeled toxaphene air concentrations for two sites, in Louisiana (LA) and Michigan (MI), are in good agreement with measurements (average concentrations agree to within a factor of 2). Because the residue inventory showed no soil residues at these two sites, resulting in no emissions, the concentrations must be caused by transport; the good agreement between the modeled and measured concentrations suggests that the model simulates atmospheric transport accurately. Compared to the LA and MI sites, the measured air concentrations at two other sites having toxaphene soil residues leading to emissions, in Indiana and Arkansas, showed more pronounced seasonal variability (higher in warmer months); this pattern was also captured by the model. The model-predicted toxaphene concentration fraction on particles (0.5-5%) agrees well with measurement-based estimates (3% or 6%). There is also good agreement between modeled and measured dry (1:1) and wet (within a factor of less than 2) depositions in Lake Ontario. Additionally this study identified erroneous soil residue data around a site in Texas in a published US toxaphene residue inventory, which led to very low modeled air concentrations at this site. Except for the erroneous soil residue data around this site, the good agreement between the modeled and observed results implies that both the US and Mexican toxaphene soil residue inventories are reasonably good. This agreement also suggests that the modeling system is capable of simulating the important physical and chemical processes in the multimedia compartments.

  17. Risk assessment considerations with regard to the potential impacts of pesticides on endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Richard A; Teed, R Scott; Bang, JiSu; Thorbek, Pernille; Perine, Jeff; Peranginangin, Natalia; Kim, Myoungwoo; Valenti, Ted; Chen, Wenlin; Breton, Roger L; Rodney, Sara I; Moore, Dwayne R J

    2015-01-01

    Simple, deterministic screening-level assessments that are highly conservative by design facilitate a rapid initial screening to determine whether a pesticide active ingredient has the potential to adversely affect threatened or endangered species. If a worst-case estimate of pesticide exposure is below a very conservative effects metric (e.g., the no observed effects concentration of the most sensitive tested surrogate species) then the potential risks are considered de minimis and unlikely to jeopardize the existence of a threatened or endangered species. Thus by design, such compounded layers of conservatism are intended to minimize potential Type II errors (failure to reject a false null hypothesis of de minimus risk), but correspondingly increase Type I errors (falsely reject a null hypothesis of de minimus risk). Because of the conservatism inherent in screening-level risk assessments, higher-tier scientific information and analyses that provide additional environmental realism can be applied in cases where a potential risk has been identified. This information includes community-level effects data, environmental fate and exposure data, monitoring data, geospatial location and proximity data, species biology data, and probabilistic exposure and population models. Given that the definition of "risk" includes likelihood and magnitude of effect, higher-tier risk assessments should use probabilistic techniques that more accurately and realistically characterize risk. Moreover, where possible and appropriate, risk assessments should focus on effects at the population and community levels of organization rather than the more traditional focus on the organism level. This document provides a review of some types of higher-tier data and assessment refinements available to more accurately and realistically evaluate potential risks of pesticide use to threatened and endangered species. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. Use of Chemical Pesticides in Ethiopia : A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers and Farm Workers in Three Farming Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negatu, Beyene; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Mekonnen, Yalemtshay; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    Chemical pesticides, regardless of their inherent hazard, are used intensively in the fast changing agricultural sector of Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional pesticide Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey among 601 farmers and farm workers (applicators and re-entry workers) in three

  19. Is the efficacy of biological control against plant diseases likely to be more durable than that of chemical pesticides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eBardin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The durability of a control method for plant protection is defined as the persistence of its efficacy in space and time. It depends on (i the selection pressure exerted by it on populations of plant pathogens and (ii on the capacity of these pathogens to adapt to the control method. Erosion of effectiveness of conventional plant protection methods has been widely studied in the past. For example, apparition of resistance to chemical pesticides in plant pathogens or pests has been extensively documented. The durability of biological control has often been assumed to be higher than that of chemical control. Results concerning pest management in agricultural systems have shown that this assumption may not always be justified. Resistance of various pests to one or several toxins of Bacillus thuringensis and apparition of resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella to the Cydia pomonella granulovirus have, for example, been described. In contrast with the situation for pests, the durability of biological control of plant diseases has hardly been studied and no scientific reports proving the loss of efficiency of biological control agents against plant pathogens in practice has been published so far. Knowledge concerning the possible erosion of effectiveness of biological control is essential to ensure a durable efficacy of biological control agents on target plant pathogens. This knowledge will result in identifying risk factors that can foster the selection of strains of plant pathogens resistant to biological control agents. It will also result in identifying types of biological control agents with lower risk of efficacy loss i.e. modes of action of biological control agents that does not favor the selection of resistant isolates in natural populations of plant pathogens. An analysis of the scientific literature was then conducted to assess the potential for plant pathogens to become resistant to biological control agents.

  20. Chemical dechlorination of pesticides at a superfund site in Region II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergrass, S.; Prince, J.

    1991-01-01

    Selecting technologies for cleaning up hazardous waste sites is a complex task, due in part to the rapidly changing nature of the state-of-the-art in technology. There is strong support for use of innovative technologies as specified in Section 121(b) of CERCLA. However, use of an innovative technology requires overcoming a variety of challenges. These challenges include: Screening potentially appropriate technologies, including innovative technologies, and selecting one or more potential innovative technologies for which preliminary results are promising; however, site-specific data are needed prior to technology evaluation. Evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed technology for the site through the use of treatability studies. Gaining acceptance for the innovative technology, which may employ new or unfamiliar concepts. Determining optimal design and operating parameters for full-scale remediation. This paper discusses the technology evaluation process and how that process supported the selection of an innovative technology for the Myers Property site, a Superfund site in Region II. A case study is presented showing how technology screening and laboratory treatability studies were used to evaluate an innovative technology (chemical dechlorination), which was selected as the technology for remediation of soils and sediments contaminated with pesticides at this environmentally sensitive site in New Jersey. The remedy selected by the U.S. EPA for this site designates chemical dechlorination as the selected technology, but does not specify any particular vendor or process. Rather, the remedy sets forth technology performance standards and recommends certain design tasks which may be used to select a particular chemical process. This paper discusses he of these design tasks as they might apply to innovative technologies, using chemical dechlorination as a model

  1. USAHA MENURUNKAN PENGGUNAAN PESTISIDA KIMIA DENGAN PROGRAM PENGENDALIAN HAMA TERPADU (Efforts to Reduce Chemical Pesticides Use through Integrated Pest Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Mariyono

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pestisida kimia merupakan bahan beracun yang menyebabkan pencemaran lingkungan dan berbahaya bagi kesehatan manusia. Penggunaannya yang berlebihan telah menimbulkan biaya eksternal yang sangat tinggi. Sejak tahun 1989 Pemerintah Indonesia telah berusaha mengurangi penggunaan pestisida kimia melalui program Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT Untuk mengetahui dampak program PHT, digunakan fungsi permintaan pestisida kimia. Analisis ini menggunakan data sekunder selama sembilan tahun yang diambil dari empat kabupaten wilayah Yogyakarta. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa  dampak program PHT telah berhasil mengurangi penggunaan pestisida kimia pada padi dan kedelai. Penurunan penggunaan pestisida kimia disebabkan oleh kenaikan harga dan penyebaran teknologi PHT. Turunnya penggunaan pestisida kimia ini akan meningkatkan kualitas lingkungan dan kesehatan manusia karena tersedia bahan pangan yang residu pestisida kimianya rendah.   ABSTRACT Chemical pesticide is a poisonous agent that causes deterioration on environment quality and thereatens to human health. It causes considerable high externat cost. Sice 1989 the Government of Indonesia had removed chemical pesticide subsidy and introduced a new program called Integrated {est chemical pestidice use. The objectives of this research was to determine the impact of IPM Program on cemical pesticide use in rice and soybean cultivation. To determine the impact, ademand model of cemical pesticide was employed. Time series secondary data for nine years collected from related institutions in four revencies of Yogyakarta were utilized as the basic analysis. Results of the analysis indicated that chemical pesticide uses in rice and soybean cultivation have declined. The reduction of chemical pesticide use was caused by the increase of chemical pesticide price due to the discontinuation of chemical pesticide subsidy, and dissemination of IPM program. It implied that the

  2. Health risks of employees working in pesticide retail shops: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavachandran, C; Pathak, M K; Fareed, M; Bihari, V; Mathur, N; Srivastava, A K

    2009-12-01

    Shop keepers dealing with pesticides are exposed to multiple pesticides that include organophosphates, organochlorines, carbamates, pyrethroids. Hence an exploratory health study was conducted on shopkeepers selling pesticides in urban areas of Lucknow and Barabanki District, Uttar Pradesh, India. Detailed information regarding socio-economic status, family history, personal habits and work practices were recorded for 20 subjects and controls by the investigator on a pre-tested questionnaire. Clinical examination including neurological studies of the shopkeepers and control subjects was done. The study revealed significant slowing of motor nerve conduction velocity and low peak expiratory flow rate among shopkeepers as compared to control subjects. Prevalence of significantly higher gastro-intestinal problems was also observed among exposed subjects. Neurological, ocular, cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal symptoms were also found to be higher among shopkeepers. This was not statistically significant. Significantly higher relative risk for sickness related to systems viz., cardio-vasular, genito-urinary, respiratory, nervous and dermal was observed among exposed subjects compared to controls. These findings provide a prima facie evidence of clinical manifestations because of multiple exposures to pesticides and poor safety culture at work place.

  3. [Professional risk assessment for modern pesticides during their application in the horticulture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenenko, V M; Korshun, M M

    2014-01-01

    The work conditions on application of modern pesticides Masai, Regalis and Bellis for apple orchards protection have been researched. We show that total risk of hazard influence of tebufenpyrad, prohexadione-calcium, pyraclostrobin and boscalid on agricultural workers under condition of complex entry in body through skin and respiratory tracts is permissible. We proved that application of studied preparations is not dangerous for workers in case of abidance of agrotechnical and hygienic regulations.

  4. [Chemical, physical and biological risks in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrini, Andrea; Grana, Mario; Vicentini, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Chemical, physical and biological risks among public safety and security forces. Law enforcement personnel, involved in routine tasks and in emergency situations, are exposed to numerous and several occupational hazards (chemical, physical and biological) whith likely health and security consequences. These risks are particularly high when the organization and preparation are inadequate, there is a lacking or insufficient coordination, information, education and communication and safety and personal protective equipment are inadequate or insufficient. Despite the objective difficulties, caused by the actual special needs related to the service performed or the organizational peculiarities, the risk identification and assessment is essential for worker health and safety of personnel, as provided for by Legislative Decree no. 81/2008. Chemical risks include airborne pollutants due to vehicular traffic (carbon monoxide, ultrafine particles, benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, nitrogen and sulfur oxides, lead), toxic gases generated by combustion process following fires (aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, dioxins and furans, biphenyls, formaldehyde, metals and cyanides), substances emitted in case of chemical accidents (solvents, pesticides, toxic gases, caustics), drugs (methylamphetamine), riot control agents and self-defence spray, lead at firing ranges, and several materials and reagents used in forensic laboratory. The physical hazards are often caused by activities that induce biomechanical overload aid the onset of musculoskeletal disorders, the use of visual display terminals and work environments that may expose to heat stress and discomfort, high and low pressure, noise, vibrations, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. The main biological risks are blood-borne diseases (viral hepatitis, AIDS), airborne diseases (eg, tuberculosis, meningitis, SARS, anthrax), MRSA, and vector-borne diseases. Many of these risk factors are unavoidable or are not

  5. Farmers' willingness to pay for less health risks by pesticide use: A case study from the cotton belt of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad; Damalas, Christos A

    2015-10-15

    The amount of pesticides used in crop production in Pakistan has increased rapidly in the last decades, whereas farmers in many areas of the country show little knowledge of safe and efficient use of pesticides. The level of willingness to pay (WTP) for avoiding health risks by pesticides was studied among 318 randomly selected cotton farmers from two districts of the area of Punjab (i.e., Vehari and Lodhran) in Pakistan, using the contingent valuation method. Most farmers felt that pesticide use is a prerequisite for successful cotton production, whereas at the same time they were well aware of pesticide health risks, which they considered minor. The majority of the farmers (77%) showed varying levels of WTP some fee up to 20% of the current pesticide expenditures for avoiding pesticide health risks, but few were willing to pay a fee over 20%. The mean WTP per farmer was low, reaching 5.8 $US on an annual basis. By contrast, a considerable proportion of the farmers (23%) were not willing to pay any fee for avoiding pesticide health risks. These individuals were mostly poor small-scale farmers with limited or no education. High levels of risk perception about pesticides, past experience of pesticide intoxication, high levels of education, and high income were associated with high farmers' WTP for less health risks by pesticides. Farmers who perceived major health risks by pesticides appeared to be highly willing to pay a premium for safe pesticides. Elderly farmers appeared more likely to pay some premium for safe pesticides as a result of higher farming experience and higher income than young farmers. Well-educated farmers were more likely to pay a high premium for safe pesticides. Large farm size was a significant predictor of positive WTP, which was interpreted as an indicator of farmers' wealth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling the risk of water pollution by pesticides from imbalanced data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajanov, Aneta; Kuzmanovski, Vladimir; Real, Benoit; Perreau, Jonathan Marks; Džeroski, Sašo; Debeljak, Marko

    2018-04-30

    The pollution of ground and surface waters with pesticides is a serious ecological issue that requires adequate treatment. Most of the existing water pollution models are mechanistic mathematical models. While they have made a significant contribution to understanding the transfer processes, they face the problem of validation because of their complexity, the user subjectivity in their parameterization, and the lack of empirical data for validation. In addition, the data describing water pollution with pesticides are, in most cases, very imbalanced. This is due to strict regulations for pesticide applications, which lead to only a few pollution events. In this study, we propose the use of data mining to build models for assessing the risk of water pollution by pesticides in field-drained outflow water. Unlike the mechanistic models, the models generated by data mining are based on easily obtainable empirical data, while the parameterization of the models is not influenced by the subjectivity of ecological modelers. We used empirical data from field trials at the La Jaillière experimental site in France and applied the random forests algorithm to build predictive models that predict "risky" and "not-risky" pesticide application events. To address the problems of the imbalanced classes in the data, cost-sensitive learning and different measures of predictive performance were used. Despite the high imbalance between risky and not-risky application events, we managed to build predictive models that make reliable predictions. The proposed modeling approach can be easily applied to other ecological modeling problems where we encounter empirical data with highly imbalanced classes.

  7. Exposure to pesticide as a risk factor for depression: A population-based longitudinal study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Tae Hui; Min, Seongho; Lee, Kyungsuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Choi, Jung Ran

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to pesticides is associated with mental disorders, including depression, especially among occupationally exposed populations, such as farmers. The results of experimental studies ascribed the negative effects of pesticides on mental health to their neurotoxic and endocrine-disrupting activities. This study aimed to investigate the association between the risk of depression and high- or low-level exposure to pesticides in a rural population. This longitudinal study was performed in 2005-2008 (baseline) and 2008-2012 (follow-up) to evaluate the risk of depression among 2151 Korean adults. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on depression upon self-reported exposure to pesticide based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between pesticide exposure and depression. We adjusted the data for age, cigarette smoking status, current alcohol use, monthly income, educational level, marriage status, and religion. Among the individuals who reported depression, the number of participants who used pesticides was significantly higher than that who did not (N=61 [7.2%] vs. N=54 [4.2%], P=0.003). A positive association was noted between >20-year period of pesticide use and depression (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-3.88). Individuals who reported depression showed greater odds of being exposed to higher pesticide concentrations (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.40-3.88) and experiencing pesticide poisoning (OR, 5.83; 95% CI, 1.80-18.86) than those who did not. Exposure to pesticides at a high concentration was found to be associated with depressive symptoms among Korean adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pesticide Reevaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the process for periodically evaluating registered pesticides to ensure they meet current science standards for risk assessment, as required by the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act.

  9. Assessment of human health risk associated with the presence of pesticides in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almas HAMID

    Full Text Available Abstract The presence of pesticides in the environment is highly toxic to environment and human health. Aim of the study was determination, quantification and assessment of associated health risk due to presence of pesticide residues in chicken eggs using high pressure liquid chromatography. HPLC method was successfully employed and validated. From collected samples pesticides were extracted in presence of petroleum ether and acetonitrile. Bifenthrin and Difenoconazole residues were found in all samples with different concentration exceeding maximum residue limits (MRL of Codex Alimentarius Commission. However imidacloprid was not detected in any sample. Concentration of bifenthrin in house egg samples ranged from 0.256206 to 4.112387 mg/kg while in poultry farm samples it varied from 1.5862 to 5.80796 mg/kg. Difenoconazole was found in concentration of 0.02835 mg/kg, 1.7668 mg/kg, 3.7205 mg/kg, 21.8937 mg/kg 21.9835 mg/kg, 19.26407 mg/kg in samples collected from houses while and in poultry farm samples its detected concentration was 10.939 mg/kg, 12.3296 mg/kg, 29.3617 mg/kg, 18.6116 mg/kg, 40.0523 mg/kg and 19.2335 mg/kg. Concentrations of both pesticides Bifenthrin and Difenoconazole exceeded the MRLs (0.05 mg/kg. Health risk index surpassed 1 (the cut off value for Difenoconazole in seven samples while for Bifenthrin values were less than 1, indicating the possibility of potential medium to long term health risk associated with ingestion of contaminated eggs.

  10. Comparison of radiation and chemical risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1988-01-01

    Injury to living cells is caused by mechanisms which in many cases are similar for radiation and chemicals. It is thus not surprising that radiation and many chemicals can cause similar biological effects, e.g. cancer, fetal injury and hereditary disease. Both radiation and chemicals are always found in our environment. One agent may strengthen or weaken the effect of another, be it radiation in combination with chemicals or one chemical with another. The implications of such synergistic or antagonistic effects are discussed. Intricate mechanisms help the body to defend itself against threats to health from radiation and chemicals, even against cancer risks. In a strategy for health, it might be worth to exploit actively these defense mechanisms, in parallel with decreasing the exposures. On particular interest are the large exposures from commonly known sources such as smoking, sun tanning and high fat contents of food. (author)

  11. Focal species candidates for pesticide risk assessment in European rice fields: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallon, Martin; Dietzen, Christian; Laucht, Silke; Ludwigs, Jan-Dieter

    2018-04-25

    An assessment of potential risks of pesticides on wildlife is required during the process of product registration within Europe because of the importance of agricultural landscapes as wildlife habitats. Despite their peculiarity and their specific role as artificial wetlands, rice paddies are to date pooled with cereals in guidance documents on how to conduct risk assessments for birds and mammals in Europe. Hence, the focal species currently considered in risk assessments for rice paddies are those known from cereal fields and can therefore be expected to differ significantly from the species actually occurring in the wet environments of rice paddies. We present results of a comprehensive review on bird and mammal species regularly occurring in rice paddies during a time of potential pesticide exposure to identify appropriate focal species candidates for ecotoxicological pesticide risk assessment according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). In addition, we present data on rice cultivation areas and agricultural practices in Europe to give background information supporting the species selection process. Our literature search identified a general scarcity of relevant data, particularly for mammals, which highlights the need for crop-specific focal species studies. However, our results clearly indicate that the relevant bird and mammal species in rice fields indeed differ strongly from the focal species used for the cereal risk assessment. They can thus be used as a baseline for more realistic wildlife risk assessments specific to rice and the development of a revised guidance document to bridge the gap for regulatory decision makers. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;00:000-000. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Usage in Menia El-Kamh Province of Sharkia Governorate in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Assad

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Menia El-Kamh province of the Sharkia Governorate constitutes one of the largest agricultural areas in Egypt. About 88% of the nearly 472,000 people living in this province rely on agricultural activities for subsistence. Several pesticides including organochloride, organophosphorus, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are commonly used in citrus, vegetable and other crop-growing areas to increase agricultural productivity. However, their use has also been associated with several cases of pesticide poisoning. In this research, we conducted a field survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the farmer’s community regarding the safe use of pesticides. We also evaluated the residual concentrations of selected pesticides in water, soil, milk, fish, and orange samples, and estimated the potential health risks associated with the exposure to these pesticides. Data obtained from the field survey indicate that more than 95% of farm workers do not practice safety precautions during pesticide formulation and application; leading to a considerable prevalence of pesticide-related illnesses in this agricultural community. Pesticide residues in various environmental samples varied greatly; from below detection levels (3-5 ng to as high as 325 ppb depending on the matrix of interest, and the specific pesticide of concern. The analysis of health risk estimates indicated that chlorpyrifos, DDT, dimethoate, methomyl, and larvin did not pose a direct hazard to human health, although present in water, milk, orange, and/or fish. However, aldicarb, and carbosulfan levels exceeded the reference doses, indicating a great potential for systemic toxicity, especially in children who are considered to be the most vulnerable population subgroup. The upper-bound values of cancer risk from DDT exposure were estimated to be about 8 (adults, and 55 (children excess cancers in a population of one million.

  13. Residues, Sources and Potential Biological Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Sediments of Qiandao Lake, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huayun; Zhou, Shanshan; Li, Weidong; Liu, Qi; Tu, Yunjie

    2015-10-01

    Sediment samples were analyzed to comprehensively characterize the concentrations, distribution, possible sources and potential biological risk of organochlorine pesticides in Qiandao Lake, China. Concentrations of sumHCH and sumDDT in sediments ranged from 0.03 to 5.75 ng/g dry weight and not detected to 14.39 ng/g dry weight. The predominant β-HCH and the α-HCH/γ-HCH ratios indicated that the residues of HCHs were derived not only from historical technical HCH use but also from additional usage of lindane. Ratios of o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT and DDD/DDE suggested that both dicofol-type DDT and technical DDT applications may be present in most study areas. Additionally, based on two sediment quality guidelines, γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDT could be the main organochlorine pesticides species of ecotoxicological concern in Qiandao Lake.

  14. Development and application of a catchment scale pesticide fate and transport model for use in drinking water risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullan, S P; Whelan, M J; Rettino, J; Filby, K; Eyre, S; Holman, I P

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the development and application of IMPT (Integrated Model for Pesticide Transport), a parameter-efficient tool for predicting diffuse-source pesticide concentrations in surface waters used for drinking water supply. The model was applied to a small UK headwater catchment with high frequency (8h) pesticide monitoring data and to five larger catchments (479-1653km(2)) with sampling approximately every 14days. Model performance was good for predictions of both flow (Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency generally >0.59 and PBIAS water resources to support operational and strategic risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-reported chemicals exposure, beliefs about disease causation, and risk of breast cancer in the Cape Cod Breast Cancer and Environment Study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zota, Ami R; Aschengrau, Ann; Rudel, Ruthann A; Brody, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Household cleaning and pesticide products may contribute to breast cancer because many contain endocrine disrupting chemicals or mammary gland carcinogens. This population-based case-control study investigated whether use of household cleaners and pesticides increases breast cancer risk. Methods Participants were 787 Cape Cod, Massachusetts, women diagnosed with breast cancer between 1988 and 1995 and 721 controls. Telephone interviews asked about product use, beliefs abou...

  16. Inter-compartmental transport of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in South China: Implications for a regional risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huizhen; Wei, Yanli; Lydy, Michael J.; You, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic flux of an organophosphate and four pyrethroid pesticides was determined in an air-(soil)-water-sediment system based on monitoring data from Guangzhou, China. The total air–water flux, including air–water gaseous exchange and atmospheric deposition, showed deposition from air to water for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and cypermethrin, but volatilization for lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin. The transport of the pesticides from overlying water to sediment suggested that sediment acted as a sink for the pesticides. Additionally, distinct annual atmospheric depositional fluxes between legacy and current-use pesticides suggested the role of consumer usage in their transport throughout the system. Finally, pesticide toxicity was estimated from annual air–water-sediment flux within an urban stream in Guangzhou. A dynamic flux-based risk assessment indicated that inter-compartmental transport of chlorpyrifos decreased its atmospheric exposure, but had little influence on its aquatic toxicity. Instead, water-to-sediment transport of pyrethroids increased their sediment toxicity, which was supported by previously reported toxicity data. - Highlights: • Transport fluxes of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids were assessed in Guangzhou, China. • Sediment acted as a sink for chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids. • Air-to-water transport decreased the exposure risk of atmospheric chlorpyrifos. • Dynamic transport might increase the risk of pyrethroids in air and sediment. • Flux-based pesticide concentrations provide a way to estimate sediment toxicity. - Regional risk assessment could be improved by integrating dynamic flux information derived from inter-compartmental models

  17. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barraza, Douglas, E-mail: dbarraza@una.ac.cr [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances, Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica); Technology and Agrarian Development Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands); Jansen, Kees [Technology and Agrarian Development Group, Wageningen University (Netherlands); Wendel de Joode, Berna van; Wesseling, Catharina [Central American Institute for Studies on Toxic Substances, Universidad Nacional, Heredia (Costa Rica)

    2011-07-15

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by

  18. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barraza, Douglas; Jansen, Kees; Wendel de Joode, Berna van; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-01-01

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by other

  19. Ecological models in support of regulatory risk assessments of pesticides: developing a strategy for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Valery E; Hommen, Udo; Thorbek, Pernille; Heimbach, Fred; Van den Brink, Paul J; Wogram, Jörn; Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Grimm, Volker

    2009-01-01

    This brief communication reports on the main findings of the LEMTOX workshop, held from 9 to 12 September 2007, at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Leipzig, Germany. The workshop brought together a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, regulatory authorities, contract research organizations, and industry, representing Europe, the United States, and Asia, to discuss the role of ecological modeling in risk assessments of pesticides, particularly under the European regulatory framework. The following questions were addressed: What are the potential benefits of using ecological models in pesticide registration and risk assessment? What obstacles prevent ecological modeling from being used routinely in regulatory submissions? What actions are needed to overcome the identified obstacles? What recommendations should be made to ensure good modeling practice in this context? The workshop focused exclusively on population models, and discussion was focused on those categories of population models that link effects on individuals (e.g., survival, growth, reproduction, behavior) to effects on population dynamics. The workshop participants concluded that the overall benefits of ecological modeling are that it could bring more ecology into ecological risk assessment, and it could provide an excellent tool for exploring the importance of, and interactions among, ecological complexities. However, there are a number of challenges that need to be overcome before such models will receive wide acceptance for pesticide risk assessment, despite having been used extensively in other contexts (e.g., conservation biology). The need for guidance on Good Modeling Practice (on model development, analysis, interpretation, evaluation, documentation, and communication), as well as the need for case studies that can be used to explore the added value of ecological models for risk assessment, were identified as top priorities. Assessing recovery potential of exposed

  20. Occupational pesticide use and Parkinson's disease in the Parkinson Environment Gene (PEG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Shilpa; Liew, Zeyan; Bronstein, Jeff M; Ritz, Beate

    2017-10-01

    To study the influence of occupational pesticide use on Parkinson's disease (PD) in a population with information on various occupational, residential, and household sources of pesticide exposure. In a population-based case control study in Central California, we used structured interviews to collect occupational history details including pesticide use in jobs, duration of use, product names, and personal protective equipment use from 360 PD cases and 827 controls. We linked reported products to California's pesticide product label database and identified pesticide active ingredients and occupational use by chemical class including fungicides, insecticides, and herbicides. Employing unconditional logistic regression, we estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for PD and occupational pesticide use. Ever occupational use of carbamates increased risk of PD by 455%, while organophosphorus (OP) and organochlorine (OC) pesticide use doubled risk. PD risk increased 110-211% with ever occupational use of fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Using any pesticide occupationally for >10years doubled the risk of PD compared with no occupational pesticide use. Surprisingly, we estimated higher risks among those reporting use of personal protective equipment (PPE). Our findings provide additional evidence that occupational pesticide exposures increase PD risk. This was the case even after controlling for other sources of pesticide exposure. Specifically, risk increased with occupational use of carbamates, OPs, and OCs, as well as of fungicides, herbicides, or insecticides. Interestingly, some types of PPE use may not provide adequate protection during pesticide applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecological risk assessment of pesticides in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; Meli, Mattia; Palmqvist, Annemette

    2015-01-01

    . As we followed the advocacy coalition framework, our findings focus on stakeholders’ processes, interrelations and values behind the ERA policy change. The main challenges emerging from our analysis turned out to be the slow uptake of scientific developments into ERA and very broadly defined protection......-protectiveness lies deep in the perception of stakeholders and depends greatly on their priorities. Academics strive for better ecological relevance as a priority. They have concerns that ERA is oversimplified. Regulators worry that ERA relies too much on risk mitigation and is possibly not protective enough...

  2. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-01-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  3. Environmental monitoring of selected pesticides and organic chemicals in urban stormwater recycling systems using passive sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Declan; Miotliński, Konrad; Gonzalez, Dennis; Barry, Karen; Dillon, Peter; Gallen, Christie

    2014-03-01

    Water recycling via aquifers has become a valuable tool to augment urban water supplies in many countries. This study reports the first use of passive samplers for monitoring of organic micropollutants in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR). Five different configurations of passive samplers were deployed in a stormwater treatment wetland, groundwater monitoring wells and a recovery tank to capture a range of polar and non-polar micropollutants present in the system. The passive samplers were analysed for a suite of pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other chemicals. As a result, 17 pesticides and pesticide degradation products, 5 PAHs and 8 other organic chemicals including flame retardants and fragrances were detected in urban stormwater recharging Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR) and an Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery (ASTR) system. Of the pesticides detected, diuron, metolachlor and chlorpyrifos were generally detected at the highest concentrations in one or more passive samplers, whereas chlorpyrifos, diuron, metolachlor, simazine, galaxolide and triallate were detected in multiple samplers. Fluorene was the PAH detected at the highest concentration and the flame retardant Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate was the chemical detected in the greatest abundance at all sites. The passive samplers showed different efficiencies for capture of micropollutants with the Empore disc samplers giving the most reliable results. The results indicate generally low levels of organic micropollutants in the stormwater, as the contaminants detected were present at very low ng/L levels, generally two to four orders of magnitude below the drinking water guidelines (NHMRC, 2011). The efficiency of attenuation of these organic micropollutants during MAR was difficult to determine due to variations in the source water concentrations. Comparisons were made between different samplers, to give a field-based calibration where existing lab-based calibrations were

  4. 76 FR 2110 - Notice of Receipt of a Pesticide Petition Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... 0F7767. (EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0996). Enviro Tech Chemical Services, Inc., 500 Winmoore Way, Modesto, CA 95358... potassium hypochlorite, in or on apple; artichoke; asparagus; brussel sprouts; carrot; cauliflower; celery...

  5. Sensitivity analysis for simulating pesticide impacts on honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Regulatory agencies assess risks to honey bees from pesticides through a tiered process that includes predictive modeling with empirical toxicity and chemical data of pesticides as a line of evidence. We evaluate the Varroapop colony model, proposed by...

  6. Pesticide mixtures in the Swedish streams: Environmental risks, contributions of individual compounds and consequences of single-substance oriented risk mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Mikael; Kreuger, Jenny; Bundschuh, Mirco; Backhaus, Thomas

    2017-11-15

    This paper presents the ecotoxicological assessment and environmental risk evaluation of complex pesticide mixtures occurring in freshwater ecosystems in southern Sweden. The evaluation is based on exposure data collected between 2002 and 2013 by the Swedish pesticide monitoring program and includes 1308 individual samples, detecting mixtures of up to 53 pesticides (modal=8). Pesticide mixture risks were evaluated using three different scenarios for non-detects (best-case, worst-case and using the Kaplan-Meier method). The risk of each scenario was analyzed using Swedish Water Quality Objectives (WQO) and trophic-level specific environmental thresholds. Using the Kaplan-Meier method the environmental risk of 73% of the samples exceeded acceptable levels, based on an assessment using Concentration-Addition and WQOs for the individual pesticides. Algae were the most sensitive organism group. However, analytical detection limits, especially for insecticides, were insufficient to analyze concentrations at or near their WQO's. Thus, the risk of the analyzed pesticide mixtures to crustaceans and fish is systematically underestimated. Treating non-detects as being present at their individual limit of detection increased the estimated risk by a factor 100 or more, compared to the best-case or the Kaplan-Meier scenario. Pesticide mixture risks are often driven by only 1-3 compounds. However, the risk-drivers (i.e., individual pesticides explaining the largest share of potential effects) differ substantially between sites and samples, and 83 of the 141 monitored pesticides need to be included in the assessment to account for 95% of the risk at all sites and years. Single-substance oriented risk mitigation measures that would ensure that each individual pesticide is present at a maximum of 95% of its individual WQO, would also reduce the mixture risk, but only from a median risk quotient of 2.1 to a median risk quotient of 1.8. Also, acceptable total risk levels would still

  7. Chemical risks from nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies concerning the chemical risks of nuclear waste are reviewed. The radiological toxicity of the material is of primary concern but the potential nonradiological toxicity should not be overlooked as the chemotoxic substances may reach the biosphere from a nuclear waste repository. In the report is concluded that the possible chemotoxic effects of a repository for nuclear waste should be studied as a part of the formal risk assessment of the disposal concept. (author)

  8. The use and disposal of household pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, Charlotte N.B.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed

  9. Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users’ Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazoué and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikkey, Hinson Antoine; Fidel, Dossou; Pazou Elisabeth, Yehouenou; Hilaire, Hountikpo; Hervé, Lawin; Badirou, Aguèmon; Alain, Koudafoke; Parfait, Houngbégnon; Fabien, Gounongbé; Benjamin, Fayomi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc.) with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Results: Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure (P = .002) for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance. PMID:28469452

  10. Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users' Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazoué and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikkey, Hinson Antoine; Fidel, Dossou; Elisabeth, Yehouenou Pazou; Hilaire, Hountikpo; Hervé, Lawin; Badirou, Aguèmon; Alain, Koudafoke; Parfait, Houngbégnon; Fabien, Gounongbé; Benjamin, Fayomi

    2017-01-01

    To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè) and to identify the associated risk factors. Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc.) with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure ( P = .002) for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance.

  11. Risk Factors of Pesticide Poisoning and Pesticide Users’ Cholinesterase Levels in Cotton Production Areas: Glazoué and Savè Townships, in Central Republic of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinson Antoine Vikkey

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the degree of poisoning in farmers using the erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE test before and after the exposure to pesticides in townships in central Benin (Glazoué and Savè and to identify the associated risk factors. Methods: Using a cross-sectional study design, we recruited 264 farm pesticide sprayers, who have been working for at least 5 years. They completed a questionnaire and underwent the AChE test using the Test-mate Model 400 device (EQM Research Inc. with a photometric sensor, based on the works of Ellman. Results: Organophosphate/pyrethroids were the most common pesticides used by at least 72.96% of the farmworkers. We observed an inhibition of AChE between pre-exposure and post-exposure ( P = .002 for 60.61% of the farmworkers. Among them, 11.88% displayed more than 20% AChE inhibition. Conclusions: Pesticide poisoning is a reality, and AChE monitoring is urgently needed for farmworker surveillance.

  12. Conceptual Framework for Trait-Based Ecological Risk Assessment for Wildlife Populations Exposed to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between screening level risk assessments and complex ecological models, a need exists for practical identification of risk based on general information about species, chemicals, and exposure scenarios. Several studies have identified demographic, biological, and toxicological fa...

  13. Incorporating variations in pesticide catabolic activity into a GIS-based groundwater risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posen, Paulette; Lovett, Andrew; Hiscock, Kevin; Evers, Sarah; Ward, Rob; Reid, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The catabolic activity of incumbent microorganisms in soil samples of eleven dissimilar soil series was investigated, with respect to the herbicide isoproturon. Soils were collected from a 30 x 37 km area of river catchment to the north-west of London, England. Catabolic activity in each soil type during a 500 h assay was determined by 14 C-radiorespirometry. Results showed four soils that exhibited high levels of catabolic activity (33-44% mineralisation) while the remaining seven soils showed lower levels of catabolic activity (12-16% mineralisation). There was evidence to suggest that soils exhibiting high catabolic activity had low ( 14 C-radiorespirometric results were used to produce a GIS layer representing levels of catabolic activity for the dissimilar soils across the study area. This layer was combined with other GIS layers relating to pesticide attenuation, including soil organic carbon content, depth to groundwater and hydrogeology, to produce a map showing risk of groundwater contamination by isoproturon. The output from this approach was compared with output from an attenuation-only approach and differences appraised. Inclusion of the catabolism layer resulted in a lowering of risk in the model in 15% of the study area. Although there appears to be limited benefit in including pesticide catabolic activity in this regional-scale groundwater risk model, this type of addition could be useful in a site-specific risk assessment

  14. Relevance and reliability of experimental data in human health risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenhäuser, Johanna; Kneuer, Carsten; Marx-Stoelting, Philip; Niemann, Lars; Schubert, Jens; Stein, Bernd; Solecki, Roland

    2017-08-01

    Evaluation of data relevance, reliability and contribution to uncertainty is crucial in regulatory health risk assessment if robust conclusions are to be drawn. Whether a specific study is used as key study, as additional information or not accepted depends in part on the criteria according to which its relevance and reliability are judged. In addition to GLP-compliant regulatory studies following OECD Test Guidelines, data from peer-reviewed scientific literature have to be evaluated in regulatory risk assessment of pesticide active substances. Publications should be taken into account if they are of acceptable relevance and reliability. Their contribution to the overall weight of evidence is influenced by factors including test organism, study design and statistical methods, as well as test item identification, documentation and reporting of results. Various reports make recommendations for improving the quality of risk assessments and different criteria catalogues have been published to support evaluation of data relevance and reliability. Their intention was to guide transparent decision making on the integration of the respective information into the regulatory process. This article describes an approach to assess the relevance and reliability of experimental data from guideline-compliant studies as well as from non-guideline studies published in the scientific literature in the specific context of uncertainty and risk assessment of pesticides. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemicals, metals, and pesticide pits waste unit low induction number electromagnetic survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumbest, R.J.; Mohon, D.

    1995-06-01

    An electromagnetic survey was conducted at the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticide Waste Unit to identify any buried metallic objects that may be present in the materials used to fill and cover the pits after removal of pit debris. The survey was conducted with a Geonics EM-31 Terrain Conductivity Meter along north - south oriented traverses with 5-ft station intervals to produce a 5-ft by 5-ft square grid node pattern. Both conductivity and in-phase components were measured at each station for vertical dipole orientation with the common axis of the dipoles in the north - south and east - west orientations. The conductivity data clearly show elevated conductivities (2.1 to 7.0 mS/m) associated with the material over the pits, as compared with the surrounding area that is characterized by lower conductivities (1 to 2 mS/m). This is probably the result of the higher clay content of the fill material relative to the surrounding area, which has a higher sand to clay ratio and the presence of a plastic cover beneath the fill that has probably trapped water. Many metal objects are present in the survey area including manhole covers, monitoring well heads, metal, signs, drain culverts, abandoned wells, and BP waste unit marker balls. AU of these exhibit associated conductivity and in-phase anomalies of various magnitude. In addition to these anomalies that can be definitely associated with surface sources, conductivity and in-phase anomalies are also present with no obvious surface source. These anomalies are probably indicative of subsurface buried metallic objects. A high concentration of these objects appears to be present in the southwest corner of the survey area.

  16. New insights into the interactions between cork chemical components and pesticides. The contribution of π-π interactions, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivella, M À; Bazzicalupi, C; Bianchi, A; Fiol, N; Villaescusa, I

    2015-01-01

    The role of chemical components of cork in the sorption of several pesticides has been investigated. For this purpose raw cork and three cork extracted fractions (i.e. cork free of aliphatic extractives, cork free of all extractives and cork free of all extractives and suberin) were used as sorbent of three ionic pesticides (propazine, 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) and alachlor) and five non-ionic pesticides (chlorpyrifos, isoproturon, metamitron, methomyl and oxamyl) with a logKow within the range -0.47 to 4.92. The effect of cations on the ionic pesticides, propazine and 2,4-D sorption was also analyzed. Results indicated that the highest yields were obtained for chlorpyrifos and alachlor sorption onto raw cork (>55%). After removal of aliphatic extractives sorption of all pesticides increased that ranged from 3% for propazine to 31% for alachlor. In contrast, removal of phenolic extractives caused a sorption decrease. Low sorption yields were obtained for hydrophobic pesticides such as metamitron, oxamyl and methomyl (cork fractions and extremely low when using raw cork (cork toward aromatic pesticides. Results presented in this paper gain insights into the cork affinities for pesticides and the interactions involved in the sorption process and also enables to envisage sorption affinity of cork for other organic pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. T-HERPS Version 1.0 User's Guide for Risk to Amphibians and Reptiles from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    T-HERPS estimates dietary exposure and risk to terrestrial-phase amphibians and reptiles from pesticide use. Currently approved for assessing exposure and risk to the California red-legged frog and terrestrial-phase herptiles with similar dietary behavior

  18. Pesticide use in banana and plantain production and risk perception among local actors in Talamanca, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Douglas; Jansen, Kees; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Wesseling, Catharina

    2011-07-01

    The Talamanca County in Costa Rica has large-scale banana and small-scale plantain production, probably causing pesticide exposure in indigenous children. We explored to what extent different community actors are aware of children's pesticide hazards and how their awareness related to socio-economical and cultural conditions. Methods comprised eight focus groups with fathers and mothers separately, 27 semi-structured interviews to key actors, and field observations. As a whole, the indigenous plantain farmers and banana plantation workers had some general knowledge of pesticides concerning crop protection, but little on acute health effects, and hardly any on exposure routes and pathways, and chronic effects. People expressed vague ideas about pesticide risks. Inter-community differences were related to pesticide technologies used in banana and plantain production, employment status on a multinational plantation versus smallholder status, and gender. Compared to formalized practices on transnational company plantations, where workers reported to feel protected, pesticide handling by plantain smallholders was not perceived as hazardous and therefore no safety precautions were applied. Large-scale monoculture was perceived as one of the most important problems leading to pesticide risks in Talamanca on banana plantations, and also on neighboring small plantain farms extending into large areas. Plantain farmers have adopted use of highly toxic pesticides following banana production, but in conditions of extreme poverty. Aerial spraying in banana plantations was considered by most social actors a major determinant of exposure for the population living nearby these plantations, including vulnerable children. We observed violations of legally established aerial spraying distances. Economic considerations were most mentioned as the underlying reason for the pesticide use: economic needs to obtain the production quantity and quality, and pressure to use pesticides by other

  19. Australia's pesticide environmental risk assessment failure: the case of diuron and sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Glen

    2014-11-15

    In November 2012, the Australian Pesticide and Veterinary Medicines Authority (APVMA) concluded a 12 year review of the PSII herbicide diuron. One of the primary concerns raised during the review was the potential impact on aquatic ecosystems, particularly in the catchments draining to the Great Barrier Reef. The environmental risk assessment process used by the APVMA utilised a runoff risk model developed and validated under European farming conditions. However, the farming conditions in the sugarcane regions of the Great Barrier Reef catchments have environmental parameters beyond the currently validated bounds of the model. The use of the model to assess environmental risk in these regions is therefore highly inappropriate, demonstrating the pitfalls of a one size fits all approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-animal approaches for toxicokinetics in risk evaluations of food chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punt, Ans; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to review the availability and predictive value of non-animal toxicokinetic approaches and to evaluate their current use in European risk evaluations of food contaminants, additives and food contact materials, as well as pesticides and medicines. Results revealed little use of quantitative animal or human kinetic data in risk evaluations of food chemicals, compared with pesticides and medicines. Risk evaluations of medicines provided sufficient in vivo kinetic data from different species to evaluate the predictive value of animal kinetic data for humans. These data showed a relatively poor correlation between the in vivo bioavailability in rats and dogs versus that in humans. In contrast, in vitro (human) kinetic data have been demonstrated to provide adequate predictions of the fate of compounds in humans, using appropriate in vitro-in vivo scalers and by integration of in vitro kinetic data with in silico kinetic modelling. Even though in vitro kinetic data were found to be occasionally included within risk evaluations of food chemicals, particularly results from Caco-2 absorption experiments and in vitro data on gut-microbial conversions, only minor use of in vitro methods for metabolism and quantitative in vitro-in vivo extrapolation methods was identified. Yet, such quantitative predictions are essential in the development of alternatives to animal testing as well as to increase human relevance of toxicological risk evaluations. Future research should aim at further improving and validating quantitative alternative methods for kinetics, thereby increasing regulatory acceptance of non-animal kinetic data.

  1. Chemical Risk Assessment Screening Tool of a Global Chemical Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Tjoe-Nij

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper describes a simple-to-use and reliable screening tool called Critical Task Exposure Screening (CTES, developed by a chemical company. The tool assesses if the exposure to a chemical for a task is likely to be within acceptable levels. Methods: CTES is a Microsoft Excel tool, where the inhalation risk score is calculated by relating the exposure estimate to the corresponding occupational exposure limit (OEL or occupational exposure band (OEB. The inhalation exposure is estimated for tasks by preassigned ART1.5 activity classes and modifying factors. Results: CTES requires few inputs. The toxicological data, including OELs, OEBs, and vapor pressure are read from a database. Once the substance is selected, the user specifies its concentration and then chooses the task description and its duration. CTES has three outputs that may trigger follow-up: (1 inhalation risk score; (2 identification of the skin hazard with the skin warnings for local and systemic adverse effects; and (3 status for carcinogenic, mutagenic, or reprotoxic effects. Conclusion: The tool provides an effective way to rapidly screen low-concern tasks, and quickly identifies certain tasks involving substances that will need further review with, nevertheless, the appropriate conservatism. This tool shows that the higher-tier ART1.5 inhalation exposure assessment model can be included effectively in a screening tool. After 2 years of worldwide extensive use within the company, CTES is well perceived by the users, including the shop floor management, and it fulfills its target of screening tool. Keywords: occupational exposure, risk assessment, risk management

  2. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metayer, C.; Buffler, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK ASSESSMENT MODEL FOR THE EFFECTS OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON INFECTIOUS DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increased concern about the sublethal effects of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides on human and animal health. This class of chemicals has been shown to affect the immune function of macrophages and lymphocytes. Malathion, an OP compound, is one of the most widely used ...

  4. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennan, M. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Sacchettini, G. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Panzone, L. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Butler-Ellis, M.C. [Silsoe Spray Applications Unit, NIAB, Building 42, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HP (United Kingdom); Capri, E. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G. [TNO Innovation for Life, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands); Machera, K. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Spanoghe, P. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Glass, R. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Marchis, A. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Doanngoc, K. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hart, A. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Frewer, L.J., E-mail: Lynn.Frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. - Highlights: • Perceptions of risks associated with pesticide exposure were assessed • Surveys were conducted in Greece, Italy and the UK targeting vulnerable stakeholders • Perceptions of risk were associated with

  5. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennan, M.; Sacchettini, G.; Panzone, L.; Butler-Ellis, M.C.; Capri, E.; Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E.; Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Machera, K.; Spanoghe, P.; Glass, R.; Marchis, A.; Doanngoc, K.; Hart, A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. - Highlights: • Perceptions of risks associated with pesticide exposure were assessed • Surveys were conducted in Greece, Italy and the UK targeting vulnerable stakeholders • Perceptions of risk were associated with

  6. Human health risk assessment of pesticide residues in snappers (Lutjanus) fish from the Navachiste Lagoon complex, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Galván, Ingrid Alejandra; Rodríguez-Meza, Durga Guadalupe; Luna-González, Antonio; González-Ocampo, Héctor Abelardo

    2015-08-15

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues were determined in fillets of Lutjanus colorado, L. argentiventris, and L. novemfasciatus. Fillet samples were collected bimonthly from February 2012 to February 2013. OCPs average concentrations do not differ significantly according to size, weight, or season, nor do they relate with the physico-chemical parameters of the sea water. The highest concentration and most frequently encountered OCPs were endosulfan sulfate, δ-HCH, and heptachlor epoxide, which indicates their use in the recent past and confirms their persistence. Average concentrations of ∑HCHs, ∑chlordane, and ∑heptachlor in samples were above cancer MRLs according to data from monthly consumed portions. HCHs and heptachlor are listed in Appendix III of the Rotterdam Convention of chemicals placed on a prior informed consent procedure for import and export purposes; they are considered illegal in Mexico. The OCPs concentrations above cancer MRLs in Lutjanus spp. turn its frequent consumption into a human health risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatiotemporal Variation and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Water of the Lower Catchment Basin of Acheloos River, Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatis, Nikolaos; Hela, Dimitra; Triantafyllidis, Vassilios; Konstantinou, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    A three-year monitoring survey (March 2005–February 2008) was conducted to investigate, on monthly basis, the presence of thirty pesticides belonging to various categories and metabolites, in Acheloos River (Western Greece), one of the most important water resources in Greece. Six sampling stations along the river were established. Water analyses were performed using solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography with flame thermionic detector and mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis using one-way ANOVA and Duncan's multiple range test (P < 0.05) was used to compare annual mean concentrations of pesticides, seasonal and spatial distribution. In general, the highest mean concentrations of the pesticides were recorded at the three stations downstream. The greatest average concentrations were determined during spring and summer in agreement with the pesticide application period. The observed lower concentrations after 2006 reflect the land-use change because of the elimination of tobacco, the main cultivation of the area for many decades. The compounds most frequently detected were diazinon (78.6%), DEA (69.3%), and fenthion (52.6%). Environmental risk assessment using risk quotient (RQ) approach showed high risk for six insecticides in 2005 and one in 2007. A compliance with the European Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) was observed for the priority pesticides. PMID:24453814

  8. Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ríos-González, Adriana, E-mail: adrianariosg@hotmail.com [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Jansen, Kees, E-mail: Kees.Jansen@wur.nl [Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Hollandseweg 1, 6706 KN Wageningen (Netherlands); Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor, E-mail: hsanchez@ecosur.mx [Society, Culture and Health Academic Area, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Carretera Panamericana y Periférico Sur s/n, Barrio de María Auxiliadora cp. 29290 San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas (Mexico); The Africa and Latin America Research Groups Network (GRAAL), Faculty of Medicine, Biostatistics Unit, Barcelona Autonomous University, Edificio M, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research

  9. Pesticide risk perceptions and the differences between farmers and extensionists: Towards a knowledge-in-context model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ríos-González, Adriana; Jansen, Kees; Javier Sánchez-Pérez, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of literature analyzes farmer perceptions of pesticide risk, but much less attention has been given to differences in risk perception between farmers and technical experts. Furthermore, inconsistencies in knowledge have too easily been explained in terms of lack of knowledge rather than exploring the underlying reasons for particular forms of thinking about pesticide risks. By doing this, the division between expert and lay knowledge has been deepened rather than transcended. Objective: This study aims to understand differences and similarities among the perceptions of pesticide risks of farmers, farm workers, and technical experts such as extensionists, by applying a social science approach towards knowledge and risk attitudes. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and field observations were conducted to smallholders, farm workers, extensionists, health professionals and scientists involved in the use and handling of pesticides. Subsequently, a survey was carried out to quantify the farmers and extensionists' acceptance or rejection of typical assertions expressed previously in the semi-structured interviews. Results: Smallholders showed to gain knowledge from their own experiences and to adapt pesticides practices, which is a potential basis for transforming notions of pesticide safety and risk reduction strategies. Though extensionists have received formal education, they sometimes develop ideas deviating from the technical perspective. The risk perception of the studied actors appeared to vary according to their role in the agricultural labor process; they varied much less than expected according to their schooling level. Conclusions: Commitment to the technical perspective is not dramatically different for extensionists on the one hand and farmers as well as farm workers on the other hand. Ideas about a supposed lack of knowledge by farmers and the need of formal training are too much driven by a deficit model of knowledge. Further research on

  10. Multiresidue determination and potential risks of emerging pesticides in aquatic products from Northeast China by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lei; Lu, Xianbo; Tan, Jun; Wang, Longxing; Chen, Jiping

    2018-01-01

    A simple method for determining 33 pesticides with a wide polarity range (logK ow 0.6-4.5) in aquatic products was developed based on LC-MS/MS. The target analytes included three types of widely used pesticides: insecticides, fungicides and herbicides. Based on the optimization of ultrasonic assisted extraction and GPC clean-up procedures, the matrix effect, extraction recoveries and LOD were improved distinctively. LOQ of this method was below 0.5ng/g for all pesticides, which is superior to values in the literature, and the matrix effect was reduced effectively (-14.7% to 7.5%). The method was successfully applied to investigate the pesticide residue levels of twenty-five samples including seven common kinds of fishes from Northeast China. The results showed that all targeted pesticides were present in the fish samples; however, their levels were low, except for atrazine, linuron, ethoprophos, tetrachlorvinphos, acetochlor and fenthion. Atrazine and linuron caught our attention because the concentrations of atrazine in fish samples from Liaoning province were in the range of 0.5-8ng/g (w/w) with mean concentration of 2.3ng/g, which were far above those of other pesticides. The levels of linuron were in the range of 0.6-6ng/g (mean concentration 2.8ng/g), which were the highest among all targeted pesticides in the Inner Mongolia. This is the first systematic investigation on the characteristics and levels of these pesticides in aquatic products from northeast China. Considering their toxicity and bioaccumulation, the potential risk of atrazine and linuron from consuming aquatic products should be paid more attention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides on important parasitoids of cabbage butterflies in cruciferous ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firake, D M; Thubru, D P; Behere, G T

    2017-02-01

    Eco-toxicological risk and impact of pesticides was estimated on three important parasitoids of butterflies viz., Hyposoter ebeninus, Cotesia glomerata and Pteromalus puparum. Four commonly used pesticides were evaluated using standard protocol (of IOBC/WPRS-group). In laboratory tests, the survival of the female wasps decreased significantly on fresh contact and ingestion of deltamethrin, spinosad and azadirachtin; whereas Bacillus thuringiensis var kurstaki (Btk) was found harmless pesticide. Under semi-field conditions, parasitoid mortality decreased significantly on fresh contact with the pesticides. Although, at 72 h after treatment, spinosad and deltamethrin were found harmful (Class-IV) and azadirachtin was moderately harmful (Class-III), whereas Btk was harmless (Class-I). Furthermore, 15-day-old residues of pesticides (except deltamethrin) were harmless to all parasitoid species under semi-field conditions. Notably, adult emergence and pupal duration in pesticide-treated cocoons were not significantly affected; however, their survival decreased after emergence except in Btk. The contact and oral toxicity trends of the pesticides were almost similar for three species of parasitoid females and pupae; however little variability was observed in toxicity to the host caterpillars parasitized by H. ebeninus (HCPHE) and C. glomerata (HCPCG). In semi-field tests, fresh residues of all the pesticides were harmful to HCPHE and HCPCG. However, action of Btk was slightly delayed and toxicity was rather low for HCPCG. In 15-day-old residues, deltamethrin and azadirachtin were slightly harmful to the parasitized caterpillars, whereas those of Btk and spinosad were harmless. Since, Btk appeared to be safe for parasitoids; it could be used for managing cabbage butterflies in brassicaceous crops. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Construction of a risk assessment system for chemical residues in agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinai; Hong, Jiyeon; Lee, Dayeon; Paik, Minkyoung

    2014-01-01

    Continuous monitoring of chemical residues in agricultural and food products has been performed by various government bodies in South Korea. These bodies have made attempts to systematically manage this information by creating a monitoring database system as well as a system based on these data with which to assess the health risk of chemical residues in agricultural products. Meanwhile, a database system is being constructed consisting of information about monitoring and, following this, a demand for convenience has led to the need for an evaluation tool to be constructed with the data processing system. Also, in order to create a systematic and effective tool for the risk assessment of chemical residues in foods and agricultural products, various evaluation models are being developed, both domestically and abroad. Overseas, systems such as Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model: Food Commodity Intake Database and Cumulative and Aggregate Risk Evaluation System are being used; these use the US Environmental Protection Agency as a focus, while the EU has developed Pesticide Residue Intake Model for assessments of pesticide exposure through food intake. Following this, the National Academy of Agricultural Science (NAAS) created the Agricultural Products Risk Assessment System (APRAS) which supports the use and storage of monitoring information and risk assessments. APRAS efficiently manages the monitoring data produced by NAAS and creates an extraction feature included in the database system. Also, the database system in APRAS consists of a monitoring database system held by the NAAS and food consumption database system. Food consumption data is based on Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. This system is aimed at exposure and risk assessments for chemical residues in agricultural products with regards to different exposure scenarios.

  13. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    We revealed a history of legacy pesticides in water and sediment samples from 19 small streams across an agricultural landscape. Dominant legacy compounds included organochlorine pesticides, such as DDT and lindane, the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and triazine herbicides such as terbutylazine...

  14. Pesticide exposure and self-reported incident depression among wives in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John D; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya

    2013-10-01

    Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers' wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and drop out, wives' incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands' ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' incident depression. Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels

  15. Prediction of pesticide acute toxicity using two-dimensional chemical descriptors and target species classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous modelling of the median lethal dose (oral rat LD50) has indicated that local class-based models yield better correlations than global models. We evaluated the hypothesis that dividing the dataset by pesticidal mechanisms would improve prediction accuracy. A linear discri...

  16. Incorporating variations in pesticide catabolic activity into a GIS-based groundwater risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posen, Paulette [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: p.posen@uea.ac.uk; Lovett, Andrew [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Hiscock, Kevin [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Evers, Sarah [Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Ward, Rob [Environment Agency, Olton Court, 10 Warwick Road, Olton, Solihull, B92 7HX (United Kingdom); Reid, Brian [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Earlham Road, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2006-08-31

    The catabolic activity of incumbent microorganisms in soil samples of eleven dissimilar soil series was investigated, with respect to the herbicide isoproturon. Soils were collected from a 30 x 37 km area of river catchment to the north-west of London, England. Catabolic activity in each soil type during a 500 h assay was determined by {sup 14}C-radiorespirometry. Results showed four soils that exhibited high levels of catabolic activity (33-44% mineralisation) while the remaining seven soils showed lower levels of catabolic activity (12-16% mineralisation). There was evidence to suggest that soils exhibiting high catabolic activity had low (< 22%) clay content and tended towards lower organic carbon content (< 2.7%), but that these higher levels of catabolic activity were also related to pre-exposure to isoproturon. The {sup 14}C-radiorespirometric results were used to produce a GIS layer representing levels of catabolic activity for the dissimilar soils across the study area. This layer was combined with other GIS layers relating to pesticide attenuation, including soil organic carbon content, depth to groundwater and hydrogeology, to produce a map showing risk of groundwater contamination by isoproturon. The output from this approach was compared with output from an attenuation-only approach and differences appraised. Inclusion of the catabolism layer resulted in a lowering of risk in the model in 15% of the study area. Although there appears to be limited benefit in including pesticide catabolic activity in this regional-scale groundwater risk model, this type of addition could be useful in a site-specific risk assessment.

  17. Where do uncertainties reside within environmental risk assessments? Expert opinion on uncertainty distributions for pesticide risks to surface water organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Daniel J C; Rocks, Sophie A; Pollard, Simon J T

    2016-12-01

    A reliable characterisation of uncertainties can aid uncertainty identification during environmental risk assessments (ERAs). However, typologies can be implemented inconsistently, causing uncertainties to go unidentified. We present an approach based on nine structured elicitations, in which subject-matter experts, for pesticide risks to surface water organisms, validate and assess three dimensions of uncertainty: its level (the severity of uncertainty, ranging from determinism to ignorance); nature (whether the uncertainty is epistemic or aleatory); and location (the data source or area in which the uncertainty arises). Risk characterisation contains the highest median levels of uncertainty, associated with estimating, aggregating and evaluating the magnitude of risks. Regarding the locations in which uncertainty is manifest, data uncertainty is dominant in problem formulation, exposure assessment and effects assessment. The comprehensive description of uncertainty described will enable risk analysts to prioritise the required phases, groups of tasks, or individual tasks within a risk analysis according to the highest levels of uncertainty, the potential for uncertainty to be reduced or quantified, or the types of location-based uncertainty, thus aiding uncertainty prioritisation during environmental risk assessments. In turn, it is expected to inform investment in uncertainty reduction or targeted risk management action. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C. G.; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M. G.; van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R.; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. Objectives: Our aim

  19. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  20. Mixture effects at very low doses with combinations of anti-androgenic pesticides, antioxidants, industrial pollutant and chemicals used in personal care products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orton, Frances; Ermler, Sibylle; Kugathas, Subramaniam [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Rosivatz, Erika [Institute of Chemical Biology, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Scholze, Martin [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Kortenkamp, Andreas, E-mail: andreas.kortenkamp@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Many xenobiotics have been identified as in vitro androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, but information about their ability to produce combined effects at low concentrations is missing. Such data can reveal whether joint effects at the receptor are induced at low levels and may support the prioritisation of in vivo evaluations and provide orientations for the grouping of anti-androgens in cumulative risk assessment. Combinations of 30 AR antagonists from a wide range of sources and exposure routes (pesticides, antioxidants, parabens, UV-filters, synthetic musks, bisphenol-A, benzo(a)pyrene, perfluorooctane sulfonate and pentabromodiphenyl ether) were tested using a reporter gene assay (MDA-kb2). Chemicals were combined at three mixture ratios, equivalent to single components' effect concentrations that inhibit the action of dihydrotesterone by 1%, 10% or 20%. Concentration addition (CA) and independent action were used to calculate additivity expectations. We observed complete suppression of dihydrotestosterone effects when chemicals were combined at individual concentrations eliciting 1%, 10% or 20% AR antagonistic effect. Due to the large number of mixture components, the combined AR antagonistic effects occurred at very low concentrations of individual mixture components. CA slightly underestimated the combined effects at all mixture ratios. In conclusion, large numbers of AR antagonists from a wide variety of sources and exposure routes have the ability of acting together at the receptor to produce joint effects at very low concentrations. Significant mixture effects are observed when chemicals are combined at concentrations that individually do not induce observable AR antagonistic effects. Cumulative risk assessment for AR antagonists should apply grouping criteria based on effects where data are available, rather than on criteria of chemical similarity. - Highlights: • Mixtures of AR antagonists at low individual concentrations cause complete inhibition

  1. Estimating pesticide sampling rates by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in the presence of natural organic matter and varying hydrodynamic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlestra, Lucner; Amirbahman, Aria; Courtemanch, David L.; Alvarez, David A.; Patterson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was calibrated to monitor pesticides in water under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the sampling rates (Rs) was evaluated in microcosms containing -1 of total organic carbon (TOC). The effect of hydrodynamics was studied by comparing Rs values measured in stirred (SBE) and quiescent (QBE) batch experiments and a flow-through system (FTS). The level of NOM in the water used in these experiments had no effect on the magnitude of the pesticide sampling rates (p > 0.05). However, flow velocity and turbulence significantly increased the sampling rates of the pesticides in the FTS and SBE compared to the QBE (p < 0.001). The calibration data generated can be used to derive pesticide concentrations in water from POCIS deployed in stagnant and turbulent environmental systems without correction for NOM.

  2. Mapping the environmental risk potential on surface water of pesticide contamination in the Prosecco's vineyard terraced landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Patricia; Ferrarese, Francesco; Loddo, Donato; Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; Varotto, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Intensive cropping systems today represent a paramount issue in terms of environmental impacts, since agricultural pollutants can constitute a potential threat to surface water, non-target organisms and aquatic ecosystems. Levels of pesticide concentrations in surface waters are indeed unquestionably correlated to crop and soil management practices at field-scale. Due to the numerous applications of pesticides required, orchards and vineyards can represent relevant non-point sources for pesticide contamination of water bodies, mainly prompted by soil erosion, surface runoff and spray drift. To reduce risks of pesticide contamination of surface water, the Directive 2009/128/CET imposed the local implementation of agricultural good practices and mitigation actions such as the use of vegetative buffer filter strips and hedgerows along river and pond banks. However, implementation of mitigation actions is often difficult, especially in extremely fragmented agricultural landscapes characterized by a complex territorial matrix set up on urban sprawling, frequent surface water bodies, important geomorphological processes and protected natural areas. Typically, such landscape matrix is well represented by the, Prosecco-DOCG vineyards area (NE of Italy, Province of Treviso) which lays on hogback hills of conglomerate, marls and sandstone that ranges between 50 and 500 m asl. Moreover such vineyards landscape is characterized by traditional and non-traditional agricultural terraces The general aim of this paper is to identify areas of surface water bodies with high potential risk of pesticide contamination from surrounding vineyards in the 735 ha of Lierza river basin (Refrontolo, TV), one of the most representative terraced landscape of the Prosecco-DOCG area. Specific aims are i) mapping terraced Prosecco-DOCG vineyards, ii) classifying potential risk from pesticide of the different areas. Remote sensing technologies such as four bands aerial photos (RGB+NIR) and Light

  3. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  4. Assessing chemical mutagens: the risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewen, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: chromosomal aberrations induced by x radiation, tritiated thymidine, maleic hydrazide, and nitrogen mustard; removal of pyrimidine dimers by photoreactivation in amphibian cells following uv radiation; effects of 4-nitroquinoline-oxide on leukocytes from XP and normal patients; DNA as a target for alkylating agents; sensitivity of spermatogonia to chemical mutagens; chromosomal aberrations induced by 8-ethoxycaffeine, methoxycaffeine, cytosine arabinoside, streptonigrin, bleomycin, and phleomycin; effects of MMS and triethylenemelamine on germ cells; and use of chromosomal aberrations for improving risk estimates for ionizing radiation

  5. Pesticides in persimmons, jujubes and soil from China: Residue levels, risk assessment and relationship between fruits and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Li, Shiliang; Ni, Zhanglin; Qu, Minghua; Zhong, Donglian; Ye, Caifen; Tang, Fubin

    2016-01-15

    Extreme and uncontrolled usage of pesticides produces a number of problems for vegetation and human health. In this study, the existence of organophosphates (OPs), organochlorines (OCs), pyrethroids (PYs) and fungicides (FUs) were investigated in persimmons/jujubes and their planted soils, which were collected from China. One OP (dimethoate), three OCs (DDT, quintozene and aldrin), six PYs (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and deltamethrin) and two FUs (triadimefon and buprofezin) were found in 36.4% of persimmons and 70.8% of jujubes, with concentrations from 1.0 μg/kg to 2945.0 μg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides in the two fruits were fenpropathrin in persimmons and cypermethrin in jujubes, with the detection frequencies of 30.0% and 22.7%, respectively. The residues of 4.5% (persimmon) and 25.0% (jujube) of samples were higher than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) of China. Compared with the fruits, more types of pesticides and higher residues were observed in their planted soils. The most frequently detected pesticides were HCH in persimmon soil and DDT in jujube soil, with the detection frequencies of 10.9% and 12.7%, respectively. For the tested samples, 39.1% of fruit samples and 63.0% of soil samples with multiple residues (containing more than two pesticides) were noted, even up to 8 residues in fruits and 14 residues in soils. Except for cyhalothrin, the other short-term risks for the tested pesticides in the fruits were below 10%, and the highest long-term risk was 14.13% for aldrin and dieldrin. There was no significant health risk for consumers via consumption of the two fruits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Integrating chemical fate and population-level effect models of pesticides: the importance of capturing the right scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focks, A.; Horst, ter M.M.S.; Berg, van den E.; Baveco, H.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Any attempt to introduce more ecological realism into ecological risk assessment of chemicals faces the major challenge of integrating different aspects of the chemicals and species of concern, for example, spatial scales of emissions, chemical exposure patterns in space and time, and population

  7. Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Río Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Andrés, M.; Rämö, R.; Mena Torres, F.; Ugalde, R.; Grandas, L.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.E.; Den Brink, van P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier

  8. Scaling up from an individual to a population-level assessment for risks of pesticides to threatened and endangered birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in collaboration with the National Marine Fisheries Service and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is currently developing a methodology to assess the risks of pesticides to federally-listed threatened and endangered species. In thi...

  9. Human health risks associated with residual pesticide levels in edible tissues of slaughtered cattle in Benin City, Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isioma Tongo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticide residues in meat is of growing concern due to possible adverse effects on humans. Pesticide levels were assessed in five edible cattle parts: muscle, liver, kidney and tongue tissues to determine human health risk associated with consumption of these tissues. Health risk estimates were analysed using estimated daily intake (EDI, hazard quotient (HQ and hazard index (HI for two (2 age/weight categories: 1–11years/30 kg for children while 70 kg was used for adult. Risks were categorized for non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects and measured at the average, maximum, 50th and 95th percentiles of the measured exposure concentrations (MEC. Total pesticide residues ranged from 2.38 to 3.86 μg/kg (muscle, 3.58 to 6.3 μg/kg (liver, 1.87 to 4.59 μg/kg (kidney and 2.54 to 4.35 μg/kg (tongue. Residual pesticide concentrations in the tissues were in the order: Liver > Tongue > Muscle > Kidney. The concentrations of all the assessed pesticides observed in the tissues were however lower than the recommended maximum residual limits (MRLs. Human health risk estimations for the children showed EDI values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin and dieldrin exceeding threshold values. Non-cancer risk posed to children on consumption of contaminated cattle parts showed HQ values for heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin and HI values for organochlorines exceeding 1, indicating the possibility of non-carcinogenic health risks to consumers especially children from consumption of cattle meat from the selected abattoirs.

  10. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brausch, John M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)], E-mail: john.brausch@ttu.edu; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage. - This manuscript discusses the potential effects of long-term pesticide usage on the development of resistance and cross-resistance on a non-target aquatic invertebrate.

  11. PERUBAHAN CARA PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN OLEH PETANI PENGENDALIAN HAMA TERPADU (PHT DALAM MENGGUNAKAN PESTISIDA KIMIA PADA PADI (The Change of Chemical Pesticides Use Decision Making in Rice by Intergrated Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irham Irham

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pestisida kimia merupakan salah satu masukan dalam produksi padi yang berfungsi untuk menekan kehilangan hasil oleh serangan hama dan penyakit. Penggunaan pestisida kimia harus bijaksana karena selain memberi manfaat juga menimbulkan bahaya terhadap kesehatan dan lingkungan. Banyak petani yang menggunakan pestisida kimia dengan dasar pencegahan, yaitu tanpa mempertimbangkan keadaan serangan hama dan penyakit sehingga penggunaannya cenderung berlebih. Pengendalian Hama Terpadu (PHT diperkenalkan kepada petani melalui Sekolah Lapangan (SL PHT, dengan tujuan untuk nrengurangi pestisida kimia,  dan hanya digunakan jika memang diperlukan. Hasil studi ini menunjukkan bahwa SLPHT telah mengubah cara pengambilan keputusan dalam menggunakan pestisida kimia. Keadaan ini menyebabkan penggunaan pestisida kimia menjadi berkurang.   ABSTRACT Chemical pesticide is one of the inputs in rice production used to protect yield loss caused by pest attack. Chemical pesticides should be used wisely as they pose threat to human health and pollute environment. Many farmers use chemical pesticide based on prophylactic concept, that is using chemical pesticides without taking into consideration the level of pest attack, which leads to an excessive use. Integrated Pest Management (IPM concept is introduced to farmers through Farmer’s Field School (FFS in order to reduce chemical pesticides use. According to the IPM principle, farmers can use chemical pesticides when necessary. Results of this study show that farmers have changed their decision-making in chemical pesticides use after adopting IPM concept through participation at FFS in IPM. This condition causes decline in chemical pesticide use.

  12. Exposição humana a substâncias químicas potencialmente tóxicas na dieta e os riscos para saúde Chemical dietary exposure and the risks to human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Nunes Oliveira Jardim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals from the consumption of food, including undesirable compounds such as pesticides and mycotoxins. Chemical human risk assessment is a process intended to estimate the risk to a given population from the exposure to a chemical (or to a chemical group having the same mechanism of action. The process consists of four steps, namely hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Chemical dietary risk assessment is an essential procedure to establish safe food standards. In this review the tools and data sources currently used in the risk assessment process will be discussed.

  13. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases. PMID:27748877

  14. Inter-compartmental transport of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in South China: implications for a regional risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; Wei, Yanli; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2014-07-01

    The dynamic flux of an organophosphate and four pyrethroid pesticides was determined in an air-(soil)-water-sediment system based on monitoring data from Guangzhou, China. The total air-water flux, including air-water gaseous exchange and atmospheric deposition, showed deposition from air to water for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and cypermethrin, but volatilization for lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin. The transport of the pesticides from overlying water to sediment suggested that sediment acted as a sink for the pesticides. Additionally, distinct annual atmospheric depositional fluxes between legacy and current-use pesticides suggested the role of consumer usage in their transport throughout the system. Finally, pesticide toxicity was estimated from annual air-water-sediment flux within an urban stream in Guangzhou. A dynamic flux-based risk assessment indicated that inter-compartmental transport of chlorpyrifos decreased its atmospheric exposure, but had little influence on its aquatic toxicity. Instead, water-to-sediment transport of pyrethroids increased their sediment toxicity, which was supported by previously reported toxicity data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Coupling HYDRUS-1D with ArcGIS to estimate pesticide accumulation and leaching risk on a regional basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlauf, Ruediger; Schaefer, Jenny; Kajitvichyanukul, Puangrat

    2018-07-01

    HYDRUS-1D is a well-established reliable instrument to simulate water and pesticide transport in soils. It is, however, a point-specific model which is usually used for site-specific simulations. Aim of the investigation was the development of pesticide accumulation and leaching risk maps for regions combining HYDRUS-1D as a model for pesticide fate with regional data in a geographical information system (GIS). It was realized in form of a python tool in ArcGIS. Necessary high resolution local soil information, however, is very often not available. Therefore, worldwide interpolated 250-m-grid soil data (SoilGrids.org) were successfully incorporated to the system. The functionality of the system is shown by examples from Thailand, where example regions that differ in soil properties and climatic conditions were exposed in the model system to pesticides with different properties. A practical application of the system will be the identification of areas where measures to optimize pesticide use should be implemented with priority. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. SCIENTIFIC FOUNDATION FOR RISK ASSESSMENTS TO PROTECT NON-TARGET PLANTS FROM HERBICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENCE QUESTIONS:EPA's Office of Pesticides Programs (OPP) requires scientifically credible information and methods to assess health and ecological risks from chemical pesticides. However the suite of standard bioassays and approaches available to OPP to determine these ...

  17. Detection of Residual Levels and Associated Health Risk of Seven Pesticides in Fresh Eggplant and Tomato Samples from Narayanganj District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual levels of seven frequently used pesticides were investigated in 140 samples of two common vegetables, eggplants and tomatoes, from agricultural fields in the Narayanganj district of Bangladesh. The analysis of pesticide residues was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. A large percentage of the eggplants (50% and tomatoes (60% from the Narayanganj district were contaminated with pesticides, and all of the levels were above the maximum residual limit (MRL proposed by the EC regulation. Diazinon was the most common (35% pesticide detected in the vegetable samples at a concentration of 45–450 times higher than the MRL. The health risk index for diazinon was highest for both eggplant and tomato samples, which may be due to its physiochemical properties. Fenitrothion and linuron are the two second most common types of pesticides detected in the vegetable samples. Regular monitoring of the use of common pesticides on vegetables should be conducted.

  18. Risk assessment as a management tool used to assess the effect of pesticide use in an irrigation system, situated in a semi-desert region

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raschke, AM

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available be used as a predictive tool to determine as accurately as possible from the data available if a complete scientific health risk assessment study is justified. The actual amounts of pesticides sold in the Vaalharts area by two major pesticide manufacturers...

  19. Estimating pesticide sampling rates by the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) in the presence of natural organic matter and varying hydrodynamic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlestra, Lucner; Amirbahman, Aria; Courtemanch, David L.; Alvarez, David A.; Patterson, Howard

    2012-01-01

    The polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) was calibrated to monitor pesticides in water under controlled laboratory conditions. The effect of natural organic matter (NOM) on the sampling rates (R s ) was evaluated in microcosms containing −1 of total organic carbon (TOC). The effect of hydrodynamics was studied by comparing R s values measured in stirred (SBE) and quiescent (QBE) batch experiments and a flow-through system (FTS). The level of NOM in the water used in these experiments had no effect on the magnitude of the pesticide sampling rates (p > 0.05). However, flow velocity and turbulence significantly increased the sampling rates of the pesticides in the FTS and SBE compared to the QBE (p < 0.001). The calibration data generated can be used to derive pesticide concentrations in water from POCIS deployed in stagnant and turbulent environmental systems without correction for NOM. - Highlights: ► We assessed the effect of TOC and stirring on pesticide sampling rates by POCIS. ► Total organic carbon (TOC) had no effect on the sampling rates. ► Water flow and stirring significantly increased the magnitude of the sampling rates. ► The sampling rates generated are directly applicable to field conditions. - This study provides POCIS sampling rates data that can be used to estimate freely dissolved concentrations of toxic pesticides in natural waters.

  20. WHY DO SMALLHOLDER COTTON GROWERS IN ZIMBABWE ADOPT IPPM? THE ROLE OF PESTICIDE-RELATED HEALTH RISKS AND TECHNOLOGY AWARENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Maumbe, Blessing M.; Swinton, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    In order to test whether farmer training and farmer health risks determine adoption of Integrated Pest and Production Management (IPPM) in Zimbabwe, a Poisson regression model was developed. The empirical analysis uses measures of farmer awareness of IPPM practices, pesticide health risks, labor and capital availability, expected pest damage and other conditioning variables. The results of the analysis show that farmer awareness of IPPM practices is significantly associated with their adoptio...

  1. Occupation, exposure to chemicals, sensitizing agents, and risk of multiple myeloma in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lope, Virginia; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gustavsson, Per; Plato, Nils; Zock, Jan-Paul; Pollán, Marina

    2008-11-01

    This study sought to identify occupations with high incidence of multiple myeloma and to investigate possible excess risk associated with occupational exposure to chemicals and sensitizing agents in Sweden. A historical cohort of 2,992,166 workers was followed up (1971--1989) through record linkage with the National Cancer and Death Registries. For each job category, age and period standardized incidence ratios and age and period adjusted relative risks of multiple myeloma were calculated using Poisson models. Exposure to chemicals and to sensitizing agents was also assessed using two job-exposure matrices. Men and women were analyzed separately. During follow-up, 3,127 and 1,282 myelomas were diagnosed in men and women, respectively. In men, excess risk was detected among working proprietors, agricultural, horticultural and forestry enterprisers, bakers and pastry cooks, dental technicians, stone cutters/carvers, and prison/reformatory officials. In women, this excess was observed among attendants in psychiatric care, metal workers, bakers and pastry cooks, and paper/paperboard product workers. Workers, particularly bakers and pastry cooks, exposed to high molecular weight sensitizing agents registered an excess risk of over 40% across the sexes. Occasional, although intense, exposure to pesticides was also associated with risk of myeloma in our cohort. Our study supports a possible etiologic role for farming and use of pesticides in myeloma risk. The high incidence found in both female and male bakers and pastry cooks has not been described previously. Further research is required to assess the influence of high molecular weight sensitizing agents on risk of multiple myeloma.

  2. Occurrence of commonly used pesticides in personal air samples and their associated health risk among paddy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsan, Hazwanee; Ho, Yu Bin; Zaidon, Siti Zulfa; Hashim, Zailina; Saari, Nazamid; Karami, Ali

    2017-12-15

    Tanjung Karang, Selangor, is widely known for its paddy cultivation activity and hosts the third largest paddy field in Malaysia. Pesticides contamination in agriculture fields has become an unavoidable problem, as pesticides are used to increase paddy productivity and reduce plant disease. Human exposure to agrichemicals is common and could results in both acute and chronic health effects, such as acute and chronic neurotoxicity. This study aims to determine the concentrations of commonly used pesticides (azoxystrobin, buprofezin, chlorantraniliprole, difenoconazole, fipronil, imidacloprid, isoprothiolane, pretilachlor, propiconazole, pymetrozine, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, and trifloxystrobin) in personal air samples and their associated health risks among paddy farmers. Eighty-three farmers from Tangjung Karang, Selangor were involved in this study. A solid sorbent tube was attached to the farmer's breathing zone with a clip, and an air pump was fastened to the belt to collect personal air samples. Pesticides collected in the XAD-2 resin were extracted with acetone, centrifuged, concentrated via nitrogen blowdown and reconstituted with 1mL of 3:1 ultrapure water/HPLC-grade methanol solution. The extract was analyzed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The target compounds were detected with a maximum concentration reaching up to 462.5ngm -3 (fipronil). The hazard quotient (HQ) was less than 1 and the hazard index (HI) value was 3.86×10 -3 , indicating that the risk of pesticides related diseases was not significant. The lifetime cancer risk (LCR) for pymetrozine was at an acceptable level (LCR<10 -6 ) with 4.10×10 -8 . The results reported in this study can be beneficial in terms of risk management within the agricultural community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pesticides and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, Vincent F.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored

  4. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (≤100 μl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B.; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 μl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/μl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/μl for α, γ, β and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/μl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma

  5. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  6. Understanding farmers' safety behaviour towards pesticide exposure and other occupational risks: The case of Zanjan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Rohollah; Damalas, Christos A; Abdollahzadeh, Gholamhossein

    2018-03-01

    Preventive interventions for reducing occupational risks and health problems among farmers require the identification of factors contributing to unsafe behaviour, but research on this topic is rather limited. A theoretical model for studying factors affecting farmers' use of occupational safety and health (OSH) practices in Iran was developed. The model was empirically tested using data collected from a survey of 301 tomato farmers of Zanjan Province of Iran. The examined OSH practices encompassed a wide range of behaviours, grouped in four categories, i.e., use of pesticides, use of machinery, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and applying ergonomic principles (i.e., fitting the task to the individual, designing the workplace based on human factors, taking into account the interaction between the workplace and the workers, exercising during work or rest). Almost half of the farmers (49.5%) showed unsafe behaviour in the use of PPE. Moreover, significant proportions of the farmers showed potentially unsafe behaviour in the use of pesticides (42.2%), in applying ergonomic principles (40.2%) and in the use of machinery (35.9%). Attitude towards OSH practices, knowledge on OSH practices, and self-efficacy in safety had a direct positive effect on farmers' use of OSH practices, explaining 73% of the variance in farmers' safety behaviour. Overall, findings contribute to a better understanding of the use of OSH practices among farmers, providing empirical evidence in the cognitive processing of farmers' with respect to safety behaviour in farming and offering practical information that can be incorporated into OSH intervention programs in Iran and other developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Predation Risk versus Pesticide Exposure: Consequences of Fear and Loathing in the Life of Stream Shredders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, J. T.; Baird, D. J.; Soares, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Stream invertebrates are exposed to complex stressor regimes including both biotic and abiotic factors. Species living in streams in agricultural landscapes are often subjected to episodic or continuous exposures to low levels of agrochemicals, which may approach or exceed specific substance guidelines. Sublethal effects of pesticides may result in direct effects on organisms (e.g. reduced physiological performance), which may in turn contribute to indirect effects relating to survival (e.g. increased predation risk). Here, we investigate the possibility that predator-release kairomones can act additively with low-level pesticide exposure to reduce physiological performance and survival of stream invertebrates in previously unforeseen ways. Feeding, metabolic and behavioural responses of two shredder insects, the North American stonefly Pteronarcys comstockii and the European caddisfly Sericostoma vittatum were measured under exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid at different levels of indirect predation stress using predator-release kairomones from Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Pteronarcys feeding was measured in terms of mass of naturally conditioned alder leaf discs consumed over a 6-day and 10 -day period in animals held in cages in stream mesocosms. Pteronarcys feeding was impaired at 1 ppb in the 6-day trial and at 0,5 ppb in the 10-day trial relatively to unexposed controls. Metabolic rate was measured in the lab in terms of oxygen consumption of Pteronarcys. Animals exposed to 0.5 and 1 ppb imidacloprid showed elevated respiratory rates compared to controls. Laboratory experiments with Sericostoma, currently in progress, are examining the separate and combined effects of imidacloprid and predator kairomone on similar endpoints. These preliminary results are discussed in relation to the development of the Mechanistic Unifying Stressor Effects (MUSE) model which can be used to predict combined ecological effects of multiple stressors at the population level.

  8. Use of formulated Trichoderma sp. Tri-1 in combination with reduced rates of chemical pesticide for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorium on oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable strategies for control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on oilseed rape are needed. Here we tested combinations of Trichoderma sp. Tri-1, formulated with oilseed rape seedcake and straw, with reduced application rates of the chemical pesticide Carbendazim for control of this pathogen on oils...

  9. [Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-12-01

    A method for determining volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air by summa canister collecting and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy detecting was adopted. Pollution condition and characteristics of VOCs were discussed in three representative pesticide factories in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province. Meanwhile, an internationally recognized four-step evaluation model of health risk assessment was applied to preliminarily assess the health risk caused by atmospheric VOCs in different exposure ways, inhalation and dermal exposure. Results showed that serious total VOCs pollution existed in all factories. Concentrations of n-hexane (6161.90-6910.00 microg x m(-3)), benzene (126.00-179.30 microg x m(-3)) and 1,3-butadiene (115.00-177.30 microg x m(-3)) exceeded the Chronic Inhalation Reference Concentrations recommended by USEPA, corresponding to 700, 30 and 2 microg x m(-3), respectively. Concentration of dichloromethane (724.00 microg x m(-3)) in factory B was also higher than the reference concentration (600 microg x m(-3)). Results of health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic risk indexes of VOCs ranged from 1.00E-04 to 1.00E + 00 by inhalation exposure, and 1.00E-09 to 1.00E-05 by dermal exposure. Risk indexes of n-hexane and dichloromethane by inhalation exposure in all factories exceeded 1, and risk index of benzene by inhalation in factory B was also higher than 1. Carcinogenic risk indexes exposed to VOCs ranged from 1.00E-08 to 1.00E-03 by inhalation exposure and 1. oo00E -13 to 1.00E-08 by dermal exposure. Cancer risk of 1,3-butadiene by inhalation exceeded 1.0E-04, which lead to definite risk, and those of benzene by inhalation also exceeded the maximum allowable level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection (5.0E-05). The risks of dermal exposure presented the same trend as inhalation exposure, but the level was much lower than that of inhalation exposure. Thus, inhalation exposure of atmospheric VOCs was the

  10. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Health Risk Reductions of Pesticide Use in China: A Contingent Valuation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyu Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP for health risk reductions of pesticide use by applying the contingent valuation method (CVM and to explore the factors that influence farmers’ WTP in China. In total, 244 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed. The mean WTP was estimated to be $65.38 (0.94% of total household income per household per year for a 5/10,000 reduction in morbidity risk. This study shows that farmers’ socioeconomic and attitudinal factors that significantly affect their WTP include farmers’ farming income, education, household size and risk perceptions. In particular, the results demonstrate that respondents’ social trust, social reciprocity and social networks have significant impacts on their WTP. The findings of this study can provide useful insights for policy makers to design effective policies to address health problems related to pesticide use in the developing world.

  11. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay for Health Risk Reductions of Pesticide Use in China: A Contingent Valuation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyu; Jin, Jianjun; He, Rui; Gong, Haozhou; Tian, Yuhong

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate farmers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for health risk reductions of pesticide use by applying the contingent valuation method (CVM) and to explore the factors that influence farmers’ WTP in China. In total, 244 farmers were randomly selected and interviewed. The mean WTP was estimated to be $65.38 (0.94% of total household income) per household per year for a 5/10,000 reduction in morbidity risk. This study shows that farmers’ socioeconomic and attitudinal factors that significantly affect their WTP include farmers’ farming income, education, household size and risk perceptions. In particular, the results demonstrate that respondents’ social trust, social reciprocity and social networks have significant impacts on their WTP. The findings of this study can provide useful insights for policy makers to design effective policies to address health problems related to pesticide use in the developing world. PMID:29596345

  12. Probabilistic acute risk assessment of cumulative exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from dietary vegetables and fruits in Shanghai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yuan, Yaqun; Meng, Pai; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Chen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to OPs and CPs of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-14 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring programme during 2008-11 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analysed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs. A probabilistic approach was performed as recommended by the EFSA, using the optimistic model with non-detects set as zero and with processing factors (PFs) being used and the pessimistic model with non-detects replaced by limit of detection (LOD) and without PFs. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) method to normalise the various pesticides to the index compound (IC) of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos separately. Only in the pessimistic model using methamidophos as the IC was there was small risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD (3 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in the populations of preschool children (0.029%), school-age children (0.022%) and adults (0.002%). There were no risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD of methamidophos in the optimistic model and of chlorpyrifos (100 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in both optimistic and pessimistic models in all three populations. Considering the Chinese habits of overwhelmingly eating processed food (vegetables being cooked, and fruits being washed or peeled), we conclude that little acute risk was found for the exposure to VF-sourced OPs and CPs in Shanghai.

  13. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoundou, K; Brennan, M; Sacchettini, G; Panzone, L; Butler-Ellis, M C; Capri, E; Charistou, A; Chaideftou, E; Gerritsen-Ebben, M G; Machera, K; Spanoghe, P; Glass, R; Marchis, A; Doanngoc, K; Hart, A; Frewer, L J

    2015-02-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Hannah

    2012-07-01

    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests.

  15. Increased Frequency of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Allergic Rhinitis among Pesticide Sprayers and Associations with Pesticide Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koureas, Michalis; Rachiotis, George; Tsakalof, Andreas; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2017-08-01

    Objective : The aim of this study was to identify diseases linked with the pesticide sprayer occupation and explore possible associations with exposure history data. Methods : Α cross sectional study was conducted among pesticide sprayers ( n = 80) and the general population ( n = 90) in Thessaly (Greece). Medical history, demographic characteristics and detailed exposure history were recorded by conducting personal interviews. Lifetime exposure indicators were calculated for several pesticide chemical subclasses. Moreover, organophosphate metabolite levels were quantified in urine samples of all participants by using gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Multinomial analysis was used to determine associations between occupational pesticide exposure and diseases or disorders. Results : In the pesticide sprayers group, significantly higher frequencies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and allergic rhinitis were observed compared with the control group ( p = 0.002 and p = 0.024 respectively). Within the pesticide sprayers group, high lifetime pesticide exposure was associated with increased risk for reporting RA (OR: 43.07 95% CI: 3.09-600.67) and allergic rhinitis (OR: 9.72 95% CI: 2.31-40.89), compared with low pesticide exposure. Exposure to organophsphate, guanidine and quinone pesticides were associated with RA while organophosphates, pyrethroids and paraquat were associated with allergic rhinitis. Despite the higher levels of certain pesticide metabolites observed among participants with rheumatoid arthritis, the differences were not statistically significant. One metabolite (diethylthiophosphate) was found to be significantly increased in allergic rhinitis cases ( p = 0.037). Conclusion s : The results from the current study suggest a possible association of occupational pesticide exposure with RA and allergic rhinitis that should be further investigated.

  16. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  18. Impacts of acute exposure of industrial chemicals and pesticides on the survival of fish (Tilapia guineensis and earthworms (Aporrectodea longa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris F. Ogeleka

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecotoxicological effects of industrial chemicals (Rig wash, Oil eater, Nalco, Glycol™ and pesticides (Propoxur, Deltamethrin, Atrazine, Furadan on Tilapia guineensis (fish and Aporrectodea longa (earthworms were tested using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD # 203 and 207 protocols. The water and soil ratings indicate that the test chemicals were toxic to the organisms. The estimated 96 hour lethal concentration LC50 values for Rig wash, Oil eater, Nalco EC1304A/COT 505, Glycol, Propoxur, and Deltamethrin were 26.34±0.46, 6.02±0.30, 3.07±0.14, 1.31±0.01, 20.91±0 and 0.01±0 mg/l respectively. In the earthworm bioassay, the estimated 14-day LC50 values for Rigwash, Oil eater, Nalco EC1304A/COT 505, Glycol, Atrazine and Furadan were 80.05±3.5, 151.55±10.7, 172.63±14.2, 63.72±2.43, 4.97±0 and 0.29±0 mg/kg respectively. Safety factors are arbitrarily built in around the LC50 values in order to arrive at environmentally tolerable concentrations. The concentration of a chemical in the receiving environment should not exceed 10% of the L50. The organisms exposed to the test chemicals showed significant difference when compared with the levels measured in the control group. The observed sensitivity of the test organisms to the chemicals indicates that adherence to standard safety limits/measures should be maintained during use and disposal of hazardous chemicals. This would ensure that the biotic components of the Nigerian Niger Delta ecosystem are prudently protected.

  19. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  20. Behavior of pesticides in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan A. Norris

    1974-01-01

    A number of chemicals of diverse characteristics have arbitrarily been classed together on the basis of their use and given the descriptive name "pesticides." An unfortunate aura of mystery has developed about these chemicals. However, there is nothing unique or mysterious about the chemicals we refer to as "pesticides." Like other chemicals, they...

  1. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A

    2013-01-01

    This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...... symptoms. To minimize this gap, education and agricultural services should be made more accessible to female farmers in Bolivia....

  2. Children and Pesticides: New Approach to Considering Risk Is Partly in Place. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Janet

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 (FQPA) requires that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates the use of pesticides at the federal level, reevaluate the amounts of pesticide residues allowed on or in food. The EPA immediately began efforts to consider the additional safety factor for children, using available methods and…

  3. Heath risk among pesticide sellers in Bamenda (Cameroon) and peripheral areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonchieu, Jean; Akono, Edouard Nantia; Ngwamitang, Cheche Tanwi; Ngassoum, Benoït Martin

    2018-04-01

    In Bamenda and peripheral zones, studies have been focused on the effects of pesticides on farmers (pesticide users) while nothing has been done to assess the exposure of sellers to pesticides. This study aimed at evaluating the exposure of pesticide sellers in the same area. Thirty-two questionnaires were administered to 32 pesticide sellers systematically selected, and chi-square was used for statistical analysis. From each shop, a respondent was chosen among the workers according to its daily time spent in the workplace. The results showed that there is similarity between sellers in Bamenda and peripheral area; one active ingredient (metalaxyl) and one formulation (beauchamp) sold are not registered; throat irritation, headaches, fatigue, skin irritation, eye irritation, and difficulty in breathing with more cases of nose irritation were symptoms observed; pesticides are stored either in the shops or in warehouses; safety measures generally applied are sitting outside the shop, taking medicated charcoal and the use of protective clothing; 56% have less than 5 years experience. Permanent pesticide sellers are then exposed to chronic intoxication in Bamenda and neighboring zones. Employers should make use of protective clothing in their shops when manipulating pesticides in the application of safety measures.

  4. Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Akerman, Måns

    2008-10-01

    We report a population based case-control study of exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Male and female subjects aged 18-74 years living in Sweden were included during December 1, 1999, to April 30, 2002. Controls were selected from the national population registry. Exposure to different agents was assessed by questionnaire. In total 910 (91 %) cases and 1016 (92%) controls participated. Exposure to herbicides gave odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.51. Regarding phenoxyacetic acids highest risk was calculated for MCPA; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.27-6.22, all these cases had a latency period >10 years. Exposure to glyphosate gave OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.71 and with >10 years latency period OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.16-4.40. Insecticides overall gave OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.96-1.72 and impregnating agents OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07-2.30. Results are also presented for different entities of NHL. In conclusion our study confirmed an association between exposure to phenoxyacetic acids and NHL and the association with glyphosate was considerably strengthened.

  5. Risk factors associated with purchasing pesticide from shops for self-poisoning: a protocol for a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael; Pearson, Melissa; Gunnell, David; Hawton, Keith; Jayamanne, Shaluka; Pabasara, Chathurani; Jayathilaka, Tharidu; Dissanayaka, Kalpani; Rajapaksha, Sandamali; Thilakarathna, Prasanna; Agampodi, Suneth

    2015-05-20

    Pesticide self-poisoning is one of the most frequently used methods of suicide worldwide, killing over 300,000 people annually. Around 15-20% of pesticide self-poisonings occur soon after the person has bought the pesticide from a shop. We aim to determine the characteristics of individuals who purchase pesticides directly from shops and how they differ from individuals who access pesticides from other sources such as home, home garden or farmland. This information will help inform possible vendor/shop-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing access to pesticides used for self-harm. This study will investigate risk factors associated with purchasing pesticides for acts of self-poisoning from pesticide shops, including cases identified over a 9-month period using a population-based case-control group approach. Four interviewer-administered data collection tools will be used for this study: a semistructured questionnaire, Beck Suicidal Intent Scale (SIS), Clinical Interview Schedule-Sinhalese version (CIS-Sn) and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Each case (expected n=33) will be compared with two groups of individuals: (1) those who have self-poisoned using pesticides from the home, home garden or farmland and (2) those who bought pesticides from the same shops as the above cases, but not did not self-poison. Logistic regression models will be used to identify risk factors of purchasing pesticides for self-poisoning from shops. The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Reducing the pollution risk of pesticide using nano networks induced by irradiation and hydrothermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Liu, Zuojun; Zhang, Guilong; Qiu, Guannan; Zhong, Naiqin; Wu, Lifang; Cai, Dongqing; Wu, Zhengyan

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pesticides (TP) often do not adhere tightly to crop foliage. They can easily enter the surrounding environment through precipitation and volatilization. This can result in the pollution of the surrounding soil, water, and air. To reduce pesticide pollution, we developed a loss-control pesticide (LCP) by adding attapulgite with a nano networks structure fabricated using high energy electron beam (HEEB) irradiation and hydrothermal treatment to TP. HEEB irradiation effectively dispersed originally aggregated attapulgite through modified thermal, charge, and physical effects. Hydrothermal treatment further enhanced the dispersion of attapulgite to form nano porous networks via thermal and wet expansion effects, which are beneficial for pesticide binding. An LCP has improved retention on crop leaf surfaces. It has a higher adhesion capacity, reduced leaching and volatilization, and extended residual activity compared with the TP formulation. The treatment increases the residual activity of pesticides on crop foliage and decreases environmental pollution.

  7. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  8. Validation of a qualitative screening method for pesticides in fruits and vegetables by gas chromatography quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portolés, T. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Mol, J.G.J. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen (Netherlands); Sancho, J.V.; López, Francisco J. [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain); Hernández, F., E-mail: hernandf@uji.es [Research Institute for Pesticides and Water, University Jaume I, 12071 Castellón (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Applicability of GC-(APCI)QTOF MS as new tool for wide-scope screening of pesticides in fruits and vegetables demonstrated. • Validation of screening method according to SANCO/12571/2013. • Detection of the pesticides based on the presence of M+·/MH+ in most cases. • Screening detection limit 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} for 77% of the pesticides investigated. • Successful identification at 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} for 70% of the pesticides/matrix combinations. - Abstract: A wide-scope screening method was developed for the detection of pesticides in fruit and vegetables. The method was based on gas chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source (GC-(APCI)QTOF MS). A non-target acquisition was performed through two alternating scan events: one at low collision energy and another at a higher collision energy ramp (MS{sup E}). In this way, both protonated molecule and/or molecular ion together with fragment ions were obtained in a single run. Validation was performed according to SANCO/12571/2013 by analysing 20 samples (10 different commodities in duplicate), fortified with a test set of 132 pesticides at 0.01, 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg{sup −1}. For screening, the detection was based on one diagnostic ion (in most cases the protonated molecule). Overall, at the 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} level, 89% of the 2620 fortifications made were detected. The screening detection limit for individual pesticides was 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} for 77% of the pesticides investigated. The possibilities for identification according to the SANCO criteria, requiring two ions with a mass accuracy ≤±5 ppm and an ion-ratio deviation ≤±30%, were investigated. At the 0.01 mg kg{sup −1} level, identification was possible for 70% of the pesticides detected during screening. This increased to 87% and 93% at the 0.05 and 0.20 mg kg{sup −1} level, respectively. Insufficient sensitivity for the second

  9. Pesticide exposure as a risk factor for myelodysplastic syndromes: a meta-analysis based on 1,942 cases and 5,359 controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Jin

    Full Text Available Pesticide exposure has been linked to increased risk of cancer at several sites, but its association with risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS is still unclear. A meta-analysis of studies published through April, 2014 was performed to investigate the association of pesticide exposure with the risk of MDS.Studies were identified by searching the Web of Science, Cochrane Library and PubMed databases. Summary odds ratios (ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random- or fixed-effect models.This meta-analysis included 11 case-control studies, all of which demonstrated a correlation between pesticide exposure and a statistically significant increased risk of MDS (OR=1.95, 95% CI 1.23-3.09. In subgroup analyses, patients with pesticide exposure had increased risk of developing MDS if they were living in the Europe or Asia and had refractory anemia (RA or RA with ringed sideroblasts (RARS. Moreover, in the analysis by specific pesticides, increased risk was associated with exposure to insecticides (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.22-2.40 but not exposure to herbicides or fungicides.This meta-analysis supports the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides increases the risk of developing MDS. Further prospective cohort studies are warranted to verify the association and guide clinical practice in MDS prevention.

  10. Development of a harmonized risk mitigation toolbox dedicated to environmental risks of pesticides in farmland in Europe: outcome of the MAgPIE workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alix, A.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Risk mitigation measures are a key component in designing conditions of use of pesticides in crop protection. A 2-step workshop was organized under the auspices of SETAC and the European Commission and gathered risk assessors and risk managers of 21 European countries, industry, academia and agronomical advisors/extension services, in order to provide European regulatory authorities with a toolbox of risk mitigation measures designed to reduce environmental risks of pesticides used in agriculture, and thus contribute to a better harmonization within Europe in the area. The workshop gathered an inventory of the risk mitigation tools for pesticides being implemented or in development in European countries. The inventory was discussed in order to identify the most promising tools for a harmonized toolbox in the European area. The discussions concerned the level of confidence in the technical data on which the tools identified rely, possible regulatory hurdles, expectations as regards the implementation of these tools by farmers and links with risk assessment. Finally, this workshop was a first step towards a network gathering all stakeholders, i.e. experts from national authorities, research sector, industry and farmers, to share information and further develop this toolbox. This paper presents an outline of the content of the toolbox with an emphasis on spray drift reducing techniques, in line with the discussions ongoing in the SPISE workshop.

  11. Agricultural expansion as risk to endangered wildlife: Pesticide exposure in wild chimpanzees and baboons displaying facial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, Sabrina; Berny, Philippe; Gumisiriza, Francis; Gross, Régine; Demeneix, Barbara; Fini, Jean Baptiste; Chapman, Colin A; Chapman, Lauren J; Seguya, Andrew; Wasswa, John

    2017-11-15

    Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation. Each pathology could have a congenital component, potentially exacerbated by environmental factors. In addition, at least six of 35 photographed baboons from a Sebitoli troop (17%) have similar severe nasal deformities. Our inquiries in villages and tea factories near Sebitoli revealed use of eight pesticides (glyphosate, cypermethrin, profenofos, mancozeb, metalaxyl, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and 2,4-D amine). Chemical analysis of samples collected from 2014 to 2016 showed that mean levels of pesticides in fresh maize stems and seeds, soils, and river sediments in the vicinity of the chimpanzee territory exceed recommended limits. Notably, excess levels were found for total DDT and its metabolite pp'-DDE and for chlorpyrifos in fresh maize seeds and in fish from Sebitoli. Imidacloprid was detected in coated maize seeds planted at the edge the forest and in fish samples from the Sebitoli area, while no pesticides were detected in fish from central park areas. Since some of these pesticides are thyroid hormone disruptors, we postulate that excessive pesticide use in the Sebitoli area may contribute to facial dysplasia in chimpanzees and baboons through this endocrine pathway. Chimpanzees are considered as endangered by IUCN and besides their intrinsic value and status as closely related to humans, they

  12. Current Pesticide Risk Assessment Protocols Do Not Adequately Address Differences Between Honey Bees (Apis mellifera and Bumble Bees (Bombus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Stoner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated colony-level sublethal effects of imidacloprid on bumble bees, affecting foraging and food consumption, and thus colony growth and reproduction, at lower pesticide concentrations than for honey bee colonies. However, these studies may not reflect the full effects of neonicotinoids on bumble bees because bumble bee life cycles are different from those of honey bees. Unlike honey bees, bumble bees live in colonies for only a few months each year. Assessing the sublethal effects of systemic insecticides only on the colony level is appropriate for honey bees, but for bumble bees, this approach addresses just part of their annual life cycle. Queens are solitary from the time they leave their home colonies in fall until they produce their first workers the following year. Queens forage for pollen and nectar, and are thus exposed to more risk of direct pesticide exposure than honey bee queens. Almost no research has been done on pesticide exposure to and effects on bumble bee queens. Additional research should focus on critical periods in a bumble bee queen’s life which have the greatest nutritional demands, foraging requirements, and potential for exposure to pesticides, particularly the period during and after nest establishment in the spring when the queen must forage for the nutritional needs of her brood and for her own needs while she maintains an elevated body temperature in order to incubate the brood.

  13. Serum organochlorine pesticide residues and risk of testicular germ cell carcinoma: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Mary L; Davis, Mark D; Eaton, David L; Weiss, Noel S; Barr, Dana B; Doody, David R; Fish, Sherianne; Needham, Larry L; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2008-08-01

    Testicular germ cell carcinoma (TGCC) is the most common malignancy among men ages 20 to 34 years. Although the pathogenesis of TGCC is poorly understood, suboptimal androgen levels or impaired androgen signaling may play a role. Some persistent organochlorine pesticides commonly found in human tissue possess antiandrogenic properties. We examined whether the risk of TGCC is associated with serum levels of 11 organochlorine pesticides, including p,p'-DDE, and whether the p,p'-DDE-TGCC association is modified by CAG or GGN repeat polymorphisms in the androgen receptor gene. We conducted a population-based case-control study among 18- to 44-year-old male residents of three Washington State counties. Cases (n = 246) were diagnosed during 1999 to 2003 with a first, primary TGCC. Controls (n = 630) were men of similar age with no history of TGCC from the same population identified through random-digit telephone dialing. Questionnaires elicited information on demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A blood specimen provided serum for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues and DNA for genotyping. We observed no clear patterns between TGCC risk and concentrations of any of the organochlorines measured, nor did we observe that the risk associated with p,p'-DDE was modified by androgen receptor CAG ( or =23 repeats) or GGN ( or =17 repeats) genotype. This study does not provide support for the hypothesis that adult exposure to organochlorine pesticides is associated with risk of TGCC. Due to uncertainty regarding how well organochlorine levels measured in adulthood reflect exposures during early life, further research is needed using exposure measurements collected in utero or during infancy.

  14. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Prado-Lu Jinky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC and mean corpuscular volume (MCV, with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102 randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52% and most belonged to the 20–35 age group (45%. Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%, easy fatigability (46.1% and cough (40.2%. Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02, and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008. number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022, use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033, incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041, sex (p = 0.002 and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005 were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037 and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029. The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  15. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  16. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Importance of Considering Non-Chemical Stressors in Interpreting Pesticide Exposures in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children are exposed to chemical and non-chemical stressors from their total environment, which is comprised of the built, natural, and social environments from places where they spend their time, including home, school, and daycare. Evidence in the literature suggests that the ...

  18. Determination of polar pesticides with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry using methanol and/or acetonitrile for solid-phase desorption and gradient liquid chromatography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, R.B.; Kooistra-Slijpersma, A.; Tiesnitsch, J.; Kienhuis, P.G.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    Thirty-seven polar pesticides, mainly triazines, phenylurea herbicides and phenoxy acids, were determined by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation MS-MS with methanol and acetonitrile as the organic modifiers. For most pesticides, detection limits were the same irrespective of the modifier.

  19. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1...

  20. [Risk assessment and countermeasures of BTEX contamination in soils of typical pesticide factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bing; Wang, Tie-Yu; Li, Qi-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Pang, Bo; Zhu, Zhao-Yun; Wang, Dao-Han; Lü, Yong-Long

    2014-06-01

    Soil samples around three representative pesticide factories were collected in Zhangjiakou City, Hebei Province, and analyzed to identify their pollution characteristics and health risk of BTEX by purge-and trap and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy method. Total concentrations of BTEX in soils in Plant A, B and C ranged from 673.50 to 32 363.50 ng x g(-1), nd to 6 461.80 ng x g(-1) and 461.70 to 8 740.80 ng x g(-1), respectively. Concentrations of detected toluene (4 619.50-7 234.30 ng x g(-1)) and ethylbenzene (364.60-7 944.60 ng x g(-1)) had exceeded the Canadian guidelines for industrial land (370 ng x g(-1) and 82 ng x g(-1)), and concentration of xylene (19 799.40 ng x g(-1)) in dust in production area of Plant A was larger than the Dutch soil intervention value (17 000 ng x g(-1)). While concentrationsn of BTEX around Plant A (Region I ) and Plant B and C (Region II) ranged from nd to 645.81 ng x g(-1), and nd to 309.13 ng x g(-1), respectively, which were below the Canadian guidelines for agricultural land. The non-carcinogenic risk of BTEX in Plant A (2.90E-06 -1.32E-04), B (nd -4.30E-05) and C (1.29E-06 -5.64E-05) were all below 1, which suggested that no obvious health risk existed in each plant. The non-carcinogenic risks in Region I (nd -2.02E-06) and Region II (nd -1.10E-06) were below than 1, and also lower than those in factories. High risk areas were mainly concentrated in the downwind, moreover, soils around villages and towns were also with higher risk. In conclusion, soils and dusts in each factory had been polluted and the quality of agricultural land had been partly deteriorated. Finally, environmental management and occupational protection countermeasures were proposed based on the research results.

  1. Evaluation of biomonitoring data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a risk assessment context: perspectives across chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Lesa L; Kirman, Christopher R; Schoeny, Rita; Portier, Christopher J; Hays, Sean M

    2013-03-01

    Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals [NER; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012)] provide information on the presence and concentrations of > 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment-based values now allow interpretation of these biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. We compared the measured biomarker concentrations in the NER with BEs and similar risk assessment values to provide an across-chemical risk assessment perspective on the measured levels for approximately 130 analytes in the NER. We identified available risk assessment-based biomarker screening values, including BEs and Human Biomonitoring-I (HBM-I) values from the German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Geometric mean and 95th percentile population biomarker concentrations from the NER were compared to the available screening values to generate chemical-specific hazard quotients (HQs) or cancer risk estimates. Most analytes in the NER show HQ values of chemicals, benzene, xylene, several metals, di-2(ethylhexyl)phthalate, and some legacy organochlorine pesticides) approach or exceed HQ values of 1 or cancer risks of > 1 × 10-4 at the geometric mean or 95th percentile, suggesting exposure levels may exceed published human health benchmarks. This analysis provides for the first time a means for examining population biomonitoring data for multiple environmental chemicals in the context of the risk assessments for those chemicals. The results of these comparisons can be used to focus more detailed chemical-specific examination of the data and inform priorities for chemical risk management and research.

  2. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products...

  3. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  4. Epidemiologic studies of occupational pesticide exposure and cancer: regulatory risk assessments and biologic plausibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavella, John; Doe, John; Tomenson, John; Chester, Graham; Cowell, John; Bloemen, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies frequently show associations between self-reported use of specific pesticides and human cancers. These findings have engendered debate largely on methodologic grounds. However, biologic plausibility is a more fundamental issue that has received only superficial attention. The purpose of this commentary is to review briefly the toxicology and exposure data that are developed as part of the pesticide regulatory process and to discuss the applicability of this data to epidemiologic research. The authors also provide a generic example of how worker pesticide exposures might be estimated and compared to relevant toxicologic dose levels. This example provides guidance for better characterization of exposure and for consideration of biologic plausibility in epidemiologic studies of pesticides.

  5. Hazard assessment and risk management of offshore production chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schobben, H.P.M.; Scholten, M.C.T.; Vik, E.A.; Bakke, S.

    1994-01-01

    There is a clear need for harmonization of the regulations with regard to the use and discharge of drilling and production chemicals in the North Sea. Therefore the CHARM (Chemical Hazard Assessment and Risk Management) model was developed. Both government (of several countries) and industry (E and P and chemical suppliers) participated in the project. The CHARM model is discussed and accepted by OSPARCON. The CHARM model consists of several modules. The model starts with a prescreening on the basis of hazardous properties like persistency, accumulation potential and the appearance on black lists. The core of the model.consists of modules for hazard assessment and risk analysis. Hazard assessment covers a general environmental evaluation of a chemical on the basis of intrinsic properties of that chemical. Risk analysis covers a more specific evaluation of the environmental impact from the use of a production chemical, or a combination of chemicals, under actual conditions. In the risk management module the user is guided to reduce the total risk of all chemicals used on a platform by the definition of measures in the most cost-effective way. The model calculates the environmental impact for the marine environment. Thereto three parts are distinguished: pelagic, benthic and food chain. Both hazard assessment and risk analysis are based on a proportional comparison of an estimated PEC with an estimated NEC. The PEC is estimated from the use, release, dilution and fate of the chemical and the NEC is estimated from the available toxicity data of the chemicals

  6. Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Faqir; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2013-01-01

    The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean+/-SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34+/-0.007, 0.063+/-0.002, 0.034+/-0.002 and 0.092+/-0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in an...

  7. An alternative approach to risk rank chemicals on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Donnachie, Rachel L; Sumpter, John P; Jürgens, Monika D; Moeckel, Claudia; Pereira, M Gloria

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a new and unbiased method of risk ranking chemicals based on the threat they pose to the aquatic environment. The study ranked 12 metals, 23 pesticides, 11 other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 13 pharmaceuticals, 10 surfactants and similar compounds and 2 nanoparticles (total of 71) of concern against one another by comparing their median UK river water and median ecotoxicity effect concentrations. To complement this, by giving an assessment on potential wildlife impacts, risk ranking was also carried out by comparing the lowest 10th percentile of the effects data with the highest 90th percentile of the exposure data. In other words, risk was pared down to just toxicity versus exposure. Further modifications included incorporating bioconcentration factors, using only recent water measurements and excluding either lethal or sub-lethal effects. The top ten chemicals, based on the medians, which emerged as having the highest risk to organisms in UK surface waters using all the ecotoxicity data were copper, aluminium, zinc, ethinylestradiol (EE2), linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), triclosan, manganese, iron, methomyl and chlorpyrifos. By way of contrast, using current UK environmental quality standards as the comparator to median UK river water concentrations would have selected 6 different chemicals in the top ten. This approach revealed big differences in relative risk; for example, zinc presented a million times greater risk then metoprolol and LAS 550 times greater risk than nanosilver. With the exception of EE2, most pharmaceuticals were ranked as having a relatively low risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Managing major chemical accidents in China: Towards effective risk information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Lu, Y.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical industries, from their very inception, have been controversial due to the high risks they impose on safety of human beings and the environment. Recent decades have witnessed increasing impacts of the accelerating expansion of chemical industries and chemical accidents have become a major

  9. Impact of Use of Chemical Fertiliser on Farm Households' Risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explored the impact of chemical fertiliser on smallholder farmers' risk behaviour and food security. The findings show that the severity of food security is lower for farmers who adopted chemical fertiliser (15%) than those who didn't adopt (27%). Risk taking behaviour is predominantly associated with farmers who ...

  10. Using species sensitivity distribution approach to assess the risks of commonly detected agricultural pesticides to Australia's tropical freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Kroon, Frederieke J

    2016-02-01

    To assess the potential impacts of agricultural pesticides on tropical freshwater ecosystems, the present study developed temperature-specific, freshwater species protection concentrations (i.e., ecotoxicity threshold values) for 8 pesticides commonly detected in Australia's tropical freshwaters. Because relevant toxicity data for native tropical freshwater species to assess the ecological risks were mostly absent, scientifically robust toxicity data obtained at ≥20 °C were used for ecologically relevant taxonomic groups representing primary producers and consumers. Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves were subsequently generated for predicted chronic exposure using Burrlioz 2.0 software with mixed chronic and converted acute data relevant to exposure conditions at ≥20 °C. Ecotoxicity threshold values for tropical freshwater ecosystem protection were generated for ametryn, atrazine, diuron, metolachlor, and imidacloprid (all moderate reliability), as well as simazine, hexazinone, and tebuthiuron (all low reliability). Using these SSD curves, the retrospective risk assessments for recently reported pesticide concentrations highlight that the herbicides ametryn, atrazine, and diuron are of major concern for ecological health in Australia's tropical freshwater ecosystems. The insecticide imidacloprid also appears to pose an emerging threat to the most sensitive species in tropical freshwater ecosystems. The exposed temperature-specific approach may be applied to develop water quality guideline values for other environmental contaminants detected in tropical freshwater ecosystems until reliable and relevant toxicity data are generated using representative native species. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Pesticide poisoning in Chitwan, Nepal: a descriptive epidemiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Gyenwali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, there is a growing concern over pesticides use, which has been linked to self-harm and suicide. However, there is paucity of research on the epidemiology of pesticides poisoning in Nepal. This study is aimed at assessing epidemiological features of pesticides poisoning among hospital-admitted cases in selected hospitals of Chitwan District of Nepal. Methods A hospital-based quantitative study was carried out in four major hospitals of Chitwan District. Information on all pesticides poisoning cases between April 1 and December 31, 2015, was recorded by using a Pesticides Exposure Record (PER form. Results A total of 439 acute pesticides poisoning cases from 12 districts including Chitwan and adjoining districts attended the hospitals during the 9-month-long study period. A majority of the poisoned subjects deliberately used pesticides (89.5% for attempted suicide. The total incidence rate was 62.67/100000 population per year. Higher annual incidence rates were found among young adults (111.66/100000 population, women (77.53/100000 population and individuals from Dalit ethnic groups (98.22/100000 population. Pesticides responsible for poisoning were mostly insecticides (58.0% and rodenticides (20.8%. The most used chemicals were organophosphates (37.3% and pyrethroids (36.7%. Of the total cases, 98.6% were hospitalized, with intensive care required for 41.3%. The case fatality rate among admitted cases was 3.8%. Conclusions This study has indicated that young adults, females and socially disadvantaged ethnic groups are at a higher risk of pesticides poisoning. Pesticides are mostly misused intentionally as an easy means for committing suicide. It is recommended that the supply of pesticides be properly regulated to prevent easy accessibility and misuse. A population-based study is warranted to reveal the actual problem of pesticides exposure and intoxication in the community.

  12. Managing major chemical accidents in China: Towards effective risk information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Guizhen; Zhang Lei; Lu Yonglong; Mol, Arthur P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Chemical industries, from their very inception, have been controversial due to the high risks they impose on safety of human beings and the environment. Recent decades have witnessed increasing impacts of the accelerating expansion of chemical industries and chemical accidents have become a major contributor to environmental and health risks in China. This calls for the establishment of an effective chemical risk management system, which requires reliable, accurate and comprehensive data in the first place. However, the current chemical accident-related data system is highly fragmented and incomplete, as different responsible authorities adopt different data collection standards and procedures for different purposes. In building a more comprehensive, integrated and effective information system, this article: (i) reviews and assesses the existing data sources and data management, (ii) analyzes data on 976 recorded major hazardous chemical accidents in China over the last 40 years, and (iii) identifies the improvements required for developing integrated risk management in China.

  13. Arsenic Accumulation by Pteris vittata L. in Two Chemically Variant Soils Treated with Arsenical Pesticides - Greenhouse Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapong, C.; Datta, R.; Sarkar, D.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic elements present in the environment. Over the years, arsenic has found its way to the environment due to its extensive use in agriculture and in industrial practices as pesticides, fertilizers, wood preservatives, smelter wastes and coal combustion ash, all of which are of great environmental concern. Arsenic contamination affects biological activities because it is a carcinogen and a mutagen, which has detrimental effects on the immune system of animals. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils has become a major environmental issue in the recent years. Several physical and chemical treatment methods, such as soil washing, co-precipitation, and excavation, have used to remediate As, but all of these methods are rather expensive and can disturb soil physiology and ecology. Phytoremediation, a plant based technology for the removal of toxic contaminants from soil and water is an attractive approach. Of late, this technology has received a high degree of attention from the scientific community because it is environment-friendly and also because of its tremendous cost efficiency compared to the conventional methods. Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) is a known arsenic hyperaccumulator that is being used extensively at present to remove As from soils. However, the degree of efficiency of this plant in accumulating As is likely to be a function of the soil properties. The objective of the reported study was to investigate arsenic uptake by Chinese Brake Fern in As-contaminated soils from the Immokalee (acid sand with minimal As-retention potential) and Millhopper series (sandy loam with high Fe/Al content, hence, high As-retention potential). A greenhouse experiment was designed to evaluate the effects on As uptake by Chinese Brake Fern at two pesticide application rates: 225 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg As in two chemical forms, namely sodium arsenate (AsV) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA). Each treatment was replicated three times in

  14. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. A Chemical Activity Approach to Exposure and Risk Assessment of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobas, Frank A. P. C.; Mayer, Philipp; Parkerton, Thomas F.

    2018-01-01

    activity approach, its strengths and limitations, and provides examples of how this concept may be applied to the management of single chemicals and chemical mixtures. The examples demonstrate that the chemical activity approach provides a useful framework for 1) compiling and evaluating exposure......To support the goals articulated in the vision for exposure and risk assessment in the twenty-first century, we highlight the application of a thermodynamic chemical activity approach for the exposure and risk assessment of chemicals in the environment. The present article describes the chemical...... assessment. The article further illustrates that the chemical activity approach can support an adaptive management strategy for environmental stewardship of chemicals where “safe” chemical activities are established based on toxicological studies and presented as guidelines for environmental quality...

  16. Farmer and retailer knowledge and awareness of the risks from pesticide use: A case study in the Wei River catchment, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiaomei, E-mail: xiaomei.yang@wur.nl [Soil Physics and Land Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, 712100 Yangling (China); Wang, Fei [State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, 712100 Yangling (China); Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A and F University, 712100 Yangling (China); Meng, Lei [Baoji University of Arts and Sciences, 712300 Baoji, Shaanxi (China); Zhang, Wenshuai [State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, 712100 Yangling (China); Fan, Liangxin [School of Surveying and Land Information Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, 454003 Jiaozuo, Henan Province (China); Geissen, Violette [Soil Physics and Land Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Institute of Crop Science and Resources Conservation (INRES), University of Bonn, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Ritsema, Coen J. [Soil Physics and Land Management, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2014-11-01

    Monitoring the educational level of farmers and retailers on pesticide use would be useful to assess the appropriateness of information for reducing or/and avoiding the risks from pesticides in rural regions. The levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers to the environment and human health were investigated by questionnaires for farmers (209) and retailers (20) in two rural regions (Qianyang County (S1) and Chencang County (S2)) of the Wei River catchment in China where the modes of farming and the state of erosion are very different. The results showed that farmers learned the use and dangers of pesticides mainly by oral communication (p < 0.01). Protective measures were inadequate; 65% (S1) and 55% (S2) of farmers never used any protective measures during spraying (p < 0.05). Washing hands (> 70%) was the most common mode of personal hygiene, relative to wearing masks, showering, and changing clothes, but no significant differences were observed between the selected regions. Most pesticide wastes were dumped directly onto the land or into water, suggesting that educational measures should be taken to address the potential risks from the residues in the wastes. Over 85% of farmers (S1 and S2) claimed to use illegal pesticides, but the reasons for their use varied (p < 0.01). Retailers were well-informed and highly conscious of their responsibility for the safe use of pesticides, especially in S2 (p < 0.01). A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that educational level and age differed between the two regions and contributed greatly to the risks from pesticide use (p < 0.01). Educational programmes targeted to age groups, proper disposal of pesticide waste, and sufficient supervision from authorities should consequently be considered for improving the levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers of pesticides to human health and environmental pollution in the Wei River catchment, China. - Highlights: • The status of income and expenditure on

  17. Farmer and retailer knowledge and awareness of the risks from pesticide use: A case study in the Wei River catchment, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaomei; Wang, Fei; Meng, Lei; Zhang, Wenshuai; Fan, Liangxin; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the educational level of farmers and retailers on pesticide use would be useful to assess the appropriateness of information for reducing or/and avoiding the risks from pesticides in rural regions. The levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers to the environment and human health were investigated by questionnaires for farmers (209) and retailers (20) in two rural regions (Qianyang County (S1) and Chencang County (S2)) of the Wei River catchment in China where the modes of farming and the state of erosion are very different. The results showed that farmers learned the use and dangers of pesticides mainly by oral communication (p < 0.01). Protective measures were inadequate; 65% (S1) and 55% (S2) of farmers never used any protective measures during spraying (p < 0.05). Washing hands (> 70%) was the most common mode of personal hygiene, relative to wearing masks, showering, and changing clothes, but no significant differences were observed between the selected regions. Most pesticide wastes were dumped directly onto the land or into water, suggesting that educational measures should be taken to address the potential risks from the residues in the wastes. Over 85% of farmers (S1 and S2) claimed to use illegal pesticides, but the reasons for their use varied (p < 0.01). Retailers were well-informed and highly conscious of their responsibility for the safe use of pesticides, especially in S2 (p < 0.01). A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that educational level and age differed between the two regions and contributed greatly to the risks from pesticide use (p < 0.01). Educational programmes targeted to age groups, proper disposal of pesticide waste, and sufficient supervision from authorities should consequently be considered for improving the levels of knowledge and awareness of the dangers of pesticides to human health and environmental pollution in the Wei River catchment, China. - Highlights: • The status of income and expenditure on

  18. [The flexibilization of the Brazilian legislation on pesticides and the risks to human health: analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mirella Dias; Cavendish, Thais Araújo; Bueno, Priscila Campos; Ervilha, Iara Campos; Gregório, Luisa De Sordi; Kanashiro, Natiela Beatriz de Oliveira; Rohlfs, Daniela Buosi; Carmo, Thenille Faria Machado do

    2017-07-27

    This article aims to contribute to a reflection on pesticides, based on the Brazilian legal framework, from the perspective of protecting human health and the environment. This initiative is due to successive attempts to flexibilize the regulation of pesticides in Brazil, through bills of law in progress in the Brazilian National Congress. An analysis of Bill of Law 3,200/2015 was carried out. This bill of law represents a major setback to the legislative achievements for the regulation of pesticides, in order to alert to the risks to human health from exposure to these products and aggravated by other similar proposals.

  19. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  20. Toward a conceptual approach for assessing risks from chemical mixtures and other stressors to coastal ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syberg, Kristian; Backhaus, Thomas; Banta, Gary Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in Costa Rica) are provided; one focuses on chemicals that affect human food supply and the other addresses pesticide runoff and trade-offs among ES. The 2 cases are used to highlight challenges of such risk assessments, including use of standardized versus ES-relevant test species, data completeness......, translate impacts into ES units; step F, assess cumulative risk in ES units; step G, rank stressors based on their contribution to adverse effects on ES; and step H, implement regulation and management as appropriate and necessary. Two illustrative case studies (Swedish coastal waters and a coastal lagoon......, and trade-offs among ES. Lessons learned from the 2 case studies are discussed in relation to environmental risk assessment and management of chemical mixtures....

  1. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  2. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates pesticides under the statutory authority of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The registration requirements for antimicrobial pesticides differ somewhat from those of other pesticides. Find out more.

  3. Organochlorine pesticides in soils and air of southern Mexico: Chemical profiles and potential for soil emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Alegria, Henry A.; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Gold-Bouchot, Gerardo; Ceja-Moreno, Victor; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    The extent of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) contamination in southern Mexico was investigated in this study. Biweekly air samplings were carried out in two sites in the state of Chiapas (during 2002-2003), and one in each state of Veracruz and Tabasco (during 2003-2004). Corresponding to the air sampling locations, soil samples were also collected to gauge the soil-air exchange of OCs in the region. ∑DDTs in soils ranged from 0.057 to 360 ng g -1 whereas those in air ranged from 240 to 2400 pg m -3. DDT and metabolite DDE were expressed as fractional values, FDDTe = p, p'-DDT/( p, p'-DDT + p, p'-DDE) and FDDTo = p,p'-DDT/( p,p'-DDT + o,p'-DDT). FDDTe in soils ranged from 0.30 to 0.69 while those in air ranged from 0.45 to 0.84. FDDTe in air at a farm in Chiapas (0.84) was closer to that of technical DDT (0.95) which is suggestive of fresh DDT input. Enantiomer fractions (EF) of o,p'-DDT in air were racemic at all locations (0.500-0.504). However, nonracemic o,p'-DDT was seen in the soils (EFs = 0.456-0.647). Fugacities of OCs in soil ( fs) and air ( fa) were calculated, and the fugacity fraction, ff = fs/( fs + fa) of DDTs ranged from 0.013 to 0.97 which indicated a mix of net deposition ( ff 0.5) from soil among the sites. It is suggested that DDTs in Mexico air are due to a combination of ongoing regional usage and re-emission of old DDT residues from soils. Total toxaphene in soils ranged from 0.066 to 69 ng g -1 while levels in air ranged from 6.2 to 230 pg m -3. Chromatographic profiles of toxaphenes in both air and soil showed depletion of Parlar congeners 39 and 42. Fugacity fractions of toxaphene were within the equilibrium range or above the upper equilibrium threshold boundary. These findings suggested that soil emission of old residues is the main source of toxaphenes to the atmosphere. Results from this study provide baseline data for establishing a long-term OC monitoring program in Mexico.

  4. Extended sorption partitioning models for pesticide leaching risk assessments: Can we improve upon the k{sub oc} concept?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Nicholas, E-mail: nicholas.jarvis@slu.se

    2016-01-01

    Models used to assess leaching of pesticides to groundwater still rely on the sorption k{sub oc} value, even though its limitations have been known for several decades, especially for soils of low organic carbon content (i.e. subsoils). This is mainly because the general applicability of any improved model approach that is also simple enough to use for regulatory purposes has not been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to test and compare alternative models of sorption that could be useful in pesticide risk assessment and management. To this end, a database containing the results of batch sorption experiments for pesticides was compiled from published studies in the literature, which placed at least as much emphasis on measurements in subsoil horizons as in topsoil. The database includes 785 data entries from 34 different published studies and for 21 different active substances. Overall, the apparent k{sub oc} value, k{sub oc(app)}, roughly doubled as the soil organic carbon content decreased by a factor of ten. Nevertheless, in nearly half of the individual datasets, a constant k{sub oc} value proved to be an adequate model. Further analysis showed that significant increases in k{sub oc(app)} in subsoil were found primarily for the more weakly adsorbing compounds (k{sub oc} values < ca. 100–200 L kg{sup −1}) and that sorption to clay in loamy and clayey-textured subsoil horizons was the main cause. Tests with the MACRO model demonstrated that sorption to clay minerals may significantly affect the outcome of regulatory exposure and risk assessments for leaching to groundwater. The k{sub oc} concept currently used in leaching models should therefore be replaced by an alternative approach that gives a more realistic representation of pesticide sorption in subsoil. The two alternative models tested in this study appear to have widespread applicability and are also simple enough to parameterize for this purpose. - Highlights: • A database was collated

  5. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    "Catastrophic events such as the Bhopal, India tragedy and rising incidences of cancer in areas neighboring industrial facilities have heightened concern over the use of toxic chemicals in manufacturing and industry...

  6. Toxic chemicals: risk prevention through use reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Higgins, Thomas E; Sachdev, Jayanti A; Engleman, Stephen A

    2011-01-01

    ... on the actual toxicity of chemicals currently in use, discusses variables that contribute to the relative toxicity of a substance, compares alternate emphases in existing programs for reducing environmental...

  7. PESTICIDES: BENEFITS AND HAZARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Maksymiv

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are an integral part of modern life used to prevent growth of unwanted living  organisms. Despite the fact that scientific statements coming from many toxicological works provide indication on the low risk of the pesticides and their residues, the community especially last years is deeply concerned about massive application of pesticides in diverse fields. Therefore evaluation of hazard risks particularly in long term perspective is very important. In the fact there are at least two clearly different approaches for evaluation of pesticide using: the first one is defined as an objective or probabilistic risk assessment, while the second one is the potential economic and agriculture benefits. Therefore, in this review the author has considered scientifically based assessment of positive and negative effects of pesticide application and discusses possible approaches to find balance between them.

  8. How to use mechanistic effect models in environmental risk assessment of pesticides: Case studies and recommendations from the SETAC workshop MODELINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommen, Udo; Forbes, Valery; Grimm, Volker; Preuss, Thomas G; Thorbek, Pernille; Ducrot, Virginie

    2016-01-01

    Mechanistic effect models (MEMs) are useful tools for ecological risk assessment of chemicals to complement experimentation. However, currently no recommendations exist for how to use them in risk assessments. Therefore, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) MODELINK workshop aimed at providing guidance for when and how to apply MEMs in regulatory risk assessments. The workshop focused on risk assessment of plant protection products under Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 using MEMs at the organism and population levels. Realistic applications of MEMs were demonstrated in 6 case studies covering assessments for plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. From the case studies and their evaluation, 12 recommendations on the future use of MEMs were formulated, addressing the issues of how to translate specific protection goals into workable questions, how to select species and scenarios to be modeled, and where and how to fit MEMs into current and future risk assessment schemes. The most important recommendations are that protection goals should be made more quantitative; the species to be modeled must be vulnerable not only regarding toxic effects but also regarding their life history and dispersal traits; the models should be as realistic as possible for a specific risk assessment question, and the level of conservatism required for a specific risk assessment should be reached by designing appropriately conservative environmental and exposure scenarios; scenarios should include different regions of the European Union (EU) and different crops; in the long run, generic MEMs covering relevant species based on representative scenarios should be developed, which will require EU-level joint initiatives of all stakeholders involved. The main conclusion from the MODELINK workshop is that the considerable effort required for making MEMs an integral part of environmental risk assessment of pesticides is worthwhile, because

  9. Assessing risks of pesticides targeting lepidopteran pests in cruciferous ecosystems to eggs parasitoid, Trichogramma brassicae (Bezdenko

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Thubru

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lethal and sub lethal effects of fresh and old residues of azadirachtin, spinosad, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Bt var. k, and deltamethrin, were evaluated at their recommended field doses against adult and immature stages of Trichogramma brassicae under in vitro conditions. The experiments were carried out at the Entomology section of Division of Crop Protection, ICAR Research Complex for NEH region, Umiam, Meghalaya, in 2012–2013. The effects of different pesticides were determined by bioassays using the residual film method, the diet contamination method, the pupal dip method and the topical application technique. The four pesticides were found harmful to adult T. brassicae after ingestion, however surface contact bioassays revealed that Bt var. k was the least toxic pesticide. Except Bt var. k, other three pesticides were found harmful also to the immature stages of T. brassicae and significantly affected parasitism potential, adult emergence, longevity of adults, and sex ratio of the progeny. Deltamethrin and azadirachtin were the most harmful, even after 15 days of application. Spinosad was found to be relatively safe to T. brassicae after 15 days of application. As Bt appeared to be the least toxic pesticide for T. brassicae, it could be used for the management of severe infestations of lepidopteran pests in cruciferous ecosystems.If essential, spinosad may be used 15 days after parasitoid release, thus minimizing the chances of parasitoid exposure. Keywords: Azadirachtin, Bacillus thuringiensis, Deltamethrin, Spinosad

  10. Application of a health risk assessment model for cattle exposed to pesticides in contaminated drinking waters: A study case from the Pampas region, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubny, Sabrina; Peluso, Fabio; Masson, Ignacio; Othax, Natalia; González Castelain, José

    2018-04-01

    Using the USEPA methodology we estimated the probabilistic chronic risks for calves and adult cows due to pesticide exposure through oral intake of contaminated surface and ground waters in Tres Arroyos County (Argentina). Because published data on pesticide toxicity endpoints for cows are scarce, we used threshold levels based on interspecies extrapolation methods. The studied waters showed acceptable quality for cattle production since none of the pesticides were present at high-enough concentrations to potentially affect cow health. Moreover, ground waters had better quality than surface waters, with dieldrin and deltamethrin being the pesticides associated with the highest risk values in the former and the latter water compartments, respectively. Our study presents a novel use of the USEPA risk methodology proving it is useful for water quality evaluation in terms of pesticide toxicity for cattle production. This approach represents an alternative tool for water quality management in the absence of specific cattle pesticide regulatory limits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of processing on the disappearance of pesticide residues in fresh-cut lettuce: Bioavailability and dietary risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Miguel A; Barba, Alberto; Cermeño, Sandra; Martinez, Gracia; Oliva, Jose

    2017-12-02

    The aim of this research is to establish the processing factors of six pesticides durong the preparation of fresh-cut lettuce and to assess the risk of ingestion of pesticide residues associated with the consumption of the same. A field study was carried out on the dissipation of three insecticides (imidacloprid, tebufenozide, cypermethrin) and three fungicides (metalaxyl, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin) during treatment conditions simulating those used for commercial fresh-cut lettuce. A simultaneous residue analysis method is validated using QuEChERS extraction with acetonitrile and CG-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis. The residues detected after field application never exceed the established Maximum Residue Limits. The processing factors were generally less than 1 (between 0.34 for tebufenozide and 0.53 for imidacloprid), indicating that the process, as a whole, considerably reduces residue levels in processed lettuce compared to fresh lettuce. It is confirmed that cutting, followed by washing and drying, considerably reduces the residues. A matrix effect in the dialyzation of the pesticides is observed and the in vitro study of bioavailability establishes a low percentage of stomach absorption capacity (lettuce showed no concerns for consumer health.

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment for new and existing chemicals: Example calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager T; Hollander HA den; Janssen GB; Poel P van der; Rikken MGJ; Vermeire TG; ECO; CSR; LAE; CSR

    2000-01-01

    In the risk assessment methods for new and existing chemicals in the EU, "risk" is characterised by means of the deterministic quotient of exposure and effects (PEC/PNEC or Margin of Safety). From a scientific viewpoint, the uncertainty in the risk quotient should be accounted for explicitly in the

  13. Pesticide risk assessment: A study on inhalation and dermal exposure to 2,4-D and paraquat among Malaysian paddy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Mohd Rafee B; Sahid, Ismail B; Noor, Mohamad Azhar B Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Fadzil

    2011-01-01

    A cross-section analytical study was conducted to evaluate the risk of pesticide exposure to those applying the Class II pesticides 2,4-D and paraquat in the paddy-growing areas of Kerian, Perak, Malaysia. It investigated the influence of weather on exposure as well as documented health problems commonly related to pesticide exposure. Potential inhalation and dermal exposure for 140 paddy farmers (handlers of pesticides) were assessed. Results showed that while temperature and humidity affected exposure, windspeed had the strongest impact on pesticide exposure via inhalation. However, the degree of exposure to both herbicides via inhalation was below the permissible exposure limits set by United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM) readings showed that dermal exposure with manual spraying ranged from moderate to high. With motorized sprayers, however, the level of dermal exposure ranged from low to moderate. Dermal exposure was significantly negatively correlated with the usage of protective clothing. Various types of deleterious health effects were detected among users of manual knapsack sprayers. Long-term spraying activities were positively correlated with increasing levels of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) liver enzyme. The type of spraying equipment, usage of proper protective clothing and adherence to correct spraying practices were found to be the most important factors influencing the degree of pesticide exposure among those applying pesticides.

  14. Environmental chemical mutagens and genetic risks: Lessons from radiation genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaranarayanan, K.

    1996-01-01

    The last three decades have witnessed substantial progress in the development and use of a variety of in vitro and in vivo assay systems for the testing of environmental chemicals which may pose a mutagenic hazard to humans. This is also true of basic studies in chemical mutagenesis on mechanisms, DNA repair, molecular dosimetry, structure-activity relationships, etc. However, the field of quantitative evaluation of genetic risks of environmental chemicals to humans is still in it infancy. This commentary addresses the question of how our experience in estimating genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation can be helpful in similar endeavors with environmental chemical mutagens. 24 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Demonstration of spread-on peel-off consumer products for sampling surfaces contaminated with pesticides and chemical warfare agent signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Deborah L; Smith, Deborah L; Katona, Vanessa R; Lewis, Alan T; Hernon-Kenny, Laura A; Crenshaw, Michael D

    2014-08-01

    A terrorist attack using toxic chemicals is an international concern. The utility of rubber cement and latex body paint as spray-on/spread-on peel-off collection media for signatures attributable to pesticides and chemical warfare agents from interior building and public transportation surfaces two weeks post-deposition is demonstrated. The efficacy of these media to sample escalator handrail, stainless steel, vinyl upholstery fabric, and wood flooring is demonstrated for two pesticides and eight chemicals related to chemical warfare agents. The chemicals tested are nicotine, parathion, atropine, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, dimethyl methylphosphonate, dipinacolyl methylphosphonate, ethyl methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphonic acid, and thiodiglycol. Amounts of each chemical found are generally greatest when latex body paint is used. Analytes with low volatility and containing an alkaline nitrogen or a sulfur atom (e.g., nicotine and parathion) usually are recovered to a greater extent than the neutral phosphonate diesters and acidic phosphonic acids (e.g., dimethyl methylphosphonate and ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The new risk paradigm for chemical process security and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David A

    2004-11-11

    The world of safety and security in the chemical process industries has certainly changed since 11 September, but the biggest challenges may be yet to come. This paper will explain that there is a new risk management paradigm for chemical security, discuss the differences in interpreting this risk versus accidental risk, and identify the challenges we can anticipate will occur in the future on this issue. Companies need to be ready to manage the new chemical security responsibilities and to exceed the expectations of the public and regulators. This paper will outline the challenge and a suggested course of action.

  17. Quantitative Structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the cattle milk

    OpenAIRE

    Faqir Muhammad*, Ijaz Javed, Masood Akhtar1, Zia-ur-Rahman, Mian Muhammad Awais1, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi2 and Muhammad Irfan Anwar3

    2012-01-01

    Milk of cattle was collected from various localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Pesticides concentration was determined by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The residue analysis revealed that about 40% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SE levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.38±0.02, 0.26±0.02, 0.072±0.01 and 0.085±0.02, respectively. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were used to predict the residues...

  18. Pesticide Residues in Food: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Misconceptions among Conventional and Organic Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Severine; Epp, Astrid; Lohmann, Mark; Böl, Gaby-Fleur

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide use and pesticide residues in foods have been the subject of controversial public discussions and media coverage in Germany. Against this background, a better understanding of public risk perceptions is needed to promote efficient public health communication. To this end, this study captures the German public's perception of pesticide residues in foods. A representative sample of the population aged 14 years and older (n = 1,004) was surveyed via computer-assisted telephone interviewing on their attitudes and knowledge with regard to pesticide residues. Based on questions regarding their typical consumer behavior, respondents were classified into conventional and organic consumers to identify differences as well as similarities between these two consumer types. As assessed with an open-ended question, both organic and conventional consumers viewed pesticides, chemicals, and toxins as the greatest threats to food quality and safety. Evaluating the risks and benefits of pesticide use, more than two-thirds of organic consumers (70%) rated the risks as greater than the benefits, compared with just over one-half of conventional consumers (53%). Concern about the detection of pesticide residues in the food chain and bodily fluids was significantly higher among organic compared with conventional consumers. Only a minority of respondents was aware that legal limits for pesticide residues (referred to as maximum residue levels) exist, with 69% of organic and 61% of conventional consumers believing that the presence of pesticide residues in foods is generally not permitted. A lack of awareness of maximum residue levels was associated with heightened levels of concern about pesticide residues. Finally, general exposure to media reporting on pesticide residues was associated with more frequent knowledge of legal limits for pesticide residues, whereas actively seeking information on pesticide residues was not. The possible mechanisms underlying these findings are

  19. Space, time, and chemical risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to manufactured chemicals is a fact of contemporary life for both humans and wildlife. In many cases, these exposures occur at safe environmental concentrations. However, spectacular exceptions have occurred (e.g., DDT and eggshell thinning, monocrotophos and Swainson&r...

  20. Retraction: Adyel et al. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Foods 2013, 2, 64–75

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shakhaoat Hossain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article [1], doi: 10.3390/foods2010064, website: http://www.mdpi.com/2304-8158/2/1/64, has been retracted by the authors because of some major errors in broad field of pesticide residues identification and concentrations. During random cross check retention time of pesticides by HPLC did not match with the standards of detected pesticides. As a result concentration of all detected pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs and health risk assessments were changed. All these errors made the article [1] as a wrong one. All authors have confirmed that the reported results produced using quite inappropriate procedures. As first author herein, I take full responsibility for the retraction of our experiments and any other errors in its contents, and would like to offer my apologies on behalf of my co-authors to the readership of Foods for any inconveniences caused by this retraction.

  1. Risk assessment of pesticide usage by smallholder farmers in the Cagayan Valley (Philippines)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, D.J.; Masipequena, M.D.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2008-01-01

    A significant increase in pesticide use has increased concerns about potentially adverse effects on human health and the environment, particularly in countries where regulations are not strictly implemented and farmers’ knowledge of safe handling procedures is often inadequate. This paper assesses

  2. Valuing Environmental and health risk in Agriculture: A choice experiment approach to pesticides in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travisi, C.M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture shows a complex ramification of multiple negative externalities, ranging from food safety-related effects to the deterioration of farmland ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated that the assessment of the economic implications of such negative

  3. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk On ... hydrocarbons, and how are they formed in cooked meats? What factors influence the formation of HCA and ...

  4. Profiling contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients to evaluate the effects of pesticides and organic and chemical fertilizers on tomato fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masami; Ohta, Yuko; Licang, Sun; Motoyama, Naoki; Kikuchi, Jun

    2015-02-15

    In this study, the contents of water-soluble metabolites and mineral nutrients were measured in tomatoes cultured using organic and chemical fertilizers, with or without pesticides. Mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, respectively, and results were analysed by principal components analysis (PCA). The mineral nutrient and water-soluble metabolite profiles differed between organic and chemical fertilizer applications, which accounted for 88.0% and 55.4%, respectively, of the variation. (1)H-(13)C-hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence experiments identified aliphatic protons that contributed to the discrimination of PCA. Pesticide application had little effect on mineral nutrient content (except Fe and P), but affected the correlation between mineral nutrients and metabolites. Differences in the content of mineral nutrients and water-soluble metabolites resulting from different fertilizer and pesticide applications probably affect tomato quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Health risk assessment for chemical exposures of military interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.; Polhuijs, M.; Sijbranda, T.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in military operations is accompanied by health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical substances from natural and anthropogenic sources. Historically, focus on toxicological risks has been on the health effects of exposure to chemical warfare agents (CW A). In recent years the

  6. Health risk assessment of chemical pollutants in a petrochemical complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Golbabaie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: workers in petrochemical industries are exposed to various contaminants and are facing to serious hazards, therefore a comprehensive risk assessment program for identification of hazardous chemicals that affect human health and also determination of hazardous tasks and processes is necessary.     Methods : This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in three stages. First stage consisted of identifying hazardous chemicals and determination of chemicals risk ratio, the second stage included the evaluation of worker's exposure to hazardous chemicals, and the third stage was estimating the relative risk of blood cancer caused by exposure to benzene through epidemiological studies.     Results: With regard to risk assessment method, 40 chemicals were identified in this Petrochemical Company. Among them, Benzene introduced as the most hazardous chemical. The results of the second stage showed that site man workers in noon shift work and in aromatic site with mean exposure 4.29 ppm had the highest exposure to benzene. The results of estimated leukemia relative risk stage in benzene exposure, the highest relative risk in workers related to site man workers in aromatic units with cumulative benzene exposure of 4.149 ppm. Years that obtained the relative risk of 2.3. The statistical test results showed that the relationship between worker's exposure to benzene and their job was significant(p<0/001     Conclusion : This study showed that benzene with a risk ratio of 4.5 -5 have 5th rank in risk levels and this indicates that preventative actions regarding to this hazardous and carcinogenic chemical must be started as soon as possible.

  7. Environmental Risk Assessment: Spatial Analysis of Chemical Hazards and Risks in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Heo, S.; Kim, M.; Lee, W. K.; Jong-Ryeul, S.

    2017-12-01

    This study identified chemical hazard and risk levels in Korea by analyzing the spatial distribution of chemical factories and accidents. The number of chemical factories and accidents in 5-km2 grids were used as the attribute value for spatial analysis. First, semi-variograms were conducted to examine spatial distribution patterns and to identify spatial autocorrelation of chemical factories and accidents. Semi-variograms explained that the spatial distribution of chemical factories and accidents were spatially autocorrelated. Second, the results of the semi-variograms were used in Ordinary Kriging to estimate chemical hazard and risk level. The level values were extracted from the Ordinary Kriging result and their spatial similarity was examined by juxtaposing the two values with respect to their location. Six peaks were identified in both the hazard and risk estimation result, and the peaks correlated with major cities in Korea. Third, the estimated hazard and risk levels were classified with geometrical interval and could be classified into four quadrants: Low Hazard and Low Risk (LHLR), Low Hazard and High Risk (LHHR), High Hazard and Low Risk (HHLR), and High Hazard and High Risk (HHHR). The 4 groups identified different chemical safety management issues in Korea; relatively safe LHLR group, many chemical reseller factories were found in HHLR group, chemical transportation accidents were in the LHHR group, and an abundance of factories and accidents were in the HHHR group. Each quadrant represented different safety management obstacles in Korea, and studying spatial differences can support the establishment of an efficient risk management plan.

  8. Circulating mitochondrial DNA as biomarker linking environmental chemical exposure to early preclinical lesions elevation of mtDNA in human serum after exposure to carcinogenic halo-alkane-based pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia T Budnik

    Full Text Available There is a need for a panel of suitable biomarkers for detection of environmental chemical exposure leading to the initiation or progression of degenerative diseases or potentially, to cancer. As the peripheral blood may contain increased levels of circulating cell-free DNA in diseased individuals, we aimed to evaluate this DNA as effect biomarker recognizing vulnerability after exposure to environmental chemicals. We recruited 164 individuals presumably exposed to halo-alkane-based pesticides. Exposure evaluation was based on human biomonitoring analysis; as biomarker of exposure parent halo-methanes, -ethanes and their metabolites, as well as the hemoglobin-adducts methyl valine and hydroxyl ethyl valine in blood were used, complemented by expert evaluation of exposure and clinical intoxication symptoms as well as a questionnaire. Assessment showed exposures to halo alkanes in the concentration range being higher than non-cancer reference doses (RfD but (mostly lower than the occupational exposure limits. We quantified circulating DNA in serum from 86 individuals with confirmed exposure to off-gassing halo-alkane pesticides (in storage facilities or in home environment and 30 non-exposed controls, and found that exposure was significantly associated with elevated serum levels of circulating mitochondrial DNA (in size of 79 bp, mtDNA-79, p = 0.0001. The decreased integrity of mtDNA (mtDNA-230/mtDNA-79 in exposed individuals implicates apoptotic processes (p = 0.015. The relative amounts of mtDNA-79 in serum were positively associated with the lag-time after intoxication to these chemicals (r = 0.99, p<0.0001. Several months of post-exposure the specificity of this biomarker increased from 30% to 97% in patients with intoxication symptoms. Our findings indicate that mitochondrial DNA has a potential to serve as a biomarker recognizing vulnerable risk groups after exposure to toxic/carcinogenic chemicals.

  9. Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and risk of autism spectrum disorders and other non-typical development at 3 years in a high-risk cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippat, Claire; Barkoski, Jacqueline; Tancredi, Daniel J; Elms, Bill; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ozonoff, Sally; Bennett, Deborah H; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2018-04-01

    Organophosphates are widely used pesticides that have been shown to affect child neurodevelopment. Previous studies that explored their potential effects on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relied either on proxies of external exposure or on questionnaires completed by the parents to identify autism-like behaviors but did not provide a clinical diagnosis of ASD. We studied the associations between prenatal biologic markers for exposure to organophosphate pesticides and the risk of having a child with ASD or other developmental concerns (ODC). We analyzed 203 mother-child pairs of the ongoing MARBLES (Markers of Autism Risk in Babies - Learning Early Signs) mother-child cohort, which enrolls mothers who are either pregnant or planning a pregnancy and whose expected child has an elevated risk to develop ASD. Seven metabolites of organophosphate pesticides were assessed in repeated urine samples collected during pregnancy. At 36 months, children were assessed with intruments measuring cognitive function and adaptive behaviors, and with two gold-standard diagnostic instruments for ASD: the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Children were classified in one of the following groups: ASD (n = 46), ODC (n = 55) and typically developing (TD, n = 102). After adjustment for potential confounders, organophosphate metabolite concentrations were not associated with an increased risk of ASD or ODC when boys and girls were studied together. After stratification by sex, dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP) pregnancy concentration tended to be associated with an increased ASD risk among girls (OR for a doubling in the DMTP concentration: 1.64 (95%CI, 0.95; 2.82)) but not among boys (OR: 0.84, 95%CI: 0.63; 1.11). This is the first study of clinically confirmed diagnoses of ASD that utilized repeated measurements of organophosphate metabolites during pregnancy to explore the associations between these pesticides and ASD risk in

  10. [DIFFERENT APPROACHES FOR CHEMICAL RISK ASSESSMENT IN LABORATORIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, Lidia; Papaleo, Bruno; Capanna, Silvia; Calicchia, Sara; Marcellini, Laura; De Rosa, Mariangela; Castellano, Paola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the different approaches used for chemical risk assessment, in relation to the perception of riskfor operators, in some research laboratories of a hospital in Rome. All information regarding the chemicals used for the application of three algorithmic models for chemical risk assessment ("Movarisch", "Inforisk", "Archimede") were collected. An environmental and biological monitoring and a study on the combined exposure to multiple chemicals using the World Health Organization proposed steps were carried out. A questionnaire was prepared for the identification of risk perception. An estimation of chemical risk with algorithms was compared with data from monitoring: findings showed that estimated risk was higher than those identified with airborne or urine concentrations, always under their limit values. The study of multiple exposure showed a possible cumulative risk, in some cases, but the conditions of use (volume and time) often bring to a reduced one. The perception of risk attributed to the monitored hazardous substances showed a correct perception in all laboratories and for all workers, with regard to the substances manipulated.

  11. Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonian, A.L.; Good, T.A.; Wang, S.-S.; Wild, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Neurotoxic organophosphates (OP) have found widespread use in the environment for insect control. In addition, there is the increasing threat of use of OP based chemical warfare agents in both ground based warfare and terrorist attacks. Together, these trends necessitate the development of simple and specific methods for discriminative detection of ultra low quantities of OP neurotoxins. In our previous investigations a new biosensor for the direct detection of organophosphorus neurotoxins was pioneered. In this system, the enzymatic hydrolysis of OP neurotoxins by organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) generated two protons in each hydrolytic turnover through reactions in which P-X bonds are cleaved. The sensitivity of this biosensor was limited due to the potentiometric method of detection. Recently, it was reported that a change in fluorescence properties of a fluorophore in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles might be used for detection of nanomolar concentrations of DNA oligonucleotides. The detection strategy was based on the fact that an enhancement or quenching of fluorescence intensity is a function of the distances between the gold nanoparticle and fluorophore. While these reports have demonstrated the use of nanoparticle-based sensors for the detection of target DNA, we observed that the specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions could be exploited in similar systems. To test the feasibility of this approach, OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were prepared, then incubated with a fluorescent enzyme inhibitor or decoy. The fluorescence intensity of the decoy was sensitive to the proximity of the gold nanoparticle, and thus could be used to indicate that the decoy was bound to the OPH. Then different paraoxon concentrations were introduced to the OPH-nanoparticle-conjugate-decoy mixtures, and normalized ratio of fluorescence intensities were measured. The greatest sensitivity to paraoxon was obtained when decoys and OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were present at

  12. Reducing Pesticide Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  13. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is unlikely that having your home or workplace treated by a professional exterminator will result in a high enough exposure to increase the risk to a pregnancy. To reduce exposure to pesticides found on food, ...

  14. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  15. Chemical risk evaluation, importance of the risk analysis framework uses: Latin America development restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrillo, M.

    2013-01-01

    The power point presentation is about reach and results of the risk analysis in Venezuela, chemical dangers in food, human damage, injuries , technologies news in fodd development, toxicity, microbiological risk, technical recommendations

  16. Utility of population models to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ecological risk assessments of pesticides: an example based on acute mortality data for daphnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Niklas; Stark, John D

    2012-04-01

    Traditionally, ecological risk assessments (ERA) of pesticides have been based on risk ratios, where the predicted concentration of the chemical is compared to the concentration that causes biological effects. The concentration that causes biological effect is mostly determined from laboratory experiments using endpoints on the level of the individual (e.g., mortality and reproduction). However, the protection goals are mostly defined at the population level. To deal with the uncertainty in the necessary extrapolations, safety factors are used. Major disadvantages with this simplified approach is that it is difficult to relate a risk ratio to the environmental protection goals, and that the use of fixed safety factors can result in over- as well as underprotective assessments. To reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in ERA, it has been argued that population models should be used more frequently. In the present study, we have used matrix population models for 3 daphnid species (Ceriodaphnia dubia, Daphnia magna, and D. pulex) to reduce uncertainty and increase value relevance in the ERA of a pesticide (spinosad). The survival rates in the models were reduced in accordance with data from traditional acute mortality tests. As no data on reproductive effects were available, the conservative assumption that no reproduction occurred during the exposure period was made. The models were used to calculate the minimum population size and the time to recovery. These endpoints can be related to the European Union (EU) protection goals for aquatic ecosystems in the vicinity of agricultural fields, which state that reversible population level effects are acceptable if there is recovery within an acceptable (undefined) time frame. The results of the population models were compared to the acceptable (according to EU documents) toxicity exposure ratio (TER) that was based on the same data. At the acceptable TER, which was based on the most sensitive species (C. dubia

  17. How does EPA assess risks of chemicals to birds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluates the risk of chemicals to birds and other non-target organisms using Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA). The specific evaluations conducted under an ERA typically vary by statutory authority and available data. Under the Fede...

  18. Survey of pesticide residues in table grapes: Determination of processing factors, intake and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Hansen, H.K.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    of the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) were found in five samples from Italy. A number of samples were rinsed to study the possible reduction of residues. For copper, iprodione, procymidone and dithiocarbamates a significant effect of rinsing was found (20-49% reduction of residues). However......(-1) for pesticides and 21 mu g day(-1) for copper. Correspondingly, the intakes from South African grapes were 2.6 and 5.7 mu g day(-1) respectively. When the total exposure of pesticides from grapes were related to acceptable daily intake, expressed as the sum of Hazard Quotients, the exposure were...... approximately 0.5% for Italian samples and 1% for South African samples....

  19. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  20. [Bibliografic resources on chemical risk administration and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calera Rubio, Alfonso A; Juan Quilis, Verónica; López Samaniego, Luz M; Caballero Pérez, Pablo; Ronda Pérez, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The documentation produced by public and private institutions in relation to the chemical risk constitutes an essential tool for prevention. The objective of this research is to locate and to revise the documents related to the management of the prevention of chemical risk focus to PYMES in Spain from 1995 to 2004. The methodology carried out for the selection of the bibliographical materials has been the consultation of automated databases and Web pages. 812 documents have been identified. Most corresponds to grey literature. The thematic more frequent has been the security and the most frequent objective of the papers has been the prevention. Most of the documents go to the technical sector. The results suggest that although that there is a great diversity of documents in Spain dedicated to the prevention of chemical risk it seems convenient: 1) to increase their diffusion, 2) to pay attention to the communication of the risks, 3) to investigate and to translate the research in good practice.

  1. Hypospadias and residential proximity to pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M

    2013-11-01

    Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother's residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations.

  2. Natural radiation, radioactive waste and chemical risk determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, T.; Mustonen, R.; Edhwall, H.; Hansen, H.; Soerensen, A.; Stranden, E.

    1990-01-01

    Doses from natural radiation to the population in the Nordic countries are summarized, and man-made modifications of the natural radiation environment are discussed. An account is given for the radiological concequences of energy concervation by reduced ventilation. Risks from possible future releases of radioactivity from final depositories of spent nuclear fuel are compared to the risks from present natural radioactivity in the environment. The possibilities for comparison between chemical and radiological risks are discussed. 104 refs., 36 figs., 47 tabs

  3. Evaluation of a multiresidue method for measuring fourteen chemical groups of pesticides in water by use of LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J J; Jerónimo, P C A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F

    2008-11-01

    European Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption brought a new challenge for water-quality control routine laboratories, mainly on pesticides analysis. Under the guidelines of ISO/IEC 17025:2005, a multiresidue method was developed, validated, implemented in routine, and studied with real samples during a one-year period. The proposed method enables routine laboratories to handle a large number of samples, since 28 pesticides of 14 different chemical groups can be quantitated in a single procedure. The method comprises a solid-phase extraction step and subsequent analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The accuracy was established on the basis of participation in interlaboratory proficiency tests, with encouraging results (majority |z-score| <2), and the precision was consistently analysed over one year. The limits of quantitation (below 0.050 microg L(-1)) are in agreement with the enforced threshold value for pesticides of 0.10 microg L(-1). Overall method performance is suitable for routine use according to accreditation rules, taking into account the data collected over one year.

  4. Spatial variation in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican in soil and its relationship with chemical and microbial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bending, Gary D; Lincoln, Suzanne D; Edmondson, Rodney N

    2006-01-01

    The extent of within field variability in the degradation rate of the pesticides isoproturon, azoxystrobin and diflufenican, and the role of intrinsic soil factors and technical errors in contributing to the variability, was investigated in sites on sandy-loam and clay-loam. At each site, 40 topsoil samples were taken from a 160 x 60 m area, and pesticides applied in the laboratory. Time to 25% dissipation (DT25) ranged between 13 and 61 weeks for diflufenican, 5.6 and 17.2 weeks for azoxystrobin, and 0.3 and 12.5 weeks for isoproturon. Variability in DT25 was higher in the sandy-loam in which there was also greatest variability in soil chemical and microbial properties. Technical error associated with pesticide extraction, analysis and lack of model fit during derivation of DT25 accounted for between 5.3 and 25.8% of the variability for isoproturon and azoxystrobin, but could account for almost all the variability for diflufenican. Azoxystrobin DT25, sorption and pH were significantly correlated.

  5. Analysis of airborne pesticides from different chemical classes adsorbed on Radiello® Tenax® passive tubes by thermal-desorption-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeppel, Caroline; Fabritius, Marie; Nief, Marie; Appenzeller, Brice M R; Briand, Olivier; Tuduri, Ludovic; Millet, Maurice

    2015-02-01

    An analytical methodology using automatic thermal desorption (ATD) and GC/MS was developed for the determination of 28 pesticides of different chemical classes (dichlobenil, carbofuran, trifluralin, clopyralid, carbaryl, flazasulfuron, mecoprop-P, dicamba, 2,4-MCPA, dichlorprop, 2,4-D, triclopyr, cyprodinil, bromoxynil, fluroxypyr, oxadiazon, myclobutanil, buprofezin, picloram, trinexapac-p-ethyl, ioxynil, diflufenican, tebuconazole, bifenthrin, isoxaben, alphacypermethrin, fenoxaprop and tau-fluvalinate) commonly used in nonagricultural areas in atmospheric samples. This methodology was developed to evaluate the indoor and outdoor atmospheric contamination by nonagricultural pesticides. Pesticides were sampled passive sampling tubes containing Tenax® adsorbent. Since most of these pesticides are polar (clopyralid, mecoprop-P, dicamba, 2,4-MCPA, dichlorprop, 2,4-D, triclopyr, bromoxynil, fluroxypyr, picloram, trinexapac-p-ethyl and ioxynil), a derivatisation step is required. For this purpose, a silylation step using N-(t-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide (MtBSTFA) was added before thermal desorption. This agent was chosen since it delivers very specific ions on electronic impact (m/z = M-57). This method was established with special consideration for optimal thermal desorption conditions (desorption temperature, desorb flow and duration; trap heating duration and flow; outlet split), linear ranges, limits of quantification and detection which varied from 0.005 to 10 ng and from 0.001 to 2.5 ng, respectively, for an uncertainty varied from 8 to 30 %. The method was applied in situ to the analysis of passive tubes exposed during herbicide application to an industrial site in east of France.

  6. Risk communications and the Chemical Stockpile Emergency-Planning Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, B.M.; Sorensen, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    The CSEPP (Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program) was created to improve emergency planning and response capabilities at the eight sites around the country that store chemical weapons. These weapons are scheduled to be destroyed in the near future. In preparation of the Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (DPEIS) for the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), it was proposed that the Army mitigate accidents through an enhanced community emergency preparedness program at the eight storage sites. In 1986, the Army initiated the development of an Emergency Response Concept Plan (ERCP) for the CSDP, one of 12 technical support studies conducted during preparation of the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS). The purpose of this document is to provide a fairly comprehensive source book on risk, risk management, risk communication research and recommended risk communication practices. It does not merely summarize each publication in the risk communication literature, but attempts to synthesize them along the lines of a set of organizing principles. Furthermore, it is not intended to duplicate other guidance manuals (such as Covello et al.`s manual on risk comparison). The source book was developed for the CSEPP in support of the training module on risk communications. Although the examples provided are specific to CSEPP, its use goes beyond that of CSEPP as the findings apply to a broad spectrum of risk communication topics. While the emphasis is on communication in emergency preparedness and response specific to the CSEPP, the materials cover other non-emergency communication settings. 329 refs.

  7. Public Health Risk Conditioned by Chemical Composition of Ground Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovich, E.; Osipova, N.; Yankovich, K.; Matveenko, I.

    2016-03-01

    The article studies the public health potential risk originated from water consumption and estimated on the basis of the groundwater chemical composition. We have processed the results of chemical groundwater analysis in different aquifers of Tomsk district (Tomsk Oblast, Russia). More than 8400 samples of chemical groundwater analyses were taken during long-term observation period. Human health risk assessment of exposure to contaminants in drinking water was performed in accordance with the risk assessment guidance for public health concerning chemical pollution of the environment (Russian reference number: 2.1.10.1920-04-M, 2004). Identified potential risks were estimated for consuming water of each aquifer. The comparative analysis of water quality of different aquifers was performed on the basis of the risk coefficient of the total non-carcinogenic effects. The non-carcinogenic risk for the health of the Tomsk district population due to groundwater consumption without prior sanitary treatment was admitted acceptable. A rather similar picture is observed for all aquifers, although deeper aquifers show lower hazard coefficients.

  8. Super oxidation and solidification of organic solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides at an abandoned chemical factory site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Kevin; Xu, Paul [Suntime Remediation Company, Changzhou, Jiangsu (China); Loo, Walter [Environment and Technology Services, 1323 Horizon Lane, Patterson, CA 95363 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Large quantities of organic chemical such as VOCs, SVOCs and POPs were found in the soil of land at an abandoned Chemical Plant. Technology of super oxidation was applied to the soil for cleanup. Fenton process was utilized to treat soil contaminated heavily by BHC, benzene, chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, dichloroethane, dichloropropane, trichlorobenzene and dichloroether, etc. Super oxidation was coupled with method of stabilization for this case to enhance the remediation effect, which proved to be successful. Concentration of concerned pollutants was brought down below the national regulation level by approximately 8 folds. To make the treated soil strong and effective layer preventing pollutants breaking through, Iron powder was mixed in the soil, forming PBR (Permeable Barrier Reactor), to lower the risk to human health. The site after enhanced super oxidation above was totally safe to be developed into a residential community and/or commercial area. (authors)

  9. Management of risks in the chemical and nuclear areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venuti, G.C.; Frullani, S.; Pocchiari, F.; Rogani, A.; Silano, V.; Tabet, E.; Zapponi, G.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative overview is provided of some major aspects concerning assessment and management of chemical and nuclear risks arising as a consequence of accidents. Statutory procedures for constructing and running nuclear and chemical plants in Italy are discussed in detail. Special attention is given to the major changes that are likely to occur after the adoption of the EEC Council Directive 82/501, designed to prevent major accidents which might result from certain industrial activities and to limit their consequences for humans and their environment. Present status and future trends of accident analysis and risk assessment are also dealt with, and special emphasis is placed on aspects common to both nuclear and chemical plants. Lastly, managerial aspects of contingency planning for, and response to, emergencies and accidents involving toxic chemical and/or ionizing radiations are examined with the aim of identifying more critical steps. (author)

  10. Residue Levels and Risk Assessment of Pesticides in Pistachio Nuts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Emami

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pistachio is one of the main nutrients, not only as a strategic crop but also as a main type of nut, in Iranians’ food cycle. The aim of this study was to measure the relative safety of Iranian pistachio based on the standard pesticide’s residue limits, which should be monitored and assessed in the cultivation of pistachio in order to confirm its public health. Methods: Fifty samples of pistachios of different brands were collected from Tehran markets in 2015. QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe sampling method was used in order to determine the pesticide’s residue in the pistachio nuts by Gas chromatography/Mass spectrometry (GC/MS.The method was validated with related parameters. Recovery took place at five concentration rates (n=3 ranging from 81.40% to 93.08% with the majority of RelativeStandard Deviation being lower than 20%. Limits of detection and quantification for all the pesticides were 2µg/kg and10µg/kg, respectively. The validated method seemed to be appropriate for the analysis of pesticide’s residue in pistachio nuts. Results: Identified pesticides included Fenitrothion, Carbaryl and Diazinon. Detectable pesticide’s residue existed in 10% (5 samples of the samples. Conclusion: All the results were compared with the Iran’s National Standards and the European Maximum Residue Limits. As compared to the acceptable daily intake, the calculated daily intake of each pesticide was much lower than the standard level, which could not cause any public health problem.

  11. The environmental risks of neonicotinoid pesticides: a review of the evidence post 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Thomas James; Goulson, Dave

    2017-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Neonicotinoid pesticides were first introduced in the mid-1990s and since then their use has grown rapidly so that they have become the most widely used class of insecticides in the world, with the majority being used as seed coatings. Neonicotinoids are water-soluble, and so a small quantity applied to a seed will dissolve when in contact with water in the soil and be taken up by the roots of the developing plant. Once inside the plant it becomes systemic and is found in va...

  12. Evaluation and Use of Water Monitoring Data in Pesticide Aquatic Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Office of Pesticide Programs uses a tiered approach to risk assessment. The tiered approach screens out low-risk pesticides and focuses refined assessments and resources on pesticides most likely to pose a risk of concern.

  13. Metabolism and interactions of pesticides in human and animal in vitro hepatic models

    OpenAIRE

    Abass, K. M. (Khaled M.)

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Risk assessment of chemicals needs reliable scientific information and one source of information is the characterization of the metabolic fate and toxicokinetics of a chemical. Metabolism is often the most important factor contributing to toxicokinetics. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are a superfamily of microsomal proteins playing a pivotal role in xenobiotic metabolism. In the present study, pesticides were used as representative xenobiotics since exposure to pesticides is ...

  14. Risk of Central Nervous System Tumors in Children Related to Parental Occupational Pesticide Exposures in three European Case-Control Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febvey, Olivia; Schüz, Joachim; Bailey, Helen D; Clavel, Jacqueline; Lacour, Brigitte; Orsi, Laurent; Lightfoot, Tracy; Roman, Eve; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Olsson, Ann

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumors associated with parental occupational pesticide exposure. METHODS: We pooled three population-based case-control studies from France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. Cases were children below 15

  15. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in the River Madre de Dios, Costa Rica using PERPEST, SSD, and msPAF models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramo, R.; Brink, van den P.J.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.; Gunnarsson, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the ecological risks (ERA) of pesticides to aquatic organisms in the River Madre de Dios (RMD), which receives surface runoff water from banana, pineapple, and rice plantations on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Water samples collected over 2 years at five sites in the RMD

  16. Aunque cerca...sano: Una guia para prevencion de los riesgos de los pesticidas (Although Nearby...Healthy: A Guide for the Prevention of Pesticide Risks).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Salvador

    Intended for Spanish-speaking farmworkers with children, this publication in comic book format tells these parents how they can protect their children from pesticide risks. On returning home from work, one farmworker couple does not hug their young children. When their behavior is questioned by neighbors, the mother explains that the fields were…

  17. Environmental hazard/risk assessment of pesticides used in agriculture for birds and mammals. The Dutch concept. Part 2. Avian food avoidance behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report (the second one of a series in which the methodology for hazard/risk assessment of the use of pesticides for birds and mammals will be presented) is to give a method for taking into account the avoidance behaviour in the evaluation of LC50 studies and to provide a concept

  18. Access and use of information resources in assessing health risks from chemicals in food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.A. [Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is responsible for the wholesomeness, safety, and adulteration-free status of meat and poultry. The agency developed the National Residue Program (NRP) to monitor these products for residue of drugs, pesticides, and environmental contaminants. Today, few chemical residues are detected in meat and poultry because of the success of the NRP. 3 figs.

  19. Plant Materials as an Appropriate Replacement for Reducing Environmental Risk of using Chemical Insecticides (Case Study: Colorado Potato Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram taghizadeh sarokolaei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Natural and human hazards arising from the use of chemical pesticides to reduce pest damage are significantly increased. In this way, tend to use alternatives with similar efficacy and less risk like plant to control pests has increased. Therefore, it seems that plant compounds can be used as alternatives to chemical insecticides to protect agricultural products in the future. These compounds have no harmful and negative effects on nature and are safer than chemical insecticides; they decompose rapidly, do not remain in soil and water and have no effect on non-target populations. One of the important agricultural products around the world is potato and a major pest of it around the world and in Iran that damage the product is Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say. Nowadays chemical control is the most common method to control of this pest but causes resistance. According to the Colorado potato beetle resistant to conventional chemical pesticides for controlling them, in recent year tendency to use insecticide with plant origin become more for this pest.One of the most important plant compounds are essential oils. Due to the low risk of essential oils to humans and the environment and their insecticidal effect, we motivated to investigate the insecticidal effects of three important medicinal plants on Colorado potato beetle for reducing the environmental hazards arising from the use of chemical insecticides. Materials and methods Three insecticides thiamethoxam, diniteforane, imidacloprid were bought and three essential oils Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad, Ocimum basilicum L. and Mentha spicata L. were gathered in spring then dried in shade at room temperature and for later use in special plastic bags were stored at -24 ° C. With Clevenger essential oils were extracted. In the spring and summer 4th instars larvae of Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say from potato fields of Ardabil plain collected. Investigation against this

  20. Ranking ecological risks of multiple chemical stressors on amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenkova, Anastasia; Vonk, J Arie; Lenders, H J Rob; Creemers, Raymond C M; Breure, Anton M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2012-06-01

    Populations of amphibians have been declining worldwide since the late 1960s. Despite global concern, no studies have quantitatively assessed the major causes of this decline. In the present study, species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were developed to analyze the sensitivity of anurans for ammonium, nitrate, heavy metals (cadmium, copper), pesticides (18 compounds), and acidification (pH) based on laboratory toxicity data. Ecological risk (ER) was calculated as the probability that a measured environmental concentration of a particular stressor in habitats where anurans were observed would exceed the toxic effect concentrations derived from the species sensitivity distributions. The assessment of ER was used to rank the stressors according to their potential risk to anurans based on a case study of Dutch freshwater bodies. The derived ERs revealed that threats to populations of anurans decreased in the sequence of pH, copper, diazinon, ammonium, and endosulfan. Other stressors studied were of minor importance. The method of deriving ER by combining field observation data and laboratory data provides insight into potential threats to species in their habitats and can be used to prioritize stressors, which is necessary to achieve effective management in amphibian conservation. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. Biological risk, source and pollution history of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the sediment in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Yuan, Xin; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Li, Yang

    2015-07-15

    In the last century, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been extensively used, especially in South China, to promote crop yield. In view of their toxicity, persistence and bioavailability, however, the Chinese government has attempted to regulate their production and use. We aimed to examine the biological risk, source and pollution history of OCPs in the sediment in Nansha mangrove which is located in the industrial region in South China. Results showed that HCHs and DDTs, mainly originating from lindane and technical DDT respectively, were the dominant OCPs, but their concentrations were too low to cause adverse effects on biota. In the last decade, the total concentration of HCHs showed a decreasing trend, whereas DDTs remained stable, despite their limited input. This suggests that management of HCHs was effective, while more management efforts should be put on DDTs, especially the use of dicofol and technical DDT, in future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of pesticides in Belgian illicit indoor cannabis plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuypers, Eva; Vanhove, Wouter; Gotink, Joachim; Bonneure, Arne; Van Damme, Patrick; Tytgat, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Cannabis (Cannabis spp.) use and cultivation continue to increase in many (European) countries. The illicit indoor cannabis plantations that supply Belgian and European cannabis markets create problems and concerns about health and safety of intervention staff, dismantling companies, the direct environment of cannabis plantations and, eventually, of cannabis users. Main risks may come from pesticide residues on plants, cultivation infrastructure and materials; left-over plant growth-promoting substances; mycotoxins from fungal pathogens on harvested plants; and/or high levels of cannabinoids in cannabis plant parts for consumption. In the present research, we report on pesticides found in illicit indoor cannabis plantations in Belgium. EN15662 QuEChERS extraction method and LC-MS/MS analysis were used to identify pesticides in indoor cannabis plantations and thus to evaluate the hazards associated with the use, cultivation and removal of cannabis plants in plantations as well as with dismantling activities in the cultivation rooms. We found pesticides in 64.3% of 72 cannabis plant samples and in 65.2% of 46 carbon filter cloth samples. Overall, 19 pesticides belonging to different chemical classes were identified. We found o-phenylphenol, bifenazate, cypermethrin, imidacloprid, propamocarb, propiconazole and tebuconazole, which is consistent with the commonly reported pesticides from literature. In only a few cases, pesticides found in bottles with a commercial label, were also identified in plant or stagnant water samples collected from the growth rooms where the bottles had been collected. We further revealed that, even though most pesticides have a low volatility, they could be detected from the carbon filters hanging at the ceiling of cultivation rooms. As a result, it is likely that pesticides also prevail in the plantation atmosphere during and after cultivation. The risk of inhaling the latter pesticides increases when plants sprayed with pesticides are

  3. Risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langenberg, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The HFM panel has decided to install an Exploratory Team, ET-078, which should advise whether or not a Technical Group (TG) should be established on the subject of risk management of exposure to chemicals under operational conditions. This paper described the context and approach of ET-078.

  4. Risk profile and health vulnerability of female workers who pick cotton by organanochlorine pesticides from southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmeen, Humaira; Qadir, Abdul; Mumtaz, Mehvish; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Syed, Jabbir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Jamil, Nadia; Nazar, Farva; Ali, Habib; Ahmad, Muhammad Shafiq; Tanveer, Zafar Iqbal; Zhang, Gan

    2017-05-01

    The present study was conducted to highlight the existing level of organochlorine-pesticides (OCPs) from human milk (n = 45) and blood serum (n = 40) of female workers who pick cotton in Khanewal District, southern Punjab, Pakistan. Source apportionment, congener-specific analysis, and risk surveillance of OCPs are reported from human milk and blood samples. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum samples ranged from 15.7 ppb to 538.3 ppb and from 16.4 ppb to 747.1 ppb, respectively, and were lower than previously published reports from other regions of the globe. Congener-specific analysis revealed that DDTs were predominant, followed by hexachlorocyclohexane, chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene. Calculated results for source apportionment analysis suggested that contamination load was a new input of DDTs as well as the historic use of lindane in the study area. Levels of OCPs in milk and blood serum were significantly (p risk revealed that female workers had risk of cancer among 1 per million; however, noncarcinogenic risks were not considerable. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1193-1201. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Bound xenobiotic residues in food commodities of plant and animal origin: IUPAC Reports on Pesticides (40)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skidmore, M.W.; Paulson, G.D.; Kuiper, H.A.; Ohlin, B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary risk resulting from the use of pesticides or veterinary drugs the nature of the chemical residues on food commodities needs to be determined. Elucidation of the nature of the chemical residue is carried out using radiolabelled studies where the radiolabelled xenobiotic

  6. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Div., Mumbai (India)

    2006-07-01

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  7. Harmonization of risk management approaches: radiation and chemical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, P.

    2006-01-01

    Assessment of occupational and public risk from the environmental pollutants like chemicals, radiation, etc demands that the effects be considered not only from each individual pollutant, but from the combination of all the pollutants. An integrated risk assessment system needs to be in place to have an overall risk perspective for the benefit of policy makers and decision takers to try to achieve risk reduction in totality. The basis for risk-based radiation dose limits is derived from epidemiological studies, which provide a rich source of data largely unavailable to chemical risk assessors. In addition, use of the principle of optimization as expressed in the ALARA concept has resulted in a safety culture, which is much more than just complying with stipulated limits. The conservative hypothesis of no-threshold dose-effect relation (ICRP) is universally assumed. The end-points and the severity of different classes of pollutants and even different pollutants in a same class vary over a wide range. Hence, it is difficult to arrive at a quantitative value for the net detriment that weighs the various types of end-points and various classes of pollutants. Once the risk due to other pollutants is quantified by some acceptable methodology, it can be expressed in terms of the Risk Equivalent Radiation Dose (R.E.R.D.) for easy comparison with options involving radiation exposure. This paper is an effort to use to quantify and present the risk due to exposure to chemicals and radiation in a common scale for the purpose of easy comparison to facilitate decision taking. (authors)

  8. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, Andrea P.; Berenstein, Giselle A.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M.

    2011-01-01

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 ± 55.0 mL h -1 with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  9. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: The importance of manipulating concentrated products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Andrea P.; Berenstein, Giselle A.; Hughes, Enrique A.; Zalts, Anita [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montserrat, Javier M., E-mail: jmontser@ungs.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (UNGS), J.M. Gutierrez 1150, (B1613GSX) Los Polvorines, Prov. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingenieria Genetica y Biologia Molecular (CONICET), Vuelta de Obligado 2490, 2o piso, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-05-15

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 {+-} 55.0 mL h{sup -1} with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  10. The AOP framework and causality: Meeting chemical risk ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical safety assessments are expanding from a focus on a few chemicals (or chemical mixtures) to the broader “universe” of thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of substances that potentially could impact humans or the environment. This is exemplified in regulatory activities such as the REACH program in Europe, or the recent reauthorization of TSCA in the US, which require consideration of the potential impacts of a much greater number of chemicals than in the past. The data needed to address these types of legislated mandates cannot realistically be obtained solely through using the whole animal testing approaches historically employed for chemical risk assessment. Rather, there needs to be an increased emphasis on cost-effective tools that enable robust prediction of potential chemical impacts when empirical data are lacking. Concurrent with the realization that predictive methods will need to play an increasingly prominent role in regulatory toxicology has been the recent explosion in technology in the biological sciences enabling collection of large amounts of pathway-based molecular and biochemical data. For example, genomic techniques and high-throughput (robotic-based) in vitro testing enable the generation of knowledge concerning the effects of chemical perturbation on biological systems in an increasingly efficient and rapid manner. However, a pressing need stemming from these technological advances is the ability to actually apply th

  11. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt

    2001-01-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis. In this respect there is a

  12. Modeling Exposure to Persistent Chemicals in Hazard and Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E.; McLachlan, Michael S.; Arnot, Jon A.; MacLeod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E.; Wania, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not thus far been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared to evaluate significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of POP and PBT chemicals in the environment. The goal of this paper is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include: (1) Benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk. (2) Directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota and humans to provide information to complement measurements, or where measurements are not available or are limited. (3) To identify the key processes and chemical and/or environmental parameters that determine the exposure; thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile. (4) Predicting future time trends including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and whether the assumptions and input data are relevant in the context of the application

  13. Modeling exposure to persistent chemicals in hazard and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan-Ellsberry, Christina E; McLachlan, Michael S; Arnot, Jon A; Macleod, Matthew; McKone, Thomas E; Wania, Frank

    2009-10-01

    Fate and exposure modeling has not, thus far, been explicitly used in the risk profile documents prepared for evaluating the significant adverse effect of candidate chemicals for either the Stockholm Convention or the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. However, we believe models have considerable potential to improve the risk profiles. Fate and exposure models are already used routinely in other similar regulatory applications to inform decisions, and they have been instrumental in building our current understanding of the fate of persistent organic pollutants (POP) and persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals in the environment. The goal of this publication is to motivate the use of fate and exposure models in preparing risk profiles in the POP assessment procedure by providing strategies for incorporating and using models. The ways that fate and exposure models can be used to improve and inform the development of risk profiles include 1) benchmarking the ratio of exposure and emissions of candidate chemicals to the same ratio for known POPs, thereby opening the possibility of combining this ratio with the relative emissions and relative toxicity to arrive at a measure of relative risk; 2) directly estimating the exposure of the environment, biota, and humans to provide information to complement measurements or where measurements are not available or are limited; 3) to identify the key processes and chemical or environmental parameters that determine the exposure, thereby allowing the effective prioritization of research or measurements to improve the risk profile; and 4) forecasting future time trends, including how quickly exposure levels in remote areas would respond to reductions in emissions. Currently there is no standardized consensus model for use in the risk profile context. Therefore, to choose the appropriate model the risk profile developer must evaluate how appropriate an existing model is for a specific setting and

  14. The Forum of the International HCH and Pesticides Association--a platform for international cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijgen, John; Aliyeva, Gulchohra; Weber, Roland

    2013-04-01

    The unsustainable life cycle management of pesticides in the last 60 years has created large pesticide stockpiles. The two major working areas of the International HCH and Pesticide Association (IHPA; www.ihpa.info ) address a part of these legacies and are shortly introduced here: (1) The assessment and support of the management of the worlds single largest POPs stockpile: the globally dumped 4 to 7 million tonnes hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) wastes from lindane production, and (2) the support for the management of the obsolete pesticides legacy in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) countries of ~240,000 t, leaving these pesticides in unregulated storages without adequate safety control being a huge risk to the environment and human health. The integrative approach IHPA takes-promoting international cooperation and the exchange of knowledge and experiences-is shortly explained. IHPA has developed various supporting tools for its work: the IHPA web page and newsletter informing on the threats and challenges, but also on the progresses of managing pesticide stockpiles; the joint GIZ-PAN-IHPA exhibition on awareness of the pesticide stockpile challenge; and the 'International HCH and Pesticides Forum' as most important tool to progress the integrative work and mission of IHPA. Finally, a summary of the 11th International HCH and Pesticides Forum held in Gabala, Azerbaijan is given which brought together more than 120 scientists, policy-makers, non-governmental and international organisations, industry and students from more than 40 countries to progress the obsolete pesticides and hazardous chemical waste challenge in EECCA countries. The event finished with adoption of 'Gabala Declaration', which aims to mobilise efforts of all stakeholders for prevention and elimination of POPs, obsolete pesticides, and hazardous chemical waste in the region.

  15. [Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dejun; Fu, Xiaokuan; Kong, Fanling; Sui, Shaofeng; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Du, Yinglin; Zhou, Jingyang

    2014-06-01

    Risk assessment and risk control for occupational exposure to chemical toxicants were performed on an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons, based on improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, with consideration of actual situation in China and in the present project. With the use of engineering analysis and identification of occupational hazards in the improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method, hazard rating (HR) and risk assessment were performed on chemical toxicants from an isophorone nitrile device with an annual production of 5,000 tons. The chemical toxicants in the isophorone nitrile device were mainly isophorone, hydrocyanic acid, methanol, phosphoric acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium cyanide; the HR values were mild hazard (2), extreme hazard (5), mild hazard (2), mild hazard (2), moderate hazard (3), and extreme hazard (5), respectively, and the corresponding exposure rating (ER) values were 2.09, 2.72, 2.76, 1.68, 2.0, and 1.59, respectively. The risk of chemical toxicants in this project was assessed according to the formula Risk = [HR×ER](1/2). Hydrocyanic acid was determined as high risk, sodium hydroxide and sodium cyanide as medium risk, and isophorone, methanol, and phosphoric acid as low risk. Priority in handling of risks was determined by risk rating. The table of risk control measure was established for pre-assessment of occupational hazards. With risk assessment in this study, we concluded that the isophorone nitrile device with 5,000 ton annual production was a high-occupational hazard device. This device is a project of extreme occupational hazard. The improved Singaporean semi-quantitative risk assessment method is a scientific and applicable method, and is especially suitable for pre-evaluation of on-site project with no analogy.

  16. Current methods in risk assessment of genotoxic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartus, Alexander; Schrenk, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    Chemical contaminants and residues are undesired chemicals occurring in consumer products such as food and drugs, at the workplace and in the environment, i.e. in air, soil and water. These compounds can be detected even at very low concentrations and lead frequently to considerable concerns among consumers and in the media. Thus it is a major challenge for modern toxicology to provide transparent and versatile tools for the risk assessment of such compounds in particular with respect to human health. Well-known examples of toxic contaminants are dioxins or mercury (in the environment), mycotoxins (from infections by molds) or acrylamide (from thermal treatment of food). The process of toxicological risk assessment of such chemicals is based on i) the knowledge of their contents in food, air, water etc., ii) the routes and extent of exposure of humans, iii) the toxicological properties of the compound, and, iv) its mode(s) of action. In this process quantitative dose-response relationships, usually in experimental animals, are of outstanding importance. For a successful risk assessment, in particular of genotoxic chemicals, several conditions and models such as the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach or the Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept exist, which will be discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition, distribution and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Jing [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Woodward, Lee Ann [U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Pacific Reefs NWRC, Honolulu, HI 96850 (United States); Li, Qing X., E-mail: qingl@hawaii.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Wang, Jun, E-mail: wangjun@wbgcas.cn [Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Molecular Biosciences and Bioengineering, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Concentrations of legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (e.g., DDE and DDD), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were determined in 111 soil samples from the Midway Atoll. OCPs were found in all samples analyzed, with predominance of α-HCH, p,p′-DDD and p,p′-DDT. The total concentrations ranged from 0 to 127 ng g{sup −1} with a median concentration of 17 ng g{sup −1} for HCHs and 1.4 to 643 ng g{sup −1} with a median concentration of 168 ng g{sup −1} for DDTs. The possible degradation pathways and potential sources of DDTs and HCHs were investigated. The total concentrations of DDTs and HCHs were used to evaluate the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ΣDDTs and ΣHCHs. - Highlights: • Contamination levels of DDTs and HCHs were studied in the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean. • Potential sources of DDTs and HCHs in soils of the Midway Atoll were investigated. • Possible degradation modes of o,p′-DDT in soils of the Midway Atoll were analyzed. • Cancer risks of DDTs and HCHs in soils of the Midway Atoll were assessed.

  18. Economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, M F; Shannon, H S

    1986-05-01

    This paper considers how the economic aspects of risk assessment in chemical safety can be strengthened. Its main focus is on how economic appraisal techniques, such as cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, can be adapted to the requirements of the risk-assessment process. Following a discussion of the main methodological issues raised by the use of economic appraisal, illustrated by examples from the health and safety field, a number of practical issues are discussed. These include the consideration of the distribution of costs, effects and benefits, taking account of uncertainty, risk probabilities and public perception, making the appraisal techniques useful to the early stages of the risk-assessment process and structuring the appraisal to permit continuous feedback to the participants in the risk-assessment process. It is concluded that while the way of thinking embodied in economic appraisal is highly relevant to the consideration of choices in chemical safety, the application of these principles in formal analysis of risk reduction procedures presents a more mixed picture. The main suggestions for improvement in the analyses performed are the undertaking of sensitivity analyses of study results to changes in the key assumptions, the presentation of the distribution of costs and benefits by viewpoint, the comparison of health and safety measures in terms of their incremental cost per life-year (or quality-adjusted life-year) gained and the more frequent retrospective review and revision of the economic analyses that are undertaken.

  19. TOXIC EFFECT OF PESTICIDES ON THE BIOTA OF FRESHWATER RESERVOIRS OF UKRAINE (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kolesnyk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze scientific sources on the studies of toxic and lethal concentrations of pesticides on phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and fish in current conditions of Ukraine. Findings. A review of works of a variety of scientists showed that pesticides with different chemical origins have disastrous effects on everyone without the exception of freshwater biota organisms. The article highlights the peculiarities of the toxic effects of pesticides of major chemical groups, which are used or stored in Ukraine. Their toxic and lethal concentrations for the major species of phytoplankton, zooplankton, zoobenthos and ichthyofauna reservoirs are considered. The data on basic features of behavioral reactions of aquatic organisms on poisoning by pesticides are provided. The basic structural and systemic diosrders of homeostasis of the organisms of aquatic biota are described. The effect of pesticides on phytoplankton needs further research, however, is was found that they have common feature as the disturbace of photosynthesis process and accumulation. In turn, this provoques kills in water bodies and poisoning of phytoplanctivorous fish. Zooplanktonic organisms are highly sensitive to pesticides; hence they can be used as an indicator of the state of fresh water. It was found that, pesticides depending on their concentration have different toxic effects on zooplankton organisms. The effect of pesticides on benthic organisms was little investigated. It is known that benthic communities respond to the presence of pesticide by changes in species composition, number of species, abundance and biomass of benthos in general and individual taxonomic groups of benthic invertebrates. The toxicity of pesticides for fish depends on their chemical nature, the form of the preparation, dose, fish species and age, water temperature and the content of oxygen and salts. In particular, juvenile fish are much more sensitive to the chemicals, and an increase in

  20. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions..., chinese cabbage, cowpeas, cucurbitis (cucumbers, squash, pumpkin), egg plant, endive (escarole...

  1. Evaluation of toxicity risks in farmers exposed to pesticides in an agricultural community in Concórdia, Santa Catarina State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i1.11227

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Meneghello Fuentefria

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase during recent years in the use of pesticides in agricultural activities to improve productivity, reduce labor costs and increase profits. On the other hand, the use of pesticides in excess or without adequate biosafety practices could lead to serious harm to human health. Current research evaluated toxicity risks in the case of 50 agricultural workers from the São Paulo Rural Community in the municipality of Concordia, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, who were exposed to pesticides. The questionnaire with open- and closed-ended questions revealed that there are several situations and procedures that expose most farm workers to toxicity risks since they do not have a clear understanding of biosafety measures or suitable knowledge on the products they use. Since a lack of information on pesticides exists, there is strong evidence for measures to inform and raise consciousness so that agricultural workers may exercise self-care in handling pesticides.  

  2. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  3. Pesticides poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1999-01-01

    Pesticides are chemical toxicants which are used to kill by their toxic actions, the pest organisms, known to incur significant economic losses or threaten human life, his health and that of his domesticated animals. These toxicants are seldom species-specific. The presence of these or their metabolites may scientific be vouched not only in the environment they are used, but in the entire ecosystem, in the subsoil, in the underwater reservoirs and in the food chain of all non-target species including man, his friends i.e. predator and parasite organisms which be uses against the pests, and in his cherished domesticated animals. In the present paper a survey is made of different groups of toxic chemicals generally used to manage pests, in the ecosystem, food chain and tissues and body parts of non-target species including man and the ones dear to him. Toxicology and biochemistry of these toxic materials and their important metabolites are also briefly discussed with special reference to ways and means through which these poison the above non-target species. (author)

  4. Evaluation of alternative environmentally friendly matrix solid phase dispersion solid supports for the simultaneous extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes from drinking water treatment sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Karina Lotz; Cerqueira, Maristela Barnes Rodrigues; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2017-09-01

    This study describes the development, optimization and validation of a method for the extraction of 15 pesticides of different chemical classes in drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) by vortex-assisted Matrix Solid Phase Dispersion (MSPD) with determination by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. It focused on the application of alternative and different solid supports to the extraction step of the MSPD. The main parameters that influenced the extraction were studied in order to obtain better recovery responses. Recoveries ranged from 70 to 120% with RSD below 20% for all analytes. Limits of quantification (LOQ) of the method ranged from 5 to 500 μg kg -1 whereas the analytical curves showed correlation coefficients above 0.997. The method under investigation used low volume of solvent (5 mL), low sample mass (1.5 g) and low mass of chitin (0.5 g), an environmentally friendly support. It has advantages, such as speed, simplicity and low cost material, over other methods. When the method was applied, 4 out of 15 pesticides were detected in the DWTS samples in concentrations below the LOQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of

  6. Organochlorine pesticides across the tributaries of River Ravi, Pakistan: Human health risk assessment through dermal exposure, ecological risks, source fingerprints and spatio-temporal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqar, Mujtaba; Sadef, Yumna; Ahmad, Sajid Rashid; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2018-03-15

    This study monitored the human health risks through dermal exposure, hazardous risks to ecological integrity, contamination levels, spatio-temporal distribution, and congener specific analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across River Ravi and its three northern tributaries (Nullah Bein, Nullah Basanter and Nullah Deg). The residual levels of OCPs isomers were screened for water (n=54) and surface sediment (n=54) samples from twenty seven sampling sites in two alternate seasons (pre-monsoon and post-monsoon). The ∑OCPs concentrations ranged from 13.61 to 1992.18ng/g dry weight and 12.89 to 128.16ng/L with predominance of β-endosulfan and p,p'-DDT in sediment and water matrixes, respectively. Distribution pattern revealed significantly higher concentrations in upstream and midstream, suggesting considerable transboundary OCPs pollution. Calculated ratios of α-HCH/γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT, (DDE+DDD)/∑DDTs and cis/trans-chlordane for water and sediments identified the fresh addition of lindane, technical DDTs and chlordane in the study area. Risk quotient (RQ) based ecological risk was found to be >1 at all studied streams during both seasons and elucidates higher risks for endosulfan (α-endosulfan) and endrin. Human health risk assessment indicated absence of hazardous (non-carcinogenic) risk through bathing in studied streams; as the hazard index values ranged from 1.09E-05 to 2.48E-02 (acceptable limit; ecological risk and carcinogenic human health risk had emphasized an immediate elimination of ongoing OCPs addition in the studied area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencko, Vladimir [Institute of Hygiene, 1st Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Ungvary, Gyoergy [National Institute of Occupational Health, Budapest (Hungary)

    1992-07-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  8. Risk assessment of chemicals: A central European perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencko, Vladimir; Gyoergy Ungvary

    1992-01-01

    During the last four decades in the Czech and Slovak federal Republic (CSFR) and Hungary, similar to the previous Soviet Union and all the Central and East European countries the prevention of the adverse health effects of chemicals in occupational and environmental settings, drinking water and food of population was intended to be achieved by determination and compulsory observance of hygienic limit values. From recent political developments it can be expected that due to the decay of the former Warsaw Pact and the related Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (CMEA) the next development of risk assessment will reflect that new situation. The OECD principles of toxicity testing and risk assessment of exposure to chemicals will be sooner or later accepted in principle in the framework of a general economic integration of Central and Eastern European countries with EEC. During the 80s there was a growing feeling of the necessity to harmonize the activities of OECD and CMEA countries in the field of toxicological methodology and approaches to risk assessment of chemicals because of the growing production and mutual trade including transport of industrial and agricultural chemicals. As a contributory factor supporting this effort there was growing cross boundary air and river pollution in Europe. The former Council for Mutual Economic Assistance was an intergovernmental organization of 10 countries with a number of other countries and agencies cooperating with it in its work. CMEA as, and OECD still is concerned primarily with economic development but both had stated commitments to protecting human health and the environment. To help to mutual understanding and to promote harmonization of above mentioned obligations and commitments of the both organizations United Nation Environment Programme's International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals and The International Programme on Chemical Safety (UNEP/IRPTC/IPCS) convened an International Consultation on

  9. Survey on methodologies in the risk assessment of chemical exposures in emergency response situations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinälä, Milla; Gundert-Remy, Ursula; Wood, Maureen Heraty

    2013-01-01

    A scientifically sound assessment of the risk to human health resulting from acute chemical releases is the cornerstone for chemical incident prevention, preparedness and response. Although the general methodology to identify acute toxicity of chemicals has not substantially changed in the last....../corrosive chemicals will remain serious risks also in future the development of plausible scenarios for potential emerging risks is also needed. This includes risks from new mixtures and chemicals (e.g. nanoparticles)....

  10. Time trends in cancer risk and pesticide exposure, a long-term follow-up of Danish gardeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Eva Støttrup; Lander, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposure to petrochemical pesticides was high during the first 10-15 years after their introduction in the late 1940s, and, during these years, many cases of intoxication occurred. In the 1960s, the use and marketing of pesticides was regulated to reduce exposure to these substances...

  11. Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simulation to aid in interpreting biological relevance and setting of population-level protection goals for risk assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Christopher John; Luttik, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Specific protection goals (SPGs) comprise an explicit expression of the environmental components that need protection and the maximum impacts that can be tolerated. SPGs are set by risk managers and are typically based on protecting populations or functions. However, the measurable endpoints available to risk managers, at least for vertebrates, are typically laboratory tests. We demonstrate, using the example of eggshell thinning in skylarks, how simulation can be used to place laboratory endpoints in context of population-level effects as an aid to setting the SPGs. We develop explanatory scenarios investigating the impact of different assumptions of eggshell thinning on skylark population size, density and distribution in 10 Danish landscapes, chosen to represent the range of typical Danish agricultural conditions. Landscape and timing of application of the pesticide were found to be the most critical factors to consider in the impact assessment. Consequently, a regulatory scenario of monoculture spring barley with an early spray treatment eliciting the eggshell thinning effect was applied using concentrations eliciting effects of zero to 100% in steps of 5%. Setting the SPGs requires balancing scientific, social and political realities. However, the provision of clear and detailed options such as those from comprehensive simulation results can inform the decision process by improving transparency and by putting the more abstract testing data into the context of real-world impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cholinesterase activity in blood and pesticide presence in sweat as biomarkers of children`s environmental exposure to crop protection chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

    2015-09-01

    Altogether, the study indicated that cholinesterase activity is a sensitive marker of the children’s environmental exposure to pesticides, whereas sweat patches are useful devices for collecting samples to be analysed for the presence of the pesticides.

  14. How effective are common household preparations on removing pesticide residues from fruit and vegetables? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen Wc

    2018-06-01

    Nowadays, the use of pesticides is inevitable for pest control in crops, especially for fruit and vegetables. After the harvest from raw agricultural commodities, the amount of pesticide residues in food is mainly influenced by the storage, handling and processing that follow. If good agricultural and good manufacturing practices are enforced effectively, the amount of pesticide residues would be brought below the corresponding maximum residue level. Thus, the consumption of raw and/or prepared fruit and vegetables would be safe. Nonetheless, reports regarding pesticide residues in fruit or vegetables on mass media have been worrying consumers, who are concerned about the adverse effects of pesticide residues. As a result, consumers perform household processing before consumption to reduce any related risks. However, can these preparations effectively remove pesticide residues? Reviewing the extensive literature, it showed that, in most cases, washing and soaking can only lead to a certain degree of reduction in residue level, while other processing such as peeling, soaking in chemical baths and blanching can reduce pesticide residues more effectively. In general, the behaviour of residues during processing can be rationalised in terms of the physico-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In contrast, the reported studies are diversified and some areas still lack sufficient studies to draw any remarks. Recommendations are provided with respect to the available information that aims to formulate an environmental friendly, cost-effective and efficient household processing of fruit and vegetables to reduce pesticide residues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Pesticide Health and Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal Health Safe Use Practices Pest Control Food Safety Low Risk Pesticides Integrated Pest Management directed by the product label. Pesticides may be ingested if stored improperly in food or beverage ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife

  16. Comparison of buckwheat, red clover, and purple tansy as potential surrogate plants for use in semi-field pesticide risk assessments with Bombus impatiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela E. Gradish

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bumble bees (Bombus spp. are important wild and managed pollinators. There is increased interest in incorporating data on bumble bees into risk assessments for pesticides, but standardized methods for assessing hazards of pesticides in semi-field and field settings have not yet been established for bumble bees. During semi-field studies, colonies are caged with pesticide-treated flowering surrogate plants, which must be attractive to foragers to ensure colony exposure to the test compound, and must produce an ample nectar and pollen to sustain colonies during testing. However, it is not known which plant(s are suitable for use in semi-field studies with bumble bees. Materials and Methods. We compared B. impatiens foraging activity and colony development on small plots of flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum, var. common, red clover (Trifolium pratense, and purple tansy (Phacelia tanacetifolia under semi-field conditions to assess their suitability as surrogate plants for pesticide risk assessment studies with bumble bees. We also compared the growth characteristics and input requirements of each plant type. Results. All three plant types generally established and grew well. Red clover and purple tansy experienced significant weed pressure and/or insect pest damage. In contrast, pest pressure was extremely low in buckwheat. Overall, B. impatiens foraging activity was significantly greater on buckwheat plots than red clover or purple tansy, but plant type had no effect on number of individuals produced per colony or colony weight. Discussion. Because of the consistently high foraging activity and successful colony development observed on buckwheat plots, combined with its favourable growth characteristics and low maintenance requirements, we recommend buckwheat as a surrogate plant for use in semi-field pesticide toxicity assessments with B. impatiens.

  17. Residential exposure to pesticides as risk factor for childhood and young adult brain tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele-Fabry, Geneviève; Gamet-Payrastre, Laurence; Lison, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications. Risk estimates were extracted from 18 case-control studies published between 1979 and 2016 and study quality assessments were performed. Summary odds ratios (mOR) were calculated according to fixed and random-effect meta-analysis models. Separate analyses were conducted after stratification for study quality, critical exposure period, exposure location, specific exposures, pesticide category, application methods, type of pest treated, type of CBT, child's age at diagnosis and geographic location. Statistically significant associations were observed with CBT after combining all studies (mOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.40) without evidence of inconsistency between study results or publication bias. Specifically, increased risks were observed for several groupings and more particularly for gliomas and exposure involving insecticides. Statistical significance was also reached for high quality studies, for all exposure periods, for indoor exposure and, more particularly, during the prenatal period for all stratifications involving insecticides (except for outdoor use), for pet treatments, for flea/tick treatment, for studies from USA/Canada and studies from Europe (borderline) as well as for data from studies including children of up to 10years at diagnosis and of up to 15years. Our findings support an association between residential exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. Although causality cannot be established, these results add to the evidence leading

  18. Exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and hairy cell leukemia: pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Eriksson, Mikael; Nordstrom, Marie

    2002-05-01

    Increased risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) following exposure to certain pesticides has previously been reported. To further elucidate the importance of phenoxyacetic acids and other pesticides in the etiology of NHL a pooled analysis was performed on two case-control studies, one on NHL and another on hairy cell leukemia (HCL), a rare subtype of NHL. The studies were population based with cases identified from cancer registry and controls from population registry. Data assessment was ascertained by questionnaires supplemented over the telephone by specially trained interviewers. The pooled analysis of NHL and HCL was based on 515 cases and 1141 controls. Increased risks in univariate analysis were found for subjects exposed to herbicides (OR 1.75, CI 95% 1.26-2.42), insecticides (OR 1.43, CI 95% 1.08-1.87), fungicides (OR 3.11, CI 95% 1.56-6.27) and impregnating agents (OR 1.48, CI 95% 1.11-1.96). Among herbicides, significant associations were found for glyphosate (OR 3.04, CI 95% 1.08-8.52) and 4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) (OR 2.62, CI 95% 1.40-4.88). For several categories of pesticides the highest risk was found for exposure during the latest decades before diagnosis. However, in multivariate analyses the only significantly increased risk was for a heterogeneous category of other herbicides than above.

  19. Chemical cycles and health risks of some crustal nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKone, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation describes and utilizes an approach for assessing long term health risks due to dispersion of naturally occurring radionuclide series and chemical toxins by normal and altered landscape chemical cycles. In particular, the health risks resulting from geochemical mobilizations of arsenic, lead, uranium and radium are considered. Based on a review of toxic waste hazard-measures and risk assessment studies, a general expression is developed for quantifying health risks imposed by the introduction of toxic materials to components of the total environment. This general measure deals with long term interactions within and between the internal human environment and the external biogeochemical environment. Health hazards are expressed as dose factors which convert environmental concentrations into a corresponding dose field (organ doses in rad for radionuclides; daily intake for toxic elements). The dose field is translated into population health risk expressed as lifetime cancer risk for carcinogens and average blood levels for other toxins. The landscape cell (or prism) is presented as a tool for visualizing and mapping toxic material cycles near the crustal surface. The overall process is incorporated in the GEOTOX code which is a geochemical systems model for describing the dynamics of crustal toxins within a landscape and the resulting health risks. GEOTOX is used to investigate the response of regional landscapes to increased soil and rock inventories of 238 U, 226 Ra, arsenic and lead. It is found that each decay series of element imposes a hazard by its behavior in the total environment that can not be quantified by a similar measure of toxicity

  20. 78 FR 17201 - Pesticide Chemicals; Registration Review; Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... local registrations on fruiting vegetables, okra, snap beans, and strawberries. For lactofen, the Agency... conifer seedlings, snap beans, soybeans, and strawberries. The Agency has also conducted an ecological...

  1. In vitro bioassays reveal that additives are significant contributors to the toxicity of commercial household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Merwe, Jason P; Neale, Peta A; Melvin, Steven D; Leusch, Frederic D L

    2018-06-01

    Pesticides commonly used around households can contain additives of unknown concentrations and toxicity. Given the likelihood of these chemicals washing into urban waterways, it is important to understand the effects that these additives may have on aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to compare the toxicity of commercially available household pesticides to that of the active ingredient(s) alone. The toxicity of five household pesticides (three herbicides and two insecticides) was investigated using a bacterial cytotoxicity bioassay and an algal photosynthesis bioassay. The commercial products were up to an order of magnitude more toxic than the active ingredient(s) alone. In addition, two commercial products with the same listed active ingredients in the same ratio had a 600× difference in potency. These results clearly demonstrate that additives in commercial formulations are significant contributors to the toxicity of household pesticides. The toxicity of pesticides in aquatic systems is therefore likely underestimated by conventional chemical monitoring and risk assessment when only the active ingredients are considered. Regulators and customers should require more clarity from pesticide manufacturers about the nature and concentrations of not only the active ingredients, but also additives used in commercial formulations. In addition, monitoring programmes and chemical risk assessments schemes should develop a structured approach to assessing the toxic effects of commercial formulations, including additives, rather than simply those of the listed active ingredients. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K; ACT

    1994-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with

  3. Transparency of chemical risk assessment data under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre-Khans, Ellen; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Beronius, Anna; Rudén, Christina

    2016-12-08

    The REACH regulation requires EU manufacturers and importers of substances to register information on the hazard and risk of their substances with the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). Risk management of the substances is based on the provided information. It is known that conclusions on hazard and risk are influenced by expert judgements as well as potential conflict of interests. Thus, it is important that hazard and risk assessments are transparent and can be evaluated by a third party. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the transparency, i.e. the accessibility and comprehensibility, of information on substances registered under REACH. Data on repeated dose toxicity and hazard assessment conclusions were extracted for 60 substances from the REACH registration database available on the ECHA website. The data were compiled in a database for systematically evaluating the transparency of information related to the conclusions on hazard or risk. In addition, chemical safety reports (CSR) were requested from ECHA for five substances. The transparency of information on the hazard and risk of substances was found to be limited for several reasons. First, certain information was removed due to confidentiality and certain fields were not published because they could contain confidential information although the information had not been claimed confidential. Also, the extent to which registrants reported information varied, and the presentation of some data and certain terminology required further clarification. In addition, the data source for the majority of the key and supporting studies could not be identified due to confidentiality. Since registrants are only required to summarise studies, it cannot be verified whether all relevant information from non-public industry reports have been reported. Lastly, certain information related to the hazard and risk assessment were only reported in the CSR which is only available upon request; a time-consuming and work

  4. Safety- and Risk Analysis Activities in Chemical Industry in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozine, Igor; Duijm, Nijs Jan; Lauridsen Kurt [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Department

    2001-07-01

    The current paper gives an overview of the legislation and the methods used in safety and risk management in the chemical industry within Europe and in particular within the European Union. The paper is based on a report that has been written for the SOS-1 project under the Nordic nuclear safety research (NKS). Safety- and risk-related matters in the process industry, in particular, in chemical, within the EU are subject to consideration at three levels: (1) EU legislation, (2) European/intemational standardisation, and (3) socio-economic analysis. EC Directives define the 'essential requirements', e.g., protection of health and safety, that must be fulfilled when goods are placed on the market or some industry is put into operation. The European standards bodies (CEN, CENELEC and ETSI) have the task of establishing the corresponding technical specifications, meeting the essential requirements of the Directives, compliance with which will provide a presumption of conformity with the essential requirements. Such specifications are referred to as 'harmonised standards'. Compliance with harmonised standards remains voluntary, and manufacturers are free to choose any other technical solution that provides compliance with the essential requirements. This view is stated in the 'New Approach' to technical harmonisation and standardisation (details can be found on the web page: http://europe.eu.int/comm/enterprise/newapproach/standardization/index .html). Standardisation as well as the regulation of technical risks is increasingly being undertaken at European or international level. The European legislator limits its role to the affirmation of overall objectives, and leaves it to the economic players to draw up the technical procedures and standards to specify in detail the ways and means of attaining them. Many countries have introduced requirements that new legislation and/or administrative regulations be subject to socio-economic analysis

  5. Optimization of sol-gel medium for entrapment of acetylcholinesterase enzyme in biosensor for pesticide detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayanti, S. D.; Rahayu, F. S.; Widyaningsih, T. D.

    2018-03-01

    Pesticides are chemical substances used to kill and control pests or diseases that can damage crops. The use of pesticides should be done precisely because the accumulation of chemicals contained in pesticides can cause various health effects. Therefore, detection of pesticide residues on plants is important to reduce the risk of poisoning due to pesticide residues. Some of the conventional methods that have been done to detect pesticide residues have weaknesses among expensive tools, takes a long time, and are generally performed by trained laboratory technicians. Biosensors are analytical devices that can measure the quantitative or semi-quantitative targets of analyte by utilizing a bioreceptor such as enzyme. Several studies have shown that enzyme-based acetylcholinesterase-based biosensors can be used to detect pesticide residues in vegetable samples. The objective of this research was to get a proper silica based sol-gel formulation with molar ratio of H2O:TEOS and NaOH concentration as immobilization medium of acetylcholinesterase enzyme for biosensor application. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used in order to determine the interaction between the parameters studied and resulting responses which were amount and activity of acetylcholinesterase enzyme. Based on the research, the best result for immobilized enzyme activity was shown by molar ratio (H2O: TEOS) 1: 8 and 4 mM NaOH treatment.

  6. Organochlorine pesticide residues in sardinella aurita from the coastal waters of Accra-Tema, Ghana and their potential health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, E.; Botwe, B.O.; Bampoe, A.A.; Addo, S.; Armah, A.K.; Ntow, W.J.; Kelderman, P.

    2011-01-01

    Sardinella aurita and seawater samples from the Accra-Tema coast of Ghana were analysed for organochlorine (OC) pesticides using gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). Residues of DDTs (p,p'-DDT, p'p'-DDE,p,p'-DDD), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs - α-HCH, β-HCH and γ-HCH), endosulfan (α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, endosulfan sulphate) and heptachlor were detected in fish at average concentrations ranging from 3.0 to 1235.0 μg/kg wet wt. These residues were, however, below the detection limit in seawater samples. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in residue levels were also observed across sites, decreasing from Chorkor to Kpone for seven (7) of the residues that were detected in S. aurita. Evaluation of hazard ratios (HRs) and the health risk associated with OC exposure from consumption of sardinellas revealed a probability of adverse health effect due to p,p'-DDT, γ-HCH and heptachlor. Hence, p,p'-DDT, γ-HCH and heptachlor may be of particular health concern. (au)

  7. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed.

  8. Risk assessment for adult butterflies exposed to the mosquito control pesticide naled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A

    2012-04-01

    A prospective risk assessment was conducted for adult butterflies potentially exposed to the mosquito control insecticide naled. Published acute mortality data, exposure data collected during field studies, and morphometric data (total surface area and fresh body weight) for adult butterflies were combined in a probabilistic estimate of the likelihood that adult butterfly exposure to naled following aerial applications would exceed levels associated with acute mortality. Adult butterfly exposure was estimated based on the product of (1) naled residues on samplers and (2) an exposure metric that normalized total surface area for adult butterflies to their fresh weight. The likelihood that the 10th percentile refined effect estimate for adult butterflies exposed to naled would be exceeded following aerial naled applications was 67 to 80%. The greatest risk would be for butterflies in the family Lycaenidae, and the lowest risk would be for those in the family Hesperidae, assuming equivalent sensitivity to naled. A range of potential guideline naled deposition levels is presented that, if not exceeded, would reduce the risk of adult butterfly mortality. The results for this risk assessment were compared with other risk estimates for butterflies, and the implications for adult butterflies in areas targeted by aerial naled applications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  9. Monitoring of pesticides water pollution-The Egyptian River Nile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy Abdel-Goad; Nabawy, Ehab; Elbana, Mariam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD. Organochlorine pesticides mean concentrations along the River Nile water samples were 0.403, 1.081, 1.209, 3.22, and 1.192 μg L -1 for endrin, dieldrin, p, p'-DDD, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE, respectively. Dieldrin, p, p'-DDT, and p, p'-DDE were above the standard guidelines of the World Health Organization. Detected organophosphorus pesticides were Triazophos (2.601 μg L -1 ), Quinalphos (1.91 μg L -1 ), fenitrothion (1.222 μg L -1 ), Ethoprophos (1.076 μg L -1 ), chlorpyrifos (0.578 μg L -1 ), ethion (0.263 μg L -1 ), Fenamiphos (0.111 μg L -1 ), and pirimiphos-methyl (0.04 μg L -1 ). Toxicity characterization of organophosphorus pesticides according to water quality guidelines indicated the hazardous risk of detected chemicals to the public and to the different environmental compartments. The spatial distribution patterns of detected pesticides reflected the reverse relationship between regional temperature and organochlorine pesticides distribution. However, organophosphorus was distributed according to the local inputs of pollutant compounds. Toxicological and water quality standards data revealed the hazardous risk of detected pesticides in the Egyptian River Nile water to human and aquatic life. Thus, our monitoring data will provide viewpoints by which stricter legislation and regulatory controls can be admitted to avoid River Nile pesticide water pollution.

  10. Quality control of pesticide products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-15

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment.

  11. Quality control of pesticide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on “Quality Control of Pesticide Products”, simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories’ use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment

  12. 6 CFR 27.200 - Information regarding security risk for a chemical facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... chemical facility. 27.200 Section 27.200 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.200 Information regarding security risk for a chemical facility. (a) Information to determine security risk. In order to...